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Sample records for cast aluminium alloy

  1. Survey of Nickel-Aluminium-Bronze Casting Alloys on Marine Applications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    and corrosion performance of nickel-aluminium bronze (NAB)/covered by naval specification DGS-8520 and DGS-348 have been investigated. No evidence was...found to suggest that there would be any significant difference in corrosion performance between alloys meeting the two specifications. Early... corrosion problems associated with the weld repair areas of castings have been overcome largely by using improved foundry and welding techniques followed by a

  2. Direct chill casting of aluminium alloys under electromagnetic interaction by permanent magnet assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevičs, Andris; Kaldre, Imants; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Beinerts, Toms

    2018-05-01

    Direct chill casting is one of the methods used in industry to obtain good microstructure and properties of aluminium alloys. Nevertheless, for some alloys grain structure is not optimal. In this study, we offer the use of electromagnetic interaction to modify melt convection near the solidification interface. Solidification under various electromagnetic interactions has been widely studied, but usually at low solidification velocity and high thermal gradient. This type of interaction may succeed fragmentation of dendrite arms and transport of solidification nuclei thus leading to improved material structure and properties. Realization of experimental small-scale crystallizer and electromagnetic system has been described in this article.

  3. Computation material science of structural-phase transformation in casting aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golod, V. M.; Dobosh, L. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Successive stages of computer simulation the formation of the casting microstructure under non-equilibrium conditions of crystallization of multicomponent aluminum alloys are presented. On the basis of computer thermodynamics and heat transfer during solidification of macroscale shaped castings are specified the boundary conditions of local heat exchange at mesoscale modeling of non-equilibrium formation the solid phase and of the component redistribution between phases during coalescence of secondary dendrite branches. Computer analysis of structural - phase transitions based on the principle of additive physico-chemical effect of the alloy components in the process of diffusional - capillary morphological evolution of the dendrite structure and the o of local dendrite heterogeneity which stochastic nature and extent are revealed under metallographic study and modeling by the Monte Carlo method. The integrated computational materials science tools at researches of alloys are focused and implemented on analysis the multiple-factor system of casting processes and prediction of casting microstructure.

  4. Study of twin-roll cast Aluminium alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poková, M.; Cieslar, M.

    2014-08-01

    Aluminium alloys prepared by twin-roll casting method become widely used in industry applications. Their high solid solution supersaturation and finer grains ensure better mechanical properties when compared with the direct-chill cast ones. One of the possibilities how to enhance their thermal stability is the addition of zirconium. After heat treatment Al3Zr precipitates form and these pin moving grain boundaries when the material is exposed to higher temperatures. In the present work twin-roll cast aluminium alloys based on AA3003 with and without Zr addition were annealed for 8 hours at 450 °C to enable precipitation of Al3Zr phase. Afterwards they were subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing, which led to the reduction of average grain size under 1 μm. During subsequent isochronal annealing recovery and recrystallization took place. These processes were monitored by microhardness measurements, light optical microscopy and in-situ transmission electron microscopy. The addition of Zr stabilizes the grain size and increases the recrystallization temperature by 100 °C.

  5. Process-scale modelling of microstructure in direct chill casting of aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedel, M.; Heyvaert, L.; Založnik, M.; Combeau, H.; Daloz, D.; Lesoult, G.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical properties of an alloy being related to its microstructure, the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the grain structure formation in direct chill casting is crucial. However, the grain size prediction by modelling is difficult since a variety of multi-scale coupled phenomena have to be considered. Nucleation and growth of the grains are interrelated, and the macroscopic transport phenomena such as the motion of grains and inoculant particles with the flow impact the nucleation-gowth competition. Thus we propose to study the grain size distribution of a 5182 alloy industrial scale slab of 510 mm thickness, both non-inoculated and inoculated with Al-3Ti-1B, for which experimental grain size measurements are available. We use a volume-averaged two-phase multi-scale model that describes nucleation from inoculant particles and grain growth, fully coupled with macroscopic transport phenomena: fluid flow induced by natural convection and solidification shrinkage, heat, mass and solute mass transport, grains and inoculant particles motion. We analyze the effect of liquid and grain motion as the effect of grain morphology on microstructure formation and we show in which extent those phenomena are responsible for the grain size distribution observed experimentally. The effect of the refiner level is also studied.

  6. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  7. Fatigue in a heat treatable high silicon containing aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Talamantes-Silva, J.; Valtierra, S.; Colás, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The use of cast aluminium alloys in automobiles contributes to reductions in weight and fuel consumption without impairing the safety for the occupants or the performance of the car. Most of the alloys used are heat treatable hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, which have the drawback of exhibiting low wear resistance. So industry relies in wear resistant alloys, such as grey iron, for the liners of the combustion chambers in engine blocks, which increase the weight of the engine. Therefore, it is of interest to cast high silicon containing alloys into engine components that are able to resist wear while maintaining the mechanical properties required by the components. This work presents the result of the work carried out in a high silicon containing heat treatable aluminium alloy as it is subjected to high cycle fatigue. The alloy was prepared and cast in ingots designed to promote one dimensional solidification gradient to obtain samples to study the high cycle fatigue. The material was machined into hour-glass specimens that were tested at room temperature in a servohydraulic machine under load control following the stair case method. The results show that the resistance to fatigue depends on the microstructure of the sample, as the fatigue cracks originate in pores close to the surface of the sample and propagate through the eutectic aggregate. The results from this work are compared with those from previously obtained with hypoeutectic alloys.

  8. Surface treatments for aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelean, M.; Lascău, S.; Ardelean, E.; Josan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Typically, in contact with the atmosphere, the aluminium surface is covered with an aluminium oxide layer, with a thickness of less than 1-2μm. Due to its low thickness, high porosity and low mechanical strength, this layer does not protect the metal from corrosion. Anodizing for protective and decorative purposes is the most common method of superficial oxidation processes and is carried out through anodic oxidation. The oxide films, resulted from anodizing, are porous, have a thickness of 20-50μm, and are heat-resistant, stable to water vapour and other corrosion agents. Hard anodizing complies with the same obtains principles as well as decorative and protective anodization. The difference is in that hard anodizing is achieved at low temperatures and high intensity of electric current. In the paper are presented the results of decorative and hard anodization for specimens made from several aluminium alloys in terms of the appearance of the specimens and of the thickness of the anodized.

  9. Shock response of 7068 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David; Eakins, Daniel; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are widely employed throughout the aerospace and defence industries due to their high specific strength. Aluminium alloy 7068, often described as the ultimate aluminium alloy was developed by Kasier Aluminium in the mid-1990s and is the strongest aluminium commercially produced. There remains little published data on the response of this micro-structurally anisotropic alloy to dynamic loading. As part of an investigation of the high-rate mechanical properties of Al 7068, a series of plate-impact experiments using a novel meso-scale planar impact facility and a more conventional large bore gas gun were undertaken. The evolution of the elastic-plastic shock wave and spall strength as a function of sample thickness and specimen orientation were investigated using optical velocimetry (line-VISAR, PDV) techniques. Planar shock wave experiments were conducted on specimens several 100 microns to several millimetres thick cut from either parallel or perpendicular to the extrusion direction.

  10. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-richmore » phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.« less

  11. Effects of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium alloys on cytokine gene expression and protein secretion in J774A.1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Stig S; Larsen, A; Stoltenberg, M; Bruun, J M; Soballe, K

    2007-09-11

    Insertion of metal implants is associated with a possible change in the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins, probably leading to an unfavourable predominantly pro-inflammatory milieu. The most likely cause is an inappropriate activation of macrophages in close relation to the metal implant and wear-products. The aim of the present study was to compare surfaces of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (TiAlV) alloy when incubated with mouse macrophage J774A.1 cell cultures. Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10) and proteins known to induce proliferation (M-CSF), chemotaxis (MCP-1) and osteogenesis (TGF-beta, OPG) were determined by ELISA and Real Time reverse transcriptase - PCR (Real Time rt-PCR). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in the medium to asses the cell viability. Surface properties of the discs were characterised with a profilometer and with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We here report, for the first time, that the prosthetic material surface (non-phagocytable) of as-cast high carbon CoCrMo reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 transcription, the chemokine MCP-1 secretion, and M-CSF secretion by 77%, 36%, and 62%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that reducing surface roughness did not affect this reduction. The results suggest that as-cast CoCrMo alloy is more inert than wrought CoCrMo and wrought TiAlV alloys and could prove to be a superior implant material generating less inflammation which might result in less osteolysis.

  12. Investigation of the formability of aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, M.; Budai, D.; Kovács, P. Z.; Lukács, Zs

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium alloys are more and more widely applied in car body manufacturing. Increasing the formability of aluminium alloys are one of the most relevant tasks in todays’ research topics. In this paper, the focus will be on the investigation of the formability of aluminium alloys concerning those material grades that are more widely applied in the automotive industry including the 5xxx and 6xxx aluminium alloy series. Recently, besides the cold forming of aluminium sheets the forming of aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures became a hot research topic, too. In our experimental investigations, we mostly examined the EN AW 5754 and EN AW 6082 aluminium alloys at elevated temperatures. We analysed the effect of various material and process parameters (e.g. temperature, sheet thickness) on the formability of aluminium alloys with particular emphasis on the Forming Limit Diagrams at elevated temperatures in order to find the optimum forming conditions for these alloys.

  13. The fractography of casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel, and aluminum-base alloys (A380, A356, and 319). The fractographic studies have yielded these generalizations regarding the topography of the fracture surfaces. In the case of low-ductility alloys such as gray iron and the aluminum-base alloys, the tensile edge of amore » fracture surface produced by a stress system with a strong bending-moment component has a highly irregular contour, whereas the compressive edge of the fracture surface is quite straight and parallel to the bend axis. On the other hand, the periphery of a fracture surface produced by uniaxial tension has a completely irregular contour. The fracture surface produced by cyclic loading of a gray iron does not display any macroscopic evidence (such as a thumb nail) of the loading mode. However, the fracture surface of each of the other casting alloys displays clear, macroscopic evidence of failure induced by fatigue. The aluminum-base alloys fracture completely within the interdendritic region of the microstructure when subjected to monotonic loading by uniaxial tension or bending, whereas a fatigue crack propagates predominantly through the primary crystals of the microstructure.« less

  14. Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    This production route has demonstrated that aluminum alloys with yield strengths in excess of 690 MPa with good elongation (reportedly 8%) are...series of aluminum alloys have poor-to-fair general corrosion resistance and poor-to-good stress corrosion cracking resistance. Wrought 2519...aluminum alloy has good strength, good ballistic performance, good stress corrosion cracking resistance but only fair general corrosion resistance

  15. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    casting from entrapped air. This fact, together with the lower amount of solidification shrinkage of semi-solid alloys , results in the now firmly...compositions and solidification ranges. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate -24- typical quenched microstructures obtained for several of the alloys investi...COBALT SUPERALLOY Cu - 10%Sn - 2%Zn Fe - 2.6%C - 3.2% Si Fe - 17%Cr - l% Si l%Mn - 1.1%C Fe - 17%Cr - USi l%Mn - 0.6%C Fe - 18.5%Cr - 9.5% Ni 0.08

  16. 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John H.; Yahata, Brennan D.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Mayer, Justin A.; Schaedler, Tobias A.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2017-09-01

    Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel

  17. 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Martin, John H; Yahata, Brennan D; Hundley, Jacob M; Mayer, Justin A; Schaedler, Tobias A; Pollock, Tresa M

    2017-09-20

    Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel

  18. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  19. Deviatoric response of the aluminium alloy, 5083

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hazell, Paul; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 are established light weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  20. Hot Tearing in Aluminium — Copper Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viano, David; StJohn, David; Grandfield, John; Cáceres, Carlos

    For many aluminium alloys, hot tearing susceptibility follows a lambda curve relationship when hot tearing severity is plotted as a function of solute content. In the past, there has been some difficulty quantifying hot tearing. Traditional methods rely upon measuring electrical resistivity or the number and/or length of cracks in tests such as the ring test. In this experimental program, a hot tear test rig was used to investigate a series of binary Al-Cu alloys. This device measures the load imposed on the mushy zone during solidification. Hot tearing susceptibility was quantified in two ways. The first method involved measuring the load at the solidus temperature (548°C). The second method was to radiograph the hot spot and measure the image density of the cracks. Both methods had advantages and disadvantages. It was found that the results from the hot tear rig correlates with other published data using different experimental methods.

  1. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investmentmore » casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.« less

  2. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  3. Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2006-04-01

    The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appearedmore » to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.« less

  4. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connectedmore » when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.« less

  5. Effect of inlet geometry on macrosegregation during the direct chill casting of 7050 alloy billets: experiments and computer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Eskin, D. G.; Miroux, A.; Subroto, T.; Katgerman, L.

    2012-07-01

    Controlling macrosegregation is one of the major challenges in direct-chill (DC) casting of aluminium alloys. In this paper, the effect of the inlet geometry (which influences the melt distribution) on macrosegregation during the DC casting of 7050 alloy billets was studied experimentally and by using 2D computer modelling. The ALSIM model was used to determine the temperature and flow patterns during DC casting. The results from the computer simulations show that the sump profiles and flow patterns in the billet are strongly influenced by the melt flow distribution determined by the inlet geometry. These observations were correlated to the actual macrosegregation patterns found in the as-cast billets produced by having two different inlet geometries. The macrosegregation analysis presented here may assist in determining the critical parameters to consider for improving the casting of 7XXX aluminium alloys.

  6. Grindability of cast Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Kiyosue, Seigo; Yoda, Masanobu; Woldu, Margaret; Cai, Zhuo; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Cu alloys in order to develop a titanium alloy with better grindability than commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), which is considered to be one of the most difficult metals to machine. Experimental Ti-Cu alloys (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mass% Cu) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. Each alloy was cast into a magnesia mold using a centrifugal casting machine. Cast alloy slabs (3.5 mm x 8.5 mm x 30.5 mm), from which the hardened surface layer (250 microm) was removed, were ground using a SiC abrasive wheel on an electric handpiece at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, or 1250 m/min) at 0.98 N (100 gf). Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1min. Data were compared to those for CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. For all speeds, Ti-10% Cu alloy exhibited the highest grindability. For the Ti-Cu alloys with a Cu content of 2% or less, the highest grindability corresponded to an intermediate speed. It was observed that the grindability increased with an increase in the Cu concentration compared to CP Ti, particularly for the 5 or 10% Cu alloys at a circumferential speed of 1000 m/min or above. By alloying with copper, the cast titanium exhibited better grindability at high speed. The continuous precipitation of Ti(2)Cu among the alpha-matrix grains made this material less ductile and facilitated more effective grinding because small broken segments more readily formed.

  7. Cast aluminium single crystals cross the threshold from bulk to size-dependent stochastic plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, J.; Rao, S. I.; Verheyden, S.; Miko, C.; Goodall, R.; Curtin, W. A.; Mortensen, A.

    2017-07-01

    Metals are known to exhibit mechanical behaviour at the nanoscale different to bulk samples. This transition typically initiates at the micrometre scale, yet existing techniques to produce micrometre-sized samples often introduce artefacts that can influence deformation mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate the casting of micrometre-scale aluminium single-crystal wires by infiltration of a salt mould. Samples have millimetre lengths, smooth surfaces, a range of crystallographic orientations, and a diameter D as small as 6 μm. The wires deform in bursts, at a stress that increases with decreasing D. Bursts greater than 200 nm account for roughly 50% of wire deformation and have exponentially distributed intensities. Dislocation dynamics simulations show that single-arm sources that produce large displacement bursts halted by stochastic cross-slip and lock formation explain microcast wire behaviour. This microcasting technique may be extended to several other metals or alloys and offers the possibility of exploring mechanical behaviour spanning the micrometre scale.

  8. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  9. Application of in situ thermography for evaluating the high-cycle and very high-cycle fatigue behaviour of cast aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg (T6).

    PubMed

    Krewerth, D; Weidner, A; Biermann, H

    2013-12-01

    The present paper illustrates the application of infrared thermal measurements for the investigation of crack initiation point and crack propagation in the high-cycle and the very high-cycle fatigue range of cast AlSi7Mg alloy (A356). The influence of casting defects, their location, size and amount was studied both by fractography and thermography. Besides internal and surface fatigue crack initiation as a further crack initiation type multiple fatigue crack initiation was observed via in situ thermography which can be well correlated with the results from fractography obtained by SEM investigations. In addition, crack propagation was studied by the development of the temperature measured via thermography. Moreover, the frequency influence on high-cycle fatigue behaviour was investigated. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and thermography can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of crack initiation and propagation in the VHCF regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wear behaviour and morphology of stir cast aluminium/SiC nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanwir Alam, Md; Arif, Sajjad; Husain Ansari, Akhter

    2018-04-01

    Wear and friction play a vital role in the service life of components. Aluminium matrix nanocomposites possess tremendous potential for a number of applications in addition to their present uses. It is valuable to the field of newer materials for better performance in tribological applications. In this work, dry sliding wear, friction coefficient and morphology of aluminium alloy (A356) reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiCn) were investigated. A356/SiCn nanocomposites (AMNCs) containing 1–5 weight percentage of SiCn were prepared through two-step stir casting process via mechanical ball milling. The wear test was conducted on pin-on-disc test apparatus. Regression analysis was performed to develop mathematical functions to fit the experimental data points. Morphological studies of Al and SiCn as-received, wear debris and worn surfaces were further analysed by SEM along with EDS. The occurrence of oxide layers was observed on worn surfaces. Iron trace was identified by wear debris. It was found that the wear loss and friction coefficient were strongly influenced by mechanical milling and SiCn content. The results exhibited that the friction coefficient reduces with the addition of SiCn as well as with the increase in load. However, wear resistance increases as the reinforcement content increases because of the embedding and wettability effects.

  11. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  12. Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Jayaraj, Jeganathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2009-05-30

    The present study provides an electrocoagulation process for the remediation of phosphate-contaminated water using aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel as the anodes and stainless steel as the cathode. The various parameters like effect of anode materials, effect of pH, concentration of phosphate, current density, temperature and co-existing ions, and so forth, and the adsorption capacity was evaluated using both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption of phosphate preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved with aluminium alloy anode at a current density of 0.2 A dm(-2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics.

  13. Machinability of cast commercial titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Kiyosue, S; Ohkubo, C; Aoki, T; Okabe, T

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the machinability of cast orthopedic titanium (metastable beta) alloys for possible application to dentistry and compared the results with those of cast CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb, which are currently used in dentistry. Machinability was determined as the amount of metal removed with the use of an electric handpiece and a SiC abrasive wheel turning at four different rotational wheel speeds. The ratios of the amount of metal removed and the wheel volume loss (machining ratio) were also evaluated. Based on these two criteria, the two alpha + beta alloys tested generally exhibited better results for most of the wheel speeds compared to all the other metals tested. The machinability of the three beta alloys employed was similar or worse, depending on the speed of the wheel, compared to CP Ti. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Weldability of Aluminium Alloys for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löveborn, D.; Larsson, J. K.; Persson, K.-A.

    Restrictions in CO2-emissions have caused increased demands on decreased weight and increased use of lightweight materials in the automotive industry. Aluminium has shown to be of great interest due to its beneficial weight to strength ratio, and are suitable for hang-on parts such as roof, doors etc. However, the use of aluminium requires reliable joining techniques. This project has been focusing on laser welding of aluminium. It have been reported earlier that hot cracks and porosity are common defects while joining aluminium with laser welding. The aim with this project has been to produce crack free laser welds while joining thin aluminium sheets. Two different optics have been used in this project, oscillating- and triple-spot optics. The results from the experiments show that both the oscillating optics and the triple-spot optics can produce crack free welds. The amount of pores is shown to be low for both cases. The results do also show that the amount of pores in the welds increases with the weld length while the flange length is of minor impact. The mechanical properties are similar for the both optics. The oscillation specimens receive a higher tensile strength while the triple-spot specimens receive a larger elongation at break value.

  15. Modeling wear of cast Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwai S; Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru

    2007-05-01

    The wear behavior of Ti-based alloys was analyzed by considering the elastic-plastic fracture of individual alloys in response to the relevant contact stress field. Using the contact stresses as the process driving force, wear was computed as the wear rate or volume loss as a function of hardness and tensile ductility for Ti-based cast alloys containing an alpha, alpha+beta or beta microstructure with or without the intermetallic precipitates. Model predictions indicated that wear of Ti alloys increases with increasing hardness but with decreasing fracture toughness or tensile ductility. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data to elucidate the roles of microstructure in wear and contrasted against those in grindability.

  16. Modeling wear of cast Ti alloys

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwai S.; Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru

    2007-01-01

    The wear behavior of Ti-based alloys was analyzed by considering the elastic–plastic fracture of individual alloys in response to the relevant contact stress field. Using the contact stresses as the process driving force, wear was computed as the wear rate or volume loss as a function of hardness and tensile ductility for Ti-based cast alloys containing an α, α+β or β microstructure with or without the intermetallic precipitates. Model predictions indicated that wear of Ti alloys increases with increasing hardness but with decreasing fracture toughness or tensile ductility. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data to elucidate the roles of microstructure in wear and contrasted against those in grindability. PMID:17224314

  17. CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

  18. Vibrational response and mechanical properties characterization of aluminium alloy 6061/Sic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, A. P.; Vyavahare, R. T.; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium alloy based metal matrix composites (AAMMC) are mainly used in sliding wear application, automobile, Aircraft and aerospace components, Marine fittings, Transport and other industry are becoming highly advantageous due to their excellent wear resistance, lighter weight, higher strength and durability. In this paper the effect of reinforcement percentage on vibration response and mechanical properties of metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composite material was prepared by varying Sic (0, 3, 6, and 9 wt. %) by stir casting method. Natural frequency, tensile strength, rockwell hardness and compressive strength were analyzed. The result shows that, addition of sic in aluminium matrix increases natural frequency, hardness, tensile strength, compressive strength and 9 wt. % showed maximum natural frequency, hardness, tensile strength, compressive strength.

  19. Grindability of cast Ti-Hf alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Sato, Hideki; Okuno, Osamu; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru

    2006-04-01

    As part of our systematic studies characterizing the properties of titanium alloys, we investigated the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Hf alloys. Alloy buttons with hafnium concentrations up to 40 mass% were made using an argon-arc melting furnace. Each button was cast into a magnesia-based mold using a dental titanium casting machine; three specimens were made for each metal. Prior to testing, the hardened surface layer was removed. The specimens were ground at five different speeds for 1 min at 0.98 N using a carborundum wheel on an electric dental handpiece. Grindability was evaluated as the volume of metal removed per minute (grinding rate) and the volume ratio of metal removed compared to the wheel material lost (grinding ratio). The data were analyzed using ANOVA. A trend of increasing grindability was found with increasing amounts of hafnium, although there was no statistical difference in the grindability with increasing hafnium contents. We also found that hafnium may be used to harden or strengthen titanium without deteriorating the grindability.

  20. An investigation of squeeze-cast alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy 718 billets produced by the squeeze-cast process have been evaluated for use as potential replacements for propulsion engine components which are normally produced from forgings. Alloy 718 billets were produced using various processing conditions. Structural characterizations were performed on 'as-cast' billets. As-cast billets were then homogenized and solution treated and aged according to conventional heat-treatment practices for this alloy. Mechanical property evaluations were performed on heat-treated billets. As-cast macrostructures and microstructures varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters. Mechanical properties varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters and heat treatments. One billet exhibited a defect free, refined microstructure, with mechanical properties approaching those of wrought alloy 718 bar, confirming the feasibility of squeeze-casting alloy 718. However, further process optimization is required, and further structural and mechanical property improvements are expected with process optimization.

  1. Recycling of aluminium scrap for secondary Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Eulogio; Nino, Jose

    2011-07-01

    An increasing amount of recycled aluminium is going into the production of aluminium alloy used for automotive applications. In these applications, it is necessary to control and remove alloy impurities and inclusions. Cleaning and fluxing processes are widely used during processing of the alloys for removal of inclusions, hydrogen and excess of magnesium. These processes use salt fluxes based in the system NaCl-KCl, injection of chlorine or mixture of chlorine with an inert gas. The new systems include a graphite wand and a circulation device to force convection in the melt and permit the bubbling and dispersion of reactive and cleaning agents. This paper discusses the recycling of aluminium alloys in rotary and reverberatory industrial furnaces. It focuses on the removal of magnesium during the melting process. In rotary furnaces, the magnesium lost is mainly due to the oxidation process at high temperatures. The magnesium removal is carried out by the reaction between chlorine and magnesium, with its efficiency associated to kinetic factors such as concentration of magnesium, mixing, and temperature. These factors are also related to emissions generated during the demagging process. Improvements in the metallic yield can be reached in rotary furnaces if the process starts with a proper salt, with limits of addition, and avoiding long holding times. To improve throughput in reverberatories, start the charging with high magnesium content material and inject chlorine gas if the molten metal is at the right temperature. Removal of magnesium through modern technologies can be efficiently performed to prevent environmental problems.

  2. Analysis of wear properties of aluminium based journal bearing alloys with and without lubrication.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathavan, J. Joy; Patnaik, Amar

    2016-09-01

    Apart from classical bearing materials, Aluminium alloys are used as bearing materials these days because of their superior quality. In this analysis, new Aluminium based bearing materials, with filler metals Si, Ni, and Cr are prepared by metal mould casting in burnout furnace machine, and tribological properties of these alloys with and without lubrication were tested. The experiments for wear with lubrication are conducted on multiple specimen tester and experiments without lubrication is conducted on Pin on disk tribometer. The disc material used was SAE 1050 steel. Wear tests were conducted at a sliding speed of 0.785 m/s and at a normal load of 20 N. Coefficient of friction values, temperature changes and wear of the specimens were plotted on graph according to the above mentioned working conditions. Hardness and weight losses of the specimens were calculated. The obtained results demonstrate how the friction and wear properties of these samples have changed with the % addition of Silicon, Chromium and Nickel to the base metal aluminium.

  3. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of MWCNT / Nanoclay Reinforced Aluminium alloy Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna Kumar, P. S. Samuel; Robinson Smart, D. S.; Alexis, S. John

    2018-04-01

    Aluminium alloy 5083 (AA5083) is a widely used material in aerospace, marine, defence and structural applications were mechanical and corrosion resistance property plays a vital role. For the present work, MWCNT / Nanoclay (montmorillonite (MMT) K10) mixed with AA5083 for different composition in weight percentage to enhance the mechanical property. Semi-solid state casting method (Compo-casting) was used to fabricate the composite materials. By using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) the uniform dispersion of the reinforcement and microstructure were studied. Finally, the addition of Nanoclay shows decrease in tensile strength compared to the AA5083 / MWCNT composites and hardness value of the composites (AA5083 / MWCNT and AA5083 / Nanoclay) was found to increase significantly.

  4. Exposure and inhalation risk assessment in an aluminium cast-house.

    PubMed

    Godderis, L; Vanderheyden, W; Van Geel, J; Moens, G; Masschelein, R; Veulemans, H

    2005-12-01

    To date the exposure, absorption and respiratory health effects of cast-house workers have not been described since most studies performed in the aluminium industry are focused on exposure and health effects of potroom personnel. In the present study, we assessed the external exposure and the absorbed dose of metals in personnel from the aluminium cast house. This was combined with an evaluation of respiratory complaints and the lung function of the personnel. 30 workers from an aluminium casting plant participated and 17 individuals of the packaging and distribution departments were selected as controls. The exposure was assessed by the quantification of total inhalable fume with metal fraction and by the determination of urinary aluminium, chromium, beryllium, manganese and lead concentration. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and man-made mineral fibres concentration were assessed as well. In order to evaluate their respiratory status each participant filled out a questionnaire and their lung function was tested by forced spirometry. Total inhalable fume exposure was maximum 4.37 mg m(-3). Exposure to the combustion gases, man-made mineral fibres and metal fume was well below the exposure limits. Beryllium could not be detected in the urine. The values of aluminium, manganese and lead in the urine were all under the respective reference value. One individual had a urinary chromium excretion above the ACGIH defined biological exposure index (BEI) of 30 microg g(-1) creatinine. There was no significant difference in any of the categories of the respiratory questionnaire and in the results of the spirometry between cast house personnel and referents (Chi-square, all p > 0.05). Exposure in cast houses seem to be acceptable under these conditions. However, peak exposure to fumes cannot be excluded and the potential risk of chromium and beryllium exposure due to the recycling of aluminium requires further attention.

  5. Results of the Experiment: Welding of Aluminium Alloy in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, S.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Freddi, A.; Persiani, F.; Poli, G.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment on "dendritic growth in aluminium alloy welding" was performed by the UNIBO team during the 3rd Student Parabolic Flight Campaign and the 30th Professional Parabolic Flight Campaign organised by ESA. Its purpose was to achieve a better understanding of crystal growth during tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of an aluminium alloy to define the main parameters affecting the process under microgravity condition. The experiment had 4 phases : The paper discusses different aspects of the research, paying particularly attention not only to the influence of gravity, but also to other factors influencing welding microstructure, such as the Marangoni effect and the thermal transfer from the electrode to the material. The paper conclude the dissertation of the results offering new perspectives for welding studies and proposing a new approach to the scientific community to investigate this materials processes for manufacturing.

  6. Aluminum Alloy and Article Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy, which has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 14 - 25.0, Copper 5.5 - 8.0, Iron 0.05 - 1.2, Magnesium 0.5 - 1.5, Nickel 0.05 - 0.9, Manganese 0.05 - 1.0, Titanium 0.05 - 1.2, Zirconium 0.05 - 1.2, Vanadium 0.05 - 1.2, Zinc 0.05 - 0.9, Phosphorus 0.001 - 0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10 - 25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4 - 15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2, crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix and containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  7. Corrosion behaviour of laser-cleaned AA7024 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. D.; Liu, H.; Suebka, C.; Liu, Y. X.; Liu, Z.; Guo, W.; Cheng, Y. M.; Zhang, S. L.; Li, L.

    2018-03-01

    Laser cleaning has been considered as a promising technique for the preparation of aluminium alloy surfaces prior to joining and welding and has been practically used in the automotive industry. The process is based on laser ablation to remove surface contaminations and aluminium oxides. However the change of surface chemistry and oxide status may affect corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys. Until now, no work has been reported on the corrosion characteristics of laser cleaned metallic surfaces. In this study, we investigated the corrosion behaviour of laser-cleaned AA7024-T4 aluminium alloy using potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The results showed that the laser-cleaned surface exhibited higher corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution than as-received hot-rolled alloy, with significant increase in impedance and decrease in capacitance, while SVET revealed that the active anodic points appeared on the as-received surface were not presented on the laser-cleaned surfaces. Such corrosion behaviours were correlated to the change of surface oxide status measured by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was suggested that the removal of the original less protective oxide layer consisting of MgO and MgAl2O4 on the as-received surfaces and the newly formed more protective oxide layer containing mainly Al2O3 and MgO by laser cleaning were responsible for the improvement of the corrosion performance.

  8. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  9. Development and Implementation of the Casting of Rods Made of Refractory Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, I. V.; Urin, S. L.; Ivanyuk, A. S.; Nesterov, A. N.; Bogdanov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The problems of the production of a so-called casting rod blank made of a refractory casting alloy in the vacuum induction furnaces of AO Metallurgical Plant Electrostal are considered. A unique technology of casting and subsequent treatment of as-cast rod blanks made of refractory alloys is developed, tested, and optimized. As a result of the developed and performed measures for the production of metal products in the Consarc furnace, the ingot-to-product yield increases by 15% as compared to metal casting in an ISV-1.0 furnace. As a result, we have widened the range of cast alloy grades and are going to cast metals for the manufacture of blanks of other sizes and ranges of alloy an steel grades.

  10. Complex deformation routes for direct recycling aluminium alloy scrap via industrial hot extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Kampen, Carlos; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the final results of an industrial project, aiming for direct hot extrusion of wrought aluminium alloy scrap at an industrial scale. Two types of complex deformation/extrusion routes were tested for the production of the same profile, starting from AA6060 scrap in form of machining chips. More specifically scrap-based billets were extruded through: a 2-porthole and a 4-porthole die-set, modified for enhanced scrap consolidation and grain refinement. For comparison reasons, cast billets of the same alloy were extruded through the modified 2-porthole die set. The tensile testing results as well as microstructural investigations show that the 4-porthole extrusion route further improves scrap consolidation compared to the 2-porthole die output. The successful implementation of solid state recycling, directly at industrial level, indicates the technological readiness level of this research.

  11. Microstructure Analysis on 6061 Aluminum Alloy after Casting and Diffuses Annealing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. Q.; Sun, W. L.; Xing, Y. Q.

    One factory using semi-continuous casting process produce the ф200×6000 mm 6061 aluminium alloy barstock, and then rotary forged for car wheels. 6061 distorting aluminium alloy is an forged aluminum alloy, and mainly containing Mg, Si, Cu and other alloying elements. The main strengthening phase is Mg2Si, and also has few phase of (FeMn) 3Si2Al15. In order to eliminate the segregation and separation which present in the crystal boundary, and make the distortion to be uniform, and does not present ear and fracture defects after the forging. So the 6061 distorting aluminium alloy adopt the diffusion annealing heat treatment before the forging process.According to the current conditions, we use the diffusion annealing which have the different heating temperature and different holding time.The best process we can obtain from the test which can improve the production efficiency and reduce the material waste, improve the mechanical properties, and eliminate the overheated film on the surface.Then,we using OM,SEM and EDS to analyse the microstructure and the chemical composition of compound between the surface and centre. The result shows that the amount of segregation were different in the surface and in the center, and the different diffusion annealing can cause the phase change in the surface and the center.

  12. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  13. Bond strength of luting cement to casting and soldering alloy.

    PubMed

    Kumbuloglu, O; Lassila, L V J; User, A; Toksavul, S; Vallittu, P K

    2006-03-01

    Adjustment of metal alloy framework of the porcelain-fused-to-metal crown by soldering minor marginal deficiences prior insertion may sometimes be needed. The aim of this study was to compare shear bond strengths of four luting cements to casting metal alloy and soldering metal alloy. A total of 64 flame cast non-precious metal alloy and flame soldered metal alloy samples were used. Durelon, Panavia F, RelyX Unicem Applicap and RelyX ARC stubs were bonded to the alloy substrate surface. After stored in water at 37 degrees C for 1 week, shear bond strength of the cement to the alloy was measured. Differences were analyzed using one way ANOVA (p<0.05). There were no difference between the cast metal alloy and soldering metal alloy substrate.

  14. Thermal migration of alloying agents in aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooil, S. P.; Mørtsell, E. A.; Mazzola, F.; Jorge, M.; Wenner, S.; Edmonds, M. T.; Thomsen, L.; Klemm, H. W.; Peschel, G.; Fuhrich, A.; Prieto, M.; Schmidt, Th; Miwa, J. A.; Holmestad, R.; Wells, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    The in situ thermal migration of alloying agents in an Al-Mg-Si-Li alloy is studied using surface sensitive photo-electron and electron diffraction/imaging techniques. Starting with the preparation of an almost oxide free surface (oxide thickness = 0.1 nm), the relative abundance of alloying agents (Mg, Li and Si) at the surface are recorded at various stages of thermal annealing, from room temperature to melting (which is observed at 550 ◦C). Prior to annealing, the surface abundances are below the detection limit ≪1%, in agreement with their bulk concentrations of 0.423% Si, 0.322% Mg and 0.101% Li (atomic %). At elevated temperatures, all three alloying agents appear at drastically increased concentrations (13.3% Si, 19.7% Mg and 45.3% Li), but decrease again with further elevation of the annealing temperature or after melting. The temperature at which the migration occurs is species dependent, with Li migration occurring at significantly higher temperatures than Si and Mg. The mechanism of migration also appears to be species dependent with Li migration occurring all over the surface but Mg migration being restricted to grain boundaries.

  15. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications.

    PubMed

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Urapepon, Somchai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications.

  16. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  17. Quality Management and Control of Low Pressure Cast Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dianxi; Zhang, Yanbo; Yang, Xiufan; Chen, Zhaosong; Jiang, Zelan

    2018-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the history of low pressure casting and summarizes the major production processes of low pressure casting. It briefly introduces the quality management and control of low pressure cast aluminum alloy. The main processes include are: preparation of raw materials, Melting, refining, physical and chemical analysis, K-mode inspection, sand core, mold, heat treatment and so on.

  18. The chemical phenol extraction of intermetallic particles from casting AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy.

    PubMed

    Mrówka-Nowotnik, G; Sieniawski, J; Nowotnik, A

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a chemical extraction technique for determination of intermetallic phases formed in the casting AlSi5Cu1Mg aluminium alloy. Commercial aluminium alloys contain a wide range of intermetallic particles that are formed during casting, homogenization and thermomechanical processing. During solidification, particles of intermetallics are dispersed in interdendritic spaces as fine primary phases. Coarse intermetallic compounds that are formed in this aluminium alloy are characterized by unique atomic arrangement (crystallographic structure), morphology, stability, physical and mechanical properties. The volume fraction, chemistry and morphology of the intermetallics significantly affect properties and material behaviour during thermomechanical processing. Therefore, accurate determination of intermetallics is essential to understand and control microstructural evolution in Al alloys. Thus, in this paper it is shown that chemical phenol extraction method can be applied for precise qualitative evaluation. The results of optical light microscopy LOM, scanning electron microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction XRD analysis reveal that as-cast AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy contains a wide range of intermetallic phases such as Al(4)Fe, gamma- Al(3)FeSi, alpha-Al(8)Fe(2)Si, beta-Al(5)FeSi, Al(12)FeMnSi.

  19. Structure and properties of stir-cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    LeHuy, H.; Blain J.; Masounave, J.

    Stir casting (or rheocasting) of ZA-27 zinc alloys was investigated experimentally. By vigorously agitating the alloys during cooling, the dendrites that were forming were fragmented giving a unique structure composed of spherical and rosette shaped particles suspended in the remaining liquid. Under high shear rates ({center dot}{gamma} = 300s{sup {minus}1} or more) the slurries with primary particle concentrations as high as 60% displayed viscosities as low as 20 poises and could easily be casted. The effects of processing variables such as shearing and cooling rates and casting temperatures were studied. Their relative importance on the rheological and microstructural behavior ofmore » the stir cast alloys are discussed. Results from viscosity measurements on slurries show that non-dendritical ZA-27 alloys obey a power law fluid model. Finally, results from mechanical and compressive studies carried out on solidified slurries are discussed and compared to conventional casted and wrought alloy properties.« less

  20. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  1. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  2. A survey of some metallographic etching reagents for restoration of obliterated engraved marks on aluminium-silicon alloy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Uli, Norjaidi; Kuppuswamy, R; Amran, Mohd Firdaus Che

    2011-05-20

    A brief survey to assess the sensitivity and efficacy of some common etching reagents for revealing obliterated engraved marks on Al-Si alloy surfaces is presented. Experimental observations have recommended use of alternate swabbing of 10% NaOH and 10% HNO(3) on the obliterated surfaces for obtaining the desired results. The NaOH etchant responsible for bringing back the original marks resulted in the deposition of some dark coating that has masked the recovered marks. The coating had been well removed by dissolving it in HNO(3) containing 10-20% acid. However, the above etching procedure was not effective on aluminium (99% purity) and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy surfaces. Also the two reagents (i) immersion in 10% aq. phosphoric acid and (ii) alternate swabbing of 60% HCl and 40% NaOH suggested earlier for high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys [23] were quite ineffective on Al-Si alloys. Thus different aluminium alloys needed different etching treatments for successfully restoring the obliterated marks. Al-Si alloys used in casting find wide applications especially in the manufacture of engine blocks of motor vehicles. Hence, the results presented in this paper are of much relevance in serial number restoration problems involving this alloy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems formore » melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.« less

  4. 3D analysis of macrosegregation in twin-roll cast AA3003 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Šlapáková, Michaela, E-mail: slapakova@karlov.mff.

    Twin-roll cast aluminium alloys have a high potential for industrial applications. However, one of the drawbacks of such materials is an inhomogeneous structure generated by macrosegregation, which appears under certain conditions in the center of sheets during solidification. Segregations in AA3003 alloy form as manganese, iron and silicon rich channels spread in the rolling direction. Their spatial distribution was successfully detected by X-ray computed tomography. Scanning electron microscopy was used for a detailed observation of microstructure, morphology and chemical analysis of the segregation. - Highlights: •Macrosegregations in twin-roll cast sheets stretch along the rolling direction. •X-ray computed tomography is anmore » effective tool for visualization of the segregation. •The segregations copy the shape of grain boundaries.« less

  5. Deviatoric Response of AN Armour-Grade Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Millett, J.; Bourne, N. K.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 H32 are established light-weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate-impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  6. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  7. High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

  8. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The repairs...

  9. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The repairs...

  10. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The repairs...

  11. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The repairs...

  12. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The repairs...

  13. Distribution of trace elements in a modified and grain refined aluminium-silicon hypoeutectic alloy.

    PubMed

    Faraji, M; Katgerman, L

    2010-08-01

    The influence of modifier and grain refiner on the nucleation process of a commercial hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloy (A356) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis technique (EPMA). Filtering was used to improve the casting quality; however, it compromised the modification of silicon. Effect of filtering on strontium loss was also studied using the afore-mentioned techniques. EPMA was used to trace the modifying and grain refining agents inside matrix and eutectic Si. This was to help understanding mechanisms of nucleation and modification in this alloy. Using EPMA, the negative interaction of Sr and Al3TiB was closely examined. In modified structure, it was found that the maximum point of Sr concentration was in line with peak of silicon; however, in case of just 0.1wt% added Ti, the peak of Ti concentration was not in line with aluminium, (but it was close to Si peak). Furthermore, EPMA results showed that using filter during casting process lowered the strontium content, although produced a cleaner melt. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  15. The Effect of Alloying Elements on Thermal Conductivity and Casting Characteristic in High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Ik; Choi, Se-Weon; Kim, Young-Chan; Kang, Chang-Seog

    Recently, demand of aluminum alloys for use in high thermal conductivity application is increases but the most aluminum die casting alloys exhibit very lower thermal properties because of their high concentrations of alloying elements. However, those alloying elements are essential to obtain sufficient fluidity and mechanical strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of alloying elements in die casting alloys, Si, Cu, Mg, Fe and Mn, in thermal conductivity, die casting characteristics and mechanical properties and find out the appropriate amount of each alloying element for development of heat sink component. The results showed that Mn had the most deleterious effect in thermal conductivity and Si and Fe contents were important to improve strength and limit casting defects, such as hot tearing and die soldering. The alloy with 0.2 1.0wt%Cu, 0.3 0.6wt%Fe and 1.0 2.0wt%Si showed very good combination of high thermal conductivity and good casting characteristics.

  16. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  17. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.S., E-mail: jeremy.robinson@ul.ie; Redington, W.

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A,more » 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.« less

  18. Quantitative prediction of solute strengthening in aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Leyson, Gerard Paul M; Curtin, William A; Hector, Louis G; Woodward, Christopher F

    2010-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computational materials science, a quantitative, parameter-free prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys has been difficult to achieve from first principles. Here, we present a new analytic theory that, with input from first-principles calculations, is able to predict the strengthening of aluminium by substitutional solute atoms. Solute-dislocation interaction energies in and around the dislocation core are first calculated using density functional theory and a flexible-boundary-condition method. An analytic model for the strength, or stress to move a dislocation, owing to the random field of solutes, is then presented. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters and is extendable to other metallic alloys, predicts both the energy barriers to dislocation motion and the zero-temperature flow stress, allowing for predictions of finite-temperature flow stresses. Quantitative comparisons with experimental flow stresses at temperature T=78 K are made for Al-X alloys (X=Mg, Si, Cu, Cr) and good agreement is obtained.

  19. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  20. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M.; Canadas, I.

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mouldmore » design. (author)« less

  1. Delamination properity of 2060 aluminium lithium alloy laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiang; Huang, Yi; Tong, Dihua; Ma, Shaojun

    2018-03-01

    Delamination is an significant property of aluminium lithium alloy laminate for damage tolerance design. Double Crack Lap Shear specimens of "2/1" structure are used for testing delamination properity. Experiments of 2 stress ratio conditions R=0.06, 0.5 are conducted, and 5 stress levels for each stress ratio. Delamination growth data b-N are obtained from 4 crack tips’ locations. The energy release rate, Gd, of the "2/1" structure laminate are calculated. Alderliesten modelis used for describing delamination growth db/dN and energy release rate Gd. Parameters Cd and nd in Alderliesten model are determined for R=0.06 and R=0.5 by linear fitting. An analysis is made by comparing the results of different stress ratio conditons.

  2. Cast Fe-base cylinder/regenerator housing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, F.; Kindlimann, L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that can meet the requirements of automotive Stirling engine cylinders and regenerator housings is described. Alloy requirements are as follows: a cast alloy, stress for 5000-hr rupture life of 200 MPa (29 ksi) at 775 C (1427 F), oxidation/corrosion resistance comparable to that of N-155, compatibility with hydrogen, and an alloy cost less than or equal to that of 19-9DL. The preliminary screening and evaluation of ten alloys are described.

  3. Cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast titanium and dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Ohkubo, C; Ford, J P; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) and to compare the results with those for cast commercially pure (CP) Ti, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and dental casting alloys. The cast metal (DT2F, CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, Type IV gold alloy and Co-Cr alloy) specimens were cut with air-turbine burs (carbide burs and diamond points) at air pressures of 138 or 207 kPa and a cutting force of 0.784 N. The cutting efficiency of each bur was evaluated as volume loss calculated from the weight loss cut for 5 s and the density of each metal. The bulk microhardness was measured to correlate the machinability and the hardness of each metal. The amounts of DT2F cut with the carbide burs were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than for the other titanium specimens at either 138 or 207 kPa. The diamond points exhibited similar machining efficiency among all metals except for Type IV gold alloy. The increase in the volume loss of Co-Cr alloy (Vitallium) cut with the diamond points showed a negative value (-29%) with an increase in air pressure from 138 to 207 kPa. There was a negative correlation between the amounts of metal removed (volume loss) and the hardness (r2 = 0.689) when the carbide burs were used. The results of this study indicated that a free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) exhibited better machinability compared to CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy when using carbide fissure burs. When machining cast CP Ti and its alloys, carbide fissure burs possessed a greater machining efficiency than the diamond points and are recommended for titanium dental prostheses.

  4. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade Hub using Aluminium Alloy AA 6061-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, S.; Jaswanthvenkatram, V.; Sai kumar, Y. J. N. V.; Sohaib, S. Md.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the design and analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade hub using different material. The hub is very crucial part of the wind turbine, which experience the loads from the blades and the loads were transmitted to the main shaft. At present wind turbine is more expensive and weights more than a million pounds, with the nacelle, rotor hub and blades accounting for most of the weight. In this work Spheroidal graphite cast iron GGG 40.3 is replaced by aluminium alloy 6061-T6 to enhance the casting properties and also to improve the strength-weight ratio. This transition of material leads to reduction in weight of the wind turbine. All the loads caused by wind and extreme loads on the blades are transferred to the hub. Considering the IEC 61400-1 standard for defining extreme loads on the hub the stress and deflection were calculated on the hub by using Finite element Analysis. Result obtained from ANSYS is compared and discussed with the existing design.

  5. Frictional conditions between alloy AA6060 aluminium and tool steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wideroee, Fredrik; Welo, Torgeir

    The frictional conditions in the new process of screw extrusion of aluminium have been investigated. The contact behaviour between the aluminum alloy and the tool steel in the extruder is vital for understanding the extrusion process. Using a compressive-rotational method for frictional measurements the conditions for unlubricated sticking friction between aluminum alloy AA6060 and tool steel at different combinations of temperatures and pressures have been investigated. In this method the samples in the form of disks are put under hydrostatic pressure while simultaneously being rotated at one end. Pins made from contrast material have been inserted into the samples tomore » measure the deformation introduced. This approach along with 3D simulations form a method for determining the frictional conditions. The paper describes the test method and the results. It was found that the necessary pressure for sticking to occur between the aluminum AA6060 and the different parts of the extruder is heavily influenced by the temperature.« less

  6. Surface mechanical behaviour of composite Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Georgiou, E. P.

    2009-04-01

    Ni-P-fly ash coatings were produced on zincate coated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of an electroless deposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-P-fly ash coating was found to consist of an amorphous Ni-P matrix with dispersed fly ash particles. The wear resistance of the Ni-P-fly ash coating on zincate treated aluminium alloy was observed to be higher than that of the bare aluminium alloy, when sliding against a stainless steel counterface. In addition, the adhesion between the Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating and the aluminium alloy substrate was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The adhesion strength of Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating on the aluminium alloy substrate was observed to be higher in comparison to the Ni-P/zincate coating on the same aluminium alloy.

  7. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural changes occurring in aluminium matrix composites reinforced with SiC particles during casting and welding: interface reactions

    PubMed

    Urena; Gomez De Salazar JM; Gil; Escalera; Baldonedo

    1999-11-01

    Processing of aluminium matrix composites (AMCs), especially those constituted by a reactive system such as Al-SiC, presents great difficulties which limit their potential applications. The interface reactivity between SiC and molten Al generates an aluminium carbide which degrades the composite properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopes are essential tools for determining the structure and chemistry of the Al-SiC interfaces in AMCs and changes occurring during casting and arc welding. In the present work, an aluminium-copper alloy (AA2014) reinforced with three different percentages of SiC particles was subjected to controlled remelting tests, at temperatures in the range 750-900 degrees C for 10 and 30 min. Arc welding tests using a tungsten intert gas with power inputs in the range 850-2000 W were also carried out. The results of these studies showed that during remelting there is preferential SiC particle consumption with formation of Al4C3 by interface reaction between the solid SiC particle and the molten aluminium matrix. The formation of Al4C3 by the same mechanism has also been detected in molten pools of arc welded composites. However, in this case there was formation of an almost continuous layer of Al4C3, which protects the particle against further consumption, and formation of aciculate aluminium carbide on the top weld. Both are formed by fusion and dissolution of the SiC in molten aluminium followed by reaction and precipitation of the Al4C3 during cooling.

  8. Study of Surface Roughness and Cutting force in machining for 6068 Aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, D.; Kaushik Yanamundra, Krishna; Krishnan, Gokul; Perisamy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites, in particular, Aluminium Hybrid Composites are gaining increasing attention for applications in air and land because of their superior strength to weight ratio, density and high temperature resistance. Aluminium alloys are being used for a wide range of applications in Aerospace and Automobile industries, to name a few. The Aluminium Alloy 6068 has been used as the specimen. It is mainly composed of Aluminium (93.22 - 97.6 %), Magnesium (0.60 - 1.2 %), Silicon (0.60 - 1.4 %) and Bismuth (0.60 - 1.1 %). Aluminium 6068 is widely used for manufacturing aircraft structures, fuselages and wings. It is also extensively used in fabricating automobile parts such as wheel spacers. In this study, tests for the measurement of surface roughness and cutting force has been carried out on the specimen, the results evaluated and conclusions are drawn. Also the simulation of the same is carried out in a commercial FE software – ABAQUS.

  9. Spall fracture in aluminium alloy at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, K. D.; Rav, Amit; Sur, Amit; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Spall fracture strength and dynamic yield strength has been measured in 8mm thick target plates of aluminium alloy Al2024-T4 at high strain rates generated in three plate impact experiments carried out at impact velocities of 180 m/s, 370 m/s and 560m/s, respectively, using single stage gas gun facility. In each experiment, the free surface velocity history of the Al2024-T4 sample plate measured employing velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to determine the spall strength and dynamic yield strength of this material. The spall strength of 1.11 GPa, 1.16 GPa and 1.43 GPa, determined from measured free surface velocity history of sample material in three experiments performed at impact velocity of 180 m/s, 370 m/s and 560 m/s, respectively, are higher than the quasi static value of 0.469 GPa and display almost linearly increasing trend with increasing impact velocity or equivalently with increasing strain rates. The average strain rates just ahead of the spall fracture are determined to be 1.9×10 4/s, 2.0×104/s and 2.5×104/s, respectively. The dynamic yield strength determined in the three experiments range from 0.383 GPa to 0.407 GPa, which is higher than the quasi static value of 0.324GPa.

