Science.gov

Sample records for cast iron cylinder

  1. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  2. Induction hardening treatment and simulation for a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Leal, E. L.; Miranda, D. A.; Coy, A. E.; Barrero, J. G.; González, J. A.; Vesga Rueda, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a technical study of induction hardening in a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners manufactured by LAVCO Ltda., a Colombian foundry company, was carried out. Metallurgical parameters such as austenitization temperature, cooling rate, and quenching severity were determined. These factors are exclusively dependent on chemical composition and initial microstructure of grey cast iron. Simulations of induction heating through finite elements method were performed and, the most appropriate experimental conditions to achieve the critical transformation temperature was evaluated to reach a proper surface hardening on the piece. Preliminary results revealed an excellent approximation between simulation and heating test performed with a full bridge inverter voltage adapted with local technology.

  3. Short-duration gas nitriding of cast-iron cylinder block liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryushin, V. V.; Glushchenko, V. N.; Duka, N. E.; Kondrashova, G. A.

    1984-07-01

    After gas nitriding of cylinder block liners for the ZIL-130 engine made of cast iron SCh24-44 at 750-570°C for 4-6 h in a mixture of 50% ammonia +50% natural gas the thickness of the nitrided layer is 0.2-0.25 mm with a carbonitride phase thickness of 15-25 μm with a microhardness of H 850-920.

  4. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of HT250 Gray Cast Iron for Engine Cylinder Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, K. L.; He, G. Q.; She, M.; Liu, X. S.; Yang, Y.; Lu, Q.; shen, Y.; Tian, D. D.

    2014-08-01

    The strain-controlled low cycle fatigue properties were evaluated on specimens of HT250 gray cast iron (GCI) at room temperature. The material exhibited cyclic stabilization at a low strain amplitude of 0.1% and cyclic softening characteristic at higher strain amplitudes (0.15-0.30%). At a representative total strain amplitude (0.30%), the hysteresis loops of HT250 GCI were asymmetric with a large amount of plastic deformation in the compressive phases. Furthermore, the hysteresis loop became larger in both width and height with increasing total strain amplitude (from 0.10 to 0.30%), and tended to exhibit a clockwise rotation. The fatigue crack propagation mechanisms were different at various total strain amplitudes, where high stress concentration due to dislocation pile-up favored fatigue crack initiation in the examined HT250. Finally, the roughness-induced crack closure was a key to determine the crack growth rate as well as fatigue life.

  5. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  6. Ceramic port shields cast in an iron engine head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, Nabil S.; Groeneweg, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Silicon nitride exhaust and intake port shields have been successfully cast into a gray iron cylinder head of a heavy duty diesel single cylinder research engine. Careful design considerations, finite element, and probability of survival analyses indicated viability of the design. Foundry experience, NDE, and failure investigations are reported.

  7. Cast Fe-base cylinder/regenerator housing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, F.; Kindlimann, L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that can meet the requirements of automotive Stirling engine cylinders and regenerator housings is described. Alloy requirements are as follows: a cast alloy, stress for 5000-hr rupture life of 200 MPa (29 ksi) at 775 C (1427 F), oxidation/corrosion resistance comparable to that of N-155, compatibility with hydrogen, and an alloy cost less than or equal to that of 19-9DL. The preliminary screening and evaluation of ten alloys are described.

  8. Corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yahagi, Y.; Nagasawa, Y.; Hotta, S.; Mizutani, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the wear of cylinder bore fundamentally, a reciprocating friction tester was produced and utilized. The friction between a cast iron and a piston-ring and the wear of the cast iron were examined under the corrosive oil with sulphuric acid. The findings indicate that the friction and wear around TDC and BDC was confirmed to be greater than between these reversal points and the friction and wear around the reversal points increased with the sulphuric acid which has caused the deficiency of oil film and the corrosion of the cast iron.

  9. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  10. Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

  11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Replication of engine block cylinder bridge microstructure and mechanical properties with lab scale 319 Al alloy billet castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, A.; D'Elia, F.; Ravindran, C.; MacKay, R.

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, aluminum alloy gasoline engine blocks have in large part successfully replaced nodular cast iron engine blocks, resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency. However, because of the inadequate wear resistance properties of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys, gray iron cylinder liners are required. These liners cause the development of large tensile residual stress along the cylinder bores and necessitate the maximization of mechanical properties in this region to prevent premature engine failure. The aim of this study was to replicate the engine cylinder bridge microstructure and mechanical properties following TSR treatment (which removes the sand binder to enable easy casting retrieval) using lab scale billet castings of the same alloy composition with varying cooling rates. Comparisons in microstructure between the engine block and the billet castings were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were assessed using tensile testing. The results suggest that the microstructure at the top and middle of the engine block cylinder bridge was successfully replicated by the billet castings. However, the microstructure at the bottom of the cylinder was not completely replicated due to variations in secondary phase morphology and distribution. The successful replication of engine block microstructure will enable the future optimization of heat treatment parameters. - Highlights: • A method to replicate engine block microstructure was developed. • Billet castings will allow cost effective optimization of heat treatment process. • The replication of microstructure in the cylinder region was mostly successful. • Porosity was more clustered in the billet castings compared to the engine block. • Mechanical properties were lower in billet castings due to porosity and inclusions.

  13. Complexometric determination of magnesium in nodular cast iron and alloyed cast iron roll samples.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Dutta, R K

    1980-02-01

    A complexometric method for the determination of magnesium in nodular cast iron, alloyed cast iron and roll samples has been developed. The bulk of the iron is removed by ether extraction and the phosphate as zirconium phosphate. The other elements are removed by extraction with dithiocarbamate into chloroform. Magnesium is then titrated with EDTA at pH 10, with Eriochrome Black T as indicator. Calcium interferes, but is very rarely present in such cast iron samples.

  14. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  15. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  16. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  17. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  18. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  19. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  20. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  1. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  2. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  3. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  4. Carburizer Effect on Cast Iron Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janerka, Krzysztof; Kondracki, Marcin; Jezierski, Jan; Szajnar, Jan; Stawarz, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the effect of carburizing materials on cast iron solidification and crystallization. The studies consisted of cast iron preparation from steel scrap and different carburizers. For a comparison, pig iron was exclusively used in a solid charge. Crystallization analysis revealed the influence of the carburizer material on the crystallization curves as well as differences in the solidification paths of cast iron prepared with the use of different charge materials. The carburizers' influence on undercooling during the eutectic crystallization process was analyzed. The lowest undercooling rate was recorded for the melt with pig iron, then for synthetic graphite, natural graphite, anthracite, and petroleum coke (the highest undercooling rate). So a hypothesis was formulated that eutectic cells are created most effectively with the presence of carbon from pig iron (the highest nucleation potential), and then for the graphite materials (crystallographic similarity with the carbon precipitation in the cast iron). The most difficult eutectic crystallization is for anthracite and petroleum coke (higher undercooling is necessary). This knowledge can be crucial when the foundry plant is going to change the solid charge composition replacing the pig iron by steel scrap and the recarburization process.

  5. Superplasticity in Rapidly Solidified White Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Oscar A.; Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Sherby, Oleg D.

    1982-10-01

    Superplastic properties of three different composition white cast irons were investigated in the temperature range of 630 to 725 °C. Fine structures consisting of 1 to 2 μm ferrite grains were developed in these materials by consolidation of rapidly solidified powders at intermediate temperatures below the A1 critical temperature. Tensile elongations of 1410 pct were found for a 3.0 pct C + 1.5 pct Cr white cast iron, 940 pct for a 3.0 pct C white cast iron, and 480 pct for a 2.4 pct C white cast iron when tested at 700 °C and at a strain rate of 1 pct per minute. The superplastic white cast irons exhibited a high strain rate sensitivity exponent, m, of 0.5 and activation energies for plastic flow were found to be nearly equal to the activation energy for grain boundary self-diffusion in iron. These observations are in agreement with the creep behavior of superplastic materials controlled by grain boundary diffusion.

  6. Salt Bath Oxinitriding of Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Teimouri, M.; Aliofkhazraee, M.; Mousavi Khoee, S. M.

    Salt bath oxinitriding is a duplex surface treatment developed to improve tribological and corrosion properties of ferrous materials. In this research, gray cast iron samples were nitrided at the temperature range of 480°C-580°C, and then oxidized in an oxidative salt bath. The phase composition of surface layer was identified by X-ray diffraction. Using a microhardness tester, hardness of nitrided gray cast iron was measured. Corrosion behavior of treated (nitrided and oxinitrided) samples was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization technique in 3.5% NaCl solution. XRD analyses indicate that the surface layer in nitrided and oxinitrided samples is composed of ɛ-iron nitride (Fe2-3N) and magnetite (Fe3O4), respectively. Results show that the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron can be improved up to 170%.

  7. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  8. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  9. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  10. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to...

  11. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to...

  12. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  13. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to...

  14. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to...

  15. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should...

  16. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to...

  17. On the damping capacity of cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of experimental data on the amplitude-dependent internal friction (ADIF) in terms of various theoretical models has revealed a staged character and the main mechanisms of the processes of energy dissipation in graphite with increasing amplitude of vibrations upon cyclic loading. It is shown that the level of the damping capacity of lamellar cast iron depends on the relationship between the elastic and strength characteristics of graphite and the matrix phase. In cast irons with a rigid matrix structure (pearlite, martensite), the energy dissipation is determined by the volume fraction and morphology of the initial graphite phase. In cast irons with a softer metallic phase (ferrite), the contact interaction of graphite inclusions with the matrix and the properties of the matrix introduce additional sources of high damping.

  18. Solidifying Cast Iron in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, J. C.; Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes study of solidification of cast iron in low and normal gravity. Because flotation, sedimentation, and convection suppressed, alloys that solidify at nearly zero gravity have unusual and potentially useful characteristics. Study conducted in airplane that repeatedly flew along parabolic trajectories. Appears iron/carbon alloys made at low gravity have greater carbon content (as high as 5 to 10 percent) than those made of Earth gravity because carbon particles do not float to top of melt.

  19. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  20. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  1. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  2. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  3. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  4. Compacted graphite iron: Cast iron makes a comeback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, S.

    1994-08-01

    Although compacted graphite iron has been known for more than four decades, the absence of a reliable mass-production technique has resulted in relatively little effort to exploit its operational benefits. However, a proven on-line process control technology developed by SinterCast allows for series production of complex components in high-quality CGI. The improved mechanical properties of compacted graphite iron relative to conventional gray iron allow for substantial weight reduction in gasoline and diesel engines or substantial increases in horsepower, or an optimal combination of both. Concurrent with these primary benefits, CGI also provides significant emissions and fuel efficiency benefits allowing automakers to meet legislated performance standards. The operational and environmental benefits of compacted graphite iron together with its low cost and recyclability reinforce cast iron as a prime engineering material for the future.

  5. Graphite formation in cast iron, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Fiske, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several types of cast irons are directionally solidified aboard the KC-135 aircraft. Also, control samples are run on Earth for comparison. Some of these samples are unusable because of various mechanical problems; the analysis and the interpretation of results on the samples that are run successfully is discussed.

  6. Modeling microstructure development in gray cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettsch, David D.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.

    1994-05-01

    Recent years have seen increasing use of solidification process modeling as a tool to aid in the analysis and elimination of manufacturing defects in castings. Grain size and other microstructural features such as second-phase morphology and distribution are the primary factors in determining the mechanical properties in cast metals. In this work, a representation of nucleation and growth kinetics for gray cast irons, based on a statistical description of the microstructure, has been coupled with a commercial finite-element method code for transient heat-flow calculation to determine microstructure. Features predicted include eutectic cell size, fractions of gray and white iron, graphite morphology, percent pearlite, percent ferrite, and pearlite spacing. The predicted microstructure can then be used to determine the strength and fatigue properties using published correlations. The theoretical development and results of the finite-elementbased model will be discussed and compared with experimental results.

  7. Briquettes with nanostructured materials used to modify of cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znamenskii, L. G.; Ivochkina, O. V.; Varlamov, A. S.; Petrova, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    A method is developed to fabricate briquettes with nanostructured materials aimed at modification of cast iron resulting in the improvement of the physicochemical properties of cast iron and its castings. This improvement is achieved by grain refinement, stable modification, the elimination of pyroelectric effect upon modification, and a decrease in the sensitivity to chilling upon melt solidification.

  8. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  9. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Filippi, Arthur M.; Sprecace, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  10. 19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Structural features of atomized white cast iron powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, A. P.; Astakhov, S. I.

    1991-01-01

    White cast iron powder rapidly quenched from the liquid condition with presence of the same phases and structural components differs markedly in structure from normally cast white iron. With an increase in cooling rate vcool during solidification the amount of eutectic decreases. However, with an increase in carbon content this tendency is weakened and with 3.9% the structure of powder cast iron is almost entirely of eutectic.

  12. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile...

  13. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile...

  14. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile...

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE FABRICATING MARK OF STARBUCK IRON WORKS, TROY, NY - Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge & Stone Toll House, Near Lake Oroville (moved from fork of Feather River), Oroville, Butte County, CA

  16. AERIAL VIEW OF MC WANE CAST IRON PIPE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF MC WANE CAST IRON PIPE, LOOKING WEST TO BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. I-20-59 RUNNING DIAGONALLY FROM RIGHT MIDDLE GROUND. L&N RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Directional solidification of white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.

    1996-08-01

    Several studies of the ledeburite eutectic (Fe-Fe3C), in pure Fe-C alloys have shown that it has a lamellar morphology under plane front growth conditions. The structure of ledeburite in white cast irons, Fe-C-Si, consists of a rod morphology. It is generally not possible to produce plane front growth of Fe-C-Si eutectic alloys in the Fe-Fe3C form, because at the slow growth rates required for plane front growth, the Fe3C phase is replaced by graphite. By using small additions of Te, the growth of graphite was suppressed, and the plane front growth of the ledeburite eutectic in Fe-C-Si alloys was carried out with Si levels up to 1 wt pct. It was found that the growth morphology became a faceted rod morphology at 1 wt pct Si, but in contrast to the usual rod morphology of white cast irons, the rod phase was Fe3C rather than iron. It was shown that the usual rod morphology only forms at the sides of the two-phase cellular or dendritic growth fronts in Fe-C-Si alloys. Possible reasons for the inability of plane front directional solidification to produce the usual rod morphology in Fe-C-Si alloys are discussed. Also, data are presented on the spacing of the lamellar eutectic in pure Fe-C ledeburite, which indicates that this system does not follow the usual λ2 V = constant relation of regular eutectics.

  18. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  19. Acoustic energy transmission in cast iron pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziroglou, Michail E.; Boyle, David E.; Wright, Steven W.; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose acoustic power transfer as a method for the remote powering of pipeline sensor nodes. A theoretical framework of acoustic power propagation in the ceramic transducers and the metal structures is drawn, based on the Mason equivalent circuit. The effect of mounting on the electrical response of piezoelectric transducers is studied experimentally. Using two identical transducer structures, power transmission of 0.33 mW through a 1 m long, 118 mm diameter cast iron pipe, with 8 mm wall thickness is demonstrated, at 1 V received voltage amplitude. A near-linear relationship between input and output voltage is observed. These results show that it is possible to deliver significant power to sensor nodes through acoustic waves in solid structures. The proposed method may enable the implementation of acoustic - powered wireless sensor nodes for structural and operation monitoring of pipeline infrastructure.

  20. A Hypothesis for Cast Iron Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2009-12-01

    The various microstructures of cast irons are reviewed, including carbidic and graphite forms (flake, compacted, spheroidal, and undercooled, etc.), exploring whether the presence of externally introduced defects in the form of oxide double films (bifilms) in suspension in melts seem to provide, for the first time, a uniform explanation for all the structures and their properties. Silica-rich oxide bifilms provide the substrates on which oxysulfide particles form, nucleating graphite. The presence of the film provides the favored substrate over which graphite grows, which leads to the development of flake graphite. The addition of limited Mg to form compacted graphite destroys all but a remnant of the silica-rich bifilms. The oxide film remnant is stabilized by the presence of the graphite nucleus, which causes the graphite to grow unidirectionally in a filamentary form. The addition of excess Mg destroys all traces of the oxide bifilms, leaving only the original nuclei, around which graphite is now free to entirely enclose, initiating the spherical growth mode. Undercooled graphite is the true coupled growth form, nucleated at even lower temperatures in the absence of favorable film substrates in suspension; the graphite adopts a continuous growth mode in a matrix of austenite. Carbides in mottled and white irons form on the oxide bifilms that often lie along grain and interdendritic boundaries, which explains the apparent brittleness of these strong, hard phases. In most cases of nonspheroidal growth modes (flake and misshaped spheroids), it is proposed that the impairment of the mechanical properties of irons is not strongly determined by graphite morphology but by the presence of oxide bifilms. Spheroidal graphite iron has the potential for high properties because of the absence of bifilms.

  1. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  2. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  3. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  4. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  5. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  6. Materials processing threshold report: 2. Use of low gravity for cast iron process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankhouser, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Potential applications of a low gravity environment of interest to the commercial producers of cast iron were assessed to determine whether low gravity conditions offer potential opportunities to producers for improving cast iron properties and expanding the use of cast irons. The assessment is limited to the gray and nodular types of iron, however, the findings are applicable to all cast irons. The potential advantages accrued through low gravity experiments with cast irons are described.

  7. High-strength cast irons used for manufacturing parts of vaz passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaigora, N. I.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for solving problems arising in the production of high-strength cast iron with stable properties and structure are considered. Results of introduction of new grades of high-strength cast iron instead of malleable cast iron and camshaft cast iron in the Volzhskii Automobile Plant are described.

  8. 11. DETAIL OF CAST IRON DOOR OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF CAST IRON DOOR OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  9. Sculpture, detail view of cast iron lamps, with scale (note: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, detail view of cast iron lamps, with scale (note: "'J.L. Mott, Ironworks, NY" stamp on the base) - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  10. Sculpture, cast iron lamps at northeast corner of Stephen Sitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, cast iron lamps at northeast corner of Stephen Sitter Avenue and Forney road, with scale - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  12. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 4. DETAIL OF CAST AND WROUGHT IRON RAILING WITH SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF CAST AND WROUGHT IRON RAILING WITH SUPPORTING STRUCTURES AND STEEL BEAM, FROM THE NORTH BANK LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE WEST (UPSTREAM) SIDE - Railroad Avenue Bridge, Spanning Mispillion River on Church Street, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  14. Structure and properties of wear-resistant white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gol'dshtein, Ya. E.; Khismatullina, N. S.; Gol'dshtein, V. A.; Mosina, V. I.

    1986-08-01

    The favorable combined effect of vanadium and chromium on the wear resistance of white cast iron is manifested when their contents are 2...6 and 0...12%, respectively. In this case, the optimal vanadium content in cast iron operating under complex conditions of shock and bending loads can be determined from the equation % V=3+1/3 (% Cr) for a chromium content of not more than 12%.

  15. Surface hardening of two cast irons by friction stir processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Yasufumi; Kikuchi, Toshifumi; Kiguchi, Shoji; Nogi, Kiyoshi

    2009-05-01

    The Friction Stir Processing (FSP) was applied to the surface hardening of cast irons. Flake graphite cast iron (FC300) and nodular graphite cast iron (FCD700) were used to investigate the validity of this method. The matrices of the FC300 and FC700 cast irons are pearlite. The rotary tool is a 25mm diameter cylindrical tool, and the travelling speed was varied between 50 and 150mm/min in order to control the heat input at the constant rotation speed of 900rpm. As a result, it has been clarified that a Vickers hardness of about 700HV is obtained for both cast irons. It is considered that a very fine martensite structure is formed because the FSP generates the heat very locally, and a very high cooling rate is constantly obtained. When a tool without an umbo (probe) is used, the domain in which graphite is crushed and striated is minimized. This leads to obtaining a much harder sample. The hardness change depends on the size of the martensite, which can be controlled by the process conditions, such as the tool traveling speed and the load. Based on these results, it was clarified that the FSP has many advantages for cast irons, such as a higher hardness and lower distortion. As a result, no post surface heat treatment and no post machining are required to obtain the required hardness, while these processes are generally required when using the traditional methods.

  16. Grinding of cast iron with wheels made of superhard materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korz, N. J.

    Optimum grinding conditions for cast iron with wheels made of superhard materials were determined. Type PP 250 x 10 wheels made of metallized and non metallized diamond and various brands of CBN with 125/100 grains at 100 % concentration on metellic M0 16 and organic B1 type bonds were used. Type KZ 25 CMIK 5 wheels of the same size were investigated for purposes of comparison. The experimental samples, 80 and 230 mm in diameter made from grey cast iron (HB 178), alloy cast iron (HB 200), high strength cast iron (HB 207), chilled cast iron (HB 460) and hardened cast iron (HCR 52-55), were ground on a 3 B 12 cylindrical grinder at cutting speeds of 35 m/sec, a workpiece velocity of 54 m/min and a longitudinal feed of 0,5 - 2,0 m/min. The crossfeed ranges rom 0,005 to 0,4 mm/sec. The cutting fluid was an aqueous solution of calcium carbonate supplied at 3 to 5 l/min.

  17. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192.755 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  18. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192.755 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  19. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192.755 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  20. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192.755 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  1. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section 192.755 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  2. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF CAST IRON FENCE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF CAST IRON FENCE AND MARBLE MONUMENTS IN THIS GRAVE PLOT IN THE COLUMBIANA CEMETERY WHICH DATE TO 1864. IRON WORK MANUFACTURED AT SHELBY IRONWORKS FOR IRONMASTER'S FIRST WIFE AND DAUGHTER'S GRAVES. - Ware Cemetery Plot, Shelby County Road 25, Columbiana, Shelby County, AL

  3. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... were the orders to be revoked. See Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and...

  4. Thermal conductivity of cast iron: Models and analysis of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsing, Johan; Grimvall, Göran

    1991-08-01

    Cast iron can be viewed as a composite material. We use effective medium and other theories for the overall conductivity of a composite, expressed in the conductivities, the volume fractions, and the morphology of the constituent phases, to model the thermal conductivity of grey and white cast iron and some iron alloys. The electronic and the vibrational contributions to the conductivities of the microconstituents (alloyed ferrite, cementite, pearlite, graphite) are discussed, with consideration of the various scattering mechanisms. Our model gives a good account of measured thermal conductivities at 300 K. It is easily extended to describe the thermal conductivity of other materials characterized by having several constituent phases of varying chemical composition.

  5. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iron basis material subcategory. 466.20 Section 466.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cast Iron Basis Material Subcategory § 466.20 Applicability; description of the cast iron basis... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron...

  6. Formation of microstructures in the spheroidal graphite cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Daloz, D.; Bruneseaux, F.; Lesoult, G.

    2012-01-01

    Pipeline systems for hydraulic networks are obtained via centrifugal casting of spheroidal graphite cast iron. The very high cooling rate that is achieved in the skin of the product can sometimes lead to carbide instead of graphite in cast iron. An experimental device has been built in the laboratory that allows reproducing the extreme thermal conditions encountered during formation of skin of centrifugally cast pipes. Liquid metal droplets fall on a cold substrate. Rapid directional solidification occurs. The temperature evolution of the lower surface of the droplet is recorded during the very first moment of the solidification (t < 200 ms) thanks to a photodiode, which is located below the substrate. The microstructures that are obtained in laboratory are characterised in both the as-cast state and the heat-treated state. They are compared to the centrifugally cast ones. A model of directional solidification of cast iron under a very large temperature gradient has been built. It allows explaining the transition from stable to metastable micro structure that was observed in the products and reproduced in the laboratory samples.

  7. Iron/Phosphorus Alloys for Continuous Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous casting becomes practicable because of reduced eutectic temperature. Experimental ferrous alloy has melting point about 350 degrees C lower than conventional steels, making possible to cast structural members and eliminating need for hot rolling. Product has normal metal structure and good physical properties. Process used to make rails, beams, slabs, channels, and pipes.

  8. Composite Materials Processing of Cast Iron and Ceramics Using Compo-Casting Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yoshihiro; Sumimoto, Haruyoshi

    The compo-casting technology of ceramics and cast iron is expected to be one of the major casting technologies that can expand the application fields of cast iron. This technique allows the heat energy of the molten metal to be utilized to produce cast iron products which are added with functions of ceramic materials. The largest problem in compo-casting technology is generation of cracks caused by thermal shock. Although this crack generation can be prevented by reducing the thermal stress by means of preheating ceramics, the necessary preheating temperature is considerably high and its precise controlling is difficult at the practical foundry working sites. In this study, we tried to numerically predict the critical preheating temperature of ceramics using the thermal stress analysis in unsteady heat transfer and the Newman's diagram, and found that the preheating of ceramics to reduce thermal stress could be substituted with placing an appropriate cast iron cover around the ceramics. Excellent results were obtained by using a method whereby a ceramic bar was covered with a flake graphite cast iron cover and fixed in a sand mold and then molten metal was poured. Then, two or three ceramics were examined at the same time under the compocasting condition. As a result, three specimens could be done at the same time by adjusting the cover space to 15mm. Moreover, irregular shape ceramics were examined under the compocasting condition. As a result, the compocasting could be done by devising the cover shape. In each condition, it was confirmed that the cover shape made from the analytical result was effective to the compocasting by doing the thermometry of the specimens.

  9. Heat treatment in high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, A. F.; Crnkovic, O. R.; Canale, L. C. F.

    2001-02-01

    Wear resistance of high Cr white cast irons can be improved by means of heat treatment. This type of cast iron alloy may present a microstructure with retained austenite. The amount of retained austenite changes with the applied heat treatment, which will have an influence on wear properties. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of several parameters such as quenching and tempering temperatures and subzero treatment in the wear performance of the high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy. In this way, the performance was evaluated using pin-on-disc abrasion test. The worn surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the main wear mechanisms were identified. The microstructural characterization was also performed with carbide identification. This Fe alloy has proven to be good for applications in mining and alcohol-sugar industries.

  10. Detonation velocity of melt-cast ADN and ADN/nano-diamond cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R. M.; Forbes, J. W.; Lawrence, G. W.; Deiter, J. S.; Baker, R. N.; Ashwell, K. D.; Sutherland, G. T.

    2000-04-01

    Detonation velocities of confined cylinders of melt-cast ADN/ZnO (99.5/0.5 by weight), ADN/nano-diamond/ZnO (92.4/7.2/0.4), ADN/AN/ZnO (95.5/4.0/0.5) and ADN/AN/ZnO/nano-diamond (88.0/4.5/0.5/7.0) have been measured using a streak camera. Velocities ranging between 3.9 and 4.5 mm/μs were obtained for 1.3 cm diameter samples confined by steel and a 2.5 cm diameter ADN/AN/ZnO cylinder. In one of the samples the detonation was failing as it proceeded through the charge. For the other shots reported, the shock velocities appeared to be steady through the last half of the charge, though the lengths were too short for any definitive statement about the failure diameter to be made.

  11. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion...

  12. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.487 Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of the pipe. Corrosion...

  13. 75 FR 54596 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings from Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings... of the countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant... review of the CVD order on iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  14. 146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP STANDARD. THIS AND OTHER LAMP STANDARDS WERE REMOVED FROM THE LAMP COLUMNS ON THE PARAPET WALLS DURING WORLD WAR II AND STORED INSIDE THE DAM (January 1991) - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  15. 25. "CAST IRON HOWE TRUSS CARRYING PENNA STATE HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. "CAST IRON HOWE TRUSS - CARRYING PENNA STATE HIGHWAY ROUTE #83 OVER READING CO. TRACKS - SOUTH OF READING, PENNA, Dwg. #6 - Sht. #1", dated November 20, 1956, shows partial side elevation of bridge truss, beginning at end post - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  16. 16. DETAIL OF WICKET AND CAST IRON BALL JOINT (off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF WICKET AND CAST IRON BALL JOINT (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  17. Carbide Transformations in Tempering of Complexly Alloyed White Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Gorlenko, D. A.; Zavalishchin, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    Variation of the chemical composition of all phases and structural components (metallic matrix, eutectic and secondary carbides) in complexly alloyed cast iron is studied after crystallization and different variants of tempering. It is shown that several groups of secondary carbides may be distinguished according to their morphology and chemical composition.

  18. 9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS AND STEEL ROPE IN UPPER TROUGH IN CONVEYOR HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE STEEL PLATES LINING WOODEN TROUGH - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  19. Development of volume deposition on cast iron by additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Jordan, Brian H.; Babu, Suresh S.

    2016-11-10

    ORNL partnered with Cummins to demonstrate the feasibility of using additive manufacturing techniques to help develop repair techniques for refurbished cast iron engine blocks. Cummins is interested in the refurbished engine business due to the increased cost savings and reduced emissions. It is expected that by refurbishing engines could help reduce the green house gas emissions by as much as 85%. Though such repair techniques are possible in principle there has been no major industry in the automotive sector that has deployed this technology. Therefore phase-1 would seek to evaluate the feasibility of using the laser directed energy deposition technique to repair cast iron engine blocks. The objective of the phase-1 would be to explore various strategies and understand the challenges involved. During phase-1 deposits were made using Inconel-718, Nickel, Nr-Cr-B braze filler. Inconel 718 builds showed significant cracking in the heat-affected zone in the cast iron. Nickel was used to reduce the cracking in the cast iron substrate, however the Ni builds did not wet the substrate sufficiently resulting in poor dimensional tolerance. In order to increase wetting the Ni was alloyed with the Ni-Cr-B braze to decrease the surface tension of Ni. This however resulted in significant cracks in the build due to shrinkage stresses associated with multiple thermal cycling. Hence to reduce the residual stresses in the builds the DMD-103D equipment was modified and the cast iron block was pre heated using cartridge heaters. Inconel-718 alloyed with Ni was deposited on the engine block. The pre-heated deposits showed a reduced susceptibility to cracking. If awarded the phase-2 of the project would aim to develop process parameters to achieve a crack free deposit engine block.

  20. Quenching of cast iron with a high copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Natalia; Bataev, Anatoly; Razumakov, Aleksey

    2015-10-01

    The structure, hardness, and microhardness of hypoeutectic white cast iron alloyed with copper after quenching at 1000 and 1120°C is studied. Features of cupric inclusion separation are detected and its size distribution is shown. After quenching the structure consists of martensite, residual austenite, and vermicular graphite. A decrease in the size and volume fraction of globular cupric inclusions is detected, along with the complete dissolution of nanoscale cupric inclusions, which are located in the ferrite of pearlite colonies. The result of these structural changes is a 30% increase in iron hardness. Cast iron quenching at 1120° C is followed by an increase in the austenite volume fraction to 69%. This effect is due to a decrease in the volume fraction of graphite and a corresponding increase in the carbon content in γ-Fe. Cupric inclusions are located mainly along boundaries of austenitic grains.

  1. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  2. End-Quenching Test as a Means for Assessing the Hardenability of Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliner, R. E.; Vybornov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    A method of assessment of cooling rates in quenching of iron, which involves a standard end-quenching test, is applied to castings of VCh50 iron. The approach is shown to be effective for quenching of cast iron with pearlitic metallic matrix, for solving various technological problems and developing chemical compositions of ductile irons.

  3. 75 FR 67395 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-249 and 731-TA-262, 263, and 265 (Third Review)] Iron Construction... countervailing duty order on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on heavy iron construction castings from Canada, and the antidumping duty orders on iron construction...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667 Section 721.10667 Protection of Environment... iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN P-12-560; CAS No. 1391739-82-4;...

  6. Growth of Ferrite Needles in Compacted Graphite Cast Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, G.A.; Mercader, R.C.; Desimoni, J.; Perez, T.; Gregorutti, R.W.

    2005-04-26

    The austempering kinetics transformation of compacted graphite cast irons austempered at 623K is studied. The length (l) and the number per unit volume (N) of ferrite needles were followed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) was used to determine the austenite relative areas. The SEM results are compared with theoretical calculations available in the literature and indicate that the diffusion of C atoms in austenite controls the transformation, confirming the indirect MS determinations.

  7. Method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    A method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel wherein double wall cast iron body segments each have an arcuate inner wall and a spaced apart substantially parallel outer wall with a plurality of radially extending webs interconnecting the inner wall and the outer wall, the bottom surface and the two exposed radial side surfaces of each body segment are machined and eight body segments are formed into a ring. The top surfaces and outer surfaces of the outer walls are machined and keyways are provided across the juncture of adjacent end walls of the body segments. A liner segment complementary in shape to a selected inner wall of one of the body segments is mounted to each of the body segments and again formed into a ring. The liner segments of each ring are welded to form unitary liner rings and thereafter the cast iron body segments are prestressed to complete the ring assembly. Ring assemblies are stacked to form the vessel and adjacent unitary liner rings are welded. A top head covers the top ring assembly to close the vessel and axially extending tendons retain the top and bottom heads in place under pressure.

  8. 75 FR 49945 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-249 and 731-TA-262, 263, and 265 (Third Review)] Iron Construction... iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... antidumping duty orders on iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China would likely lead...

  9. 75 FR 23295 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-249 and 731-TA-262, 263, and 265 (Third Review)] Iron Construction...: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on ``heavy'' iron construction castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on ``heavy'' iron construction castings from Canada,...

  10. Erosion-corrosion behavior of austenitic cast iron in an acidic slurry medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ke; Sun, Lan; Liu, Yu-zhen; Fan, Hong-yuan

    2015-06-01

    A series of austenitic cast iron samples with different compositions were cast and a part of nickel in the samples was replaced by manganese for economic reason. Erosion-corrosion tests were conducted under 2wt% sulfuric acid and 15wt% quartz sand. The results show that the matrix of cast irons remains austenite after a portion of nickel is replaced with manganese. (Fe,Cr)3C is a common phase in the cast irons, and nickel is the main alloying element in high-nickel cast iron; whereas, (Fe,Mn)3C is observed with the increased manganese content in low-nickel cast iron. Under erosion-corrosion tests, the weight-loss rates of the cast irons increase with increasing time. Wear plays a more important role than corrosion in determining the weight loss. It is indicated that the processes of weight loss for the cast irons with high and low nickel contents are different. The erosion resistance of the cast iron containing 7.29wt% nickel and 6.94wt% manganese is equivalent to that of the cast iron containing 13.29wt% nickel.

  11. High-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior of a gray cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.L. He, G.Q.; She, M.; Liu, X.S.; Lu, Q.; Yang, Y.; Tian, D.D.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-15

    The strain controlled low cycle fatigue properties of the studied gray cast iron for engine cylinder blocks were investigated. At the same total strain amplitude, the low cycle fatigue life of the studied material at 523 K was higher than that at 423 K. The fatigue behavior of the studied material was characterized as cyclic softening at any given total strain amplitude (0.12%–0.24%), which was attributed to fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Moreover, this material exhibited asymmetric hysteresis loops due to the presence of the graphite lamellas. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that cyclic softening was also caused by the interactions of dislocations at 423 K, such as cell structure in ferrite, whereas cyclic softening was related to subgrain boundaries and dislocation climbing at 523 K. Micro-analysis of specimen fracture appearance was conducted in order to obtain the fracture characteristics and crack paths for different strain amplitudes. It showed that the higher the temperature, the rougher the crack face of the examined gray cast iron at the same total strain amplitude. Additionally, the microcracks were readily blunted during growth inside the pearlite matrix at 423 K, whereas the microcracks could easily pass through pearlite matrix along with deflection at 523 K. The results of fatigue experiments consistently showed that fatigue damage for the studied material at 423 K was lower than that at 523 K under any given total strain amplitude. - Highlights: • The low cycle fatigue behavior of the HT250 for engine cylinder blocks was investigated. • TEM investigations were conducted to explain the cyclic deformation response. • The low cycle fatigue cracks of HT250 GCI were studied by SEM. • The fatigue life of the examined material at 523 K is higher than that at 423 K.

  12. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron...

  13. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron...

  14. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron...

  15. 40 CFR 466.20 - Applicability; description of the cast iron basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PORCELAIN ENAMELING POINT SOURCE... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from porcelain enameling of cast iron...

  16. Detecting defect in cast iron using high- TC SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. F.; Yoshizawa, M.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, M.

    2004-10-01

    For eddy-current NDE, due to the big permeability of ferromagnetic material, low testing frequency is needed to detect defects in it. SQUID has advantages in low frequency eddy current NDE. But the large magnetic field produced by ferromagnetic material often exceeds the dynamic range of general SQUID system. We developed a mobile high- TC SQUID system, with which, the dc and low-frequency magnetic field could be compensated well. Using our mobile SQUID system, the magnetic field produced by the cast iron could be compensated well and the defect in it could be successfully detected.

  17. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Paris, Alan M.; Vought, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-03-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  19. Improving friction performance of cast iron by laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Huang, Shu; Sheng, Jie; Mei, Yufen; Zhou, Hongda

    2015-05-01

    According to different purpose, some high or low friction coefficient of the material surface is required. In this study, micro-dent texture was fabricated on cast iron specimens by a set of laser shock peening (LSP) experiments under different laser energy, with different patterns of micro dimples in terms of the depth over diameter. The mechanism of LSP was discussed and surface morphology of the micro dimples were investigated by utilizing a Keyence KS-1100 3D optical surface profilometer. The tests under the conditions of dry and lubricating sliding friction were accomplished on the UMT-2 apparatus. The performance of treated samples during friction and wear tests were characterized and analyzed. Based on theoretical analysis and experimental study, friction performance of textured and untextured samples were studied and compared. Morphological characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared after friction tests under dry condition. The results showed that friction coefficient of textured samples were obvious changed than smooth samples. It can be seen that LSP is an effective way to improve the friction performance of cast iron by fabricating high quality micro dimples on its surface, no matter what kind of engineering application mentioned in this paper.

  20. Displaying structural property and inheritance of cast iron surfacing on steel base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shveev, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Graphite inclusions heredity in deposited layer from remelted special cast iron billets was established. The possibility of controlling the structural state and the quality of the deposited layer due to technological parameters of welding and heat treatment of parts is shown. Ways of improving cast iron wear resistance durability are proposed.

  1. Chemical Degradation of the Cathodic Electrical Contact Between Carbon and Cast Iron in Aluminum Production Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Martin; Désilets, Martin; Soucy, Gervais; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Forté, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The cathodic carbon to cast iron electrical contact degradation is one of the factors to consider in the cathode voltage drop (CVD) increase over the lifetime of aluminum production cells. Lab-scale experiments were carried out to study the cast iron to carbon interface chemical degradation and the impact of important cell parameters like temperature and bath chemistry. Laboratory degradation results were compared with industrial samples. A thermoelectric Ansys numerical model was then used to predict the effect of cast iron surface degradation over CVD. Results show that the aluminum formation on the cast iron surface and its subsequent diffusion creates an immiscible mixture of Fe-Al metal alloy and electrolytic bath. Disparities were also observed between industrial samples taken from two different technologies, suggesting that the degradation can be slowed down. Thermoelectric calculations finally revealed that the impact of the contact resistance augmentation is by far greater than the cast iron degradation.

  2. 78 FR 39321 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From China Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From China Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non-malleable cast iron pipe fittings from..., the Department of Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of non-malleable cast iron...

  3. 77 FR 31577 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China...'') changed circumstances review with intent to revoke, in part, the AD order on non-malleable cast iron pipe... this particular connector. \\1\\ See Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic...

  4. 75 FR 10216 - Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Cast Iron Pipe Fittings from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission of the 2008-2009... review of the antidumping duty order on malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the People's Republic of... antidumping duty order on malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the PRC. See Initiation of Antidumping...

  5. 75 FR 75964 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on non-malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the People's... the administrative review of non-malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the PRC within the time...

  6. 75 FR 54595 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... duty orders on certain iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of... initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders\\1\\ on certain iron construction castings...

  7. 78 FR 72639 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on non-malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the People's... expedited (120-day) sunset review of the antidumping duty order on non-malleable cast iron pipe...

  8. 77 FR 22562 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty (AD) order on non-malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the People's... order on non- malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the PRC.\\1\\ On March 6, 2012, Ford...

  9. Fiber laser cladding of nickel-based alloy on cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Penide, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Gray cast iron is a ferrous alloy characterized by a carbon-rich phase in form of lamellar graphite in an iron matrix while ductile cast iron presents a carbon-rich phase in form of spheroidal graphite. Graphite presents a higher laser beam absorption than iron matrix and its morphology has also a strong influence on thermal conductivity of the material. The laser cladding process of cast iron is complicated by its heterogeneous microstructure which generates non-homogeneous thermal fields. In this research work, a comparison between different types of cast iron substrates (with different graphite morphology) has been carried out to analyze its impact on the process results. A fiber laser was used to generate a NiCrBSi coating over flat substrates of gray cast iron (EN-GJL-250) and nodular cast iron (EN-GJS-400-15). The relationship between processing parameters (laser irradiance and scanning speed) and geometry of a single laser track was examined. Moreover, microstructure and composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The hardness and elastic modulus were analyzed by means of micro- and nanoindentation. A hardfacing coating was generated by fiber laser cladding. Suitable processing parameters to generate the Ni-based alloy coating were determined. For the same processing parameters, gray cast iron samples present higher dilution than cast iron samples. The elastic modulus is similar for the coating and the substrate, while the Ni-based coating obtained presents a significantly superior hardness than cast iron.

  10. Failure analysis of blistered organic coatings on gray iron castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianen, Matthew N.

    This study investigates the blistering failure of a two part coating consisting of talc-filled polyester resin and polyurethane primer on large gray iron castings. Surface metallography was performed and failed coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products were found inside of coating blisters. The proposed blistering mechanism is osmosis as a result of soluble species produced by the corrosion. It was believed that excessively thin primer layers resulted in a poor barrier to permeation of water, leading to blisters, and that a basecoat containing a corrosion inhibitor like zinc phosphate would reduce blistering. These hypotheses were tested with designed experiments using environmental testing in humidity and submersion environments. Thicker primer layers resulted in significant reductions in blistering and prolonged the time required before blister formation. A basecoat containing zinc phosphate was not found to be effective at reducing blistering in this coating system.

  11. Low-gravity solidification of cast iron and space technology applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of analyses relating to cast iron solidification were conducted. A theoretical analysis using a computer to predict the cooling versus time relationship throughout the test specimen was performed. Tests were also conducted in a ground-based laboratory to generate a cooling time curve for cast iron. In addition, cast iron was cooled through the solidification period on a KC-135 and an F-104 aircraft while these aircraft were going through a period of low gravity. Future subjects for low gravity tests are enumerated.

  12. Characterization of tribological behaviour of graphitic aluminum matrix composites, grey cast iron, and aluminum silicon alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Ahmad Reza

    In recent years a number of aluminum-silicon alloys and some graphitic aluminum matrix composites have been fabricated for potential tribological applications in the automotive industry, in particular for lightweight high efficiency internal combustion engines to replace conventional uses of cast iron. This study provides a systematic investigation for wear mechanisms in dry sliding of the graphitic aluminum-matrix composites (A356 Al-10%SiC-4%Gr and A356 Al-5%Al2O3-3%Gr) developed for cylinder liner applications. Two eutectic Al-Si alloys (modified with rare earth elements) developed for wear resistant engine blocks were also studied. The tribological behavior of grey cast iron (ASTM A30), which is a traditional material for engine components, was also investigated as reference. For graphitic aluminum matrix composites, a wear mapping approach has been adopted. Three main regimes: ultra mild, mild and severe wear regions were determined in the maps; additionally, a scuffing region was observed. In the ultra mild wear regime the wear resistance was primarily due to the hard particles supporting the load. It was shown that the onset of severe wear in graphitic composites occurred at considerably higher loads compared to A356 aluminum alloy and A356 Al-20% SiC composite. At the onset of severe wear, the surface temperatures and coefficient of friction of the graphitic composites was lower than that of A356 Al-20% SiC. At all testing conditions in the mild wear regime, a protective tribo-layer was formed, which by increasing the speed and load became more continuous, more compact, smoother, and harder. The tribo-layers were removed at the onset of severe wear. An experimental wear map of grey cast iron was constructed; it consisted of three wear regimes: ultra mild, mild and severe wear. In the ultra mild regime a compacted fine iron oxide powder formed on the contact. The onset of severe wear was started with local material transfer to the steel counterface, and

  13. DYNAMIC DEFORMATION AND DAMAGE IN CAST GAMMA-TiAl DURING TYALOR CYLINDER IMPACT: EXPERIMENTS AND MODEL VALIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    G. GRAY; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The dynamic deformation, damage evolution, and cracking in two cast gamma titanium aluminide alloys has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The purpose of this study was to create and validate experimentally a finite-element model of the high speed impact of a cylindrical {gamma}-TiAl projectile into a steel block in order to evaluate the accuracy of {gamma} constitutive properties used in FEA simulations. In this paper the damage evolution, cracking, and validation of the constitutive response of Ti-48-2-2 and WMS cast gamma alloys is discussed. The utility of validating the high-rate impact behavior of engineering aerospace materials using Taylor cylinder impact testing is detailed.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON MAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Colored water” resulting from suspended iron particles is a common drinking water consumer complaint which is largely impacted by water chemistry. A bench scale study, performed on a 90 year-old corroded cast-iron pipe section removed from a drinking water distribution system, w...

  15. Identification of a cast iron alloy containing nonstrategic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. V.; Anton, D. L.; Lemkey, F. D.; Nowotny, H.; Bailey, R. S.; Favrow, L. H.; Smeggil, J. G.; Snow, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A program was performed to address the mechanical and environmental needs of Stirling engine heater head and regenerator housing components, while reducing the dependence on strategic materials. An alloy was developed which contained no strategic elemental additions per se. The base is iron with additions of manganese, molybdenum, carbon, silicon, niobium, and ferro-chromium. Such an alloy should be producible on a large scale at very low cost. The resulting alloy, designated as NASAUT 4G-Al, contained 15 Mn, 15 Cr, 2 Mo, 1.5 C, 1.0 Si, 1.0 Nb (in weight percent) with a balance of Fe. This alloy was optimized for chemistry, based upon tensile strength, creep-rupture strength, fracture behavior, and fatigue resistance up to 800 C. Alloys were also tested for environmental compatibility. The microstructure and mechanic properties (including hardness) were assessed in the as-cast condition and following several heat treatments, including one designed to simulate a required braze cycle. The alloy was fabricated and characterized in the form of both equiaxed and columnar-grained castings. The columnar grains were produced by directional solidification, and the properties were characterized in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. The NASAUT 4G-Al alloy was found to be good in cyclic-oxidation resistance and excellent in both hydrogen and hot-corrosion resistance, especially in comparison to the baseline XF-818 alloy. The mechanical properties of yield strength, stress-rupture life, high-cycle-fatigue resistance, and low-cycle-fatigue resistance were good to excellent in comparison to the current alloy for this application, HS-31 (X-40), with precise results depending in a complex manner on grain orientation and temperature. If required, the ductility could be improved by lowering the carbon content.

  16. Effect of molybdenum, vanadium, boron on mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron in as-cast condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurjaman, F.; Sumardi, S.; Shofi, A.; Aryati, M.; Suharno, B.

    2016-02-01

    In this experiment, the effect of the addition carbide forming elements on high chromium white cast iron, such as molybdenum, vanadium and boron on its mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated. The high chromium white cast iron was produced by casting process and formed in 50 mm size of grinding balls with several compositions. Characterization of these grinding balls was conducted by using some testing methods, such as: chemical and microstructure analysis, hardness, and impact test. From the results, the addition of molybdenum, vanadium, and boron on high chromium white cast iron provided a significant improvement on its hardness, but reduced its toughness. Molybdenum induced fully austenitic matrix and Mo2C formation among eutectic M7C3 carbide. Vanadium was dissolved in the matrix and carbide. While boron was played a role to form fine eutectic carbide. Grinding balls with 1.89 C-13.1 Cr-1.32 Mo-1.36 V-0.00051 B in as-cast condition had the highest hardness, which was caused by finer structure of eutectic carbide, needle like structure (upper bainite) matrix, and martensite on its carbide boundary.

  17. Industrial Environmental Testing of Coupons and Prototype Cylinders Coated With Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Aprigliano, L F; Day, S D; Lian, T; Farmer, J C

    2007-03-06

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable for many industrial applications due to their dual capacity to resist corrosion and wear. These alloys may also contain a significant amount of boron which makes them candidates for criticality control, for example, in high-level nuclear waste disposition applications. The Fe-based amorphous alloys can be produced in powder form and then deposited using a HVOF thermal spray process on any surface that needs to be protected. For the current testing coupons of 316L stainless steels were coated with the amorphous alloy SAM2X5 and then tested for corrosion resistance in the salt-fog chamber and in other industrial environments. Prototype cylinders were also prepared and environmentally tested. One cylinder was 30-inch diameter, 88-inch long, and 3/8-inch thick. The coating thickness was 0.015 to 0.019-inch thick. The cylinder was in good condition after the test. Along the body of the cylinder only two pinpoint spot sized signs of rust were seen. Test results will be compared with the behavior of witness materials under the same tested conditions.

  18. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  19. Ductility Loss in Ductile Cast Iron with Internal Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hisao; Usuda, Teruki; Yanase, Keiji; Endo, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen-induced ductility loss in ductile cast iron (DCI) was studied by conducting a series of tensile tests with three different crosshead speeds. By utilizing the thermal desorption spectroscopy and the hydrogen microprint technique, it was found that most of the solute hydrogen was diffusive and mainly segregated at the graphite, graphite/matrix interface zone, and the cementite of pearlite in the matrix. The fracture process of the non-charged specimen was dominated by the ductile dimple fracture, whereas that of the hydrogen-charged specimen became less ductile because of the accompanying interconnecting cracks between the adjacent graphite nodules. Inside the hydrogen-charged specimen, the interspaces generated by the interfacial debonding between graphite and matrix are filled with hydrogen gas in the early stage of the fracture process. In the subsequent fracture process, such a local hydrogen gas atmosphere coupled with a stress-induced diffusion attracts hydrogen to the crack tip, which results in a time-dependent ductility loss.

  20. Thermomechanical Fatigue of Ductile Cast Iron and Its Life Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Sloss, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behaviors of ductile cast iron (DCI) were investigated under out-of-phase (OP), in-phase (IP), and constrained strain-control conditions with temperature hold in various temperature ranges: 573 K to 1073 K, 723 K to 1073 K, and 433 K to 873 K (300 °C to 800 °C, 450 °C to 800 °C, and 160 °C to 600 °C). The integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) model was incorporated into the finite element method to simulate the hysteresis behavior and predict the TMF life of DCI under those test conditions. With the consideration of four deformation/damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement, (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation, as revealed from the previous study on low cycle fatigue of the material, the model delineates the contributions of these physical mechanisms in the asymmetrical hysteresis behavior and the damage accumulation process leading to final TMF failure. This study shows that the ICFT model can simulate the stress-strain response and life of DCI under complex TMF loading profiles (OP and IP, and constrained with temperature hold).

  1. Respirable dust control in grinding gray iron castings.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Baron, P; Willeke, K

    1987-02-01

    High speed grinding of gray iron castings long has been associated with excessive exposure to crystalline silica. Not all workers engaged in these operations are protected by conventional ventilation techniques. Dust in the air that has been entrained by the spinning grinding wheel and not captured in the grinder hood has been postulated to be a major exposure source. A pilot grinding operation was constructed, and the size distribution and concentration of airborne particles were measured with the aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Various control measures proved effective in reducing the respirable dust concentration: increased exhaust ventilation, and installation of baffles and/or the use of an air jet to deflect the entrained air stream. The concentration of respirable dust is the breathing zone was reduced approximately 20-fold through the combined use of increased ventilation, interior baffles, and an air jet. The air jet and baffle utilized at the base ventilation rate reduced the respirable dust concentration by a factor of three to four, whereas the baffle alone halved the concentration.

  2. Stable Eutectoid Transformation in Nodular Cast Iron: Modeling and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carazo, Fernando D.; Dardati, Patricia M.; Celentano, Diego J.; Godoy, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new microstructural model of the stable eutectoid transformation in a spheroidal cast iron. The model takes into account the nucleation and growth of ferrite grains and the growth of graphite spheroids. Different laws are assumed for the growth of both phases during and below the intercritical stable eutectoid. At a microstructural level, the initial conditions for the phase transformations are obtained from the microstructural simulation of solidification of the material, which considers the divorced eutectic and the subsequent growth of graphite spheroids up to the initiation of the stable eutectoid transformation. The temperature field is obtained by solving the energy equation by means of finite elements. The microstructural (phase change) and macrostructural (energy balance) models are coupled by a sequential multiscale procedure. Experimental validation of the model is achieved by comparison with measured values of fractions and radius of 2D view of ferrite grains. Agreement with such experiments indicates that the present model is capable of predicting ferrite phase fraction and grain size with reasonable accuracy.

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  4. 78 FR 68474 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From China AGENCY: United... iron pipe fittings from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  5. Investigation of Bond Strength in Centrifugal Lining of Babbitt on Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Papa; Jones, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The quality of the bond between Babbitt metal and a cast iron substrate was evaluated for centrifugal casting and static casting using the Chalmers bond strength method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of three different centrifugal casting parameters, the speed of revolution, the pouring rate, and the cooling rate, was investigated. The bond strength and the microstructure at the bond interface were predominantly affected by the cooling rate, with a fast cooling rate resulting in better properties. The speed of revolution and the pouring rate only had a small effect on the bond strength, with faster revolution and faster pouring rate resulting in slightly better bonds.

  6. Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

    2007-09-01

    This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001); Iron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (p<0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the nine sampling points from the point of view of the sampling sites, climate conditions and wind directions. We found no correlation with car traffic, in terms of the number of vehicles, and metals. The values of iron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds.

  7. Inelastic properties of high-strength cast iron with strained graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushin, G. D.; Petrushina, A. G.; Golovin, S. A.

    2011-05-01

    The effect of the habit of graphite inclusions of deformed high-strength cast iron on the dissipation of the energy of fluctuations in the amplitude-independent and dependent ranges of internal friction is studied. The values of the factor of shape and of the degree of deformation of graphite inclusions in deformed iron are computed. A mathematical model predicting the effect of plastic deformation of graphite inclusions on the characteristics of the dissipation of energy in grayed iron is suggested.

  8. Microstructures and superplastic behavior of eutectic Fe-C and Ni-Cr white cast irons produced by rapid solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, D. W.; Frommeyer, G.; Grant, N. J.; Sherby, O. D.

    1987-10-01

    Superplastic behavior of two commercial grade white cast irons, eutectic Fe-C and Ni-Cr white cast irons, was investigated at intermediate temperatures (650 to 750 °C). For this purpose, rapidly solidified powders of the cast irons were fully consolidated by compaction and rolling at about 650 °C. The volume fractions of cementite in the eutectic cast iron and in the Ni-Cr cast iron were 64 pct and 51 pct, respectively, and both cast irons consisted of fine equiaxed grains of cementite (1 to 2 μm) and ferrite (0.5 to 2 μm). The cast iron compacts exhibited high strain-rate sensitivity (strain-rate-sensitivity exponent of 0.35 to 0.46) and high tensile ductility (total elongation of 150 pct to 210 pct) at strain rates of 10-4 to 10-3 s-1 and at 650 °C to 750 °C. Microstructure evaluations were made by TEM, SEM, and optical microscopy methods. The equiaxed grains in the as-compacted samples remained unchanged even after large tensile deformation. It is concluded that grain boundary sliding ( e.g., along cementite grain boundaries in the case of the eutectic cast iron) is the principal mode of plastic deformation in both cast irons during superplastic testing conditions.

  9. Modeling of microstructure and residual stress in cast iron calendar rolls

    SciTech Connect

    Jacot, A.; Maijer, D.; Cockcroft, S.

    2000-04-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model based on the commercial finite-element (FE) code ABAQUS has been developed to predict the evolution of temperature, microstructure, and residual stresses in cast iron castings. The thermal component of the model, applied in stage one of the analysis, is capable of simulating the formation of microstructure over a broad range of cooling conditions, including the formation of columnar white iron as well as equiaxed gray iron. To test the model, it has been evaluated against thermocouple and microstructural data collected from a reduced-scale calendar roll test casting. The model has been demonstrated to be able to predict the transition from columnar white iron to equiaxed gray iron which occurs approximately 20 mm below the outside surface of the roll test casting. In addition, the model is shown to be able to satisfactorily reproduce the evolution of temperature recorded from thermocouples embedded at various locations in the test casting. An elastic-plastic stress analysis, applied in the second stage of the analysis, was performed using the temperature history and the volume fraction of white and gray iron obtained with the thermal/microstructural model. The results were verified against residual stress measurements made at various locations along the outer-diameter (OD) surface of the roll. The elastic-plastic model accounts for the temperature-dependent plastic behavior of white and gray iron and the thermal dilatational behavior of white and gray iron, including volumetric expansion due to austenite decomposition and dilatational anisotropy in columnar white iron. The results of the mathematical analysis demonstrate that the residual stress distribution in full-scale calendar thermorolls cannot be deduced simply from knowledge of the microstructural distribution and basic dilatometric considerations, as is currently the practice in industry.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part II—Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Porter, Wallace D.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-03-01

    The first part of this study documented the as-aged microstructure of five cast aluminum alloys namely, 206, 319, 356, A356, and A356+0.5Cu, that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads (Roy et al. in Metall Mater Trans A, 2016). In the present part, we report the mechanical response of these alloys after they have been subjected to various levels of thermal exposure. In addition, the thermophysical properties of these alloys are also reported over a wide temperature range. The hardness variation due to extended thermal exposure is related to the evolution of the nano-scale strengthening precipitates for different alloy systems (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu, and Al-Si). The effect of strengthening precipitates (size and number density) on the mechanical response is most obvious in the as-aged condition, which is quantitatively demonstrated by implementing a strength model. Significant coarsening of precipitates from long-term heat treatment removes the strengthening efficiency of the nano-scale precipitates for all these alloys systems. Thermal conductivity of the alloys evolve in an inverse manner with precipitate coarsening compared to the strength, and the implications of the same for the durability of cylinder heads are noted.