  10. Lithium/aluminium alloys. A problem material for biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bencze, K; Pelikan, C; Bahemann-Hoffmeister, A; Kronseder, A

    1991-01-01

    Investigations on aqueous and nonaqueous media have shown that the dust particles of lithium/aluminium alloy are readily soluble in blood serum. Concentration of 10 mg A1 and 3 mg Li in 1 l serum constitute the saturation values in human blood serum at 20 degrees C. Further observations are intended to clarify the danger at the workplace. With a short-term exposure, the change in concentration of Li and Al was followed in the working environment and in the staff. Both elements (Li and Al) were determined in the working air, in the urine, the blood serum and on human skin with electrothermal AAS. On human skin, microerosions arise owing to hydrolytic destruction of the epidermis after long-term contact. The intensive irritant action of Li/Al dust is most relevant for preventive measures. It must also be considered that the Al values in the blood serum are raised by up to 50% in the presence of Li. The resorption and/or the bioavailability of Al is altered by Li. In the presence of Li up to a Li content of 2.5% in Al dust, a MAK (biological tolerance value, threshold limit value) of 1 mg Al/m3 room air (for the total dust) is recommended.

  11. Effect of Cr and Mn addition and heat treatment on AlSi3Mg casting alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tocci, Marialaura, E-mail: m.tocci@unibs.it

    In the present paper the effect of heat treatment on an AlSi3Mg alloy with and without Cr and Mn addition was investigated. Beside the well-known modification of the morphology of Fe-containing intermetallics, it was found that Cr and Mn allowed the formation of dispersoids in the aluminium matrix after solution heat treatment at 545 °C, as shown by scanning transmission electron microscope observations. These particles were responsible of the enhanced Vickers microhardness of the aluminium matrix in comparison with the base alloy after solution treatment and quenching, according to dispersion hardening mechanism. The presence of these particles was not affectedmore » by ageing treatment, which instead allowed the precipitation of β-Mg{sub 2}Si, as shown by the elaboration of differential scanning calorimeter curves. The formation of dispersoids and the study of their effect on mechanical properties can represent an interesting development for applications at high temperatures of casting alloys due to their thermal stability compared to other strengthening phases as β-Mg{sub 2}Si. - Highlights: •Cr and Mn successfully modified the morphology of Fe-containing intermetallics. •Cr- and Mn-dispersoids formed in the aluminium matrix during solution treatment. •Dispersion hardening was detected after solution treatment for Cr-containing alloy. •The dispersion hardening effect was maintained after ageing treatment.« less

  12. Corrosion Studies of Wrought and Cast NASA-23 Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion studies were carried out for wrought and cast NASA-23 alloy using electrochemical methods. The scanning reference electrode technique (SRET), the polarization resistance technique (PR), and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed. These studies corroborate the findings of stress corrosion studies performed earlier, in that the material is highly resistant to corrosion.

  13. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  14. Wear behavioral study of as cast and 7 hr homogenized Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy at constant load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlapur, M. D.; Sondur, D. G.; Akkimardi, V. G.; Mallapur, D. G.

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the wear behavior of as cast and 7 hr homogenized Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy has been investigated. Microstructure, SEM and EDS results confirm the presence of different intermetallic and their effects on wear properties of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy in as cast as well as aged condition. Alloying main elements like Si, Cu, Mg and Ni partly dissolve in the primary α-Al matrix and to some amount present in the form of intermetallic phases. SEM structure of as cast alloy shows blocks of Mg2Si which is at random distributed in the aluminium matrix. Precipitates of Al2Cu in the form of Chinese script are also observed. Also `Q' phase (Al-Si-Cu-Mg) be distributed uniformly into the aluminium matrix. Few coarsened platelets of Ni are seen. In case of 7 hr homogenized samples blocks of Mg2Si get rounded at the corners, Platelets of Ni get fragmented and distributed uniformly in the aluminium matrix. Results show improved volumetric wear resistance and reduced coefficient of friction after homogenizing heat treatment.

  15. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid -Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid -Metal...including Al, Cu, Ni, Zr, Mg, Pd, Ga , Ca. Many new Al-based amorphous alloys were found within the numerous alloy systems studied in this project, and

  16. Microstructure of As-cast Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Bum; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Kang Min; Son, Yong; Lee, Jung-Il; Ryu, Jeong Ho

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by an investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants owing to its high strength, good corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from normal industrial environmental conditions. The characterization of the samples was carried out using optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. In this study, the as-cast microstructure is an γ-Co (face-centered cubic) dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as M23C6 carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloy. Other minority phases, such as the σ phase, were also detected, and their presence could be linked to the manufacturing process and environment.

  17. Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Achani, D.; Eriksson, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2007-05-17

    Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As anmore » accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests.« less

  18. Self-Pierce Riveting of Three Aluminium Alloy and Mild Steel Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Sakai, S.

    2010-06-15

    Three aluminium alloy and steel sheets were joined with a self-piercing rivet. Self-pierce riveting has the function of joining steel and aluminium alloys having very different melting points due to plastic joining. The requisites for joining the three sheets are the driving of the rivet leg through the middle sheet, the flaring of the rivet leg in the lower sheet and the prevention of the fracture of the lower sheet. The joinability for various combinations of the three sheets was determined. When the rivet leg is small, no driving through the middle sheet occurs, the lower sheet ruptures for amore » large rivet leg. In addition, 980 MPa high strength steel, mild steel and aluminium alloy sheets were joined by the self-pierce riveting.« less

  19. Identification of a cast iron alloy containing nonstrategic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. V.; Anton, D. L.; Lemkey, F. D.; Nowotny, H.; Bailey, R. S.; Favrow, L. H.; Smeggil, J. G.; Snow, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A program was performed to address the mechanical and environmental needs of Stirling engine heater head and regenerator housing components, while reducing the dependence on strategic materials. An alloy was developed which contained no strategic elemental additions per se. The base is iron with additions of manganese, molybdenum, carbon, silicon, niobium, and ferro-chromium. Such an alloy should be producible on a large scale at very low cost. The resulting alloy, designated as NASAUT 4G-Al, contained 15 Mn, 15 Cr, 2 Mo, 1.5 C, 1.0 Si, 1.0 Nb (in weight percent) with a balance of Fe. This alloy was optimized for chemistry, based upon tensile strength, creep-rupture strength, fracture behavior, and fatigue resistance up to 800 C. Alloys were also tested for environmental compatibility. The microstructure and mechanic properties (including hardness) were assessed in the as-cast condition and following several heat treatments, including one designed to simulate a required braze cycle. The alloy was fabricated and characterized in the form of both equiaxed and columnar-grained castings. The columnar grains were produced by directional solidification, and the properties were characterized in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. The NASAUT 4G-Al alloy was found to be good in cyclic-oxidation resistance and excellent in both hydrogen and hot-corrosion resistance, especially in comparison to the baseline XF-818 alloy. The mechanical properties of yield strength, stress-rupture life, high-cycle-fatigue resistance, and low-cycle-fatigue resistance were good to excellent in comparison to the current alloy for this application, HS-31 (X-40), with precise results depending in a complex manner on grain orientation and temperature. If required, the ductility could be improved by lowering the carbon content.

  20. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' formore » evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it

  1. Development of Titanium Alloy Casting Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    reduction in melting temperatures (Table 8). (3 0 )Smeltzer, C.E., and Compton, W.A., "Titanium Braze System for High Temperature Applications", First...Compton, W. A., "Titanium Braze System for High Temperature Applications," First Interim Technical Report, Solar Division of International Harvester Co...Microstructures of the Phase 1I Ti-13Cu Alloy (Meat 2LO56) Showing the Effect of Various Aging Treatments After High Temperature Annealing 113 xi

  2. Impact properties of zinc die cast alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Manahan, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    Alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were tested at five temperatures between -40 C and room temperature to determine impact properties. Izod impact energy data was obtained in accordance with ASTM D256. Unlike ASTM E23, these samples were tested with a milled notch in order to compare with plastic samples. In addition, flexural data was obtained for design use.

  3. Microstructural Evolution in Intensively Melt Sheared Direct Chill Cast Al-Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Rao, A. K. Prasada; Patel, J. B.; Scamans, G. M.; Fan, Z.

    The work presented here introduces the novel melt conditioned direct chill casting (MC-DC) technology, where intensive melt shearing is applied to the conventional direct-chill casting process. MC-DC casting can successfully produce high quality Al-alloy billets. The results obtained from 80 mm diameter billets cast at speed of 200 mm/min show that MC-DC casting of Al-alloys, substantially refines the microstructure and reduces macro-segregation. In this paper, we present the preliminary results and discuss microstructural evolution during MC-DC casting of Al-alloys.

  4. Friction stir lap joining of automotive aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, H. S.; Das, A.; Lee, S.; Bang, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-material combination such as aluminium alloys and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are increasingly used in the aircraft and automobile industries to enhance strength-to-weight ratio of the respective parts and components. Various processes such as adhesive bonding, mechanical fasteners and laser beam joining were employed to join metal alloy and CFRP sheets. However, long processing time of adhesive bonding, extra weight induced by mechanical fasteners and high operating cost of the laser is major limitations of these processes. Therefore, friction stir welding is an alternative choice to overcome those limitations in joining of CFRP and aluminium alloys. In the present work, an attempt is undertaken to join AA5052 alloy and polyamide 66 CFRP sheets by friction stir lap joining technique using pinned and pin-less tools. The joint qualities are investigated extensively at different joining conditions using two different types of tools and surface ground aluminium sheets. The results show that pin-less tool and surface ground aluminium alloy can provide the suitable joint with maximum joint strength around 8 MPa.

  5. Predicting the thermal conductivity of aluminium alloys in the cryogenic to room temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcraft, Adam L.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are being used increasingly in cryogenic systems. However, cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made on only a few of the many types in general use. This paper describes a method of predicting the thermal conductivity of any aluminium alloy between the superconducting transition temperature (approximately 1 K) and room temperature, based on a measurement of the thermal conductivity or electrical resistivity at a single temperature. Where predictions are based on low temperature measurements (approximately 4 K and below), the accuracy is generally better than 10%. Useful predictions can also be made from room temperature measurements for most alloys, but with reduced accuracy. This method permits aluminium alloys to be used in situations where the thermal conductivity is important without having to make (or find) direct measurements over the entire temperature range of interest. There is therefore greater scope to choose alloys based on mechanical properties and availability, rather than on whether cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made. Recommended thermal conductivity values are presented for aluminium 6082 (based on a new measurement), and for 1000 series, and types 2014, 2024, 2219, 3003, 5052, 5083, 5086, 5154, 6061, 6063, 6082, 7039 and 7075 (based on low temperature measurements in the literature).

  6. Casting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy compared with pure Ti in an Ar-arc casting machine.

    PubMed

    Syverud, M; Okabe, T; Herø, H

    1995-10-01

    Dental prostheses of Ti are normally cast in pure Ti. Some appliances, however, require higher yield strength. Casting of Ti alloys is of interest in such cases. The objective of the present work was to study the quality of castings made of Ti-6Al-4V compared with those made of pure Ti. Casting was made into a mold kept at room temperature using a MgO-Al2O3 investment. A standardized five-unit bridge was cast, consisting of two cylindrical crowns with sharp margins and three pontics. The overall mold filling was satisfactory. The margins of the casting alloys were, however, more rugged and incomplete than those of pure Ti. The most likely reason for this difference is the increased formation of dendrites in the alloy and thus more resistance to fluid flow. Furthermore, the sprue of the alloy was also found to contain some spherical, internal pores. Such pores were rare in the pure Ti castings. The surface reactions were found to be minimal for both of the materials. Increased casting deficiencies observed in the cast bridges of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, compared with pure Ti, were: 1) the margins of the crowns in the bridge were less complete and 2) there was a tendency to an increased internal porosity, particularly in the sprues.

  7. Structure-property relationship of cast Ti-Nb alloys.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Ju, C P; Chern Lin, J H

    2002-04-01

    The present work is a study of the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of a series of binary Ti-Nb alloys with Nb contents up to 35 wt%, with emphasis placed on the structure-property relationship of the alloys. The results indicate that crystal structure and morphology of the Ti-Nb alloys are sensitive to the Nb content. The cast c.p. Ti has a hexagonal alpha phase with a lath type morphology. The alloys containing 15 wt% or less Nb are dominated by a hexagonal alpha' phase with an acicular, martensitic structure. When containing 17.5-25 wt% Nb, the alloys are primarily comprised of an orthorhombic alpha" phase. With 27.5 wt% Nb, metastable beta phase starts to be retained. With Nb contents higher than 30 wt%, the equi-axed beta phase is almost entirely retained. Small amounts of omega phase are detected in alloys containing 27.5 and 30 wt% Nb. Among all present alloys, Ti-10Nb and Ti-27.5Nb exhibit the highest strengths, while the alpha"-dominated (17.5 and 20Nb) and beta-dominated (> 30Nb) alloys have the lowest moduli. All Ti-Nb alloys show excellent corrosion resistance in Hank's solution at 37 degrees C. From the present data, the microhardness, bending strength and modulus of the various phases in Ti-Nb alloys are compared and tentatively summarized as follows: Microhardness: omega > alpha' > alpha" > beta > alpha (c.p. Ti) Bending strength: omega > alpha' > alpha" > beta > alpha (c.p. Ti) Bending modulus: omega > alpha (c.p. Ti) > alpha' > alpha" > beta

  8. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Paris, Alan M.; Vought, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  9. Evaluation Of Four Welding Arc Processes Applied To 6061 Aluminium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, A.; Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes; Paillard, P.

    At a time when greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced, the use of the aluminium alloys is expanding, in particular in the transportation industry. In order to extend the possibilities of aluminium assembly design, new Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding processes have been conceived. They work at lower temperatures than usual arc processes (classic MIG or Tungsten Inert Gas). This study compares four arc welding processes, applied to the 6061 aluminium alloy. These four weld processes have been studied through the metallurgical analysis of the weld beads. Metallography, micro-hardness testings, X Ray radiography have been carried out on the producedmore » weld beads. The processes are classified according to the quality of the beads like geometry of beads, size of the heat affected zone and presence of defects.« less

  10. Mechanical properties of aluminium fused SiO2 particulate composites cast using metallic and non-metallic chills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshith, H. S.; Hemanth, Joel

    2018-04-01

    This research work aims at developing and mechanical characterization of aluminium (LM13) based metal matrix composite reinforced with varying percentage of fused SiO2 (3%,6%,9%,12%). The mechanical properties are completely dependent on the microstructural parameters of the system. Also the microstructure further depends on the cooling rates during solidification process. Various Chills like Silicon carbide, Mild steel, Copper were used during the casting process to increase the rate of solidification, which enhances the mechanical properties of the composite. The chill casted specimens were subjected to tensile and hardness tests followed by microstructure studies. A casting produced using mild steel chill exhibited higher young's modulus and was found to be maximum at 9% reinforcement. Finer microstructure and better UTS were seen for specimen's casted using copper chills, whereas silicon carbide and mild steel chills gave rise to very coarse structure with reduced UTS values compared to copper chills.

  11. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  12. Observations of a Cast Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that Cu-Cr-Nb alloys have considerable advantages over the copper alloys currently used in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. Observations indicated that Zr and Nb have similar chemical properties and form very similar compounds. Glazov and Zakharov et al. reported the presence of Cr2Zr in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys with up to 3.5 wt% Cr and Zr though Zeng et al. calculated that Cr2Zr could not exist in a ternary Cu-Cr-Zr alloy. A cast Cu-6.15 wt% Cr-5.25 wt% Zr alloy was examined to determine if the microstructure developed would be similar to GRCop-84 (Cu-6.65 wt% Cr-5.85 wt% Nb). It was observed that the Cu-Cr-Zr system did not form any Cr2Zr even after a thermal exposure at 875 C for 176.5 h. Instead the alloy consisted of three phases: Cu, Cu5Zr, and Cr.

  13. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  14. Effect of the Microstructure on Diffusion Bonded AA5083, AA6082 and AA7075 Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Mahendran, G.

    2018-05-01

    Rolled plates of aluminium alloys AA5083, AA6082 and AA7075 of 5 mm thickness are joined by diffusion bonding at varied parameters. The microstructure evolution of AA5083, AA6082 and AA7075 aluminium alloys is characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Metallurgical investigations and mechanical tests are also performed to correlate the results of the TEM investigations with the mechanical properties of the produced diffusion bonded joints. It is observed that the bonding and shear strength of the alloys increase with the increase in bonding temperature, due to the diffusion of micro-constituents in the interface. High temperature enhances the uniform distribution of secondary phase particles and reduces pore formation/defects in the bonded joints.

  15. Microstructures of ancient and modern cast silver–copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Northover, S.M., E-mail: s.m.northover@open.ac.uk; Northover, J.P., E-mail: peter.northover@materials.ox.ac.uk

    The microstructures of modern cast Sterling silver and of cast silver objects about 2500 years old have been compared using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructures of both ancient and modern alloys were typified by silver-rich dendrites with a few pools of eutectic and occasional cuprite particles with an oxidised rim on the outer surface. EBSD showed the dendrites to have a complex internal structure, often involving extensive twinning. There was copious intragranular precipitation within the dendrites, in themore » form of very fine copper-rich rods which TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and STEM suggest to be of a metastable face-centred-cubic (FCC) phase with a cube–cube orientation relationship to the silver-rich matrix but a higher silver content than the copper-rich β in the eutectic. Samples from ancient objects displayed a wider range of microstructures including a fine scale interpenetration of the adjoining grains not seen in the modern material. Although this study found no unambiguous evidence that this resulted from microstructural change produced over archaeological time, the copper supersaturation remaining after intragranular precipitation suggests that such changes, previously proposed for wrought and annealed material, may indeed occur in ancient silver castings. - Highlights: • Similar twinned structures and oxidised surfaces seen in ancient and modern cast silver • General precipitation of fine Cu-rich rods apparently formed by discontinuous precipitation is characteristic of as-cast silver. • The fine rods are cube-cube related to the matrix in contrast with the eutectic. • The silver-rich phase remains supersaturated with copper. • Possibly age-related grain boundary features seen in ancient cast silver.« less

  16. Optimization of heat treatment parameters for additive manufacturing and gravity casting AlSi10Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girelli, L.; Tocci, M.; Montesano, L.; Gelfi, M.; Pola, A.

    2017-11-01

    Additive manufacturing of metals is a production process developed in the last few years to realize net shape components with complex geometry and high performance. AlSi10Mg is one of the most widely used aluminium alloys, both in this field and in conventional foundry processes, for its significant mechanical properties combined with good corrosion resistance. In this paper the effect of heat treatment on AlSi10Mg alloy was investigated. Solution and ageing treatments were carried out with different temperatures and times on samples obtained by direct metal laser sintering and gravity casting in order to compare their performance. Microstructural analyses and hardness tests were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the heat treatment. The results were correlated to the sample microstructure and porosity, analysed by means of optical microscopy and density measurements. It was found that, in the additive manufactured samples, the heat treatment can reduce significantly the performance of the alloy also because of the increase of porosity due to entrapped gas during the deposition technique and that the higher the solution temperature the higher the increase of such defects. A so remarkable effect was not found in the conventional cast alloy.

  17. Study of strength properties of semi-finished products from economically alloyed high-strength aluminium-scandium alloys for application in automobile transport and shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Vladimir; Sidelnikov, Sergey; Zenkin, Evgeny; Frolov, Viktor; Voroshilov, Denis; Yakivyuk, Olga; Konstantinov, Igor; Sokolov, Ruslan; Belokonova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    The results of a study on the strength of rolled products from aluminium alloys doped with scandium under various processing conditions of hot and cold rolling are presented. The regularities of metal flow and the level of strength of deformed semi-finished products from aluminum-scandium alloys are established, depending on the total degree of deformation and the various modes of single reduction during rolling. It is shown that when using one heating of a cast billet to obtain high-quality semi-finished products, the temperature during the rolling process should not be lower than 350-370°, and the total degree of deformation does not exceed 50-60%. It was found that the semi-finished products from alloys with a content of scandium in the range 0.11-0.12% in the deformed state had elevated values of ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the metal, which allows them to be recommended for industrial production of sheet metal products.

  18. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  19. Characterization of Ni-Cr alloys using different casting techniques and molds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Teng, Fu-Yuan; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    This study differentiated the mechanical properties of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys under various casting techniques (different casting molds and casting atmospheres). These techniques were sampled by a sand mold using a centrifugal machine in ambient air (group I) and electromagnetic induction in an automatic argon castimatic casting machine (group II). The specimen casting used a graphite mold by a castimatic casting machine (group III). The characteristics of the Ni-Cr alloys, yield and ultimate tensile strength, bending modulus, microhardness, diffraction phase, grindability, ability to spring back, as well as ground microstructure and pattern under different casting conditions were evaluated. The group III specimens exhibited the highest values in terms of strength, modulus, hardness, and grindability at a grind rate of 500 rpm. Moreover, group III alloys exhibited smaller grain sizes, higher ability to spring back, and greater ductility than those casted by sand investment (groups I and II). The main factor, "casting mold," significantly influenced all mechanical properties. The graphite mold casting of the Ni-Cr dental alloys in a controlled atmosphere argon casting system provided an excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good ability to spring back, and preserved the ductile properties for application in Ni-Cr porcelain-fused system. The results can offer recommendations to assist a prosthetic technician in selecting the appropriate casting techniques to obtain the desired alloy properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  1. Joining of Aluminium Alloy and Steel by Laser Assisted Reactive Wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, Gerhard; Vázquez, Rodrigo Gómez; Murzin, Serguei P.

    2018-03-01

    Compounds of dissimilar materials, like aluminium and steel offer an interesting opportunity for the automotive industry to reduce the weight of a car body. Thermal joining of aluminium and steel leads to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, which negatively affects the properties of the welded joint. Amongst others, growth of such intermetallic compounds depends on maximum temperature and on the time at certain temperatures. Laser welding with its narrow well seam and its fast heating and cooling cycles provides an excellent opportunity to obtain an ultrathin diffusion zone. Joining of sheet metal DC01 with aluminium alloy AW6016 has been chosen for research. The performed experimental studies showed that by a variation of the beam power and scanning speed it is possible to obtain an ultrathin diffusion zone with narrow intermetallic interlayers. With the aim of supporting further investigation of laser welding of the respective and other dissimilar pairings a multi-physical simulation model has been developed.

  2. Increasing the reliability and quality of important cast products made of chemically active metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeev, M. S.; Moiseev, V. S.; Shcherbakova, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    A technology is developed to produce highly thermoresistant ceramic monoxide corundum molds using investment casting and an aluminum-organic binder. This technology is a promising trend in creating ceramic molds for precision complex-shape casting of important ingots made of high-alloy steels, high-temperature and titanium alloys, and refractory metals. The use of the casting molds that have a high thermal and chemical resistance to chemically active metals and alloys under high-temperature casting minimizes the physicochemical interaction and substantially decreases the depth of the hard-to-remove metal oxide layer on important products, which increases their service properties.

  3. Scanning the welded joints of aluminium alloys using subminiature eddy-current transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Sergey; Ishkov, Alexey; Malikov, Vladimir; Sagalakov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Aluminium has a reputation for ease of use, strength and durability. In addition to its exceptional aesthetic properties, solid aluminium does not burn. As architects, contractors, consultants and real estate owners look to meet stringent safety requirements in the construction and refurbishment of high-rise constructions for both residential and commercial uses, aluminium cladding provides an alternative that is not only safe but that is also durable and attractive. One of the ways to connect elements into a aluminium construction is welding. friction stir welding is one of the most efficient. The authors developed a measuring system based on subminiaturized eddy-current transducers aimed at examining locally the defects of welded joints in aluminium-magnesium alloy plates connected by means of friction stir welding. The authors made a modification of the Delyann filter, which allowed them to increase considerably the signal-noise relations. The dependency of the eddy-current transducer response on defects was provided, i.e. concealed cuts and openings inside the welded joint, at the frequencies of 100-10000 Hz of the exciting winding.

  4. Analysing the strength of friction stir welded dissimilar aluminium alloys using Sugeno Fuzzy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barath, V. R.; Vaira Vignesh, R.; Padmanaban, R.

    2018-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising solid state joining technique for aluminium alloys. In this study, FSW trials were conducted on two dissimilar plates of aluminium alloy AA2024 and AA7075 by varying the tool rotation speed (TRS) and welding speed (WS). Tensile strength (TS) of the joints were measured and a Sugeno - Fuzzy model was developed to interconnect the FSW process parameters with the tensile strength. From the developed model, it was observed that the optimum heat generation at WS of 15 mm.min-1 and TRS of 1050 rpm resulted in dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization of the material. This refined the grains in the FSW zone and resulted in peak tensile strength among the tested specimens. Crest parabolic trend was observed in tensile strength with variation of TRS from 900 rpm to 1200 rpm and TTS from 10 mm.min-1 to 20 mm.min-1.

  5. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Georgiou, E. P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L.

    2011-03-01

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  6. Performance of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline ethylene glycol electrolyte with dicarboxylic acids additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DaPeng; Zhang, DaQuan; Lee, KangYong; Gao, LiXin

    2015-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acid compounds, i.e. succinic acid (SUA), adipic acid (ADA) and sebacic acid (SEA), are used as electrolyte additives in the alkaline ethylene glycol solution for AA5052 aluminium-air batteries. It shows that the addition of dicarboxylic acids lowers the hydrogen gas evolution rate of commercial AA5052 aluminium alloy anode. AA5052 aluminium alloy has wide potential window for electrochemical activity and better discharge performance in alkaline ethylene glycol solution containing dicarboxylic acid additives. ADA has the best inhibition effect for the self-corrosion of AA5052 anode among the three dicarboxylic acid additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals that dicarboxylic acids and aluminium ions can form coordination complexes. Quantum chemical calculations shows that ADA has a smaller energy gap (ΔE, the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied orbital and the highest occupied orbital), indicating that ADA has the strongest interaction with aluminium ions.

  7. Experimental investigations on thermo mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys subjected to tensile loading and laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelani, Mohsan; Li, Zewen; Shen, Zhonghua; Sardar, Maryam; Tabassum, Aasma

    2017-05-01

    The present work reports the investigation of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys under the combined action of tensile loading and laser irradiations. The two types of aluminium alloys (Al-1060 and Al-6061) are used for the experiments. The continuous wave Ytterbium fibre laser (wavelength 1080 nm) was employed as irradiation source, while tensile loading was provided by tensile testing machine. The effects of various pre-loading and laser power densities on the failure time, temperature distribution and on deformation behaviour of aluminium alloys are analysed. The experimental results represents the significant reduction in failure time and temperature for higher laser powers and for high load values, which implies that preloading may contribute a significant role in the failure of the material at elevated temperature. The reason and characterization of material failure by tensile and laser loading are explored in detail. A comparative behaviour of under tested materials is also investigated. This work suggests that, studies considering only combined loading are not enough to fully understand the mechanical behaviour of under tested materials. For complete characterization, one must consider the effect of heating as well as loading rate.

  8. Does the casting mode influence microstructure, fracture and properties of different metal ceramic alloys?

    PubMed

    Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Rodrigues-Filho, Leonardo Eloy; Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tensile strength, elongation, microhardness, microstructure and fracture pattern of various metal ceramic alloys cast under different casting conditions. Two Ni-Cr alloys, Co-Cr and Pd-Ag were used. The casting conditions were as follows: electromagnetic induction under argon atmosphere, vacuum, using blowtorch without atmosphere control. For each condition, 16 specimens, each measuring 25 mm long and 2.5 mm in diameter, were obtained. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation (EL) tests were performed using a Kratos machine. Vickers Microhardness (VM), fracture mode and microstructure were analyzed by SEM. UTS, EL and VM data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. For UTS, alloy composition had a direct influence on casting condition of alloys (Wiron 99 and Remanium CD), with higher values shown when cast with Flame/Air (p < 0.05). The factors 'alloy" and 'casting condition" influenced the EL and VM results, generally presenting opposite results, i.e., alloy with high elongation value had lower hardness (Wiron 99), and casting condition with the lowest EL values had the highest VM values (blowtorch). Both factors had significant influence on the properties evaluated, and prosthetic laboratories should select the appropriate casting method for each alloy composition to obtain the desired property.

  9. Microstructure and Corrosion Characterization of Squeeze Cast AM50 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Deepika; Tiwari, Shashank; Sundarraj, Suresh; Luo, Alan A.

    2010-12-01

    Squeeze casting of magnesium alloys potentially can be used in lightweight chassis components such as control arms and knuckles. This study documents the microstructural analysis and corrosion behavior of AM50 alloys squeeze cast at different pressures between 40 and 120 MPa and compares them with high-pressure die cast (HPDC) AM50 alloy castings and an AM50 squeeze cast prototype control arm. Although the corrosion rates of the squeeze cast samples are slightly higher than those observed for the HPDC AM50 alloy, the former does produce virtually porosity-free castings that are required for structural applications like control arms and wheels. This outcome is extremely encouraging as it provides an opportunity for additional alloy and process development by squeeze casting that has remained relatively unexplored for magnesium alloys compared with aluminum. Among the microstructural parameters analyzed, it seems that the β-phase interfacial area, indicating a greater degree of β network, leads to a lower corrosion rate. Weight loss was the better method for determining corrosion behavior in these alloys that contain a large fraction of second phase, which can cause perturbations to an overall uniform surface corrosion behavior.

  10. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.; Peker, A.

    1998-08-25

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast. 8 figs.

  11. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    1998-01-01

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast.

  12. Microstructural studies of wear mechanisms in cast aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmadagli, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    The microstructural basis of wear and surface degradation mechanisms in Al-Si alloys has been investigated in order to improve the current understanding of the requirements for wear resistant aluminum alloy design. The wear behaviour of three commercial alloys namely: a sand cast A390 (Al-18.4%Si), a spray formed Al-25%Si, and a die cast 383 (Al-9.5%Si) have been investigated. Dry sliding wear tests were performed using a block on ring type tribometer under controlled environments. The experiments were performed in a load range between 0.2 N and 300 N at a constant speed of 1 m/s. The testing environments were a dry air (5% RH), a humid air (95% RH), and an argon atmosphere. In dry air (5% RH), two main wear regimes namely, mild wear (MW), and severe wear (SW) were identified. The (MW) regime consisted of two sub-regimes: first and second regimes of mild wear, (MW-1) and (MW-2). The mild wear was controlled by the formation and destruction (spallation) of hardened tribolayers composed of Fe, Al, Si, and O which gave rise to steady state wear rates in both sub-regimes. The transition to second sub-regime was attributed to the destabilization and partial removal of the tribolayers on the contact surfaces. Severe wear occurred at loads exceeding 150 N irrespective of the alloy when the contact surface temperature reached a critical value (210-240°C). The wear rates (W) in each sub-regime of the MW obeyed the relation, W=CLn, where C and n were the wear coefficient and the wear exponent, respectively. The wear exponents, n, were similar in each of the sub-regimes for all three alloys, indicating that the same mechanisms controlled the wear rates. However, the wear coefficients, C, and the transition loads to the second sub-regime were considerably different for each alloy. A method of analyzing the wear coefficients and the transition loads of the alloys, based on pair-wise comparison between them, was developed. This method demonstrated that small equiaxed silicon

  13. Corrosion of pure aluminium and aluminium alloy: a comparative study using a slow positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Li, P. H.; Xue, X. D.; Wang, S. J.; Kallis, A.; Coleman, P. G.; Zhai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion-related defects in pure Al and AA 2037 Al alloy have been investigated by positron beam-based Doppler broadening energy spectroscopy. Defect profiles have been analyzed by measuring the S parameter as a function of incident positron energy up to 30 keV. When pure Al samples are immersed in 1M NaOH for various times, a significant increase in the S parameter near the surface is observed. This implies that the corrosion process involves the creation of defects and nanometer voids. In contrast, a significant decrease in the S parameter is observed after the corrosion of water-quenched Al alloy by the same method, which is interpreted as being a result of Cu enrichment near the metal-oxide interface layer.

  14. Ballistic impact velocity response of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy laminates for aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerospace and other industries use fibre metal laminate composites extensively due to their high specific strength, stiffness and fire resistance, in addition to their capability to be tailored into different forms for specific purposes. The behaviours of such composites under impact loading is another factor to be considered due to the impacts that occur in take-off, landing, during maintenance and operations. The aim of the study is to determine the specific perforation energy and impact strength of the fibre metal laminates of different layering pattern of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy and hybrid laminate composites of carbon fibre and natural fibres (kenaf and flax). The composites are fabricated using the hand lay-up method in a mould with high bonding polymer matrix and compressed by a compression machine, cured at room temperature for one day and post cure in an oven for three hours. The impact tests are conducted using a gun tunnel system with a flat cylindrical bullet fired using a helium gas at a distance of 14 inches to the target. Impact and residual velocity of the projectile are recorded by high speed video camera. Specific perforation energy of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CF+AA) for both before and after fire test are higher than the specific perforation energy of the other composites considered before and after fire test respectively. CF +AA before fire test is 55.18% greater than after. The same thing applies to impact strength of the composites where CF +AA before the fire test has the highest percentage of 11.7%, 50.0% and 32.98% as respectively compared to carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CARALL), carbon fibre reinforced flax aluminium alloy (CAFRALL) and carbon fibre reinforced kenaf aluminium alloy (CAKRALL), and likewise for the composites after fire test. The considered composites in this test can be used in the designated fire zone of an aircraft engine to protect external debris from penetrating the engine

  15. Friction Stir Back Extrusion of Aluminium Alloys for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zeren

    Since the invention of Friction Stir Welding in 1991 as a solid state joining technique, extensive scientific investigations have been carried out to understand fundamental aspects of material behaviors when processed by this technique, in order to optimize processing conditions as well as mechanical properties of the welds. Based on the basic principles of Friction Stir Welding, several derivatives have also been developed such as Friction Stir Processing, Friction Extrusion and Friction Stir Back Extrusion. Friction Stir Back Extrusion is a novel technique that is proposed recently and designed for fabricating tubes from lightweight alloys. Some preliminary results have been reported regarding microstructure and mechanical properties of Friction Stir Back Extrusion processed AZ31 magnesium alloy, however, systematic study and in-depth investigations are still needed to understand the materials behaviors and underlying mechanisms when subjected to Friction Stir Back Extrusion, especially for age-hardenable Al alloys. In the present study, Friction Stir Back Extrusion processed AA6063-T5 and AA7075-T6 alloys are analyzed with respect to grain structure evolution, micro-texture change, recrystallization mechanisms, precipitation sequence as well as mechanical properties. Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Vickers Hardness measurements and uniaxial tensile tests are carried out to characterize the microstructural change as well as micro and macro mechanical properties of the processed tubes. Special attention is paid to the micro-texture evolution across the entire tube and dynamic recrystallization mechanisms that are responsible for grain refinement. Significant grain refinement has been observed near the processing zone while the tube wall is characterized by inhomogeneous grain structure across the thickness for both alloys. Dissolution of existing precipitates is noticed under the thermal hysterias imposed by

  16. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Wenner, Sigurd, E-mail: sigurd.wenner@ntnu.no; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Andersen, Sigmund Jarle

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates ofmore » the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉{sub Al} coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed.« less

  17. The fatigue response of the aluminium-lithium alloy, 8090

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birt, M. J.; Beevers, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The fatigue response of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr (8090) alloy has been studied at room temperature. The initiation and growth of small and long cracks has been examined at R = 0.1 and at a frequency of 100 Hz. Initiation was observed to occur dominantly at sub-grain boundaries. The growth of the small cracks was crystallographic in character and exhibited little evidence of retardation or arrest at the grain boundaries. The long crack data showed the alloy to have a high resistance to fatigue crack growth with underaging providing the optimum heat treatment for fatigue crack growth resistance. In general, this can be attributed to high levels of crack closure which resulted from the presence of extensive microstructurally related asperities.

  18. Influence of the casting processing route on the corrosion behavior of dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Rocha, Luis Augusto; Faria, Adriana Claudia; Silveira, Renata Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello

    2014-12-01

    Casting in the presence of oxygen may result in an improvement of the corrosion performance of most alloys. However, the effect of corrosion on the casting without oxygen for dental materials remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the casting technique and atmosphere (argon or oxygen) on the corrosion behavior response of six different dental casting alloys. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical measurements performed in artificial saliva for the different alloys cast in two different conditions: arc melting in argon and oxygen-gas flame centrifugal casting. A slight decrease in open-circuit potential for most alloys was observed during immersion, meaning that the corrosion tendency of the materials increases due to the contact with the solution. Exceptions were the Co-based alloys prepared by plasma, and the Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-4Ti alloys processed by oxidized flame, in which an increase in potential was observed. The amount of metallic ions released into the artificial saliva solution during immersion was similar for all specimens. Considering the pitting potential, a parameter of high importance when considering the fluctuating conditions of the oral environment, Co-based alloys show the best performance in comparison with the Ni-based alloys, independent of the processing route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication of MEMS components using ultrafine-grained aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiao Guang; Gao, Nong; Moktadir, Zakaria; Kraft, Michael; Starink, Marco J.

    2010-04-01

    A novel process for the fabrication of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metallic component with features smaller than 10 µm and high thermal conductivity was investigated. This may be applied to new or improved microscale components, such as (micro-) heat exchangers. In the first stage of processing, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was employed to refine the grain size of commercial purity aluminium (Al-1050) to the ultrafine-grained (UFG) material. Embossing was conducted using a micro silicon mould fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Both cold embossing and hot embossing were performed on the coarse-grained and UFG Al-1050. Cold embossing on UFG Al-1050 led to a partially transferred pattern from the micro silicon mould and high failure rate of the mould. Hot embossing on UFG Al-1050 provided a smooth embossed surface with a fully transferred pattern and a low failure rate of the mould, while hot embossing on the coarse-grained Al-1050 resulted in a rougher surface with shear bands.

  20. Analysis of four dental alloys following torch/centrifugal and induction/ vacuum-pressure casting procedures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey A; Luo, Qing; Hefti, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown casting methodology to influence the as-cast properties of dental casting alloys. It is important to consider clinically important mechanical properties so that the influence of casting can be clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how torch/centrifugal and inductively cast and vacuum-pressure casting machines may affect the castability, microhardness, chemical composition, and microstructure of 2 high noble, 1 noble, and 1 base metal dental casting alloys. Two commonly used methods for casting were selected for comparison: torch/centrifugal casting and inductively heated/ vacuum-pressure casting. One hundred and twenty castability patterns were fabricated and divided into 8 groups. Four groups were torch/centrifugally cast in Olympia (O), Jelenko O (JO), Genesis II (G), and Liberty (L) alloys. Similarly, 4 groups were cast in O, JO, G, and L by an inductively induction/vacuum-pressure casting machine. Each specimen was evaluated for casting completeness to determine a castability value, while porosity was determined by standard x-ray techniques. Each group was metallographically prepared for further evaluation that included chemical composition, Vickers microhardness, and grain analysis of microstructure. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine significant differences among the main effects. Statistically significant effects were examined further with the Tukey HSD procedure for multiple comparisons. Data obtained from the castability experiments were non-normal and the variances were unequal. They were analyzed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant results were further investigated statistically with the Steel-Dwass method for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The alloy type had a significant effect on surface microhardness (P<.001). In contrast, the technique used for casting did not affect the microhardness of the test specimen (P=.465). Similarly, the interaction between the alloy and casting

  1. Macrosegregation in aluminum alloy ingot cast by the semicontinuous direct chill method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, H.; Granger, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model of the semicontinuous DC casting method is developed to predict the positive segregation observed at the subsurface and the negative segregation commonly found at the center of large commercial-size aluminum alloy ingot. Qualitative analysis of commercial-size aluminum alloy semicontinuous cast direct chill (DC) ingot is carried out. In the analysis, both positive segregation in the ingot subsurface and negative segregation at the center of the ingot are examined. Ingot subsurface macrosegregation is investigated by considering steady state casting of a circular cross-section binary alloy ingot. Nonequilibrium solidification is assumed with no solid diffusion, constant equilibrium partition ratio, and constant solid density.

  2. Investigation of Selective Laser Melting Surface Alloyed Aluminium Metal Matrix Dispersive Reinforced Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamburov, V. V.; Dimitrova, R. B.; Kandeva, M. K.; Sofronov, Y. P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties and in particular wear resistance of laser surface alloyed dispersive reinforced thin layers produced by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The wear resistance investigation of aluminium matrix composite layers in the conditions of dry friction surface with abrasive particles and nanoindentation tests were carried out. The process parameters (as scan speed) and their impact on the wear resistant layers have been evaluated. The alloyed layers containing metalized SiC particles were studied by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The obtained experimental results of the laser alloyed thin layers show significant development of their wear resistance and nanohardness due to the incorporated reinforced phase of electroless nickel coated SiC particles.

  3. 3D study of intermetallics and their effect on the corrosion morphology of rheocast aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mingo, B.; Arrabal, R., E-mail: rarrabal@ucm.es; Pardo, A.

    In the present study, the effect of heat treatment T6.1 on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of rheocast aluminium alloy A356 is investigated on the basis of 2D/3D characterization techniques and electrochemical and SKPFM measurements. Heat treatment strengthens the α-Al matrix, modifies the intermetallic particles and spheroidizes eutectic Si. These changes do not modify significantly the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. 3D SEM-Tomography clearly shows that the corrosion advances in the shape of narrow paths between closely spaced intermetallics without a major influence of eutectic Si. - Highlights: • T6.1 spheroidizes Si, strengthens the matrix and modifies the intermetallics. •more » Electrochemical behaviour of untreated and heat-treated alloys is similar. • 3D SEM-Tomography provides additional information on the corrosion morphology. • Corrosion advances as paths between intermetallics with little influence of Si.« less

  4. Wear Resistance Increase by Friction Stir Processing for Partial Magnesium Replacement in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balos, Sebastian; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Janjatovic, Petar; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Rajnovic, Dragan; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of friction stir processing (FSP) was evaluated as a way of increasing mechanical properties and a way of replacing the magnesium content in aluminium alloys. FSP was done on AA5754 H111 aluminium alloy, containing 3 % Mg, by using various types of tools and different welding speeds, rotational speeds and tilt angles. Wear test was done against SiC abrasive papers. SiC was used to simulate extreme abrasive wear conditions. The wear test was done on untreated AA5754 specimens, processed AA5754 specimens and untreated AA5083 H111 specimens, the latter containing 4.5 % Mg. AA5083 was chosen as an alternative to AA5754, but with a significantly higher Mg content. Base material microhardness was 60 HV1 and 80 HV1 for AA5754 and AA5083 alloys respectively. To find the effect of FSP on AA5754 alloy, microstructures were studied, mainly grain size in the stir zone. It was found, that an elevated processing and rotational speed, without tilt angle and the tool without a reservoir resulted in an increase in hardness of the AA5754 to 70 HV1, but with the occurrence of tunneling defect and the wear rate of 79.3 mg. Lower FSP parameters and a tilted tool with a reservoir resulted in microhardness of 68 HV1 and wear rate of 68.2 mg without tunneling. These wear values are lower than those obtained with unmodified Al-alloys: AA5754 97.2 mg and AA5083 86.3 mg. An increased wear resistance can be attributed to the combined effect of grain boundary strengthening mechanism and solid solution strengthening, versus only the latter in untreated alloys.

  5. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Wei Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Hai Feng, E-mail: wy3121685@163.com

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H{sub 2}O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  6. Numerical modelling in friction lap joining of aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Bang, H. S.; Bang, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-material combinations of aluminium alloy and carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastics (CFRP) have gained attention in automotive and aerospace industries to enhance fuel efficiency and strength-to-weight ratio of components. Various limitations of laser beam welding, adhesive bonding and mechanical fasteners make these processes inefficient to join metal and CFRP sheets. Friction lap joining is an alternative choice for the same. Comprehensive studies in friction lap joining of aluminium to CFRP sheets are essential and scare in the literature. The present work reports a combined theoretical and experimental study in joining of AA5052 and CFRP sheets using friction lap joining process. A three-dimensional finite element based heat transfer model is developed to compute the temperature fields and thermal cycles. The computed results are validated extensively with the corresponding experimentally measured results.

  7. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  8. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    PubMed

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p < 0.0001) and cell metabolic activity (p < 0.0001), and significantly increased cell toxicity (p < 0.0001) and inflammatory cytokine expression (p < 0.0001). S. mutans-treated Ni-based dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  9. Evaluation of the new TAMZ titanium alloy for dental cast application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Guo, T W; Li, Z C

    2000-12-01

    To reveal the potential of the new titanium alloy as dental prosthodontic materials. Dental castings of TAMZ alloy were investigated in the casting machine specially designed for titanium. A mesh pattern was used to count the castability value. The mechanical properties were measured by means of a universal testing machine. Optical micrography was done on the exposed cross-section of TAMZ alloy casting. From the surface to the inner part the Knoop hardness in reacted layer of TAMZ alloy casting was measured. The structure and elemental analyses of the reacted layer were made by SEM and element line scanning observation. The castability value (Cv = 98%) and the tensile test (sigma b = 850 Mpa, sigma 0.2 = 575 Mpa, delta = 7.33%) data were collected. The castings microstructure showed main alpha phase and small beta phase. Knoop hardness in the surface reacted layer was greater than that in the inner part. From the SEM and element line scanning observation, there are three different layers in the surface reacted layer of the TAMZ alloy castings, and higher level of element of O, Al, Si and Zr were found in the reacted layer while the Si permeated deeper than others. TAMZ alloy can be accepted as a material for dental alloy in prosthodontics.

  10. Mechanical strength and microstructure of laser-welded Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy castings.

    PubMed

    Srimaneepong, Viritpon; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Equo; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao

    2005-12-01

    Mechanical properties of laser-welded castings of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, CP Ti, and Co-Cr alloy were investigated and compared to the unwelded castings using a tensile test. Dumbbell-shaped specimens were cut at the center, and two halves of the specimens were welded with an Nd:YAG laser welding machine at 220 or 260 V of laser voltage. The mechanical strength of 260 V groups was higher than that of 220 V groups for Ti-6Al-7Nb and Co-Cr alloys except for CP Ti. All 260 V laser-welded castings of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and CP Ti, which fractured outside the welded joints, exhibited ductile characteristics, while all laser-welded Co-Cr alloy castings, which fractured within the welded joints, showed brittle characteristics. This study proved that the mechanical strength of laser-welded Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and CP Ti castings was as high as that of unwelded castings, while the mechanical properties of laser-welded alloy joints were influenced by microstructural changes.

  11. Microstructural and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy (Al 1050) melted by microwave hybrid heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashank Lingappa, M.; Srinath, M. S.; Amarendra, H. J.

    2017-07-01

    Microwave processing of metals is an emerging area. Melting of bulk metallic materials through microwave irradiation is still immature. In view of this, the present paper discusses the melting of bulk Al 1050 metallic material through microwave irradiation. The melting process is carried out successfully in a domestic microwave oven with 900 W power at 2450 MHz frequency. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of the processed and as-received material is carried out. Aluminium phase is found to be dominant in processed material when tested through x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure study of as-cast metal through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the formation of uniform hexagonal grain structure free from pores and cavities. The average tensile strength of the cast material is found to be around 21% higher, when compared to as-received material. Vickers’ microhardness of the as-cast metal is measured and is 10% higher than that of the as-received metal. Radiography on as-cast metal shows no significant defects. Al 1050 material melted through microwave irradiation has exhibited superior properties than the as-received Al 1050.

  12. Microstructural features of friction stir welded dissimilar Aluminium alloys AA2219-AA7475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman Khan, Noor; Ubaid, Mohammed; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman; Chen, Xizhang; Haider Abidi, Mustufa

    2018-05-01

    High strength, good corrosion resistance, light weight make aluminium alloys a material of choice in many industrial sectors like aerospace, marine etc. Problems associated with welding of these alloys by fusion welding processes restricted their use in various industries. Friction stir welding (FSW), a clean solid-state joining process, easily overcomes various difficulties encountered during conventional fusion welding processes. In the present work, the effect of rotational speed (710 rpm, 900 rpm and 1120 rpm) on micro-hardness distribution and microstructure of FSWed dissimilar aluminium alloy joints were analyzed. Plates of AA7475-T761 and AA2219-O having thickness of 2.5 mm were welded by fixing AA7475 on retreating side (RS) and AA2219 on advancing side (AS). Welded joints were characterized by Vickers micro-hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). Results revealed that rotational speed significantly affects the micro-hardness due to increase in grain size, coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates and re-precipitation. Higher micro-hardness values were observed in stir zone due to grain refinement and re-precipitation. Minimum micro-hardness value was observed at the TMAZ/HAZ of advancing side due to thermal softening.

  13. Effect of the nature of grain boundary regions on cavitation of a superplastically deformed aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Blandin, J.J.; Varloteaux, A.; Suery, M.

    Superplastic deformation of aluminium alloys induces cavity formation throughout the material, so that superplastic forming usually requires to be carried out under superimposed gas pressure to minimize strain-induced damage. This paper deals with the beneficial effects of heat treatment at high temperature for several hours before deformation on cavitation behavior of a superplastically deformed 7475 alloy. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that several microstructural transformations are induced by superplastic deformation and affected by the heat treatment. At first, the generation of dispersoid free zones at the periphery of the grains is observed, the composition of which depends on the priormore » history of the specimen. Secondly, the formation of long thin fibers extending in the cavities in the as received specimens, these fibers being no longer present in the heat-treated conditions. A TEM characterization of the fibers is presented and a mechanism of their formation is discussed. Such a reduction of the cavitation level for a given strain is interesting in view of superplastic forming of aluminium alloys under atmospheric pressure.« less

  14. Corrosion characterization of in-situ titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloy by two methods: Salts spray fog and linear polarization resistance (LPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloys is the one of most Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have important high-strength Al alloys. The aluminium (Al) casting alloys, based on the Al-Cu system are widely used in light-weight constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. In this research, Al-Cu master alloy was reinforced with 3 and 6wt.% titanium diboride (TiB2) that obtained from salts route reactions. The salts used were were potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) and potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4). The salts route reaction process were done at 800 °C. The Al-Cu alloy then has characterized on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization. Salts spray fog test and Gamry-electrode potentiometer instruments were used to determine the corrosion rate of this alloys. From results obtained, the increasement of 3wt.%TiB2 contents will decrease the value of the corrosion rate. In corrosion test that conducted both of salt spray fog and Gamry-electrode potentiometer, the addition of 3wt.%TiB2 gave the good properties in corrosion characterization compare to Al-Cu-6wt.%TiB2 and Al-Cu cast alloy itself. As a comparison, Al-Cu with 3wt.%TiB2 gave the lowest value of corrosion rate, which means alloy has good properties in corrosion characterization. The results obtained show that in-situ Al-Cu alloy composites containing the different weight of TiB2 phase were synthesized successfully by the salt-metal reaction method.

  15. Research of Mechanical Property Gradient Distribution of Al-Cu Alloy in Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Sui, Yanwei; Liu, Aihui; Li, Bangsheng; Guo, Jingjie

    Al-Cu alloy castings are obtained using centrifugal casting. The regularity of mechanical property gradient distribution of Al-Cu alloy castings with the same centrifugal radius at different positions is investigated. The result shows that the tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and microscope hardness exhibit the following gradient distribution characteristic — high on both sides and low on the center. The trend of mechanical property gradient distribution of Al-Cu alloy increases with the increase in the rotation speed. Moreover, the mechanical properties of casting centerline two sides have asymmetry. The reason is that the grain size of casting centerline two sides and Al2Cu phase and Cu content change correspondingly.

  16. Formation of intermetallic compound coating on magnesium AZ91 cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianping; Gao, Wei

    2009-08-01

    This study describes an intermetallic compound coating formed on AZ91 Mg cast alloy. The Al sputtered on AZ91 cast alloy reacted with substrate during a short period of heat treatment at 435°C, resulting in the formation of a continuous intermetallic compound layer. The short period treatment has the advantage of minimizing the negative effect on the microstructure of substrate and the mechanical properties, comparing with the reported diffusion coatings. DSC measurement and examination on the cross-section of Al sputtered samples show that local melting occurred along the Al/substrate interface at the temperature range between 430~435°C. The formation mechanism of intermetallic compound coating is proposed in terms of the local melting at Al/substrate interface. The salt water immersion test showed significant improvement in corrosion resistance of the intermetallic compound coated AZ91 cast alloy compared with the as-cast alloys.

  17. Demonstration of the Impact of Thermomagnetic Processing on Cast Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Murphy, Bart L.; Rios, Orlando

    2017-10-01

    This project builds on an earlier Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technical Collaboration phase 1 project to investigate application of high magnetic fields during solution heat treating and aging of three different cast aluminum alloys.

  18. Further studies of the anodic dissolution in sodium chloride electrolyte of aluminium alloys containing tin and gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestoridi, Maria; Pletcher, Derek; Wharton, Julian A.; Wood, Robert J. K.

    As part of a programme to develop a high power density, Al/air battery with a NaCl brine electrolyte, the high rate dissolution of an aluminium alloy containing tin and gallium was investigated in a small volume cell. The objective was to define the factors that limit aluminium dissolution in condition that mimic a high power density battery. In a cell with a large ratio of aluminium alloy to electrolyte, over a range of current densities the extent of dissolution was limited to ∼1000 C cm -2 of anode surface by a thick layer of loosely bound, crystalline deposit on the Al alloy anode formed by precipitation from solution. This leads to a large increase in impedance and acts as a barrier to transport of ions.

  19. Computational Multi-Scale Modeling of the Microstructure and Segregation of Cast Mg Alloys at Low Superheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastac, Laurentiu; El-Kaddah, Nagy

    It is well known that casting at low superheat has a strong influence on the solidification structures of the cast alloy. Recent studies on casting magnesium AZ alloys at low superheat using the Magnetic Suspension Melting (MSM) process have shown that the cast alloy exhibit a fine globular grain structure, and the grain size depend on the cooling rate. This paper describes a stochastic mesoscopic model for predicting the grain structure and segregation in cast alloys at low superheat. This model was applied to predict the globular solidification morphology and solute redistribution of Al in cast Mg AZ31B alloy at different cooling rates. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the observed grain structure and Al segregation. This makes the model a very useful tool for optimizing the solidification structure of cast magnesium alloys.

  20. Recoil-free Fraction in Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Aluminium Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, Jozef

    2008-10-01

    Aluminium based rapidly quenched alloys of nominal composition Al90Fe7Nb3 and Al94Fe2V4 were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. We have measured the recoil-free fraction and thermal shift at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. The frequency modes of atomic vibrations were determined and consequently the characteristic Debye temperature was derived. Characteristic temperature calculated from f-factor was lower than those fitted from second order Doppler shift. This indicates the presence of different frequency modes for amorphous and nanocrystalline states.

  1. Investigation on local ductility of 6xxx-aluminium sheet alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henn, P.; Liewald, M.; Sindel, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the scope of this paper influence of localization of loading conditions on the ductility of two different 6xxx-aluminium sheet alloys is investigated. In order to improve the prediction of sheet material crash performance, material parameters based on uniaxial tensile and notched tensile tests are determined with varying consolidation areas. Especially evaluation methods based on the localized necking behaviour in tensile tests are investigated. The potential of local ductility characterisation is validated with results of Edge-Compression Tests (ECT) which applies load conditions that occur in actual crash events.

  2. Characterising ductility of 6xxx-series aluminium sheet alloys at combined loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henn, Philipp; Liewald, Mathias; Sindel, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach to characterise material ductility when combined, three dimensional loading conditions occurring during vehicle crash are applied. So called "axial crush test" of closed hat sections is simplified by reducing it down to a two-dimensional testing procedure. This newly developed edge-compression test (ECT) provides the opportunity to investigate a defined characteristic axial folding behaviour of a profile edge. The potential to quantify and to differentiate crashworthiness of material by use of new edge-compression test is investigated by carrying out experimental studies with two different 6xxx-aluminium sheet alloys.

  3. Hot-crack test for aluminium alloys welds using TIG process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niel, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.

    2010-06-01

    Hot cracking is a critical defect frequently observed during welding of aluminium alloys. In order to better understand the interaction between cracking phenomenon, process parameters, mechanical factors and microstructures resulting from solidification after welding, an original hot-cracking test during welding is developed. According to in-situ observations and post mortem analyses, hot cracking mechanisms are investigated, taking into account the interaction between microstructural parameters, depending on the thermal cycles, and mechanical parameters, depending on geometry and clamping conditions of the samples and on the thermal field on the sample. Finally, a process map indicating the limit between cracking and non-cracking zones according to welding parameters is presented.

  4. Investigation of welded joints of aluminium alloys using subminiature eddy-current transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Katasonov, A. O.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The authors developed a measuring system based on subminiaturized eddy-current transducers aimed at examining locally the defects of welded joints in aluminium-magnesium alloy plates connected by means of friction stir welding. The authors made a modification of the Delyann filter, which allowed them to increase considerably the signal-noise relations. The dependency of the eddy-current transducer response on defects was provided, i.e. concealed cuts and openings inside the welded joint, at the frequencies of 100-10000 Hz of the exciting winding.

  5. Supersonic laser spray of aluminium alloy on a ceramic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Comesaña, R.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    2007-12-01

    Applying a ceramic coating onto a metallic substrate to improve its wear resistance or corrosion resistance has attracted the interest of many researchers during decades. However, only few works explore the possibility to apply a metallic layer onto a ceramic material. This work presents a novel technique to coat ceramic materials with metals: the supersonic laser spraying. In this technique a laser beam is focused on the surface of the precursor metal in such a way that the metal is transformed to the liquid state in the beam-metal interaction zone. A supersonic jet expels the molten material and propels it to the surface of the ceramic substrate. In this study, we present the preliminary results obtained using the supersonic laser spray to coat a commercial cordierite ceramic plate with an Al-Cu alloy using a 3.5 kW CO 2 laser and a supersonic jet of Argon. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and interferometric profilometry.

  6. Grindability of dental cast Ti-Ag and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okabe, Toru; Okuno, Osamu

    2003-06-01

    Experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, and 20 mass% Ag) and Ti-Cu alloys (2, 5, and 10 mass% Cu) were cast into magnesia molds using a dental casting machine, and their grindability was investigated. At the lowest grinding speed (500 m min(-1)), there were no statistical differences among the grindability values of the titanium and titanium alloys. The grindability of the alloys increased as the grinding speed increased. At the highest grinding speed (1500 m x min(-1)), the grindability of the 20% Ag, 5% Cu, and 10% Cu alloys was significantly higher than that of titanium. It was found that alloying with silver or copper improved the grindability of titanium, particularly at a high speed. It appeared that the decrease in elongation caused by the precipitation of small amounts of intermetallic compounds primarily contributed to the favorable grindability of the experimental alloys.

  7. Preliminary Study into Shell Mold Casting of Nominal 60-Nitinol Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present study was initiated to determine the feasibility of shell mold casting nominal 60- Nitinol into suitable EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal...surface finish and definition and property response of cast alloy. Based upon the results, 60- Nitinol appears quite suited to shell molding and a...concern lies in the casting porosity associated with the relatively large liquid-to-solid shrinkage of nominal 60- Nitinol .

  8. A comparative study of the microstructures observed in statically cast and continuously cast Bi-In-Sn ternary eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Soda, H.; McLean, A.

    2000-01-01

    A ternary eutectic alloy with a composition of 57.2 pct Bi, 24.8 pct In, and 18 pct Sn was continuously cast into wire of 2 mm diameter with casting speeds of 14 and 79 mm/min using the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) process. The microstructures obtained were compared with those of statically cast specimens. Extensive segregation of massive Bi blocks, Bi complex structures, and tin-rich dendrites was found in specimens that were statically cast. Decomposition of {radical}Sn by a eutectoid reaction was confirmed based on microstructural evidence. Ternary eutectic alloy with a cooling rate of approximately 1 C/min formed a doublemore » binary eutectic. The double binary eutectic consisted of regions of BiIn and decomposed {radical}Sn in the form of a dendrite cell structure and regions of Bi and decomposed {radical}Sn in the form of a complex-regular cell. The Bi complex-regular cells, which are a ternary eutectic constituent, existed either along the boundaries of the BiIn-decomposed {radical}Sn dendrite cells or at the front of elongated dendrite cell structures. In the continuously cast wires, primary Sn dendrites coupled with a small Bi phase were uniformly distributed within the Bi-In alloy matrix. Neither massive Bi phase, Bi complex-regular cells, no BiIn eutectic dendrite cells were observed, resulting in a more uniform microstructure in contrast to the heavily segregated structures of the statically cast specimens.« less

  9. Mechanical properties and grindability of dental cast Ti-Nb alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okuno, Osamu

    2003-09-01

    Aiming at developing a dental titanium alloy with better mechanical properties and machinability than unalloyed titanium, a series of Ti-Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 30% was made. They were cast into magnesia-based molds using a dental casting machine and the mechanical properties and grindability of the castings were examined. The hardness of the alloys with Nb concentrations of 5% and above was significantly higher than that of titanium. The yield strength and tensile strength of the alloys with Nb concentrations of 10% and above were significantly higher than those of titanium, while the elongation was significantly lower. A small addition of niobium to titanium did not contribute to improving the grindability of titanium. The Ti-30% Nb alloy exhibited significantly better grindability at low grinding speed with higher hardness, strength, and Young's modulus than titanium, presumably due to precipitation of the omega phase in the beta matrix.

  10. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  11. [A surface reacted layer study of titanium-zirconium alloy after dental casting].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Guo, T; Li, Z; Li, C

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the influence of the mold temperature on the surface reacted layer of Ti-Zr alloy castings. Ti-Zr alloy was casted into a mold which was made of a zircon (ZrO2.SiO2) for inner coating and a phosphate-bonded material for outer investing with a casting machine (China) designed as vacuum, pressure and centrifuge. At three mold temperatures (room temperature, 300 degrees C, 600 degrees C) the Ti-Zr alloy was casted separately. The surface roughness of the castings was calculated by instrument of smooth finish (China). From the surface to the inner part the Knoop hardness and thickness in reacted layer of Ti-Zr alloy casting was measured. The structure of the surface reacted layer was analysed by SEM. Elemental analyses of the interfacial zone of the casting was made by element line scanning observation. The surface roughness of the castings was increased significantly with the mold temperature increasing. At a higher mold temperature the Knoop hardness of the reactive layer was increased. At the three mold temperature the outmost surface was very hard, and microhardness data decreased rapidly where they reached constant values. The thickness was about 85 microns for castings at room temperature and 300 degrees C, 105 microns for castings at 600 degrees C. From the SEM micrograph of the Ti-Zr alloy casting, the surface reacted layer could be divided into three different layers. The first layer was called non-structure layer, which thickness was about 10 microns for room temperature group, 20 microns for 300 degrees C and 25 microns for 600 degrees C. The second layer was characterized by coarse-grained acicular crystal, which thickness was about 50 microns for three mold temperatures. The third layer was Ti-Zr alloy. The element line scanning showed non-structure layer with higher level of element of O, Al, Si and Zr, The higher the mold temperature during casting, the deeper the Si permeating and in the second layer the element Si could also be found

  12. Evaluating stress corrosion cracking behaviour of high strength AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhuraj, P.; Rajakumar, S.; Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the threshold stress level of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy by suitable experimentation. The test was carried out using a circumferential notch specimen in a horizontal-type constant load SCC setup in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The time to failure by SCC was determined at various loading conditions. The threshold stress of AA7075-T651 alloy was found to be 242 MPa in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The various regions of the fractured surface specimen such as machined notch, SCC region and final overload fracture area were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to identify the SCC mechanism.

  13. Comparison of the passivity between cast alloy and laser-welded titanium overdenture bars.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Jose; Givan, Daniel A; Broome, James C; Lemons, Jack E; McCracken, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fit of cast alloy overdenture and laser-welded titanium-alloy bars by measuring induced strain upon tightening of the bars on a master cast as well as a function of screw tightening sequence. Four implant analogs were secured into Type IV dental stone to simulate a mandibular edentulous patient cast, and two groups of four overdenture bars were fabricated. Group I was four cast alloy bars and Group II was four laser-welded titanium bars. The cast alloy bars included Au-Ag-Pd, Pd-Ag-Au, Au-Ag-Cu-Pd, and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au, while the laser-welded bars were all Ti-Al-V alloy. Bars were made from the same master cast, were torqued into place, and the total strain in the bars was measured through five strain gauges bonded to the bar between the implants. Each bar was placed and torqued 27 times to 30 Ncm per screw using three tightening sequences. Data were processed through a strain amplifier and analyzed by computer using StrainSmart software. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Significant differences were found between alloy types. Laser-welded titanium bars tended to have lower strains than corresponding cast bars, although the Au-Ag-Pd bar was not significantly different. The magnitudes of total strain were the least when first tightening the ends of the bar. The passivity of implant overdenture bars was evaluated using total strain of the bar when tightening. Selecting a high modulus of elasticity cast alloy or use of laser-welded bar design resulted in the lowest average strain magnitudes. While the effect of screw tightening sequence was minimal, tightening the distal ends first demonstrated the lowest strain, and hence the best passivity.

  14. Modeling Dynamic Anisotropic Behaviour and Spall Failure in Commercial Aluminium Alloys AA7010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials of aluminium alloys. The previous published constitutive model is used as a reference to start the development in this work. The proposed formulation that used a new definition of Mandel stress tensor to define Hill's yield criterion and a new shock equation of state (EOS) of the generalised orthotropic pressure is further enhanced with Grady spall failure model to closely predict shockwave propagation and spall failure in the chosen commercial aluminium alloy. This hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The implementations of a new EOS of the generalised orthotropic pressure including the spall failure are also discussed in this paper. The capability of the proposed constitutive model to capture the complex behaviour of the selected material is validated against range of Plate Impact Test data at 234, 450 and 895 ms-1 impact velocities.

  15. Numerical analysis of heat treatment of TiCN coated AA7075 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinath, M. K.; Prasad, M. S. Ganesha

    2018-04-01

    The Numerical analysis of heat treatments of TiCN coated AA7075 aluminium alloys is presented in this paper. The Convection-Diffusion-Reaction (CDR) equation with solutions in the Streamlined-Upward Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method for different parameters is provided for the understanding of the process. An experimental process to improve the surface properties of AA-7075 aluminium alloy was attempted through the coatings of TiCN and subsequent heat treatments. From the experimental process, optimized temperature and time was obtained which gave the maximum surface hardness and corrosion resistance. The paper gives an understanding and use of the CDR equation for application of the process. Expression to determine convection, diffusion and reaction parameters are provided which is used to obtain the overall expression of the heat treatment process. With the substitution of the optimized temperature and time, the governing equation may be obtained. Additionally, the total energy consumed during the heat treatment process is also developed to give a mathematical formulation of the energy consumed.

  16. Isoelectronic substitutions and aluminium alloying in the Ta-Nb-Hf-Zr-Ti high-entropy alloy superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohr, Fabian O.; Cava, Robert J.

    2018-03-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a new class of materials constructed from multiple principal elements statistically arranged on simple crystallographic lattices. Due to the large amount of disorder present, they are excellent model systems for investigating the properties of materials intermediate between crystalline and amorphous states. Here we report the effects of systematic isoelectronic replacements, using Mo-Y, Mo-Sc, and Cr-Sc mixtures, for the valence electron count 4 and 5 elements in the body-centered cubic (BCC) Ta-Nb-Zr-Hf-Ti high-entropy alloy (HEA) superconductor. We find that the superconducting transition temperature Tc strongly depends on the elemental makeup of the alloy, and not exclusively its electron count. The replacement of niobium or tantalum by an isoelectronic mixture lowers the transition temperature by more than 60%, while the isoelectronic replacement of hafnium, zirconium, or titanium has a limited impact on Tc. We further explore the alloying of aluminium into the nearly optimal electron count [TaNb] 0.67(ZrHfTi) 0.33 HEA superconductor. The electron count dependence of the superconducting Tc for (HEA)Al x is found to be more crystallinelike than for the [TaNb] 1 -x(ZrHfTi) x HEA solid solution. For an aluminum content of x =0.4 the high-entropy stabilization of the simple BCC lattice breaks down. This material crystallizes in the tetragonal β -uranium structure type and superconductivity is not observed above 1.8 K.

  17. Effect of surface reaction layer on grindability of cast titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Hosoi, Toshio; Ford, J Phillip; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cast surface reaction layer on the grindability of titanium alloys, including free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F), and to compare the results with the grindability of two dental casting alloys (gold and Co-Cr). All titanium specimens (pure Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and DT2F) were cast using a centrifugal casting machine in magnesia-based investment molds. Two specimen sizes were used to cast the titanium metals so that the larger castings would be the same size as the smaller gold and Co-Cr alloy specimens after removal of the surface reaction layer (alpha-case). Grindability was measured as volume loss ground from a specimen for 1 min using a handpiece engine with a SiC abrasive wheel at 0.1 kgf and four circumferential wheel speeds. For the titanium and gold alloys, grindability increased as the rotational speed increased. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05) in grindability for all titanium specimens either with or without the alpha-case. Of the titanium metals tested, Ti-6 Al-4V had the greatest grindability at higher speeds, followed by DT2F and CP Ti. The grindability of the gold alloy was similar to that of Ti-6 Al-4V, whereas the Co-Cr alloy had the lowest grindability. The results of this study indicated that the alpha-case did not significantly affect the grindability of the titanium alloys. The free-machining titanium alloy had improved grindability compared to CP Ti.

  18. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; ...

    2018-04-25

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatmentmore » line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.« less

  19. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-06-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  20. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-04-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  1. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatmentmore » line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.« less

  2. Development of a new casting method to fabricate U–Zr alloy containing minor actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Hwan Kim; Hoon Song; Hyung Tae Kim

    2014-01-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U–Zr alloys for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated using an injection casting method. However, casting alloys containing volatile radioactive constituents, such as Am, are problematic in a conventional injection casting method. As an alternative fabrication method, low pressure gravity casting has been developed. Casting soundness, microstructural characteristics, alloying composition, density, and fuel losses were evaluated for the following as-cast fuel slugs: U–10 wt% Zr, U–10 wt% Zr–5 wt% RE, and U–10 wt% Zr–5 wt% RE–5 wt% Mn. The U and Zr contents were uniform throughout the matrix, and impurities such as oxyen,more » carbon, and nitrogen satisfied the specification of total impurities less than 2,000 ppm. The appearance of the fuel slugs was generally sound, and the internal integrity was shown to be satisfactory based on gamma-ray radiography. In a volatile surrogate casting test, the U–Zr–RE–Mn fuel slug showed that nearly all of the manganese was retained when casting was done under an inert atmosphere.« less

  3. Conventionally cast and forged copper alloy for high-heat-flux thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Repas, George A.

    1987-01-01

    The combustion chamber liner of the space shuttle main engine is made of NARloy-Z, a copper-silver-zirconium alloy. This alloy was produced by vacuum melting and vacuum centrifugal casting; a production method that is currently now available. Using conventional melting, casting, and forging methods, NASA has produced an alloy of the same composition called NASA-Z. This report compares the composition, microstructure, tensile properties, low-cycle fatigue life, and hot-firing life of these two materials. The results show that the materials have similar characteristics.

  4. Effect of Al on Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Nd Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Chen, Yanhong; Guo, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Al on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy was investigated systematically by a series of microstructural analysis, solidification analysis and tensile tests. The results show that Al has an obvious refining effect on the as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy. With increasing Al content, the grain size of the as-cast Mg-3Nd alloy decreases firstly, then increases slightly after the Al content reaching 3 wt.%, and the minimum grain size of the Mg-3Nd alloy is 48 ± 4.0 μm. The refining mechanism can be attributed to the formation of Al2Nd particles, which play an important role in the heterogeneous nucleation. The strength and elongation of the Mg-3Nd alloy refined by Al also increase with increasing Al content and slightly decrease when the Al content is more than 3 wt.%, and the strengthening mechanism is attributed to the grain refinement as well as dispersed intermetallic particles. Furthermore, the microstructural thermal stability of the Mg-3Nd-3Al alloy is higher than that of the Mg-3Nd-0.5Zr alloy. Overall, the Mg-3Nd alloy with Al addition is a novel alloy with wide and potential application prospects.

  5. Experimental analysis of volumetric wear behavioural and mechanical properties study of as cast and 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy at constant load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlapur, M. D.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, an experimental analysis of volumetric wear behaviour and mechanical properties of aluminium (Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni) alloy in as cast and 1Hr homogenized with T6 heat treatment is carried out at constant load. Pin-on-disc apparatus was used to carry out sliding wear test. Mechanical properties such as tensile, hardness and compression test on as-cast and 1 hr homogenized samples are measured. Universal testing machine was used to conduct the tensile and compressive test at room temperature. Brinell hardness tester was used to conduct the hardness test. The scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the worn-out wear surfaces. Wear results and mechanical properties shows that 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy samples with T6 treated had better volumetric wear resistance, hardness, tensile and compressive strength as compared to as cast samples.

  6. Effect of pulsed current GTA welding parameters on the fusion zone microstructure of AA 6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, T. Senthil; Balasubramanian, V.; Babu, S.; Sanavullah, M. Y.

    2007-08-01

    AA6061 aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of food processing equipment, chemical containers, passenger cars, road tankers, and railway transport systems. The preferred process for welding these aluminium alloys is frequently Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding due to its comparatively easy applicability and lower cost. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner sections of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current processes. The use of pulsed current parameters has been found to improve the mechanical properties of the welds compared to those of continuous current welds of this alloy due to grain refinement occurring in the fusion zone. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model to predict the fusion zone grain diameter incorporating pulsed current welding parameters. Statistical tools such as design of experiments, analysis of variance, and regression analysis are used to develop the mathematical model. The developed model can be effectively used to predict the fusion grain diameter at a 95% confidence level for the given pulsed current parameters. The effect of pulsed current GTA welding parameters on the fusion zone grain diameter of AA 6061 aluminium alloy welds is reported in this paper.

  7. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order tomore » prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.« less

  8. The effect of strain rate on the evolution of microstructure in aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska-Madej, B; Richert, M

    2010-03-01

    Intensive deformations influence strongly microstructure. The very well-known phenomenon is the diminishing dimension of grain size by the severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods. The nanometric features of microstructure were discovered after the SPD deformation of various materials, such as aluminium alloys, iron and others. The observed changes depended on the kind of the deformed material, amount of deformation, strain rate, existence of different phases and stacking fault energy. The influence of the strain and strain rate on the microstructure is commonly investigated nowadays. It was found that the high strain rates activate deformation in shear bands, microbands and adiabatic shear bands. It was observed that bands were places of the nucleation of nanograins in the material deformed by SPD methods. In the work, the refinement of microstructure of the aluminium alloys influenced by the high strain rate was investigated. The samples were compressed by a specially designed hammer to the deformation of phi= 0/0.62 with the strain rate in the range of [Formula in text]. The highest reduction of microbands width with the increase of the strain was found in the AlCu4Zr alloy. The influence of the strain rate on the microstructure refinement indicated that the increase of the strain rate caused the reduction of the microbands width in the all investigated materials (Al99.5, AlCu4Zr, AlMg5, AlZn6Mg2.5CuZr). A characteristic feature of the microstructure of the compressed material was large density of the shear bands and microbands. It was found that the microbands show a large misorientation to the surrounds and, except Al99.5, the large density of dislocation.

  9. The development of ultrahigh strength low alloy cast steels with increased toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Paul C.

    This work describes the initial work on the development of the next generation of ultrahigh strength low alloy (UHSLA) cast steels. These UHSLA cast steels have both ultrahigh strength levels and good impact toughness. The influence of heat treatment, secondary processing using hot isostatic processing (HIP), and chemical composition on the microstructure and properties of UHSLA cast steels have been evaluated. The extent of microsegregation reduction expected during the heat treatment of UHSLA cast steels has also been estimated by diffusion modeling. This new family of UHSLA cast steels is similar in composition and properties to UHSLA wrought steels. However, the heat treatment and secondary processing of the UHSLA cast steels is used to develop microstructures and properties typically developed through thermomechanical processing and heat treatment for wrought UHSLA steels. Two martensitic UHSLA steels, 4340+ (silicon modified 4340) and ES-1 were investigated for this study. For the 4340+ alloy, heat treatment variables evaluated include homogenization temperature and time, tempering temperature, and austempering temperature and time. For the ES-1 alloy, heat treatment variables evaluated include homogenization temperature and time, austenization temperature, cryogenic treatment, and tempering temperature. The effect of high temperature hot isostatic processing (HIP) on the 4340+ and ES- 1 alloys was also investigated. Tensile properties, charpy v-notch impact toughness (CVN), microstructures, and fractographs have all been characterized after heat treatment. The effects of HIP on microporosity reduction in the ES-1 alloy were also investigated. The experiments carried out on the investment cast 4340+ alloy have shown that increasing the homogenization temperature can increase CVN without changing the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) or yield strength (YS) of the cast material. By replacing the homogenization step in the conventional heat treatment process with

  10. Evaluation of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline electrolyte with organic rare-earth complex additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Li, Heshun; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Tong, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Behaviours of the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode of the alkaline aluminium-air battery are studied by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of amino-acid and rare earth as electrolyte additives effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. It shows that the combination of L-cysteine and cerium nitrate has a synergistic effect owing to the formation of a complex film on AA5052 alloy surface. The organic rare-earth complex can decrease the anodic polarisation, suppress the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  11. Corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with Cu.

    PubMed

    Koike, Marie; Cai, Zhuo; Oda, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Toru

    2005-05-01

    It has recently been found that alloying with copper improved the inherently poor grindability and wear resistance of titanium. This study characterized the corrosion behavior of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. Alloys (0.9 or 3.5 mass % Cu) were cast with the use of a magnesia-based investment in a centrifugal casting machine. Three specimen surfaces were tested: ground, sandblasted, and as cast. Commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V served as controls. Open-circuit potential measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air + 10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium deaerated by N(2) + 10% CO(2). Polarization resistance (R(p)), Tafel slopes, and corrosion current density (I(corr)) were determined. A passive region occurred for the alloy specimens with ground and sandblasted surfaces, as for CP Ti. However, no passivation was observed on the as-cast alloys or on CP Ti. There were significant differences among all metals tested for R(p) and I(corr) and significantly higher R(p) and lower I(corr) values for CP Ti compared to Ti-6Al-4V or the alloys with Cu. Alloying up to 3.5 mass % Cu to Ti-6Al-4V did not change the corrosion behavior. Specimens with ground or sandblasted surfaces were superior to specimens with as-cast surfaces. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of rotation speed and welding speed on Friction Stir Welding of AA1100 Aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, P.; Bojanampati, S.; Karthikeyan, R.; Ganithi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum AA1100 is the most widely used grade of Aluminium due to its excellent corrosion resistance, high ductility and reflective finish, the selected material was welded with Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process on a CNC machine, using a combination of different tool rotation speed (1500 rpm, 2500 rpm, 3500 rpm) and welding speed (10 mm/min, 30 mm/min, 50 mm/min) as welding parameters. The effect of FSW using this welding parameter was studied by measuring the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints. A high-speed steel tool was prepared for welding the Aluminium AA1100 alloy having an 8mm shoulder diameter and pin dimension of 4mm diameter and 2.8 mm length. The welded joints were tested using the universal testing machine. It was found that Ultimate Tensile Strength of FSW specimen was highest with a value of 98.08 MPa when the weld was performed at rotation speed of 1500 RPM and welding speed of 50 mm/min.

  13. Finite element simulations of the Portevin Le Chatelier effect in aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopperstad, O. S.; Børvik, T.; Berstad, T.; Benallal, A.

    2006-08-01

    Finite element simulations of the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in aluminium alloy 5083-H116 are presented and evaluated against existing experimental results. The constitutive model of McCormick (1988) for materials exhibiting negative steady-state strain-rate sensitivity is incorporated into an elastic-viscoplastic model for large plastic deformations and implemented in LS-DYNA for use with the explicit or implicit solver. Axisymmetric tensile specimens loaded at different strain rates are studied numerically, and it is shown that the model predicts the experimental behaviour with reasonable accuracy; including serrated yielding and propagating bands of localized plastic deformation along the gauge length of the specimen at intermediate strain rates.

  14. The improvement of the surface hardness of stainless steel and aluminium alloy by ultrasonic cavitation peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, Styková; Miloš, Müller; Jan, Hujer

    This article presents first results of the experimental investigation of the influence of the cavitation shot less peening process on the properties of stainless steel and aluminium alloy specimens. The cavitation field was generated by an ultrasonic horn submerged in water and operated by an ultrasonic generator. The temperature of the water was controlled by thermometer and adjusted by separate water cooling system. The mass loss, the mass loss rate and the modification of the surface hardness are evaluated for different cavitation exposure intervals. The mass loss was measured by micro weighing scale and the surface hardness by the micro-hardness meter. The presented results indicates the significant improvement in the surface hardness for both tested materials.

  15. Microstructure of friction stir welded joints of 2017A aluminium alloy sheets.

    PubMed

    Mroczka, K; Dutkiewicz, J; Pietras, A

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines a friction stir welded 2017A aluminium alloy. Transmission electron microscope investigations of the weld nugget revealed the average grain size of 5 microm, moderate density of dislocations as well as the presence of nanometric precipitates located mostly in grains interiors. Scanning electron microscope observations of fractures showed the presence of ductile fracture in the region of the weld nugget with brittle precipitates in the lower part. The microhardness analysis performed on the cross-section of the joints showed fairly small changes; however, after the artificial ageing process an increase in hardness was observed. The change of the joint hardness subject to the ageing process indicates partial supersaturation in the material during friction stir welding and higher precipitation hardening of the joint.

  16. Experimental characterisation and modelling of deformation- induced microstructure in an A6061 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyca, J. F.; Falahati, A.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-03-01

    For industry, the mechanical properties of a material in form of flow curves are essential input data for finite element simulations. Current practice is to obtain flow curves experimentally and to apply fitting procedures to obtain constitutive equations that describe the material response to external loading as a function of temperature and strain rate. Unfortunately, the experimental procedure for characterizing flow curves is complex and expensive, which is why the prediction of flow-curves by computer modelling becomes increasingly important. In the present work, we introduce a state parameter based model that is capable of predicting the flow curves of an A6061 aluminium alloy in different heat-treatment conditions. The model is implemented in the thermo-kinetic software package MatCalc and takes into account precipitation kinetics, subgrain formation, dynamic recovery by spontaneous annihilation and dislocation climb. To validate the simulation results, a series of compression tests is performed on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble 1500.

  17. Optimization of process parameters in CNC turning of aluminium alloy using hybrid RSM cum TLBO approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudrapati, R.; Sahoo, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of the present work is to analyse the significance of turning parameters on surface roughness in computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning operation while machining of aluminium alloy material. Spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been considered as machining parameters. Experimental runs have been conducted as per Box-Behnken design method. After experimentation, surface roughness is measured by using stylus profile meter. Factor effects have been studied through analysis of variance. Mathematical modelling has been done by response surface methodology, to made relationships between the input parameters and output response. Finally, process optimization has been made by teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. Predicted turning condition has been validated through confirmatory experiment.

  18. Heat Transfer Measurements during DC Casting of Aluminium Part I: Measurement Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, J. A.; Bergström, T.

    A method for determination of surface heat transfer to the cooling water and mould based on in-situ temperature measurements in the DC cast ingot has been developed. Three or more steel mantled coaxial thermocouples (0.5 mm diam.) are mounted on a wire frame called a "harp". Allowing the "harp" to freeze into the solid ingots during the casting time-temperature plots T1 (t), T2(t), T3 (t) are obtained for three moving points positioned typically 3, 7 and 11 mm from the ingot surface. From these measurements surface temperature, heat flux and heat transfer coefficients are computed as functions of vertical distance. The computer program is based on steady-state two-dimensional heat balances with convective terms for two fixed volume elements: one around thermocouple T1 and one surface element. A special numerical smoothing procedure is incorporated. The heat of solidification is taken into account.

  19. [Cervical adaptation of complete cast crowns of various metal alloys, with and without die spacers].

    PubMed

    Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1989-01-01

    A metallic replica from a dental preparation for crown was used to make 8 class-IV stone dies. The wax patterns for the casting of the crowns were obtained in two conditions: a) from the stone die with no spacer; and b) from the stone die with an acrylic spacer. Thus, 64 metallic crowns were casted, using 4 different alloys: DURACAST (Cu-Al), NICROCAST (Ni-Cr) and DURABOND (Ni-Cr), and gold. The casted crowns were fitted in the metallic replica and measured as to the cervical discrepance of fitting. The results showed that the use of die spacers decreases the clinical discrepancies of fitting of the casted crowns (in a statistically significant level), no matter the metallic alloy employed.

  20. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings-A Review.

    PubMed

    Anilchandra, A R; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena; Timelli, Giulio

    2017-08-30

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion.

  1. Scale Rules for Macrosegregation during Direct-Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskin, Dmitry G.; Du, Qiang; Katgerman, Laurens

    2008-05-01

    An analysis of published experimental and numerical results shows that there is a scaling relationship between the magnitude and direction of centerline segregation in direct-chill (DC) cast billets from aluminum alloys and the process parameters, i.e., billet diameter and casting speed. It seems that there is always a range of these process parameters where the centerline segregation is positive, and there is a threshold when the centerline segregation vanishes. Numerical simulations of macrosegregation during DC casting of a binary Al-Cu alloy were performed at different ratios of casting speed and billet diameter. The macrosegregation model takes into account only two mechanisms of macrosegregation, i.e., thermosolutal convection and shrinkage-induced flow. The results of these computer simulations fit well to the dependence obtained using numerous reference data. The results are discussed in terms of the contribution of different mechanisms of macrosegregation and the shape of the billet sump.

  2. FE Modelling of Tensile and Impact Behaviours of Squeeze Cast Magnesium Alloy AM60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCecco, Sante; Altenhof, William; Hu, Henry

    In response to the need for reduced global emissions, the transportation industry has been steadily increasing the magnesium content in vehicles. This trend has resulted in experimental documentation of numerous alloy and casting combinations, while comparatively little work has been done regarding the development of numerical material models for vehicle crashworthiness simulations. In this study, material mechanical behaviour was implemented into an existing material model within the nonlinear FEA code LS-DYNA to emulate the mechanical behaviour of squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60 with a relatively thick section of 10 mm thickness. Model validation was achieved by comparing the numerical and experimental results of a tensile test and Charpy impact event. Validation found an average absolute error of 5.44% between numerical and experimental tensile test data, whereas a relatively large discrepancy was found during Charpy evaluation. This discrepancy has been attributed to the presence of microstructure inhomogeneity in the squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60.

  3. Thermal analysis of laser additive manufacturing of aluminium alloys: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Frederic E.; Froend, Martin; Herrnring, Jan; Enz, Josephin; Kashaev, Nikolai; Klusemann, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) has become increasingly popular in industry in recent decades because it enables exceptional degrees of freedom regarding the structural design of lightweight components compared to subtractive manufacturing techniques. Laser metal deposition (LMD) of wire-fed material shows in particular the advantages such as high process velocity and efficient use of material compared to other LAM processes. During wire-based LMD, the material is deposited onto a substrate and supplemented by successive layers allowing a layer-wise production of complex three-dimensional structures. Despite the increased productivity of LMD, regarding the ability to process aluminium alloys, there is still a lack in quality and reproducibility due to the inhomogeneous temperature distribution during the process, leading to undesired residual stresses, distortions and inconsistent layer geometries and poor microstructures. In this study, the aluminium alloy AA5087 as wire and AA5754 as substrate material were utilized for LMD. In order to obtain information about the temperature field during LMD, thermocouple and thermography measurements were performed during the process. The temperature measurements were used to validate a finite element model regarding the heat distribution, which will be further used to investigate the temperature field evolution over time. To consider the continuous addition of material within the FE-model, an inactive/active element approach was chosen, where initially deactivated elements are activated corresponding to the deposition of material. The first results of the simulation and the experiments show good agreement. Therefore, the model can be used in the future for LMD process optimization, e.g., in terms of minimizing local variations of the thermal load for each layer.

  4. Process for Producing a Cast Article from a Hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A process for making a cast article from an aluminum alloy includes first casting an article from an alloy having the following composition, in weight percent: Silicon (Si) 14.0-25.0, Copper (CU) 5.5-8.0, Iron (Fe) 0-0.8, Magnesium (Mg) 0.5-1.5, Nickel (Ni) 0.05-1.2, Manganese (Mn) 0-1.0, Titanium (Ti) 0.05-1.2, Zirconium (Zr) 0.12-1.2, Vanadium (V) 0.05-1.2, Zinc (Zn) 0-0.9, Phosphorus (P) 0.001-0.1, Aluminum, balance. In this alloy the ration of Si:Mg is 15-35, and the ratio of Cu:Mg is 4-15. After an article is cast from the alloy, the cast article is aged at a temperature within the range of 400 F to 500 F for a time period within the range of four to 16 hours. It has been found especially advantageous if the cast article is first exposed to a solutionizing step prior to the aging step. This solutionizing step is carried out by exposing the cast article to a temperature within the range of 875 F to 1025 F for a time period of fifteen minutes to four hours. It has also been found to be especially advantageous if the solutionizing step is followed directly with a quenching step, wherein the cast article is quenched in a quenching medium such as water at a temperature within the range of 120 F to 300 F. The resulting cast article is highly suitable in a number of high temperature applications, such as heavy-duty pistons for internal combustion engines.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy prepared by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, L. Y.; Du, B. N.; Guo, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    NiAl based materials has been considered as most potential candidate of turbine blade, due to its excellent high-temperature properties. However the bad room-temperature properties handicap its application. In the present paper, the zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy is fabricated by conventional casting and injection casting technology to improve its room-temperature properties. The microstructure and compressive properties at different temperatures of the conventionally-cast and injection-cast were investigated. The results exhibit that the conventionally-cast alloy comprises coarse primary NiAl phase and eutectic cell, which is dotted with irregular Ni2AlZr Heusler phase. Compared with the conventionally-cast alloy, the injection-cast alloy possesses refined the primary NiAl, eutectic cell and eutectic lamella. In addition, the Ni2AlZr Heusler phase become smaller and distribute uniformly. Moreover, the injection casting decrease the area fraction of primary NiAl phase at the cell interior or cell boundaries. The compressive ductility and yield strength of the injection-cast alloy at room temperature increase by about 100% and 35% over those of conventionally-cast alloy, which should be ascribed to the microstructure optimization.

  6. Influence of Alloy Composition on Cast Cracking and Heat Resistance of Mg-Al-Ca Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hajime; Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shuji; Kondo, Masaaki

    Magnesium alloys are important materials since they can be used to significantly reduce the weight of automobiles, but their application has been limited thus far. One possible way to extend the usage of magnesium alloys is applying them to peripheral parts of the engine that are large, have complicated shapes, and are exposed to high temperatures under the loaded condition. However, heat-resistant magnesium alloys always have poor castability, since such alloys have a lot of intermetallic compounds with poor ductility.

  7. The release of elements from dental casting alloy into cell-culture medium and artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Can, Gülşen; Akpınar, Gül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2007-04-01

    The biocompatibility of dental casting alloys is a critical issue because these alloys are in long-term intimate contact with oral tissues. Since the biocompatibility of alloys is not completely known; the release of elements from the alloys has been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the elemental release from dental casting alloy during exposure to artificial saliva and cell-culture medium. Twenty specimens made from Ni-Cr alloy were provided in the form of 5 mm diameter discs, 2 mm in thickness with a 7 mm stem attached to one face to facilitate handling. Ten of twenty samples were polished separately using a conventional technique. The remaining ten samples were left sandblasted with 50 mum Al(2)0(3). Ten samples (5 polished, 5 sandblasted) were separately placed into cell-culture wells with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The other ten samples were placed separately into cell-culture wells with artificial saliva. The samples were subjected in contact with these medium for 30 days. These medium were collected every 7 days. The cell-culture medium and artificial saliva without alloy samples were subjected to elemental analyses as a control. At the end of the exposure time, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the release of elements from the alloys into all collected medium. Statistical analyses were assessed with two-way ANOVA. In general, the elemental release occurred with in all medium. The elemental releases of sandblasted alloys were higher than polished alloys. Artificial saliva was found to cause more release from the samples. In both media, Ni released from polished and sandblasted alloys were higher than Cr and Mo. The results suggest that the release of elements from the alloys might have correlated with the environments and the surface of dental alloy.

  8. The Release of Elements from Dental Casting Alloy into Cell-Culture Medium and Artificial Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Can, Gülşen; Akpınar, Gül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of dental casting alloys is a critical issue because these alloys are in long-term intimate contact with oral tissues. Since the biocompatibility of alloys is not completely known; the release of elements from the alloys has been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the elemental release from dental casting alloy during exposure to artificial saliva and cell-culture medium. Materials and Methods Twenty specimens made from Ni-Cr alloy were provided in the form of 5 mm diameter discs, 2 mm in thickness with a 7 mm stem attached to one face to facilitate handling. Ten of twenty samples were polished separately using a conventional technique. The remaining ten samples were left sandblasted with 50 μm Al203. Ten samples (5 polished, 5 sandblasted) were separately placed into cell-culture wells with Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium. The other ten samples were placed separately into cell-culture wells with artificial saliva. The samples were subjected in contact with these medium for 30 days. These medium were collected every 7 days. The cell-culture medium and artificial saliva without alloy samples were subjected to elemental analyses as a control. At the end of the exposure time, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the release of elements from the alloys into all collected medium. Statistical analyses were assessed with two-way ANOVA. Results In general, the elemental release occurred with in all medium. The elemental releases of sandblasted alloys were higher than polished alloys. Artificial saliva was found to cause more release from the samples. In both media, Ni released from polished and sandblasted alloys were higher than Cr and Mo. Conlusions The results suggest that the release of elements from the alloys might have correlated with the environments and the surface of dental alloy. PMID:19212482

  9. The Relationship between Dendrite Arm Spacing and Cooling Rate of Al-Si Casting Alloys in High Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Ik; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Se-Weon; Kang, Chang-Seog

    The effects of cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al-8.5%Si-3%Cu and Al-11%Si-3%Cu alloys were studied during high pressure die casting (HPDC). The HPDC experiment was conducted by using the dies with 3 steps for 3 different cooling rates. Because of the high in both melt temperature and pressure, it was difficult to obtain the temperature profile directly from HPDC specimen. Therefore, in this study, cylindrical bar castings with different diameter were poured to acquire the cooling curves at the solidification range of 15°C/s up to 100°C/s and then the microstructures were compared to estimate the cooling rate in HPDC. The solidification characteristics including liquidus/solidus temperature and dendrite arm spacing of each alloy and each cooling rate was analyzed and the results showed strong proportional relationship between dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate in HPDC. The results were also compared with the actual die casting specimens and MAGMA simulation.

  10. A New Criterion for Prediction of Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasresfahani, Mohamad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad

    2014-08-01

    A new criterion for prediction of hot tearing susceptibility of cast alloys is suggested which takes into account the effects of both important mechanical and metallurgical factors and is believed to be less sensitive to the presence of volume defects such as bifilms and inclusions. The criterion was validated by studying the hot tearing tendency of Al-Cu alloy. In conformity with the experimental results, the new criterion predicted reduction of hot tearing tendency with increasing the copper content.

  11. Effects of vacuum and ageing on Zr4/Cr3 based conversion coatings on aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathi, Kalaivanan; Bárczy, Pál; Vad, Kálmán; Csik, Attila; Somosvári, Béla Márton

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of ageing and high vacuum on existing environmentally friendly Zr4/Cr3-based conversion coatings. The freshly formed coating undergoes several changes during ageing and exposure to high vacuum. Based on the present data, we propose that the coating formed over AA6082 and AA7075 alloys is sol-gel in nature, confirmed by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS) using the depth profiling technique. Our findings reveal that there are elemental level changes that result in shrinkage of the coating. Most Zr ions in the coating are in the solute form, with lesser number of Cr and Al ions that disappear under high vacuum over a certain period of time. The remaining Cr, Zr and O atoms exist in a gelatinous state. During ageing, there is a continuous transition of ions from solute to gelatinous state. In addition, the deposition of coating ions is directly influenced by the substrates and their constituents. The extent of dissolution of aluminium in the conversion bath determines both Zr and Cr ion deposition. For a highly alloyed metal like AA7075, the dissolution rate is disturbed by copper and zinc.

  12. Effect of scandium on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of cast Al-6Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M.S.; Datta, S.; Roychowdhury, A.

    2008-11-15

    Microstructural modification and grain refinement due to addition of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy is used to understand the microstructure and precipitation behaviour in Al-6Mg alloy doped with scandium. It is seen from the microstructure that the dendrites of the cast Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium. Increasing amount of scandium leads to a greater dendrite refinement. The age hardening effect in scandium added Al-6Mg alloys has been studied by subjecting the alloys containing varying amount of scandium ranging from 0.2 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% to isochronal and isothermal ageingmore » at various temperatures for different times. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides.« less

  13. Thermodynamic Behavior Research Analysis of Twin-roll Casting Lead Alloy Strip Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chengcan; Rui, Yannian

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of twin-roll casting (TRC) lead alloy strip process directly affects the forming of the lead strip, the quality of the lead strip and the production efficiency. However, there is little research on the thermodynamics of lead alloy strip at home and abroad. The TRC lead process is studied in four parameters: the pouring temperature of molten lead, the depth of molten pool, the roll casting speed, and the rolling thickness of continuous casting. Firstly, the thermodynamic model for TRC lead process is built. Secondly, the thermodynamic behavior of the TRC process is simulated with the use of Fluent. Through the thermodynamics research and analysis, the process parameters of cast rolling lead strip can be obtained: the pouring temperature of molten lead: 360-400 °C, the depth of molten pool: 250-300 mm, the roll casting speed: 2.5-3 m/min, the rolling thickness: 8-9 mm. Based on the above process parameters, the optimal parameters(the pouring temperature of molten lead: 375-390 °C, the depth of molten pool: 285-300 mm, the roll casting speed: 2.75-3 m/min, the rolling thickness: 8.5-9 mm) can be gained with the use of the orthogonal experiment. Finally, the engineering test of TRC lead alloy strip is carried out and the test proves the thermodynamic model is scientific, necessary and correct. In this paper, a detailed study on the thermodynamic behavior of lead alloy strip is carried out and the process parameters of lead strip forming are obtained through the research, which provide an effective theoretical guide for TRC lead alloy strip process.

  14. A microstructure-based yield stress and work-hardening model for textured 6xxx aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadyko, M.; Myhr, O. R.; Dumoulin, S.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2016-04-01

    The plastic properties of an aluminium alloy are defined by its microstructure. The most important factors are the presence of alloying elements in the form of solid solution and precipitates of various sizes, and the crystallographic texture. A nanoscale model that predicts the work-hardening curves of 6xxx aluminium alloys was proposed by Myhr et al. The model predicts the solid solution concentration and the particle size distributions of different types of metastable precipitates from the chemical composition and thermal history of the alloy. The yield stress and the work hardening of the alloy are then determined from dislocation mechanics. The model was largely used for non-textured materials in previous studies. In this work, a crystal plasticity-based approach is proposed for the work hardening part of the nanoscale model, which allows including the influence of the crystallographic texture. The model is evaluated by comparison with experimental data from uniaxial tensile tests on two textured 6xxx alloys in five temper conditions.

  15. Microstructure, Texture, and Mechanical Behavior of As-cast Ni-Fe-W Matrix Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, A. Sambasiva; Manda, Premkumar; Mohan, M. K.; Nandy, T. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    This article describes the tensile properties, flow, and work-hardening behavior of an experimental alloy 53Ni-29Fe-18W in as-cast condition. The microstructure of the alloy 53Ni-29Fe-18W displays single phase (fcc) in as-cast condition along with typical dendritic features. The bulk texture of the as-cast alloy reveals the triclinic sample symmetry and characteristic nature of coarse-grained materials. The alloy exhibits maximum strength ( σ YS and σ UTS) values along the transverse direction. The elongation values are maximum and minimum along the transverse and longitudinal directions, respectively. Tensile fracture surfaces of both the longitudinal and transverse samples display complete ductile fracture features. Two types of slip lines, namely, planar and intersecting, are observed in deformed specimens and the density of slip lines increases with increasing the amount of deformation. The alloy displays moderate in-plane anisotropy ( A IP) and reasonably low anisotropic index ( δ) values, respectively. The instantaneous or work-hardening rate curves portray three typical stages (I through III) along both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The alloy exhibits dislocation-controlled strain hardening during tensile testing, and slip is the predominant deformation mechanism.

  16. Adhesion enhancement of titanium nitride coating on aluminum casting alloy by intrinsic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Preston, Andrew; Tran, Anh T. T.; Dickinson, Michelle; Metson, James B.

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum casting alloys have excellent castability, high strength and good corrosion resistance. However, the presence of silicon in these alloys prevents surface finishing with conventional methods such as anodizing. Hard coating with titanium nitride can provide wear and corrosion resistances, as well as the aesthetic finish. A critical factor for a durable hard coating is its bonding with the underlying substrate. In this study, a titanium nitride layer was coated on LM25 casting alloy and a reference high purity aluminum substrate using Ion Assisted Deposition. Characterization of the coating and the critical interface was carried out by a range of complementing techniques, including SIMS, XPS, TEM, SEM/EDS and nano-indentation. It was observed that the coating on the aluminum alloy is stronger compared to that on the pure aluminum counterpart. Silicon particles in the alloy offers the reinforcement though mechanical interlocking at microscopic level, even with nano-scale height difference. This reinforcement overcomes the adverse effect caused by surface segregation of magnesium in aluminum casting alloys.

  17. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Patricia; Elduque, Daniel; Sarasa, Judith; Pina, Carmelo; Javierre, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10−1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found. PMID:28773536

  18. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Patricia; Elduque, Daniel; Sarasa, Judith; Pina, Carmelo; Javierre, Carlos

    2016-05-25

    The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10 -1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

  19. Stress-corrosion characteristics of aluminum casting alloy M-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovoy, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of the stress-corrosion characteristics of aluminum alloy M-45 shows that the most favorable artificial aging cycle for this alloy, with regard to optimum strength and stress-corrosion resistance, appears to be 400 degrees F for 12 hours.

  20. A meshless approach to thermomechanics of DC casting of aluminium billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrič, B.; Šarler, B.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to model thermomechanics in DC casting is important due to the technological challenges caused by physical phenomena such as different ingot distortions, cracking, hot tearing and residual stress. Many thermomechanical models already exist and usually take into account three contributions: elastic, thermal expansion, and viscoplastic to model the mushy zone. These models are, in a vast majority, solved by the finite element method. In the present work the elastic model that accounts for linear thermal expansion is considered. The method used for solving the model is of a novel meshless type and extends our previous meshless attempts in solving fluid mechanics problems. The solution to the problem is constructed using collocation on the overlapping subdomains, which are composed of computational nodes. Multiquadric radial basis functions, augmented by monomials, are used for the displacement interpolation. The interpolation is constructed in such a manner that it readily satisfies the boundary conditions. The discretization results in construction of a global square sparse matrix representing the system of linear equations for the displacement field. The developed method has many advantages. The system of equations can be easily constructed and efficiently solved. There is no need to perform expensive meshing of the domain and the formulation of the method is similar in two and three dimensions. Since no meshing is required, the nodes can easily be added or removed, which allows for efficient adaption of the node arrangement density. The order of convergence, estimated through an analytically solvable test, can be adjusted through the number of interpolation nodes in the subdomain, with 6 nodes being enough for the second order convergence. Simulations of axisymmetric mechanical problems, associated with low frequency electromagnetic DC casting are presented.