  11. [Influencing factors and reaction mechanism of chloroacetic acid reduction by cast iron].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shun; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Xie, Yue-Feng

    2014-03-01

    The chloroacetic acids are ubiquitous present as a class of trace chlorinated organic pollutants in surface and drinking water. Most of chloroacetic acids are known or suspected carcinogens and, when at high concentrations, are of great concern to human health. In order to economically remove chloroacetic acids, the degradation of chloroacetic acids by cast iron was investigated. Moreover, the effect of iron style, pretreatment process, shocking mode and dissolved oxygen on chloroacetic acids reduced by cast iron was discussed. Compared to iron source and acid pretreatment, mass transfer was more important to chloroacetic acid removal. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) were the main products of anoxic and oxic degradation of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) by cast iron during the researched reaction time, respectively. With longtitudinal shock, the reaction kinetics of chloroaectic acid removal by cast iron conformed well to the pseudo first order reaction. The anoxic reaction constants of TCAA, DCAA and MCAA were 0.46 h(-1), 0.03 h(-1) and 0, and their oxic constants were 1.24 h(-1), 0.79 h(-1) and 0.28 h(-1), respectively. The removal mechanisms of chloroacetic acids were different under various oxygen concentrations, including sequential hydrogenolysis for anoxic reaction and sequential hydrogenolysis and direct transformation possible for oxic reaction, respectively.

  12. The mutual co-regulation of extracellular polymeric substances and iron ions in biocorrosion of cast iron pipes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Juntao; Guan, Yuntao

    2014-10-01

    New insights into the biocorrosion process may be gained through understanding of the interaction between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and iron. Herein, the effect of iron ions on the formation of biofilms and production of EPS was investigated. Additionally, the impact of EPS on the corrosion of cast iron coupons was explored. The results showed that a moderate concentration of iron ions (0.06 mg/L) promoted both biofilm formation and EPS production. The presence of EPS accelerated corrosion during the initial stage, while inhibited corrosion at the later stage. The functional groups of EPS acted as electron shuttles to enable the binding of iron ions. Binding of iron ions with EPS led to anodic dissolution and promoted corrosion, while corrosion was later inhibited through oxygen reduction and availability of phosphorus from EPS. The presence of EPS also led to changes in crystalline phases of corrosion products.

  13. Mathematical model of the component mixture distribution in the molten cast iron during centrifugation (sedimentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikulov, R. A.; Kotlyar, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    For the development and management of the manufacturing processes of axisymmetric articles with compositional structure by centrifugal casting method [1,2,3,4] is necessary to create a generalized mathematical model of the dynamics of component mixture in the molten cast iron during centrifugation. In article. based on the analysis of the dynamics of two-component mixture at sedimentation, a method of successive approximations to determine the distribution of a multicomponent mixture by centrifugation in a parabolic crucible is developed.

  14. In Situ fracture observation and fracture toughness analysis of pearlitic graphite cast irons with different nodularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Youb; Sohn, Seok Su; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak; Suh, Yong Chan

    2013-07-01

    Effects of microstructural modification and microfracture mechanisms on fracture toughness of pearlitic graphite cast irons with different nodularity were investigated by in situ observation of microfracture process. Six pearlitic graphite cast irons were fabricated by adding a small amount of Mg as a nodularizing element for graphite, and their microstructures including pearlite, ferrite, graphite, and eutectic carbide were analyzed. Most of ferrites were observed in a layer shape around graphites because of carbon-depleted zones formed near graphites. As the nodularity and nodule count increased, fracture toughness linearly increased in the cast irons except the iron containing many fine graphites. According to in situ observation of microfracture process, cracks initiated at nodular graphites and carbides even at a small load, and then propagated readily through the adjacent graphites or carbides, thereby resulting in the lowest fracture toughness. The cast iron having widely spaced graphites and ferrite layers thickly formed around graphites showed the highest fracture toughness because of the blocking of crack propagation by ductile ferrite layers and the crack blunting and deflection by graphites, which was also confirmed by the R-curve analysis.

  15. Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Casting Skin -- Evaluation, Effect on Fatigue Strength and Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonmee, Sarum

    Compacted graphite (CG) iron features a good combination of tensile strength, impact resistance, thermal conductivity and damping capacity. This combination makes CG iron a material of choice for various applications, especially for the automobile industry. The mechanical properties of CG iron listed in the standards (i.e. ASTM) are for machined specimens. However, since most iron castings retain the original casting surface (a.k.a. casting skin), the actual performance of the part could be significantly different from that of the machined specimens. Recent studies have shown the negative effect of the casting skin, but little quantification of its effect on mechanical properties is available. Further, the understanding of its mechanism of formation is at best incomplete. In this research, the effect of the casting skin on mechanical properties in CG and ductile irons (DI) is explored. The differences in tensile and fatigue properties between as-cast and machined samples were quantified and correlated to the casting skin features. It was found that the presence of the casting skin was accountable for 9% reduction of tensile strength and up to 32% reduction of fatigue strength (for CG iron with 40% nodularity). Several mechanisms of the casting skin formation are proposed in this research. The formation of ferritic and pearlitic rims is explained by decarburizing/carburizing reactions at the mold/metal interface. Mg depletion and solidification kinetics effect were identified as the formation mechanisms of the graphite degradation. A 2-D thermal diffusion model was formulated based on Mg depletion theory. The model can be used to predict the casting skin thickness when Mg depletion is the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, using the asymmetric Fe-Gr phase diagram, some instances of casting skin formation were explained based on solidification kinetics theory. The experimental microstructural evidence and the theoretical progress were conducive to the development of

  16. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release.

  17. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  18. Saturated Fractional Design of Experiments: Toughness and Graphite Phase Optimizing in Nihard Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Lozano, J.; Álvarez-Antolín, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to identify the manufacturing factors that exert an active influence on the graphite phase formation in mottled Nihard cast irons constituting the roll shells of duplex work rolls processed by the double pour method during centrifugal casting. The studied rolls, referred to as alloy indefinite chill, were processed at industrial scale and had a core consisting of spheroidal graphite cast iron with a matrix of ferrite and pearlite. An additional aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and extent of these factors on the dynamic toughness response of the roll shell material. The research methodology employed consisted of the application of a saturated design of experiments with seven factors, eight experiments, and resolution III. The measured responses for graphite were: the volume fraction, count number per unit area, and morphology, determined by quantitative metallography. Impact testing was characterized by Charpy tests on U-notched specimens at 350 °C. The manufacturing factors studied were: the final weight percent of silicon, sulfur, and manganese; the liquidus and the casting temperatures; and, finally, inoculation with SiCaMn and A-type FeSi (with Zr). The statistical experimental method conducted allowed us to confirm the significance of factors such as the %Si, the liquidus temperature and inoculation with SiCaMn on the precipitation of graphite in a white cast iron such as the Nihard irons used in the roll shell, in agreement with the precipitation of graphite in gray cast irons widely reported in the literature. It was also shown that the development of lamellar graphite shapes were favored by an increase in the total equivalent carbon and also by the increase in the amount of A-type FeSi added. Furthermore, the impact toughness was shown to improve with the increase in both the %Si and the liquidus temperature.

  19. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Helmke, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment to determine the fate of trace metals released into the environment during the iron-smelting process. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. We analyzed the trace-metal content of the cast iron using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, which provided rapid, on-site, nondestructive analyses for 23 elements. The artifacts analyzed included eight cast iron stoves, a footed pot, and a kettle in the Hopewell Furnace museum. We measured elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the cast iron. Lead concentrations as great as 3,150 parts per million were measured in the stoves. Cobalt was detectable but not quantifiable because of interference with iron. Our study found that arsenic, cobalt, and lead were not released to soil or slag, which could pose a significant health risk to visitors and employees. Instead, our study demonstrates these heavy metals remained with the cast iron and were removed from the site.

  20. Optimization of pulsed Nd:YAG laser melting of gray cast iron at different spot sizes for enhanced surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhishamuddin, A. R.; Aqida, S. N.; Rahim, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a laser surface modification process of gray cast iron using different laser spot size with an aims to eliminate graphite phase and achieve minimum surface roughness and maximum depth of molten zone and microhardness properties. The laser processing was conducted using JK300HPS Nd:YAG twin lamp laser source pulse TEM00 mode, 50 W average power, 1064 nm wavelength and different laser spot sizes of 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.7 mm. Three controlled parameter were peak power (Pp), pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and traverse speed (v). Increasing spot size the parameter setting where peak power is increased and pulse repetition frequency and traverse speed is decreased. The modified surface of laser surface melting was characterized for metallographic study, surface roughness and hardness. Metallographic study and surface morphology were conducted using optical microscope while hardness properties were measured using Vickers scale. Surface roughness was measured using a 2D stylus profilometer. From metallographic study, the graphite phase was totally eliminated from the molten zone and formed white zone. This phenomenon affected hardness properties of the modified surface where maximum hardness of 955.8 HV0.1 achieved. Optimization of laser surface modification was conducted for minimum surface roughness and maximum depth of modified layer and hardness properties. From the optimization, the higher desirability is 0.902. The highest depth of molten zone obtain from spot size 1.4 mm at 132 µm and the highest hardness is 989 HV0.1 at laser's spot size 1.0 mm. The surface roughness increased when the spot size increased from 3.10 µm to 7.31 µm. These finding indicate potential application of enhanced gray cast iron in high wear resistance automotive components such as cylinder liner and break disc.

  1. Monosemousness of Thermal Plastic Strain on Thermal Fatigue Life in Ferrite Ductile Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Morihito; Mouri, Hayato

    In this study, the monosemous effect of thermal plastic strain on the thermal fatigue life is newly found on ferrite ductile cast iron around the alpha phase field. At first, the monosemousness is defined and its meaning described. Next, the monosemousness of thermal fatigue is demonstrated by its conditional equation and its existence is verified by the thermal fatigue test on ferrite ductile cast iron. By doing so, the feature on the thermal fatigue of ferrite ductile cast iron is clarified. Generally, it is considered that fatigue life in ferrite-matrix temperature range can be expressed at least by two or more different Arrhenius equations, namely there are two or more different activation mechanisms to govern the thermal fatigue life corresponding to various ferrite temperature ranges. In this case, for determining the life in any various ferrite temperature ranges, it must have at least four or more unknown quantities. If there is the presence of a general equation which is able to replace above described plural equations, then the life can be determined by simple one variable. Here, by introducing conditional equations, it is verified that the general equation is a Coffin and Manson's equation of low cycle fatigue and whole thermal fatigue life can be determined by a variable of thermal plastic strain occurred in thermal cycle. As a result, the law can apply to describe thermal fatigue phenomenon and predict thermal fatigue life monosemously from cyclic thermal plastic strain on ductile cast iron with ferrite matrix.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  3. Field Demonstration of Emerging Pipe Wall Integrity Assessment Technologies for Large Cast Iron Water Mains - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast-iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  4. Structural features and properties of deformed white cast iron alloyed with vanadium, niobium, and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapova, L. I.; Vetrova, T. S.; Zhukov, A. A.

    1982-05-01

    Introduction of more than 0.02% titanium into white cast iron alloyed with vanadium or niobium leads to formation of complex carbides (V, Ti)C or (Nb, Ti)C of compact shape, and this provides a 15% increase in hot plasticity and 15-20% greater wear resistance.

  5. Certain laws of geometric thermodynamics of the graphitization of white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'inskii, V. A.; Zhukov, A. A.; Kostyleva, L. V.; Shchepetov, S. N.; Pakhnyushchii, I. O.

    1986-06-01

    The graphitization of white cast iron during annealing assumes a very complex character, and is accompanied by a change in mechanisms and factors responsible for growth of the graphite phase: preferential diffusion of carbon toward graphitization centers through eutectic cementite occurs in the first stage, and through austenite in the second.

  6. Changes Found on Run-In and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, J. N.; Godfrey, Douglas

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of run-in and scuffed steel, chrome-plate, and cast-iron surfaces. X-ray and electron diffraction techniques, micro-hardness determinations, and microscopy were used. Surface changes varied and were found to include three classes: chemical reaction, hardening, and crystallite-size alteration. The principal chemical reactions were oxidation and carburization.

  7. [Effect of biofilm on the corrosion and fouling of cast iron pipe for water supply].

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Guan, Yun-Tao; Li, Sha-Sha; Zhu, Wan-Peng

    2009-02-15

    The crystalline phase and the element composition in the scales on cast iron pipe for drinking water was identified with XRD and XPS respectively to investigate the effect of biofilm existence on the corrosion and fouling of cast iron pipe. The total iron concentration in the water phase was measured simultaneously. The results showed that on 0-7 d the total iron concentration was higher in the water phase of the group with biofilm growth, but on 15-30 d it was higher in the water phase of the control without biofilm growth. The major peak of XRD patterns for the scales with biofilm growth was characterized as Fe oxide, while for the scales in the control it was always characterized as CaCO3. As presented by XPS atomic ratio, the Ca atomic percentage in the scales with biofilm growth was lower than that in the scales in the control, which might be contributed to the Ca2+ absorption by extracellular polymeric substances or Ca2+ consumption by microorganism growth. In comparison with that in the scales in the control, the iron atomic percentage in the scales with biofilm growth was higher on 7 d, while lower after 7 d. It can be concluded that on 0-7 d the existence of biofilm could promote the corrosion of cast iron pipe while inhibit corrosion after 7 d. The variance of major peak of XRD pattern and XPS atomic ratio indicated that biofilm had important effect on the configuration and composition of the scales of cast iron pipe. The corrosion inhibition of biofilm thus provided a new pathway to control the corrosion of metal pipes in drinking water distribution system.

  8. Using the anti-adherence paints to manufacturing of the moulds intended for iron castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the critical technology for obtaining of the lamellar graphite grey cast iron castings (Supporting roll type). Are presented the stages of achievement of the mould and the elaboration technology of the liquid alloy. A view to improving the qualitative characteristics of the castings and reducing the defects due to achievement of moulds it is necessary to use the antiadherence paints for moulds and cores. From the point of view of the cost the antiadherence paints belong to the expensive material category. But these expenses are done with their acquisition are amortized into account of improving the commercial aspect of the castings and shortening of the cleaning-finishing operations. Due to increase the resistance of the moulds and cores which they apply it is possible to decrease the machining allowance.

  9. Structure and Hardness of Cast Iron after Surface Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, E. N.

    2005-09-01

    Special features of structure formation in the heat-affected zone of roll-foundry iron with flaked or globular graphite due to surface heat treatment by direct electric (plasma) arc are considered. The influence of the parameters of the process on the composition, structure, and properties of the hardened zone is studied. Treatment modes ensuring a structure with enhanced hardness and wear resistance in the surface layer of iron are determined.

  10. Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys with Various Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The Al-Cu 206 cast alloys with varying alloy compositions ( i.e., different levels of Fe, Mn, and Si) were investigated to evaluate the effect of the iron-rich intermetallics on the tensile properties. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with increasing iron content, but its overall loss is less than 10 pct over the range of 0.15 to 0.5 pct Fe at 0.3 pct Mn and 0.3 pct Si. At similar iron contents, the tensile properties of the alloys with dominant Chinese script iron-rich intermetallics are generally higher than those with the dominant platelet phase. In the solution and artificial overaging condition (T7), the tensile strength of the 206 cast alloys with more than 0.15 pct Fe is satisfactory, but the elongation does not sufficiently meet the minimum requirement of ductility (>7 pct) for critical automotive applications. However, it was found that both the required ductility and tensile strength can be reached at high Fe levels of 0.3 to 0.5 pct for the alloys with well-controlled alloy chemistry and microstructure in the solution and natural aging condition (T4), reinforcing the motivation for developing recyclable high-iron Al-Cu 206 cast alloys.

  11. Machinability of clean thin-wall gray and ductile iron castings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Eleftheriou, E.; Griffin, R.D.; Dwyer, Z.B.; DelSorbo, C.; Sprague, J.

    1997-02-01

    First phase was to develop a laboratory technique for evaluating the machinability of gray and ductile iron; longer term goal is to learn how to modify the foundry process to produce castings meeting all specified mechanical properties while providing improved machining behavior. Microcarbides present in the irons were found to dominate the machinability of iron. Pearlitic irons with acceptable machinability contain 8.9 to 10.5 wt% microcarbides. The weight fraction microcarbides in the iron is influenced by carbide forming element concentrations, presence of elements that retard carbon diffusion, and cooling rate from the eutectic through the eutectoid temperature range. Tool wear rate increased at higher surface machining speeds and fraction microcarbides; all irons containing above 11.5% microcarbides had poor machinability. Graphite size, shape, distribution, etc. had a lesser effect on machinability. Reducing the addition of a foundry grade Ca and Al bearing 75% FeSi inoculant from 0.5 to 0.2% increased the tool life 100%. Inoculation test castings were also poured in a class 40 gray iron; laboratory analysis is currently underway. Exploratory studies were conducted to determine if tool force could be used to predict tool life: torque and feed forces were found to correlate with machinability.

  12. Thermal Microstructural Multiscale Simulation of Solidification and Eutectoid Transformation of Hypereutectic Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Alejandro; Celentano, Diego J.; Gunasegaram, Dayalan R.; Deeva, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    Although the gray cast iron solidification process has been the subject of several modeling studies, almost all available models appear to deal with only the more widely used hypoeutectic compositions. Models related to hypereutectic gray iron compositions with lamellar (or flake) graphite, and in particular for the proeutectic and eutectoid zones, are hard to find in the open literature. Hence, in the present work, a thermal microstructural multiscale model is proposed to describe the solidification and eutectoid transformation of a slightly hypereutectic composition leading to lamellar graphite gray iron morphology. The main predictions were: (a) temperature evolutions; (b) fractions of graphite, ferrite, and pearlite; (c) density; and (d) size of ferrite, pearlite, and gray eutectic grains; (e) average interlamellar graphite spacing; and (f) its thickness. The predicted cooling curves and fractions for castings with two different compositions and two different pouring temperatures were validated using experimental data. The differences between this model and existing models for hypoeutectic compositions are discussed.

  13. Physicochemical studies of glucose, gellan gum, and hydroxypropyl cellulose--inhibition of cast iron corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2013-06-05

    Glucose, gellan gum, and hydroxypropyl cellulose were studied against the acid corrosion of cast iron by means of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and AC impedance spectroscopy techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. The effect of immersion time and temperature were also studied. The addition of potassium iodide to the corrosion-inhibition system showed both antagonism and synergism toward inhibition efficiency. Polarization studies revealed the mixed-type inhibiting nature of the carbohydrates. The adsorption of inhibitors on the cast iron surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, both in presence and absence of KI. Physical interaction between the inhibitor molecules and the iron surface was suggested by the thermochemical parameters, rather than chemical interaction.

  14. Effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and fatigue properties of cast iron for internal combustion engine exhaust manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, David J.

    In the design of exhaust manifolds for internal combustion engines the materials used must exhibit resistance to corrosion at high temperatures while maintaining a stable microstructure. Cast iron has been used for manifolds for many years by auto manufacturers due to a combination of suitable mechanical properties, low cost, and ease of casting. Over time cast iron is susceptible to microstructural changes, corrosion, and oxidation which can result in failure due to fatigue. This thesis seeks to answer the question: "Can observed microstructural changes and measured high temperature fatigue life in cast iron alloys be used to develop a predictive model for fatigue life?" the importance of this question lies in the fact that there is little data for the behavior of cast iron alloys at high temperature. For this study two different types of cast iron, 50HS and HSM will be examined. Of particular concern for the high Si+C cast irons (and Mo in the case of the HSM cast iron) are subsurface microstructural changes that result due to heat treatment including (1) decarburization, (2) ferrite formation, (3) graphitization, (4) internal oxidation of the Si, (5) high temperature fatigue resistance, and (6) creep potential. Initial results obtained include microstructure examination after being exposed to high temperatures, grain size, nodule size, and hardness measurements. The initial examinations concluded that both cast irons performed fairly similarly, although the microstructure of the HSM samples did show slightly better resistance to high temperature as compared to that of the 50HS. Follow on work involved high temperature fatigue testing of these two materials in order to better determine if the newer alloy, HSM is a better choice for exhaust manifolds. Correlations between fatigue performance and microstructure were made and discussed, with the results examined in light of current and proposed models for predicting fatigue performance based on computational methods

  15. Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for use with Modern Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    DeLa'O, James, D.; Gundlach, Richard, B.; Tartaglia, John, M.

    2003-09-18

    A reliable and comprehensive database of design properties for cast iron is key to full and efficient utilization of this versatile family of high production-volume engineering materials. A database of strain-life fatigue properties and supporting data for a wide range of structural cast irons representing industry standard quality was developed in this program. The database primarily covers ASTM/SAE standard structural grades of ADI, CGI, ductile iron and gray iron as well as an austempered gray iron. Twenty-two carefully chosen materials provided by commercial foundries were tested and fifteen additional datasets were contributed by private industry. The test materials are principally distinguished on the basis of grade designation; most grades were tested in a 25 mm section size and in a single material condition common for the particular grade. Selected grades were tested in multiple sections-sizes and/or material conditions to delineate the properties associated with a range of materials for the given grade. The cyclic properties are presented in terms of the conventional strain-life formalism (e.g., SAE J1099). Additionally, cyclic properties for gray iron and CGI are presented in terms of the Downing Model, which was specifically developed to treat the unique stress-strain response associated with gray iron (and to a lesser extent with CGI). The test materials were fully characterized in terms of alloy composition, microstructure and monotonic properties. The CDROM database presents the data in various levels of detail including property summaries for each material, detailed data analyses for each specimen and raw monotonic and cyclic stress-strain data. The CDROM database has been published by the American Foundry Society (AFS) as an AFS Research Publication entitled ''Development of a Cast Iron Fatigue Properties Database for Use in Modern Design Methods'' (ISDN 0-87433-267-2).

  16. Solidification and solid-state transformation mechanisms in Si alloyed high-chromium white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, George; Powell, Graham L. F.

    1993-04-01

    Chromium white cast irons are widely used in environments where severe abrasion resistance is a dominant requirement. To improve the wear resistance of these commercially important irons, the United States Bureau of Mines and CSIRO Australia are studying their solidification and solid-state transformation kinetics. A ternary Fe-Cr-C iron with 17.8 wt pct (pct) Cr and 3.0 pct C was compared with commercially available irons of similar Cr and C contents with Si contents between 1.6 and 2.2 pct. The irons were solidified and cooled at rates of 0.03 and 0.17 K · s-1 to 873 K. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed that Si depresses the eutectic reaction temperature and suggests that is has no effect upon the volume of eutectic carbides formed during solidification. Microprobe analysis revealed that austenite dendrites within the Si alloyed irons cooled at 0.03 and 0.17 K·s-1 had C and Cr contents that were lower than those of dendrites within the ternary alloy cooled at the same cooling rate and a Si alloyed iron that was water quenched from the eutectic temperature. These lower values were shown by image analysis to be the result of both solid-state growth (coarsening) of the eutectic carbides and some secondary carbide formation. Hardness measurements in the as-cast condition and after soaking in liquid nitrogen suggest an increase in the martensite start temperature as the Si content was increased. It is concluded that Si’s effect on increasing the size and volume fraction of eutectic carbides and increasing the matrix hardness should lead to improved wear resistance over regular high-chromium white cast irons.

  17. High-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue Property of Heat-Resistant Ductile-Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Jang, Ho; Oh, Yong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the high-temperature degradation behavior of two types of heat-resistant Si-Mo ductile cast iron (Fe-3.4C-3.7Si-0.4Mo and Fe-3.1C-4.5Si-1.0Mo) with particular attention paid to the mechanical properties and overall oxidation resistance. Tension and low-cycle fatigue properties were examined at 600 °C and 800 °C. The mechanical tests and metallographic and fractographic analyses showed that cast iron containing higher Si and Mo contents had a higher tensile strength and longer fatigue life at both temperatures than cast iron with lower levels due to the phase transformations of pearlite and carbide. The Coffin-Manson type equation was used to assess the fatigue mechanism suggesting that the higher Si-Mo alloy was stronger but less ductile than the lower Si-Mo alloy at 600 °C. However, similar properties for both alloys were observed at 800 °C because of softening and oxidation effects. Analysis of the isothermal oxidation behavior at those temperatures showed that mixed Fe2SiO4 layers were formed and the resulting scaling kinetics was much faster for low Si-Mo containing iron. With increasing temperature, subsurface degradation such as decarburization, voids, and cracks played a significant role in the overall oxidation resistance.

  18. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Martin f. Helmke,

    2014-01-01

    Sampling cast iron produced by the furnace posed two problems. First, verification that the iron was actually cast at Hopewell Furnace was necessary, as some iron objects found at Hopewell may not have originated there. This was accomplished by using artifacts on display at the Hopewell visitor center (fig. 2). All artifacts on display have been positively attributed to the furnace, and stoves produced by the furnace are easily recognized by the name “Hopewell” cast into them. The second problem was the analysis of the trace metal content of the cast iron, because it was not possible to break off part of a historically important artifact and send it to a laboratory for analysis. This problem was solved when the USGS collaborated with West Chester University, which owns a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer.

  19. Structure and properties of a steel/white-cast-iron bimetal produced by method of carbonizing the steel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.

    1985-11-01

    Centrifugal bimetallization by the method of carbonizing the steel melt makes it possible to obtain a steel/white-cast-iron composition with a cladding layer close to the eutectic in terms of composition.

  20. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Impact Toughness of `High-Chromium Cast Iron - Low Alloy Steel' Bimetal Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A bimetallic `low-alloy steel - high-chromium cast iron' composite obtained by successive sand casting is studied and shown to have good cohesion on the interface and no casting defects. The hardness and the impact toughness of the bimetal increase simultaneously. The microstructure is more homogeneous after diffusion annealing at 1040°C, rapid cooling, and 3-h tempering at 270°C.

  1. Microstructure Formation and Fracturing Characteristics of Grey Cast Iron Repaired Using Laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased. PMID:25032230

  2. Influence of Multiple Bionic Unit Coupling on Sliding Wear of Laser-Processed Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Sui, Qi; Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Hong; Ren, Luquan

    2017-03-01

    In this study, in effort to improve the sliding wear resistance of gray cast iron under wet lubrication conditions, specimens with different bionic units were manufactured and modified according to bionic theory. Inspired by the structure and appearance of biological wear-resistant skin, two kinds of bionic units were processed by laser on the specimen surfaces. We investigated the wear resistance properties of the samples via indentation method and then observed the wear surface morphology of specimens and the stress distributions. The results indicated that coupling the bionic units enhanced the wear resistance of the cast iron considerably compared to the other samples. We also determined the mechanism of wear resistance improvement according to the results.

  3. Study of biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiya; Tian, Yimei; Wan, Jianmei; Zhao, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water was systemically studied using the weight loss method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that compared to sterile water, the existence of the biofilm in reclaimed water promoted the corrosion process significantly. The characteristics of biofilm on cast iron coupons were examined by the surface profiler, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The bacterial counts in the biofilm were determined using the standard plate count method and the most probable number (MPN). The results demonstrated that the corrosion process was influenced by the settled bacteria, EPS, and corrosion products in the biofilm comprehensively. But, the corrosion mechanisms were different with respect to time and could be divided into three stages in our study. Furthermore, several corresponding corrosion mechanisms were proposed for different immersion times.

  4. Enhanced densification of white cast iron powders by cyclic phase transformations under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Oscar A.; Wadsworth, Jeffrey; Sherby, Oleg D.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that densification of white cast iron powders under stress can be enhanced by multiple phase transformations through thermal cycling. This enhancement occurs by accelerated creep flow during phase changes (transformation superplasticity). The approximate stress range where transformation-assisted densification can occur is shown to be between 1.7 MPa (250 psi) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). Below 1.7 MPa insufficient strain occurs during phase transformation to cause significant densification even after many transformation cycles. Above 34.5 MPa, densification occurs principally by normal slip creep. Transformation warm pressing of white cast iron powders leads to dense compacts at low pressures and short times. In addition, because the transformation temperature is low, the ultrafine structures existing in the original powders are retained in the densified compacts.

  5. Effect of extracellular polymeric substances on corrosion of cast iron in the reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jin, Juntao; Wu, Guangxue; Zhang, Zhenhua; Guan, Yuntao

    2014-08-01

    Microorganisms were cultured in the R2A medium with inoculum from biofilm in a reclaimed wastewater distribution system and then extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted from the culture. Characterization of EPS and their effects on the corrosion of cast iron were examined. EPS extracted from different culturing stages contained different proportions of protein and polysaccharide but with similar functional groups. All types of EPS could inhibit cast iron corrosion and the EPS from the stationary stage had the highest inhibition efficiency. The inhibition efficiency was increased with addition of a small amount of EPS while decreased with excessive amount of EPS. EPS formed a protective film on the metal surface, which retarded the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Excessive amount of EPS promoted anodic dissolution through EPS-Fe binding. The CO and C(O, N) in EPS could be the anodic electrochemical sites with possible products of C(C, H).