  1. Zirconium behaviour during electrorefining of actinide-zirconium alloy in molten LiCl-KCl on aluminium cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Krachler, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.; Fanghänel, Th.

    2016-04-01

    A pyrochemical electrorefining process for the recovery of actinides from metallic nuclear fuel based on actinide-zirconium alloys (An-Zr) in a molten salt is being investigated. In this process actinides are group-selectively recovered on solid aluminium cathodes as An-Al alloys using a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at a temperature of 450 °C. In the present study the electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during electrorefining was investigated. The maximum amount of actinides that can be oxidised without anodic co-dissolution of zirconium was determined at a selected constant cathodic current density. The experiment consisted of three steps to assess the different stages of the electrorefining process, each of which employing a fresh aluminium cathode. The results indicate that almost a complete dissolution of the actinides without co-dissolution of zirconium is possible under the applied experimental conditions.

  2. Effect of flask vibration time on casting integrity, Surface Penetration and Coating Inclusion in lost foam casting of Al-Si Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Karimian, Majid; Idris, M. H.; Ourdjini, A.

    2011-01-17

    The paper presents the result of an experimental investigation conducted on medium aluminum silicon alloy casting- LM6, using no-vacuum assisted lost foam casting process. The study is directed for establishing the relationship between the flask vibrations times developed for molded sample on the casting integrity, surface penetration and coating inclusion defects of the casting. Four different flask vibration times namely 180, 120, 90 and 60 sec. were investigated. The casting integrity was investigated in terms of fulfilling in all portions and edges. The surface penetration was measured using optical microscope whilst image analyzer was used to quantify the percentage ofmore » coating inclusion in the casting. The results show that vibration time has significant influence on the fulfilling as well as the internal integrity of the lost foam casting. It was found that the lower vibration time produced comparatively sound casing.« less

  3. Two-Scale Modelling of Effects of Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties on Dynamic Performance of an Aluminium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    effects of crystallographic texture on the high-rate shear response of a Ti - 6Al - 4V alloy. Schoenfeld and Kad (2002) found that lattice orientations affect...shear response in Ti - 6Al - 4V plates’, Int. J. Plasticity, Vol. 18, pp.461–486. Starink, M.J., Wang, P., Sinclair, I. and Gregson, P.J. (1999... porosity and ceramic inclusions. Rezvanian et al. (2006) studied evolution of dislocation cells in aluminium undergoing severe plastic deformation using

  4. Development of a New Ferrous Aluminosilicate Refractory Material for Investment Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chen; Jones, Sam; Blackburn, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Investment casting is a time-consuming, labour intensive process, which produces complex, high value-added components for a variety of specialised industries. Current environmental and economic pressures have resulted in a need for the industry to improve current casting quality, reduce manufacturing costs and explore new markets for the process. Alumino-silicate based refractories are commonly used as both filler and stucco materials for ceramic shell production. A new ceramic material, norite, is now being produced based on ferrous aluminosilicate chemistry, having many potential advantages when used for the production of shell molds for casting aluminum alloy. This paper details the results of a direct comparison made between the properties of a ceramic shell system produced with norite refractories and a typical standard refractory shell system commonly used in casting industry. A range of mechanical and physical properties of the systems was measured, and a full-scale industrial casting trial was also carried out. The unique properties of the norite shell system make it a promising alternative for casting aluminum based alloys in the investment foundry.

  5. Weldability of AA 5052 H32 aluminium alloy by TIG welding and FSW process - A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanavas, S.; Raja Dhas, J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    Aluminium 5xxx series alloys are the strongest non-heat treatable aluminium alloy. Its application found in automotive components and body structures due to its good formability, good strength, high corrosion resistance, and weight savings. In the present work, the influence of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding parameters on the quality of weld on AA 5052 H32 aluminium alloy plates were analyzed and the mechanical characterization of the joint so produced was compared with Friction stir (FS) welded joint. The selected input variable parameters are welding current and inert gas flow rate. Other parameters such as welding speed and arc voltage were kept constant throughout the study, based on the response from several trial runs conducted. The quality of the weld is measured in terms of ultimate tensile strength. A double side V-butt joints were fabricated by double pass on one side to ensure maximum strength of TIG welded joints. Macro and microstructural examination were conducted for both welding process.

  6. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres; ...

    2017-03-06

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to themore » dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.« less

  7. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to themore » dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.« less

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Cold Workability of Cast Copper-Magnesium-Tin Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo Bénard, Agustín Eduardo; Martínez Hernández, David; González Reyes, José Gonzalo; Ortiz Prado, Armando; Schouwenaars Franssens, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The use of Mg as an alloying element in copper alloys has largely been overlooked in scientific literature and technological applications. Its supposed tribological compatibility with iron makes it an interesting option to replace Pb in tribological alloys. This work describes the casting process of high-quality thin slabs of Cu-Mg-Sn alloys with different compositions by means of conventional methods. The resulting phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Typical dendritic α-Cu, eutectic Cu2Mg(Sn) and eutectoid non-equilibrium microstructures were found. Tensile tests and Vickers microhardness show the excellent hardening capability of Mg as compared to other copper alloys in the as-cast condition. For some of the slabs and compositions, cold rolling reductions of over 95 pct have been easily achieved. Other compositions and slabs have failed during the deformation process. Failure analysis after cold rolling reveals that one cause for brittleness is the presence of casting defects such as microshrinkage and inclusions, which can be eliminated. However, for high Mg contents, a high volume fraction of the intermetallic phase provides a contiguous path for crack propagation through the connected interdendritic regions.

  10. Fatigue properties of die cast zinc alloys for automotive lock applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2004-06-01

    During the 1970’s many automotive lock systems were converted from zinc die casting alloys to engineering plastics for reasons of weight and cost. Recent increases in requirements for precision and security have caused automotive and other lock designers to reconsider zinc alloy die-castings for these applications. To enable this, there is a need for mechanical property data comparable to that of the plastics materials used in these applications. In this work, rotary bending fatigue tests were performed on Alloys 3, 5, ZA-8 and AcuZinc 5 using an R.R. Moore fatigue machine. Testing was performed at 30 Hz and was stoppedmore » at 1x107 cycles. The fatigue limit results were compared to data reported in the literature for higher number of cycles and faster rotations.« less

  11. Crystallography and Morphology of MC Carbides in Niobium-Titanium Modified As-Cast HP Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Karl G.; Kral, Milo V.; Bishop, Catherine M.

    2014-07-01

    The microstructures of two as-cast heats of HP alloy stainless steels modified with niobium and titanium were examined with particular attention paid to the interdendritic niobium-titanium-rich carbides formed during solidification of these alloys. Generally, these precipitates obtain a blocky morphology in the as-cast condition. However, the (NbTi)C precipitates may obtain a nodular morphology. To provide further insight to the origin of the two different morphologies obtained by the (NbTi)C precipitates in the HP-NbTi alloy, the microstructure and crystallography of each have been studied in detail using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, various electron diffraction methods (EBSD, SAD, and CBED), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  12. Development of exothermically cast single-crystal Mar-M 247 and derivative alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Phipps, C. M.; Harris, K.; Schwer, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A low-cost, exothermic directional-solidification (DS) process was developed to produce single-crystal (SC) Mar-M 247 high-pressure turbine blades. Stress-rupture data indicated that SC Mar-M 247 provides only marginal improvements in longitudinal strength relative to the columnar grained DS material. Removal of grain boundary strengthening elements (B, C, Zr, Hf) from the Mar-M 247 composition (which are also melting point depressants) permitted the alloy to be solutioned at significantly higher temperatures. An order of magnitude improvement in rupture life relative to SC Mar-M 247 was observed for several derivative alloys at 103.5 MPa (15 KSI) and 1093 C. Rupture lives of the modified SC alloys were significantly affected by both alloy purity and heat treatment. Critical aspects of vacuum induction refining, exothermic casting technology, alloy development and heat treatment, which contributed to this new class of turbine blades, are reviewed

  13. Experimental Damage Criterion for Static and Fatigue Life Assessment of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Die Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Eleonora; Bonollo, Franco; Ferro, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Defects, particularly porosity and oxides, in high-pressure die casting can seriously compromise the in-service behavior and durability of products subjected to static or cyclic loadings. In this study, the influence of dimension, orientation, and position of casting defects on the mechanical properties of an AlSi12(b) (EN-AC 44100) aluminum alloy commercial component has been studied. A finite element model has been carried out in order to calculate the stress distribution induced by service loads and identify the crack initiation zones. Castings were qualitatively classified on the basis of porosities distribution detected by X-ray technique and oxides observed on fracture surfaces of specimens coming from fatigue and tensile tests. A damage criterion has been formulated which considers the influence of defects position and orientation on the mechanical strength of the components. Using the proposed damage criterion, it was possible to describe the mechanical behavior of the castings with good accuracy.

  14. Stress ratio effects in fatigue of lost foam cast aluminum alloy 356

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David E.

    Lost foam casting is a highly versatile metalcasting process that offers significant benefits in terms of design flexibility, energy consumption, and environmental impact. In the present work, the fatigue behavior of lost foam cast aluminum alloy 356, in conditions T6 and T7, was investigated, under both zero and non-zero mean stress conditions, with either as-cast or machined surface finish. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify and measure the defect from which fatigue fracture initiated. Based on the results, the applicability of nine different fatigue mean stress equations was compared. The widely-used Goodman equation was found to be highly non-conservative, while the Stulen, Topper-Sandor, and Walker equations performed reasonably well. Each of these three equations includes a material-dependent term for stress ratio sensitivity. The stress ratio sensitivity was found to be affected by heat treatment, with the T6 condition having greater sensitivity than the T7 condition. The surface condition (as-cast vs. machined) did not significantly affect the stress ratio sensitivity. The fatigue life of as-cast specimens was found to be approximately 60--70% lower than that of machined specimens at the same equivalent stress. This reduction could not be attributed to pore size alone, and is suspected to be due to the greater concentration of pyrolysis products at the as-cast surface. Directions for future work, including improved testing methods and some possible methods of improving the properties of lost foam castings, are discussed.

  15. Corrosion behavior of as-received and previously cast type III gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Ayad, Ghada M

    2010-04-01

    The rationale for using gold alloys is based largely upon their alleged ability to resist corrosion, but little information is available to determine the corrosion behavior of recast alloys. This study characterized the elemental composition of as-received and recast type III gold alloy and examined the in vitro corrosion behavior in two media using a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Seventy-eight disk-shaped specimens were prepared from a type III gold alloy under three casting protocols according to the proportion of as-received and recast gold alloy (n = 26). (1) Group as received (100% as-received metal), (2) group 50% to 50% (50% wt. new metal, 50% wt. once recast metal), and (3) group recast (100% once recast metal). The surface structures of 20 specimens from each group were examined under scanning electron microscopy, and their elemental compositions were determined using X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Further, the potentiodynamic cyclic polarization between -1000 and +1000 mV (SCE) were performed for six specimens from each casting protocol in 0.09% NaCl solution (n = 3) and Fusayama artificial saliva (n = 3) at 37 degrees C. Zero-current potential and corrosion current density were determined. The data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple-range test t (alpha= 0.05). Elemental composition was significantly different among the casting groups (p < 0.001). The mean weight percentage values were 72.4 to 75.7% Au, 4.5 to 7.0% Pd, 10.7 to 11.1% Ag, 7.8 to 8.4% Cu, and 1.0 to 1.4% Zn. The mean values for Zero-current potential and corrosion current density for all casting protocols were not significant (p > 0.05); however, the difference between the electrolytes was significant (p < 0.001). Fusayama artificial saliva seemed to offer the most corrosive environment. Type III gold alloy in any casting protocol retained passivity under electrochemical conditions similar to the oral environment. Moreover, high

  16. Elastic moduli of cast Ti-Au, Ti-Ag, and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okuno, Osamu

    2006-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of alloying titanium with gold, silver, or copper on the elastic properties of the alloys. A series of binary titanium alloys was made with four concentrations of gold, silver, or copper (5, 10, 20, and 30 mass%) in an argon-arc melting furnace. The Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of the alloy castings were determined with an ultrasonic-pulse method. The density of each alloy was previously measured by the Archimedes' principle. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Scheffé's test. The densities of Ti-Au, Ti-Ag, and Ti-Cu alloys monotonically increased as the concentration of alloying elements increased. As the concentration of gold or silver increased to 20%, the Young's modulus significantly decreased, followed by a subsequent increase in value. As the concentration of copper increased, the Young's modulus monotonically increased. The Young's moduli of all the Ti-Cu alloys were significantly higher than that of the titanium. The density of all the experimental alloys was virtually independent of the alloy phases, while the Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of the alloys were dependent. The addition of gold or silver slightly reduced the Young's modulus of the titanium when the alloy phase was single alpha. The increase in the Young's modulus of the Ti-Cu alloys is probably due to the precipitation of intermetallic compound Ti2Cu. Copper turned out to be a moderate stiffener that gains a Young's modulus of titanium up to 20% at the copper concentration of 30 mass%.

  17. Prediction of Contact Fatigue Life of Alloy Cast Steel Rolls Using Back-Propagation Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huijin; Wu, Sujun; Peng, Yuncheng

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to predict the contact fatigue life of alloy cast steel rolls (ACSRs) as a function of alloy composition, heat treatment parameters, and contact stress by utilizing the back-propagation algorithm. The ANN was trained and tested using experimental data and a very good performance of the neural network was achieved. The well-trained neural network was then adopted to predict the contact fatigue life of chromium alloyed cast steel rolls with different alloy compositions and heat treatment processes. The prediction results showed that the maximum value of contact fatigue life was obtained with quenching at 960 °C, tempering at 520 °C, and under the contact stress of 2355 MPa. The optimal alloy composition was C-0.54, Si-0.66, Mn-0.67, Cr-4.74, Mo-0.46, V-0.13, Ni-0.34, and Fe-balance (wt.%). Some explanations of the predicted results from the metallurgical viewpoints are given. A convenient and powerful method of optimizing alloy composition and heat treatment parameters of ACSRs has been developed.

  18. Shock induced spall fracture in aluminium alloy "Al2014-T4"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, K. D.; Rav, Amit; Sur, Amit; Das, P. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-06-01

    The plate impact experiments have been carried out on 8mm thick target plates of aluminium alloy Al2014-T4 at impact velocities of 180 m/s, 290 m/s and 500m/s, respectively, using single stage gas gun facility. In each experiment, the of free surface velocity history of the sample plate is measured using VISAR instrument and utilized to determine the spall strength and dynamic yield strength of this material. The spall strength of 0.87 GPa, 0.97 GPa and 1.11 GPa, respectively, measured for impact velocities of 180 m/s, 290 m/s and 500 m/s with corresponding average strain rates varying from 1.36×104/s to 2.41×14/s has been found to display nearly linear dependence upon the strain rates. The dynamic yield strength with its value ranging from 0.395 GPa to 0.400 GPa, though, is higher than the quasi static value of 0.355GPa, appears to be relatively independent of impact velocities up to at least 500 m/s or equivalently strain rates up to ˜ 9.4×104/s.

  19. Investigation on wear and corrosion behavior of equal channel angular pressed aluminium 2014 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya, S. P.; Yoganandan, G.; Balaraju, J. N.; Srinivasan, S. A.; Nagaraj, M.; Ravisankar, B.

    2018-02-01

    Aluminium 2014 alloy solutionized at 495°C, aged at 195°C was subjected to Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). Dry sliding wear tests were conducted using pin on disc tribometer system under nominal loads of 10N and 30N with constant speed 2m/s for 2000m in order to investigate their wear behavior after ECAP. The Co-efficient of friction and loss in volume were decreased after ECAP. The dominant wear mechanism observed was adhesion, delamination in addition to these wear mechanisms, oxidation and transfer of Fe from the counter surface to the Al 2014 pin were observed at higher loading condition. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results obtained from PDP showed higher corrosion potential and lower corrosion density after ECAP than base. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed higher charge transfer resistance after ECAP. Surface morphology showed decreased pit size and increased oxygen content in ECAP sample than base after PDP.

  20. Constant and variable amplitude ultrasonic fatigue of 2024-T351 aluminium alloy at different load ratios.

    PubMed

    Mayer, H; Fitzka, M; Schuller, R

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic fatigue testing equipment is presented that is capable of performing constant amplitude (CA) and variable amplitude (VA) experiments at different constant load ratios. This equipment is used to study cyclic properties of aluminium alloy 2024-T351 in the high cycle fatigue (HCF) and very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime at load ratios R=-1 and R=0.5. CA loading does not reveal a fatigue limit below 10¹⁰ cycles. Cracks leading to VHCF failure start at broken constituent particles. Specimens that survived more than 10¹⁰ cycles at R=-1 contain non-propagating cracks of lengths below grain size. Resonance frequency and nonlinearity parameter β(rel) show changes of vibration properties of specimens at low fractions of their VHCF lifetime. VA lifetimes are measured in the HCF and VHCF regime and compared with Miner calculations. Damage sums decrease with decreasing load (and increasing mean lifetimes) and are lower for R=0.5 than R=-1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling Dynamic Behaviour and Spall Failure of Aluminium Alloy AA7010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'at, N.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ismail, A. E.; Kamarudin, K. A.; Jamian, S.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Awang, M. K.

    2017-10-01

    A finite strain constitutive model to predict the dynamic deformation behaviour of Aluminium Alloy 7010 including shockwaves and spall failure is developed in this work. The important feature of this newly hyperelastic-plastic constitutive formulation is a new Mandel stress tensor formulated using new generalized orthotropic pressure. This tensor is combined with a shock equation of state (EOS) and Grady spall failure. The Hill’s yield criterion is adopted to characterize plastic orthotropy by means of the evolving structural tensors that is defined in the isoclinic configuration. This material model was developed and integration into elastic and plastic parts. The elastic anisotropy is taken into account through the newly stress tensor decomposition of a generalized orthotropic pressure. Plastic anisotropy is considered through yield surface and an isotropic hardening defined in a unique alignment of deviatoric plane within the stress space. To test its ability to describe shockwave propagation and spall failure, the new material model was implemented into the LLNL-DYNA3D code of UTHM’s. The capability of this newly constitutive model were compared against published experimental data of Plate Impact Test at 234m/s, 450m/s and 895m/s impact velocities. A good agreement is obtained between experimental and simulation in each test.

  2. Strain Measurement in Aluminium Alloy during the Solidification Process Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Gratings.

    PubMed

    Weraneck, Klaus; Heilmeier, Florian; Lindner, Markus; Graf, Moritz; Jakobi, Martin; Volk, Wolfram; Roths, Johannes; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-11-04

    In recent years, the observation of the behaviour of components during the production process and over their life cycle is of increasing importance. Structural health monitoring, for example of carbon composites, is state-of-the-art research. The usage of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) in this field is of major advantage. Another possible area of application is in foundries. The internal state of melts during the solidification process is of particular interest. By using embedded FBGs, temperature and stress can be monitored during the process. In this work, FBGs were embedded in aluminium alloys in order to observe the occurring strain. Two different FBG positions were chosen in the mould in order to compare its dependence. It was shown that FBGs can withstand the solidification process, although a compression in the range of one percent was measured, which is in agreement with the literature value. Furthermore, different lengths of the gratings were applied, and it was shown that shorter gratings result in more accurate measurements. The obtained results prove that FBGs are applicable as sensors for temperatures up to 740 °C.

  3. In temperature forming of friction stir lap welds in aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Carlo; Cabibbo, Marcello; Greco, Luciano; Pieralisi, Massimiliano

    2018-05-01

    The objective of such investigation is the study in depth of the forming phase of welds realized on three sheet metal blanks in aluminium alloys by friction stir lap welding. Such forming phase was performed by upsetting at different constant forming temperatures varying from 200°C to 350°C with constant ram velocities of 0.01 and 0.1 mm/s. The temperature values were obtained by the use of heating strips applied on the upper tool and on the lower tool. It was observed an increase in the friction factor, acting at the upsetting tool-workpiece interface, with increasing temperature that is very useful in producing the required localized deformation with which to improve the weld. It was also confirmed that the forming phase allows to realize a required thickness in the weld area allowing to neglect the surficial perturbation produced by the friction stir welding tool shoulder. The obtained thickness could be subjected to springback when too low temperatures are considered.

  4. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, D.; Robson, J.D.; Withers, P.J.

    2015-06-15

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallicmore » phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets.« less

  5. Microstructural characterization of as-cast biocompatible Co-Cr-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Giacchi, J.V., E-mail: jgiacchi@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Instituto de Fisica de Materiales Tandil; Morando, C.N.

    2011-01-15

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by the investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants because of its high strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility properties. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from samples poured under industrial environment conditions, of three different Co-Cr-Mo alloys. For this purpose, we used: 1) an alloy built up from commercial purity constituents, 2) a remelted alloy and 3) a certified alloy for comparison. The characterization of the samples was achieved by using opticalmore » microscopy (OM) with a colorant etchant to identify the present phases and scanning electron microscopy (SE-SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) techniques for a better identification. In general the as-cast microstructure is a Co-fcc dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloys. Other minority phases were also reported and their presence could be linked to the cooling rate and the manufacturing process variables and environment. - Research Highlights: {yields}The solidification microstructure of an ASTM-F75 type alloy were studied. {yields}The alloys were poured under an industrial environment. {yields}Carbides and sigma phase identified by color metallography and scanning microscopy (SEM and EDS). {yields}Two carbide morphologies were detected 'blocky type' and 'pearlite type'. {yields}Minority phases were also detected.« less

  6. Experimental investigations of visco-plastic properties of the aluminium and tungsten alloys used in KE projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, L.; Magier, M.

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of studies on dynamic behaviour of construction materials at high strain rates is to determine the variation of mechanical properties (strength, plasticity) in function of the strain rate and temperature. On the basis of results of dynamic tests on the properties of constructional materials the constitutive models are formulated to create numerical codes applied to solve constructional problems with computer simulation methods. In the case of military applications connected with the phenomena of gunshot and terminal ballistics it's particularly important to develop a model of strength and armour penetration with KE projectile founded on reliable results of dynamic experiments and constituting the base for further analyses and optimization of projectile designs in order to achieve required penetration depth. Static and dynamic results of strength investigations of the EN AW-7012 aluminium alloy (sabot) and tungsten alloy (penetrator) are discussed in this paper. Static testing was carried out with the INSTRON testing machine. Dynamic tests have been conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bars technique at strain rates up to 1,2 ṡ 104s-1 (for aluminium alloy) and 6 ṡ 103s-1 (for tungsten alloy).

  7. Alloy Shrinkage factors for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Porter, Wallace D

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine. For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties weremore » accurately predicted over the most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted at heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution at heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation were performed with thermal expansion obtained at heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained at cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly over-predicted.« less

  8. Alloy Shrinkage Factors for the Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Porter, Wallace D.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM). For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made, in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed a different evolution on heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation was performed with thermal expansion obtained on heating, and another one was performed with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from the numerical simulation results of the solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly overpredicted.

  9. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  10. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  11. Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded AlSi9Mg Cast with 5083 and 2017A Wrought Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.; Kopyściański, M.; Dymek, S.; Węglowska, A.; Pietras, A.

    2018-03-01

    Wrought aluminum alloys 5083 and 2017A were each joined with cast aluminum alloy AlSi9Mg through friction stir welding in butt weld configurations. For each material system, the wrought and cast alloy positions, i.e., the advancing side or the retreating side, were exchanged between welding trials. The produced weldments were free from cracks and discontinuities. For each alloy configuration, a well-defined nugget comprised of alternating bands of the welded alloys characterized the microstructure. The degree of mixing, however, strongly depended on which wrought alloy was present and on its position during processing. In all cases, the cast AlSi9Mg alloy dominated the weld center regardless of its position during welding. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis showed that the grain size in both alloys (bands) constituting the nugget was similar and that the majority of grain boundaries exhibited a high angle character (20°-60°). Regardless of the alloy, however, all grains were elongated along the direction of the material plastic flow during welding. A numerical simulation of the joining process visualized the material flow patterns and temperature distribution and helped to rationalize the microstructural observations. The hardness profiles across the weld reflected the microstructure formed during welding and correlated well with the temperature changes predicted by the numerical model. Tensile specimens consistently fractured in the cast alloy near the weld nugget.

  12. [Corrosion property and oxide film of dental casting alloys before and after porcelain firing].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Wu, Feng-ming

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the types and compositions of oxide films formed during porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) firing on three kinds of dental casting alloys, and to investigate the corrosion property of these alloys in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) cell culture fluid, before and after PFM firing. Specimens of three dental casting alloys (Ni-Cr, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti) before and after PFM firing were prepared, and were immersed in DMEM cell culture fluid. After 30 days, the type and concentration of released metal ions were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for analysis of oxide film on the alloys. One way-ANOVA was adopted in data analysis. The total amount of metal ions released from the three dental alloys was found to be highest in Ni-Cr alloy [(2.829 ± 0.694) mg/L], followed by Co-Cr [(2.120 ± 0.418) mg/L] and Ni-Ti alloy [(1.211 ± 0.101) mg/L]. The amount of Ni ions released from Ni-Cr alloys [(1.531 ± 0.392) mg/L] was higher than that from Ni-Ti alloys [(0.830 ± 0.052) mg/L]. The amount of Cr, Mo ions released from Co-Cr alloy [Cr: (0.048 ± 0.011) mg/L, Mo: (1.562 ± 0.333) mg/L] was higher than that from Ni-Cr alloy [Cr: (0.034 ± 0.002) mg/L, Mo: (1.264 ± 0.302) mg/L] and Ni-Ti alloy [Cr: (0.013 ± 0.006) mg/L, Mo: (0.151 ± 0.026) mg/L] (P < 0.05). After PFM firing, the total amount of metal irons released from the three dental alloys decreased [Ni-Cr: (0.861 ± 0.054) mg/L, Co-Cr: (0.695 ± 0.327) mg/L, Ni-Ti: (0.892 ± 0.115) mg/L] (P < 0.05). In addition, XPS showed increase of Cr(2)O(3) and Mo-Ni oxide on the surface of all the alloys after PFM firing. The amount of ions released from Ni-Cr alloy was the highest among the three dental casting alloys, this means Ni-Cr alloy is prone to corrode. The PFM firing process changed the alloys' surface composition. Increased Ni, Cr and Mo were found in oxide film, and

  13. Casting of Halide and Fluoride Alloys for Laser Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-15

    exhibit at least microplastic behavior at room temper- ature, it might be expected that their fracture strength will follow a Petch relationship...polishing and testing. Only later was it discovered that this particular annealing procedure degraded the optical properties (i. e., 5. 25 pm Pb- sorption ... sorption coefficient of 4. 8 x 10’ c~ii 1 TABLE 3-5 AP PARENT ABSOi. -)N COEFFICIENTS AN~D SCATTERING CF2CASTING HN 1 5.25 pm Absorption Coefficient

  14. Residual stresses in shape memory alloy fiber reinforced aluminium matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsz Loong, Tang; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Ismail, Al Emran; Nur, Nik Hisyammudin Muhd; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    Process-induced residual stress in shape memory alloy (SMA) fiber reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite was simulated by ANSYS APDL. The manufacturing process of the composite named as NiTi/Al is start with loading and unloading process of nickel titanium (NiTi) wire as SMA to generate a residual plastic strain. Then, this plastic deformed NiTi wire would be embedded into Al to become a composite. Lastly, the composite is heated form 289 K to 363 K and then cooled back to 300 K. Residual stress is generated in composite because of shape memory effect of NiTi and mismatch of thermal coefficient between NiTi wire and Al matrix of composite. ANSYS APDL has been used to simulate the distribution of residual stress and strain in this process. A sensitivity test has been done to determine the optimum number of nodes and elements used. Hence, the number of nodes and elements used are 15680 and 13680, respectively. Furthermore, the distribution of residual stress and strain of nickel fiber reinforced aluminium matrix composite (Ni/Al) and titanium fiber reinforced aluminium matrix composite (Ti/Al) under same simulation process also has been simulated by ANSYS APDL as comparison to NiTi/Al. The simulation results show that compressive residual stress is generated on Al matrix of Ni/Al, Ti/Al and NiTi/Al during heating and cooling process. Besides that, they also have similar trend of residual stress distribution but difference in term of value. For Ni/Al and Ti/Al, they are 0.4% difference on their maximum compressive residual stress at 363K. At same circumstance, NiTi/Al has higher residual stress value which is about 425% higher than Ni/Al and Ti/Al composite. This implies that shape memory effect of NiTi fiber reinforced in composite able to generated higher compressive residual stress in Al matrix, hence able to enhance tensile property of the composite.

  15. The Relation between the Tensile Properties and Constitution of Aluminium-Rich Aluminium-Magnesium-Manganese-Zinc Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-08-01

    magnesium and lljs of zinc in the fully heat treated condition were .37.0 tons/in»2, 40.1 tons/in.2 aid Gji respectively and for the alloy with 4>» of...heat treated condition were 37.0 tons/in.2,» 40.1 tons/in.2 and Gji respectively, and for the 4ilill alloy. 40.4 tons/in.2 44.5 tons/in.2 and 2J5

  16. In-vitro characterization of stress corrosion cracking of aluminium-free magnesium alloys for temporary bio-implant applications.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Singh Raman, R K; Hofstetter, Joelle; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The complex interaction between physiological stresses and corrosive human body fluid may cause premature failure of metallic biomaterials due to the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking. In this study, the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of biodegradable and aluminium-free magnesium alloys ZX50, WZ21 and WE43 was investigated by slow strain rate tensile testing in a simulated human body fluid. Slow strain rate tensile testing results indicated that each alloy was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, and this was confirmed by fractographic features of transgranular and/or intergranular cracking. However, the variation in alloy susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking is explained on the basis of their electrochemical and microstructural characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microstructure and Properties of Cobalt-and Zinc-Containing Magnetic Magnesium Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    The inherent magnetic properties of lightweight alloys based on magnesium and cobalt offer a novel way in order to measure mechanical loads throughout the entire structural component using the magnetoelastic effect. Because the solubility of cobalt in the magnesium matrix is negligible, the magnetic properties mainly originate from Co-rich precipitates. Thus, the size and distribution of Co-containing phases within the alloy's microstructure wields a major influence on the amplitude of the load-sensitive properties which can be measured by employing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. In this study, Mg-Co-based alloys are produced by several casting methods which allow the application of different cooling rates, e.g. gravity die casting and high-pressure die casting. The differences between the manufactured alloys' micro- and phase structures are compared depending on the applied cooling rate and the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of the high-pressure die cast material are demonstrated.

  18. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  19. In vitro corrosion behavior of cast iron-platinum magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Hai, K; Tanaka, Y; Hisatsune, K; Atsuta, M

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of cast Fe-Pt alloys of varying compositions for use as attachment keepers and to make a comparison with the corrosion resistance of magnetic stainless steel. The corrosion behavior of cast Fe-Pt alloy keepers (Fe-40 at%Pt, Fe-38 at%Pt, Fe-37 at%Pt and Fe-36 at%Pt) was evaluated by means of an immersion test and an anodic polarization test. The solutions used were a 1.0% lactic acid aqueous solution (pH=2.3) (10 ml) and 0.9% NaCl solution (pH=7.3) (10 ml). As a control, the corrosion resistance of a magnetic stainless steel keeper (SUS 447J1: HICOREX) was also measured. Chromium and platinum ions were not detected in either the 1.0% lactic acid or 0.9% NaCl solutions. The only released ions detected were the Fe ions in the 1.0% lactic acid solution. The amounts of Fe ions released from the Fe-40 at%Pt and Fe-38 at%Pt alloys were significantly (p<0.05) lower than from the Fe-37at%Pt, Fe-36 at%Pt and SUS 447J1 alloys. In the anodic polarization test, the potentials at the beginning of passivation for the four Fe-Pt alloys were higher than for the SUS 447J1 alloy in both solutions. The Fe-Pt alloys, especially the alloys with higher Pt percentages (Fe-40 and 38 at%Pt), indicated a high corrosion resistance compared to the magnetic stainless steel keeper. A reduction in the Pt percentage may decrease the corrosion resistance in the oral environment.

  20. Grindability of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Aoki, Takayuki; Okabe, Toru

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the grindability of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. The metals tested were commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), Ti-6Al-4V, experimental Ti-6Al-4V-Cu (1, 4, and 10 wt% Cu), and Co-Cr alloy. Each metal was cast into five blocks (3.0 x 8.0 x 30.0 mm(3)). The 3.0-mm wide surface of each block was ground using a hand-piece engine with an SiC wheel at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, and 1250 m/min) at a grinding force of 100 g. The grindability index (G-index) was determined as volume loss (mm(3)) calculated from the weight loss after 1 minute of grinding and the density of each metal. The ratio of the metal volume loss and the wheel volume loss was also calculated (G-ratio, %). Data (n = 5) were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Ti-6Al-4V and the experimental Ti-6Al-4V-Cu alloys exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher G-indexes compared with CP Ti and Co-Cr at any rotational speed except for the lowest speed (500 m/min). At 500 m/min, the G-index of Ti-6Al-4V-Cu increased as the amount of alloyed copper increased. The 4% Cu and 10% Cu alloys had significantly greater G-indexes than did 1% Cu and Ti-6Al-4V at the highest rotational speed (1250 m/min). Increasing the percentage of alloyed copper and the circumferential speed also increased the G-ratio. A slight reduction in ductility due to alloying Ti-6Al-4V with copper improved the grindability of some of the resultant Ti-6Al-4V-Cu alloys.

  1. Characterization of ZnAl cast alloys with Na addition

    SciTech Connect

    Gancarz, Tomasz, E-mail: t.gancarz@imim.pl; Cempura, Grzegorz; Skuza, Wojciech

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change and thermal, electrical and mechanical properties with the addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl alloys. Solders based on eutectic ZnAl containing 0.2 to 3.0 (wt.%) of Na were developed for high temperature solder. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to determine the melting temperatures of the alloys. Thermal linear expansion and electrical resistivity measurements were performed over − 50 °C to 300 °C and 30 °C to 300 °C temperature ranges, respectively. The microstructure of the specimens was analyzed using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Chemical microanalysismore » was performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on SEM and TEM. The precipitates of NaZn{sub 13} were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl alloy increased the electrical resistivity and reduced the coefficient of thermal expansion; however, the melting point did not change. The mechanical properties, strain and microhardness increased with Na content in alloys. - Highlights: • High temperature soldering materials of ZnAl with Na were designed and characterized. • Precipitates of NaZn{sub 13}were observed and confirmed using TEM and XRD. • Addition of Na to eutectic ZnAl cussed increased mechanical properties. • NaZn{sub 13} caused increased electrical resistivity and microhardness, and reduced the CTE.« less

  2. Tribological Properties of Aluminium Alloy Composites Reinforced with Multi-Layer Graphene—The Influence of Spark Plasma Texturing Process

    PubMed Central

    Kostecki, Marek; Woźniak, Jarosław; Cygan, Tomasz; Petrus, Mateusz; Olszyna, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Self-lubricating composites are designed to obtain materials that reduce energy consumption, improve heat dissipation between moving bodies, and eliminate the need for external lubricants. The use of a solid lubricant in bulk composite material always involves a significant reduction in its mechanical properties, which is usually not an optimal solution. The growing interest in multilayer graphene (MLG), characterised by interesting properties as a component of composites, encouraged the authors to use it as an alternative solid lubricant in aluminium matrix composites instead of graphite. Aluminium alloy 6061 matrix composite reinforced with 2–15 vol % of MLG were synthesised by the spark plasma sintering process (SPS) and its modification, spark plasma texturing (SPT), involving deformation of the pre-sintered body in a larger diameter matrix. It was found that the application of the SPT method improves the density and hardness of the composites, resulting in improved tribological properties, particularly in the higher load regime. PMID:28796172

  3. Effect of Solutes on Grain Refinement of As-Cast Fe-4Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Li, Jian-Min; Zheng, Qing; Wang, Geoff; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2018-03-01

    Grain size is one of the key microstructural factors that control the mechanical properties of steels. The present work aims to extend the theories of grain refinement which were established for cast light alloys to steel systems. Using a designed Fe-4 wt pct Si alloy (all-ferrite structure during whole solidification process), the solute effect on grain refinement/grain coarsening in ferritic systems was comprehensively investigated. Experimental results showed that boron (B), which is associated with the highest Q value (growth restriction factor) in ferrite, significantly refined the as-cast structure of the Fe-4 wt pct Si alloy. Cu and Mo with low Q values had no effect on grain refinement. However, although Y and Zr have relatively high Q values, addition of these two solutes led to grain coarsening in the Fe-4Si alloy. Understanding the results in regards to the growth restriction factor and the driving force for the solidification led to the conclusion that in addition to the grain growth restriction effect, the changes of thermodynamic driving force for solidification due to the solute addition also played a key role in grain refinement in ferritic alloys.

  4. Effect of Solutes on Grain Refinement of As-Cast Fe-4Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Li, Jian-Min; Zheng, Qing; Wang, Geoff; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2018-06-01

    Grain size is one of the key microstructural factors that control the mechanical properties of steels. The present work aims to extend the theories of grain refinement which were established for cast light alloys to steel systems. Using a designed Fe-4 wt pct Si alloy (all-ferrite structure during whole solidification process), the solute effect on grain refinement/grain coarsening in ferritic systems was comprehensively investigated. Experimental results showed that boron (B), which is associated with the highest Q value (growth restriction factor) in ferrite, significantly refined the as-cast structure of the Fe-4 wt pct Si alloy. Cu and Mo with low Q values had no effect on grain refinement. However, although Y and Zr have relatively high Q values, addition of these two solutes led to grain coarsening in the Fe-4Si alloy. Understanding the results in regards to the growth restriction factor and the driving force for the solidification led to the conclusion that in addition to the grain growth restriction effect, the changes of thermodynamic driving force for solidification due to the solute addition also played a key role in grain refinement in ferritic alloys.

  5. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Impact Toughness of `High-Chromium Cast Iron - Low Alloy Steel' Bimetal Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A bimetallic `low-alloy steel - high-chromium cast iron' composite obtained by successive sand casting is studied and shown to have good cohesion on the interface and no casting defects. The hardness and the impact toughness of the bimetal increase simultaneously. The microstructure is more homogeneous after diffusion annealing at 1040°C, rapid cooling, and 3-h tempering at 270°C.

  6. A Study of the Oscillation Marks' Characteristics of Continuously Cast Incoloy Alloy 825 Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Saud; Vynnycky, Michael; Fredriksson, Hasse

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive experimental study of oscillation mark (OM) formation and its characteristics during the solidification of Incoloy alloy 825 in the continuous casting of blooms is investigated by plant trials and metallographic study. The experiments involved two heats with the same casting and mold conditions and sampling at different locations across the strand. The metallographic study combined macro/micro-examinations of OMs and segregation analysis of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Si by microprobe analysis. The results show that OMs have widely different characteristics, such as mark type, depth, segregation, and accompanying microstructure. Furthermore, the mark pitch can vary considerably even for the similar casting conditions, leading to different conditions for the marks' formation in relation to the mold's cyclic movement. Finally, a mechanism for the OM formation is discussed and proposed. Possible solutions for minimizing the observed defects by optimizing the mold conditions are suggested.

  7. Secondary Al-Si-Mg High-pressure Die Casting Alloys with Enhanced Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Dominik; Pogatscher, Stefan; Hummel, Marc; Fragner, Werner; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Göken, Mathias; Höppel, Heinz Werner

    2015-03-01

    Al-Si-Mg-based secondary cast alloys are attractive candidates for thin-walled high-pressure die castings for applications in the transport industry. The present study investigates the effect of manganese additions at high cooling rates on microstructure, mechanical properties, and on the dominating fracture mechanisms of alloy AlSi10Mg with an elevated iron concentration. Systematic variations of the Mn content from 0.20 to 0.85 wt pct at a constant Fe content of 0.55 wt pct illustrate the key changes in type, phase fraction, and shape of the Fe-containing intermetallic phases, and the corresponding influence on the alloy's ductility. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC), an optimal range of the Mn content between 0.40 and 0.60 wt pct, equivalent to a Mn/Fe ratio of approximately 1, has been identified. At these Mn and Fe contents, the high cooling rates obtained in HPDC result in the formation of fine and homogeneously distributed α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase, and crack initiation is transferred from AlFeSi intermetallics to eutectic silicon. The study interprets the microstructure-property relationship in the light of thermodynamic calculations which reveal a significant increase in undercooling of the α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase with increased Mn content. It concludes that the interdependence of the well-defined Mn/Fe ratio and the high cooling rate in HPDC can generate superior ductility in secondary AlSi10Mg cast alloys.

  8. The Behaviour of Bifilm Defects in Cast Al-7Si-Mg Alloy.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Double oxide films (bifilms) are significant defects in the casting of light alloys, and have been shown to decrease tensile and fatigue properties, and also to increase their scatter, making casting properties unreproducible and unreliable. A bifilm consists of doubled-over oxide films containing a gas-filled crevice and is formed due to surface turbulence of the liquid metal during handling and/or pouring. Previous studies has shown that the nature of oxide film defects may change with time, as the atmosphere inside the bifilm could be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt, which may enhance the mechanical properties of Al alloy castings. As a proxy for a bifilm, an air bubble was trapped within an Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg (2L99) alloy melt, subjected to stirring. The effect of different parameters such as the holding time, stirring velocity and melt temperature on the change in gas composition of the bubble was investigated, using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. Also, the solid species inside the bubbles solidified in the melt were examined using SEM. The results suggested that both oxygen and nitrogen inside the bifilm would be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt producing MgAl2O4 and AlN, respectively. Also, hydrogen was suggested to consistently diffuse into the defect. The reaction rates and the rate of H diffusion were shown to increase upon increasing the holding time and temperature, and stirring velocity. Such significant effect of the process parameters studied on the gaseous content of the bubble suggesting that a careful control of such parameters might lead to the deactivation of bifilm defects, or at least elimination of their deteriorous effect in light alloy castings.

  9. The Behaviour of Bifilm Defects in Cast Al-7Si-Mg Alloy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Double oxide films (bifilms) are significant defects in the casting of light alloys, and have been shown to decrease tensile and fatigue properties, and also to increase their scatter, making casting properties unreproducible and unreliable. A bifilm consists of doubled-over oxide films containing a gas-filled crevice and is formed due to surface turbulence of the liquid metal during handling and/or pouring. Previous studies has shown that the nature of oxide film defects may change with time, as the atmosphere inside the bifilm could be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt, which may enhance the mechanical properties of Al alloy castings. As a proxy for a bifilm, an air bubble was trapped within an Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg (2L99) alloy melt, subjected to stirring. The effect of different parameters such as the holding time, stirring velocity and melt temperature on the change in gas composition of the bubble was investigated, using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. Also, the solid species inside the bubbles solidified in the melt were examined using SEM. The results suggested that both oxygen and nitrogen inside the bifilm would be consumed by reaction with the surrounding melt producing MgAl2O4 and AlN, respectively. Also, hydrogen was suggested to consistently diffuse into the defect. The reaction rates and the rate of H diffusion were shown to increase upon increasing the holding time and temperature, and stirring velocity. Such significant effect of the process parameters studied on the gaseous content of the bubble suggesting that a careful control of such parameters might lead to the deactivation of bifilm defects, or at least elimination of their deteriorous effect in light alloy castings. PMID:27529350

  10. Characterization of Tensile Deformation in AZ91D Mg Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Űnal, Ogün; Tiryakioǧlu, Murat

    AZ91 cast Mg alloy specimens in T4 and T6 tempers have been tested in tension. True stress — true plastic strain relationship has been characterized by evaluating the fits to four constitutive equations. Moreover, work hardening behavior in both tempers has been investigated and how well the four constitutive equation can model this behavior has been tested. The effects of temper and structural quality on tensile properties and work hardening are discussed in the paper.

  11. EBSD Study on Grain Boundary and Microtexture Evolutions During Friction Stir Processing of A413 Cast Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamanian, Morteza; Mostaan, Hossein; Safari, Mehdi; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2016-07-01

    The as-cast Al alloys contain heterogeneous distributions of non-deforming particles due to non-equilibrium solidification effects. Therefore, these alloys have poor tribological and mechanical behaviors. It is well known that using friction stir processing (FSP), very fine microstructure is created in the as-cast Al alloys, while their wear resistance can be improved. In this research work, FSP is used to locally refine a surface layer of the coarse as-cast microstructure of cast A413 Al alloy. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of FSP on microstructure and microtexture evolutions in A413 cast Al alloy. The grain boundary character distribution, grain structure, and microtexture evolutions in as-cast and friction stir processed A413 Al alloy are analyzed by electron back scatter diffraction technique. It is found that with the FSP, the fraction of low ∑boundary such as ∑3, 7, and 9 are increased. The obtained results show that there are no deformation texture components in the structure of friction stir processed samples. However, some of the main recrystallization texture components such as BR and cubeND are formed during FSP which indicate the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization phenomenon due to the severe plastic deformation induced by the rotation of tool.

  12. Effect of Mg2Sn Intermetallic on the Grain Refinement in As-cast AM Series Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, J.; Pan, F. S.; Hu, H. H.; Tang, A. T.; Yu, Z. W.; Song, K.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, in order to investigate the grain refinement mechanism of AM containing Sn alloys, the as-cast AM60, AM90 alloys, and the alloys with addition of 1 wt.% Sn were fabricated by traditional casting, respectively. During the solidification of AM + Sn alloys, the morphology of divorced eutectic Mg17Al12 was refined by Mg2Sn intermetallic that served as the heterogeneous nucleation cores. The modified Mg17Al12 effectively restricted the grain growth and resulted in a grain refinement. As a result, the yield strength of as-cast AM alloys was significantly enhanced by addition of Sn, while the ductility also improved. Moreover, the edge-to-edge model was employed to predict the orientation relationship between Mg17Al12 and Mg2Sn.

  13. Thermal cooling effects in the microstructure and properties of cast cobalt-base biomedical alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Valer, Vladimir

    Joint replacement prosthesis is widely used in the biomedical field to provide a solution for dysfunctional human body joints. The demand for orthopedic knee and hip implants motivate scientists and manufacturers to develop novel materials or to increase the life of service and efficiency of current materials. Cobalt-base alloys have been investigated by various researchers for biomedical implantations. When these alloys contain Chromium, Molybdenum, and Carbon, they exhibit good tribological and mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In this study, the microstructure of cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy is purposely modified by inducing rapid solidification through fusion welding processes and solution annealing heat treatment (quenched in water at room temperature. In particular the effect of high cooling rates on the athermal phase transformation FCC(gamma)↔HCP(epsilon) on the alloy hardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. The Co-alloy microstructures were characterized using metallography and microscopy techniques. It was found that the as cast sample typically dendritic with dendritic grain sizes of approximately 150 microm and containing Cr-rich coarse carbide precipitates along the interdendritic boundaries. Solution annealing gives rise to a refined microstructure with grain size of 30 microm, common among Co-Cr-Mo alloys after heat treating. Alternatively, an ultrafine grain structure (between 2 and 10 microm) was developed in the fusion zone for specimens melted using Laser and TIG welding methods. When laser surface modification treatments were implemented, the developed solidification microstructure shifted from dendritic to a fine cellular morphology, with possible nanoscale carbide precipitates along the cellular boundaries. In turn, the solidified regions exhibited high hardness values (461.5HV), which exceeds by almost 110 points from the alloy in the as-cast condition. The amount of developed athermal

  14. Relationship between microstructure and ductility of investment cast ASTM F-75 implant alloy.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Mancha, H; Salinas, A; Rodríguez, J L; Escobedo, J; Castro, M; Méndez, M

    1997-02-01

    Hip replacement implants fabricated using the ASTM F-75 alloy sometimes fail in a sudden catastrophic way. In general, fractures start at microstructural defects subjected to stress-corrosion under chemical attack by body fluids. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of casting parameters on the microstructure of ASTM F-75 are presented. The preheating mold temperature and the liquid temperature were varied between 900 and 1000 degrees C, and 1410 and 1470 degrees C, respectively. Optimum static strength and ductility were obtained when shrinkage microporosity and the volume fraction of M23C6 "eutectic" carbides precipitated at grain boundaries were minimized by increasing the preheating mold temperature to 1000 degrees C and by using intermediate pouring temperatures of 1455 degrees C. Under these casting conditions, however, the solidification rates are low, leading to large grain sizes, which, in turn, reduce the strength of the material under dynamic loading conditions. The volume fraction of the M23C6 "blocky" carbides appears to be independent of the casting conditions; however, their size and spatial distributions determine the strength of the as-cast alloys.

  15. Effect of severe plastic deformation on microstructure of squeeze-cast magnesium alloy AZ31 plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kai Soon; Tan, Ming Jen; Atsushi, Danno; Chua, Beng Wah; Ho, Meng Kwong

    2016-10-01

    High cost and poor room temperature formability of magnesium alloy sheet are the key factors that limit its application as a feedstock material for press forming. Production of Mg plates by squeeze casting with further processing by severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a potential method to reduce cost and improve formability. In this study, AZ31 Mg plate of dimension 96×96×4 mm was successfully produced by squeeze casting, using a novel melt transfer technique, at a forging force and speed of 180 Ton and 200 mm/sec respectively. The effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) using groove pressing on the mechanical properties of squeeze-casted Mg plate after partial homogenization was subsequently investigated. Observation of the microstructure after two cycles of groove pressing, under decreasing temperature from 543K to 493K, shows a significant grain refinement from 39 to 4.7 µm. The Vickers hardness increased by approximately 25% from 56 to 74.1 which suggests an improvement in mechanical strength as a result of both the grain refinement and work hardening. The result shows that squeeze casting combined with groove pressing is potentially an effective method for preparation of thin magnesium alloy plate with fine-grained structure and improved mechanical properties.

  16. Influence of rotational speed of centrifugal casting process on appearance, microstructure, and sliding wear behaviour of Al-2Si cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunda, P. G.; Shailesh, Rao A.; Rao, Shrikantha S.

    2010-02-01

    Although the manner in which the molten metal flows plays a major role in the formation of the uniform cylinder in centrifugal casting, not much information is available on this topic. The flow in the molten metal differs at various rotational speeds, which in turn affects the final casting. In this paper, the influence of the flow of molten metal of hyper eutectic Al-2Si alloys at various rotational speeds is discussed. At an optimum speed of 800 rpm, a uniform cylinder was formed. For the rotational speeds below and above these speeds, an irregular shaped casting was formed, which is mainly due to the influence of melt. Primary á-Al particles were formed in the tube periphery at low rotational speed, and their sizes and shapes were altered with changes in rotational speeds. The wear test for the inner surface of the casting showed better wear properties for the casting prepared at the optimum speed of rotation.

  17. Electromagnetic Gauge Study of Laser-Induced Shock Waves in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyre, P.; Fabbro, R.

    1995-12-01

    The laser-shock behaviour of three industrial aluminum alloys has been analyzed with an Electromagnetic Gauge Method (EMV) for measuring the velocity of the back free surface of thin foils submitted to plane laser irradiation. Surface pressure, shock decay in depth and Hugoniot Elastic Limits (HEL) of the materials were investigated with increasing thicknesses of foils to be shocked. First, surface peak pressures values as a function of laser power density gave a good agreement with conventional piezoelectric quartz measurements. Therefore, comparison of experimental results with computer simulations, using a 1D hydrodynamic Lagrangian finite difference code, were also in good accordance. Lastly, HEL values were compared with static and dynamic compressive tests in order to estimate the effects of a very large range of strain rates (10^{-3} s^{-1} to 10^6 s^{-1}) on the mechanical properties of the alloys. Cet article fait la synthèse d'une étude récente sur la caractérisation du comportement sous choc-laser de trois alliages d'aluminium largement utilisés dans l'industrie à travers la méthode dite de la jauge électromagnétique. Cette méthode permet de mesurer les vitesses matérielles induites en face arrière de plaques d'épaisseurs variables par un impact laser. La mise en vitesse de plaques nous a permis, premièrement, de vérifier la validité des pressions d'impact superficielles obtenues en les comparant avec des résultats antérieurs obtenus par des mesures sur capteurs quartz. Sur des plaques d'épaisseurs croissantes, nous avons caractérisé l'atténuation des ondes de choc en profondeur dans les alliages étudiés et mesuré les limites d'élasticité sous choc (pressions d'Hugoniot) des alliages. Les résultats ont été comparés avec succès à des simulations numériques grâce à un code de calcul monodimensionnel Lagrangien. Enfin, les valeurs des pressions d'Hugoniot mesurées ont permis de tracer l'évolution des contraintes d

  18. The effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration on metal ion release from dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Al-Salehi, S K; Hatton, P V; Johnson, A; Cox, A G; McLeod, C

    2008-04-01

    There are concerns that tooth bleaching agents may adversely affect dental materials. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) are more effective than water at increasing metal ion release from two typical dental casting alloys during bleaching. Discs (n = 28 for each alloy) were prepared by casting and heat treated to simulate a typical porcelain-firing cycle. Discs (n = 7) of each alloy were immersed in either 0%, 3%, 10% or 30% (w/v) HP solutions for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Samples were taken for metal ion release determination using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and the data analysed using a two-way anova followed by a one-way anova. The surface roughness of each disc was measured using a Talysurf contact profilometer before and after bleaching and the data analysed using a paired t-test. With the exception of gold, the differences in metal ion concentration after treatment with 0% (control) and each of 3%, 10% and 30% HP (w/v) were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Metal ion release from the two alloys increased with increasing HP concentrations (over 3000% increase in Ni and 1400% increase in Pd ions were recorded when HP concentration increased from 0% to 30%). Surface roughness values of the samples before and after bleaching were not significantly different (P > 0.05) Exposure of the two dental casting alloys to HP solutions increased metal ion release of all the elements except gold.

  19. Failure analysis of an aluminum alloy material framework component induced by casting defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Hu, Weiye

    2017-09-01

    Failure analysis on a fractured radome framework component was carried out through visual observations, metallographic examination using optical microscope, fractog-raphy inspections using scanning electron microscope and chemical composition analysis. The failed frame was made of casting Al-Si7-Mg0.4 aluminum alloy. It had suffered a former vi-bration performance tests. It was indicated that the fractures were attributed to fatigue cracks which were induced by casting porosities at the outer surfaces of frame. Failure analysis was carefully conducted for the semi-penetrating crack appearing on the framework. According to the fractography inspected by scanning electron microscope, it was indicated that numerous casting porosities at the outer surface of the framework played the role of multiple fracture sources due to some applied stresses. Optical microstructure observations suggested that the dendrite-shaped casting porosities largely contributed to the crack-initiation. The groove-shaped structure at roots of spatial convex-bodies on the edge of casting porosities supplied the preferred paths of the crack-propagation. Besides, the brittle silicon eutectic particles distrib-uting along grain boundaries induced the intergranular fracture mode in the region of the over-load final fracture surface.

  20. Development of an Optimization Methodology for the Aluminum Alloy Wheel Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianglan; Reilly, Carl; Maijer, Daan M.; Cockcroft, Steve L.; Phillion, Andre B.

    2015-08-01

    An optimization methodology has been developed for the aluminum alloy wheel casting process. The methodology is focused on improving the timing of cooling processes in a die to achieve improved casting quality. This methodology utilizes (1) a casting process model, which was developed within the commercial finite element package, ABAQUS™—ABAQUS is a trademark of Dassault Systèms; (2) a Python-based results extraction procedure; and (3) a numerical optimization module from the open-source Python library, Scipy. To achieve optimal casting quality, a set of constraints have been defined to ensure directional solidification, and an objective function, based on the solidification cooling rates, has been defined to either maximize, or target a specific, cooling rate. The methodology has been applied to a series of casting and die geometries with different cooling system configurations, including a 2-D axisymmetric wheel and die assembly generated from a full-scale prototype wheel. The results show that, with properly defined constraint and objective functions, solidification conditions can be improved and optimal cooling conditions can be achieved leading to process productivity and product quality improvements.

  1. Fabrication of Ti-0.48Al Alloy by Centrifugal Casting.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Bum; Lee, Jung-Il; Ryu, Jeong Ho

    2018-09-01

    Many of the unique properties of TiAl alloys that make are attractive for use in high-temperature structural applications also make it challenging to process them into useful products. Cast TiAl is rapidly nearing commercialization, particularly in the vehicle industry, owing to its low production cost. In this study, the centrifugal casting of a TiAl (Ti-48%Al, mole fraction) turbocharger was simulated and an experimental casting was created in vacuum using an induction melting furnace coupled to a ceramic composite mold. Numerical simulation results agreed with the experiment. The crystal structure, microstructure, and chemical composition of the TiAl prepared by centrifugal casting were studied by X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). FE-SEM and EDS examinations of the TiAl casting revealed that the thickness of the oxide layer (α-case) was typically less than 35 μm.

  2. Application of heat pipe technology in permanent mold casting of nonferrous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elalem, Kaled

    The issue of mold cooling is one, which presents a foundry with a dilemma. On the one hand; the use of air for cooling is safe and practical, however, it is not very effective and high cost. On the other hand, water-cooling can be very effective but it raises serious concerns about safety, especially with a metal such as magnesium. An alternative option that is being developed at McGill University uses heat pipe technology to carry out the cooling. The experimental program consisted of designing a permanent mold to produce AZ91E magnesium alloy and A356 aluminum alloy castings with shrinkage defects. Heat pipes were then used to reduce these defects. The heat pipes used in this work are novel and are patent pending. They are referred to as McGill Heat Pipes. Computer modeling was used extensively in designing the mold and the heat pipes. Final designs for the mold and the heat pipes were chosen based on the modeling results. Laboratory tests of the heat pipe were performed before conducting the actual experimental plan. The laboratory testing results verified the excellent performance of the heat pipes as anticipated by the model. An industrial mold made of H13 tool steel was constructed to cast nonferrous alloys. The heat pipes were installed and initial testing and actual industrial trials were conducted. This is the first time where a McGill heat pipe was used in an industrial permanent mold casting process for nonferrous alloys. The effects of cooling using heat pipes on AZ91E and A356 were evaluated using computer modeling and experimental trials. Microstructural analyses were conducted to measure the secondary dendrite arm spacing, SDAS, and the grain size to evaluate the cooling effects on the castings. The modeling and the experimental results agreed quite well. The metallurgical differences between AZ91E and A356 were investigated using modeling and experimental results. Selected results from modeling, laboratory and industrial trials are presented. The

  3. Development in corrosion resistance by microstructural refinement in Zr-16 SS 304 alloy using suction casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in; Sengupta, P.; Abraham, G.

    Highlights: • Grain refinement was made in Zr–16 wt.% SS alloy while prepared by suction casting process. • Distribution of Laves phase, e.g., Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr) was raised in suction cast (SC) Zr–16 wt.% SS. • Corrosion resistance was improved in SC alloy compared to that of arc-melt-cast alloy. • Grain refinement in SC alloy assisted for an increase in its corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Zirconium (Zr)-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) with the motivation of disposing of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes. Zr–16 wt.% SS, a MWF alloymore » optimized from previous studies, exhibit significant grain refinement and changes in phase assemblages (soft phase: Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/α-Zr vs. hard phase: Zr{sub 3}(Fe, Ni)) when prepared by suction casting (SC) technique in comparison to arc-cast-melt (AMC) route. Variation in Cr-distribution among different phases are found to be low in suction cast alloy, which along with grain refinement restricted Cr-depletion at the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/Zr interfaces, prone to localized attack. Hence, SC alloy, compared to AMC alloy, showed lower current density, higher potential at the breakdown of passivity and higher corrosion potential during polarization experiments (carried out under possible geological repository environments, viz., pH 8, 5 and 1) indicating its superior corrosion resistance.« less

  4. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part II: Mechanical and thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systemsmore » (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.« less

  5. Age hardening and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy modified by praseodymium

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Zhihao; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiaoxue

    The effects of praseodymium on age hardening behavior and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy were investigated. The results indicated that praseodymium facilitated the formation of the θ′ precipitates during the age process and improved the hardness of the Al–Cu alloy. Besides, praseodymium resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase in the grain boundaries and among the dendrites of the modified alloy. Because of the good thermal stability of Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase, it inhibits grain boundary migration and dislocation movement during the creep process, which contributes to the improvement in the creep resistance of the modifiedmore » alloy at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • Pr addition enhances the hardness and creep resistance of the Al–Cu alloy. • Pr addition facilitates the formation of the θ′ precipitates. • Pr addition results in the formation of the Al11Pr3 phase in the Al–Cu alloy.« less

  6. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part II: Mechanical and thermal properties

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres; ...

    2017-03-08

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systemsmore » (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.« less

  7. Prediction of as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qiang; Li, Yanjun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a multi-scale as-cast grain size prediction model is proposed to predict as-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys melt solidified under non-isothermal condition, i.e., the existence of temperature gradient. Given melt composition, inoculation and heat extraction boundary conditions, the model is able to predict maximum nucleation undercooling, cooling curve, primary phase solidification path and final as-cast grain size of binary alloys. The proposed model has been applied to two Al-Mg alloys, and comparison with laboratory and industrial solidification experimental results have been carried out. The preliminary conclusion is that the proposed model is a promising suitable microscopic model used within the multi-scale casting simulation modelling framework.

  8. Processing of Advanced Cast Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffery A.; Cowen, Christopher J.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2012-02-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  9. Microstructure, microstructural stability and mechanical properties of sand-cast Mg–4Al–4RE alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Rzychoń, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.rzychon@polsl.pl; Kiełbus, Andrzej; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia

    2013-09-15

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the phase composition and the results of structural stability tests of the sand-cast Mg–4Al–4RE alloy after annealing it at 175 and 250 °C for 3000 h. The microstructure was analyzed with optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The phase composition was determined with X-ray diffraction. The structure of the Mg–4Al–4RE (AE44) alloy is composed of large grains of α-Mg solid solution, needle-shaped precipitates of the Al{sub 11}RE{sub 3}phase, polyhedral precipitates of the Al{sub 2}RE phase and Al{sub 10}RE{sub 2}Mn{sub 7} phase. After annealing at 175 °C for 3000 h, no changes inmore » the alloy structure are observed, whereas after annealing at 250 °C the precipitates of the Al{sub 11}RE{sub 3} phase are found to be in the initial stages of spheroidization. The coarse-grained structure and unfavorable morphology of the intermetallic phases in the sand-cast AE44 alloy, which are caused by low solidification rates, result in low creep resistance up to 200 °C and low mechanical properties at ambient temperature and at 175 °C. - Highlights: • Complement the knowledge about the microstructure of Mg-Al-RE alloys. • Clarify the mechanism of formation of Mg17Al12 phase above 180 °C. • Applying a chemical dissolution of the α-Mg in order to phase identification. • Applying a statistical test to assess the spheroidization of precipitates. • Quantitative description of microstructure of Mg-Al-RE alloys.« less

  10. Application of Al-2La-1B Grain Refiner to Al-10Si-0.3Mg Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lijun; Pan, Ye; Lu, Tao; Li, Chenlin; Pi, Jinhong; Sheng, Ningyue

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the application and microstructure refining effect of an Al-2La-1B grain refiner in Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy. Compared with the traditional Al-5Ti-1B refiner, Al-2La-1B refiner shows better performances on the grain refinement of Al-10Si-0.3Mg alloy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggests that the crystallite structure features of LaB6 are beneficial to the heterogeneous nucleation of α-Al grains. Regarding the mechanical performances, tensile properties of Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy are prominently improved, due to the refined microstructures.

  11. Effect of Grain Refining on Defect Formation in DC Cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadella, Ravi; Eskin, Dmitry; Katgerman, Laurens

    In direct chill (DC) casting, the effect of grain refining on the prominent defects such as hot cracking and macrosegregation remains poorly understood, especially for multi-component commercial aluminum alloys. In this work, DC casting experiments were conducted on a 7075 alloy with and without grain refining at two casting speeds. The grain refiner was introduced either in the launder or in the furnace. The concentration profiles of Zn, Cu and Mg, measured along the billet diameter, showed that the increasing casting speed raises the segregation levels but grain refining does not seem to have a noticeable effect. However, hot cracking tendency is significantly reduced with grain refining and it is observed that crack is terminated with the introduction of grain refiner at a lower casting speed. These experimental results are correlated with microstructural observations such as grain size and morphology, and the occurrence of floating grains.

  12. Effect of casting atmosphere on the marginal deficiency and misfit of Ni-Cr alloys with and without beryllium.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leandro J; Leal, Monica B; Valente, Mariana L C; de Castro, Denise T; Pagnano, Valéria O; Dos Reis, Andréa C; Bezzon, Osvaldo L

    2017-07-01

    The marginal adaptation of prosthetic crowns is still a significant clinical problem. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal deficiency and misfit of Ni-Cr alloys with and without beryllium under different casting conditions. Four casting conditions were selected: flame-torch, induction/argon, induction/vacuum, and induction/air; and 2 alloys were used, Ni-Cr-Be and Ni-Cr. For each group, 10 metal specimens were prepared. Silicone indirect impressions and analysis of the degree of rounding were used to evaluate the marginal deficiencies of metal copings, and a standardized device for the setting pressure associated with optical microscopy was used to analyze the marginal misfit. Results were evaluated with 2-way ANOVA (α=.05), followed by the Tukey honest significant difference post hoc test, and the Pearson correlation test (α=.05). Alloy (P<.001) and casting technique (P<.001) were shown to affect marginal deficiencies. The Ni-Cr cast using the torch technique showed the highest marginal deficiency, and the Ni-Cr-Be cast in a controlled argon atmosphere showed the lowest (P<.001). Alloy (P=.472) and casting techniques (P=.206) did not affect the marginal misfit, but significant differences were found in the interaction (P=.001); the lowest misfit was achieved using the Ni-Cr-Be, and the highest misfit occurred with the molten Ni-Cr, using the cast torch technique. No correlation was found between deficiency and marginal misfit (r=.04, P=.69). The interactions demonstrated that the alloy containing beryllium that was cast in an argon atmosphere led to reduced marginal deficiency. Improved marginal adaptation can be achieved for the same alloy by using the torch technique. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-resistant castable corrosion-resistant nickel alloy for monocrystalline casting by the directional crystallization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, S. B.; Andrienko, A. G.; Gaiduk, S. V.; Kononov, V. V.; Zamkovoi, V. E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-resistant corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy has been developed for monocrystalline casting using the directional crystallization method. Its mechanical properties are close to those of aircraft alloys ZhS6K-VI and ZhS6U-VI with an equiaxial structure and ZhS26-VI with an oriented structure. The technology of producing blades for turboprop engines from the new alloy has been developed and tested.

  14. Effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and fatigue properties of cast iron for internal combustion engine exhaust manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, David J.

    In the design of exhaust manifolds for internal combustion engines the materials used must exhibit resistance to corrosion at high temperatures while maintaining a stable microstructure. Cast iron has been used for manifolds for many years by auto manufacturers due to a combination of suitable mechanical properties, low cost, and ease of casting. Over time cast iron is susceptible to microstructural changes, corrosion, and oxidation which can result in failure due to fatigue. This thesis seeks to answer the question: "Can observed microstructural changes and measured high temperature fatigue life in cast iron alloys be used to develop a predictive model for fatigue life?" the importance of this question lies in the fact that there is little data for the behavior of cast iron alloys at high temperature. For this study two different types of cast iron, 50HS and HSM will be examined. Of particular concern for the high Si+C cast irons (and Mo in the case of the HSM cast iron) are subsurface microstructural changes that result due to heat treatment including (1) decarburization, (2) ferrite formation, (3) graphitization, (4) internal oxidation of the Si, (5) high temperature fatigue resistance, and (6) creep potential. Initial results obtained include microstructure examination after being exposed to high temperatures, grain size, nodule size, and hardness measurements. The initial examinations concluded that both cast irons performed fairly similarly, although the microstructure of the HSM samples did show slightly better resistance to high temperature as compared to that of the 50HS. Follow on work involved high temperature fatigue testing of these two materials in order to better determine if the newer alloy, HSM is a better choice for exhaust manifolds. Correlations between fatigue performance and microstructure were made and discussed, with the results examined in light of current and proposed models for predicting fatigue performance based on computational methods

  15. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Golru, S.; Attar, M. M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the As-Cast and As-Homogenized Mg-Zn-Sn-Mn-Ca Alloy Fabricated by Semicontinuous Casting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Zhao, Guoqun; Zhou, Jixue; Zhang, Cunsheng; Yu, Junquan

    2018-04-29

    In this paper, a new type of low-cost Mg-3.36Zn-1.06Sn-0.33Mn-0.27Ca (wt %) alloy ingot with a diameter of 130 mm and a length of 4800 mm was fabricated by semicontinuous casting. The microstructure and mechanical properties at different areas of the ingot were investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy under different one-step and two-step homogenization conditions were studied. For the as-cast alloy, the average grain size and the second phase size decrease from the center to the surface of the ingot, while the area fraction of the second phase increases gradually. At one-half of the radius of the ingot, the alloy presents the optimum comprehensive mechanical properties along the axial direction, which is attributed to the combined effect of relatively small grain size, low second-phase fraction, and uniform microstructure. For the as-homogenized alloy, the optimum two-step homogenization process parameters were determined as 340 °C × 10 h + 520 °C × 16 h. After the optimum homogenization, the proper size and morphology of CaMgSn phase are conducive to improve the microstructure uniformity and the mechanical properties of the alloy. Besides, the yield strength of the alloy is reduced by 20.7% and the elongation is increased by 56.3%, which is more favorable for the subsequent hot deformation processing.

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the As-Cast and As-Homogenized Mg-Zn-Sn-Mn-Ca Alloy Fabricated by Semicontinuous Casting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xing; Zhao, Guoqun; Zhou, Jixue; Zhang, Cunsheng; Yu, Junquan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of low-cost Mg-3.36Zn-1.06Sn-0.33Mn-0.27Ca (wt %) alloy ingot with a diameter of 130 mm and a length of 4800 mm was fabricated by semicontinuous casting. The microstructure and mechanical properties at different areas of the ingot were investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy under different one-step and two-step homogenization conditions were studied. For the as-cast alloy, the average grain size and the second phase size decrease from the center to the surface of the ingot, while the area fraction of the second phase increases gradually. At one-half of the radius of the ingot, the alloy presents the optimum comprehensive mechanical properties along the axial direction, which is attributed to the combined effect of relatively small grain size, low second-phase fraction, and uniform microstructure. For the as-homogenized alloy, the optimum two-step homogenization process parameters were determined as 340 °C × 10 h + 520 °C × 16 h. After the optimum homogenization, the proper size and morphology of CaMgSn phase are conducive to improve the microstructure uniformity and the mechanical properties of the alloy. Besides, the yield strength of the alloy is reduced by 20.7% and the elongation is increased by 56.3%, which is more favorable for the subsequent hot deformation processing. PMID:29710818

  18. Analysis Of The Surface Roughness Obtained During The Dry Turning Of UNS A97050-T7 Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Agustina, B.; Rubio, E. M.; Villeta, M.; Sebastián, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    Currently, in the aeronautical, aerospace and automotive industries there is high demand of materials such as the aluminium alloys that have high resistance even at high temperatures as well as a low density. For this reason, these alloys are widely used for the production of different elements that compose aircraft and aerospace vehicles. Nevertheless, in spite of the important role these materials have from the competitive point of view, they can commonly show problems of machinability associated with the tool wear. That has made that traditionally cutting fluids had been used in machining processes. However, they can contain environmentally harmful constituents and increase considerably the total cost of the process. Therefore, researches have been focused on the development of cleaner production technologies applications as dry machining. This leads to the search for combinations of cutting parameters and type of tools (types of coatings and different geometries) that could improve the machining under such conditions. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the surface roughness obtained during the dry turning of aluminium UNS A97050-T7 bars and the cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed) using three different tools. As a first conclusion it could be affirmed that the feed was the cutting parameter more influential on the surface roughness and to a lesser extend the cutting speed, the type of tool and the interaction between the type of tool and the feed.

  19. Local zone-wise elastic-plastic constitutive parameters of Laser-welded aluminium alloy 6061 using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruixiang; Wei, Yuepeng; Lei, Zhenkun; Jiang, Hao; Tao, Wang; Yan, Cheng; Li, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of aluminium alloys can be affected by the local high temperature in laser welding. In this paper, an inversion identification method of local zone-wise elastic-plastic constitutive parameters for laser welding of aluminium alloy 6061 was proposed based on full-field optical measurement data using digital image correlation (DIC). Three regions, i.e., the fusion zone, heat-affected zone, and base zone, of the laser-welded joint were distinguished by means of microstructure optical observation and micrometer hardness measurement. The stress data were obtained using a laser-welded specimen via a uniaxial tensile test. Meanwhile, the local strain data of the laser-welded specimen were obtained by the DIC technique. Thus, the stress-strain relationship for different local regions was established. Finally, the constitutive parameters of the Ramberg-Osgood model were identified by least-square fitting to the experimental stress-strain data. Experimental results revealed that the mechanical properties of the local zones of the welded joints clearly weakened, and these results are consistent with the results of the hardness measurement.

  20. Non-destructive and three-dimensional measurement of local strain development during tensile deformation in an aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Miura, H.; Toda, H.

    2015-08-01

    Anisotropy of mechanical responses depending on crystallographic orientation causes inhomogeneous deformation on the mesoscopic scale (grain size scale). Investigation of the local plastic strain development is important for discussing recrystallization mechanisms, because the sites with higher local plastic strain may act as potential nucleation sites for recrystallization. Recently, high-resolution X-ray tomography, which is non-destructive inspection method, has been utilized for observation of the materials structure. In synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, more than 10,000 microstructural features, like precipitates, dispersions, compounds and hydrogen pores, can be observed in aluminium alloys. We have proposed employing these microstructural features as marker gauges to measure local strains, and then have developed a method to calculate the three-dimensional strain distribution by tracking the microstructural features. In this study, we report the development of local plastic strain as a function of the grain microstructure in an aluminium alloy by means of this three-dimensional strain measurement technique. Strongly heterogeneous strain development was observed during tensile loading to 30%. In other words, some parts of the sample deform little whereas another deforms a lot. However, strain in the whole specimen was keeping harmony. Comparing the microstructure with the strain concentration that is obtained by this method has a potential to reveal potential nucleation sites of recrystallization.

  1. Creep and residual mechanical properties of cast superalloys and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile, stress-rupture, creep, and residual tensile properties after creep testing were determined for two typical cast superalloys and four advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The superalloys examined included the nickel-base alloy B-1900 and the cobalt-base alloy MAR-M509. The nickel-base ODS MA-757 (Ni-16CR-4Al-0.6Y2O3 and the iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 (Fe-20Cr-5Al-0.8Y2O3) were extensively studied, while limited testing was conducted on the ODS nickel-base alloys STCA (Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-2Y2O3) with a without Ta and YD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-5Al-2Y2O3). Elevated temperature testing was conducted from 114 to 1477 K except for STCA and YD-NiCrAl alloys, which were only tested at 1366 K. The residual tensile properties of B-1900 and MAR-M509 are not reduced by prior creep testing (strains at least up to 1 percent), while the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by small amounts of prior creep strain (less than 0.5 percent). The iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 does not appear to be susceptible to creep degradation at least up to strains of about 0.25 percent. However, MA-956 exhibits unusual creep behavior which apparently involves crack nucleation and growth.

  2. Precise Analysis of Microstructural Effects on Mechanical Properties of Cast ADC12 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Ochi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    The effects of microstructural characteristics (secondary dendrite arm spacing, SDAS) and Si- and Fe-based eutectic structures on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of an Al-Si-Cu alloy are investigated. Cast Al alloy samples are produced using a special continuous-casting technique with which it is easy to control both the sizes of microstructures and the direction of crystal orientation. Dendrite cells appear to grow in the casting direction. There are linear correlations between SDAS and tensile properties (ultimate tensile strength σ UTS, 0.2 pct proof strength σ 0.2, and fracture strain ɛ f). These linear correlations, however, break down, especially for σ UTS vs SDAS and ɛ f vs SDAS, as the eutectic structures become more than 3 μm in diameter, when the strength and ductility ( σ UTS and ɛ f) decrease significantly. For eutectic structures larger than 3 μm, failure is dominated by the brittle eutectic phases, for which SDAS is no longer strongly correlated with σ UTS and ɛ f. In contrast, a linear correlation is obtained between σ 0.2 and SDAS, even for eutectic structures larger than 3 μm, and the eutectic structure does not have a strong effect on yield behavior. This is because failure in the eutectic phases occurs just before final fracture. In situ failure observation during tensile testing is performed using microstructural and lattice characteristics. From the experimental results obtained, models of failure during tensile loading are proposed.

  3. Grain refinement and texture development of cast bismuth-antimony alloy via severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jae-Taek

    The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured microstructure in Bi90Sb10 alloy with enhanced thermoelectric performance and mechanical strength. In the study, twelve millimeter diameter cast bars of Bi90Sb 10 alloy were encapsulated in square cross section aluminum 6061 alloy containers. The composite bars were equal channel angular (ECAE) extruded through a 90 degree angle die at high homologous temperature. Various extrusion conditions were studied including punch speed (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 in/min), extrusion temperature (220, 235 and 250°C), number of extrusion passes (1, 2 and 4), route (A, BC and C), and exit channel area reduction ratio (half and quarter area of inlet channel). The affect of an intermediate long term heat treatment (for 100 hours at 250°C under 10-3 torr vacuum) was explored. Processed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Texture was analyzed using the {006} reflection plane to identify the orientation of the basal poles in processed materials. The cast grains were irregularly shaped, had a grain size of hundreds-of-microns to millimeters, and showed inhomogeneous chemical composition. Severe plastic deformation refines the cast grains through dynamic recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure. Texture results show that ECAE route C processing gives a similar or slightly stronger texture than ECAE route A processing. In both cases, the basal-plane poles become aligned with the shear direction. Reduction area exit

  4. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti-5Sn-xMo Alloys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-04-27

    Ti-5Sn- x Mo ( x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α' → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti-5Sn-7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti-5Sn-10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability.

  5. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  6. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti–5Sn–xMo Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α′ → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti–5Sn–7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti–5Sn–10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability. PMID:28772820

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Low Alloyed MnB Cast Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kaishuang; Bai, Bingzhe

    2010-08-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of a low alloyed MnB cast steel designed for coupler castings of trucks were studied. The results show that the microstructure of the MnB cast steel after water quenching is lath martensite and a small amount of massive islands in the matrix of lath martensite. The average size of the martensite packets is about 10 μm in length. Carbides precipitated dispersively at the tempering temperature of 450 °C. The carbides are slender and fibrous, of which the microstructure was θ-phase (Fe, Mn)3C characterized by TEM. The MnB cast steel has good hardenability and tempering stability. Excellent combination of strength, ductility and low-temperature toughness were obtained after water-quenching and 450 °C tempering: Rm = 960-1040 MPa, ReL = 880-900 MPa, A = 19-21%, Z = 56-58%. Especially, the impact energy of the Charpy V-Notch (CVN) specimens reached 70-88 J at -40 °C. The fracture mechanism is transcrystalline fracture both for ambient temperature uniaxial tensile test specimens and for CVN impact test specimens broken at -40 °C, where the whole surfaces were manifested as voids and dimples.

  8. Modeling the Homogenization Kinetics of As-Cast U-10wt% Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Joshi, Vineet; Hu, Shenyang Y.

    2016-01-15

    Low-enriched U-22at% Mo (U-10Mo) alloy has been considered as an alternative material to replace the highly enriched fuels in research reactors. For the U-10Mo to work effectively and replace the existing fuel material, a thorough understanding of the microstructure development from as-cast to the final formed structure is required. The as-cast microstructure typically resembles an inhomogeneous microstructure with regions containing molybdenum-rich and -lean regions, which may affect the processing and possibly the in-reactor performance. This as-cast structure must be homogenized by thermal treatment to produce a uniform Mo distribution. The development of a modeling capability will improve the understanding ofmore » the effect of initial microstructures on the Mo homogenization kinetics. In the current work, we investigated the effect of as-cast microstructure on the homogenization kinetics. The kinetics of the homogenization was modeled based on a rigorous algorithm that relates the line scan data of Mo concentration to the gray scale in energy dispersive spectroscopy images, which was used to generate a reconstructed Mo concentration map. The map was then used as realistic microstructure input for physics-based homogenization models, where the entire homogenization kinetics can be simulated and validated against the available experiment data at different homogenization times and temperatures.« less

  9. Coupled thermal-fluid-mechanics analysis of twin roll casting of A7075 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun-Soo; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Cho, Jae-Hyung; Chun, Se-Hwan

    2017-09-01

    Better understanding of temperature distribution and roll separation force during twin roll casting of aluminum alloys is critical to successfully fabricate good quality of aluminum strips. Therefore, the simulation techniques are widely applied to understand the twin roll casting process in a comprehensive way and to reduce the experimental time and cost of trial and error. However, most of the conventional approaches are considered thermally coupled flow, or thermally coupled mechanical behaviors. In this study, a fully coupled thermal-fluid-mechanical analysis of twin roll casting of A7075 aluminum strips was carried out using the finite element method. Temperature profile, liquid fraction and metal flow of aluminum strips with different thickness were predicted. Roll separation force and roll temperatures were experimentally obtained from a pilot-scale twin roll caster, and those results were compared with model predictions. Coupling the fluid of the liquid melt to the thermal and mechanical modeling reasonably predicted roll temperature distribution and roll separation force during twin roll casting.

  10. Real-time synchrotron x-ray observations of equiaxed solidification of aluminium alloys and implications for modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A.; Liotti, E.; McDonald, S. D.; Nogita, K.; Yasuda, H.; Grant, P. S.; StJohn, D. H.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, in-situ observations were carried out by synchrotron X-ray radiography to observe the nucleation and growth in Al alloys during solidification. The nucleation and grain formation of a range of Al-Si and Al-Cu binary alloys were studied. When grain refiner was added to the alloys, the location of the nucleation events was readily observed. Once nucleation began it continued to occur in a wave of events with the movement of the temperature gradient across the field of view due to cooling. Other features observed were the settling of the primary phase grains in the Al-Si alloys and floating in the Al-Cu alloys, the effects of convection with marked fluctuation of the growth rate of the solid-liquid interface in the Al-Si alloys, and an absence of fragmentation. The microstructures are typical of those produced in the equiaxed zone of actual castings. These observations are compared with predictions arising from the Interdependence model. The results from this comparison have implications for further refinement of the model and simulation and modelling approaches in general. These implications will be discussed.

  11. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Alan A; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Riggi, Adrienne

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide largemore » amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.« less

  12. Anisotropic Responses of Mechanical and Thermal Processed Cast Al-Si-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Balogun, S. A.; Onoyemi, O. K.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of ambient directional rolling and heat treatments on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness (HD), percent elongation (PE), and impact energy (IE) on Al-Si-Mg-Cu alloy casting with reference to inclination to rolling direction are discussed in this article. The results show that rolled and quenched (CQ) sample possess superior UTS and HD to as-cast and those of rolled and aged samples (CA). Improved IE resistance with ductility is shown by both CQ and CA samples. However, these mechanical properties are enhanced as changes in the test sample direction moved away from rolling direction for all heat-treated samples. The CQ samples displayed highest tensile strength (108 MPa) and PE (19.8%) in the 90° direction.

  13. Developing high strength and ductility in biomedical Co-Cr cast alloys by simultaneous doping with nitrogen and carbon.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenta; Mori, Manami; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-02-01

    There is a strong demand for biomedical Co-Cr-based cast alloys with enhanced mechanical properties for use in dental applications. We present a design strategy for development of Co-Cr-based cast alloys with very high strength, comparable to that of wrought Co-Cr alloys, without loss of ductility. The strategy consists of simultaneous doping of nitrogen and carbon, accompanied by increasing of the Cr content to increase the nitrogen solubility. The strategy was verified by preparing Co-33Cr-9W-0.35N-(0.01-0.31)C (mass%) alloys. We determined the carbon concentration dependence of the microstructures and their mechanical properties. Metal ion release of the alloys in an aqueous solution of 0.6% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 1% lactic acid was also evaluated to ensure their corrosion resistance. As a result of the nitrogen doping, the formation of a brittle σ-phase, a chromium-rich intermetallic compound, was significantly suppressed. Adding carbon to the alloys resulted in finer-grained microstructures and carbide precipitation; accordingly, the strength increased with increasing carbon concentration. The tensile ductility, on the other hand, increased with increasing carbon concentration only up to a point, reaching a maximum at a carbon concentration of ∼0.1mass% and decreasing with further carbon doping. However, the alloy with 0.31mass% of carbon exhibited 14% elongation and also possessed very high strength (725MPa in 0.2% proof stress). The addition of carbon did not significantly degrade the corrosion resistance. The results show that our strategy realizes a novel high-strength Co-Cr-based cast alloy that can be produced for advanced dental applications using a conventional casting procedure. The present study suggested a novel alloy design concept for realizing high-strength Co-Cr-based cast alloys. The proposed strategy is beneficial from the practical point of view because it uses conventional casting approach-a simpler, more cost-effective, industrially

  14. Solidification, growth mechanisms, and associated properties of aluminum-silicon and magnesium lightweight casting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosch, Timothy Al

    Continually rising energy prices have inspired increased interest in weight reduction in the automotive and aerospace industries, opening the door for the widespread use and development of lightweight structural materials. Chief among these materials are cast Al-Si and magnesium-based alloys. Utilization of Al-Si alloys depends on obtaining a modified fibrous microstructure in lieu of the intrinsic flake structure, a process which is incompletely understood. The local solidification conditions, mechanisms, and tensile properties associated with the flake to fiber growth mode transition in Al-Si eutectic alloys are investigated here using bridgman type gradient-zone directional solidification. Resulting microstructures are examined through quantitative image analysis of two-dimensional sections and observation of deep-etched sections showing three-dimensional microstructural features. The transition was found to occur in two stages: an initial stage dominated by in-plane plate breakup and rod formation within the plane of the plate, and a second stage where the onset of out-of-plane silicon rod growth leads to the formation of an irregular fibrous structure. Several microstructural parameters were investigated in an attempt to quantify this transition, and it was found that the particle aspect ratio is effective in objectively identifying the onset and completion velocity of the flake to fiber transition. The appearance of intricate out-of-plane silicon instability formations was investigated by adapting a perturbed-interface stability analysis to the Al-Si system. Measurements of silicon equilibrium shape particles provided an estimate of the anisotropy of the solid Si/liquid Al-Si system and incorporation of this silicon anisotropy into the model was found to improve prediction of the instability length scale. Magnesium alloys share many of the benefits of Al-Si alloys, with the added benefit of a 1/3 lower density and increased machinability. Magnesium castings

  15. Depth of array micro-holes with large aspect ratio in Al based cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Meiling; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde

    2018-03-01

    In order to study on the depth of array micro-holes on Al base cast alloy, micro-hole with depth of 50 mm and diameter of 0.55 mm are successfully prepared by using poor wetting between carbon and Al. Accordingly, the mold of depth is established, the results show that calculated depth of micro-hole is 53.22 mm, relative error is 6% compare with the actual measured depth, and the depth of hole exponentially increases with the increasing of distance between two micro-holes. Surface tension and metallostatic pressure of metal molten are mainly affecting factors for depth of micro-holes.

  16. Development of 1500mm Wide Wrought Magnesium Alloys by Twin Roll Casting Technique in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duygulu, Ozgur; Ucuncuoglu, Selda; Oktay, Gizem; Temur, Deniz Sultan; Yucel, Onuralp; Kaya, Ali Arslan

    Magnesium alloy AZ31, AZ61, AZ91, AM50 and AM60 sheets were produced by twin roll casting first time in Turkey. Sheets of 4.5-6.5mm thick and 1500mm width were successfully achieved. Microstructure of the sheet was analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Semi-quantitative analyses were performed by SEM-EDS. In addition, X-ray studies were performed for both characterization and texture purposes. Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests and also hardness measurements. Homogenization and annealing heat treatments were performed on the produced sheets.

  17. New Creep-Resistant Cast Alloys with Improved Oxidation Resistance in Water Vapor at 650–800°C

    DOE PAGES

    Dryepondt, Sebastien; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2015-08-13

    Cast stainless steel CF8C-Plus (19wt%Cr/12%Ni) has excellent creep properties, but limited oxidation resistance above 700 C in environments containing H 2O. One strategy to improve the alloy oxidation performance is to increase the Cr and Ni concentration. Two new alloys, with, respectively, 21wt%Cr 15wt%Ni and 22wt%Cr 17.5wt%Ni were therefore developed and their long-term oxidation behaviors in humid air were compared with the oxidation behavior of five other cast alloys. Also, at 650 C and 700 C, all the alloys formed internal Cr-rich nodules, and outer nodules or layers rich in Fe and Ni, but they grew a protective Cr-rich innermore » layer over time. At 750 C, the lower alloyed steels such as CF8C-Plus showed large metal losses, but the two new alloys still exhibited a protective oxidation behavior. The 21Cr 15Ni alloy was severely oxidized in locations at 800 C, but that was not the case for the 22Cr 17.5Ni alloy. Thus, the two new modified alloys represent a potential operating temperature gain of, respectively, 50 C and 100 C in aggressive environments compared with the CF8C-Plus alloy.« less

  18. The Effects of Grain Refinement and Rare Earth Intermetallics on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast and Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbahari, Bita; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Emamy, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    The effects of rare earth intermetallics and grain refinement by alloying and hot extrusion on the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys have been studied to elucidate some useful ways to enhance the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. It was revealed that aluminum as an alloying element is a much better grain refining agent compared with gadolinium, but the simultaneous presence of Al and Gd can refine the as-cast grain size more efficiently. The presence of fine and widely dispersed rare earth intermetallics was found to be favorable to achieve finer recrystallized grains during hot deformation by extrusion. The presence of coarse dendritic structure in the GZ61 alloy, grain boundary eutectic containing Mg17Al12 phase in the AZ61 alloy, and rare earth intermetallics with unfavorable morphology in the Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn alloy was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of the alloy in the as-cast condition. As a result, the microstructural refinement induced by hot extrusion process resulted in a significant enhancement in strength and ductility of the alloys. The presence of intermetallic compounds in the extruded Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn and Mg-2Gd-4Al-1Zn alloys deteriorated tensile properties, which was related to the fact that such intermetallic compounds act as stress risers and microvoid initiation sites.

  19. Role of copper in precipitation hardening of high-alloy Cr-Ni cast steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Mirosław

    2006-02-01

    The mechanism of strengthening with second-phase particles that results from heat treatment, i.e., precipitate hardening, plays an important role in modern alloys. The strengthening effect of such particles can result from their coherence with the matrix, inhibition of dislocation slip, inhibition of grain boundary slip, as well as hampering recovery processes due to dislocation network pinning. The results of investigations into high-alloy Cr-Ni-Cu cast steels precipitate hardened with highly dispersed ɛ phase particles are presented within. The influence of heat treatment on changes in microstructure, mechanical properties, and morphology of fracture surfaces obtained under loading have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that, with the appropriate selection of heat treatment parameters, it is possible to control the precipitation of the hardening ɛ phase and, thus, to change the final mechanical and functional properties.

  20. Metallurgical reactions in two industrially strip-cast aluminum-manganese alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, V.; Andersson, B.; Tibballs, J. E.; Gjønnes, J.

    1995-08-01

    Precipitation, phase transformation, subgrain growth, and recrystallization that occur during heat treatment of two strip-cast, cold-rolled, high manganese aluminum alloys have been studied mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloys differ in silicon content. The isothermal heat treatments have been performed in a salt bath at temperatures between 330 °C and 530 °C for times up to 1000 hours. Size distributions for each type of secondary particle have been determined. After short annealing times, small quasicrystals precipitated and subsequently transformed to α phase. The densities of these precipitates controlled dislocation movement and regulated subgrain sizes. Prolonged heating resulted in peritectoid reactions to Al6Mn or Al12Mn. Recrystallization, which is associated with the formation of Al12Mn, is advanced by increasing the silicon content; the nucleation and growth of Al12Mn occurs only at the expense of other phases that stabilize the subgrain network.

  1. Development of Advanced High Strength Cast Alloys for Heavy Duty Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, James

    Gray iron has been the primary alloy for heavy duty diesel engine core castings for decades. During recent decades the limitations of gray iron have been reached in some applications, leading to the use of compacted graphite iron in engine blocks and heads. Caterpillar has had compacted graphite designs in continuous production since the late 1980’s. Due to the drive for higher power density, decreased emissions and increased fuel economy, cylinder pressures and temperatures continue to increase. Currently no viable replacement for today’s compacted graphite irons exist at an acceptable cost level. This project explored methods to develop the nextmore » generation of heavy duty diesel engine materials as well as demonstrated some results on new alloy designs although cost targets will likely not be met.« less

  2. Development of a discriminatory biocompatibility testing model for non-precious dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Emma Louise; Fleming, Garry J P; Moran, Gary P

    2011-12-01

    To develop an enhanced, reproducible and discriminatory biocompatibility testing model for non-precious dental casting alloys, prepared to a clinically relevant surface finishing condition, using TR146 oral keratinocyte cells. Comparative biocompatibility was determined following direct and indirect exposure of TR146 cells to two nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy-discs. The surface roughness of the discs was determined using a contact stylus profilometer and the elemental ion release by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Subsequent biocompatibility analysis included cell morphology, cell density measurements with Trypan blue exclusion assay, inflammatory cytokine expression with ELISAs, cellular metabolic activity using XTT and cellular toxicity using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. TR146 cell morphology was altered following direct and indirect exposure to the Ni-Cr alloys but not the Co-Cr alloy. Significant reductions (all P<0.001) in viable cell density measurements, cellular metabolic activity, significant increases inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity were observed when TR146 cells were exposed to the Ni-Cr alloys. Significant decreases in cell density measurements, cellular metabolic activity, significant increases inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity for the Ni-Cr d.Sign(®)15 alloy compared with d.Sign(®)10 alloy were identifiable (all P<0.001). Cellular toxicity was attributed to nickel ion release levels in solution detected by ICP-MS analysis. Nickel ions from the Ni-Cr alloys permeated the epithelial cells and activated a proinflammatory response, namely IL-1a, IL-8 and PGE2 expression. Further evidence of nickel ioninduced cell death was supported by the decreased biocompatibility of the highest nickel ion releasing alloy (d.Sign(®)15 compared with d.Sign(®)10) and the increased biocompatibility of the Co-Cr (d.Sign(®)30) alloy where nickel ions were

  3. Creep-rupture behavior of a developmental cast-iron-base alloy for use up to 800 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Scheuermann, Coulson M.

    1987-01-01

    A promising iron-base cast alloy is being developed as part of the DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Systems Project under contract DEN 3-282 with the United Technologies Research Center. This report presents the results of a study at the Lewis Research Center of the alloy's creep-rupture properties. The alloy was tested under a variety of conditions and was found to exhibit the normal 3-stage creep response. The alloy compared favorably with others being used or under consideration for the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/regenerator housing.

  4. Hot-tearing of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys based on casting load measurements in a constrained permanent mold

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Mirmiran, Seyed; Glaspie, Christopher

    Hot-tearing is a major casting defect that is often difficult to characterize, especially for multicomponent Al alloys used for cylinder head castings. The susceptibility of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys to hot-tearing during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and displacement was measured. The experimental results for hot tearing susceptibility are compared with those obtained from a hot-tearing criterion based temperature range evaluated at fraction solids of 0.87 and 0.94. The Cu composition was varied from approximately 5 to 8 pct. (weight). Casting experiments were conducted without grain refining. The measured load during castingmore » can be used to indicate the severity of hot tearing. However, when small hot-tears are present, the load variation cannot be used to detect and assess hot-tearing susceptibility.« less

  5. Silica coatings formed on noble dental casting alloy by the sol-gel dipping process.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Tanagawa, M; Kamada, K; Hatada, R; Baba, K; Inoi, T; Atsuta, M

    1999-08-01

    The sol-gel dipping process, in which liquid silicon alkoxide is transformed into the solid silicon-oxygen network, can produce a thin film coating of silica (SiO2). The features of this method are high homogeneity and purity of the thin SiO2 film and a low sinter temperature, which are important in preparation of coating films that can protect from metallic ion release from the metal substrate and prevent attachment of dental plaque. We evaluated the surface characteristics of the dental casting silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy coated with a thin SiO2 film by the sol-gel dipping process. The SiO2 film bonded strongly (over 40 MPa) to Ti-implanted Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy substrate as demonstrated by a pull test. Hydrophobilization of Ti-implanted/SiO2-coated surfaces resulted in a significant increase of the contact angle of water (80.5 degrees) compared with that of the noncoated alloy specimens (59.3 degrees). Ti-implanted/SiO2-coated specimens showed the release of many fewer metallic ions (192 ppb/cm2) from the substrate than did noncoated specimens (2,089 ppb/cm2). The formation of a thin SiO2 film by the sol-gel dipping process on the surface of Ti-implanted Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy after casting clinically may be useful for minimizing the possibilities of the accumulation of dental plaque and metal allergies caused by intraoral metal restorations.

  6. Effect of surface contamination on adhesive bonding of cast pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Watanabe, E; Yoshida, K; Okabe, T

    1999-03-01

    There is little information regarding bond strengths of resin cements to cast titanium surfaces contaminated by investment material. This study examined the effect of surface contamination on the shear bond strength of resin cements to cast titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Two types of disks were cast from commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingots using an argon-arc pressure casting unit and a phosphate-bonded Al2 O3 /LiAlSiO6 investment. After casting, disks were subjected to 3 surface treatments: (1) cast surface sandblasted (50 microm-sized Al2 O3 ) for 30 seconds; (2) metal surface sanded with silicon-carbide paper (600 grit) after grinding the contaminated cast surface (approximately 200 microm in thickness); and (3) metal surface sandblasted for 30 seconds after treatment 2. Surface structures were examined after each treatment with SEM and optical microscopy. Each type of disk was then bonded with 2 types of luting materials. Bonded specimens were subjected to thermocycling for up to 50,000 cycles, and shear bond strengths were determined after 0 (baseline) and 50,000 thermocycles. Results were statistically analyzed with 3-way ANOVA (P <.05). Microscopic observation of cast CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V exhibited noticeable structures on the cast surfaces apparently contaminated with investment material. However, there were no statistical differences (P >.05) in the bond strengths of both cements between contaminated (treatment 1) and uncontaminated surfaces (treatment 3) for both metals at baseline and after 50,000 thermocycles. The bond strength of specimens sanded with silicon-carbide paper (treatment 2) deteriorated dramatically after 50,000 thermocycles. Contamination of the cast metal surfaces by elements of the investment during casting did not affect bond strengths of the luting materials to CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V.

  7. Effects of joint configuration for the arc welding of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy rods in argon.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Hondrum, S O; Prasad, A; Brodersen, C A

    1998-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are more commonly used in prosthodontics and welding has become the most common modality for their joining. Studies on the welding of titanium and its alloys have not quantified this value, though its importance has been suggested. This study compared the strength and properties of the joint achieved at various butt joint gaps by the arc-welding of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy tensile bars in an argon atmosphere. Forty of 50 specimens were sectioned and welded at four gaps. All specimens underwent tensile testing to determine ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation, then oxygen analysis and scanning electron microscopy. As no more than 3 samples in any group of 10 actually fractured in the weld itself, a secondary analysis that involved fracture location was initiated. There were no differences in ultimate tensile strength or percentage elongation between specimens with weld gaps of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mm and the as-cast specimens. There were no differences in ultimate tensile strength between specimens fracturing in the weld and those fracturing in the gauge in welded specimens; however, as-cast specimens demonstrated a higher ultimate tensile strength than welded specimens that fractured in the weld. Specimens that fractured in the weld site demonstrated less ductility than those that fractured in the gauge in both welded and as-cast specimens, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy examination. The weld wire showed an oxygen scavenging effect from the as-cast parent alloy. The effects of the joint gap were not significant, whereas the characteristics of the joint itself were, which displayed slightly lower strength and significantly lower ductility (and thus decreased toughness). The arc-welding of cast titanium alloy in argon atmosphere appears to be a reliable and efficient prosthodontic laboratory modality producing predictable results, although titanium casting and joining procedures must be closely controlled to

  8. Aluminum-Silicon Alloy Having Improved Properties At Elevated Temperatures and Process for Producing Cast Articles Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A process for making a cast article from an aluminum alloy includes first casting an article from an alloy having the following composition, in weight percent: Silicon 11.0-14.0, Copper 5.6-8.0, Iron 0-0.8, Magnesium 0.5-1.5, Nickel 0.05-0.9, Manganese 0-1.0, Titanium 0.05-1.2, Zirconium 0.12-1.2, Vanadium 0.05-1.2, Zinc 0.05-0.9, Strontium 0.001-0.1, Aluminum balance . In this alloy the ratio of silicon to magnesium is 10 to 25, and the ratio of copper to magnesium is 4 to 15. After an article is cast from the alloy, the cast article is aged at a temperature within the range of 400F to 500F for a time period within the range of four to 16 hours. It has been found especially advantageous if the cast article is first exposed to a solutionizing step prior to the aging step. This solutionizing step is carried out by exposing the cast article to a temperature within the range of 900F to 1000F for a time period of fifteen minutes to four hours. It has also been found to be especially advantageous if the solutionizing step is followed directly with a quenching step, wherein the cast article is quenched in a quenching medium such as water at a temperature within the range of 120F to 300F. The resulting cast article is suitable in a number of high temperature applications, such as heavy-duty pistons for internal combustion engines.

  9. Aluminum-Silicon Alloy Having Improved Properties at Elevated Temperatures and Articles Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An aluminum alloy suitable for high temperature applications, such as heavy duty pistons and other internal combustion applications. having the following composition, by weight percent (wt %): Silicon: 11.0-14.0; Copper: 5.6-8.0; Iron: 0-0.8; Magnesium: 0.5-1.5; Nickel: 0.05-0.9; Manganese: 0.5-1.5; Titanium: 0.05-1.2; Zirconium: 0.12-1.2; Vanadium: 0.05-1.2; Zinc: 0.005-0.9; Strontium: 0.001-0.1; Aluminum: balance. In this alloy the ratio of silicon:magnesium is 10-25, and the ratio of copper:magnesium is 4-15. After an article is cast from this alloy, the article is treated in a solutionizing step which dissolves unwanted precipitates and reduces any segregation present in the original alloy. After this solutionizing step, the article is quenched, and is then aged at an elevated temperature for maximum strength.

  10. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys Part 2. Application of developed investment for type 4 gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Akira; Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Goto, Shin-ichi; Kato, Katuma; Yara, Atushi; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the developed investment for the prevention of blackening of a cast Type 4 gold and to analyze the oxides on its surface in relation to the blackening of the alloy. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which boron (B) or aluminum (Al) was added as a reducing agent. A Type 4 gold alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the additives was evaluated from the color difference (deltaE*) between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. B and Al were effective to prevent the blackening of a Type 4 gold alloy and the color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. The prevention of the blackening of the gold alloy can be achieved by restraining the formation of CuO.