  6. Correlation of microstructure with the wear resistance and fracture toughness of white cast iron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovic, M.; Kamberovic, Z.; Korac, M.; Gavrilovski, M.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to set down (on the basis of the results obtained by the examination of white cast iron alloys with different contents of alloying elements) a correlation between chemical composition and microstructure, on one hand, and the properties relevant for this group of materials, i.e., wear resistance and fracture toughness, on the other. Experimental results indicate that the volume fraction of the eutectic carbide phase (M3C or M7C3) have an important influence on the wear resistance of white iron alloys under low-stress abrasion conditions. Besides, the martensitic or martensite-austenitic matrix microstructure more adequately reinforced the eutectic carbides, minimizing cracking and removal during wear, than did the austenitic matrix. The secondary carbides which precipitate in the matrix regions of high chromium iron also influence the abrasion behaviour. The results of fracture toughness tests show that the dynamic fracture toughness in white irons is determined mainly by the properties of the matrix. The high chromium iron containing 1.19 wt% V in the as-cast condition, showed the greater fracture toughness when compared to other experimental alloys. The higher toughness was attributed to strengthening during fracture, since very fine secondary carbide particles were present mainly in an austenitic matrix.

  7. Special Features of the Microstructure of Cast Iron with Spheroidal Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaus, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Metallographic and microscopic x-ray spectrum analyses are used to study the special features of the microstructure of perlite-ferrite cast iron with spheroidal graphite. The internal polycrystalline structure of the spheroidal graphite is discussed, and the presence of ferrite precipitates over the boundaries of pyramidal crystals forming spherulites is proved. Data qualifying the nature of nucleus in a spheroidal graphite inclusion are presented.

  8. The effect of rolling on graphitization characteristics of strip cast Fe-C-Si white cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.M.; Kuo, B.C.; Lui, T.S.; Chen, L.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the first-stage graphitization of white cast iron strip after rolling. Experimental results confirmed that prerolling promotes and accelerates graphitization. The critical complete graphitization time was significantly shortened even after a small rolling reduction, and the number of temper graphite particles increased with increasing rolling reduction. Some of the evidence confirmed that these effects can be attributed to microstructural defects introduced by prerolling. These defects contribute to a shorter incubation period, a decreased complete graphitization time, and an increased number of temper graphite nucleation sites. In addition, this study adds further evidence to the assumption that graphite nucleation occurs at the interface between eutectic cementite and matrix, particularly in deformation cracking on eutectic cementite.

  9. Three dimensional finite element analysis and optimal design of cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liangbao; Fang, Yuefei

    2005-12-01

    The three-dimensional finite element model of the body of cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate is established to calculate its deformation and stress. By calculation, we obtain the law of deformation and stress under static water pressure. Then we optimize the structure of the body of cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate vie above calculation results. To validate the effect of proposed method, an engineering example of 1000mm×1500mm gate in a certain sewage process plant is introduced. The comparisons are made between the calculation results of the proposed method and those obtained by conventional design. The comparison results show that three dimensional finite element methods can obtain the actual stress and deformation of the gate body under static water pressure. In addition, we further optimize the structure and dimension of the cast-iron bronze-inlaid gate. The final optimization results show that the proposed method can reduce the weight of the gate by 20% compared those results by conventional design.

  10. Effect of Titanium on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Gray Cast Iron for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfi, M.; Gorini, D.; Pola, A.; La Vecchia, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    Lamellar gray cast iron, with a mainly pearlitic microstructure, is widely used in the automotive industry, mostly in the manufacturing of brake disks. This work analyzes in depth the effects of small variations of titanium content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast iron brake disks. For this purpose, eight different heats of EN-GJL-250 cast iron were selected, with a similar chemical composition but with different titanium contents, varying from 0.013 to 0.031%. The drops in mechanical strength and hardness values measured on the high-Ti samples were correlated to microstructural variations quantitatively observed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was found that titanium combines to form titanium nitrides, suppressing the beneficial microstructural effects of nitrogen at solidification. Residual nitrogen, if present in sufficient quantity, promotes the nucleation of primary austenite from the liquid and the formation of a fine microstructure, with small eutectic cells and lower graphite content. Such a microstructure provides brake disks with better mechanical properties. The interpretation of results was further supported by thermal analysis and thermodynamic calculations.

  11. Auto-analysis system for graphite morphology of grey cast iron

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Tan, Yiyong; Lei, Junfeng; Zeng, Libo; Zhang, Zelan

    2003-01-01

    The current method to classify graphite morphology types of grey cast iron is based on traditional subjective observation, and it cannot be used for quantitative analysis. Since microstructures have a great effect on the mechanical properties of grey cast iron and different types have totally different characters, six types of grey cast iron are discussed and an image-processing software subsystem that performs the classification and quantitative analysis automatically based on a kind of composed feature vector and artificial neural network (ANN) is described. There are three kinds of texture features: fractal dimension, roughness and two-dimension autoregression, which are used as an extracted feature input vector of ANN classifier. Compared with using only one, the checkout correct precision increased greatly. On the other hand, to achieve the quantitative analysis and show the different types clearly, the region segmentation idea was applied to the system. The percentages of the regions with different type are reported correctly. Furthermore, this paper tentatively introduces a new empirical method to decide the number of ANN hidden nodes, which are usually considered as a difficulty in ANN structure decision. It was found that the optimum hidden node number of the experimental data was the same as that obtained using the new method. PMID:18924718

  12. Effects of grain refinement on the microstructure, mechanical properties and reliability of AlSi7Cu3Mg gravity die cast cylinder heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timelli, Giulio; Camicia, Giordano; Ferraro, Stefano; Molina, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The effects of grain refinement on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a secondary AlSi7-Cu3Mg gravity die cast cylinder head are reported. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the macro- and microstructural changes occurring with the addition of grain-refining agent. The results indicate that the AlTi5B1 addition produces a fine and uniform grain structure throughout the casting; this effect is more pronounced in the slowly solidified regions. The initial contents of Ti and B, which are present as impurity elements in the supplied secondary alloy ingots, are not sufficient to produce effective grain refinement. Under the present casting conditions, the combined addition of AlTi5B1 and Sr does not produce any reciprocal interaction or effect on primary α-Al and eutectic solidification. Grain refinement improves the mechanical properties of the as-cast AlSi7Cu3Mg alloy and produces higher Weibull moduli, thus increasing the reliability of the casting. For automotive structural components, this could be considered an increase in safety.

  13. Threading on ADI Cast Iron, Developing Tools and Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elósegui, I.; de Lacalle, L. N. López

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focussed on the improvement of the design and performance of the taps used for making threaded holes in ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron). It is divided in two steps: a) The development of a method valid to compare the taps wear without reaching the end of their life, measuring the required torque to make one threaded hole, after having made previously a significant number of threaded holes. The tap wear causes some teeth geometrical changes, that supposes an increase in the required torque and axial force. b) The taps wear comparison method is open to apply on different PVD coated taps, AlTiN, AlCrSiN, AlTiSiN, , and to different geometries.

  14. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  15. The Role of Silicon in the Solidification of High-Cr Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Rainforth, M. W.; Mejía, I.

    2013-02-01

    This work analyzes the effect of different additions of silicon (0 to 5.0 pct) on the structure of a high-Chromium white cast iron, with chromium content of 16.8 pct and carbon 2.56 pct. The alloys were analyzed in both as-cast and heat-treated conditions. Casting was undertaken in metallic molds that yielded solidification rates faster than in commercial processes. Nevertheless, there was some degree of segregation of silicon; this segregation resulted in a refinement in the microstructure of the alloy. Silicon also generated a greater influence on the structure by destabilizing the austenitic matrix, and promoted greater precipitation of eutectic carbides. Above 3 pct silicon, pearlite formation occurred in preference to martensite. After the destabilization heat treatment, the matrix structure of the irons up to 3 pct Si consisted of secondary carbides in a martensitic matrix with some retained austenite; higher Si additions produced a ferritic matrix. The different as-cast and heat-treated microstructures were correlated with selected mechanical properties such as hardness, matrix microhardness, and fracture toughness. Silicon additions increased matrix microhardness in the as-cast conditions, but the opposite phenomenon occurred in the heat-treated conditions. Microhardness decreased as silicon content was increased. Bulk hardness showed the same behavior. Fracture toughness was observed to increase up to 2 pct Si, and then decreased for higher silicon contents. These results are discussed in terms of the effect of eutectic carbides' size and the resulting matrix due to the silicon additions.

  16. Property enhancement of cast iron used for nuclear casks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, R. K.; Mahto, B. P.; Dubey, J. S.; Mishra, S. C.; Sen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile iron (DI) is a preferred material for use in various structural, automotive, and engineering fields because of its excellent combination of strength, toughness, and ductility. In the current investigation, we elucidate the relationship between the morphological and mechanical properties of DI intended for use in safety applications in the nuclear industry. DI specimens with various alloying elements were subjected to annealing and austempering heat treatment processes. A faster cooling rate appeared to increase the nodule count in austempered specimens, compensating for their nodularity value and subsequently decreasing their ductility and impact strength. The ductility and impact energy values of annealed specimens increased with increasing ferrite area fraction and nodularity, whereas an increase in the amounts of Ni and Cr resulted in an increase of hardness via solid solution strengthening. Austempered specimens were observed to be stronger than annealed specimens and failed in a somewhat brittle manner characterized by a river pattern, whereas the ductile failure mode was characterized by the presence of dimples.

  17. Production and Machining of Thin Wall Gray and Ductile Cast Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, E.H.; Li, H.; Griffin, R.; Bates, C.E.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2000-11-03

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in cooperation with the American Foundry Society, companies across North America, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a project to develop an understanding of the factors that control the machinability of cast gray and ductile iron. Differences of as much as 500% have been found in machinability have been observed at the same strength. The most machinable irons were those with a high cell counts and few carbonitride inclusions. Additions of tin and copper can be added to both gray and ductile iron to stabilize the pearlite, but excessive additions (above those required to produce the desired pearlite content) degrade the machinability.

  18. 104. Photocopied August 1978. CYLINDER USED IN THE ERECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Photocopied August 1978. CYLINDER USED IN THE ERECTION OF THE INCLINED BUTTRESSES FOR POWER HOUSE REINFORCEMENT IN 1916. AN AIR LOCK WAS PLACED ON TOP OF THE CYLINDER: THE LOWER PORTION OF THE VERTICAL ELEMENT RESTED ON THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION APRON: THE INCLINED ELEMENT WAS CUT LEVEL WITH THE RIVER BED. THE INCLINED PORTION OF THE CYLINDER CONTAINED THE SHIELD USED TO BEGIN THE ERECTION OF THE SEGMENTED INCLINED CAST IRON BUTTRESSES. (764) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  19. Effect of Chromium on Microstructure and Properties of High Boron White Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongli; Chen, Xiang; Li, Yanxiang; Hu, Kaihua

    2008-03-01

    In this article, the effect of chromium on microstructure and properties of high boron white cast iron was studied. The results indicate that the microstructure of high boron white cast iron with different chromium content comprises a dendritic matrix and interdendritic eutectics, and the eutectic compound has a M2B-type chemical formula that does not change with the difference of chromium content. The increase of chromium not only increases the microhardness of boride, but also improves the morphology of boride, which is changed from continuous network to less continuous distribution. Moreover, with the chromium increase, martensite appears in the matrix under the as-cast condition, the appearance of which depends on the increase of chromium in the matrix and the uneven distribution of carbon in the matrix caused by chromium addition. After quenching in air, the matrixes of alloys all change to martensite. However, some secondary particles are found in the central area of the dendrite grains of alloys with higher chromium, and their existence is due to the difference of boron solubility in the matrix with different chromium content. In addition, the hardenability, hardness, and impact toughness are all improved with the increase in chromium.

  20. Bond Strength of Multicomponent White Cast Iron Coatings Applied by HVOF Thermal Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranho, Ossimar; Rodrigues, Daniel; Boccalini, Mario; Sinatora, Amilton

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent white cast iron is a new alloy that belongs to system Fe-C-Cr-W-Mo-V, and because of its excellent wear resistance it is used in the manufacture of hot rolling mills rolls. To date, this alloy has been processed by casting, powder metallurgy, and spray forming. The high-velocity oxyfuel process is now also considered for the manufacture of components with this alloy. The effects of substrate, preheating temperature, and coating thickness on bond strength of coatings have been determined. Substrates of AISI 1020 steel and of cast iron with preheating of 150 °C and at room temperature were used to apply coatings with 200 and 400 μm nominal thickness. The bond strength of coatings was measured with the pull-off test method and the failure mode by scanning electron microscopic analysis. Coatings with thickness of 200 μm and applied on substrates of AISI 1020 steel with preheating presented bond strength of 87 ± 4 MPa.

  1. Short-duration gas nitriding of parts made of high-strength cast iron in the gaz joint-stock company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, V. N.; Pytyaeva, E. I.; Pershina, V. V.

    1998-10-01

    Castings of high-strength iron are use very widely. The range of automobile parts cast from iron with globular graphite is widening. It includes crankshafts and camshafts, flywheels, crankcases, various engine parts, etc. In order to increase hardness of the surface layer, the wear resistance, and the service life of parts made of high-strength cast iron, they are often subjected to nitriding. The present work is aimed at studying the nitriding process for parts made of VCh70 and VCh85 high-strength cast iron.

  2. Study of microstructure and silicon segregation in cast iron using color etching and electron microprobe analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vazehrad, S.; Diószegi, A.

    2015-06-15

    An investigation on silicon segregation of lamellar, compacted and nodular graphite iron was carried out by applying a selective, immersion color etching and a modified electron microprobe to study the microstructure. The color etched micrographs of the investigated cast irons by revealing the austenite phase have provided data about the chronology and mechanism of microstructure formation. Moreover, electron microprobe has provided two dimensional segregation maps of silicon. A good agreement was found between the segregation profile of silicon in the color etched microstructure and the silicon maps achieved by electron microprobe analysis. However, quantitative silicon investigation was found to be more accurate than color etching results to study the size of the eutectic colonies. - Highlights: • Sensitivity of a color etchant to silicon segregation is quantitatively demonstrated. • Si segregation measurement by EMPA approved the results achieved by color etching. • Color etched micrographs provided data about solidification mechanism in cast irons. • Austenite grain boundaries were identified by measuring the local Si concentration.

  3. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Observations During Subcritical Heat Treatments of a High-Chromium Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantzalis, A. E.; Lekatou, A.; Kapoglou, A.; Mavros, H.; Dracopoulos, V.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, Cr white iron of 18.23 wt.% was subjected to a series of subcritical heat treatments. At both temperatures of 350 and 450 °C, no precipitation of secondary carbides was observed, and the overall microstructure resembles to that of the as-cast condition. At 550 °C, hardness values increased slightly compared to the as-cast values. No evidence of secondary carbide formation was observed. At 650 and 750 °C, extensive-to-complete transformation to pearlite-ferrite structures has occurred. Some evidence of secondary carbide precipitation especially for prolonged treatment periods was not adequate to obstruct the hardness decrease due to the dominating effect of pearlitic-ferritic formation. At 850 °C, secondary carbide precipitation and martensite formation lead to high hardness values.

  4. [Mineral migration from stainless steel, cast iron and soapstone (steatite) Brazilian pans to food preparations].

    PubMed

    Quintaes, Késia Diego; Farfan, Jaime Amaya; Tomazini, Fernanda Mariana; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio

    2006-09-01

    Culinary utensils may release some inorganic elements during food preparation. Mineral migration can be beneficial for as long as it occurs in amounts adequate to the needs of the consumer or no toxicological implications are involved. In this study, the migrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Ni and Ca, along seven cooking cycles were evaluated for two food preparations (polished rice and commercial tomato sauce, the latter as an acid food), performed in unused stainless steel, cast iron and soapstone pans, taking refractory glass as a blank. Minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The utensils studied exhibited different rates, patterns and variability of migration depending on the type of food. Regression analysis of the data revealed that, as a function of the number of cycles, the iron pans released increasing amounts of iron when tomato sauce was cooked (y = 70.76x + 276.75; R2 = 0.77). The soapstone pans released calcium (35 and 26 mg/kg), magnesium (25 and 15 mg/kg) into the tomato sauce and rice preparations, respectively. Additionally, the commercial tomato sauce drew manganese (3.9 and 0.6 mg/kg) and some undesirable nickel (1.0 mg/kg) from the soapstone material, whereas the stainless steel pans released nickel at a lower rate than steatite and in a diminishing fashion with the number o cooking cycles, while still transferring some iron and chromium to the food. We conclude that while cast iron and glass could be best for the consumer's nutritional health, stainless steel and steatite can be used with relatively low risk, provided acid foods are not routinely prepared in those materials.

  5. Prevention of Porosity Formation and Other Effects of Gaseous Elements in Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Albany Research Center

    2005-04-01

    Iron foundries have observed porosity primarily as interdendritic porosity in large freezing range alloys such as Ni-Hard I and hypoeutectic high Cr alloys or pinholes and fissure defects in gray and ductile irons. For most iron foundries, porosity problems occur sporadically, but even occasional outbreaks can be costly since even a very small amount of porosity can significantly reduce the mechanical properties of the castings. As a result when porosity is detected, the castings are scrapped and remelted, or when the porosity is undetected, defective parts are shipped to the consumer. Neither case is desirable. This project was designed to examine various factors contributing to the porosity formation in iron castings. Factors such as solubility of gases in liquid and solid iron alloys, surface tension of liquid iron alloys, and permeability of dendritic structures were investigated in terms of their effect on the porosity formation. A method was developed to predict how much nitrogen the molten alloy picks up from air after a given amount of holding time for a given melting practice. It was shown that small batches of iron melts in an induction furnace can end up with very high concentration of nitrogen (near solubility limit). Surface tension of liquid iron alloys was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of minor additions of S, Ti, and Al on the surface tension of liquid iron alloys was investigated. Up to 18% change in surface tension was detected by minor element additions. This translates to the same amount of change in gas pressure required in a bubble of a given size to keep the bubble stable. A new method was developed to measure the permeability of dendritic structures in situ. The innovative aspect of these experiments, with respect to previous interdendritic permeability measurements, was the fact that the dendritic structure was allowed to form in situ and was not cooled and re-heated for permeability tests. A permeability model was developed

  6. High Wear Resistance of White Cast Iron Treated by Novel Process: Principle and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoshuai; Zuo, Xunwei; Liu, Yu; Chen, Nailu; Rong, Yonghua

    2015-12-01

    Based on microstructure desired, a novel process is proposed to treat Fe-2.4C-12.0Cr (mass pct) white cast iron balls, that is, destabilizing heat treatment following multicycle quenching and sub-critical treatment (De-MQ-Sct) process, and such a complex process is simply performed by alternate water quenching and air cooling. For comparison, the white cast iron balls also were treated by conventional normalization (NOR) process and Oil-quenching process, respectively. The partitioning of carbon from martensite to retained austenite during De-MQ-Sct process promotes the interaction between carbide precipitation and martensitic transformation, while this interaction is a unique effect only produced by multicycle quenching linking destabilizing and sub-critical treatments, which leads to more and finer secondary carbides and more carbon-enriched austenite in De-MQ-Sct sample than those in NOR or Oil-quenching sample. The average hardness of 60 HRC and impact toughness of 12.6 J/cm2 are obtained in De-MQ-Sct white cast iron balls, which are much higher than those in NOR and Oil-quenching ones. The wear behaviours measured by pin-on-disk wear tests indicate that the weight loss of De-MQ-Sct sample is only about one third of the NOR sample and one half of the Oil-quenching sample. Microstructural characterization reveals that high wear resistance related to hardness and toughness of the De-MQ-Sct balls are mainly attributed to the considerable fine secondary carbides and stable carbon-enriched retained austenite.

  7. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  8. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  9. Method for Making a Carbon-Carbon Cylinder Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Phillip O. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for making a lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials. such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  10. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, M. R.; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure. From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm2 and 159 nodules per mm2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat. This is verified from nodule counts performed on the real cast main shafts. Residual stress evaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting, which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of the chill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen.

  11. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Development of an automated ultrasonic inspection cell for detecting subsurface discontinuities in cast gray iron. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Burningham, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    This inspection cell consisted of an ultrasonic flaw detector, transducer, robot, immersion tank, computer, and software. Normal beam pulse-echo ultrasonic nondestructive testing, using the developed automated cell, was performed on 17 bosses on each rough casting. Ultrasonic transducer selection, initial inspection criteria, and ultrasonic flow detector (UFD) setup parameters were developed for the gray iron castings used in this study. The software were developed for control of the robot and UFD in real time. The software performed two main tasks: emulating the manual operation of the UFD, and evaluating the ultrasonic signatures for detecting subsurface discontinuities. A random lot of 105 castings were tested; the 100 castings that passed were returned to the manufacturer for machining into finished parts and then inspection. The other 5 castings had one boss each with ultrasonic signatures consistent with subsurface discontinuities. The cell was successful in quantifying the ultrasonic echo signatures for the existence of signature characteristics consistent with Go/NoGo criteria developed from simulated defects. Manual inspection showed that no defects in the areas inspected by the automated cell avoided detection in the 100 castings machined into finished parts. Of the 5 bosses found to have subsurface discontinuities, two were verified by manual inspection. The cell correctly classified 1782 of the 1785 bosses (99.832%) inspected.

  12. The Effect of Iron Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçay, Tansel; Bayoğlu, Samet

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 alloy including various amounts (0.2 to 1.2 wt pct) of iron were investigated. The alloys were produced by conventional gravity sand casting method. In order to determine the effect of iron addition to A356, optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM/EDS) were used for microstructural examinations, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out for phase characterization. Tensile tests were also conducted in order to determine effect of the Fe content on mechanical properties. It was found that as the Fe content of A356 was increased, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) was decreased and the morphology of Al-Si eutectic became finer. From XRD examinations, different iron-based intermetallic compounds (β-Al5FeSi and α-Al8Fe2Si) formations were observed. It was also observed that as iron content increased, α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallic was transformed into β-Al5FeSi intermetallic. The tensile test results revealed that tensile strength and elongation values were reduced by increasing Fe content. It was also determined that β-Al5FeSi intermetallics were more negatively effective on tensile strength than α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallics.

  13. The Effect of Iron Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçay, Tansel; Bayoğlu, Samet

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 alloy including various amounts (0.2 to 1.2 wt pct) of iron were investigated. The alloys were produced by conventional gravity sand casting method. In order to determine the effect of iron addition to A356, optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM/EDS) were used for microstructural examinations, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out for phase characterization. Tensile tests were also conducted in order to determine effect of the Fe content on mechanical properties. It was found that as the Fe content of A356 was increased, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) was decreased and the morphology of Al-Si eutectic became finer. From XRD examinations, different iron-based intermetallic compounds ( β-Al5FeSi and α-Al8Fe2Si) formations were observed. It was also observed that as iron content increased, α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallic was transformed into β-Al5FeSi intermetallic. The tensile test results revealed that tensile strength and elongation values were reduced by increasing Fe content. It was also determined that β-Al5FeSi intermetallics were more negatively effective on tensile strength than α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallics.

  14. Internal features of graphite in cast irons. Confocal microscopy: useful tool for graphite growth imaging.

    PubMed

    Llorca-Isern, N; Tartera, J; Espanol, M; Marsal, M; Bertran, G; Castel, S

    2002-01-01

    Spherulitic crystallisation is a mode of growth of crystals from the melt. Considerable attention has been given to spheroidal graphite formation, providing detailed information about the internal microstructure of the spherulites in spheroidal (SG irons) and compacted graphite irons (CG irons) (Stefanescu, D., 1990. Cast Irons. ASM Handbook, 10th ed., vol. 1). Nevertheless, the mechanisms responsible for this mode of crystallisation are not fully understood. This study deals with the inoculation mechanisms, with particular emphasis on the study of the inclusions for the heterogeneous nucleation of graphite. It is shown that the graphite nuclei are sulfide products of the nodularizing treatment. It has been observed that when rare-earth treatment is applied, the central nucleus consists of a core and an envelope from which the graphite grows. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM), in reflection mode, was used to study the internal features of the spheroidal graphite growth. Confocal reflection imaging, which has a capacity for optical sectioning of the sample, provides high-resolution images of surface and subsurface regions of interest contained within a semi-transparent sample. Furthermore, three-dimensional reconstruction of these optical sections can provide insight into the mechanism of graphite growth mechanism interpretation. With CSLM the radial growth of graphite was seen. Other techniques, such as TEM, SEM-EDS, WDS, AES and SAM were also used to corroborate the results.

  15. The Use of Nitriding to Enhance Wear Resistance of Cast Irons and 4140 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaidao

    This research is focused on using nitriding to enhance the wear resistance of austempered ductile iron (ADI), ductile iron (DI), and gray iron (GI), and 4140 steel. Three gas nitriding processes, namely "Gas nitriding + nitrogen cooled down to 800°F (Blue)", "Gas nitriding + cooled down to 300°F (Gray)", and "Gas nitriding + oil quenched (Oil)" were used for the cast irons. Three salt bath nitriding processes, namely Isonite, QP (Quench, Polish) and QPQ (Quench, Polish, Quench) were used for the 4140 steel. This study was carried out through optical metallography, roughness measurements, microhardness, and SEM. The ball-on-disc wear tests were conducted under lubricated conditions. It was found that COF for all materials in all nitrided conditions was small (<0.045). The best wear performance was seen for ADI processed using the Gray and Oil gas nitriding processes. For the 4140 steel, The surface microhardness of the ISONITE specimen was around 1400HV. QP and QPQ processes produce a surface microhardness of 2000-2200HV, which suggests that they may show improved wear behaviour compared to ISONITE- treated steels.

  16. Production of iron aluminides by strip casting followed by cold rolling at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blackford, J.R.; Buckley, R.A.; Jones, H.; Sellars, C.M.

    1996-05-15

    The high resistance of iron aluminides to sulfidizing and oxidizing environments at high temperatures offers potential for structural application as lower cost alternatives to 300 and 400 series stainless steels and some nickel-base alloys. They are, however, subject to ductility limitations at room temperature which compel careful processing in order to achieve optimum properties in the final product. The standard melt-processing route of casting to ingot followed by hot and warm working to bar, plate or sheet is critically dependent on, for example, control of grain size in the initial cast structure, and the low ductility of the ingot structure at room temperature rules out cold working as a possibility at that stage. The purpose of this contribution is to report results of initial trials involving strip casting from the melt followed directly by cold-rolling and heat treatment. A previous communication reported results of an alternative novel route, that of co-rolling of elemental foils followed by heat treatment.

  17. Flexural Strength and Toughness of Austenitic Stainless Steel Reinforced High-Cr White Cast Iron Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallam, H. E. M.; Abd El-Aziz, Kh.; Abd El-Raouf, H.; Elbanna, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Flexural behavior of high-Cr white cast iron (WCI) reinforced with different shapes, i.e., I- and T-sections, and volume fractions of austenitic stainless steel (310 SS) were examined under three-point bending test. The dimensions of casted beams used for bending test were (50 × 100 × 500 mm3). Carbon and alloying elements diffusion enhanced the metallurgical bond across the interface of casted beams. Carbon diffusion from high-Cr WCI into 310 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-carbides in 310 SS near the interface and Ni diffusion from 310 SS into high-Cr WCI led to the formation of austenite within a network of M7C3 eutectic carbides in high-Cr WCI near the interface. Inserting 310 SS plates into high-Cr WCI beams resulted in a significant improvement in their toughness. All specimens of this metal matrix composite failed in a ductile mode with higher plastic deformation prior to failure. The high-Cr WCI specimen reinforced with I-section of 310 SS revealed higher toughness compared to that with T-section at the same volume fraction. The presence of the upper flange increased the reinforcement efficiency for delaying the crack growth.

  18. Characterization of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Chromium Cast Irons Using SEM and Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Iyengar, Srinivasan; Zhou, Jinming; Turba, Krystof; Ståhl, Jan-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The effects of composition changes and heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-chromium white cast irons were studied in order to characterize possible improvements in product performance and machinability. Materials characterization was performed using nanoindentation, SEM, and EDS techniques. Present results show that changes in carbon and silicon contents as well as heat treatment strongly affect the mechanical properties and their variation in the material. In the as-cast condition, the sample with relatively lower carbon and silicon contents has an austenite-martensite matrix and is much harder than the sample with relatively higher carbon and silicon contents having more eutectic carbides in a bainite matrix. Annealing leads to softening of the materials relative to the as-cast condition, with the relatively higher carbon-silicon material being marginally harder due to the presence of more eutectic carbides. A similar trend is seen after the hardening treatment, and the presence of primary carbide can restrict the extent of hardening due to the loss of alloying elements from the matrix.