  11. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 1. Application of developed investment for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Akira; Goto, Shin-ichi; Wakamatsu, Yasushi; Yara, Atushi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which the metallic powders such as boron (B), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) were added as oxidizing agents. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the addition of each metal powder was evaluated from the color difference between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. The color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. A lower mean value in the color difference was obtained at 0.25-1.00 mass% B content. B and Al are useful as an additive in a gypsum-bonded investment to prevent the blackening of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. The effects of Si and Ti powder addition could not be found.

  12. The Role of Carbon in Grain Refinement of Cast CrFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. W.; Liu, L.; Liu, G.; Wu, X. X.; Lu, D. H.; Yao, J. Q.; Jiang, W. M.; Fan, Z. T.; Zhang, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    As a promising engineering material, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CrFeCoNi system has attracted extensive attention worldwide. Their cast alloys are of great importance because of their great formability of complex components, which can be further improved through the transition of the columnar to equiaxed grains and grain refinement. In the current work, the influence of C contents on the grain structures and mechanical properties of the as-cast high-entropy alloy CrFeCoNi was chosen as the target and systematically studied via a hybrid approach of the experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The alloys with various C additions were prepared by arc melting and drop cast. The as-cast macrostructure and microstructure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cast HEAs transform from coarse columnar grains into equiaxed grains with the C level increased to ≥ 2 at. pct and the size of equiaxed grains is further decreased with the increasing C addition. It is revealed that the interdendritic segregation of Cr and C results in grain boundary precipitation of M23C6 carbides. The grain refinement is attributed to the additional constitutional supercoiling from the C addition. The yield stress and tensile strength at room temperature are improved due to the transition of columnar to equiaxed grains and grain refinement.

  13. The Role of Carbon in Grain Refinement of Cast CrFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. W.; Liu, L.; Liu, G.; Wu, X. X.; Lu, D. H.; Yao, J. Q.; Jiang, W. M.; Fan, Z. T.; Zhang, W. B.

    2018-06-01

    As a promising engineering material, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CrFeCoNi system has attracted extensive attention worldwide. Their cast alloys are of great importance because of their great formability of complex components, which can be further improved through the transition of the columnar to equiaxed grains and grain refinement. In the current work, the influence of C contents on the grain structures and mechanical properties of the as-cast high-entropy alloy CrFeCoNi was chosen as the target and systematically studied via a hybrid approach of the experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The alloys with various C additions were prepared by arc melting and drop cast. The as-cast macrostructure and microstructure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cast HEAs transform from coarse columnar grains into equiaxed grains with the C level increased to ≥ 2 at. pct and the size of equiaxed grains is further decreased with the increasing C addition. It is revealed that the interdendritic segregation of Cr and C results in grain boundary precipitation of M23C6 carbides. The grain refinement is attributed to the additional constitutional supercoiling from the C addition. The yield stress and tensile strength at room temperature are improved due to the transition of columnar to equiaxed grains and grain refinement.

  14. Effect of C content on the mechanical properties of solution treated as-cast ASTM F-75 alloys.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M; Espinoza, A; Méndez, J; Castro, M; López, J; Rendón, J

    2005-07-01

    The mechanical properties of solution treated ASTM F-75 alloys with various carbon contents have been studied. Alloys cast under the same conditions were subjected to solution treatment for several periods and then their tensile properties were evaluated. In the as-cast conditions, the alloys exhibited higher strength values with increasing carbon content whereas their ductility was not significantly affected. For the solution treated alloys, the variation of the strength was characterized by a progressive increase for short treatment times until a maximum value was achieved, which was followed by a diminution in this property for longer treatment times. This behavior was more accentuated for the case of the alloys with medium carbon contents, which also exhibited the highest values of strength. Furthermore, the alloy's ductility was enhanced progressively with increasing solution treatment time. This improvement in ductility was significantly higher for the medium carbon alloys compared with the rest of the studied alloys. Thus, high and low carbon contents in solution treated ASTM F-75 alloys did not produced sufficiently high tensile properties.

  15. Experimental Study on Dissimilar Friction Stir welding of Aluminium Alloys (5083-H111 and 6082-T6) to investigate the mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, H. M. Anil; Venkata Ramana, V.; Pawar, Mayur

    2018-03-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative technology in the joining realm of metals and alloys. This technique is highly economical and suitable especially for non ferrous alloys compared to ferrous alloys. It finds many applications in various fields of aeronautics, automobile, ship building industries etc. The paper presents the comparative results of mechanical properties such as tensile strength, microstructure, macro structure and hardness on the similar and dissimilar aluminum alloys AA5083-H111 and AA6082-T6 under certain selected variables - constant tool rotational speed, its tilt angle, welding speed using friction stir welding process. It is observed from the experimental results that joint efficiency of dissimilar aluminium alloys is higher than the similar aluminum alloys.

  16. Small Crack Growth and Fatigue Life Predictions for High-Strength Aluminium Alloys. Part 1; Experimental and Fracture Mechanics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X. R.; Newman, J. C.; Zhao, W.; Swain, M. H.; Ding, C. F.; Phillips, E. P.

    1998-01-01

    The small crack effect was investigated in two high-strength aluminium alloys: 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad alloy. Both experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to study crack initiation and growth of small cracks. In the experimental program, fatigue tests, small crack and large crack tests A,ere conducted under constant amplitude and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading conditions. A pronounced small crack effect was observed in both materials, especially for the negative stress ratios. For all loading conditions, most of the fatigue life of the SENT specimens was shown to be crack propagation from initial material defects or from the cladding layer. In the analysis program, three-dimensional finite element and A weight function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors and to develop SIF equations for surface and corner cracks at the notch in the SENT specimens. A plastisity-induced crack-closure model was used to correlate small and large crack data, and to make fatigue life predictions, Predicted crack-growth rates and fatigue lives agreed well with experiments. A total fatigue life prediction method for the aluminum alloys was developed and demonstrated using the crack-closure model.

  17. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys in a complex salt solution. A slow positron beam study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. F.; Yang, W.; Qin, Q. L.

    2013-12-15

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of high pressure die-cast (HPDC) and super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AM60B magnesium alloys were investigated in a complex salt solution using slow positron beam technique and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The experiments revealed that a CaCO 3 film was formed on the surface of the alloys and that the rate of CaCO 3 formation for the SVDC alloy with immersion time was slower than that of the HPDC alloy. The larger volume fraction of b-phase in the skin layer of the SVDC alloy than that of the HPDC alloy was responsible for the better corrosion resistance.

  18. Phase Transformation and Creep of Mg-Al-Ca Based Die-Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akane; Saddock, Nicholas D.; Jones, J. Wayne; Pollock, Tresa M.

    The microstructure and microstructural stability of die-cast AC53 (Mg-5Al-3Ca) and AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.15Sr) have been investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both alloys have an as-cast microstructure of α-Mg with (Mg, Al)2Ca (dihexagonal C36) eutectic at grain boundaries. During aging at 573 K, the C36 phase transforms to Al2Ca (cubic Cl5) phase. These two phases have a crystallographic orientation relationship of (0001)C36//{111}C15 and [2110]C36//[011]C15, and the transformation from C36 to C15 occurs by a shear-assisted process. Despite this change in the phase constitution, the network structure of the intermetallic compound(s) surrounding α-Mg grains is fairly stable, morphologically, even after prolonged exposure at elevated temperature. In the α-Mg matrix phase, precipitation of Al2Ca was observed after aging for 360 ks at 573 K. The precipitates are disc-shaped with a habit plane of {111}C15//(0001)α. AXJ530 shows higher creep resistance than AC53. The dislocation substructure that evolved during creep deformation was investigated in both alloys, and the basal and non-basal slip of a-dislocation and other slip modes of a+c- dislocations were observed. The relationship between creep properties and microstructure is discussed.

  19. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness Evaluation of an Investment Cast Al-Be Alloy for Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.; McGill, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum-Beryllium metal matrix composite materials are useful due to their desirable performance characteristics for aerospace applications. Desirable characteristics of this material includes light-weight, dimensional stability, stiffness, good vibration damping characteristics, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and workability, This material is 3.5 times stiffer and 22% lighter than conventional aluminum alloys. electro-optical systems, advanced sensor and guidance components for flight and satellite systems, components for light-weight high-performance aircraft engines, and structural components for helicopters. Aluminum-beryllium materials are now available in the form of near net shape investment castings. In this materials properties characterization study, the cryogenic tensile and fracture properties of an investment casting alloy, Beralcast 363, were determined. Tensile testing was performed at 21 C (70 F), -73.3 C (-100 F), -195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F), and fracture (K(sub lc) and da/dN) testing was performed at -73.3 C (-100 F), -195.5 C (-320 F) and -252.8 C (-423 F). Their use is attractive for weight critical structural applications such as advanced

  20. Study of grain structure evolution during annealing of a twin-roll-cast Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.; Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay; Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University

    2016-04-15

    The evolution of microstructure under static annealing was studied for mid-thickness section of a twin-roll-cast (TRC) magnesium alloy. Annealing was performed at 300 °C and 500 °C for different times. Microstructural evolution was quantitatively analyzed, from optical micrographs, using grain path envelope analysis. Additional information from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used for addressing the possible mechanism(s). It was found that the TRC structure had a bimodal grain size, which was preserved even after annealing at 300 °C. However, the annealing at 500 °C led to a unimodal grain size. This difference in the grain size distribution created a contrastingmore » behavior in the normalized standard deviations. This was primarily attributed to a competition between recovery and recrystallization, and their respective dominance at 300° and 500 °C. A deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) model was proposed. The proposed model could successfully address the experimental microstructural evolution. - Highlights: • Annealing of twin roll cast (TRC) magnesium alloy was done at temperatures of 300 °C and 500 °C. • TRC had bimodal structure. Bimodality preserved for annealing at 300 °C. Annealing at 500 °C led to unimodal structure. • Grain evolution was described based on the competition between recovery and recrystallization. • Deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) mechanistic model was developed.« less

  1. Micromechanical Characterization and Texture Analysis of Direct Cast Titanium Alloys Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine a post-processing technique to optimize mechanical and material properties of a number of Titanium based alloys and aluminides processed via Melt Overflow Solidification Technique (MORST). This technique was developed by NASA for the development of thin sheet titanium and titanium aluminides used in high temperature applications. The materials investigated in this study included conventional titanium alloy strips and foils, Ti-1100, Ti-24Al-11Nb (Alpha-2), and Ti-48Al-2Ta (Gamma). The methodology used included micro-characterization, heat-treatment, mechanical processing and mechanical testing. Characterization techniques included optical, electron microscopy, and x-ray texture analysis. The processing included heat-treatment and mechanical deformation through cold rolling. The initial as-cast materials were evaluated for their microstructure and mechanical properties. Different heat-treatment and rolling steps were chosen to process these materials. The properties were evaluated further and a processing relationship was established in order to obtain an optimum processing condition. The results showed that the as-cast material exhibited a Widmanstatten (fine grain) microstructure that developed into a microstructure with larger grains through processing steps. The texture intensity showed little change for all processing performed in this investigation.

  2. Fracture Toughness and Shear Strength of the Bonded Interface Between an Aluminium Alloy Skin and a FRP Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Shinde, Prakash Sonyabapu; Bhoyar, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    The existing techniques to determine the fracture properties such as critical energy release rate in mode I (GIc) and mode II (GIIc) of an interface between two sheets of same material were modified to determine these properties between the sheets of dissimilar materials and thickness. In addition, the interface shear strength (ISS) was also determined. Experiments were carried out on the specimens made of a pre-cracked thin aluminium alloy skin and a Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) patch. Two kinds of surface preparation of the aluminium skin were employed; (i) emery-paper roughened surface (ERS) and (ii) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) treated surface (NTS). GIc of ERS specimen was found to be 36.1 J/m2, while it was found to be much higher for NTS specimens, that is, 87.3 J/m2. GIIc was found to be 282.4 J/m2 for ERS specimens and much higher as 734.5 J/m2 for NTS specimens. ISS was determined as 32.6 MPa for ERS specimen and significantly higher for NTS specimen, that is, 44.5 MPa. The micrographs obtained from a field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness test showed that the NTS was significantly rougher than the ERS, explaining the higher values of all the three kinds of NTS specimens.

  3. Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Squeeze Casting of Magnesium Alloy AM60 by Experimental Polynomial Extrapolation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhizhong; Niu, Xiaoping; Hu, Henry

    In this work, a different wall-thickness 5-step (with thicknesses as 3, 5, 8, 12, 20 mm) casting mold was designed, and squeeze casting of magnesium alloy AM60 was performed in a hydraulic press. The casting-die interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTC) in 5-step casting were determined based on experimental thermal histories data throughout the die and inside the casting which were recorded by fine type-K thermocouples. With measured temperatures, heat flux and IHTC were evaluated using the polynomial curve fitting method. The results show that the wall thickness affects IHTC peak values significantly. The IHTC value for the thick step is higher than that for the thin steps.

  4. Grain Refinement and Improvement of Solidification Defects in Direct-Chill Cast Billets of A4032 Alloy by Melt Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu-Tian; Zhao, Pizhi; Yang, Rongdong; Patel, Jayesh B.; Chen, Xiangfu; Fan, Zhongyun

    2017-10-01

    Melt-conditioned, direct-chill (MC-DC) casting is an emerging technology to manipulate the solidification process by melt conditioning via intensive shearing in the sump during DC casting to tailor the solidification microstructure and defect formation. When using MC-DC casting technology in an industrial scale DC cast billet of an A4032 aluminum alloy, significant grain refinement and uniform microstructure can be achieved in the primary α-Al phase with fine secondary dendritic arm spacing (SDAS). Improved macrosegregation is quantitatively characterized and correlated with the suppression of channel segregation. The mechanisms for the prevention of channel segregation are attributed to the increased local cooling rate in the liquid-solid phase region in the sump and the formation of fine equiaxed dendritic grains under intensive melt shearing during MC-DC casting. A critical cooling rate has been identified to be around 0.5 to 1 K/s (°C/s) for the channel segregation to happen in the investigated alloy based on quantitative metallographic results of SDAS. Reduction and refinement of microporosity is attributed to the improved permeability in the liquid-solid phase region estimated by the Kozeny-Carman relationship. The potential improvement in the mechanical properties achievable in MC-DC cast billets is indicated by the finer and more uniform forging streamline in the forgings of MC-DC cast billet.

  5. Inhibitory effect of konjac glucomanan on pitting corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in NaCl solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kegui; Yang, Wenzhong; Xu, Bin; Chen, Yun; Yin, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Ying; Zuo, Huanzhen

    2018-05-01

    A natural carbohydrate polymer, konjac glucomanan, has been extracted from commercial product and studied as a green corrosion inhibitor for AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, electrochemical measurement and surface characterization techniques. The results of GPC measurements suggest the weight-average molecular weight and the number-average molecular weight of KGM with 98.2% purity are 1.61 × 10 5  g/mol and 1.54 × 10 5  g/mol, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show konjac glucomanan behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with dominant anodic effect and that its maximum efficiency at 200 ppm is 94%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies reveal the resistance of oxide film is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the resistance of adsorbed inhibitor layer and that they both increase with KGM concentration. Moreover, in-situ electrochemical noise (EN) detection demonstrates that the growth and propagation stages of the pitting corrosion germinating on metal surface are blocked by polysaccharide additive, which is confirmed by the surface analysis of aluminium alloy using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. At last, it is found that the addition of KGM makes it harder for water droplet containing NaCl to wet the metallic substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Emma Louise; Coleman, David C; Moran, Gary P; Fleming, Garry J P

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers. Discs of d.Sign®10 were cast, alumina particle air abraded and half were polished before surface roughness was determined by profilometry. Biocompatibility was assessed by placing the discs directly or indirectly (with immersion solutions) into contact with TR146 monolayers. Metal ion release was determined by ICP-MS. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion, metabolic activity by XTT and cellular toxicity by LDH. Inflammatory cytokine analysis was performed using sandwich ELISAs. The mean polished Ra value was significantly reduced (P<0.001) compared with the alumina particle air abraded discs but metal ion release was significantly increased for the polished discs. Significant reductions in cell density of polished compared with alumina particle air abraded discs was observed following direct or indirect exposure. A significant reduction in metabolic activity, increase in cellular toxicity and an increase in the presence of inflammatory cytokine markers was highlighted for the polished relative to the alumina particle air abraded discs at 24h. Finishing condition of the Ni-Cr dental alloy investigated has important clinical implications. The approach of employing cell density and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity levels and inflammatory marker responses to TR146 epithelial cells combined with ICP-MS afforded the authors an increased insight into the complex processes dental alloys undergo in the oral environment. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dealloying, Microstructure and the Corrosion/Protection of Cast Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sieradzki, Karl; Aiello, Ashlee; McCue, Ian

    The purpose of this project was to develop a greater understanding of micro-galvanic corrosion effects in cast magnesium alloys using both experimental and computational methods. Experimental accomplishments have been made in the following areas of interest: characterization, aqueous free-corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, ionic liquid dissolution, rate kinetics of oxide dissolution, and coating investigation. Commercial alloys (AZ91D, AM60, and AZ31B), binary-phase alloys (αMg-2at.%Al, αMg-5at.%Al, and Mg-8at.%Al), and component phases (Mg, Al, β-Mg, β-1%Zn, MnAl3) were obtained and characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Full immersion in aqueous chloride was used to characterize the corrosionmore » behavior of alloys. Rotating disc electrodes (RDEs) were used to observe accelerated long-term corrosion behavior. Al surface redistribution for freely corroded samples was analyzed using SEM, EDS, and lithium underpotential deposition (Li UPD). Atmospheric corrosion was observed using contact angle evolution, overnight pH monitoring, and surface pH evolution studies. Ionic liquid corrosion characterization was performed using linear sweep voltammetry and potentiostatic dissolution in 150° choline chloride-urea (cc-urea). Two surface coatings were investigated: (1) Li-carbonate and (2) cc-urea. Li-carbonate coatings were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM, and aqueous free corrosion potential monitoring. Hydrophobic cc-urea coatings were characterized using contact angle measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Oxide dissolution rate kinetics were studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Computational accomplishments have been made through the development of Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations which model time- and composition-dependent effects on the microstructure due to spatial redistribution of alloying

  8. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy.

    PubMed

    Dang, B; Zhang, X; Chen, Y Z; Chen, C X; Wang, H T; Liu, F

    2016-08-09

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  9. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy

    PubMed Central

    Dang, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chen, C. X.; Wang, H. T.; Liu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy. PMID:27502444

  10. Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of As-Cast High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Li, Dongyue; Yong, Zhang; Liaw, Peter K.; Lewandowski, John J.

    2015-08-01

    The fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of two as-vacuum arc cast high-entropy alloys (HEAs) (Al0.2CrFeNiTi0.2 and AlCrFeNi2Cu) were determined. A microstructure examination of both HEA alloys revealed a two-phase structure consisting of body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) phases. The notched and fatigue precracked toughness values were in the range of those reported in the literature for two-phase alloys but significantly less than recent reports on a single phase fcc-HEA that was deformation processed. Fatigue crack growth experiments revealed high fatigue thresholds that decreased significantly with an increase in load ratio, while Paris law slopes exhibited metallic-like behavior at low R with significant increases at high R. Fracture surface examinations revealed combinations of brittle and ductile/dimpled regions at overload, with some evidence of fatigue striations in the Paris law regime.

  11. Effect of Ca addition on the damping capacity of Mg-Al-Zn casting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joong-Hwan; Moon, Jung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The influences of Ca addition on the microstructures and damping capacities of AZ91-(0˜2)%Ca casting alloys were investigated, on the basis of the results of X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibration tests in a single cantilever mode. The amount of intermetallic compounds decreased with increasing Ca content up to 0.5%, above which it increased; the average cell size showed the opposite tendency. All alloys exhibited similar damping levels in the strain-amplitude independent region. Considering the very low solubility of Ca in the matrix, and that most of the Ca elements are consumed by the formation of the Al2Ca phase and incorporation into the Mg17Al12 phase, this would be ascribed to the almost identical concentrations of Ca solutes distributed in the matrix. In the strain-amplitude dependent region, however, the AZ91-0.5%Ca alloy possessed the maximum damping capacity. From the viewpoint of microstructural evolution with Ca addition, the number density of compound particles is considered to be the principal factor affecting the damping behavior in the strain-amplitude dependent region.

  12. Regarding to the Variance Analysis of Regression Equation of the Surface Roughness obtained by End Milling process of 7136 Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POP, A. B.; ȚÎȚU, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    In the metal cutting process, surface quality is intrinsically related to the cutting parameters and to the cutting tool geometry. At the same time, metal cutting processes are closely related to the machining costs. The purpose of this paper is to reduce manufacturing costs and processing time. A study was made, based on the mathematical modelling of the average of the absolute value deviation (Ra) resulting from the end milling process on 7136 aluminium alloy, depending on cutting process parameters. The novel element brought by this paper is the 7136 aluminium alloy type, chosen to conduct the experiments, which is a material developed and patented by Universal Alloy Corporation. This aluminium alloy is used in the aircraft industry to make parts from extruded profiles, and it has not been studied for the proposed research direction. Based on this research, a mathematical model of surface roughness Ra was established according to the cutting parameters studied in a set experimental field. A regression analysis was performed, which identified the quantitative relationships between cutting parameters and the surface roughness. Using the variance analysis ANOVA, the degree of confidence for the achieved results by the regression equation was determined, and the suitability of this equation at every point of the experimental field.

  13. Creep Properties of the As-Cast Al-A319 Alloy: T4 and T7 Heat Treatment Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanian-Naziftoosi, Hamid R.; Rincón, Ernesto J.; López, Hugo F.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the creep behavior of a commercial Al-A319 alloy was investigated in the temperature range of 413 K to 533 K (140 °C to 260 °C). Tensile creep specimens in the as-cast condition and after heat treating by solid solution (T4) and by aging (T7) were tested in a stress range varying from 60 to 170 MPa. It was found that steady-state creep strain rate was significantly low in the T7 condition when compared with either the T4 or as-cast alloy conditions. As a result, the time to failure behavior considerably increased. The experimentally determined creep exponents measured from the stress-strain curves were 4 for the as-cast alloy, 7.5 in the solid solution, and 9.5 after aging. In particular, after solid solution a grain substructure was found to develop which indicated that creep in a constant subgrain structure was active, thus accounting for the n exponent of 7.5. In the aged condition, a stress threshold is considered to account for the power law creep exponent n of 9.5. Moreover, It was found that the creep activation energy values were rather similar for the alloys in the as-cast (134 kJ/mol) and T4 (146 kJ/mol) conditions. These values are close to the one corresponding to pure Al self-diffusion (143 kJ/mol). In the aged alloy, the apparent creep activation energy (202 kJ/mol) exceeded that corresponding to Al self-diffusion. This deviation in activation energy is attributed to the effect of temperature on the alloy elastic modulus. Microstructural observations using transmission electron microscopy provided further support for the various dislocation-microstructure interactions exhibited by the alloy under the investigated creep conditions and implemented heat treatments.

  14. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P < 0.05). X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that nickel was attached to the debonded resin surface of the resin-to-nickel bonded specimen, indicating that corrosion of high-purity nickel occurred at the resin-nickel interface. Durable bonding to super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

  15. Influence of Welding Process and Post Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloy Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Ramana, V. S. N.; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloy welds is becoming important in aerospace, shipbuilding and defence applications. In the present work, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar aluminium alloys using conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. An attempt was also made to study the effect of post weld heat treatment (T4 condition) on microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of these welds. Results of the present investigation established the differences in microstructures of the base metals in T4 condition and in annealed conditions. It is evident that the thickness of the PMZ is relatively more on AA2014 side than that of AA6061 side. In FS welds, lamellar like shear bands are well noticed on the top of the stir zone. The concentration profile of dissimilar friction stir weld in T4 condition revealed that no diffusion has taken place at the interface. Poor Hardness is observed in all regions of FS welds compared to that of GTA welds. Pitting corrosion resistance of the dissimilar FS welds in all regions was improved by post weld heat treatment.

  16. Enhancing elevated temperature strength of copper containing aluminium alloys by forming L12 Al3Zr precipitates and nucleating θ″ precipitates on them.

    PubMed

    Kumar Makineni, Surendra; Sugathan, Sandeep; Meher, Subhashish; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Kumar, Subodh; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2017-09-11

    Strengthening by precipitation of second phase is the guiding principle for the development of a host of high strength structural alloys, in particular, aluminium alloys for transportation sector. Higher efficiency and lower emission demands use of alloys at higher operating temperatures (200 °C-250 °C) and stresses, especially in applications for engine parts. Unfortunately, most of the precipitation hardened aluminium alloys that are currently available can withstand maximum temperatures ranging from 150-200 °C. This limit is set by the onset of the rapid coarsening of the precipitates and consequent loss of mechanical properties. In this communication, we present a new approach in designing an Al-based alloy through solid state precipitation route that provides a synergistic coupling of two different types of precipitates that has enabled us to develop coarsening resistant high-temperature alloys that are stable in the temperature range of 250-300 °C with strength in excess of 260 MPa at 250 °C.

  17. Comparative Investigation on Modal analysis of LM25 Aluminium alloy with other Aluminim alloys using Finite element analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, S.; Baskaralal, V. P. M.; Muthuraman, V.

    2017-03-01

    The rudimentary steps of the modal analysis and simulation are carried out. The modal analysis is carried out on the different Aluminum Alloys cantilever beam. The cantilever beam is designed in the graphical environment of the ANSYS. The cantilever beam was fine-tuned on one end with all degree of liberation on this end were taken, beam cannot move and rotate. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are premeditated in platforms ANSYS with arithmetical formulation of the direct solver including the block Lanczos method. Aluminum alloys are widely utilized in much application due to their estimable weight to vigor property. Many examination works have been distributed out to make developments the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys. The composition of alloying elements plays a consequential role in deciding the properties of an alloy. In this study a numerical analysis implement i.e., finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized. The work obtainable in this paper is aimed at the study of effect of modal analysis of different aluminum alloys. The modeling and analysis is carried out utilizing ANSYS FEA software. A modal analysis is carried out to understand the modes of frequency demeanor of the material considered. The modal analysis play a vital role in the design of components subjected to high vibration.

  18. Synthesis of As-Cast Ti-Al-V Alloy from Titanium-Rich Material by Thermite Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chu; Dou, Zhi He; Zhang, Ting An; Zhang, Hui Jie; Yi, Xin; Su, Jian Ming

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel methodology for preparing as-cast Ti-Al-V alloy directly from titanium-rich material through a thermite reduction. The new method is shown to be feasible through a thermodynamics and dynamics analysis. The as-cast Ti-Al-V alloys synthesized from titanium dioxide, rutile, and high-titanium slag were analyzed by an x-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope, an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, and an oxygen/nitrogen/hydrogen analyzer. The results indicate that the alloy is composed of a Ti-Al-V matrix and Al2O3 inclusions. The Al and V contents in the matrix are close to the mass ratio of Ti-6Al-4V (Al: 5.5-6.8 wt.%, V: 3.5-4.5 wt.%). The Si and Fe in the alloys synthesized from rutile and high-titanium slag can be used as alloying elements in low-cost titanium alloys. The present method is expected to be useful for preparing Ti-Al-V alloys at a low production cost.

  19. The effect of silver (Ag) addition to mechanical and electrical properties of copper alloy (Cu) casting product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicia, Dian M.; Rochiem, R.; Laia, Standley M.

    2018-04-01

    Copper have good mechanical properties and good electrical conductivities. Therefore, copper usually used as electrical components. Silver have better electrical conductivities than copper. Female contact resistor is one of the electrical component used in circuit breaker. This study aims to analyze the effect of silver addition to hardness, strength, and electric conductivity properties of copper alloy. This study uses variation of 0; 0.035; 0.07; 0.1 wt. % Ag (silver) addition to determine the effect on mechanical properties and electrical properties of copper alloy through sand casting process. Modelling of thermal analysis and structural analysis was calculated to find the best design for the sand casting experiments. The result of Cu-Ag alloy as cast will be characterized by OES test, metallography test, Brinell hardness test, tensile test, and LCR meter test. The result of this study showed that the addition of silver increase mechanical properties of Cu-Ag. The maximum hardness value of this alloy is 83.1 HRB which is Cu-0.01 Ag and the lowest is 52.26 HRB which is pure Cu. The maximum strength value is 153.2 MPa which is Cu-0.07 Ag and the lowest is 94.6 MPa which is pure Cu. Silver addition decrease electrical properties of this alloy. The highest electric conductivity is 438.98 S/m which is pure Cu and the lowest is 52.61 S.m which is Cu-0.1 Ag.

  20. Replication of engine block cylinder bridge microstructure and mechanical properties with lab scale 319 Al alloy billet castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, A., E-mail: a2lombar@ryerson.ca; D'Elia, F.; Ravindran, C.

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, aluminum alloy gasoline engine blocks have in large part successfully replaced nodular cast iron engine blocks, resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency. However, because of the inadequate wear resistance properties of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys, gray iron cylinder liners are required. These liners cause the development of large tensile residual stress along the cylinder bores and necessitate the maximization of mechanical properties in this region to prevent premature engine failure. The aim of this study was to replicate the engine cylinder bridge microstructure and mechanical properties following TSR treatment (which removes the sand binder to enable easy castingmore » retrieval) using lab scale billet castings of the same alloy composition with varying cooling rates. Comparisons in microstructure between the engine block and the billet castings were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were assessed using tensile testing. The results suggest that the microstructure at the top and middle of the engine block cylinder bridge was successfully replicated by the billet castings. However, the microstructure at the bottom of the cylinder was not completely replicated due to variations in secondary phase morphology and distribution. The successful replication of engine block microstructure will enable the future optimization of heat treatment parameters. - Highlights: • A method to replicate engine block microstructure was developed. • Billet castings will allow cost effective optimization of heat treatment process. • The replication of microstructure in the cylinder region was mostly successful. • Porosity was more clustered in the billet castings compared to the engine block. • Mechanical properties were lower in billet castings due to porosity and inclusions.« less

  1. Comparison of Electrochemical Methods for the Evaluation of Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Jakub; Minda, Jozef; Fintová, Stanislava; Wasserbauer, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Linear polarization is a potentiodynamic method used for electrochemical characterization of materials. Obtained values of corrosion potential and corrosion current density offer information about material behavior in corrosion environments from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, respectively. The present study offers a comparison of applications of the linear polarization method (from −100 mV to +200 mV vs. EOCP), the cathodic polarization of the specimen (−100 mV vs. EOCP), and the anodic polarization of the specimen (+100 mV vs. EOCP), and a discussion of the differences in the obtained values of the electrochemical characteristics of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. The corrosion current density obtained by cathodic polarization was similar to the corrosion current density obtained by linear polarization, while a lower value was obtained by anodic polarization. Signs of corrosion attack were observed only in the case of linear polarization including cathodic and anodic polarization of the specimen. PMID:28774046

  2. The Effect of Structural Quality on Fatigue Life in 319 Aluminum Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdeş, Hüseyin; Tiryakioğlu, Murat

    2017-02-01

    Tensile and fatigue life data for 319 aluminum alloy from seventeen datasets reported in four independent studies from the literature have been reanalyzed. Analysis of fatigue life data involved mean stress correction for different R ratios used in fatigue testing, inclusion of survival (runout) data along with failure data, as well as volumetric correction for Weibull distributions for different specimen sizes used in these studies. Tensile data have been transformed into the structural quality index, Q T, which is used as a measure of the structural quality of castings. A distinct relationship has been observed between the expected fatigue life and mean quality index. Moreover, fatigue strengths at 104 and 106 cycles have been found increase with quality index, providing further evidence about the relationship observed between structural quality and fatigue performance. Empirical equations between Basquin parameters and structural quality index have been developed. The use of the comprehensive methodology to estimate fatigue life is demonstrated with an example.

  3. Friction Stir Welding in Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys: Heat Transfer Modeling and Thermal History Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yi; Lados, Diana A.

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a technique that can be used for materials joining and local microstructural refinement. Owing to the solid-state character of the process, FSW has significant advantages over traditional fusion welding, including reduced part distortion and overheating. In this study, a novel heat transfer model was developed to predict weld temperature distributions and quantify peak temperatures under various combinations of processing parameters for different wrought and cast Al alloys. Specifically, an analytical analysis was first developed to characterize and predict heat generation rate within the weld nugget, and then a two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the temperature distribution in the weld cross-section and top-view planes. A further three-dimensional (3D) simulation was developed based on the heat generation analysis. The model was validated by measuring actual temperatures near the weld nugget using thermocouples, and good agreement was obtained for all studied materials and conditions.

  4. Metal plasticity and ductile fracture modeling for cast aluminum alloy parts

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Se-Jong; Park, Hyeonil; ...

    2018-01-06

    Here in this study, plasticity and ductile fracture properties were characterized by performing various tension, shear, and compression tests. A series of 10 experiments were performed using notched round bars, flat-grooved plates, in-plane shear plates, and cylindrical bars. Two cast aluminum alloys used in automotive suspension systems were selected. Plasticity modelling was performed and the results were compared with experimental and corresponding simulation results; further, the relationships among the stress triaxiality, Lode angle parameter, and equivalent plastic strain at the onset of failure were determined to calibrate a ductile fracture model. Finally, the proposed ductile fracture model shows good agreementmore » with experimental results.« less

  5. Metal plasticity and ductile fracture modeling for cast aluminum alloy parts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Se-Jong; Park, Hyeonil

    Here in this study, plasticity and ductile fracture properties were characterized by performing various tension, shear, and compression tests. A series of 10 experiments were performed using notched round bars, flat-grooved plates, in-plane shear plates, and cylindrical bars. Two cast aluminum alloys used in automotive suspension systems were selected. Plasticity modelling was performed and the results were compared with experimental and corresponding simulation results; further, the relationships among the stress triaxiality, Lode angle parameter, and equivalent plastic strain at the onset of failure were determined to calibrate a ductile fracture model. Finally, the proposed ductile fracture model shows good agreementmore » with experimental results.« less

  6. Effect of an Mg-rich matrix on the corrosion behavior of As-cast magnesium-aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choong Do; Kang, Choon Sik; Shin, Kwang Seon

    2000-10-01

    In the present study, the corrosion behavior of as-cast Mg-Al and Mg-Al-Zn alloys was studied as a function of the Al content in the matrix. Corrosion properties such as the corrosion rate, corrosion potential, and repassivation tendency were estimated through immersion and electrochemical tests. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate of a solutionized alloy depend mainly on the Al content of the as-cast alloy. The variation of Al content in the Mg-rich matrix influences the stability of the passive film and the repassivation tendency, i.e., as the Al content of the matrix increases, the repassivation tendency of the surface protective film after its breakage deteriorates. Also, it was proven that the enhancement of corrosion resistance by heat treatment, as in T6, is due to the decrease of solute concentration in the matrix, in addition to the effect of the precipitate, which plays the role of a barrier against corrosion.

  7. Influence of Low-Frequency Vibration and Modification on Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Casting Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Selivorstov, Vadim; Dotsenko, Yuri; Borodianskiy, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    One of the major aims of the modern materials foundry industry is the achievement of advanced mechanical properties of metals, especially of light non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Usually an alloying process is applied to obtain the required properties of aluminum alloys. However, the presented work describes an alternative approach through the application of vibration treatment, modification by ultrafine powder and a combination of these two methods. Microstructural studies followed by image analysis revealed the refinement of α-Al grains with an increase in the Si network area around them. As evidence, the improvement of the mechanical properties of Al casting alloy was detected. It was found that the alloys subjected to the vibration treatment displayed an increase in tensile and yield strengths by 20% and 10%, respectively. PMID:28772922

  8. Influence of Low-Frequency Vibration and Modification on Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Casting Alloy.

    PubMed

    Selivorstov, Vadim; Dotsenko, Yuri; Borodianskiy, Konstantin

    2017-05-20

    One of the major aims of the modern materials foundry industry is the achievement of advanced mechanical properties of metals, especially of light non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Usually an alloying process is applied to obtain the required properties of aluminum alloys. However, the presented work describes an alternative approach through the application of vibration treatment, modification by ultrafine powder and a combination of these two methods. Microstructural studies followed by image analysis revealed the refinement of α-Al grains with an increase in the Si network area around them. As evidence, the improvement of the mechanical properties of Al casting alloy was detected. It was found that the alloys subjected to the vibration treatment displayed an increase in tensile and yield strengths by 20% and 10%, respectively.

  9. On carbide dissolution in an as-cast ASTM F-75 alloy.

    PubMed

    Caudillo, M; Herrera-Trejo, M; Castro, M R; Ramírez, E; González, C R; Juárez, J I

    2002-02-01

    The solution treatment of an as-cast ASTM F-75 alloy was investigated. Microstructural evolution was followed during thermal processing, in particular with regard to the content and type of carbides formed. To evidence any probable carbide transformations occurring during the heating stage, as well as to clarify their effect on the carbide dissolution kinetics, three heating rates were studied. Image analysis and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for microstructural characterization. For the identification of precipitates, these were electrolytically extracted from the matrix and then analyzed by X-ray diffraction. It was found that the precipitates in the as-cast alloy were constituted by both a M(23)C(6) carbide and a sigma intermetallic phase. The M(23)C(6) carbide was the only phase identified in solution-treated specimens, regardless of the heating rate employed, which indicated that this carbide dissolved directly into the matrix without being transformed first into an M(6)C carbide, as reported in the literature. It was found that the kinetics of dissolution for the M(23)C(6) carbide decreased progressively during the solution treatment, and that it was sensitive to the heating rate, decreasing whenever the latter was decreased. Because the M(23)C(6) carbide was not observed to suffer a phase transformation prior to its dissolution into the matrix, the effect of the heating rate was associated to the morphological change occurred as the specimens were heated. The occurrence of the observed phases was analyzed with the aid of phase diagrams computed for the system Co-Cr-Mo-C. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 59: 378-385, 2002

  10. Formation Mechanism of Surface Crack in Low Pressure Casting of A360 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Ying, Tao; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shen, Hong-Xian; Guo, Shu; Sun, Jian-Fei

    2017-12-01

    A surface crack defect is normally found in low pressure castings of Al alloy with a sudden contraction structure. To further understand the formation mechanism of the defect, the mold filling process is simulated by a two-phase flow model. The experimental results indicate that the main reason for the defect deformation is the mismatching between the height of liquid surface in the mold and pressure in the crucible. In the case of filling, a sudden contraction structure with an area ratio smaller than 0.5 is obtained, and the velocity of the liquid front increases dramatically with the influence of inertia. Meanwhile, the pressurizing speed in the crucible remains unchanged, resulting in the pressure not being able to support the height of the liquid level. Then the liquid metal flows back to the crucible and forms a relatively thin layer solidification shell on the mold wall. With the increasing pressure in the crucible, the liquid level rises again, engulfing the shell and leading to a surface crack. As the filling velocity is characterized by the damping oscillations, surface cracks will form at different heights. The results shed light on designing a suitable pressurizing speed for the low pressure casting process.

  11. The Coupling of Macrosegregation with Grain Nucleation, Growth and Motion in DC Cast Aluminum Alloy Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Založnik, Miha; Kumar, Arvind; Combeau, Hervé; Bedel, Marie; Jarry, Philippe; Waz, Emmanuel

    The phenomena responsible for the formation of macrosegregations, and grain structures during solidification are closely intertwined. We present a model study of the formation of macrosegregation and grain structure in an industrial sized (350 mm thick) direct chill (DC) cast aluminum alloy slab. The modeling of these phenomena in DC casting is a challenging problem mainly due to the size of the products, the variety of the phenomena to be accounted for, and the non-linearities involved. We used a volume-averaged multiscale model that describes nucleation on grain refiner particles and grain growth, coupled with macroscopic transport: fluid flow driven by natural convection and shrinkage, transport of free-floating globular equiaxed grains, heat transfer, and solute transport. We analyze the heat and mass transfer in the slurry moving-grain zone that is a result of the coupling of the fluid flow and of the grain nucleation, growth and motion. We discuss the impact of the flow structure in the slurry zone and of the grain packing fraction on the macrosegregation.

  12. As-Cast Icosashedral Quasicrystals in Ti-Zr-Ni Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geun Woo; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Kelton, Kenneth F.

    2002-03-01

    Most Ti-based icosahedral quasicrystals (i-phase) obtained by rapid quenching from the melt are metastable and disordered. In contrast, the Ti-Zr-Ni i-phase prepared by low temperature annealing is stable and better ordered. This i-phase is formed by a solid-state transformation from C14 Laves phase and α (Ti/Zr) solid-solution phase. It has not been possible previously to grow this i-phase directly from the liquid. Here, the nucleation and growth of the i-phase from the liquid in as-cast Ti-Zr-Ni alloys is reported. Pentagonal growth ledges in as-cast Ti-Zr-Ni ingots are clearly observed. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies confirm the phase identity. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show an endothermic transformation from the i-phase to a phase mixture of the C14 Laves and solid-solution phases, demonstrating that this i-phase is also stable. The short time that the liquid remains in the Laves phase-forming-field and the higher nucleation rate of the i-phase, owing to the presumed similarity between the local atomic structures of the i-phase and liquid, allows the i-phase to nucleate and grow directly from the liquid. Container-less solidification studies using electrostatic levitation (ESL) techniques support this conclusion.

  13. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  14. The Effect of Sr Modifier Additions on Double Oxide Film Defects in 2L99 Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Griffiths, W. D.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Sr modifier (300 ppm) was added to 2L99 alloy sand castings to investigate its effect on bifilm defects in the castings. Two different sand molds were used in this study, with good and bad running system designs, to introduce different amounts of bifilm defects into the castings. The mechanical properties of the modified 2L99 castings were compared to the properties of unmodified castings and showed that with high bifilm defect contents (H) the Sr addition reduced the Weibull modulus of the UTS by 67 pct and the Position Parameter by 5 pct, and introduced a bimodal distribution into the Weibull plot of the pct Elongation. However, for castings with low bifilm defect content (L), the Weibull moduli of both the UTS and pct Elongation were significantly improved (by 78 and 73 pct, respectively) with the addition of Sr. The Position Parameter of the pct Elongation was improved by 135 pct. The results suggested that a desirable modification effect can only be achieved while the bifilm defect content in a casting was low.

  15. The effects of microstructural stability on the compressive response of two cast aluminum alloys up to 300 °C

    DOE PAGES

    Shower, Patrick T.; Roy, Shibayan; Hawkins, Charles Shane; ...

    2017-06-08

    Here in this study, the high temperature compressive response of cast aluminum alloys 319 and RR350 is compared in light of their microstructures. The 319 alloy is widely used in thermally critical automotive applications and provides a baseline for comparison with the RR350 alloy, whose microstructural stability at high homologous temperatures was recently reported. Cylindrical compression samples from each alloy were tested at four temperatures up to 300 °C at a constant true strain rate that was varied over four orders of magnitude. Although both alloys are strengthened by metastable precipitates (nominally Al 2Cu) in the as-aged condition, their mechanicalmore » response diverges at temperatures greater than 250 °C as the strengthening precipitates evolve in the 319 alloy and retain their as-aged morphology in the RR350 alloy. Deformation mechanisms of each alloy are examined using microstructural analysis and empirical activation energy calculations. The stability of the θ' phase in the RR350 alloy leads to effective precipitation hardening at homologous temperatures up to 0.6 and an extensive regime of grain boundary controlled deformation.« less

  16. Solid state recycling of aluminium alloys via a porthole die hot extrusion process: Scaling up to production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Deng, Yelin; Dewulf, Wim; Kampen, Carlos; Duflou, Joost R.

    2017-10-01

    Whereas industrial symbiosis has led to increased energy and resource efficiency in process industries, this concept has not yet been applied in discrete product manufacturing. Metal scrap is first conventionally recycled, for which substantial energy and resource efficiency losses have been reported. Recent research has however proven the feasibility of `meltless' recycling of light metal scrap, yielding a first glimpse of potential industrial symbiosis. Various solid state recycling techniques (such as recycling via hot extrusion or Spark Plasma Sintering) have been proposed for scrap consolidation directly into bulk products or semis by physical disruption and dispersion of the oxide surface film by imposing significant plastic and shear strain. Solid State Recycling (SSR) methods can omit substantial material losses as they bypass the metallurgical recycling step. In this context the case of direct production of bulk aluminium profiles via hot extrusion at industrial scale is demonstrated within this paper. The extrusion tests were performed directly into the production line, highlighting the scaling up potentials and the industrial relevance of this research. A significant amount of machining chips were collected, chemically cleaned and cold compacted into chip based billets with ˜80% relative density. Afterwards the scrap consolidation was achieved by imposing significant plastic and shear deformation into the material during hot extrusion through a modified 2-porthole extrusion die-set. The production process sequence along with microstructural investigations and mechanical properties comparison of the cast based profile used as reference versus the chip based profile are presented.

  17. Effect of thermal exposure on mechanical properties hypo eutectic aerospace grade aluminium-silicon alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh Kumar, R.; Ram Prabhu, T.; Siddaraju, C.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of thermal exposure on the mechanical properties of a C355.0 aerospace grade aluminum-silicon alloy (5% Si - 1.2% Cu - 0.5% Mg) was investigated in the present study. The alloy specimens were subjected to T6 (solution treatment and artificial ageing treatment) temper treatment to enhance the strength properties through precipitation hardening. The T6 temper treatment involved solution heat treatment at 520oC for 6h, followed by water quenching and ageing at 150oC. After the heat treatment, the specimens were exposed to various temperatures (50oC, 100oC, 150oC, 200oC and 250oC) for 5 and 10 h to study the structural applications of this alloy to the various Mach number military aircrafts. After the thermal exposure, specimens were tested for tensile, hardness and impact properties (Charpy). The microstructure of the thermal exposed specimens was examined in the optical microscopes and correlated with the mechanical properties results. In summary, an increase of exposure time has a different effect on the tensile and hardness properties of the alloy. For the exposure time 5h, the tensile and hardness properties increase upto 100oC and later decrease with an increase of temperature. In contrast, the tensile and hardness properties linearly decrease with an increase of temperature. Several factors such as matrix grain growth, diffusion rate, Si particles size and distribution, precipitate stability play a key role on deciding the tensile properties of the alloy. Comparing the relative effects of temperature and time, the temperature effects dominate more in deteriorating tensile properties of the alloy. There are no effects of exposure temperature and/or time on the impact properties of the alloy.

  18. Effect of 1.0% Ni on high-temperature impression creep and hardness of recycled aluminium alloy with high Fe content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, M.; Mazni, Noor; Prasada Rao, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Reported work focusses on the effect of 1.0% Ni addition on the microstructure, high- temperature impression creep and thereby the hardness of recycled Al-alloy containing >2wt% Fe, obtained from automotive scrap. Present studies have shown that the addition of 1.0% Ni have supress the formation of α-phase (Al5FeSi) by supressing the peritectic transformation of β-phase (Al8Fe2Si). Such suppression is found to improve the hardness and high-temperature impression creep of the recycled aluminium alloy.

  19. Gelatin freeze casting of biomimetic titanium alloy with anisotropic and gradient pore structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Le Coz-Botrel, Ronan; Beddoes, Charlotte; Sjöström, Terje; Su, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Titanium is a material commonly used for dental and orthopaedic implants. However, due to large differences in properties between the titanium metal and the natural bone, stress shielding has been observed in the surrounding area, resulting in bone atrophy, and thus has raised concerns of the use of this material. Ideally implant materials should possess similar properties to the surrounding tissues in order to distribute the load as the joint would naturally, while also possessing a similar porous structure to the bone to enable interaction with the surrounding material. In this paper we report the formation of aligned porous titanium alloy scaffolds with the use of unidirectional freeze casting with a temperature gradient. The resulting scaffolds had a dense bottom part with sufficient strength for loading, while the top part remaining porous in order to allow bone growth in the scaffold and fully integrating with the surrounding tissue. The anisotropic nature of the pores within the titanium alloy samples were observed via micro computed tomography, where a gradient structure similar to bone was observed. The compressive strength of the fabricated scaffolds was found to be up to 427 MPa when measured with the pores aligned with the applied load, depending on the pore density. This is within the range of cortical bone.

  20. Multiscale tomographic analysis of heterogeneous cast Al-Si-X alloys.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Z; Requena, G; Sket, F

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure of cast AlSi12Ni and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 alloys is investigated by laboratory X-ray computed tomography, synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography, light optical tomography and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography with submicrometre resolution. The results obtained with each technique are correlated with the size of the scanned volumes and resolved microstructural features. Laboratory X-ray computed tomography is sufficient to resolve highly absorbing aluminides but eutectic and primary Si remain unrevealed. Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography at ID15/ESRF gives better spatial resolution and reveals primary Si in addition to aluminides. Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography at ID19/ESRF reveals all the phases ≥ ∼1 μm in volumes about 80 times smaller than laboratory X-ray computed tomography. The volumes investigated by light optical tomography and submicrometre synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography are much smaller than laboratory X-ray computed tomography but both techniques provide local chemical information on the types of aluminides. The complementary techniques applied enable a full three-dimensional characterization of the microstructure of the alloys at length scales ranging over six orders of magnitude. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Experimental wear behavioral studies of as-cast and 5 hr homogenized Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy at constant load based on taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlapur, M. D.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, an experimental study of the volumetric wear behaviour of Aluminium (Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni) alloy in as cast and 5Hr homogenized with T6 heat treatment is carried out at constant load. The Pin on disc apparatus was used to carry out the sliding wear test. Taguchi method based on L-16 orthogonal array was employed to evaluate the data on the wear behavior. Signal-to-noise ratio among the objective of smaller the better and mean of means results were used. General regression model is obtained by correlation. Lastly confirmation test was completed to compose a comparison between the experimental results foreseen from the mention correlation. The mathematical model reveals the load has maximum contribution on the wear rate compared to speed. Scanning Electron Microscope was used to analyze the worn-out wear surfaces. Wear results show that 5Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy samples with T6 treated had better volumetric wear resistance as compared to as cast samples.

  2. The behaviour of entrainment defects formed in commercial purity Mg alloy cast under a cover gas of SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Griffiths, W. D.

    2016-03-01

    In the casting of light alloys, the oxidised film on the melt surface can be folded due to surface turbulence, thus forming entrainment defects that have a significant negative effect on the mechanical properties of castings. Previous researchers reported that the surface film of Mg alloys formed in an atmosphere containing SF6 had a complicated structure composed of MgO and MgF2. The work reported here aims to investigate the behaviour of entrainment defects formed in magnesium alloys protected by SF6-containing atmospheres. Tensile test bars of commercial purity Mg were cast in an unsealed environment under a cover gas of pure SF6. 34Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fracture surface of the test bars indicated entrainment defects that consisted of symmetrical films containing MgO, but also sulphur and fluorine. The results of these examinations of the symmetrical films were used to infer the potential formation and development of entrainment defects in commercial purity Mg alloy.

  3. Effect of laser irradiation on surface hardness and structural parameters of 7178 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryam, Siddra; Bashir, Farooq

    2018-04-01

    Aluminium 7178 samples were prepared and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser. The surfaces of exposed samples were investigated using optical microscopy, which revealed that the surface morphology of the samples is changed drastically as a function of laser shots. It is revealed from the micrographs that the laser heat effected area increases with the increase in the number of the laser pulses. Furthermore morphological and mechanical properties were studied using XRD and Vickers hardness testing. XRD study shows an increasing trend in Grain size with the increasing number of laser shots. And the hardness of the samples as a function of the laser shots shows that the hardness first increases and then it decreases gradually. It was observed that the grain size has no pronouncing effect on the hardness. Hardness profile has a decreasing trend with the increase in linear distance from the boundary of the laser heat affected area.

  4. Evaluation of the microstructure, secondary dendrite arm spacing, and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloy castings made in sand and Fe-Cr slag molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Murthy, I.; Babu Rao, J.

    2017-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast A356 (Al-Si) alloy castings were investigated. A356 alloy was cast into three different molds composed of sand, ferrochrome (Fe-Cr) slag, and a mixture of sand and Fe-Cr. A sodium silicate-CO2 process was used to make the necessary molds. Cylindrical-shaped castings were prepared. Cast products with no porosity and a good surface finish were achieved in all of the molds. These castings were evaluated for their metallography, secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), and mechanical properties, including hardness, compression, tensile, and impact properties. Furthermore, the tensile and impact samples were analyzed by fractography. The results show that faster heat transfer in the Fe-Cr slag molds than in either the silica sand or mixed molds led to lower SDAS values with a refined microstructure in the products cast in Fe-Cr slag molds. Consistent and enhanced mechanical properties were observed in the slag mold products than in the castings obtained from either sand or mixed molds. The fracture surface of the slag mold castings shows a dimple fracture morphology with a transgranular fracture nature. However, the fracture surfaces of the sand mold castings display brittle fracture. In conclusion, products cast in Fe-Cr slag molds exhibit an improved surface finish and enhanced mechanical properties compared to those of products cast in sand and mixed molds.

  5. Bond strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base material to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Yanagida, Hiroaki; Ide, Takako; Matsumura, Hideo; Tanoue, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    The shear bond strength of an auto-polymerizing poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin material to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy treated with six conditioning methods was investigated. Disk specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness) were cast from pure titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy. The specimens were wet ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina (SAN); 2) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with Alloy Primer (ALP); 3) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with AZ Primer (AZP); 4) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP); 5) air abraded with 50-70-microm-grain alumina + conditioned with Metal Link Primer (MLP), and 6) treated with ROCATEC system (ROC). A denture base material (Palapress Vario) was then applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. The strengths decreased after thermocycling in all combinations. Among the treatment methods assessed, groups 2 and 4 showed significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced shear bond strengths for both metals. In group 4, the strength in MPa (n = 7) after thermocycling for cobalt-chromium alloy was 38.3, which was statistically (p < 0.05) higher than that for cast titanium (34.7). Air abrasion followed by the application of two primers containing a hydrophobic phosphate monomer (MDP) effectively improved the strength of the bond of denture base material to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy.

  6. The effect of aluminium on the creep behavior of titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nandy, T.K.; Mishra, R.S.; Gogia, A.K.

    Small increases in the Al content of Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb alloys are known to improve creep resistance at the expense of the room temperature ductility. Though considerable work has been done on the creep behavior of titanium aluminide alloys, a systematic investigation involving the role of Al on the creep of aluminides is lacking. In the present study the authors have therefore carried out a complete investigation on stress and temperature effects on two alloys with differing Al contents, Ti-24Al-15Nb and Ti-26Al-15Nb (nominal composition in at%) in order to understand the effect of Al in terms of power law creep behavior.more » The following conclusions are made: (1) A strong Al effect on the creep resistance of O phase alloys in the Ti-Al-Nb systems has been confirmed, through a study of stress and temperature effects on the creep behavior of the Ti-24Al-15Nb and the Ti-26Al-15Nb compositions. (2) It has been shown, however, that the small differences in Al do not affect either the activation energies for creep ({approximately}370 kJ/mole) or the creep mechanism (climb controlled creep with a stress exponent of 4). The activation energies and stress exponents are similar to that observed in single phase O alloys. (3) It is suggested that Al influences creep strength through an intrinsic effect on the pre-exponential term AD{sub o} in the power law creep equation. It is possible that this effect is related to a higher ordering energy of the O phase with increasing Al content.« less

  7. Microstructure evolution and texture development of hot form-quench (HFQ) AZ31 twin roll cast (TRC) magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, J.; Zhou, X.; Das, Sanjeev; El-Fakir, Omer; Thompson, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    The present study on the microstructure evolution of hot form-quench (HFQ) AZ31 twin roll cast magnesium alloy attempt to provide an understanding on the grain structure and heterogeneous intermetallic phase formation in the alloy and texture development following the HFQ process. Grain recrystallization and partial dissolution of eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase particles were occurred during the solution heat treatment at 450°C, leaving the alloy consists of recrystallized grains and discontinuous or random β-Mg17Al12 phase particles distribution with small volume fraction. The particles act as effective nucleation sites for new grains during recrystallization and variation of recrystallization occurrence contributed to texture alteration. The partial or full β-Mg17Al12 phase dissolution following the HFQ induces void formation that act as fracture nucleation site and the corresponding texture alteration in the recrystallized grains led to poor formability in TRC alloy.

  8. Permanent Mold Casting of JIS-AC4C Aluminum Alloy Using a Low-Temperature Mold

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, Hiroshi; Nikawa, Makoto

    2011-01-17

    Permanent mold casting using mold temperatures below 200 deg. C was conducted to obtain a high-strength, thin-walled casting. Al-7.36 mass% Si -0.18 Cu- 0.27Mg-0.34Fe alloy JIS-AC4C was cast using a bottom pouring cast plan. The product had a rectangular tube shape (70 mm W x 68 mm D x 180 mm H) with wall thicknesses of 1, 3 and 5 mm. The effect of heat insulation at the melt path was compared when using a sand runner insert and when using a steel runner insert as well as a powder mold release agent. Fine microstructures were observed in the casting.more » The smaller the thickness, the higher the hardness with smaller secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). However, the hardness and the SDAS were unaffected by the mold temperature. It was proposed that the avoidance of the formation of primary {alpha} dendrite at the melt path generates a higher strength casting with adequate mold filling.« less

  9. Role of the primary silicon particle on the dry sliding wear of hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloy A390

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Moo; Kang, Suk-Bong; Yoon, Sang-Chul

    1999-07-01

    The wear behavior of hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloy A390 was investigated using a pin-on-disc wear machine under dry sliding conditions. The wear tests were performed within a load range of 10 to 300N at a constant sliding velocity of 0.5 m/sec. The microstructural and compositional changes that took place during wear were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) system. Based on the metallographic observations the role of the primary silicon particles was suggested. In a low pressure region, primary silicon particles supported the applied load and wear occurred mainly in the matrix. Thus the wear loss did not show much variation with the applied load. In the mid-load range, primary silicon particles did not yet fracture and thus supported the applied load in part. Transition from oxidative to metallic wear occurs mainly in the matrix and the increase of wear loss becomes sharper than that in a low pressure region. In the high pressure region, the fractures of primary silicon Particles occurred and wear loss increased sharply.

  10. Experimental investigation on the effects of cooling system on surface quality in high speed milling of an aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirita, B.; Tampu, N. C.; Brabie, G.; Radu, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Surface quality is often an important feature of industrial products, not only from the impact it has on the aesthetic aspect but also for the functional role of the parts. High quality surface increases corrosion resistance, assures a longer life cycle for the product and lowers the wear. For a machined part, surface quality is influenced by a series of factors such as the material of the part, the process type, tool geometry, cutting parameters or the cooling system. The choice of the cooling system is especially important, taking into account that the proper conditions will not only assure a superior surface quality, but will also lower the costs and reduce the environmental impact and health risks. The present study aims to investigate the performance of the cooling system and the effect of the cutting parameters on the characteristics of the surfaces resulted from high speed face milling of some parts made of Al 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy. Dry cutting conditions and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) where used. The results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  11. Estimating multivariate response surface model with data outliers, case study in enhancing surface layer properties of an aircraft aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo, Edy; Kariyam

    2017-03-01

    To determine the input variable settings that create the optimal compromise in response variable used Response Surface Methodology (RSM). There are three primary steps in the RSM problem, namely data collection, modelling, and optimization. In this study focused on the establishment of response surface models, using the assumption that the data produced is correct. Usually the response surface model parameters are estimated by OLS. However, this method is highly sensitive to outliers. Outliers can generate substantial residual and often affect the estimator models. Estimator models produced can be biased and could lead to errors in the determination of the optimal point of fact, that the main purpose of RSM is not reached. Meanwhile, in real life, the collected data often contain some response variable and a set of independent variables. Treat each response separately and apply a single response procedures can result in the wrong interpretation. So we need a development model for the multi-response case. Therefore, it takes a multivariate model of the response surface that is resistant to outliers. As an alternative, in this study discussed on M-estimation as a parameter estimator in multivariate response surface models containing outliers. As an illustration presented a case study on the experimental results to the enhancement of the surface layer of aluminium alloy air by shot peening.

  12. A numerical study on the influence of the Portevin Le Chatelier effect on necking in an aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopperstad, O. S.; Børvik, T.; Berstad, T.; Lademo, O.-G.; Benallal, A.

    2007-10-01

    The constitutive relation proposed by McCormick (1988 Acta Metall. 36 3061-7) for materials exhibiting negative steady-state strain-rate sensitivity and the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect is incorporated into an elastic-viscoplastic model for metals with plastic anisotropy. The constitutive model is implemented in LS-DYNA for corotational shell elements. Plastic anisotropy is taken into account by use of the yield criterion Yld2000/Yld2003 proposed by Barlat et al (2003 J. Plast. 19 1297-319) and Aretz (2004 Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 12 491-509). The parameters of the constitutive equations are determined for a rolled aluminium alloy (AA5083-H116) exhibiting negative steady-state strain-rate sensitivity and serrated yielding. The parameter identification is based on existing experimental data. A numerical investigation is conducted to determine the influence of the PLC effect on the onset of necking in uniaxial and biaxial tension for different overall strain rates. The numerical simulations show that the PLC effect leads to significant reductions in the strain to necking for both uniaxial and biaxial stress states. Increased surface roughness with plastic deformation is predicted for strain rates giving serrated yielding in uniaxial tension. It is likely that this is an important reason for the reduced critical strains. The characteristics of the deformation bands (orientation, width, velocity and strain rate) are also studied.

  13. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part III - Chlorination with HCl(g)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Roland; Souček, Pavel; Walter, Olaf; Malmbeck, Rikard; Rodrigues, Alcide; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Fanghänel, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Two steps of a pyrochemical route for the recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel are being investigated at JRC-Karlsruhe. The first step consists in electrorefining the fuel in molten salt medium implying aluminium cathodes. The second step is a chlorination process for the separation of actinides (An) from An-Al alloys formed on the cathodes. The chlorination process, in turn, consists of three steps; the distillation of adhered salt (1), the chlorination of An-Al by HCl/Cl2 under formation of AlCl3 and An chlorides (2), and the subsequent sublimation of AlCl3 (3). In the present work UAl2, UAl3, NpAl2, and PuAl2 were chlorinated with HCl(g) in a temperature range between 300 and 400 °C forming UCl4, NpCl4 or PuCl3 as the major An containing phases, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to support the experimental work. The results showed a high chlorination efficiency for all used starting materials and indicated that the sublimation step may not be necessary when using HCl(g).

  14. Ion release from dental casting alloys as assessed by a continuous flow system: Nutritional and toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    López-Alías, José F; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi; Anglada, Josep M; Peraire, Maria

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the metallic ions released by various dental alloys subjected to a continuous flow of saliva and to estimate the nutritional and toxicological implications of such a release. Four pieces of three nickel-based, one noble, one high-noble and two copper-aluminum alloys were cast and then immersed in a continuous flow of artificial saliva for 15 days. To simulate three meals a day, casts were subjected to thrice-daily episodes, lasting 30 min each and consisting of pH decreases and salinity increases. After 15 days, the metallic ions in the artificial saliva were analyzed. Data were expressed as averaged release rate: microg/cm2/day of ion released for each alloy. The highest value of 95% Cl of each ion was adapted to a hypothetical worst scenario of a subject with 100 cm2 of exposed metal surface. The results were compared with the tolerable upper daily intake level of each ion. The copper-aluminum alloys released copper, aluminum, nickel, manganese and iron. The nickel-based alloys essentially released nickel and chromium, while the beryllium-containing alloy released beryllium and significantly more nickel. The noble and high-noble alloys were very resistant to corrosion. The amount of ions released remained far below the upper tolerable intake level, with the exception of nickel, released by beryllium-containing nickel-based alloy, whose levels approach 50% of this threshold. The daily amount of ions released seems to be far below the tolerable upper intake levels for each ion.

  15. Optimization of mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of as-cast Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Ren, Jing; Li, Shengyi; Yang, Lei; Qin, Gaowu

    2016-10-21

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys have shown good antibacterial abilities. However, the sintered method (powder metallurgy) is not convenient to produce devices with a complex structure. In this paper, Ti-Cu alloys with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 wt.% Cu were prepared in an arc melting furnace and subjected to different heat treatments: solid solution and ageing, to explore the possibility of preparing an antibacterial Ti-Cu alloy by a casting method and to examine the effect of Cu content. Phase identification was conducted on an XRD diffraction meter, and the microstructure was observed by a metallographic microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness and the compressive property of Ti-Cu alloys were tested, and the corrosion resistance and antibacterial activity were assessed in order to investigate the effect of the Cu content. Results showed that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys exhibited a very low antibacterial rate against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Heat treatment improved the antibacterial rate significantly, especially after a solid and ageing treatment (T6). Antibacterial rates as high as 90.33% and 92.57% were observed on Ti-3Cu alloy and Ti-4Cu alloy, respectively. The hardness, the compressive yield strength, the anticorrosion resistance and the antibacterial rate of Ti-Cu alloys increased with an increase of Cu content in all conditions. It was demonstrated that homogeneous distribution and a fine Ti 2 Cu phase played a very important role in the mechanical property, anticorrosion and antibacterial properties. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that the Cu content should be at least 3 wt.% to obtain good antibacterial properties (>90% antibacterial rate) as well as satisfactory mechanical properties.

  16. Comparison of the microstructure and phase stability of as-cast, CAD/CAM and powder metallurgy manufactured Co-Cr dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Chun; Prior, David J; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the different microstructures produced by CC, PM and as-cast techniques for Co-Cr alloys and their phase stability following porcelain firings. Three bi-layer porcelain veneered Co-Cr specimens and one monolithic Co-Cr specimen of each alloy group [cast, powder metallurgy (PM), CAD/CAM (CC)] were manufactured and analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Specimens were treated to incremental numbers of porcelain firings (control 0, 5, 15) with crystallographic data, grain size and chemical composition subsequently obtained and analyzed. EBSD datasets of the cast alloy indicated large grains >200 μm whereas PM and CC alloy consisted of mean arithmetic grain sizes of 29.6 μm and 19.2 μm respectively. XRD and EBSD results both indicated the highest increase in hcp content (>13vol%) for cast Co-Cr alloy after treatment with porcelain firing while PM and CC indicated <2vol% hcp content. A fine grain interfacial layer developed on all surfaces of the alloy after porcelain firing. The depth of this layer increased with porcelain firings for as-cast and PM but no significant increase (p>.05) was observed in CC. EDS line scans indicated an increase in Cr content at the alloy surface after porcelain firing treatment for all three alloys. PM and CC produced alloy had superior fcc phase stability after porcelain firings compared to a traditional cast alloy. It is recommended that PM and CC alloys be used for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Nd:YAG laser parameters on the penetration depth of a representative Ni-Cr dental casting alloy.

    PubMed

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Koutsoukis, Theodoros; Barmpagadaki, Xanthoula; El-Danaf, Ehab A; Fournelle, Raymond A; Zinelis, Spiros

    2015-02-01

    The effects of voltage and laser beam (spot) diameter on the penetration depth during laser beam welding in a representative nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) dental alloy were the subject of this study. The cast alloy specimens were butted against each other and laser welded at their interface using various voltages (160-390 V) and spot diameters (0.2-1.8 mm) and a constant pulse duration of 10 ms. After welding, the laser beam penetration depths in the alloy were measured. The results were plotted and were statistically analyzed with a two-way ANOVA, employing voltage and spot diameter as the discriminating variables and using Holm-Sidak post hoc method (a = 0.05). The maximum penetration depth was 4.7 mm. The penetration depth increased as the spot diameter decreased at a fixed voltage and increased as the voltage increased at a fixed spot diameter. Varying the parameters of voltage and laser spot diameter significantly affected the depth of penetration of the dental cast Ni-Cr alloy. The penetration depth of laser-welded Ni-Cr dental alloys can be accurately adjusted based on the aforementioned results, leading to successfully joined/repaired dental restorations, saving manufacturing time, reducing final cost, and enhancing the longevity of dental prostheses.

  18. Fractographic Observations on the Mechanism of Fatigue Crack Growth in Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, R. C.; Schijve, J.; Krkoska, M.

    Special load histories are adopted to obtain information about the behavior of the moving crack tip during the increasing and decreasing part of a load cycle. It is associated with the crack opening and closure of the crack tip. Secondly, modern SEM techniques are applied for observations on the morphology of the fractures surfaces of a fatigue crack. Information about the cross section profiles of striations are obtained. Corresponding locations of the upper and the lower fracture surface are also explored in view of the crack extension mechanism. Most experiments are carried out on sheet specimens of aluminum alloys 2024-T3, but 7050-T7451 specimens are also tested in view of a different ductility of the two alloys.

  19. Finite-Element Analysis of Melt Flow in Horizontal Twin-Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Jin

    Twin-roll casting has been useful in production of thin strips of metals. Especially, the process of horizontal twin-roll casting is often used for magnesium and aluminum alloys, which are lighter in weight and smaller in specific heat as well as latent heat in comparison to steel. In the present investigation, where magnesium alloy AZ31 was targeted, asymmetric behavior of the melt flow due to the gravity was examined in terms of contact length and pressure, and the nozzle for melt ejection was modified for its shape and location. Variations of the melt flow including vortexes were investigated in consideration of heterogeneous nucleation and uniform microstructure. The melt flow was further examined in the perspective of possible randomness of the grain orientation through thickness under differential speeds of rolls.

  20. Features of the corrosion protection of aluminium alloys by creation of hydrophobic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Gnedenkov, S. V.; Egorkin, V. S.; Vyaliy, I. E.

    2017-09-01

    Results of the study of hydrophobic layers on aluminum alloy, which underwent plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and subsequent deposition of the hydrophobic agent have been described. Coatings formed by deposition of dispersion of the hydrophobic agent containing SiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the PEO-layer are characterized by high contact angles and inhibitive properties. The formed composite layers were found to be characterized with hydrophobicity and high barrier properties.

  1. The fatigue life prediction of aluminium alloy using genetic algorithm and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susmikanti, Mike

    2013-09-01

    The behavior of the fatigue life of the industrial materials is very important. In many cases, the material with experiencing fatigue life cannot be avoided, however, there are many ways to control their behavior. Many investigations of the fatigue life phenomena of alloys have been done, but it is high cost and times consuming computation. This paper report the modeling and simulation approaches to predict the fatigue life behavior of Aluminum Alloys and resolves some problems of computation. First, the simulation using genetic algorithm was utilized to optimize the load to obtain the stress values. These results can be used to provide N-cycle fatigue life of the material. Furthermore, the experimental data was applied as input data in the neural network learning, while the samples data were applied for testing of the training data. Finally, the multilayer perceptron algorithm is applied to predict whether the given data sets in accordance with the fatigue life of the alloy. To achieve rapid convergence, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was also employed. The simulations results shows that the fatigue behaviors of aluminum under pressure can be predicted. In addition, implementation of neural networks successfully identified a model for material fatigue life.

  2. Emission of nanoparticles during friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium alloys.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F; Miranda, R M; Santos, T J; Carvalho, P A

    2014-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is now well established as a welding process capable of joining some different types of metallic materials, as it was (1) found to be a reliable and economical way of producing high quality welds, and (2) considered a "clean" welding process that does not involve fusion of metal, as is the case with other traditional welding processes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the emission of particles during FSW in the nanorange of the most commonly used aluminum (Al) alloys, AA 5083 and AA 6082, originated from the Al alloy itself due to friction of the welding tool against the item that was being welded. Another goal was to measure Al alloys in the alveolar deposited surface area during FSW. Nanoparticles dimensions were predominantly in the 40- and 70-nm range. This study demonstrated that microparticles were also emitted during FSW but due to tool wear. However, the biological relevance and toxic manifestations of these microparticles remain to be determined.

  3. XMCD and TEM studies of as-cast and rapidly quenched Fe50Nd50 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menushenkov, V. P.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Shchetinin, I. V.; Wilhelm, F.; Ivanov, A. A.; Rudnev, I. A.; Ivanov, V. G.; Rogalev, A.; Savchenko, A. G.; Zhukov, D. G.; Rafalskiy, A. V.; Ketov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    We present the XMCD analysis of as-cast and melt spun Fe50Nd50 samples performed at L2,3 -Nd and K-Fe absorption edges at 5 and 50 K in comparison with macroscopic data of XRD, TEM and magnetic properties measurements. In addition, we have measured the magnetic field dependence of XMCD signal for both types of the samples in magnetic fields up/down to 17 T. The obtained results pointed to the strong difference between structure and magnetic properties of the as-cast and melt spun Fe50Nd50 alloys for both macroscopic and local measurements. The element selective XMCD loops for melt spun alloy show almost identical value of the coercive force Hci for L 2-Nd and K-Fe edges and practically do not depend on temperature. XMCD loop at K-Fe edge is a sum of contributions of the Fe-based phases. The main Fe-rich phase has high Hci ≈ 2,4 T as a highly anisotropic phase. The absence of the K-Fe XMCD loop saturation in the field up to 17 T points to presence of the second Nd-rich Nd-Fe phase which is ferromagnetic at temperature lower than 50 K. In accordance to the TEM results these both phases may coexist as the mixture of nanocrystals which was formed as a result of decomposition of the amorphous-like matrix phase. The XMCD loop at L2 -Nd edge with Hci ≈ 1,9 T is the sum of contributions from two Nd-based phases: hard Fe-rich phase (Hci ≈ 2,4 T) and Nd-Fe matrix phase of medium hardness with Hci ≈ 1,3 T. The macroscopic loop showed the higher Hci compared to XMCD loops. Such discrepancy may be caused by the fact that XMCD signal is collected from a 5-10 mcm thick surface layer, which contains many defects that reduce anisotropy and coercivity.

  4. Compositional redistribution during casting of Hg sub 0.8 Cd sub 0.2 Te alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Perry, G. L. E.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te ingots was cast both vertically and horizontally under well-defined thermal conditions by using a two-zone furnace with isothermal heat-pipe liners. The main objective of the experiments was to establish correlations between casting parameters and compositional redistribution and to develop ground-based data for a proposed flight experiment of casting of Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys under reduced gravity conditions. The compositional variations along the axial and radial directions were determined by precision density measurements, infrared transmission spectra, and X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry. Comparison between the experimental results and a numerical simulation of the solidification process of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te is described.

  5. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, M.; Jagarlapudi, S. C.; Patel, J. B.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  6. In situ Neutron Diffraction during Casting: Determination of Rigidity Point in Grain Refined Al-Cu Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Mireux, Bastien; Szaraz, Zoltan; Pirling, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid plus liquid phases are sufficiently coalesced to transmit long range tensile strains and stresses. It determines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. As such, it is a key parameter in numerical modelling of solidification processes and in studying casting defects such as solidification cracking. This temperature has been determined in Al-Cu alloys using in situ neutron diffraction during casting in a dog bone shaped mould. In such a setup, the thermal contraction of the solidifying material is constrained and stresses develop at a hot spot that is irradiated by neutrons. Diffraction peaks are recorded every 11 s using a large detector, and their evolution allows for the determination of the rigidity temperatures. We measured rigidity temperatures equal to 557 °C and 548 °C, depending on cooling rate, for a grain refined Al-13 wt% Cu alloy. At high cooling rate, rigidity is reached during the formation of the eutectic phase and the solid phase is not sufficiently coalesced, i.e., strong enough, to avoid hot tear formation. PMID:28788507

  7. In situ Neutron Diffraction during Casting: Determination of Rigidity Point in Grain Refined Al-Cu Alloys.

    PubMed

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Mireux, Bastien; Szaraz, Zoltan; Pirling, Thilo

    2014-02-12

    The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid plus liquid phases are sufficiently coalesced to transmit long range tensile strains and stresses. It determines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. As such, it is a key parameter in numerical modelling of solidification processes and in studying casting defects such as solidification cracking. This temperature has been determined in Al-Cu alloys using in situ neutron diffraction during casting in a dog bone shaped mould. In such a setup, the thermal contraction of the solidifying material is constrained and stresses develop at a hot spot that is irradiated by neutrons. Diffraction peaks are recorded every 11 s using a large detector, and their evolution allows for the determination of the rigidity temperatures. We measured rigidity temperatures equal to 557 °C and 548 °C, depending on cooling rate, for a grain refined Al-13 wt% Cu alloy. At high cooling rate, rigidity is reached during the formation of the eutectic phase and the solid phase is not sufficiently coalesced, i.e. , strong enough, to avoid hot tear formation.

  8. Effect of oxidation heat treatment on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled cobalt-chromium alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieyin; Ye, Xiuhua; Li, Bohua; Liao, Juankun; Zhuang, Peilin; Ye, Jiantao

    2015-08-01

    There is a dearth of dental scientific literature on the effect of different oxidation heat treatments (OHTs) (as surface pretreatments) on the bonding performance of cast and milled cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different OHTs on the bond strength between a ceramic and cast and milled CoCr alloys. Cobalt-chromium metallic specimens were prepared using either a cast or a milled method. Specimens were subjected to four different OHT methods: without OHT; OHT under normal atmospheric pressure; OHT under vacuum; and OHT under vacuum followed by sandblasting. The metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated using a three-point bending test according to ISO9693. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the specimens' microstructure and elemental composition. The bond strength was not affected by the CoCr manufacturing method. Oxidation heat treatment performed under normal atmospheric pressure resulted in the highest bond strength. The concentration of oxygen on the alloy surfaces varied with the different pretreatment methods in the following order: OHT under normal atmospheric pressure > OHT under vacuum > without OHT ≈ OHT under vacuum followed by sandblasting. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Corrosion resistance assessment of Co-Cr alloy frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and casting methods.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Süleyman Hakan; Özçiçek Pekmez, Nuran; Kürkçüoğlu, Işin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of fabrication methods on the corrosion resistance of frameworks produced with Co-Cr alloys are not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Co-Cr alloy specimens that were fabricated by conventional casting, milling, and laser sintering. The specimens fabricated with 3 different methods were investigated by potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an artificial saliva. Ions released into the artificial saliva were estimated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the results were statistically analyzed. The specimen surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy before and after the tests. In terms of corrosion current and Rct properties, statistically significant differences were found both among the means of the methods and among the means of the material groups (P<.05). With regard to ions released, a statistically significant difference was found among the material groups (P<.05); however, no difference was found among the methods. Scanning electron microscopic imaging revealed that the specimens produced by conventional casting were affected to a greater extent by etching and electrochemical corrosion than those produced by milling and laser sintering. The corrosion resistance of a Co-Cr alloy specimens fabricated by milling or laser sintering was greater than that of the conventionally cast alloy specimens. The Co-Cr specimens produced by the same method also differed from one another in terms of corrosion resistance. These differences may be related to the variations in the alloy compositions. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  11. The effect of pre-straining and pre-ageing on a novel thermomechanical treatment for improving the mechanical properties of AA2139 aerospace aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakare, F.; Alsubhi, Y.; Ragkousis, A.; Ebomwonyi, O.; Damisa, J.; Okunzuwa, S.

    2017-07-01

    The novel thermomechanical treatment employed by Wang Z et al (2014 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 607 313-7) in enhancing the mechanical and microstructure properties of 6000 series aluminium alloys has been replicated for AA2139 aerospace aluminium alloys. The novel route which involves under-ageing, cold-rolling reductions and re-ageing at a fixed temperature has been carried out focusing on the effect of pre-straining and pre-ageing on the alloy properties. The influence of varying cold-rolling reductions and pre-ageing has been examined by tensile testing, hardness testing, differential scanning calorimetry, thermoelectric power measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Further analyses were conducted with DSC and TEP measurements to check for precipitation sequence and solute retention respectively. On comparing the hardness and strength of the non pre-aged to the pre-aged samples, there is a remarkable increase in the hardness and strength of the aerospace alloy showing the huge influence of both pre-ageing and pre-straining stage of the novel thermomechanical treatment as observed in the 6000 series alloy, albeit at a higher rate. The treatments that exhibited the most promising mechanical properties (hardness, yield and ultimate tensile strength, elongation to failure) were found to be at a pre-ageing temperature of 175 °C for 1.5 h, 40% cold-rolling and re-ageing at 150 °C. The material was found to have yield strength of 590 MPa and 8.1% uniform elongation, which is well above the 5% acceptable value for structural applications and with strength levels adaptable for aerospace industries. The presence of higher volume fraction of well dispersed precipitates observed in the SEM further shows that intermediate cold-rolling reductions combines well with pre-ageing to give the best mechanical properties in this alloy.

  12. Surface Structure Formation in Direct Chill (DC) Casting of Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Nazlin; Carlberg, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of the surface zone formation during direct chill (DC) casting of aluminum billets produced by the air slip technology. The depth of the shell zone, with compositions deviating from the bulk, is of large importance for the subsequent extrusion productivity and quality of final products. The surface microstructures of 6060 and 6005 aluminum alloys in three different surface appearances—defect free, wavy surface, and spot defects—were studied. The surface microstructures and outer appearance, segregation depth, and phase formation were investigated for the mentioned cases. The results were discussed and explained based on the exudation of liquid metal through the mushy zone and the fact that the exudated liquid is contained within a surface oxide skin. Outward solidification in the surface layer was quantitatively analyzed, and the oxide skin movements explained meniscus line formation. Phases forming at different positions in the segregation zone were analyzed and coupled to a cellular solidification in the exudated layer.

  13. The Effect of Multiple Firings on the Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain to a New Millable Alloy and a Conventional Casting Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, Mitra; Giti, Rashin; Asalforush-Rezaiye, Amin

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of multiple firings on the shear bond strength (SBS) of porcelain to the new millable alloy (Ceramill Sintron) and a conventional casting alloy (4-all). Thirty-six cylindrical cores (6.8 × 9 mm) were made of millable and castable alloy through CAD/CAM and casting techniques, respectively (n = 18). In the center of each bar, a 4 × 4 × 2-mm shot of porcelain was fused. Having divided each group into 3 subgroups based on the number of firing cycles (3, 5, 7), the specimens were fixed in a universal testing machine and underwent a shear force test (1.5 mm/min crosshead speed) until fractured. Then the SBS values (MPa) were calculated, and the failure patterns were microscopically characterized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed that the number of porcelain firings had no significant effect on the SBS of any of the metal groups (p = 0.1); however, it was statistically higher in the millable group than the castable group (p < 0.05). Moreover, detecting the mixed failure pattern in all the specimens implied that the multiple firings had no significant effect on the failure pattern. The multiple porcelain firings had no significant effect on the SBS of porcelain to neither the millable nor castable alloys. PMID:29565827

  14. Investigation of optimal chemical composition of cast aluminum alloys for vibrational mechanical-chemical polishing and deposition of protective and decorative coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Popov, S. I.; Kirichek, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article suggests the technology of vibration finishing processing of aluminum alloys with simultaneous coating. On the basis of experimental studies, cast alloys, working media, operating modes of equipment, activating solutions were chosen. The practical application of the developed technology on real parts is shown.

  15. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  16. Effect of severe plastic deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium and aluminium alloys in wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir; Skripnyak, Evgeniya; Skripnyak, Vladimir; Vaganova, Irina; Skripnyak, Nataliya

    2013-06-01

    Results of researches testify that a grain size have a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of metals and alloys. Ultrafine grained HCP and FCC metal alloys present higher values of the spall strength than a corresponding coarse grained counterparts. In the present study we investigate the effect of grain size distribution on the flow stress and strength under dynamic compression and tension of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Microstructure and grain size distribution in alloys were varied by carrying out severe plastic deformation during the multiple-pass equal channel angular pressing, cyclic constrained groove pressing, and surface mechanical attrition treatment. Tests were performed using a VHS-Instron servo-hydraulic machine. Ultra high speed camera Phantom V710 was used for photo registration of deformation and fracture of specimens in range of strain rates from 0,01 to 1000 1/s. In dynamic regime UFG alloys exhibit a stronger decrease in ductility compared to the coarse grained material. The plastic flow of UFG alloys with a bimodal grain size distribution was highly localized. Shear bands and shear crack nucleation and growth were recorded using high speed photography.

  17. Effects of aluminum and copper chill on mechanical properties and microstructures of Cu-Zn-Al alloys with sand casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhyananta, Hosta; Wibisono, Alvian Toto; Ramadhani, Mavindra; Widyastuti, Farid, Muhammad; Gumilang, Muhammad Shena

    2018-04-01

    Cu-Zn-Al alloy is one type of brass, which has high strength and high corrosion resistant. It has been applied on ship propellers and marine equipment. In this research, the addition of aluminum (Al) with variation of 1, 2, 3, 4% aluminum to know the effect on mechanical properties and micro structure at casting process using a copper chill and without copper chill. This alloy is melted using furnace in 1100°C without holding. Then, the molten metal is poured into the mold with copper chill and without copper chill. The speciment of Cu-Zn-Al alloy were chracterized by using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), Metallography Test, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Hardness Test of Rockwell B and Charpy Impact Test. The result is the addition of aluminum and the use of copper chill on the molds can reduce the grain size, increases the value of hardness and impact.

  18. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their longmore » freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.« less

  19. Evaluation of three variables affecting the casting of base metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Wight, T A; Grisius, R J; Gaugler, R W

    1980-04-01

    All the vented samples with sprue widths of 2 mm or more were defect free, whereas the corresponding unvented samples had extensive voids and porosity in all but one casting. All castings with a sprue width of 1 mm were defective regardless of whether or not vents were used. The thickness of the investment above the pattern had no effect on casting results.

  20. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  1. The Effect of Ca Content on the Microstructure, Hardness and Tensile Properties of AZ81 Mg Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allameh, S. H.; Emamy, M.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of various Ca contents (0.1-4 wt.%) on the microstructure and tensile properties of AZ81 magnesium alloy were investigated with the contribution of an analytical method. Ca addition (up to 1.0 wt.%) refined the alloy microstructure but further addition of Ca resulted in a coarse structure and introduced large dendrites within the grains. The changes in the microstructures revealed that Al4Ca, Al2Ca, τ-Mg32(A1,Zn)49 and ɛ-MgZn intermetallics are formed in the alloy as a result of Ca addition and Al consumption. The assessment of tensile properties of AZ81-1.0 wt.%Ca alloy showed the optimum values of yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, while AZ81-0.7 wt.%Ca alloy showed maximum elongation. The reduction in tensile properties of the cast alloy by the addition of more Ca was attributed to grain coarsening and evolution of a network of intermetallic compounds. FF study of tensile fractured surfaces indicated that Ca addition encourages brittle mode of fracture propagating through precipitated intermetallics in the structure.

  2. Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Corrosion Behavior of Die-Cast Mg-7Al-1Ca- xSn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Dong, Haikuo; Sun, Shijie; Wang, Zhi; Mao, Pingli; Liu, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    The microstructure, tensile properties, and corrosion behavior of die-cast Mg-7Al-1Ca- xSn ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.%) alloys were studied using OM, SEM/EDS, tensile test, weight loss test, and electrochemical test. The experimental results showed that Sn addition effectively refined grains and intermetallic phases and increased the amount of intermetallic phases. Meanwhile, Sn addition to the alloys suppressed the formation of the (Mg,Al)2Ca phase and resulted in the formation of the ternary CaMgSn phase and the binary Mg2Sn phase. The Mg-7Al-1Ca-0.5Sn alloy exhibited best tensile properties at room temperature, while Mg-7Al-1Ca-1.0Sn alloy exhibited best tensile properties at elevated temperature. The corrosion resistance of studied alloys was improved by the Sn addition, and the Mg-7Al-1Ca-0.5Sn alloy presented the best corrosion resistance.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part II—Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Porter, Wallace D.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systems (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.

  4. Influence of Cu Addition on the Structure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Cast Mg-2%Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfpour, M.; Emamy, M.; Dehghanian, C.; Tavighi, K.

    2017-05-01

    Effects of different concentrations of Cu on the structure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-2%Zn alloy were studied by the use of x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, standard tensile testing, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The average grain size of the alloy decreased from above 1000 μm to about 200 μm with 5 wt.% Cu addition in as-cast condition. Microstructural studies revealed that Mg-2Zn- xCu alloys matrix typically consists of primary α-Mg and MgZnCu and Mg(Zn,Cu)2 intermetallics which are mainly found at the grain boundaries. The results obtained from mechanical testing ascertained that Cu addition increased the hardness values significantly. Although the addition of 0.5 wt.% Cu improved the ultimate tensile strength and elongation values, more Cu addition (i.e., 5 wt.%) weakened the tensile properties of the alloy by introducing semi-continuous network of brittle intermetallic phases. Based on polarization test results, it can be concluded that Cu eliminates a protective film on Mg-2%Zn alloy surface. Among Mg-2%Zn- x%Cu alloys, the one containing 0.1 wt.% Cu exhibited the best anti-corrosion property. However, further Cu addition increased the volume fraction of intermetallics culminating in corrosion rate enhancement due to the galvanic couple effect. EIS and microstructural analysis also confirmed the polarization results.

  5. Data on the effect of homogenization heat treatments on the cast structure and tensile properties of alloy 718Plus in the presence of grain-boundary elements.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Madar, Karim Zangeneh; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    The segregation of the elements during solidification and the direct formation of destructive phases such as Laves from the liquid, result in in-homogeneity of the cast structure and degradation of mechanical properties. Homogenization heat treatment is one of the ways to eliminate destructive Laves from the cast structure of superalloys such as 718Plus. The collected data presents the effect of homogenization treatment conditions on the cast structure, hardness, and tensile properties of the alloy 718Plus in the presence of boron and zirconium additives. For this purpose, five alloys with different contents of boron and zirconium were cast by VIM/VAR process and then were homogenized at various conditions. The microstructural investigation by OM and SEM and phase analysis by XRD were done and then hardness and tensile tests were performed on the homogenized alloys.

  6. High-Strength Aluminum Casting Alloy for High-Temperature Applications (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Project No. 97-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon alloy has been successfully developed at Marshall Space Flight Center that has a significant improvement in tensile strength at elevated temperatures (550 to 700 F). For instance, the new alloy shows in average tensile strength of at least 90 percent higher than the current 390 aluminum piston alloy tested at 500 F. Compared to conventional aluminum alloys, automotive engines using the new piston alloy will have improved gas mileage, and may produce less air pollution in order to meet the future U.S. automotive legislative requirements for low hydrocarbon emissions. The projected cost for this alloy is less than $0.95/lb, and it readily allows the automotive components to be cast at a high production volume with a low, fully accounted cost. It is economically produced by pouring molten metal directly into conventional permanent steel molds or die casting.

  7. Search for promising compositions for developing new multiphase casting alloys based on Al-Cu-Mg matrix using thermodynamic calculations and mathematic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Pozdnyakov, A. V.; Churyumov, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    A calculation-experimental study is carried out to improve the concept of searching for new alloying systems in order to develop new casting alloys using mathematical simulation methods in combination with thermodynamic calculations. The results show the high effectiveness of the applied methods. The real possibility of selecting the promising compositions with the required set of casting and mechanical properties is exemplified by alloys with thermally hardened Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg matrices, as well as poorly soluble additives that form eutectic components using mainly the calculation study methods and the minimum number of experiments.

  8. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Shock Treated Aluminium Alloy Al 2024-T4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, K. D.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Dey, A.; Rav, Amit S.; Biswas, S.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2012-07-01

    Plate impact experiment has been carried out on Al 2024-T4 alloy using single stage gas gun. The dynamic yield strength and spall strength of Al 2024-T4 sample has been determined to be 0.35 GPa and 1.43 GPa, respectively, from free surface velocity history measured using VISAR. The sample recovered after unloading from peak shock pressure of 4.4 GPa along with an unshocked sample is analyzed for mechanical properties using nano-indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nano-indentation measurements reveal that the hardness and Young's modulus for unshocked sample remains unchanged as a function of load (equivalently depth), however, the same for shocked sample decreases monotonically with increase of load up to ~40 mN and on further increase of load it remains unchanged, suggesting the (i) increase in hardness of shock loaded sample; (ii) the increase in hardness is limited to certain depth, which in our case is 845.12 ± 43.16 nm.

  10. Investigation of surface finishing of carbon based coated tools for dry deep drawing of aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J.; Andreas, K.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    Global trends like growing environmental awareness and demand for resource efficiency motivate an abandonment of lubricants in metal forming. However, dry forming evokes increased friction and wear. Especially, dry deep drawing of aluminum alloys leads to intensive interaction between tool and workpiece due to its high adhesion tendency. One approach to improve the tribological behavior is the application of carbon based coatings. These coatings are characterized by high wear resistance. In order to investigate the potential of carbon based coatings for dry deep drawing, friction and wear behavior of different coating compositions are evaluated in strip drawing tests. This setup is used to model the tribological conditions in the flange area of deep drawing operations. The tribological behavior of tetrahedral amorphous (ta-C) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with and without tungsten modification (a-C:H:W, a-C:H) is investigated. The influence of tool topography is analyzed by applying different surface finishing. The results show reduced friction with decreased roughness for coated tools. Besides tool topography the coating type determines the tribological conditions. Smooth tools with ta-C and a-C:H coatings reveal low friction and prevent adhesive wear. In contrast, smooth a-C:H:W coated tools only lead to slight improvement compared to rough, uncoated specimen.

  11. The effect of welding parameters on surface quality of AA6351 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacob, S.; MAli, M. A.; Ahsan, Q.; Ariffin, N.; Ali, R.; Arshad, A.; Wahab, M. I. A.; Ismail, S. A.; Roji, NS M.; Din, W. B. W.; Zakaria, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Yusof, M. I.; Kamarulzaman, K. Z.; Mahyuddin, A.; Hamzah, M. N.; Roslan, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the effects of gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) parameters on surface roughness are experimentally assessed. The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the effects of welding speed, material thickness and contact tip to work distance on the surface roughness. Experiments are conducted using single pass gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) welding technique to join the material. The material used in this experiment was AA6351 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 5mm and 6mm. A Mahr Marsuft XR 20 machine was used to measure the average roughness (Ra) of AA6351 joints. The main and interaction effect analysis was carried out to identify process parameters that affect the surface roughness. The results show that all the input process parameters affect the surface roughness of AA6351 joints. Additionally, the average roughness (Ra) results also show a decreasing trend with increased of welding speed. It is proven that gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT)welding process has been successful in term of providing weld joint of good surface quality for AA6351 based on the low value surface roughness condition obtained in this setup. The outcome of this experimental shall be valuable for future fabrication process in order to obtained high good quality weld.

  12. Propagation mode of Portevin-Le Chatelier plastic instabilities in an aluminium-magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeghloul, A.; Mliha-Touati, M.; Bakir, S.

    1996-11-01

    The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect is characterized by the appearance of serrations in load (hard tensile machine for constant strain rate tests) or by steps (soft tensile machine for constant stress rate tests) or by steps (soft tensile machine for constant stress rate tests) on the stress-strain curves. It is now widely accepted that the PLC propagative instability stems from the dynamic interaction between diffusing solute atoms and mobile dislocations in the temperature and strain rate ranges where dynamic strain ageing (DSA) takes place. This competition results in a negative strain-rate sensitivity. However, in some alloys, like concentrated solid solutions,more » shearing of precipitates accompanied by their dissolution and subsequent reprecipitation during tensile test may also lead to a negative strain rate sensitivity. In view of the renewed theoretical interest in propagative instabilities, it is important that the experimental features of band propagation be well characterized. In this work the authors present experimental results that are obtained from the investigation of the PLC bands associated with discontinuous yielding. These results show that the band strain, the band velocity and the propagation mode of the bands depend on the stress rate when the test is carried out on a soft tensile machine.« less

  13. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by decreasing interface energy between Zn and Al phases in cast Al-Zn-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Choi, Eun-Ae; Park, Hyun Woong; Lim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jehyun; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Hwang, Nong-Moon; Kim, Kwangho

    2017-09-22

    Cast-Al alloys that include a high amount of the second element in their matrix have comparatively high strength but low ductility because of the high volume fraction of strengthening phases or undesirable inclusions. Al-Zn alloys that have more than 30 wt% Zn have a tensile strength below 300 MPa, with elongation under 5% in the as-cast state. However, we found that after substitution of 2% Zn by Cu, the tensile strength of as-cast Al-Zn-Cu alloys was 25% higher and ductility was four times higher than for the corresponding Al-35% Zn alloy. Additionally, for the Al-43% Zn alloy with 2% Cu after 1 h solution treatment at 400 °C and water quenching, the tensile strength unexpectedly reached values close to 600 MPa. For the Al-33% Zn alloy with 2% Cu, the tensile strength was 500 MPa with 8% ductility. The unusual trends of the mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloys with Cu addition observed during processing from casting to the subsequent solution treatment were attributed to the precipitation of Zn in the Al matrix. The interface energy between the Zn particles and the Al matrix decreased when using a solution of Cu in Zn.

  14. Dynamic recrystallization behavior of an as-cast TiAl alloy during hot compression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianbo, E-mail: lijianbo1205@163.com; Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn; Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan@csu.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    High temperature compressive deformation behaviors of as-cast Ti–43Al–4Nb–1.4W–0.6B alloy were investigated at temperatures ranging from 1050 °C to 1200 °C, and strain rates from 0.001 s{sup −1} to 1 s{sup −1}. Electron back scattered diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the microstructural evolutions and nucleation mechanisms of the dynamic recrystallization. The results indicated that the true stress–true strain curves show a dynamic flow softening behavior. The dependence of the peak stress on the deformation temperature and the strain rate can well be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy decreases withmore » increasing the strain. The size of the dynamically recrystallized β grains decreases with increasing the value of the Zener–Hollomon parameter (Z). When the flow stress reaches a steady state, the size of β grains almost remains constant with increasing the deformation strain. The continuous dynamic recrystallization plays a dominant role in the deformation. In order to characterize the evolution of dynamic recrystallization volume fraction, the dynamic recrystallization kinetics was studied by Avrami-type equation. Besides, the role of β phase and the softening mechanism during the hot deformation was also discussed in details. - Highlights: • The size of DRXed β grains decreases with increasing the value of the Z. • The CDRX plays a dominant role in the deformation. • The broken TiB{sub 2} particles can promote the nucleation of DRX.« less

  15. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-07-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  16. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  17. Corrosion of dental aluminium bronze in neutral saline and saline lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J E; Erimescu, Raluca

    2006-09-01

    To compare the corrosion behaviours of two aluminium bronze, dental casting alloys during a standard immersion test and for immersion in neutral saline. Cast specimens of aluminium bronzes with 1.4 wt% Fe (G) and 4 wt% Fe (N) were subject to progressively longer periods (up to in total 7 days) immersed in 0.1 M saline, 0.1 M lactic acid solutions and examined by scanning electron microscopy with EDX analysis. Immersion in 0.1M neutral saline was for 7 days. In the acidic solution, exposed interdendritic volumes in alloy N corroded completely away in 7 days with dissolution of Ni-enriched precipitate species as well as the copper-rich matrix. Alloy G begins to corrode more slowly but by a similar mechanism. The number density of an Fe-enriched species is insufficient to maintain a continuous galvanic potential to the copper matrix, and dissolution becomes imperceptible. In neutral saline solution, galvanic action alone caused pit-etching, without the dissolution of either precipitate species. The upper limit for the total dissolution of metallic ions in the standard immersion test can be set at 200 microg cm(-2). Aluminium bronze dental alloys can be expected to release both copper and nickel ions into an acidic oral environment.

  18. Optimization of Coolant Technique Conditions for Machining A319 Aluminium Alloy Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal Ariffin, S.; Razlan, A.; Ali, M. Mohd; Efendee, A. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Background/Objectives: The paper discusses about the optimum cutting parameters with coolant techniques condition (1.0 mm nozzle orifice, wet and dry) to optimize surface roughness, temperature and tool wear in the machining process based on the selected setting parameters. The selected cutting parameters for this study were the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and coolant techniques condition. Methods/Statistical Analysis Experiments were conducted and investigated based on Design of Experiment (DOE) with Response Surface Method. The research of the aggressive machining process on aluminum alloy (A319) for automotive applications is an effort to understand the machining concept, which widely used in a variety of manufacturing industries especially in the automotive industry. Findings: The results show that the dominant failure mode is the surface roughness, temperature and tool wear when using 1.0 mm nozzle orifice, increases during machining and also can be alternative minimize built up edge of the A319. The exploration for surface roughness, productivity and the optimization of cutting speed in the technical and commercial aspects of the manufacturing processes of A319 are discussed in automotive components industries for further work Applications/Improvements: The research result also beneficial in minimizing the costs incurred and improving productivity of manufacturing firms. According to the mathematical model and equations, generated by CCD based RSM, experiments were performed and cutting coolant condition technique using size nozzle can reduces tool wear, surface roughness and temperature was obtained. Results have been analyzed and optimization has been carried out for selecting cutting parameters, shows that the effectiveness and efficiency of the system can be identified and helps to solve potential problems.