  19. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  20. Nucleation and Growth of Graphite in Eutectic Spheroidal Cast Iron: Modeling and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carazo, Fernando D.; Dardati, Patricia M.; Celentano, Diego J.; Godoy, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    A new model of graphite growth during the continuous cooling of eutectic spheroidal cast iron is presented in this paper. The model considers the nucleation and growth of graphite from pouring to room temperature. The microstructural model of solidification accounts for the eutectic as divorced and graphite growth rate as a function of carbon gradient at the liquid in contact with the graphite. In the solid state, the microstructural model takes into account three stages for graphite growth, namely (1) from the end of solidification to the upper bound of intercritical stable eutectoid, (2) during the intercritical stable eutectoid, and (3) from the lower bound of intercritical stable eutectoid to room temperature. The micro- and macrostructural models are coupled using a sequential multiscale approach. Numerical results for graphite fraction and size distribution are compared with experimental results obtained from a cylindrical cup, in which the graphite volumetric fraction and size distribution were obtained using the Schwartz-Saltykov approach. The agreements between the experimental and numerical results for the fraction of graphite and the size distribution of spheroids reveal the importance of numerical models in the prediction of the main aspects of graphite in spheroidal cast iron.

  1. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large

  2. Microstructure Aspects of a Newly Developed, Low Cost, Corrosion-Resistant White Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sain, P. K.; Sharma, C. P.; Bhargava, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the influence of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of a newly developed white cast iron, basically suitable for corrosion- and wear-resistant applications, and to attain a microstructure that is most suitable from the corrosion resistance point of view. The composition was selected with an aim to have austenitic matrix both in as-cast and heat-treated conditions. The difference in electrochemical potential between austenite and carbide is less in comparison to that between austenite and graphite. Additionally, graphitic corrosion which is frequently encountered in gray cast irons is absent in white cast irons. These basic facts encouraged us to undertake this work. Optical metallography, hardness testing, X-ray diffractometry, and SEM-EDX techniques were employed to identify the phases present in the as-cast and heat-treated specimens of the investigated alloy and to correlate microstructure with corrosion resistance and hardness. Corrosion testing was carried out in 5 pct NaCl solution (approximate chloride content of sea water) using the weight loss method. In the investigated alloy, austenite was retained the in as-cast and heat-treated conditions. The same was confirmed by X-ray and EDX analysis. The stability and volume fraction of austenite increased with an increase of heat-treated temperature/time with a simultaneous decrease in the volume fraction of massive carbides. The decrease in volume fraction of massive carbides resulted in the availability of alloying elements. These alloying elements, on increasing the heat treatment temperature or increasing the soaking period at certain temperatures, get dissolved in austenite. As a consequence, austenite gets enriched as well as becomes more stable. On cooling from lower soaking period/temperature, enriched austenite decomposes to lesser enriched austenite and to a dispersed phase due to decreasing solid solubility of alloying elements with decreasing temperature

  3. Study on quantitative relation between characteristics of striature bionic coupling unit and wear resistance of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, striature bionic coupling units of different characteristics were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with striature bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that there is a relationship between weight loss and the area of striature bionic coupling units and α: Δm = Δm0 - 0.0212S × cos α - 0.0241S × sin α.

  4. Effect of the microhardness difference between base metal and bionic coupling unit on wear resistance of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Chang, Fang; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, the samples with different microhardness difference between bionic coupling units and base metal were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade liner reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that when the microhardness difference is 561 HV0.2, the wear resistance of sample is the best.

  5. UNDERSTANDING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINE DECAY KINETICS IN OLD CAST IRON PIPES, 2. CONVERSION FROM CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT TO MICROFILTRATION IN A SMALL WATER SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This insitu pipe loop study was designed to determine the disinfectant kinetics associated with very old unlined cast iron pipelines with both chlorine and chloramination residuals. An abandoned 90-year-old unlined cast iron pipeline about 2000 ft long was acclimated to conduct a...

  6. The effect of selected parameters of the honing process on cylinder liner surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlus, P.; Dzierwa, A.; Michalski, J.; Reizer, R.; Wieczorowski, M.; Majchrowski, R.

    2014-04-01

    Many truck cylinder liners made from gray cast iron were machined. Ceramic and diamond honing stones were used in the last stages of operation: coarse honing and plateau honing. The effect of honing parameters on the cylinder liner surface topography was studied. Selected surface topography parameters were response variables. It was found that parameters from the Sq group were sensitive to honing parameter change. When plateau honing time varied, the Smq parameter increased, while the other parameters, Spq and Svq, were stable.

  7. Effect of Shot Peening on the High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of High-Strength Cast Iron with Nodular Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benam, Amir Sadighzadeh

    2017-01-01

    The effect of shot peening treatment on high-cycle fatigue of high-strength cast iron with globular graphite is studied. The fatigue curves are plotted, the microhardness and the surface roughness are measured. An analysis of fracture surfaces is performed, and the thickness of the hardened layer is determined. The shot peening is shown to affect favorably the fatigue resistance of the iron but to worsen the condition of the surface.

  8. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each as well as field testing of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. The field tests were conducted August 23-26, 2004 in Oradell, New Jersey. The field tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  10. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-17

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930 deg. C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380 deg. C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  11. Laser surface texturing of cast iron steel: dramatic edge burr reduction and high speed process optimisation for industrial production using DPSS picosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneel, David; Kearsley, Andrew; Karnakis, Dimitris

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present picosecond DPSS laser surface texturing optimisation of automotive grade cast iron steel. This application attracts great interest, particularly in the automotive industry, to reduce friction between moving piston parts in car engines, in order to decrease fuel consumption. This is accomplished by partially covering with swallow microgrooves the inner surface of a piston liner and is currently a production process adopting much longer pulse (microsecond) DPSS lasers. Lubricated interface conditions of moving parts require from the laser process to produce a very strictly controlled surface topography around the laser formed grooves, whose edge burr height must be lower than 100 nm. To achieve such a strict tolerance, laser machining of cast iron steel was investigated using an infrared DPSS picosecond laser (10ps duration) with an output power of 16W and a repetition rate of 200 kHz. The ultrashort laser is believed to provide a much better thermal management of the etching process. All studies presented here were performed on flat samples in ambient air but the process is transferrable to cylindrical geometry engine liners. We will show that reducing significantly the edge burr below an acceptable limit for lubricated engine production is possible using such lasers and remarkably the process window lies at very high irradiated fluences much higher that the single pulse ablation threshold. This detailed experimental work highlights the close relationship between the optimised laser irradiation conditions as well as the process strategy with the final size of the undesirable edge burrs. The optimised process conditions are compatible with an industrial production process and show the potential for removing extra post)processing steps (honing, etc) of cylinder liners on the manufacturing line saving time and cost.

  12. A study of the structure and properties of high-strength bainite-carbide cast iron with globular graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanapal, P.; Nazirudeen, S. S. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of two high-strength bainitic cast irons with carbon equivalent close to the eutectic one are studied. Additional alloying of one of the metals with chromium is used to obtain a bainite-carbide structure. The effect of the parameters of bainitic hardening on the hardness, impact toughness, and wear resistance of the metals is studied.

  13. The influence of the cast iron structure upon the hardness of brake shoes meant for the rolling sock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socalici, A.; Pascu, L.; Popa, E.; Hepuţ, T.

    2015-06-01

    An important characteristic with a high impact upon the exploitation durability of the brake shoes is hardness. The paper introduces the influence of the phosphorous cast iron structure upon the hardness of the brake shoes meant for the tractive and trailing rolling stock. The results presented show the variation of hardness on the surface and the cross section of the braking shoe

  14. Influences of single laser tracks' space on the rolling fatigue contact of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-kai; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Hai-feng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong; Ren, Lu-quan

    2015-09-01

    To improve the fatigue wear resistance of gray cast iron, the surface is modified by Nd:YAG laser to imitate the unique surface of soil creatures (alternative soft and hard phases). After laser treatment, the remelting region is the named unit which is mainly characterized of compact and refinement grains. In the present work, the influence of the unit space on the fatigue wear resistance is experimentally studied. The optimum space is proven to be 2 mm according to the tested results and two kinds of delamination are observed on samples' worn surface. Subsequently, the mechanisms of fatigue wear resistance improvement are suggested: (i) for microscopic behavior, the bionic unit not only delays the initiation of microcracks, but also significantly obstructs the propagation of cracks; (ii) for macroscopic behavior, the hard phase resists the deformation and the soft phase releases the deformation.

  15. Correlation of mechanical properties with the acoustic properties in case of an experimental white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gȋrneţ, A.; Stanciu, S.; Chicet, D.; Axinte, M.; Goanţă, V.

    2016-08-01

    The general and traditional opinion regarding the materials used to build bells, musical instruments or sound transmitters is that those materials must be only from the bronze alloyed with tin category. In order to approach this idea from a scientific point of view, the materials with acoustic properties must be analyzed starting from the physical theory and experimental determination that sound travels only through bodies with elastic properties. It has been developed an experimental white cast iron, medium alloyed with Cr and Ni, in order to obtain a material with special acoustic properties. There were determined on specific samples: the vibration damping capacity, the unit energy, the tensile strength and elasticity modulus. These properties were correlated with the properties of other known acoustic materials.

  16. Droplet impinging behavior on surfaces: Part II - Water on aluminium and cast iron surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangavi, S.; Balaji, S.; Mithran, N.; Venkatesan, M.

    2016-09-01

    Droplet cooling of metal surfaces is an important area of research in industrial applications such as material quenching, nozzle spraying, etc. Fluids (water) act as an excellent agent in heat transfer to remove excess heat in various processes by convection and conduction. Such cooling process varies the material properties. The bubbles formed during droplet impinging on the surface act as heat sink and causes variation of height and spreading radius of the droplet with increase in temperature. In the present work, an experimental study of the droplet impinging behavior on Aluminium and Cast iron surfaces is reported. The water droplets are made to fall on the surface of the specimens from a specific height, which also influences the spreading radius. The effect of temperature on droplet height and droplet spreading radius is detailed.

  17. Effects of Antimony and Wall Thickness on Graphite Morphology in Ductile Iron Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavas, Zoran; Strkalj, Anita; Maldini, Kresimir

    2016-08-01

    Effects of Sb additions on the graphite morphology of ductile iron castings in different wall thicknesses (3, 12, 25, 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm) were analyzed in this paper. In the wall thicknesses of 3, 12, and 25 mm, low contents of rare earth (RE) elements showed a beneficial effect on nodule count and nodularity. Nodularity >80 pct and a high nodule count were achieved without the addition of Sb. In the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm, nodularity >80 pct was not achieved without the use of the chill or proper content of Sb. Excess of RE elements was neutralized with the addition of proper amount of Sb to the wall thickness. Addition of 0.01 wt pct Sb (ratio of RE/Sb = 0.34, ratio of RE/SE = 0.105) was sufficient to achieve nodularity >80 pct in the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm.

  18. Combination of microscopic model and VoF-multiphase approach for numerical simulation of nodular cast iron solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, E.; Huang, C.; Jakumeit, J.; Hediger, F.

    2015-06-01

    The ongoing increase in the size and capacity of state-of-the-art wind power plants is highlighting the need to reduce the weight of critical components, such as hubs, main shaft bearing housings, gear box housings and support bases. These components are manufactured as nodular iron castings (spheroid graphite iron, or SGI). A weight reduction of up to 20% is achievable by optimizing the geometry to minimize volume, thus enabling significant downsizing of wind power plants. One method for enhancing quality control in the production of thick-walled SGI castings, and thus reducing tolerances and, consequently, enabling castings of smaller volume is via a casting simulation of mould filling and solidification based on a combination of microscopic model and VoF-multiphase approach. Coupled fluid flow with heat transport and phase transformation kinetics during solidification is described by partial differential equations and solved using the finite volume method. The flow of multiple phases is described using a volume of fluid approach. Mass conservation equations are solved separately for both liquid and solid phases. At the micro-level, the diffusion-controlled growth model for grey iron eutectic grains by Wetterfall et al. is combined with a growth model for white iron eutectic grains. The micro-solidification model is coupled with macro-transport equations via source terms in the energy and continuity equations. As a first step the methodology was applied to a simple geometry to investigate the impact of mould-filling on the grey-to-white transition prediction in nodular cast iron.

  19. Misorientations in spheroidal graphite: some new insights about spheroidal graphite growth in cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J.; Theuwissen, K.; Laffont, L.; Véron, M.

    2016-03-01

    Local diffraction patterning, orientation mapping and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging have been used to characterize misorientations in graphite spheroids of cast irons. Emphasis is put here on bulk graphite, away from the nucleus as well as from the outer surface of the spheroids in order to get information on their growth during solidification. The results show that spheroidal graphite consists in conical sectors made of elementary blocks piled up on each other. These blocks are elongated along the prismatic a direction of graphite with the c axes roughly parallel to the radius of the spheroids. This implies that the orientation of the blocks rotates around the spheroid centre giving low angle tilting misorientations along tangential direction within each sector. Misorientations between neighbouring sectors are of higher values and their interfaces show rippled layers which are characteristic of defects in graphene. Along a radius of the spheroid, clockwise and anticlockwise twisting between blocks is observed. These observations help challenging some of the models proposed to explain spheroidal growth in cast ions.

  20. Ductile and High Strength White Cast Iron of Ultrafine Interconnected Network Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. M.; Kui, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Fe100- x C x melts ( x = 18 to 24) can be cast under B2O3 flux into solids of interconnected network morphology, with a wavelength in the submicron range. There are two major constituent subnetworks, which are a brittle Fe3C subnetwork and a ductile αFe subnetwork. The Fe100- x C x network alloys, therefore, are white cast iron of novel microstructure. Fe100- x C x specimens of x = 18 to 21 are ductile and the yield strength can be as large as ~3200 MPa. Fe100- x C x specimens of x = 22 to 24 are in the regime of a ductile-to-brittle transition. The compressive strength is high, at ~2700 MPa. Microstructural analysis indicates that the ultrafine network morphology and the ductile αFe subnetwork are responsible for the ductility exhibited in Fe100- x C x network alloys of x = 17 to 21. They are also responsible for the high compressive strength in Fe100- x C x network alloys of x = 22 to 24.

  1. Effect of Different Molding Materials on the Thin-Walled Compacted Graphite Iron Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, Marcin; Dańko, Rafał; Lelito, Janusz; Kawalec, Magdalena; Sikora, Gabriela

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the effects of six mold materials used for obtaining thin-walled compacted graphite iron castings with a wall thickness of 3 mm. During this research, the following materials were analyzed: fine silica sand, coarse silica sand, cerabeads, molohite and also insulated materials in the shape of microspheres, including low-density alumina/silica ceramic sand. Granulometric and SEM observations indicate that the sand matrix used in these studies differs in terms of size, homogeneity and shape. This study shows that molds made with insulating sands (microspheres) possess both: thermal conductivity and material mold ability to absorb heat, on average to be more than five times lower compared to those of silica sand. In addition to that, the resultant peak of heat transfer coefficient at the mold/metal interface for microspheres is more than four times lower in comparison with fine silica sand. This is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cooling rate of metal in the mold cavity which promotes the development of compacted graphite in thin-walled castings as well as ferrite fractions in their microstructure.

  2. Improving tribological performance of gray cast iron by laser peening in dynamic strain aging temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Mei, Yufen; Huang, Shu; Sheng, Jie; Zhu, Weili

    2015-09-01

    A high and stable brake disc friction coefficient is needed for automobile safety, while the coefficient degrades due to elevated temperature during the braking process. There is no better solution except changes in material composition and shape design optimization. In the dynamic strain aging(DSA) temperature regime of gray cast iron, micro-dimples with different dimple depth over diameter and surface area density are fabricated on the material surface by laser peening(LP) which is an LST method. Friction behavior and wear mechanism are investigated to evaluate the effects of surface texturing on the tribological performance of specimens under dry conditions. Through LP impacts assisted by DSA, the friction coefficients of the LPed specimens increase noticeably both at room temperature and elevated temperature in comparison to untreated specimens. Moreover, the coefficient of specimen with dimple depth over diameter of 0.03 and surface area density of 30% is up to 0.351 at room temperature, which dramatically rises up to 1.33 times that of untextured specimen and the value is still up to 0.3305 at 400°C with an increasing ratio of 35% compared to that of untreated specimen. The surface of textured specimen shows better wear resistance compared to untreated specimen. Wear mechanism includes adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidation wear. It is demonstrated that LP assisted by DSA can substantially improve wear resistance, raise the friction coefficient as well as its stability of gray cast iron under elevated temperatures. Heat fade and premature wear can be effectively relieved by this surface modification method.

  3. Erosive Wear Behavior of High-Alloy Cast Iron and Duplex Stainless Steel under Mining Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    Centrifugal pumps used in the lignite mines encounter erosive wear problems, leading to a disastrous failure of the pump casings. This paper attempts to evaluate the erosive wear resistance of Ni-Hard 4, high-chromium iron, and Cast CD4MCu duplex stainless steel (DSS), for mining conditions. The prepared test coupons were subjected to an erosion test by varying the impingement velocity and the angle of impingement, under two different pH conditions of 3 and 7, which pertained to the mining conditions. XRD analysis was carried out to confirm the phases present in the alloy. The eroded surface was subjected to SEM analysis to identify the erosion mechanisms. The surface degradation of Ni-Hard 4 and high-chromium iron came from a low-angle abrasion with a grooving and plowing mechanism at a low angle of impingement. At normal impingement, deep indentations resulted in lips and crater formations, leading to degradation of the surface in a brittle manner. A combined extrusion-forging mechanism is observed in the CD4MCu DSS surface at all the impingement angles.

  4. On the effect of natural convection on the thermal-microstructural evolution in gray cast-iron solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celentano, Diego J.; Cruchaga, Marcela A.; Schulz, Bernd J.

    2006-04-01

    A coupled analysis involving natural convection, thermal balance, and microstructural evolution that take place in the solidification process of a hypoeutectic gray cast iron is presented in this work. The microstructural formulation used in this study includes classical models of primary-austenite and eutectic (gray and white) transformations. The influence of both natural convection and heat-transfer conditions on the thermal-microstructural response is particularly assessed in a simple cylindrical casting system. The evolutions of temperature and different microstructural variables are compared and validated with available experimental measurements.

  5. Microstructure and Hot Oxidation Resistance of SiMo Ductile Cast Irons Containing Si-Mo-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat M.; Nofal, Adel; Mourad, M. M.

    2017-04-01

    SiMo ductile cast irons are used as high-temperature materials in automotive components, because they are microstructurally stable at high operating temperatures. The effect of different amounts of Si and Mo as well as the addition of 3 wt pct Al on the microstructure, high-temperature oxidation, and mechanical properties of SiMo ductile cast iron was studied. Dilatometric measurements of SiMo ductile iron exhibited obvious differences in the transformation temperature A 1 due to presence of Al and the increase of Si. The microstructure of the SiMo alloys without Al addition showed outstanding nodularity and uniform nodule distribution. However, by adding 3 wt pct Al to low Si-SiMo ductile iron, some compacted graphite was observed. The results of oxidation experiments indicated that high Si-SiMo ductile iron containing 4 and 4.9 wt pct Si had superior resistance to lower Si-SiMo and SiMo ductile iron containing 3 wt pct Al. The results showed also that with increasing Si up to 4.9 wt pct or by replacing a part of Si with 3 wt pct Al, tensile strength increased while elongation and impact toughness decreased.

  6. Microstructure and Hot Oxidation Resistance of SiMo Ductile Cast Irons Containing Si-Mo-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat M.; Nofal, Adel; Mourad, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    SiMo ductile cast irons are used as high-temperature materials in automotive components, because they are microstructurally stable at high operating temperatures. The effect of different amounts of Si and Mo as well as the addition of 3 wt pct Al on the microstructure, high-temperature oxidation, and mechanical properties of SiMo ductile cast iron was studied. Dilatometric measurements of SiMo ductile iron exhibited obvious differences in the transformation temperature A 1 due to presence of Al and the increase of Si. The microstructure of the SiMo alloys without Al addition showed outstanding nodularity and uniform nodule distribution. However, by adding 3 wt pct Al to low Si-SiMo ductile iron, some compacted graphite was observed. The results of oxidation experiments indicated that high Si-SiMo ductile iron containing 4 and 4.9 wt pct Si had superior resistance to lower Si-SiMo and SiMo ductile iron containing 3 wt pct Al. The results showed also that with increasing Si up to 4.9 wt pct or by replacing a part of Si with 3 wt pct Al, tensile strength increased while elongation and impact toughness decreased.

  7. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Heat treatment effect on microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of Cr26 white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shaoping; Shen, Yehui; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Dequan

    2015-01-01

    High chromium cast iron(HCCI) is taken as material of coal water slurry pump impeller, but it is susceptible to produce serious abrasive wear and erosion wear because of souring of hard coal particles. The research on optimization of heat treatments to improve abrasive wear properties of HCCI is insufficient, so effect of heat treatments on the microstructure, hardness, toughness, and wear resistance of Cr26 HCCI is investigated to determine the optimal heat treatment process for HCCI. A series of heat treatments are employed. The microstructures of HCCI specimens are examined by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and impact fracture toughness of as-cast and heat treated specimens are measured. The wear tests are assessed by a Type M200 ring-on block wear tester. The results show the following: With increase of the quenching temperature from 950 °C to 1050 °C, the hardness of Cr26 HCCI increased to a certain value, kept for a time and then decreased. The optimal heat treatment process is 2 h quenching treatment at 1000 °C, followed by a subsequent 2 h tempering at 400 °C. The hardness of HCCI is related to the precipitation and redissolution of secondary carbides in the process of heat treatment. The subsequent tempering treatment would result in a slight decrease of hardness but increase of toughness. The wear resistance is much related to the "supporting" effect of the matrix and the "protective" effect of the hard carbide embedded in the matrix, and the wear resistance is further dependent on the hardness and the toughness of the matrix. This research can provide an important insight on developing an optimized heat treatment method to improve the wear resistance of HCCI.

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide

  10. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2--Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a

  11. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV-vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  12. Effects of MC-Type Carbide Forming and Graphitizing Elements on Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Indefinite Chilled Cast Iron Rolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahiale, Godwin Kwame; Choi, Won-Doo; Suh, Yongchan; Lee, Young-Kook; Oh, Yong-Jun

    2015-11-01

    The thermal fatigue behavior of indefinite chilled cast iron rolls with various V+Nb contents and Si/Cr ratios was evaluated. Increasing the ratio of Si/Cr prolonged the life of the rolls by reducing brittle cementites. Higher V+Nb addition also increased the life through the formation of carbides that refined and toughened the martensite matrix and reduced the thermal expansion mismatch in the microstructure.

  13. On the nature of eutectic carbides in Cr-Ni white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, G.; Nielsen, R. L.; MacMillan, N. H.

    1991-08-01

    The mechanical and tribological properties of white cast irons are strongly dependent on whether they contain M7C3 or M3C carbides (M = Fe, Cr, etc.). In an effort to improve the wear resistance of such materials, the United States Bureau of Mines has studied the effects of adding 0.3 to 2.3 wt pct (throughout) Si to hypoeutectic irons containing approximately 8.5 pct Cr and 6.0 pct Ni. The eutectic carbides formed were identified by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron (SEM) and optical microscopies. In addition, differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to study the process of solidification. At Si contents of 0.3 and 1.2 pct, the eutectic carbides exhibited a duplex structure, consisting of cores of M7C3 surrounded by shells of M3C. Additionally, the microstructure contained ledeburite (M3C + γFe (austenite)). At the higher Si content of 1.6 pct, the eutectic carbides consisted entirely of M7C3, and some ledeburite remained. Last, when the Si content was raised to 2.3 pct, the eutectic carbides again consisted entirely of M7C3, but ledeburite was no longer formed. These observations can be explained in terms of the effects of Si and, to a lesser extent, of Ni on the shape of the liquidus surface of the metastable Fe-Cr-C phase diagram. The addition of Si reduces the roles played by the four-phase class II p reaction L + M7C3 → M3C + γFe and the ledeburitic eutectic reaction L → M3C + γFe in the overall process of solidification.

  14. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  15. Effects of heat treatment on wear resistance and fracture toughness of duo-cast materials composed of high-chromium white cast iron and low-chromium steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Sunghak; Jung, Jae-Young

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate effects of heat treatment on wear resistance and fracture toughness in duo-cast materials composed of a high-chromium white cast iron and a low-chromium steel as a wear-resistant part and a ductile part, respectively. Different size, volume fraction, and distribution of M7C3 carbides were employed in the wear-resistant part by changing the amount of chromium, and the volume fraction of martensite in the austenitic matrix was varied by the heat treatment. In the alloys containing a small amount of chromium, an interdendritic structure of eutectic M7C3 carbides was formed, and led to the improvement of wear resistance and fracture toughness. After the heat treatment, the selective wear of the matrix and the cracking or spalled-off carbides were considerably reduced since the hardness difference between carbides and matrix decreased by the increase in the matrix hardness, thereby leading to the improvement of the wear resistance. However, the fracture toughness of the heat-treated alloys was lower than that of the as-cast alloys because the matrix containing a considerable amount of martensite did not effectively prevent the crack propagation.

  16. Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Sloss, Clayton

    2014-10-01

    Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on ductile cast iron (DCI) at strain rates of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002/s in the temperature range from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). A constitutive-damage model was developed within the integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) framework on the premise of strain decomposition into rate-independent plasticity and time-dependent creep. Four major damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement (IE), (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation were considered in a nonlinear creep-fatigue interaction model which represents the overall damage accumulation process consisting of oxidation-assisted fatigue crack nucleation and propagation in coalescence with internally distributed damage ( e.g., IE and creep), leading to final fracture. The model was found to agree with the experimental observations of the complex DCI-LCF phenomena, for which the linear damage summation rule would fail.

  17. Surface hardening of a ductile-cast iron roll using high-energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Dongwoo; Lee, Sunghak; Koo, Yangmo; Kwon, Soon-Ju

    1997-07-01

    The effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on surface hardening and microstructural modification in a ductile cast iron (DCI) roll are investigated in this study. The DCI roll samples were irradiated by using an electron accelerator (1.4 MeV), and then their microstructures and hardnesses were examined. Upon irradiation, the unirradiated microstructure containing graphites and the tempered bainite matrix was changed to martensite, ledeburite, and retained austenite, together with the complete or partial dissolution of graphites. This microstructural modification improved greatly the surface hardness due to transformation of martensite whose amount and type were determined by heat input during irradiation. In order to investigate these complex microstructures, a simulation test including thermal cycles of abrupt heating and quenching was carried out. The simulation results indicated that the irradiated surface was heated up to about 1100 °C to 1200 °C and then quenched to room temperature, which was enough to obtain surface hardening through martensitic transformation. Thermal analysis of the irradiated surface layer was also carried out using a finite difference method to understand the surface hardening of the DCI roll and to compare with the simulation test results.

  18. Performance of Uncoated Carbide Cutting Tool when Machining Cast Iron in Dry Cutting Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaharah, A. G.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Ghazali, M. J.; Sulong, A. B.; Omar, M. Z.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Ismail, A. R.

    This paper presents the performance of uncoated carbide cutting tool when machining cast iron in dry cutting conditions. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut according to Taguchi method design of experiment using a standard orthogonal array L9(34). The effects of cutting speeds (100-146 m/min), feed rates (0.20-0.35 mm/tooth) and depths of cut (1.0-2.0 mm) on the tool life, surface roughness and cutting forces were evaluated using ANOVA. Results showed that the effects of cutting speed, depth of cut and the feed rate were similar affecting the failure of the carbide cutting tools within the range of tested machining parameters. The contribution of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut in controlling the tool life were 32.12%, 38.56% and 29.32% respectively. Whereas, the cutting speed was the main factor influencing the average surface roughness (Ra) value followed by feed rate. These factors contribute 60.53% and 35.59% respectively to the Ra value. On the other hand, cutting forces generated were greatly influenced by the depth of cut (66.52%) and the feed rate (32.6%). Cutting speed was found insignificant in controlling the generated cutting forces.

  19. Green Turning of FCD 700 Ductile Cast Iron Using Coated Carbide Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodzi, Mohd Nor Azmi Mohd; Ghani, Jaharah A.; Eghawail, A. M.; Othman, Kamal; Rahman, Mohd. Nizam Ab.; Haron, Che Hassan Che

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the performance of carbide coated cutting insert in turning FCD700 ductile cast iron in various dry machining conditions (without air, using air and chilled air). The turning parameters studied were, cutting speed of 120 m/min., feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev-0.4 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.6 mm-1.0 mm. The results show that the tool life was significantly controlled by the type of air coolant used, whereas the cutting force and surface roughness were not influenced by these coolants. Chilled air was found to be significantly improved the tool life by about 30% and 40% respectively when compared with normal air and without air conditions. The wear mechanism was predominantly controlled by the flank and crater wears on the flank and rake faces respectively. Due to the low cutting speed used in the experiment, both flank and crater wears were uniformly formed along the cutting edge and no catastrophic failure was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  20. Growth Kinetics of In Situ Fabricated Dense NbC Coatings on Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Liuliu; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhao, Ziyuan; Zhong, Lisheng; Song, Ke; Cai, Xiaolong; Wang, Juan

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, dense niobium carbide (NbC) coatings are fabricated by in situ techniques on gray cast iron (Fe) substrates at 1150 °C for 5 min, followed by a heat treatment at 990, 1010 and 1030 °C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The microstructure, element composition and metallographic phase of the coating are characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectral and x-ray diffraction, respectively. Results show that the coating consists of NbC and α-Fe phases. NbC coating thickness ranges from 12.51 ± 1.4 to 29.17 ± 2.0 µm depending on the heat treatment temperature and time. In addition, the growth kinetics of dense niobium carbide coatings are estimated. A diffusion model based on Fick's laws is used to explore the carbon diffusion coefficients of the dense NbC coating in the range of heat treatment temperatures in which the experimental results of the kinetics of the niobium carbide coating are in good agreement with those estimated using diffusion model.