  19. Study on erosion behaviour of hybrid aluminium composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, D. K.; Chandrappa, C. N.; Venkatesh, Shreyas

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the light metals, as compared to other metals in this century, is noticeable and an exciting area of expansion for innovation. Light metals, are need of the day in engineering, among them application of aluminium and its alloys is enormous. we observe that these metals tend to have a progressive loss of metal from having contact surface with other metals. Erosion is one such wear process, where damage occurs by the repeated application of high localised stresses. Erosion due to impact of solid particle, is a significant problem. In the present work, the erosion behaviour of hybrid aluminium composite is studied. AL 6061 is used as the base alloy. AL 6061 alloy has excellent corrosion resistance but poor wear resistance. So, in order to have improved properties, it is reinforced with Tungsten Chromium Nickel powder in varied proportions by the method of stir casting. The results are compared with the as-cast Al-alloy to determine the improvement in mechanical properties. The tests were conducted in ASTM G76 setup, to determine solid particle erosion behaviour and the results of the hybrid composite were compared with that of as-cast AL 6061 alloy. It was evident that mass loss was maximum at 300 inclinations, which is a characteristic of ductile materials. It was observed that upon increasing the percentages of reinforcement (wt.%), the wear resistance of the hybrid composite increased significantly. It was also observed that the inclusion of tungsten-chromium-nickel powder increased the hardness of the hybrid composite significantly.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study of Needle Peening Effects in Aluminium Alloy 2024-T3 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez Romero, Julio Alberto

    Montreal as part of previous shot peening research. Saturation tests were done to determine the deflection at saturation for different peening parameters. The specimen deflection was measured using the standard Almen gauge used as part of routinary process control. Due to the aluminium magnetic incompatibility with the Almen gauge, the deformed specimen profile was measured using a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Repeatability of the process was demonstrated and the deflection at saturation, as well as the saturation time, was obtained. The indentation diameters created by impacts for different operating pressures were measured using microscopic photography. It was determined that the specimen deformation, as well as the indentation diameter, is larger when the operating pressure increases. Treatment of the test samples using the same peening parameters resulted in a variable indentation diameter. This is explained by the velocity variations detected during the equipment characterization. The added value that needle peening could provide to existing peening techniques is that, in principle, uniformity in the indentation diameters is easier to achieve as all impacts are normal and there is no loss of energy due to media interaction. The last experimental test was to determine the induced residual stress by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for one specimen at saturation. An FE model heavily inspired by previous shot peening modeling was developed to simulate needle peening. The parameters obtained during the characterization of the equipment were taken as boundary conditions. Initially, the case of a single impacts was studied. Good accordance between the simulated and the average experimental indentation diameters was obtained, except for the lowest pressure studied. The overestimation of the indentation diameter could stem from the method used to measure the simulated diameter. Coverage estimation, and therefore indentation diameters remain an open line of research in

  1. Effect of iron-intermetallics and porosity on tensile and impact properties of aluminum-silicon-copper and aluminum-silicon-magnesium cast alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheyuan

    Aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are an important class of materials that constitute the majority of aluminum cast parts produced, due to their superior properties and excellent casting characteristics. Within this family of alloys, Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Mg cast alloys are frequently employed in automotive applications. The commercially popular 319 and 356 alloys, representing these two alloy systems, were selected for study in the present work, with the aim of investigating the effect of iron intermetallics and porosity on the alloy performance. This was carried out through a study of the tensile and impact properties, these being two of the important mechanical properties used in design calculations. Iron, through the precipitation of second phase intermetallic constituents, in particular the platelike beta-Al5FeSi phase, is harmful to the alloy properties. Likewise, gas- or shrinkage porosity in castings is also detrimental to the mechanical properties. By determining the optimum alloying, melt processing and solidification parameters (viz., Fe content, Sr modification and cooling rate) required to minimize the harmful effects of porosity and iron intermetallics, and studying their role on the fracture behavior, the fracture mechanism in the alloys could be determined. Castings were prepared from both industrial and experimental 319.2, B319.2 and A356.2 alloy melts, containing Fe levels of 0.2--1.0 wt%. Sr-modified (˜200 ppm) melts were also prepared for each alloy Fe level. The end-chilled refractory mold used provided directional solidification and a range of cooling rates (or dendrite arm spacings, DAS) within the same casting. Tensile and impact test samples machined from specimen blanks sectioned from the castings at various heights above the chill end provided DASs of 23--85mum. All samples were T6-heat-treated before testing. Tests were carried out employing Instron Universal and Instrumented Charpy testing machines. Optical microscopy, image analysis, SEM

  2. Aluminium plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  3. Aluminium plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  4. Determination of Coherency and Rigidity Temperatures in Al-Cu Alloys Using In Situ Neutron Diffraction During Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Mireux, Bastien; Szaraz, Zoltan; Pirling, Thilo

    2014-08-01

    The rigidity temperature of a solidifying alloy is the temperature at which the solid phase is sufficiently coalesced to transmit tensile stress. It is a major input parameter in numerical modeling of solidification processes as it defines the point at which thermally induced deformations start to generate internal stresses in a casting. This temperature has been determined for an Al-13 wt.% Cu alloy using in situ neutron diffraction during casting in a dog-bone-shaped mold. This setup allows the sample to build up internal stress naturally as its contraction is not possible. The cooling on both sides of the mold induces a hot spot at the middle of the sample that is irradiated by neutrons. Diffraction patterns are recorded every 11 s using a large detector, and the very first change of diffraction angles allows for the determination of the rigidity temperature. We measured rigidity temperatures equal to 557°C and 548°C depending on the cooling rate for grain refined Al-13 wt.% Cu alloys. At a high cooling rate, rigidity is reached during the formation of the eutectic phase. In this case, the solid phase is not sufficiently coalesced to sustain tensile load and thus cannot avoid hot tear formation.

  5. Effect of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding characterization between porcelain and metal.

    PubMed

    Huang, H-H; Lin, M-C; Lee, T-H; Yang, H-W; Chen, F-L; Wu, S-C; Hsu, C-C

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding behaviour between porcelain and metal. A three-point bending test was used to measure the fracture load of alloy after porcelain firing. A scanning electron microscope, accompanied by an energy dispersion spectrometer, was used to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of the fracture surface. An X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and glow discharge spectrometer were used to identify the structure and cross-sectional chemical composition, respectively, of oxide layers on Ni-Cr alloys after heat treatment at 990 degrees C for 5 min. Results showed that the oxide layers formed on all Ni-Cr alloys contained mainly Cr2O3, NiO, and trace MoO3. The Ni-Cr alloy with a higher Cr content had a thicker oxide layer, as well as a weaker bonding behaviour of porcelain/metal interface. The presence of Al (as Al2O3) and Be (as BeO) on the oxide layer suppressed the growth of the oxide layer, leading to a better porcelain/metal bonding behaviour. However, the presence of a small amount of Ti (as TiO2) on the oxide layer did not have any influence on the bonding behaviour. The fracture propagated along the interface between the opaque porcelain and metal, and exhibited an adhesive type of fracture morphology.

  6. Application of a Pore Fraction Hot Tearing Model to Directionally Solidified and Direct Chill Cast Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Ruifeng; Phillion, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Hot tearing susceptibility is commonly assessed using a pressure drop equation in the mushy zone that includes the effects of both tensile deformation perpendicular to the thermal gradient as well as shrinkage feeding. In this study, a Pore Fraction hot tearing model, recently developed by Monroe and Beckermann (JOM 66:1439-1445, 2014), is extended to additionally include the effect of strain rate parallel to the thermal gradient. The deformation and shrinkage pore fractions are obtained on the basis of the dimensionless Niyama criterion and a scaling variable method. First, the model is applied to the binary Al-Cu system under conditions of directional solidification. It is shown that for the same Niyama criterion, a decrease in the cooling rate increases both the deformation and shrinkage pore fractions because of an increase in the time spent in the brittle temperature region. Second, the model is applied to the industrial aluminum alloy AA5182 as part of a finite element simulation of the Direct Chill (DC) casting process. It is shown that an increase in the casting speed during DC casting increases the deformation and shrinkage pore fractions, causing the maximum point of pore fraction to move towards the base of the casting. These results demonstrate that including the strain rate parallel to the thermal gradient significantly improves the predictive quality of hot tearing criteria based on the pressure drop equation.

  7. Effects of Casting Conditions on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of the Co-19 at.%Al-6 at. %W Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Stepanova, N. N.; Rigmant, M. B.; Davidov, D. I.; Shishkin, D. A.; Romanov, E. P.

    The Co-19 at.%Al-6 at.%W alloy was prepared by two methods of casting. We used arc melting under an argon atmosphere with casting into a copper water-cooled casting mold and induction melting furnace with casting into a ceramic Al2O3 mold. According to the X-ray and SEM analyses, phase compositions depend on the cooling rate of the ingot after melting. After arc melting, the cast alloy has a three-phase structure, consisting of γ cobalt (FCC), intermetallic phases CoAl (B2) type, and Co3W (DO19) type. After the induction melting, the alloy has a three-phase structure, consisting of γ cobalt (FCC), intermetallic phases CoAl (B2) type, and Co7W6 (µ) type. All phases in the investigated ternary alloy at the room temperature are ferromagnetic. Curie temperatures of all obtained phases were defined. It is shown that the magnetic properties of the studied alloy are typical for soft magnetic materials.

  8. Relationship between Defect Size and Fatigue Life Distributions in Al-7 Pct Si-Mg Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiryakioğlu, Murat

    2009-07-01

    A new method for predicting the variability in fatigue life of castings was developed by combining the size distribution for the fatigue-initiating defects and a fatigue life model based on the Paris-Erdoğan law for crack propagation. Two datasets for the fatigue-initiating defects in Al-7 pct Si-Mg alloy castings, reported previously in the literature, were used to demonstrate that (1) the size of fatigue-initiating defects follow the Gumbel distribution; (2) the crack propagation model developed previously provides respectable fits to experimental data; and (3) the method developed in the present study expresses the variability in both datasets, almost as well as the lognormal distribution and better than the Weibull distribution.

  9. The effects of short pulse laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy for automotive component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShaer, A. W.; Li, L.; Mistry, A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser welding of aluminium alloys typically results in porosity in the fusion zones, leading to poor mechanical and corrosion performances. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of surfaces has been used previously to remove contaminants for weld joint preparations. However, these methods are slow, ineffective (e.g. due to hydrogen trapping) or lead to environmental hazards. This paper reports the effects of short pulsed laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of AC-170PX (AA6014) aluminium sheets (coated with Ti/Zr and lubricated using a dry lubricant AlO70) with two types of joints: fillet edge and flange couch, using an AA4043 filler wire for automotive component assembly. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction during laser welding using a filler wire has not been reported before. In this work, porosity and weld fusion zone geometry were examined prior to and after laser cleaning. The nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser cleaning was found to reduce porosity significantly in the weld fusion zones. For the fillet edge welds, porosity was reduced to less than 0.5% compared with 10-80% without laser cleaning. For flange couch welds, porosity was reduced to 0.23-0.8% with laser cleaning from 0.7% to 4.3% without laser cleaning. This has been found to be due to the elimination of contaminations and oxide layers that contribute to the porosity formation. The laser cleaning is based on thermal ablation. This research focuses on porosity reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy. Weld quality was investigated for two joints, fillet edge and flange couch joints. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction after welding was investigated. It was found that laser cleaning reduced porosity less than 1% in both joints. Weld dimensions and strength were evaluated and discussed for both types of joints.

  10. Low cycle fatigue properties of MAR-M-246 Hf in hydrogen. [a cast nickel-base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The transverse, low cycle fatigue properties were determined for directionally solidified and single crystal samples of a cast nickel-base alloy proposed for use in space propulsion systems in pure or partial high pressure hydrogen environments at elevated temperatures. The test temperature was 760 C (1400F) and the pressure of the gaseous hydrogen was 34.5 MPa (5000 psig). Low cycle fatique life was established by strain controlled testing using smooth specimens and a servohydraulic closed-loop test machine modified with a high pressure environmental chamber. Results and conclusions are discussed.

  11. Segregation and microstructure evolution in chill cast and directionally solidified Ni-Mn-Sn metamagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, P.; Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.; Rogal, Ł.

    2018-06-01

    A multiphase solidification behaviour is confirmed for a range of Ni-rich and Ni-deficient Ni-Mn-Sn induction cast and directionally solidified (Bridgman) alloys. The composition variation is primarily linked to the changing Mn/Sn ratio, whereas the content of Ni remains largely stable. The partitioning coefficients for the Ni50Mn37Sn13 and Ni46Mn41.5Sn12.5 Bridgman alloys were obtained according to the Scheil equation based on the composition distribution along the longitudinal cross section of the ingots. Homogenization heat treatment performed for 72 h at 1220 K turned out sufficient for ensuring chemical uniformity on the macro- and microscale. It is owed to a limited segregation length scale due to slow cooling rates adopted for the directional solidification process.

  12. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment. [for high-pressure oxidizer turbopump turbine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of two nickel-base casting alloys, Mar-M-246 (a Martin Company alloy) and 713LC (a low-carbon modification of the alloy 713C developed by International Nickel Company) were tested as candidate materials for the high-pressure fuel and high-pressure oxidizer turbopump turbine nozzles. The samples were subjected to tensile tests and to low cycle fatigue tests in high-pressure hydrogen to study the influence of the hydrogen environment. The Mar-M-246 material was found to have a three times higher cyclic life in hydrogen than the 713LC alloy, and was selected as the nozzle material.

  13. Effects of Annular Electromagnetic Stirring Coupled with Intercooling on Grain Refinement and Homogeneity During Direct Chill Casting of Large-Sized 7005 Alloy Billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yajun; Zhang, Zhifeng; Li, Bao; Gao, Mingwei; Qiu, Yang; He, Min

    2017-12-01

    To obtain a large-sized, high-quality aluminum alloy billet, an advanced uniform direct chill (UDC) casting method was developed by combining annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) with intercooling in the sump. The 7005 alloy was chosen to investigate the effect of UDC on grain refinement and homogeneity during normal direct chill (NDC) casting. It was concluded that the microstructure consisting of both primary α-Al phase and secondary phases becomes finer and more homogeneous for the billets prepared with UDC casting compared to those prepared with NDC casting, and the forced cooling from both the inner and outer melt under A-EMS has a measurable effect on grain refinement and homogeneity.

  14. Correlative characterization of primary particles formed in as-cast Al-Mg alloy containing a high level of Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shi'ang

    Primary particles formed in as-cast Al-5Mg-0.6Sc alloy and their role in microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile testing. It was found that primary particles due to a close orientation to matrix could serve as the potent heterogeneous nucleation sites for α-Al during solidification and thus impose a remarkable grain refinement effect. Eutectic structure consisted of layer by layer of ‘Al{sub 3}Sc + α-Al + Al{sub 3}Sc + ⋯’ and cellular-dendritic substructure were simultaneously observed at the particles inside, indicating that these particles couldmore » be identified as the eutectics rather than individual Al{sub 3}Sc phase. A calculating method, based on EBSD results, was introduced for the spatial distribution of these particles in matrix. The results showed that these eutectic particles randomly distributed in matrix. In addition, the formation of primary eutectic particles significant improved the strength of the Al-Mg alloy in as-cast condition, which is ascribed to the structural evolution from coarse dendrites to prefect fine equiaxed grains. On the other hand, these large-sized particles due to the tendency to act as the microcrack sources could cause a harmful effect in the ductility of Al-Mg-Sc alloy. - Highlights: •Primary particles exhibit an ‘Al{sub 3}Sc + α-Al + Al{sub 3}Sc + ⋯’ multilayer feature with a cellular-dendritic mode of growth. •EBSD analyses the mechanism of grain refinement and the distribution of primary particles in α-Al matrix. •A computational method was presented to calculate the habit planes of primary particles.« less

  15. Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kang, E-mail: du126kang@126.com; Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: zhu.qiang@grinm.com; Li, Daquan, E-mail: lidaquan@grinm.com

    Mechanical properties of thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys can be enhanced by T61 heat treatment. Copper and magnesium atoms in aluminum matrix can form homogeneously distributed precipitations after solution and aging treatment which harden the alloys. However, microsegregation of these alloying elements could form numerous tiny multi-compound phases during solidification. These phases could cause incipient melting defects in subsequent heat treatment process and degrade the macro-mechanical properties of productions. This study is to present heterogeneous distribution of Cu, Si, and Mg elements and formation of incipient melting defects (pores). In this study, incipient melting pores that occurred during solution treatment at variousmore » temperatures, even lower than common melting points of various intermetallic phases, were identified, in terms of a method of investigating the same surface area in the samples before and after solution treatment in a vacuum environment. The results also show that the incipient melting mostly originates at the clusters with fine intermetallic particles while also some at the edge of block-like Al{sub 2}Cu. The fine particles were determined being Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} and Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}FeSi{sub 2}. Tendency of the incipient melting decreases with decreases of the width of the clusters. The formation mechanism of incipient melting pores in solution treatment process was discussed using both the Fick law and the LSW theory. Finally, a criterion of solution treatment to avoid incipient melting pores for the thixo-cast alloys is proposed. - Highlights: • In-situ comparison technique was used to analysis the change of eutectic phases. • The ralationship between eutectic phase size and incipient melting was studied. • Teat treatment criterion for higher incipient melting resistance was proposed.« less

  16. Corrosion and protection of heterogeneous cast Al-Si (356) and Al-Si-Cu-Fe (380) alloys by chromate adn cerium inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Syadwad

    In this study, the localized corrosion and conversion coating on cast alloys 356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg) and 380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu-1.6Fe) were characterized. The intermetallic phases presence in the permanent mold cast alloy 356 are primary-Si, Al5FeSi, Al8Si6Mg3Fe and Mg2Si. The die cast alloy 380 is rich in Cu and Fe elements. These alloying elements result in formation of the intermetallic phases Al 5FeSi, Al2Cu and Al(FeCuCr) along with primary-Si. The Cu- and Fe-rich IMPS are cathodic with respect to the matrix phase and strongly govern the corrosion behavior of the two cast alloys in an aggressive environment due to formation of local electrochemical cell in their vicinity. Results have shown that corrosion behavior of permanent mould cast alloy 356 is significantly better than the die cast aluminum alloy 380, primarily due to high content of Cu- and Fe-rich phases such as Al2Cu and Al 5FeSi in the latter. The IMPS also alter the protection mechanism of the cast alloys in the presence of inhibitors in an environment. The presence of chromate in the solution results in reduced cathodic activity on all the phases. Chromate provides some anodic inhibition by increasing pitting potentials and altering corrosion potentials for the phases. Results have shown that performance of CCC was much better on 356 than on 380, primarily due to inhomogeneous and incomplete coating deposition on Cu- and Fe- phases present in alloy 380. XPS and Raman were used to characterize coating deposition on intermetallics. Results show evidence of cyanide complex formation on the intermetallic phases. The presence of this complex is speculated to locally suppress CCC formation. Formation and breakdown of cerium conversion coatings on 356 and 380 was also analyzed. Results showed that deposition of cerium hydroxide started with heavy precipitation on intermetallic particles with the coatings growing outwards onto the matrix. Electrochemical analysis of synthesized intermetallics compounds in the

  17. In situ monitoring of corrosion mechanisms and phosphate inhibitor surface deposition during corrosion of zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloys using novel time-lapse microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James; Cooze, Nathan; Gallagher, Callum; Lewis, Tom; Prosek, Tomas; Thierry, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In situ time-lapse optical microscopy was used to examine the microstructural corrosion mechanisms in three zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloy coated steels immersed in 1% NaCl pH 7. Preferential corrosion of MgZn(2) lamellae within the eutectic phases was observed in all the ZMA alloys followed by subsequent dissolution of Zn rich phases. The total extent and rate of corrosion, measured using time-lapse image analysis and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) estimated mass loss, decreased as Mg and Al alloying additions were increased up to a level of 3 wt% Mg and 3.7 wt% Al. This was probably due to the increased presence of MgO and Al(2)O(3) at the alloy surface retarding the kinetics of cathodic oxygen reduction. The addition of 1 × 10(-2) mol dm(-3) Na(3)PO(4) to 1% NaCl pH 7 had a dramatic influence on the corrosion mechanism for a ZMA with passivation of anodic sites through phosphate precipitation observed using time-lapse image analysis. Intriguing rapid precipitation of filamentous phosphate was also observed and it is postulated that these filaments nucleate and grow due to super saturation effects. Polarisation experiments showed that the addition of 1 × 10(-2) mol dm(-3) Na(3)PO(4) to the 1% NaCl electrolyte promoted an anodic shift of 50 mV in open circuit potential for the ZMA alloy with a reduction in anodic current of 2.5 orders of magnitude suggesting that it was acting primarily as an anodic inhibitor supporting the inferences from the time-lapse investigations. These phosphate additions resulted in a 98% reduction in estimated mass loss as measured by SVET demonstrating the effectiveness of phosphate inhibitors for this alloy system.

  18. Development of the Electromagnetic Continuous Casting Technology for of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Myoung-Gyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Gyu-Chang

    Currently, magnesium billets produced by ingot casting or direct chill casting process, result in low-quality surfaces and low productivity, Continuous casting technology to solve these problem has not only high-quality surface billets with fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure but also cost down. The latent heat of fusion per weight (J/g) of magnesium is similar to other metals, however, considering the heat emitted to the mold surface during continuous casting in meniscus region and converting it to the latent heat of fusion per volume, magnesium will be rapidly solidified in the mold during continuous casting, which induces subsequent surface defect formation. In this study, electromagnetic casting and stirring (EMC and EMS) techniques are proposed to control solidification process conveniently by compensating the low latent heat of solidification by volume and to fabricate magnesium billet with high-quality surface. This technique was extended to large scale billets up to 300 mm diameter and continuous casting was successfully conducted. Then magnesium billet was used for the fabrication of prototype automobile pulley.

  19. Use of Friction Stir Processing for Improving Heat-Affected Zone Liquation Cracking Resistance of a Cast Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, G. M.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a cast magnesium alloy AZ91D was friction stir processed. Detailed microstructural studies and Gleeble hot ductility tests were conducted on the as-cast and the FSPed samples to comparatively assess their heat-affected zone liquation cracking behavior. The results show that the use of FSP as a pretreatment to fusion welding can strikingly improve the heat-affected zone liquation cracking resistance of alloy AZ91D by reducing the amount and size of the low-melting eutectic β (Mg17Al12) as well as by refining the matrix grain size.

  20. The effect of re-ageing on a novel thermomechanical treatment for improving the mechanical properties of AA2139 aerospace aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragkousis, A.; Bakare, F.; Babalola, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the effects of a novel thermomechanical treatment on the mechanical properties of the AA2139 aerospace aluminium alloys. The novel treatment, which is comprised of a combination of under-aging, cold-rolling, and re-aging, was successfully employed by Wang et al (2014 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 607 313-7) to enhance the mechanical and microstructure properties of 6000 series aluminium alloys. The influence of under-ageing and re-aging parameters of the treatment on the AA2139 properties has been examined by tensile and hardness testing, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermoelectric power measurements. It was determined that a higher temperature under-ageing, combined with lower temperature and long duration re-ageing resulted in the most attractive mechanical properties, which significantly exceeded those of other traditional treatments. More specifically, a 175 °C/1.5 h under-ageing treatment, followed by a cold rolling reduction of 75% and a 110 °C/96 h re-ageing resulted in a yield strength of 554 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 618 MPa, and an elongation of 7.5%, far exceeding the strength requirements and 5% acceptable elongation for applications in the aerospace industry. These results, in conjunction with the results of the parallel study focusing on the effects of the cold-rolling component of the treatment (Bakare et al 2017 Mater. Res. Express 4) further reinforce the position that the treatment employed is superior to conventional ones for the 2139 alloy.

  1. Interplay among Coating Thickness, Strip Size, and Thermal and Solidification Characteristics in A356 Lost Foam Casting Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabestari, S. G.; Divandari, M.; Ghoncheh, M. H.; Jamali, V.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research was evaluation of the solidification parameters of A356 alloy, e.g., dendrite arm spacing (DAS), correlation between cooling rate (CR) and DAS, hot tearing, and microstructural analysis at different coating thicknesses and strip sizes during the lost foam casting process (LFC). To achieve this goal, the DAS was measured at six coating thicknesses and six different strip sizes. In addition, thermal characteristics, such as the CR, temperatures of start and finish points of solidification, recalescence undercooling, and hot tearing susceptibility (HCSC), at five coating thicknesses were recognized from the cooling curves and their first derivative and the solid fraction curves, which have been plotted through the thermal analysis technique. The pouring temperature and strip size were fixed at 1063 K (790 °C) and 12 mm, respectively. Besides, to derive a numerical equation to predict the CR by measuring the DAS in this alloy, a microstructural evaluation was carried out on samples cast through 12-mm strip size. The results showed that both coating thickness and strip size had similar influences on the DAS, in which, by retaining one parameter at a constant value and simultaneous enhancement in the other parameter, the DAS increased significantly. Furthermore, at thinner coating layer, the higher amount of the CR was observed, which caused reduction in the temperatures of both the start and finish points of solidification. Also, increasing the CR caused a nonlinear increase in both the recalescence undercooling and the HCSC.

  2. Mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy/short glass fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.C.; Girish, B.M.; Satish, B.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with glass fibers from 1 to 5 wt%. The composites were fabricated using the Compocasting method, in which short glass fibers were introduced into the vortex created in the molten alloy through an impeller rotated at 500 rpm. The molten mass was thoroughly stirred and poured into permanent molds and squeezed under pressure. The specimens were heat treated at 320 C for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. The tests on the as-cast composites revealed that as the glass content in the composites was increased,more » the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), compressive strength, and hardness of the composite increased, while the ductility and impact strength were decreased. Heat treatment was found to improve significantly the ductility, compressive strength, and impact strength, while the hardness and UTS were reduced. This paper discusses the behavior of these composites.« less

  3. Microstructure, Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Al-5 wt.%Mg Alloy Manufactured by Twin Roll Strip Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Baek, Min-Seok; Euh, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the microstructure, tensile and fatigue properties of Al-5 wt.%Mg alloy manufactured by twin roll strip casting. Strips cast as a fabricated (F) specimen and a specimen heat treated (O) at 400 °C/5 h were produced and compared. In the F specimen, microstructural observation discovered clustered precipitates in the center area, while in the O specimen precipitates were relatively more evenly distributed. Al, Al6(Mn, Fe), Mg2Al3 and Mg2Si phases were observed. However, most of the Mg2Al3 phase in the heat-treated O specimen was dissolved. A room temperature tensile test measured yield strength of 177.7 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 286.1 MPa and elongation of 11.1% in the F specimen and 167.7 MPa (YS), 301.5 MPa (UTS) and 24.6% (EL) in the O specimen. A high cycle fatigue test measured a fatigue limit of 145 MPa in the F specimen and 165 MPa in the O specimen, and the O specimen achieved greater fatigue properties in all fatigue stress conditions. The tensile and fatigue fracture surfaces of the above-mentioned specimens were observed, and this study attempted to investigate the tensile and fatigue deformation behavior of strip cast Al-5 wt.%Mg based on the findings.

  4. Application of the Billet Casting Method to Determine the Onset of Incipient Melting of 319 Al Alloy Engine Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, A.; Ravindran, C.; MacKay, R.

    2015-06-01

    The increased use of Al for automotive applications has resulted from the need to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Aluminum alloy engine blocks fulfil the need of lightweighting. However, there are many challenges associated with thermo-mechanical mismatch between Al and the gray cast iron cylinder liners, which result in large tensile residual stress along the cylinder bores. This requires improced mechanical properties in this region to prevent premature engine failure. In this study, replicating billet castings were used to simulate the engine block solution heat treatment process and determine the onset of incipient melting. Microstructural changes during heat treatment were assessed with SEM and EDX, while thermal analysis was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry. The results suggest that solution heat treatment at 500 °C was effective in dissolving secondary phase particles, while solutionizing at 515 or 530 °C caused incipient melting of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Cu2Si6. Incipient melting caused the formation ultra-fine eutectic clusters consisting of Al, Al2Cu, and Al5Mg8Cu2Si6 on quenching. In addition, DSC analysis found that incipient melting initiated at 507 °C for all billets, although the quantity of local melting reduced with microstructural refinement as evidenced by smaller endothermic peaks and energy absorption. The results from this study will assist in improving engine block casting integrity and process efficiency.

  5. A new lead alloy for automotive batteries operating under high-temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, L.; Goguelin, A.; Jullian, E.

    The operating conditions of automotive and some industrial batteries are involving increasingly higher temperatures and heavier duty cycles. These place stress on the positive-grid materials which are presently not sufficiently resistant to corrosion and to creep. Conventional lead-calcium-tin-aluminium alloys can usually be optimized by a proper choice of calcium and tin contents for each specific manufacturing technology. With the new requirements of customers and the typical behaviour of these conventional alloys, however, there is no more room for improvement without searching for additional alloying elements. The work reported here shows how the doping of conventional lead-calcium-tin-aluminium alloys with barium improves mechanical properties (tensile strength and creep resistance) and increases corrosion resistance at temperatures between 50 and 75°C. Grid materials prepared by two manufacturing technologies (gravity cast; continuous cast followed by expansion) are investigated. Both the mechanical properties and the corrosion behaviour of the resulting grids are evaluated.

  6. Effect of Low-Melting Metals (Pb, Bi, Cd, In) on the Structure, Phase Composition, and Properties of Casting Al-5% Si-4% Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, A. O.; Belov, N. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Shkalei, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of low-melting metals (Pb, Bi, Cd, In) on the structure, phase composition, and properties of the Al-5% Si-4% Cu alloy was studied using calculations. Polythermal sections have been reported, which show that the considered systems are characterized by the presence of liquid regions and monotectic reactions. The effect of low-melting metals on the microstructure and hardening of base alloy in the cast and heat-treated states has been studied.

  7. Corrosion resistance of cast irons and titanium alloys as reference engineered metal barriers for use in basalt geologic storage: a literature assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Charlot, L.A.; Westerman, R.E.

    A survey and assessment of the literature on the corrosion resistance of cast irons and low-alloy titanium are presented. Selected engineering properties of cast iron and titanium are briefly described; however, the corrosion resistance of cast iron and titanium in aqueous solutions or in soils and their use in a basalt repository are emphasized. In evaluating the potential use of cast iron and titanium as structural barrier materials for long-lived nuclear waste packages, it is assumed that titanium has the general corrosion resistance to be used in relatively thin cross sections whereas the cost and availability of cast iron allowsmore » its use even in very thick cross sections. Based on this assumption, the survey showed that: The uniform corrosion of low-alloy titanium in a basalt environment is expected to be extremely low. A linear extrapolation of general corrosion rates with an added corrosion allowance suggests that a 3.2- to 6.4-mm-thick wall may have a life of 1000 yr. Pitting and crevice corrosion are not likely corrosion modes in basalt ground waters. It is also unlikely that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in the commercially pure (CP) titanium alloy or in palladiumor molybdenum-alloyed titanium materials. Low-alloy cast irons may be used as barrier metals if the environment surrounding the metal keeps the alloy in the passive range. The solubility of the corrosion product and the semipermeable nature of the oxide film allow significant uniform corrosion over long time periods. A linear extrapolation of high-temperature corrosion rates on carbon steels and corrosion rates of cast irons in soils gives an estimated metal penetration of 51 to 64 mm after 1000 yr. A corrosion allowance of 3 to 5 times that suggests that an acceptable cast iron wall may be from 178 to 305 mm thick. Although they cannot be fully assessed, pitting and crevice corrosion should not affect cast iron due to the ground-water chemistry of basalt.« less

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Accuracy of a Cast Fixed Partial Denture Compared to Soldered Fixed Partial Denture Made of Two Different Base Metal Alloys and Casting Techniques: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Jei, J Brintha; Mohan, Jayashree

    2014-03-01

    The periodontal health of abutment teeth and the durability of fixed partial denture depends on the marginal adaptation of the prosthesis. Any discrepancy in the marginal area leads to dissolution of luting agent and plaque accumulation. This study was done with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of marginal fit of four unit crown and bridge made up of Ni-Cr and Cr-Co alloys under induction and centrifugal casting. They were compared to cast fixed partial denture (FPD) and soldered FPD. For the purpose of this study a metal model was fabricated. A total of 40 samples (4-unit crown and bridge) were prepared in which 20 Cr-Co samples and 20 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated. Within these 20 samples of each group 10 samples were prepared by induction casting technique and other 10 samples with centrifugal casting technique. The cast FPD samples obtained were seated on the model and the samples were then measured with travelling microscope having precision of 0.001 cm. Sectioning of samples was done between the two pontics and measurements were made, then the soldering was made with torch soldering unit. The marginal discrepancy of soldered samples was measured and all findings were statistically analysed. The results revealed minimal marginal discrepancy with Cr-Co samples when compared to Ni-Cr samples done under induction casting technique. When compared to cast FPD samples, the soldered group showed reduced marginal discrepancy.

  9. Corrosion behavior of as-cast Mg-8Li-3Al+ xCe alloy in 3.5wt% NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, S.; Dinesh, P.; Mahemaa, R.; MariyaPillai, Nandhakumaran; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan

    2016-10-01

    Mg-8Li-3Al+ xCe alloys ( x = 0.5wt%, 1.0wt%, and 1.5wt%) were prepared through a casting route in an electric resistance furnace under a controlled atmosphere. The cast alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the as-cast Mg-8Li-3Al+ xCe alloys were studied under salt spray tests in 3.5wt% NaCl solution at 35°C, in accordance with standard ASTM B-117, in conjunction with potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) tests. The results show that the addition of Ce to Mg-8Li-3Al (LA83) alloy results in the formation of Al2Ce intermetallic phase, refines both the α-Mg phase and the Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase, and then increases the microhardness of the alloys. The results of PDP and salt spray tests reveal that an increase in Ce content to 1.5wt% decreases the corrosion rate. The best corrosion resistance is observed for the LA83 alloy sample with 1.0wt% Ce.

  10. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; ...

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D 5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H 2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo castmore » iron remained adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  11. Experiment-based modelling of grain boundary β-phase (Mg2Al3) evolution during sensitisation of aluminium alloy AA5083.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Steiner, M A; Agnew, S R; Kairy, S K; Davies, C H J; Birbilis, N

    2017-06-07

    An empirical model for the evolution of β-phase (Mg 2 Al 3 ) along grain boundaries in aluminium alloy AA5083 (Al-Mg-Mn) during isothermal exposures is proposed herein. Developing a quantitative understanding of grain boundary precipitation is important to interpreting intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in this alloy system. To date, complete ab initio models for grain boundary precipitation based upon fundamental principles of thermodynamics and kinetics are not available, despite the critical role that such precipitates play in dictating intergranular corrosion phenomena. Empirical models can therefore serve an important role in advancing the understanding of grain boundary precipitation kinetics, which is an approach applicable beyond the present context. High resolution scanning electron microscopy was to quantify the size and distribution of β-phase precipitates on Ga-embrittled intergranular fracture surfaces of AA5083. The results are compared with the degree of sensitisation (DoS) as judged by nitric acid mass loss testing (ASTM-G67-04), and discussed with models for sensitisation in 5xxx series Al-alloys. The work herein allows sensitisation to be quantified from an unambiguous microstructural perspective.

  12. A Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of VMK Master Porcelain with Three Base-metal Alloys (Ni-cr-T3, VeraBond, Super Cast) and One Noble Alloy (X-33) in Metal-ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, A; Neshati, A; Mousavi, N; Epakchi, S; Dabaghi Tabriz, F; Sarbazi, AH

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The increase in the use of metal-ceramic restorations and a high prevalence of porcelain chipping entails introducing an alloy which is more compatible with porcelain and causes a stronger bond between the two. This study is to compare shear bond strength of three base-metal alloys and one noble alloy with the commonly used VMK Master Porcelain. Materials and Method: Three different groups of base-metal alloys (Ni-cr-T3, Super Cast, and VeraBond) and one group of noble alloy (X-33) were selected. Each group consisted of 15 alloy samples. All groups went through the casting process and change from wax pattern into metal disks. The VMK Master Porcelain was then fired on each group. All the specimens were put in the UTM; a shear force was loaded until a fracture occurred and the fracture force was consequently recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 16 and One-Way ANOVA was run to compare the shear strength between the groups. Furthermore, the groups were compared two-by-two by adopting Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study revealed shear bond strength of Ni-Cr-T3 alloy was higher than the three other alloys (94 MPa or 330 N). Super Cast alloy had the second greatest shear bond strength (80. 87Mpa or 283.87 N). Both VeraBond (69.66 MPa or 245 N) and x-33 alloys (66.53 MPa or 234 N) took the third place. Conclusion: Ni-Cr-T3 with VMK Master Porcelain has the greatest shear bond strength. Therefore, employment of this low-cost alloy is recommended in metal-ceramic restorations. PMID:24724144

  13. High Temperature Deformation of Twin-Roll Cast Al-Mn-Based Alloys after Equal Channel Angular Pressing.

    PubMed

    Málek, Přemysl; Šlapáková Poková, Michaela; Cieslar, Miroslav

    2015-11-12

    Twin roll cast Al-Mn- and Al-Mn-Zr-based alloys were subjected to four passes of equal channel angular pressing. The resulting grain size of 400 nm contributes to a significant strengthening at room temperature. This microstructure is not fully stable at elevated temperatures and recrystallization and vast grain growth occur at temperatures between 350 and 450 °C. The onset of these microstructure changes depends on chemical and phase composition. Better stability is observed in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy. High temperature tensile tests reveal that equal channel angular pressing results in a softening of all studied materials at high temperatures. This can be explained by an active role of grain boundaries in the deformation process. The maximum values of ductility and strain rate sensitivity parameter m found in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy are below the bottom limit of superplasticity (155%, m = 0.25). However, some features typical for superplastic behavior were observed-the strain rate dependence of the parameter m , the strengthening with increasing grain size, and the fracture by diffuse necking. Grain boundary sliding is believed to contribute partially to the overall strain in specimens where the grain size remained in the microcrystalline range.

  14. High Temperature Deformation of Twin-Roll Cast Al-Mn-Based Alloys after Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    PubMed Central

    Málek, Přemysl; Šlapáková Poková, Michaela; Cieslar, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Twin roll cast Al-Mn- and Al-Mn-Zr-based alloys were subjected to four passes of equal channel angular pressing. The resulting grain size of 400 nm contributes to a significant strengthening at room temperature. This microstructure is not fully stable at elevated temperatures and recrystallization and vast grain growth occur at temperatures between 350 and 450 °C. The onset of these microstructure changes depends on chemical and phase composition. Better stability is observed in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy. High temperature tensile tests reveal that equal channel angular pressing results in a softening of all studied materials at high temperatures. This can be explained by an active role of grain boundaries in the deformation process. The maximum values of ductility and strain rate sensitivity parameter m found in the Al-Mn-Zr-based alloy are below the bottom limit of superplasticity (155%, m = 0.25). However, some features typical for superplastic behavior were observed—the strain rate dependence of the parameter m, the strengthening with increasing grain size, and the fracture by diffuse necking. Grain boundary sliding is believed to contribute partially to the overall strain in specimens where the grain size remained in the microcrystalline range. PMID:28793667

  15. Structure of tetragonal martensite in the In95.42Cd4.58 cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.; Kazantsev, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of martensite in the In95.42Cd4.58 alloy has been studied by metallography, X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that a massive structure built of colonies of tetragonal lamellar plates divided by a twin boundary {101}FCT is formed in the alloy under cooling below the martensite FCC → FCT transition temperature. The alloy recrystallizes after a cycle of FCT → FCC → FCT transitions with a decrease in the grain size by several times compared with the initial structure such fashion that the size of massifs and individual martensite lamella in the massif correlates with the change in the size of the alloy grain. Using thermal cycling, it has been revealed that the alloy tends to stabilize the high-temperature phase.

  16. Investigation of Heat Transfer at the Mold/Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Light Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Pehlke; John T. Berry

    2005-12-16

    Accurate modeling of the metal casting process prior to creating a mold design demands reliable knowledge of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the mold metal interface as a function of both time and location. The phenomena concerned with the gap forming between the mold and the solidifying metal are complex but need to be understood before any modeling is attempted. The presence of mold coatings further complicates the situation. A commercial casting was chosen and studied in a gravity permanent mold casting process. The metal/mold interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) was the focus of the research. A simple, directmore » method has been used to evaluate the IHTC. Both the simulation and experiments have shown that a reasonably good estimate of the heat transfer coefficient could be made in the case studied. It has been found that there is a good agreement between experiments and simulations in the temperature profiles during the solidification process, given that the primary mechanism of heat transfer across the gap in permanent mold casting of light alloys is by conduction across the gap. The procedure utilized to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient can be applied to other casting processes. A recently completed project involving The University of Michigan and Mississippi State University, together with several industrial partners, which was supported by the USDOE through the Cast Metals Coalition, examined a number of cases of thermal contact. In an investigation which gave special consideration to the techniques of measurement, several mold coatings were employed and results presented as a function of time. Realistic conditions of coating thickness and type together with an appropriate combination of mold preheat and metal pouring temperature were strictly maintained throughout the investigation. Temperature sensors, in particular thermocouples, play an important part in validating the predictions of solidification models

  17. Hot-Tearing Assessment of Multicomponent Nongrain-Refined Al-Cu Alloys for Permanent Mold Castings Based on Load Measurements in a Constrained Mold

    DOE PAGES

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Mirmiran, Seyed; Glaspie, Christopher; ...

    2018-02-16

    Here, the hot-tearing resistance of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and temperature were measured. The nominal Cu composition was varied from 5 to 8 wt pct. Casting experiments were conducted without adding any grain-refining inoculants. The following variables, which were obtained from the measured load data during casting, were considered to assess the hot-tearing resistance of the Al-Cu multicomponent alloys: “V”-like signature in the load rate variation, load at solidus point, and load rate average over the freezing range. In addition, a hot-tearing criterion based on themore » variation of the fraction of solid in the late stages of solidification was used. It was found that all criteria considered can accurately predict the alloys with the lowest and highest hot-tear resistance, respectively. It was found that the rate of measured load during casting could be used to indicate substantial hot tearing. However, the load rate variation could not be used to detect when small hot tears were present. Among all the criteria considered, the load at the solidus point shows an excellent agreement with experimentally observed hot-tearing resistance for all but one alloy. The poorly resistant hot-tearing alloys exhibited mainly coarse columnar grains while the most hot-tearing resistant alloys exhibited a much more refined grain microstructure. This is the first study in which good hot-tear resistance is demonstrated for multicomponent Al-Cu alloys with nominal Cu content greater than 7 wt pct.« less

  18. Hot-Tearing Assessment of Multicomponent Nongrain-Refined Al-Cu Alloys for Permanent Mold Castings Based on Load Measurements in a Constrained Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Mirmiran, Seyed; Glaspie, Christopher; Li, Shimin; Apelian, Diran; Shyam, Amit; Allen Haynes, J.; Rodriguez, Andres F.

    2018-06-01

    The hot-tearing resistance of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and temperature were measured. The nominal Cu composition was varied from 5 to 8 wt pct. Casting experiments were conducted without adding any grain-refining inoculants. The following variables, which were obtained from the measured load data during casting, were considered to assess the hot-tearing resistance of the Al-Cu multicomponent alloys: "V"-like signature in the load rate variation, load at solidus point, and load rate average over the freezing range. In addition, a hot-tearing criterion based on the variation of the fraction of solid in the late stages of solidification was used. It was found that all criteria considered can accurately predict the alloys with the lowest and highest hot-tear resistance, respectively. It was found that the rate of measured load during casting could be used to indicate substantial hot tearing. However, the load rate variation could not be used to detect when small hot tears were present. Among all the criteria considered, the load at the solidus point shows an excellent agreement with experimentally observed hot-tearing resistance for all but one alloy. The poorly resistant hot-tearing alloys exhibited mainly coarse columnar grains while the most hot-tearing resistant alloys exhibited a much more refined grain microstructure. This is the first study in which good hot-tear resistance is demonstrated for multicomponent Al-Cu alloys with nominal Cu content greater than 7 wt pct.

  19. Hot-Tearing Assessment of Multicomponent Nongrain-Refined Al-Cu Alloys for Permanent Mold Castings Based on Load Measurements in a Constrained Mold

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Mirmiran, Seyed; Glaspie, Christopher

    Here, the hot-tearing resistance of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and temperature were measured. The nominal Cu composition was varied from 5 to 8 wt pct. Casting experiments were conducted without adding any grain-refining inoculants. The following variables, which were obtained from the measured load data during casting, were considered to assess the hot-tearing resistance of the Al-Cu multicomponent alloys: “V”-like signature in the load rate variation, load at solidus point, and load rate average over the freezing range. In addition, a hot-tearing criterion based on themore » variation of the fraction of solid in the late stages of solidification was used. It was found that all criteria considered can accurately predict the alloys with the lowest and highest hot-tear resistance, respectively. It was found that the rate of measured load during casting could be used to indicate substantial hot tearing. However, the load rate variation could not be used to detect when small hot tears were present. Among all the criteria considered, the load at the solidus point shows an excellent agreement with experimentally observed hot-tearing resistance for all but one alloy. The poorly resistant hot-tearing alloys exhibited mainly coarse columnar grains while the most hot-tearing resistant alloys exhibited a much more refined grain microstructure. This is the first study in which good hot-tear resistance is demonstrated for multicomponent Al-Cu alloys with nominal Cu content greater than 7 wt pct.« less

  20. Microstructure characterization and corrosion resistance properties of Pb-Sb alloys for lead acid battery spine produced by different casting methods.

    PubMed

    Seikh, Asiful H; Sherif, El-Sayed M; Khan Mohammed, Sohail M A; Baig, Muneer; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Alharthi, Nabeel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Pb-5%Sb spine alloy. The alloy has been produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC), medium pressure die casting (AS) and low pressure die casting (GS) methods, respectively. The microstructure was characterized by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hardness was also reported. The corrosion resistance of the spines in 0.5M H2SO4 solution has been analyzed by measuring the weight loss, impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. It has been found that the spine produced by HPDC has defect-free fine grain structure resulting improvement in hardness and excellent corrosion resistance.

  1. Microstructure characterization and corrosion resistance properties of Pb-Sb alloys for lead acid battery spine produced by different casting methods

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Muneer; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Alharthi, Nabeel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Pb-5%Sb spine alloy. The alloy has been produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC), medium pressure die casting (AS) and low pressure die casting (GS) methods, respectively. The microstructure was characterized by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hardness was also reported. The corrosion resistance of the spines in 0.5M H2SO4 solution has been analyzed by measuring the weight loss, impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. It has been found that the spine produced by HPDC has defect-free fine grain structure resulting improvement in hardness and excellent corrosion resistance. PMID:29668709

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J.; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments. PMID:28788197

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-09-11

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments.

  4. Detection of a Pool in Semi-Continuous Castings Made of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushenko, G. G.; Nazarov, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Various products (sheets, sections, etc.) manufactured by metal forming (rolled products, forged pieces, etc.) from semi-continuous castings are widely used in the aerospace industry. The so-called pool, which is the conical volume of a liquid metal, exists at the top of the liquid metal. Experience demonstrates that the geometry, the depth, and the shape of the pool substantially affect the structure formation in a casting and its quality. The application of a titanium nitride nanopowder, which is introduced in a melt in the volume of a rod, as a modifier allowed us to find the exact geometry of the pool.

  5. Comparative analysis of the fit of 3-unit implant-supported frameworks cast in nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys and commercially pure titanium after casting, laser welding, and simulated porcelain firings.

    PubMed

    Tiossi, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the vertical misfit of 3-unit implant-supported nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy and commercially pure titanium (cpTi) frameworks after casting as 1 piece, after sectioning and laser welding, and after simulated porcelain firings. The results on the tightened side showed no statistically significant differences. On the opposite side, statistically significant differences were found for Co-Cr alloy (118.64 microm [SD: 91.48] to 39.90 microm [SD: 27.13]) and cpTi (118.56 microm [51.35] to 27.87 microm [12.71]) when comparing 1-piece to laser-welded frameworks. With both sides tightened, only Co-Cr alloy showed statistically significant differences after laser welding. Ni-Cr alloy showed the lowest misfit values, though the differences were not statistically significantly different. Simulated porcelain firings revealed no significant differences.

  6. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness Evaluation of an Investment Cast Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy for Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne; McGill, Preston

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that details the fracture toughness of Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy for use in structures at cryogenic temperatures. Graphs and charts are presented in the presentation

  7. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  8. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded butt joint of steel/aluminium alloys: effect of tool geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafiq, W. M.; Afendi, M.; Daud, R.; Mazlee, M. N.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Lee, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper described the mechanical properties from hardness testing and tensile testing of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) materials. In this project, two materials of aluminium and steel are welded using conventional milling machine and tool designed with different profile and shoulder size. During welding the temperature along the weld line is collected using thermocouples. Threaded pins was found to produce stronger joints than cylindrical pins. 20 mm diameter shoulder tool welded a slightly stronger joint than 18 mm diameter one, as well as softer nugget zone due to higher heat input. Threaded pins also contributed to higher weld temperature than cylindrical pins due to increase in pin contact surface. Generally, higher temperatures were recorded in aluminium side due to pin offset away from steel.

  9. Investigation of the tribology behaviour of the graphene nanosheets as oil additives on textured alloy cast iron surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dan; Cai, Zhen-bing; Shen, Ming-xue; Li, Zheng-yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-11-01

    Tribological properties of graphene nanosheets (GNS) as lubricating oil additives on textured surfaces were investigated using a UMT-2 tribotester. The lubricating fluids keeping a constant temperature of 100 °C were applied to a GCr15 steel ball and an RTCr2 alloy cast iron plate with various texture designs (original surface, dimple density of 22.1%, 19.6% and 44.2%). The oil with GNS adding showed good tribological properties (wear reduced 50%), especially on the textured surfaces (the reduction in wear was high at over 90%). A combined effect between GNS additives and laser surface texturing (LST) was revealed, which is not a simple superposition of the two factors mentioned. A mechanism is proposed to explain for these results -the graphene layers sheared at the sliding contact interfaces, and form a protective film, which is closely related with the GNS structures and surface texture patterns.

  10. Influence of gating design on microstructure and fluidity of thin sections AA320.0 cast hypo-eutectic Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Influence of gating design especially number of ingrates on microstructure and fluidity of thin sections of 2, 4, 6 mm AA320.0 cast hypo-eutectic Al-Si alloy was evaluated for sand casting molding technique. Increasing the number of ingates improves the microstructe to be fine and more globular. About 87 μm of α-Al grain size, 0.6 α-Al grain sphericity and 37 μm dendrite arm spacing DAS are achieved by using 4 ingates in gating system. Increasing the number of ingates up to 3 increases hardness, filling area and related fluditiy of all cast samples. The minimum thickness of 2.5 mm for each ingate should be considered in order to successfully production of high quality light weight thin sections castings in sand mold.

  11. Effect of processing parameters on the earing and mechanical properties of strip cast type 3004 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-Said, O. S.; Zeihen, A.; Ruprich, M.; Quattrocchi, J.; Thomas, M.; H. Shin, K.; O'Brien, M.; Johansen, D.; Tijoe, W. H.; Ruhl, D.

    1995-06-01

    Electrical resistivity, superficial hardness, tensile testing, and quantitative metallography techniques were used in this study. The strip cast type 3004 aluminum alloy received sixteen different thermomechanical treatments before cups were drawn. The top edges of the drawn cups were not flat. Rather there were high points or ears with valleys between them. The homogenization temperature varied form 510 to 621 °C at 24 h. Some samples received an additional 426 °C/24 h homogenization anneal. Most specimens were rolled along the longitudinal direction of the as-cast material, and some were rolled in the transverse direction. Most samples were recrystallized at 454 °C for 24 h in addition to the homogenization treatment. Some were recrystallized for 168 h. All samples were subsequently rolled to 0.33 mm for cup drawing and percent earing determination. The percent earing results of some samples were less than 1.5%, but the mechanical strength was also lowered. The high-temperature recrystallization anneal of 454 °C was the controlling factor in determining the earing and mechanical strength of the final rolled sheet.

  12. Effect of processing parameters on the earing and mechanical properties of strip cast type 3004 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-Said, O. S.; Zeihen, A.; Ruprich, M.; Quattrocchi, J.; Thomas, M.; Shin, K. H.; O'Brien, M.; Johansen, D.; Tijoe, W. H.; Ruhl, D.

    1994-02-01

    Electrical resistivity, superficial hardness, tensile testing, and quantitative metallography techniques were used in this study. The strip cast type 3004 aluminum alloy received sixteen different thermomechanical treatments before cups were drawn. The top edges of the drawn cups were not flat. Rather, there were high points or ears with valleys between them. The homogenization temperature varied from 510 to 621 °C at 24 h. Some samples received an additional 426 °C/24 h homogenization anneal. Most specimens were rolled along the longitudinal direction of the as-cast material, and some were rolled in the transverse direction. Most samples were recrystallized at 454 °C for 24 h in addition to the homogenization treatment. Some were recrystallized for 168 h. All samples were subsequently rolled to 0.33 mm for cup drawing and percent earing determination. The percent earing results of some samples were less than 1.5%, but the mechanical strength was also lowered. The high-temperature recrystallization anneal of 454 °C was the controlling factor in determining the earing and mechanical strength of the final rolled sheet.

  13. Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91C Magnesium Cast Alloy Weld Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Behzad; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Enayati, Mohammad Hossein; Sabooni, Soheil; Vallant, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    In this study, friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to the GTAW (TIG)-welded AZ91C cast alloy to refine the microstructure and optimize the mechanical properties of the weld zone. Microstructural investigation of the samples was performed by optical microscopy and the phases in the microstructure were determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructural evaluations showed that FSP destroys the coarse dendritic microstructure. Furthermore, it dissolves the secondary hard and brittle β-Mg17Al12 phase existing at grain boundaries of the TIG weld zone. The closure and decrease in amount of porosities along with the elimination of the cracks in the microstructure were observed. These changes were followed by a significant grain refinement to an average value of 11 µm. The results showed that the hardness values increased to the mean ones, respectively, for as-cast (63 Hv), TIG weld zone (67 Hv), and stir zone (79 Hv). The yield and ultimate strength were significantly enhanced after FSP. The fractography evaluations, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated to a transition from brittle to ductile fracture surface after applying FSP to the TIG weld zone.