  1. Solidification and solid state transformations during cooling of chromium-molybdenum white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demello, J. D. B.; Durand-Charre, M.; Hamar-Thibault, S.

    1983-09-01

    Two series of Cr, Mo white cast irons were investigated by different techniques. Differential thermal analysis was carried out to determine the liquidus and eutectic temperatures. Unidirectional solidification was used to promote coarser structures easier to analyze. Furthermore, the microstructures of the sample, quenched during a slow unidirectional solidification, illustrate the behavior of the alloy during continuous cooling. The precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microprobe analysis. The main findings are reported: (1) a correlation was found between the end of solidification and the chromium to carbon ratio; (2) the determination was made of the crystallization path; (3) in some high Cr/C ratio alloys a peritectic reaction occurs on the border of the grain giving a δ ferritic phase; (4) then this δ ferrite was found to decompose in a complex manner giving austenite and ferrite probably in a lamellar structure, then precipitates of M6C and Mo2C in the austenitic and ferritic phases, respectively; and (5) according to the kinetics of cooling, some alloys undergo martensitic and bainitic transformations.

  2. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  3. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  4. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; ...

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remainedmore » adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  5. Characterization of biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system with UV/Cl2 disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Chun; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-09-01

    The effect of UV/Cl2 disinfection on the biofilm and corrosion of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). Passivation occurred more rapidly in the AR with UV/Cl2 than in the one with Cl2 alone, decreasing iron release for higher corrosivity of water. Based on functional gene, pyrosequencing assays and principal component analysis, UV disinfection not only reduced the required initial chlorine dose, but also enhanced denitrifying functional bacteria advantage in the biofilm of corrosion scales. The nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Dechloromonas exhibited the greatest corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4 in the AR with UV/Cl2, while the rhizobia Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, and the NRB Sphingomonas, Brucella producing siderophores had weaker corrosion-inhibition effect by capturing iron in the AR with Cl2. These results indicated that the microbial redox cycling of iron was possibly responsible for higher corrosion inhibition and lower effect of water Larson-Skold Index (LI) changes on corrosion. This finding could be applied toward the control of water quality in drinking water distribution systems.

  6. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-03-15

    The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly α-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and α-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, α-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and α-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers.

  7. Statistical Study to Evaluate the Effect of Processing Variables on Shrinkage Incidence During Solidification of Nodular Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Natxiondo, A.; Nieves, J.; Zabala, A.; Sertucha, J.

    2017-04-01

    The study of shrinkage incidence variations in nodular cast irons is an important aspect of manufacturing processes. These variations change the feeding requirements on castings and the optimization of risers' size is consequently affected when avoiding the formation of shrinkage defects. The effect of a number of processing variables on the shrinkage size has been studied using a layout specifically designed for this purpose. The β parameter has been defined as the relative volume reduction from the pouring temperature up to the room temperature. It is observed that shrinkage size and β decrease as effective carbon content increases and when inoculant is added in the pouring stream. A similar effect is found when the parameters selected from cooling curves show high graphite nucleation during solidification of cast irons for a given inoculation level. Pearson statistical analysis has been used to analyze the correlations among all involved variables and a group of Bayesian networks have been subsequently built so as to get the best accurate model for predicting β as a function of the input processing variables. The developed models can be used in foundry plants to study the shrinkage incidence variations in the manufacturing process and to optimize the related costs.

  8. Statistical Study to Evaluate the Effect of Processing Variables on Shrinkage Incidence During Solidification of Nodular Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Natxiondo, A.; Nieves, J.; Zabala, A.; Sertucha, J.

    2017-01-01

    The study of shrinkage incidence variations in nodular cast irons is an important aspect of manufacturing processes. These variations change the feeding requirements on castings and the optimization of risers' size is consequently affected when avoiding the formation of shrinkage defects. The effect of a number of processing variables on the shrinkage size has been studied using a layout specifically designed for this purpose. The β parameter has been defined as the relative volume reduction from the pouring temperature up to the room temperature. It is observed that shrinkage size and β decrease as effective carbon content increases and when inoculant is added in the pouring stream. A similar effect is found when the parameters selected from cooling curves show high graphite nucleation during solidification of cast irons for a given inoculation level. Pearson statistical analysis has been used to analyze the correlations among all involved variables and a group of Bayesian networks have been subsequently built so as to get the best accurate model for predicting β as a function of the input processing variables. The developed models can be used in foundry plants to study the shrinkage incidence variations in the manufacturing process and to optimize the related costs.

  9. The role of manganese and copper in the eutectoid transformation of spheroidal graphite cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, J.; Boudot, A.; Gerval, V.; Oquab, D.; Santos, H.

    1997-10-01

    The decomposition of austenite to ferrite plus graphite or to pearlite in spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron is known to depend on a number of factors among which are the nodule count, the cooling rate, and the alloying additions (Si, Mn, Cu, etc.). This study was undertaken in order to deepen the understanding of the effect of alloying with Mn and/or Cu on the eutectoid reaction. For this purpose, differential thermal analyses (DTAs) were carried out in which samples were subjected to a short homogenization treatment designed to smooth out the microsegregations originating from the solidification step. The effect of various additions of copper and manganese and of the cooling rate on the temperature of the onset of the stable and metastable eutectoid reactions was investigated. The experimental results can be explained if the appropriate reference temperature is used. The cooling rate affects the temperature of the onset of the ferrite plus graphite growth in the same way as for the eutectic reaction, with a measured undercooling that can be extrapolated to a zero value when the cooling rate is zero. The growth undercooling of pearlite had values that were in agreement with similar data obtained on silicon steels. The detrimental effect of Mn on the growth kinetics of ferrite during the decomposition of austenite in the stable system is explained in terms of the driving force for diffusion of carbon through the ferrite ring around the graphite nodules. Finally, it is found that copper can have a pearlite promoter role only when combined with a low addition of manganese.

  10. Stress-induced martensitic transformation and impact toughness of cast irons and high-carbon Fe-Ni-C steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P. M.

    2001-11-01

    The relationship between the impact toughness and stress-induced martensitic transformation, which occurs during the impact process, has been studied in white cast irons and an Fe-Ni-C alloy at different temperatures. The experimental results have shown that in the brittle white cast irons, the stress-induced martensitic transformation makes a positive contribution to the impact toughness, and lowering the stability of austenite increases the toughness. In contrast, the transformation makes a negative contribution to the toughness of high-carbon austenitic steels, and lowering the stability of austenite decreases the toughness. The present work supports the early theory[1] that the magnitude of the toughness change depends on the fracture properties of the new phase and the energy being dissipated during the transformation process. Using the crystallographic model for the stress-induced martensitic transformation, which was originally developed in ceramics and was then refined and extended to irons and steels, the effect of the stress-induced martensitic transformation on the impact toughness can be predicted.

  11. Corrosion resistance of cast irons and titanium alloys as reference engineered metal barriers for use in basalt geologic storage: a literature assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Charlot, L.A.; Westerman, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    A survey and assessment of the literature on the corrosion resistance of cast irons and low-alloy titanium are presented. Selected engineering properties of cast iron and titanium are briefly described; however, the corrosion resistance of cast iron and titanium in aqueous solutions or in soils and their use in a basalt repository are emphasized. In evaluating the potential use of cast iron and titanium as structural barrier materials for long-lived nuclear waste packages, it is assumed that titanium has the general corrosion resistance to be used in relatively thin cross sections whereas the cost and availability of cast iron allows its use even in very thick cross sections. Based on this assumption, the survey showed that: The uniform corrosion of low-alloy titanium in a basalt environment is expected to be extremely low. A linear extrapolation of general corrosion rates with an added corrosion allowance suggests that a 3.2- to 6.4-mm-thick wall may have a life of 1000 yr. Pitting and crevice corrosion are not likely corrosion modes in basalt ground waters. It is also unlikely that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in the commercially pure (CP) titanium alloy or in palladiumor molybdenum-alloyed titanium materials. Low-alloy cast irons may be used as barrier metals if the environment surrounding the metal keeps the alloy in the passive range. The solubility of the corrosion product and the semipermeable nature of the oxide film allow significant uniform corrosion over long time periods. A linear extrapolation of high-temperature corrosion rates on carbon steels and corrosion rates of cast irons in soils gives an estimated metal penetration of 51 to 64 mm after 1000 yr. A corrosion allowance of 3 to 5 times that suggests that an acceptable cast iron wall may be from 178 to 305 mm thick. Although they cannot be fully assessed, pitting and crevice corrosion should not affect cast iron due to the ground-water chemistry of basalt.

  12. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  13. Preliminary science report on the directional solidification of hypereutectic cast iron during KC-135 low-G maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An ADSS-P directional solidification furnace was reconfigured for operation on the KC-135 low-g aircraft. The system offers many advantages over quench ingot methods for study of the effects of sedimentation and convection on alloy formation. The directional sodification furnace system was first flown during the September 1982 series of flights. The microstructure of the hypereutectic cast iron sample solidified on one of these flights suggests a low-g effect on graphite morphology. Further experiments are needed to ascertain that this effect is due to low-gravity and to deduce which of the possible mechanisms is responsible for it.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such a...

  15. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such as...

  16. Using a Cast Iron Hand-Pump to Teach Students About Water Resources and Resource Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Radloff, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Simply turning on the tap brings safe, clean, fresh-tasting water to most Americans. Students never need to consider basic concepts about water supply, including their daily water consumption and the quality of the water required for drinking. In stark contrast, the issues of water quality and quantity play a central role in people’s daily lives in the developing world. It is difficult to convey this reality to our students through lectures alone and hands-on activities are required. In order to develop an active learning based approach, we transported a traditional cast iron hand-pump and aluminum urns from Bangladesh to the United States. The hand-pump is mounted on a cooler, which acts as a water reservoir, and is now functional and easily transportable. Using this powerful demonstration tool, we have developed an active learning module we call “How far will you walk for water?”. The goal of the module is to teach students about water quantity, water quality, and resource allocation with a focus on Arsenic and Bangladesh, but the system could be applied to other areas of concern. First the students are given a quick lecture on Arsenic, its health impacts, and the extent of contamination in Bangladesh. They are then assigned a specific well, complete with a map of their village and picture of their well and a water sample (pre-spiked with arsenic to be above or below the 10 ug/L WHO limit). Next they pump the wellhead, fill an urn, walk down the hall and back, and measure the distance walked. This is compared to the distance from their village home to their private well, to safe wells belonging to neighbors and to a community well. The students then use the Hach Arsenic test kit to test the arsenic levels in their water samples and learn if their well is safe to drink. Finally, given all this information students must determine if they should continue drinking from their well or switch to a new well, even if that means making multiple, long trips each day

  17. Creep-rupture behavior of a developmental cast-iron-base alloy for use up to 800/sup 0/C. [NASAUT 4G-Al: Fe-15Mn-15Cr-2Mo-1. 5C-1Nb-1Si

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Scheuermann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Systems Project, an iron-base cast alloy was developed, designated NASAUT 4G-Al. Its nominal composition, in percent by weight, is Fe-15Mn-15Cr-2Mo-1.5C-1Nb-1Si. This report presents the results of a study of this alloy, 4G-Al, performed to determine its creep-rupture properties. The alloy was studied in the directionally solidified (DS) form with a 650/sup 0/C/100 h anneal recommended by UTRC to optimize properties and in the investment-cast (IC) form with either a 760/sup 0/C/20 h anneal recommended by UTRC to optimize properties, or a solution anneal of 790/sup 0/C/20 h followed by a simulated brazing cycle of 1065/sup 0/C/15 min + a heat treatment of 760/sup 0/C/16 h + 650/sup 0/C/16 h. Alloy 4G-Al exhibited typical 3-stage creep response under all conditions tested. The most creep resistant condition was the DS material. This condition compares very favorably to the prototype (HS-31) and prime candidate (XF-818) alloys for the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/regenerator housing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Active Mg Estimation Using Thermal Analysis: A Rapid Method to Control Nodularity in Ductile Cast Iron Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Ramon; Sertucha, Jon; Larrañaga, Pello; Lacaze, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Appropriate nodularity in ductile iron castings is strongly associated with the presence of high enough not combined Mg dissolved in the melt to cast. However, the residual Mg which is commonly measured for production control accounts for both dissolved Mg and Mg combined as oxides and sulfides. To account for the uncertainties associated with such a control, it is quite usual to over treat the melt with the risk of porosity appearance. A new methodology based on thermal analysis has been developed in the present work so as to estimate the amount of free Mg dissolved in the melt ready for pouring. A combination of Te mixture and a new "reactive mixture" composed of sulfur plus a commercial inoculant has been prepared for this purpose. This reactive mixture is able to transform the magnesium remaining dissolved in the melt to combined forms of this element. Experiments performed both during start of production (when Mg overtreatment is usual) and during normal mass production indicate that important variations of free Mg occur without relevant changes in residual Mg content as determined by spectrometry. The method developed in the present work has shown to be highly effective to detect those melt batches where active Mg content is not high enough for guaranteeing a correct nodularity of castings. Selection of proper active Mg thresholds and a correct inoculation process are critical to avoid "false"-negative results when using this new method.

  19. Diffusion zone between high-chromium cast iron and high-manganese steel during electric-slag facing

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarenko, V.P.; Shvartser, A.Y.; Stroganova, G.V.

    1986-05-01

    The authors investigate extending the service lives of components by the method of electric-slag facing of working surfaces. Steel 45 was used in the annealed state. Electric-slag remelting was the method used to determine the bending strength. Metallographic examinations were conducted under an MIM-8m microscope, while x-ray analysis of the built-up and base metals were performed on a DRON-2 diffractometer. BAsic alloying elements, chromium and manganese were studied on a ''Cameca MS-46'' microanalyzer. During the electri-slag facing of a high-chromium cast iron containing 8% of Mn on high-manganese steel 11OG13L diffusion equalization of the manganese content occurs in the fusion zone. Diffusion displacement of carbon, chromium, and manganese from high-chromium cast iron into the high-manganese steel during electric-slag facing gies rise to a smooth change in the structure of the metal in the fusion zone, and to increased strength of the joint between the unlike materials investigated.

  20. Calculation of the Combined Heat Transfer Coefficient of Hot-face on Cast Iron Cooling Stave Based on Thermal Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-guang; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zuo, Hai-bin; Qin, Xuan; Qi, Cheng-lin

    2017-03-01

    Cooling effects of the cast iron cooling stave were tested with a specially designed experimental furnace under the conditions of different temperatures of 800 °C, 900 °C, 1,000 °C and 1,100 °C as well as different cooling water velocities of 0.5 m·s-1, 1.0 m·s-1, 1.5 m·s-1 and 2.0 m·s-1. Furthermore, the combined heat transfer coefficient of hot-face on cast iron cooling stave (αh-i) was calculated by heat transfer theory based on the thermal test. The calculated αh-i was then applied in temperature field simulation of cooling stave and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The calculation of αh-i indicates that αh-i increases rapidly as the furnace temperature increases while it increases a little as the water velocity increases. The comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data shows that the simulation results fit well with the experiment data under different furnace temperatures.

  1. Cast iron cutting with nano TiN and multilayer TiN-CrN coated inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucca, M.; Durante, S.; Semmler, U.; Rüger, C.; Fuentes, G. G.; Almandoz, E.

    2012-09-01

    During the past decade great success has been achieved in the development of duplex and multilayer multi-functional surface systems. Among these surface systems outstanding properties have nanoscale multilayer coatings. Within the framework of the M3-2S project funded in the 7th European Framework Programme, several nanoscale multilayer coatings have been developed and investigated for experimental and industrial validation. This paper shows the performance of TiN and TiN/CrN nanoscale multilayer coatings on WC cutting inserts when machining GJL250 cast iron. The thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc evaporation in an industrial PVD system. The multilayer deposition characteristic and its properties are shown. The inserts have been investigated in systematic cutting experiments of cast iron bars on a turning machine specifically equipped for force measurements, accompanied by wear determination. Furthermore, equivalent experiments have been carried out on an industrial turning unit. Industrial validation criteria have been applied to assess the comparative performance of the coatings. The choice of the material and the machined parts is driven by an interest in automotive applications. The industrial tests show the need to further optimise the multi-scale modelling approach in order to reduce the lead time of the coating development as well as to improve simulation reliability.

  2. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  3. Investigation of the tribology behaviour of the graphene nanosheets as oil additives on textured alloy cast iron surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dan; Cai, Zhen-bing; Shen, Ming-xue; Li, Zheng-yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-11-01

    Tribological properties of graphene nanosheets (GNS) as lubricating oil additives on textured surfaces were investigated using a UMT-2 tribotester. The lubricating fluids keeping a constant temperature of 100 °C were applied to a GCr15 steel ball and an RTCr2 alloy cast iron plate with various texture designs (original surface, dimple density of 22.1%, 19.6% and 44.2%). The oil with GNS adding showed good tribological properties (wear reduced 50%), especially on the textured surfaces (the reduction in wear was high at over 90%). A combined effect between GNS additives and laser surface texturing (LST) was revealed, which is not a simple superposition of the two factors mentioned. A mechanism is proposed to explain for these results -the graphene layers sheared at the sliding contact interfaces, and form a protective film, which is closely related with the GNS structures and surface texture patterns.

  4. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: induced anisotropic damage model under complex loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.

  5. Machinable, Thin-Walled, Gray and Ductile Iron Casting Production, Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bates; Hanjun Li; Robin Griffin

    2003-12-08

    This report presents the results of research conducted to determine the effects of normal and abnormal processing and compositional variations on machinability (tool wear rate) of gray and ductile iron. The procedures developed allow precise tool wear measurements to be made and interpreted in terms of microstructures and compositions. Accurate data allows the most efficient ways for improving machinability to be determined without sacrificing properties of the irons.

  6. A New Direct-Pour In-Mold (DPI) Technology for Producing Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Castings.

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Hitchings; Jay R. Hitchings

    2007-07-20

    A new "Direct Pour In-Mold" (DPI) Magnesium treatment technology has been developed that can produce both Nodular and Compacted Graphite iron. The DPI technology converts the standard horizontal runner system into a vertical one, by placing a Magnesium Ferrosilicon treatment alloy and molten metal filter into a specially designed container. The DPI container is easily placed into either vertically or horizontally parted molds, and then a base metal can be poured directly into it. The metal is treated and filtered as it passes through, and then proceeds directly into a runner or casting cavity. Various sizes of containers provide all of the necessary components required to deliver a range of weights of treated and filtered metal at accurate and consistent flow rates. The DPI containers provide energy savings over competing techniques, increased mold yields, very high Magnesium recovery, zero Magnesium fume, and no post inoculation is required. By treating the metal just prior to it entering a casting cavity many other benefits and advantages are also realized.

  7. Changes Found on Run-in and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-10-01

    No , 1432 J ’,: .0 4 . Teetor , Nacy 0 .: The Roductj.on of P i ston-Ril1..g and. Cylind~r Hear. SAE J our . (1’rans .) , vol. 42 , no.. 4 , Aprtl...82171𔃼:’a118 . ) voJ.. 23 , SO"iJt . J.935 ., p~. 577-598, di8cussio~pp . ~98-G13 . Teetor , Mac;’) 0 . : Load-Carr ying-Caye.ci ty Pl1enomena of Bearing

  8. Quantification of the separate matrix constituents of spheroidal graphite cast iron implanted with 15N by nuclear reaction analysis using an ion muprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. P.; Jeynes, C.; Reeson, K. J.; Thornton, J.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1992-02-01

    The retained dose of nitrogen in a spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron (4% carbon) implanted with 2 × 10 1715{solN}/{cm 2} at 200 keV has been determined separately in the iron matrix and in the graphite inclusions of 30 μm average diameter randomly dispersed in the matrix, using the 15N(p, αγ) 12C resonance at 898 keV and a proton muprobe focussed to less than 20 μm spot diameter. In normalised and tempered SG cast iron the retained doses were 1.09 × 10 17 and 1.74 × 10 17{N}/{cm}2 in the pearlitic matrix and graphite nodules, respectively, and in induction hardened SG cast iron the retained doses were 1.18 × 10 15 and 0.97 × 10 17{N}/{cm 2} in the martensitic matrix and nodules, respectively. The profile shapes are also quite different in both types of samples, and in both matrix and nodule.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of hidden defects in cast iron components using ultrasound activated lock-in vibrothermography

    SciTech Connect

    Montanini, R.; Freni, F.; Rossi, G. L.

    2012-09-15

    This paper reports one of the first experimental results on the application of ultrasound activated lock-in vibrothermography for quantitative assessment of buried flaws in complex cast parts. The use of amplitude modulated ultrasonic heat generation allowed selective response of defective areas within the part, as the defect itself is turned into a local thermal wave emitter. Quantitative evaluation of hidden damages was accomplished by estimating independently both the area and the depth extension of the buried flaws, while x-ray 3D computed tomography was used as reference for sizing accuracy assessment. To retrieve flaw's area, a simple yet effective histogram-based phase image segmentation algorithm with automatic pixels classification has been developed. A clear correlation was found between the thermal (phase) signature measured by the infrared camera on the target surface and the actual mean cross-section area of the flaw. Due to the very fast cycle time (<30 s/part), the method could potentially be applied for 100% quality control of casting components.

  10. Types of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of cast iron and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisienko, V. G.; Chesnokov, Yu N.; Lapteva, A. V.; Noskov, V. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Types of carbon dioxide emissions in iron and steel production are indicated. Production processes have been classified according to mechanisms of carbon dioxide formation. Mathematical models for calculation of carbon dioxide emissions for each type of process are found. Calculations results of carbon dioxide emissions of coke (BF + EAF) and cokeless processes (Corex, Midrex, HyL-3, Romelt) in combination with EAF are provided.

  11. Effects of Ceramic Fibre Insulation Thickness on Skin Formation and Nodule Characteristics of Thin Wall Ductile Iron Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneswara, D.; Suharno, B.; Nugraha, N. D.; Ariobimo, R. D. S.; Sofyan, N.

    2017-02-01

    Skin formation has become one of the problems in the thin wall ductile iron casting because it will reduce the mechanical properties of the materials. One of the solutions to reduce this skin formation is by using heat insulator to control the cooling rate. One of the insulators used for this purpose is ceramic fibre. In this research, the thickness of the ceramic fibre heat insulator used in the mould was varied, i.e. 50 mm on one side and 37.5 mm on the other side (A), no heat insulator (B), and 37.5 mm on both sides (C). After the casting process, the results were characterized in terms of metallography by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tensile test for mechanical properties. The results showed that the skin thickness formed in A is 34.21 μm, 23.38 μm in B, and 27.78 μm in C. The nodule count in A is 541.98 nodule/mm2 (84.7%) with an average diameter of 15.14 μm, 590 nodule/mm2 (86.7%) with an average diameter of 13.18 μm in B, and 549.73 nodule/mm2 (87.2%) with an average diameter of 13.95 μm in C. The average ultimate tensile strength for A was 399 MPa, B was 314 MPa, and C was 415 MPa. Microstructural examination under SEM showed that the materials have a ductile fracture with matrix full of ferrite.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Microstructure and Corrosion Performance of Carbonitriding Layers on Cast Iron by Plasma Electrolytic Carbonitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Hua; Lv, Guo-Hua; Chen, Huan; Wang, Xin-Quan; Zhang, Gu-Ling; Yang, Si-Ze

    2009-08-01

    The surface carbonitriding of cast iron is investigated in an aqueous solution of acetamide and glycerin. Microstructure, chemical and phase composition and corrosion performance of the carbonitriding layers are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction, as well as potentiodynamic polarization testing. X-ray diffraction results show that the carbonitriding coatings are composed of martensite, austenite(γ-Fe), Fe2C, Fe3C, Fe5C2, FeN and in-Fe2-3N. After the plasma electrolytic carbonitriding treatment the corrosion resistance of cast iron is clearly improved compared to the substrate, and the coatings produced at 350 V for 30s give the best corrosion resistance.

  13. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed (Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni) Composite Coating on Ductile Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiazek, Marzanna; Boron, Lukasz; Radecka, Marta; Richert, Maria; Tchorz, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the investigations was to compare the microstructure, mechanical, and wear properties of Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings deposited by HVOF technique (the high-velocity oxygen fuel spray process) on ductile cast iron. The effect of nickel particles added to the chromium carbide coating on mechanical and wear behavior in the system of Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni/ductile cast iron was analyzed in order to improve the lifetime of coated materials. The structure with particular emphasis of characteristic of the interface in the system of composite coating (Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni)/ductile cast iron was studied using the optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes, as well as the analysis of chemical and phase composition in microareas. Experimental results show that HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni composite coating exhibits low porosity, high hardness, dense structure with large, partially molten Ni particles and very fine Cr3C2 and Cr7C3 particles embedded in NiCr alloy matrix, coming to the size of nanocrystalline. The results were discussed in reference to examination of bending strength considering cracking and delamination in the system of composite coating (Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni)/ductile cast iron as well as hardness and wear resistance of the coating. The composite structure of the coating provides the relatively good plasticity of the coating, which in turn has a positive effect on the adhesion of coating to the substrate and cohesion of the composite coating (Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni) in wear conditions.

  14. Effects of the Exposure to Corrosive Salts on the Frictional Behavior of Gray Cast Iron and a Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Truhan, Jr., John J; Kenik, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of increasingly aggressive road-deicing chemicals has created significant and costly corrosion problems for the trucking industry. From a tribological perspective, corrosion of the sliding surfaces of brakes after exposure to road salts can create oxide scales on the surfaces that affect friction. This paper describes experiments on the effects of exposure to sodium chloride and magnesium chloride sprays on the transient frictional behavior of cast iron and a titanium-based composite sliding against a commercial brake lining material. Corrosion scales on cast iron initially act as abrasive third-bodies, then they become crushed, spread out, and behave as a solid lubricant. The composition and subsurface microstructures of the corrosion products on the cast iron were analyzed. Owing to its greater corrosion resistance, the titanium composite remained scale-free and its frictional response was markedly different. No corrosion scales were formed on the titanium composite after aggressive exposure to salts; however, a reduction in friction was still observed. Unlike the crystalline sodium chloride deposits that tended to remain dry, hygroscopic magnesium chloride deposits absorbed ambient moisture from the air, liquefied, and retained a persistent lubricating effect on the titanium surfaces.

  15. Directional solidification of flake and nodular cast iron during KC-135 low-g maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Alloys solidified in a low-gravity environment can, due to the elimination of sedimentation and convection, form unique and often desirable microstructures. One method of studying the effects of low-gravity (low-g) on alloy solidification was the use of the NASA KC-135 aircraft flying repetitive low-g maneuvers. Each maneuver gives from 20 to 30 seconds of low-g which is between about 0.1 and 0.001 gravity. A directional solidification furnace was used to study the behavior of off eutectic composition case irons in a low-g environment. The solidification interface of hypereutectic flake and spheroidal graphite case irons was slowly advanced through a rod sample, 5 mm in diameter. Controlled solidification was continued through a number of aircraft parabolas. The known solidification rate of the sample was then correlated with accelerometer data to determine the gravity level during solidification for any location of the sample. The thermal gradient and solidification rate were controlled independently. Samples run on the KC-135 aircraft exhibited bands of coarser graphite or of larger nodules usually corresponding to the regions solidified under low-g. Samples containing high phosphorous (used in order to determine the eutectic cell) exhibited larger eutectic cells in the low-g zone, followed by a band of coarser graphite.

  16. Damage effect on the fracture toughness of nodular cast iron: Part I. Damage characterization and plastic flow stress modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M. J.; Prioul, C.; François, D.

    1997-11-01

    After chemical, morphological, and mechanical characterization of ductile cast iron, the damage mechanisms were studied by tensile tests inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The evolutions of Young’s modulus and of Poisson’s ratio were measured in uniaxial tensile tests. Compression tests were used to measure the pressure sensitivity coefficient of the flow stress. The damage is produced by early initiation of cavities at the pole cap of graphite nodules by debonding of the interface, followed by the growth of cavities. The mechanical behavior was modeled in the elastic region by calculating the Hashin-Shtrickman bounds. This provided the elastic constants for the graphite nodules. The plastic behavior was modeled by considering that the graphite nodules were replaced by voids. The critical interfacial stress for debonding was determined by analytical as well as by finite-element calculations. The growth rate of cavities was deduced from the evolution of the Poisson’s ratio and was compared with predictions from Gurson’s potential. The stress-strain behavior could be modeled either by extension of the Mori-Tanaka analysis in the plastic range or by finite-element computations. This allowed a fair prediction of the observed behavior.

  17. Influence of Orientations of Bionic Unit Fabricated by Laser Remelting on Fatigue Wear Resistance of Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Kai; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Hai-feng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue wear resistance improvements were researched by studying experimental samples with gray cast iron fabricated with bionic units in different orientations. Experimental samples were modified by laser surface remelting, including parallel, vertical, and gradient units to the wear direction. The remelting pool was then studied to determine the micro-hardness, microstructure, alteration of phase, and etc. Lab-control fatigue wear test method was applied with the treated and untreated samples tested under the laboratorial conditions. Wear resistance result was considered as the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) resistance and mechanisms of the modified samples were experimentally investigated and discussed. Results suggested that all treated samples demonstrated the beneficial effect on the RCF improvement due to lack of graphite and reinforcement of treated region. Results also indicated the sample with fastigiated units was more effective than that with vertical units or parallel units to the wear direction. Influence of the sample unit's angle which intensely depended on the conditions of actual application, however, was not identified.

  18. Effects of bionic units on the fatigue wear of gray cast iron surface with different shapes and distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-kai; Lu, Shu-chao; Song, Xi-bin; Zhang, Haifeng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    To improve the fatigue wear resistance of gray cast iron (GCI), GCI samples were modified by a laser to imitate the unique structure of some soil animals alternating between soft and hard phases; the hard phase resists the deformation and the soft phase releases the deformation. Using the self-controlled fatigue wear test method, the fatigue wear behaviors of treated and untreated samples were investigated and compared experimentally. The results show that the bionic non-smooth surface obtains a beneficial effect on improving the fatigue wear resistance of a sample, and the fatigue wear resistance of the bionic sample assembled with reticulate units (60°+0°), whose mass loss was reduced by 62%, was superior to the others. Meanwhile, a finite element (FE) was used to simulate the compression and the distributions of strain and stress on the non-smooth surface was inferred. From these results, we understood that the functions of the bionic unit such as reducing strain and stress, and also obstructing the closure and propagation of cracks were the main reasons for improving the fatigue wear property of GCI.

  19. The influence of heat treatment on the high-stress abrasion resistance and fracture toughness of alloy white cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sare, I. R.; Arnold, B. K.

    1995-07-01

    The influence of a range of austenitizing and subcritical (tempering) heat treatments on the high-stress abrasion resistance and fracture toughness of four commercially significant grades of alloy white cast iron was investigated. Complementing an earlier study[1] on the influence of a more limited range of heat treatments on the gouging abrasion performance of the same alloys, the results showed that the effect of austenitizing temperature on high-stress abrasion pin test weight loss differed for each alloy. With increasing austenitizing temperature, these results ranged from a substantial improvement in wear performance and retention of hardness through to vir-tually no change in wear performance and substantial falls in hardness. Fracture toughness, however, increased markedly in all alloys with increasing austenitizing temperature. Tempering treatments in the range 400 °C to 600 °C, following hardening at the austenitizing temperature used commonly in industrial practice for each alloy, produced significant changes in both hard-ness and wear performance, but negligible changes in fracture toughness. Most importantly, the data showed that selection of the correct temperature for subcritical heat treatment to reduce the retained austenite content for applications involving repeated impact loading is critical if abrasion resistance is not to suffer.

  20. Effect of vanadium and chromium on the microstructural features of V-Cr-Mn-Ni spheroidal carbide cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, V. G.; Shimizu, K.; Cheiliakh, A. P.; Kozarevskaya, T. V.; Kusumoto, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of vanadium (5.0wt%-10.0wt%) and chromium (0-9.0wt%) on the microstructure and hardness of Cr-V-Mn-Ni white cast irons with spheroidal vanadium carbides. The alloys' microstructural features are presented and discussed with regard to the distribution of phase elements. The structural constituents of the alloys are spheroidal VC, proeutectoid cementite, ledeburite eutectic, rosette-shaped carbide eutectic (based on M7C3), pearlite, martensite, and austenite. Their combinations and area fraction (AF) ratios are reported to be influenced by the alloys' chemical composition. Spheroidized VC particles are found to be sites for the nucleation of carbide eutectics. Cr and V are shown to substitute each other in the VC and M7C3 carbides, respectively. Chromium alloying leads to the formation of a eutectic (γ-Fe + M7C3), preventing the appearance of proeutectoid cementite in the structure. Vanadium and chromium are revealed to increase the total carbide fraction and the amount of austenite in the matrix. Cr is observed to play a key role in controlling the metallic matrix microstructure.

  1. Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh

    2013-09-01

    Nihard Grade-4, a nickel-bearing cast iron widely used in slurry pumps and hydrodynamic components, is evaluated for its erosive wear response under mining conditions using a statistical approach. Experiments were conducted by varying the factors namely velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH in three levels, using L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance was used to rank the factors influencing erosive wear. The results indicate that velocity is the most influencing factor followed by the angle of impingement, slurry concentration, and pH. Interaction effects of velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH on erosion rate have been discussed. Wear morphology was also studied using SEM characterization technique. At lower angle (30°) of impingement, the erosion of material is by micro fracture and shallow ploughing with the plastic deformation of the ductile austenitic matrix. At the normal angle (90°) of impingement, the material loss from the surface is found because of deep indentation, forming protruded lips which are removed by means of repeated impact of the erodent.

  2. Agile Manufacturing Development of Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Consortium was tasked by GE Transportation Systems (GETS) with development of the IFE, a complex ductile iron casting for a commercial loco- motive that... ductile iron foundry with this tooling, it was clear that castings with acceptable quality could not be made. These castings were on the GE...requirements. Therefore, the design specifies a thin - walled casting with complex structures and the requirements demand tight dimensional tolerances and

  3. Effect of bacterial communities on the formation of cast iron corrosion tubercles in reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Jin, Juntao; Wu, Guangxue; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-03-15

    To understand the role bacterial communities play in corrosion scale development, the morphological and physicochemical characteristics of corrosion scales in raw and disinfected reclaimed water were systematically investigated. Corrosion tubercles were found in raw reclaimed water while thin corrosion layers formed in disinfected reclaimed water. The corrosion tubercles, composed mainly of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, and CaCO3, consisted of an top surface; a shell containing more magnetite than other layers; a core in association with stalks produced by bacteria; and a corroded layer. The thin corrosion layers also had layered structures. These had a smooth top, a dense middle, and a corroded layer. They mostly consisted of the same main components as the tubercles in raw reclaimed water, but with different proportions. The profiles of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, redox potential, and pH in the tubercles were different to those in the corrosion layers, which demonstrated that these parameters changed with a shift in the microbial processes in the tubercles. The bacterial communities in the tubercles were found to be dominated by Proteobacteria (56.7%), Bacteroidetes (10.0%), and Nitrospira (6.9%). The abundance of sequences affiliated to iron-reducing bacteria (IRB, mainly Geothrix) and iron-oxidizing bacteria (mainly Aquabacterium) was relatively high. The layered characteristics of the corrosion layers was due to the blocking of DO transfer by the development of the scales themselves. Bacterial communities could at least promote the layering process and formation of corrosion tubercles. Possible mechanisms might include: (1) bacterial communities mediated the pH and redox potential in the tubercles (which helped to form shell-like and core layers), (2) the metabolism of IRB and magnetic bacteria (Magnetospirillum) might contribute to the presence of Fe3O4 in the shell-like layer, while IRB contributed to green rust in the core layer, and (3) the diversity of

  4. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and wear performance of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast iron grinding media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyarthi, M. K.; Ghose, A. K.; Chakrabarty, I.

    2013-12-01

    The phase transformation and grinding wear behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons subjected to destabilization treatment followed by air cooling or deep cryogenic treatment were studied as a part of the development program of substitute alloys for existing costly wear resistant alloys. The microstructural evolution during heat treatment and the consequent improvement in grinding wear performance were evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, bulk hardness, impact toughness and corrosion rate measurements, laboratory ball mill grinding wear test etc. The deep cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the retained austenite content and converts it to martensite embedded with fine M7C3 alloy carbides. The cumulative wear losses in cryotreated alloys are lesser than those with conventionally destabilized alloys followed by air cooling both in wet and dry grinding conditions. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons exhibit comparable wear performance to high chromium irons.

  5. Retained Austenite Phase in (26.5%Cr, 2.6%C) White Cast Iron Studied by Means of CEMS and Eddy Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Waanders, F. B.; Jones, C.

    High chrome white irons are specifically employed in the mining industry for their resistance to wear. More cost-effective materials are constantly being sought, due to the high wear rate of the drilling components, which is a high cost area for this industry. Optimum resistance to wear is often not the main criterion of material selection but parameters such as ease of fabrication; availability and low initial cost have also to be accounted for. A correctly heat-treated high chrome white iron of a right chemical composition presents the best hardness and toughness combination [1]. A (26.5 wt.% Cr, 2.6 wt.% C) white iron has been produced by casting and heat-treating. As the retained austenite phase has the ability to harden, the control of its content may result in tuning the applications of this material. Various heat-treatments were given to the above-mentioned material to achieve a spread of austenite values. The retained austenite phase amount was measured by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Conversion Electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and Eddy current techniques. A linear correlation between results from Eddy Current and CEMS, Eddy-current and XRD, and between those from CEMS and XRD was observed. As the nominal abundance values were ``technique dependent'', their conversion will be discussed. The present study results in the calibration of the Eddy current apparatus and suggests its application in the casting industry during mass production for the retained austenite content determination in high chrome white iron castings.

  6. Effects of W on microstructure of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C–(0–10)wt.%W irons

    SciTech Connect

    Imurai, S.; Thanachayanont, C.; Pearce, J.T.H.; Tsuda, K.; Chairuangsri, T.

    2015-01-15

    Microstructures of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C irons containing (0–10)wt.%W with the Cr/C ratio about 10 were studied and related to their hardness. The experimental irons were cast into dry sand molds. Microstructural investigation was performed by light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was found that the irons with 1 to 10 wt.%W addition was hypereutectic containing large primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, whereas the reference iron without W addition was hypoeutectic. The matrix in all irons was austenite, partly transformed to martensite during cooling. The volume fractions of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and the total carbides increased, but that of eutectic carbides decreased with increasing the W content of the irons. W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. At about 4 wt.%W, two eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 6}C were observed together with primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. At 10 wt.%W, multiple carbides including primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, fish-bone M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and M{sub 6}C were observed. M{sub x}C where x = 3 or less has not been found due possibly to the high M/C ratio in the studied irons. W distribution to all carbides has been determined increasing from ca. 0.3 to 0.8 in mass fraction as the W content in the irons was increased. W addition led to an increase in Vickers macro-hardness of the irons up to 671 kgf/(mm){sup 2} (HV30/15) obtained from the iron with 10 wt.%W. The formation of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and aggregates of M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were the main reasons for hardness increase, indicating potentially improved wear performance of the as-cast irons with W addition. - Highlights: • W addition at 1 up to 10 wt.%W to Fe–28Cr–2.6C produced “hypereutectic” structure. • W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M

  7. Determination of vanadium in refractory metals, steel, cast iron, alloys and silicates by extraction of an NBPHA complex from a sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid medium.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1970-07-01

    A method for determining up to 0.15% of vanadium in high-purity niobium and tantalum metals, cast iron, steel, non-ferrous alloys and silicates is described. The proposed method is based on the extraction of a red vanadium(V)-N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine complex into chloroform from a sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid medium containing excess of ammonium persulphate as oxidant. The molar absorptivity of the complex is 428 l.mole(-1).mm(-5) at 475 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption. Interference from chromium(VI) and cerium(IV) is eliminated by reduction with iron(II). Common ions, including large amounts of titanium, zirconium, molybdenum and tungsten, do not interfere.

  8. The effects of novel surface treatments on the wear and fatigue properties of steel and chilled cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Jason William

    Contact fatigue driven wear is a principal design concern for gear and camshaft engineering of power systems. To better understand how to engineer contact fatigue resistant surfaces, the effects of electroless nickel and hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings on the fatigue life at 108 cycles of SAE 52100 steel were studied using ultrasonic fatigue methods. The addition of DLC and electroless nickel coatings to SAE 52100 bearing steel had no effect on the fatigue life. Different inclusion types were found to affect the stress intensity value beyond just the inclusion size, as theorized by Murakami. The difference in stress intensity values necessary to propagate a crack for Ti (C,N) and alumina inclusions was due to the higher driving force for crack extension at the Ti (C,N) inclusions and was attributed to differences in the shape of the inclusion: rhombohedral for the Ti (C,N) versus spherical for the oxides. A correction factor was added to the Murakami equation to account for inclusion type. The wear properties of DLC coated SAE 52100 and chilled cast iron were studied using pin-on-disk tribometry and very high cycle ultrasonic tribometry. A wear model that includes sliding thermal effects as well as thermodynamics consistent with the wear mechanism for DLCs was developed based on empirical results from ultrasonic wear testing to 108 cycles. The model fit both ultrasonic and classic tribometer data for wear of DLCs. Finally, the wear properties of laser hardened steels - SAE 8620, 4140, and 52100 - were studied at high contact pressures and low numbers of cycles. A design of experiments was conducted to understand how the laser processing parameters of power, speed, and beam size, as well as carbon content of the steel, affected surface hardness. A hardness maximum was found at approximately 0.7 wt% carbon most likely resulting from increased amounts of retained austenite. The ratcheting contact fatigue model of Kapoor was found to be useful in

  9. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  10. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  11. Cast iron freezing mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillybeck, N. P.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This task focused on liquid phase sintering and infiltration studies of refractory metals and metal composites. Particular emphases was placed on those powered metal compacts which produce liquid alloys in sintering. For this class of materials, heating to a two phase region causes the constituent components to react, forming an alloy liquid which must wet the solid phase. Densification is initially driven by the free energy effects which cause rapid rearrangement. Further densification occurs by evaporation and condensation, surface diffusion, bulk flow, and volume diffusion.

  12. Effects of a Destabilization Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Behavior of High-Chromium White Cast Iron Investigated Using Different Characterization Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasan, Hakan; Erturk, Fatih

    2013-11-01

    The hypoeutectic white cast iron was subjected to various destabilization heat treatment temperatures of 1173 K, 1273 K, and 1373 K (900 °C, 1000 °C, and 1100 °C) for 2 hours. The as-cast and destabilized specimens were characterized by optical metallography, classical direct comparison, and the Rietveld method. The volume fractions of carbides were measured by optical metallography. Moreover, the volume fractions of retained austenite and martensite were measured by the classical direct comparison method. Despite the limitations of optical metallography and the classical direct comparison method, the Rietveld method was successively and accurately applied to determine the volume fractions of all phases. In addition, the Rietveld analysis yielded certain results, such as the crystallographic properties of the phases that can be used to explain the relationship between the microstructural parameters and the wear behavior. Abrasive wear tests with different sliding speeds were carried out on the as-cast and destabilized alloys to identify the effect of microstructural parameters on the wear behavior. The results indicated that the morphologies of secondary carbides, the crystallographic properties of the phases, and the proper combination of the amount of martensite, retained austenite, and carbides were the principle parameters that affect the hardness and wear behavior of the alloy.

  13. New aspects about reduced LCF-life time of spherical ductile cast iron due to dynamic strain aging at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Hayato; Wunderlich, Wilfried; Hayashi, Morihito

    2009-06-01

    Spherical ductile cast iron (FCD400) is widely used as container material in nuclear energy processing line due to its superior mechanical properties and low price. Fatigue properties in low cycle fatigue (LCF) can be described well by the Manson-Coffin-Basquin's rule. However, at intermediate temperature range between 453 and 723 K the elongation-temperature-diagram shows a significantly 20-10% reduced elongation and an increase in yield stress in tensile test experiments. These non-linear deviations and the phenomenon of less ductility at intermediate temperatures are known for a long time [1] [K. Chijiiwa, M. Hayashi, Mechanical properties of ductile cast iron at temperature in the region of room temperature to liquid, Imono 51 (7) (2004) 395-400]. But the following explanation is presented for the first time. In the same temperature range as the reduced fatigue life time dynamic strain ageing (DSA) also known as Portevin-le-Chartelier effect with the formation of visible serrations occurs. Both phenomena are explained by interaction effects between carbon diffusion and dislocation velocity which have at this temperature the same order of magnitude. However, this phenomenon shows interesting behavior at intermediate temperature range. During the low cycle fatigue test, DSA phenomenon disappeared, but mechanical properties show clear evidence of DSA phenomenon. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the correlation of DSA occurrence, LCF and mechanical properties.

  14. Molecular characterization of natural biofilms from household taps with different materials: PVC, stainless steel, and cast iron in drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Zhisheng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-09-01

    Microorganism in drinking water distribution system may colonize in biofilms. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversities were analyzed in both water and biofilms grown on taps with three different materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and cast iron) from a local drinking water distribution system. In total, five clone libraries (440 sequences) were obtained. The taxonomic composition of the microbial communities was found to be dominated by members of Proteobacteria (65.9-98.9 %), broadly distributed among the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Other bacterial groups included Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Moreover, a small proportion of unclassified bacteria (3.5-10.6 %) were also found. This investigation revealed that the bacterial communities in biofilms appeared much more diversified than expected and more care should be taken to the taps with high bacterial diversity. Also, regular monitor of outflow water would be useful as potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected. In addition, microbial richness and diversity in taps ranked in the order as: PVC < stainless steel < cast iron. All the results interpreted that PVC would be a potentially suitable material for use as tap component in drinking water distribution system.

  15. Physico-chemical properties of quartz from industrial manufacturing and its cytotoxic effects on alveolar macrophages: The case of green sand mould casting for iron production.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Pardi, Luca A; Bronco, Simona; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Muniz Miranda, Maurizio; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario; Romanelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-15

    Industrial processing of materials containing quartz induces physico-chemical modifications that contribute to the variability of quartz hazard in different plants. Here, modifications affecting a quartz-rich sand during cast iron production, have been investigated. Composition, morphology, presence of radicals associated to quartz and reactivity in free radical generation were studied on a raw sand and on a dust recovered after mould dismantling. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the processed dust and ROS and NO generation were evaluated on MH-S macrophages. Particle morphology and size were marginally affected by casting processing, which caused only a slight increase of the amount of respirable fraction. The raw sand was able to catalyze OH and CO2(-) generation in cell-free test, even if in a lesser extent than the reference quartz (Min-U-Sil), and shows hAl radicals, conventionally found in any quartz-bearing raw materials. Enrichment in iron and extensive coverage with amorphous carbon were observed during processing. They likely contributed, respectively, to increasing the ability of processed dust to release CO2- and to suppressing OH generation respect to the raw sand. Carbon coverage and repeated thermal treatments during industrial processing also caused annealing of radiogenic hAl defects. Finally, no cellular responses were observed with the respirable fraction of the processed powder.

  16. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    possible today. Extensive work was conducted on casting of semi-solid alloys when highly fluid (’ Rheocasting ’) and when thixotropically gelled...Thixocasting’). In initial phases of the program, copper base alloys and cast iron alloys were prepared with special non-dendritic Rheocast structure by batch...processing. Compatibility studies were carried out to select materials suitable for preparing cast iron with the Rheocast structure. Design

  17. An investigation into the suitability of some etching reagents to restoring obliterated stamped numbers on cast iron engine blocks of cars.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahab, Mohd Farizon; Mohamad Ghani, Nurul Izwani; Kuppuswamy, R

    2012-11-30

    Most of the automotive companies use cast iron for their engine blocks. Restoration of obliterated number on these iron surfaces by chemical etching is known to be quite difficult. Heating of the obliterated surface using oxyacetylene flame is an alternative recovery treatment suggested in literature and used in practice. However chemical etching has been established to be the most sensitive technique for detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers. Hence, the current work investigated the suitability of some common etchants on cast iron surfaces with a view to determining the most suitable one for revealing the obliterated marks. The reagents tested were mostly copper containing Fry's reagent and its modifications. Two cast iron engine blocks (3.29%C and 3.1%C) of two cars--a Proton Saga and a Toyota--were utilized for the experiments. The engine blocks were cut into several small plates and each plate was stamped with some numerical characters at 8 kN load using Instron Table Mounted Universal Testing Machine. The depth of stamping impression varied between 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm. The stamped number was completely ground off manually using a metal file. The grounded surface was then polished smooth using emery papers and etched with a few selected reagents mostly by swabbing. Experimental results showed that a modified Fry's composition consisting of 4 5g CuCl(2), 100 mL HCl, and 180 mL H(2)O restored the number with better contrast at a reasonably shorter time. The above reagent is a slightly modified form of one of the Fry's original compositions--45 g CuCl(2), 180 mL HCl, and 100 mL H(2)O. Quite importantly the proposed reagent restored the original stamped numbers of both Proton and Toyota cars and also a Mitsubishi car that had been obliterated. The most widely used Fry's composition (90 g CuCl(2), 120 mL HCl and 100 mL H(2)O), although recovered the obliterated number, did not cause the desired contrast.

  18. Effects of Mo on microstructure of as-cast 28 wt.% Cr–2.6 wt.% C–(0–10) wt.% Mo irons

    SciTech Connect

    Imurai, S.; Thanachayanont, C.; Pearce, J.T.H.; Tsuda, K.; Chairuangsri, T.

    2014-04-01

    Microstructures of as-cast 28 wt.% Cr–2.6 wt.% C irons containing (0–10) wt.% Mo with the Cr/C ratio of about 10 were studied and related to hardness. The experimental irons were cast into dry sand molds. Microstructural investigation was performed by light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was found that the iron with about 10 wt.% Mo was eutectic/peritectic, whereas the others with less Mo content were hypoeutectic. The matrix in all irons was austenite, partly transformed to martensite during cooling. Mo addition promoted the formation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C. At 1 wt.% Mo, multiple eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C were observed. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} existed as a transition zone between eutectic M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 6}C, indicating a carbide transition as M{sub 7}C{sub 3}(M{sub 2.3}C) → M{sub 23}C{sub 6}(M{sub 3.8}C) → M{sub 6}C. At 6 wt.% Mo, multiple eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were observed together with fine cellular/lamellar M{sub 6}C aggregates. In the iron with 10 wt.% Mo, only eutectic/peritectic M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C were found without M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. Mo distribution to all carbides has been determined to be increased from ca. 0.4 to 0.7 in mass fraction as the Mo content in the irons was increased. On the other hand, Cr distribution to all carbides is quite constant as ca. 0.6 in mass fraction. Mo addition increased Vickers macro-hardness of the irons from 495 up to 674 HV{sub 30}. High Mo content as solid-solution in the matrix and the formation of M{sub 6}C or M{sub 23}C{sub 6} aggregates were the main reasons for hardness increase, indicating potentially improved wear performance of the irons with Mo addition. - Highlights: • Mo promoted the formation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C in the irons with Cr/C ratio of about 10

  19. Arsenic Accumulation and Release Studies Using a Cast Iron Pipe Section from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tendency of iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic and other ions is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove these contaminants. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in dri...

  20. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  1. Reline 33 year old kettle for more corrosive process at about 1/3 cost of new unit: lightweight foamed glass block protects corroded cast iron cover

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This article presents a solution to a chemical plant's need for a lining material to reline a 33 year old kettle that would be resistant to attack by aqueous bromine and hydrochloric, nitrous, and bromic acid. The solution was to use an elastomeric polyisobutylene sheeting as a primary lining for the kettle. The problem was also solved by using a light weight foamed glass block which protected the corroded cast iron dome cover for the kettle. Installation of the two-step lining for the kettle and cover by Chemsteel Construction Company of New Kensington, PA was completed in 5 weeks. The cost was about 1/3 as much as fabricating, installing, and lining a new steel 5000 gal vessel. The kettle has been in service about 12 months and the acid brick/polyisobutylene membrance liner shows no signs of damage from the highly corrosive chemicals and elevated temperatures required for the process change.

  2. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cell (WBC) casts are more common with acute kidney infections. Your provider will tell you more about your results. Risks There are no risks with this test. Alternative Names Hyaline casts; Granular casts; Renal tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the ...

  3. Effects of Iron-Rich Intermetallics and Grain Structure on Semisolid Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys near Solidus Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolouri, Amir; Liu, Kun; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-12-01

    The effects of iron-rich intermetallics and grain size on the semisolid tensile properties of Al-Cu 206 cast alloys near the solidus were evaluated in relation to the mush microstructure. Analyses of the stress-displacement curves showed that the damage expanded faster in the mush structure dominated by plate-like β-Fe compared to the mush structure dominated by Chinese script-like α-Fe. While there was no evidence of void formation on the β-Fe intermetallics, they blocked the interdendritic liquid channels and thus hindered liquid flow and feeding during semisolid deformation. In contrast, the interdendritic liquid flows more freely within the mush structure containing α-Fe. The tensile properties of the alloy containing α-Fe are generally higher than those containing β-Fe over the crucial liquid fraction range of 0.6 to 2.8 pct, indicating that the latter alloy may be more susceptible to stress-related casting defects such as hot tearing. A comparison of the semisolid tensile properties of the alloy containing α-Fe with different grain sizes showed that the maximum stress and elongation of the alloy with finer grains were moderately higher for the liquid fractions of 2.2 to 3.6 pct. The application of semisolid tensile properties for the evaluation of the hot tearing susceptibility of experimental alloys is discussed.

  4. A Predictive Framework for Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron Based on Considerations of Strain Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Katherine R.

    Isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and anisothermal thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a high silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) cast iron for temperatures up to 1073K. LCF and out-of-phase (OP) TMF lives were significantly reduced when the temperature was near 673K due to an embrittlement phenomenon which decreases the ductility of HiSiMo at this temperature. In this case, intergranular fracture was predominant, and magnesium was observed at the fracture surface. When the thermal cycle did not include 673K, the failure mode was predominantly transgranular, and magnesium was not present on the fracture surface. The in-phase (IP) TMF lives were unaffected when the thermal cycle included 673K, and the predominant failure mode was found to be transgranular fracture, regardless of the temperature. No magnesium was present on the IP TMF fracture surfaces. Thus, the embrittlement phenomenon was found to contribute to fatigue damage only when the temperature was near 673K and a tensile stress was present. To account for the temperature- and stress-dependence of the embrittlement phenomenon on the TMF life of HiSiMo cast iron, an original model based on the cyclic inelastic energy dissipation is proposed which accounts for temperature-dependent differences in the rate of fatigue damage accumulation in tension and compression. The proposed model has few empirical parameters. Despite the simplicity of the model, the predicted fatigue life shows good agreement with more than 130 uniaxial low cycle and thermomechanical fatigue tests, cyclic creep tests, and tests conducted at slow strain rates and with hold times. The proposed model was implemented in a multiaxial formulation and applied to the fatigue life prediction of an exhaust manifold subjected to severe thermal cycles. The simulation results show good agreement with the failure locations and number of cycles to failure observed in a component-level experiment.

  5. [Effect of the change in sulphate and dissolved oxygen mass concentration on metal release in old cast iron distribution pipes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-li; Shi, Bao-you; Sun, Hui-fang; Zhang, Zhi-huan; Gu, Jun-nong; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-09-01

    To understand the processes of corrosion by-product release and the consequent "red water" problems caused by the variation of water chemical composition in drinking water distribution system, the effect of sulphate and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on total iron release in corroded old iron pipe sections historically transporting groundwater was investigated in laboratory using small-scale pipe section reactors. The release behaviors of some low-level metals, such as Mn, As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni, in the process of iron release were also monitored. The results showed that the total iron and Mn release increased significantly with the increase of sulphate concentration, and apparent red water occurred when sulphate concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1). With the increase of sulfate concentration, the effluent concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni also increased obviously, however, the effluent concentrations of these metals were lower than the influent concentrations under most circumstances, which indicated that adsorption of these metals by pipe corrosion scales occurred. Increasing DO within a certain range could significantly inhibit the iron release.

  6. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  7. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Conversion of low BMEP 4-cylinder to high BMEP 2-cylinder large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, John

    There are more than 6,000 integral compressor engines in use on US natural gas pipelines, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Many of these engines have operated continuously for more than 50 years, with little to no modifications. Due to recent emission regulations at the local, state and federal levels much of the aging infrastructure requires retrofit technology to remain within compliance. The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was founded to test these retrofit technologies on its large bore engine testbed (LBET). The LBET is a low brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) Cooper Bessemer GMVTF-4. Newer GMV models, constructed in 1980's, utilize turbocharging to increase the output power, achieving BMEP's nearly double that of the LBET. To expand the lab's testing capability and to reduce the LBET's running cost: material testing, in-depth modeling, and on engine testing was completed to evaluate the feasibility of uprating the LBET to a high BMEP two cylinder engine. Due to the LBET's age, the crankcase material properties were not known. Material samples were removed from engine to conduct an in-depth material analysis. It was found that the crankcase was cast out of a specific grade of gray iron, class 25 meehanite. A complete three dimensional model of the LBET's crankcase and power cylinders was created. Using historical engine data, the force inputs were created for a finite element analysis model of the LBET, to determine the regions of high stress. The areas of high stress were instrumented with strain gauges to iterate and validate the model's findings. Several test cases were run at the high and intermediate BMEP engine conditions. The model found, at high BMEP conditions the LBET would operate at the fatigue limit of the class 25 meehanite, operating with no factor of safety but the intermediate case were deemed acceptable.

  9. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  10. Microstructure and high-temperature wear properties of in situ TiC composite coatings by plasma transferred arc surface alloying on gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Li, Jian-jun; Zheng, Zhi-zhen; Wang, Ai-hua; Huang, Qi-wen; Zeng, Da-wen

    2015-12-01

    In this work, an in situ synthesized TiC-reinforced metal matrix composite (MMC) coating of approximately 350-400 µm thickness was fabricated on a gray cast iron (GCI) substrate by plasma transferred arc (PTA) surface alloying of Ti-Fe alloy powder. Microhardness tests showed that the surface hardness increased approximately four-fold after the alloying treatment. The microstructure of the MMC coating was mainly composed of residual austenite, acicular martensite, and eutectic ledeburite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyzes revealed that the in situ TiC particles, which were formed by direct reaction of Ti with carbon originally contained in the GCI, was uniformly distributed at the boundary of residual austenite in the alloying zone. Pin-on-disc high-temperature wear tests were performed on samples both with and without the MMC coating at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (473 K and 623 K), and the wear behavior and mechanism were investigated. The results showed that, after the PTA alloying treatment, the wear resistance of the samples improved significantly. On the basis of our analysis of the composite coatings by optical microscopy, SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, we attributed this improvement of wear resistance to the transformation of the microstructure and to the presence of TiC particles.

  11. Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: Part II. effect on the wear behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Maldonado, C.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, we studied the wear behavior of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) modified with ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2%. These additions modified the eutectic carbide structure of the alloy from continuous ledeburite into a blocky, less interconnected carbide network. The modified structure was wear tested under pure sliding conditions against a hardened M2 steel counter-face using a load of 250 N. It was observed that wear resistance increased as the modifier admixture increased. The modified structure had smaller more isolated carbides than the WCI with no Fe-Ti-RE-Bi additions. It was observed that large carbides fracture during sliding, which destabilizes the structure and causes degradation in the wear behavior. A transition from abrasive to oxidative wear after 20 km sliding occurred for all alloys. In addition, the modified alloys exhibited higher values of hardness and fracture toughness. These results are discussed in terms of the modified eutectic carbide microstructure.

  12. Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: I. Effect on microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Hernández, B.

    2005-04-01

    The present work studies the effect of small additions of a mixture of Ti, rare earths (RE), and Bi on the eutectic solidification of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) commercially designed as Ni-Hard Class I Type B according to the ASTM A532. For this purpose, systematic additions of a mixture of ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2% were made to a low-Cr WCI. By means of these additions, a modified carbide structure was obtained. Eutectic carbides changed from a highly interconnected ledeburite structure to more isolated, finer blocky structure. This microstructural change caused variations in the mechanical behavior of the WCI. The decrease in size and reduced connectivity of the eutectic carbides increased fracture toughness as well as wear resistance under dry sliding conditions. The effect of the admixture on the microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed in terms of the segregation and refining effects of the elements that comprise the mixture.

  13. A New Method For Advanced Virtual Design Of Stamping Tools For Automotive Industry: Application To Nodular Cast Iron EN-GJS-600-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Slima, Khalil; Penazzi, Luc; Mabru, Catherine; Ronde-Oustau, François; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad

    2011-05-01

    This contribution presents an approach combining the stamping numerical processing simulations and structure analysis in order to improve the design for optimizing the tool fatigue life. The method consists in simulating the stamping process via AutoForm® (or any FEM Code) by considering the tool as a perfect rigid body. The estimated contact pressure is then used as boundary condition for FEM structure loading analysis. The result of this analysis is used for life prediction of the tool using S-N fatigue curve. If the prescribed tool life requirements are not satisfied, then the critical region of the tool is redesigned and the whole simulation procedures are reactivated. This optimization method is applied for a cast iron EN-GJS-600-3 as candidate stamping tool materiel. The room temperature fatigue S-N curves of this alloy are established in laboratory under uniaxial push/pull cyclic experiments on cylindrical specimens under a load ratio of R (σmin/σmax) = -2.

  14. Effect of Destabilization Heat Treatments on the Microstructure of High-Chromium Cast Iron: A Microscopy Examination Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantzalis, A. E.; Lekatou, A.; Diavati, E.

    2009-11-01

    A 18.22 wt.% Cr white iron has been subjected to various destabilization heat treatments. Destabilization at 800 °C caused gradual precipitation of M23C6 secondary carbide particles with time leading to a gradual increase in the bulk hardness. At 900, 1000, and 1100 °C, an initial sharp increase in bulk hardness with time occurred, reaching a plateau that was followed by a slightly decreasing trend. The combination of martensite formed, stoichiometry, and morphology of the secondary carbides present (mostly M7C3) are responsible for the obtained values of hardness. At 1100 °C, severe dissolution of the secondary carbides and consequent stabilization of the austenitic phase took place. Maximum hardness values were obtained for destabilization at 1000 °C. The correlation between bulk hardness and microstructural features was elaborated.

  15. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  16. Multi-surface topography targeted plateau honing for the processing of cylinder liner surfaces of automotive engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. Deepak; Ramamoorthy, B.

    2016-03-01

    Cylinder bores of automotive engines are 'engineered' surfaces that are processed using multi-stage honing process to generate multiple layers of micro geometry for meeting the different functional requirements of the piston assembly system. The final processed surfaces should comply with several surface topographic specifications that are relevant for the good tribological performance of the engine. Selection of the process parameters in three stages of honing to obtain multiple surface topographic characteristics simultaneously within the specification tolerance is an important module of the process planning and is often posed as a challenging task for the process engineers. This paper presents a strategy by combining the robust process design and gray-relational analysis to evolve the operating levels of honing process parameters in rough, finish and plateau honing stages targeting to meet multiple surface topographic specifications on the final running surface of the cylinder bores. Honing experiments were conducted in three stages namely rough, finish and plateau honing on cast iron cylinder liners by varying four honing process parameters such as rotational speed, oscillatory speed, pressure and honing time. Abbott-Firestone curve based functional parameters (Rk, Rpk, Rvk, Mr1 and Mr2) coupled with mean roughness depth (Rz, DIN/ISO) and honing angle were measured and identified as the surface quality performance targets to be achieved. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is effective to generate cylinder liner surface that would simultaneously meet the explicit surface topographic specifications currently practiced by the industry.

  17. 9. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGHPRESSURE CYLINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER AND EXTENSION OF HOUSING. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  18. Effects of operational parameters and common ions on the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by scrap copper-modified cast iron.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jin-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Scrap Cu-modified cast iron (CMCI) is a potent material for the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by a surface-mediated reaction. However, the effects of operational parameters and common ions on its reduction and final rate are unknown. Results show that the 2,4-DNT reduction was significantly affected by Cu:Fe mass ratio and the optimum m(Cu:Fe) was 0.25%. The slight pH-dependent trend of 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI was observed at pH 3 to 11, and the maximum end product, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), was generated at pH 7. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water reduced the 2,4-DNT degradation and the formation of 2,4-DAT. CMCI effectively treated high concentrations of 2,4-DNT (60 to 150 mg L(-1)). In addition, varying the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L(-1) improved the efficiency of the reduction process. The green rust-like corrosion products (GR-SO4 (2-)) were also effective for 2,4-DNT reduction, in which Na2CO3 (0.01 to 0.2 mol L(-1)) significantly inhibited this reduction. The repeated-use efficiency of CMCI was also inhibited. Moreover, 2,4-DNT and its products, such as 4A2NT, 2A4NT, and 2,4-DAT, produced mass imbalance (<35%). Hydrolysis of Fe(3+) and CO3 (2-) leading to the generation of Fe(OH)3 and conversion to FeOOH that precipitated on the surface and strongly adsorbed the products of reduction caused the inhibition of CO3 (2-). The 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI could be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The operational conditions and common ions affected the 2,4-DNT reduction and its products by enhancing the corrosion of iron or accumulating a passive oxide film on the reactivity sites.

  19. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems.

  20. Experiments on fracture toughness of thick-wall cylinder for modes I, II, III

    SciTech Connect

    Saegusa, T.; Urabe, N.; Ito, C.; Shirai, K.; Kosaki, A.

    1999-07-01

    There have been few data on fracture toughness for Mode 2 and 3 as compared with those for Mode 1. Experimental data on fracture toughness of plates made of ductile cast iron (ASTM A874-89) and forged steel (ASME SA350 LF5 C1.1) were obtained at a temperature range from 77K to 293K for Mode 1, 2 and 3. The results showed: J{sub IC} < J{sub IIC} < J{sub IIIC}, and K{sub IC} < K{sub IIC} K{sub IIIC}. Integrity of a thick-wall cylinder with artificial flaw was demonstrated against brittle fracture at 233K for Mode 1, 2 and 3, which is one of the design requirements of containers shipping radioactive materials.

  1. Acoustic resonances in cylinder bundles oscillating in a compressibile fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-12-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on acoustic resonances of elastic oscillations of a group of parallel, circular, thin cylinders in an unbounded volume of barotropic, compressible, inviscid fluid. The perturbed motion of the fluid is assumed due entirely to the flexural oscillations of the cylinders. The motion of the fluid disturbances is first formulated in a three-dimensional wave form and then casted into a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation for the harmonic motion in time and in axial space. The acoustic motion in the fluid and the elastic motion in the cylinders are solved simultaneously. Acoustic resonances were approximately determined from the secular (eigenvalue) equation by the method of successive iteration with the use of digital computers for a given set of the fluid properties and the cylinders' geometry and properties. Effects of the flexural wavenumber and the configuration of and the spacing between the cylinders on the acoustic resonances were thoroughly investigated.

  2. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  3. POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Cylinder monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.

  5. Collapsing bacterial cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betterton, M. D.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2001-12-01

    Under special conditions bacteria excrete an attractant and aggregate. The high density regions initially collapse into cylindrical structures, which subsequently destabilize and break up into spherical aggregates. This paper presents a theoretical description of the process, from the structure of the collapsing cylinder to the spacing of the final aggregates. We show that cylindrical collapse involves a delicate balance in which bacterial attraction and diffusion nearly cancel, leading to corrections to the collapse laws expected from dimensional analysis. The instability of a collapsing cylinder is composed of two distinct stages: Initially, slow modulations to the cylinder develop, which correspond to a variation of the collapse time along the cylinder axis. Ultimately, one point on the cylinder pinches off. At this final stage of the instability, a front propagates from the pinch into the remainder of the cylinder. The spacing of the resulting spherical aggregates is determined by the front propagation.

  6. Delamination of Composite Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Peter; Carlsson, Leif A.

    The delamination resistance of filament wound glass/epoxy cylinders has been characterized for a range of winding angles and fracture mode ratios using beam fracture specimens. The results reveal that the delamination fracture resistance increases with increasing winding angle and mode II (shear) fraction (GΠ/G). It was also found that interlaced fiber bundles in the filament wound cylinder wall acted as effective crack arresters in mode I loading. To examine the sensitivity of delamina-tion damage on the strength of the cylinders, external pressure tests were performed on filament-wound glass/epoxy composite cylinders with artificial defects and impact damage. The results revealed that the cylinder strength was insensitive to the presence of single delaminations but impact damage caused reductions in failure pressure. The insensitivity of the failure pressure to a single delamination is attributed to the absence of buckling of the delaminated sublaminates before the cylinder wall collapsed. The impacted cylinders contained multiple delaminations, which caused local reduction in the compressive load capability and reduction in failure pressure. The response of glass/epoxy cylinders was compared to impacted carbon reinforced cylinders. Carbon/epoxy is more sensitive to damage but retains higher implosion resistance while carbon/PEEK shows the opposite trend.

  7. A Sequence of Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Hoping to develop in her students an understanding of mathematics as a way of thinking more than a way of doing, the author of this article describes how her students worked on a spatial reasoning problem stemming from an iteratively constructed sequence of cylinders. She presents an activity of making cylinders out of paper models, and for every…

  8. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  9. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to

  11. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  12. Dopant Cylinder Lifetime Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Steve; Wodjenski, Michael; Kaim, Robert; Lurcott, Steve; McManus, Jim; Smith, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    The cost of consumable materials is a significant component in the cost of implanter operation. With the higher cost of sub-atmospheric gas alternatives it is increasingly important to accurately monitor its usage. The ATMI® SDS® GasGauge™ monitoring system accurately monitors gas level in four cylinders simultaneously, throughout their lifetime, in order to optimize usage of gas and related implanter productivity. This paper displays how the GasGauge monitoring system accurately monitors the cylinder contents in SDS®, VAC® and high pressure gas cylinders. Internal and customer test data is also presented to verify these claims.

  13. Gas Cylinder Safety, Course 9518

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, George

    2016-10-27

    This course, Gas Cylinder Safety (#9518), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with handling, storing, using, and transporting gas cylinders. Standard components and markings of gas cylinders are also presented, as well as the process for the procurement, delivery, and return of gas cylinders at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  14. Relativistic Bessel cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    A set of cylindrical solutions to Einstein's field equations for power law densities is described. The solutions have a Bessel function contribution to the metric. For matter cylinders regular on axis, the first two solutions are the constant density Gott-Hiscock string and a cylinder with a metric Airy function. All members of this family have the Vilenkin limit to their mass per length. Some examples of Bessel shells and Bessel motion are given.

  15. Relativistic Bessel Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    A set of cylindrical solutions to Einstein's field equations for power law densities is described. The solutions have a Bessel function contribution to the metric. For matter cylinders regular on axis, the first two solutions are the constant density Gott-Hiscock string and a cylinder with a metric Airy function. All members of this family have the Vilenkin limit to their mass per length. Some examples of Bessel shells and Bessel motion are given.

  16. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping COAST... Materials § 56.60-15 Ductile iron. (a) Ductile cast iron components made of material conforming to ASTM A... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A...

  17. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping COAST... Materials § 56.60-15 Ductile iron. (a) Ductile cast iron components made of material conforming to ASTM A... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A...

  18. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping COAST... Materials § 56.60-15 Ductile iron. (a) Ductile cast iron components made of material conforming to ASTM A... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A...

  19. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron. 56.60-15 Section 56.60-15 Shipping COAST... Materials § 56.60-15 Ductile iron. (a) Ductile cast iron components made of material conforming to ASTM A... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) Ductile iron castings conforming to ASTM A...

  20. Reinforcement of Existing Cast-Iron Structural Elements by Means of Fiber Reinforced Composites / Wzmacnianie Istniejących, Żeliwnych Elementów Konstrukcyjnych za Pomocą Włóknokompozytów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinowski, Jakub; Różycki, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paperdeals with tubular, cast-iron columns which should be reinforced due to the planned new structural function of these elements. According to the requirements of the monument conservator the general appearance of columns should not be altered significantly. Reinforcement with an external, thin coating (sleeve or jacket) made of composite (carbon fibre reinforced polymer - CFRP) was proposed. Details of the proposedtechniquewerepresented. The reinforcementeffect was verifiedin destructivetestsperformed on two columns without reinforcement and the two other columns reinforced with the chosentechnique. Due to the expected very high load capacity of the axially loaded column, the test rig was designed in such a manner that the force could be applied on big eccentricity. For this purpose a specialbase was prepared(comp. Fig. 1). Destructivetests have confirmed the high effectiveness of the adopted strengthening technique.

  1. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Piwonka, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF IRON TREATMENT (DESULPHURIZATION) AREA. MOLTEN IRON PROCEEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF IRON TREATMENT (DESULPHURIZATION) AREA. MOLTEN IRON PROCEEDS FROM CUPOLA TO IRON TREATMENT AREAS BEFORE BEING TRANSFERRED TO PIPE CASTING MACHINES. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... moving. The outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, ... color! These casts are lighter and stronger than plaster casts. Plaster casts are usually white and made ...

  4. Cylinder To Cylinder Balancing Using Intake Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-18

    A method and apparatus for balancing a combustion phasing between a plurality of cylinders located in an engine. The method and apparatus includes a determining a combustion timing in each cylinder, establishing a baseline parameter for a desired combustion timing, and varying actuation of at least one of a plurality of intake valves, each intake valve being in fluid communication with a corresponding cylinder, such that the combustion timing in each cylinder is substantially equal to the desired combustion timing.

  5. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  6. Paper Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrasjid, Dorine A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an art project, based on the work of artist Chew Teng Beng, in the molding of wet paper on a plaster cast to create embossed paper designs. The values of such a project are outlined, including a note that its tactile approach makes it suitable to visually handicapped students. (SJL)

  7. CASTING FURNACES

    DOEpatents

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  8. 7. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND CROSS HEAD OF PISTON AT THE LOW PRESSURE SIDE OF ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  9. 8. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND CROSS HEAD OF PISTON AT THE HIGH-PRESSURE SIDE OF ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  10. 11. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGHPRESSURE CYLINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER AND VALVE, AND LUBRICATING EQUIPMENT FOR ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  11. Effect of Rotational Speeds on the Cast Tube During Vertical Centrifugal Casting Process on Appearance, Microstructure, and Hardness Behavior for Al-2Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shailesh Rao, A.; Tattimani, Mahantesh S.; Rao, Shrikantha S.

    2015-04-01

    The flow of molten metal plays a crucial role in determining casting quality. During rotation of the mold, melt flow around its inner circumference determines the final configurations and properties of the cast tube. In this paper, Al-2Si alloy is cast in the vertical mold at the various rotational speeds of the mold. The uniform cylinder tube is formed at a rotational speed of 1000 rpm, while before and beyond this speed, irregular-shaped cast tube is formed. Finally, fine structured grain size with high hardness value is found in uniform cast tube compared with others.

  12. Turbine endwall single cylinder program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.; Eckerle, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the flow field in front of a large-scale single cylinder, mounted in a wind tunnel are discussed. Static pressures on the endwall and cylinder surfaces, extensive five-hole probe pressures in front of and around the cylinder, and velocity fluctuations using a hot-wire probe where the flow is steady enough to yield meaningful results are included.

  13. Casting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  14. Casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Messer, Regina L

    2004-04-01

    Although the role of dental casting alloys has changed in recent years with the development of improved all-ceramic materials and resin-based composites, alloys will likely continue to be critical assets in the treatment of missing and severely damaged teeth. Alloy shave physical, chemical, and biologic properties that exceed other classes of materials. The selection of the appropriate dental casting alloy is paramount to the long-term success of dental prostheses,and the selection process has become complex with the development of many new alloys. However, this selection process is manageable if the practitioner focuses on the appropriate physical and biologic properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity,corrosion, and biocompatibility, and avoids dwelling on the less important properties of alloy color and short-term cost. The appropriate selection of an alloy helps to ensure a longer-lasting restoration and better oral health for the patient.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Cold Modeling experiments on Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keerthiprasad, Kestur Sadashivaiah; Murali, Mysore Seetharam; Mukunda, Pudukottah Gopaliengar; Majumdar, Sekhar

    2011-02-01

    In a centrifugal casting process, the fluid flow eventually determines the quality and characteristics of the final product. It is difficult to study the fluid behavior here because of the opaque nature of melt and mold. In the current investigation, numerical simulations of the flow field and visualization experiments on cold models have been carried out for a centrifugal casting system using horizontal molds and fluids of different viscosities to study the effect of different process variables on the flow pattern. The effects of the thickness of the cylindrical fluid annulus formed inside the mold and the effects of fluid viscosity, diameter, and rotational speed of the mold on the hollow fluid cylinder formation process have been investigated. The numerical simulation results are compared with corresponding data obtained from the cold modeling experiments. The influence of rotational speed in a real-life centrifugal casting system has also been studied using an aluminum-silicon alloy. Cylinders of different thicknesses are cast at different rotational speeds, and the flow patterns observed visually in the actual castings are found to be similar to those recorded in the corresponding cold modeling experiments. Reasonable agreement is observed between the results of numerical simulation and the results of cold modeling experiments with different fluids. The visualization study on the hollow cylinders produced in an actual centrifugal casting process also confirm the conclusions arrived at from the cold modeling experiments and numerical simulation in a qualitative sense.

  16. Fractal analysis of complex microstructure in castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.Z.; Lipp, D.C.; Hellawell, A.

    1995-12-31

    Complex microstructures in castings are usually characterized descriptively which often raises ambiguity and makes it difficult to relate the microstructure to the growth kinetics or mechanical properties in processing modeling. Combining the principle of fractal geometry and computer image processing techniques, it is feasible to characterize the complex microstructures numerically by the parameters of fractal dimension, D, and shape factor, a, without ambiguity. Procedures of fractal measurement and analysis are described, and a test case of its application to cast irons is provided. The results show that the irregular cast structures may all be characterized numerically by fractal analysis.

  17. POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO FILL MOLDS ON CONVEYOR LINES AFTER FERRO-SILICON IS ADDED TO ENHANCE DUCTILITY AND FLUIDITY. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  19. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  20. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Influence of rotational speed of centrifugal casting process on appearance, microstructure, and sliding wear behaviour of Al-2Si cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunda, P. G.; Shailesh, Rao A.; Rao, Shrikantha S.

    2010-02-01

    Although the manner in which the molten metal flows plays a major role in the formation of the uniform cylinder in centrifugal casting, not much information is available on this topic. The flow in the molten metal differs at various rotational speeds, which in turn affects the final casting. In this paper, the influence of the flow of molten metal of hyper eutectic Al-2Si alloys at various rotational speeds is discussed. At an optimum speed of 800 rpm, a uniform cylinder was formed. For the rotational speeds below and above these speeds, an irregular shaped casting was formed, which is mainly due to the influence of melt. Primary á-Al particles were formed in the tube periphery at low rotational speed, and their sizes and shapes were altered with changes in rotational speeds. The wear test for the inner surface of the casting showed better wear properties for the casting prepared at the optimum speed of rotation.

  2. Correlation of Microstructures and Tribological Properties of Ferrous Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying on Al-Si Cast Alloy Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vencl, Aleksandar; Mrdak, Mihailo; Banjac, Miloš

    2009-02-01

    The microstructure and tribological properties of ferrous coatings applicable to cylinder bores were investigated in this study. Two kinds of ferrous powders were sprayed on Al-Si cast alloy (EN AlSi10Mg) substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying. Microstructural analysis showed that various Fe oxides were formed in the coatings. The presence of pores, unmelted particles, and Fe precipitates was also noticed. The pin-on-ring tribometer was used to carry out tribological tests under lubricated sliding conditions: sliding speed of 0.5 m/s, sliding distance of 5000 m, and normal load of 450 N. High porosity and the presence of larger and irregularly shaped pores as well as the amount of oxides were the controlling factors for the crack initiations and, consequently, the wear rate. Tribological properties of the coatings were compared with gray cast iron as a standard material for cylinder blocks and showed that, for the investigated conditions, both coatings could be an adequate substitution.

  3. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 40 CFR 420.60 - Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous casting subcategory. 420.60 Section 420.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.60 Applicability; description of the continuous casting subcategory....

  5. Mundrabilla: A Microgravity Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budka, P. Z.; Viertl, J. R. M.

    1993-07-01

    The name "Mundrabilla" is applied to two nickel-iron meteorite masses (combined mass over 22,700 kg), which apparently were a single mass before atmospheric entry [1]. A medium octahedrite, Mundrabilla exhibits the microstructural features common to other nickel-iron meteorites such as Widmanstatten structure and troilite; however, its macrostructure is anything but common. Described by Buchwald as "anomalous" [1], Mundrabilla's macrostructural morphology is characterized by strikingly prominent, rounded Widmanstatten areas separated by regions of sulfur segregation (Fig. 1). While microstructural development of a metal can reflect both solidification and solid state reactions, macrostructural features are determined during solidification. Thus, a typical metallurgist, unfamiliar with microgravity solidification, might describe Mundrabilla's macrostructure as an "anomalous" casting. Those familiar with microgravity solidification might characterize Mundrabilla's macrostructural features as due to solidification of two immiscible liquids [2]--one rich in nickel-iron, the other rich in sulfur. Combining these observations, Mundrabilla's macrostructural features are consistent with that of a liquid mass solidified under microgravity conditions [3,4]. Since nickel-iron meteorite cooling rates often serve as the foundation for assumptions about the formation of solar system bodies, information on the solidification time for the Mundrabilla mass may give additional insights. How long did it take for Mundrabilla, with a minimum "as received" mass of approximately 22,700 kg to solidify? Because Mundrabilla's mass before atmospheric entry is unknown, we take as an upper boundary a mass of 4.1 x 10^15kg. These masses, assumed spherical, range in diameter between 1.8 meters and 10 kilometers, respectively. Mundrabilla can be idealized as a pure iron liquid mass cooling from the melting point of pure iron (1535C) by radiation into space at absolute zero. The latent heat of

  6. 40. THIS TUMBLING MILL IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. THIS TUMBLING MILL IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO TUMBLE CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO BREAK OFF RUNNERS AND SPRUES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, April, 1960 WROUGHT IRON RAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, April, 1960 WROUGHT IRON RAIL, MAIN FLOOR ON BULL STREET CAST IRON RAIL, SECOND FLOOR. - Crawford-Clarkson House, Bull & Blanding Streets, Columbia, Richland County, SC

  9. Individual cylinder knock control by detecting cylinder pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sawamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Kita, T.; Matsushita, K.

    1987-01-01

    To improve available power, tolerance to variation in fuel octane number and high engine speed knock control, an individual cylinder knock control has been developed. Knock are detected by spark plug washer transducers, which indicate individual cylinder pressures.) Last year the authors read a paper entitled ''Cylinder Pressure Vibration Analysis Indicates Accurate Knock Detection''. They read continuously on the following items. Spark plug washer transducers - These are piezoelectric ceramic rings which fit beneath individual spark plugs. These can detect knock at high engine speed, and are very durable. Knock detection and control algorithm - Knock is indicated by the transducer's cylinder pressure vibration signal. When knock occurs in the cylinder, the ignition timing of the cylinder is controlled. During the transient condition, control response is fast by learning control. Fail safe - At transducer trouble, the ignition timing of the cylinder is controlled by other transducer signals. Electric control unit - It is included in NISSANs Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS). Effects of this control - It improved WOT torque by 7-15%, torelance to variation in fuel octane number, and high engine speed control performance.

  10. Development of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Sikka, V.K.; Andleigh, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    The primary reason for the poor room-temperature ductility of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is generally accepted to be environmental embrittlement due to hydrogen produced by the reaction of aluminum with water vapor present in the test atmosphere. In the as-cast condition, another possible reason for the low room-temperature ductility is the large grain size (0.5 to 3 mm) of the cast material. While recent studies on iron aluminides in the wrought condition have led to higher room-temperature ductility and increased high-temperature strength, limited studies have been conducted on iron aluminides in the as-cast condition. The purpose of this study was to induce grain refinement of the as-cast alloy through alloying additions to the melt and study the effect on room-temperature ductility as measured by the strain corresponding to the maximum stress obtained in a three-point bend test. A base charge of Fe-28% Al-5% Cr alloy was used; as in previous studies this ternary alloy exhibited the highest tensile ductility of several alloys tested. Iron aluminide alloys are being considered for many structural uses, especially for applications where their excellent corrosion resistance is needed. Several alloy compositions developed at ORNL have been licensed to commercial vendors for development of scale-up procedures. With the licensees and other vendors, several applications for iron aluminides are being pursued.

  11. Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S.

    1995-08-01

    The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

  12. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Axial cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes improvement in a barrel type internal combustion engine including an engine block having axial-positioned cylinders with reciprocating pistons arranged in a circular pattern: a drive shaft concentrically positioned within the cylinder block having an offset portion extending outside the cylinder block; a wobble spider rotatably journaled to the offset portion; connecting rods for each cylinder connecting each piston to the wobble spider. The improvement comprising: a first sleeve bearing means supporting the drive shaft in the engine block in a cantilevered manner for radial loads; a second sleeve bearing means rotatably supporting the wobble spider on the offset portion of the drive shaft for radial loads; a first roller bearing means positioned between the offset portion of the drive shaft and the wobble spider carrying thrust loadings only; a second roller bearing means carrying thrust loads only reacting to the first roller bearing located on the opposite end of the driveshaft between the shaft and the engine block.

  17. Conformal microstrip arrays on cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, J.; Shtrikman, S.; Treves, D.

    1988-04-01

    Design and measured results for two X-band conformal microstrip arrays are presented. The two 4 x 4 arrays are built on the surface of a cylinder of small radius. They differ by the orientation of small radius. They differ by the orientation of the elements relative to the cylinder axis. The measured directivities and radiation patterns are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. Turbine endwall single cylinder program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed measurement of the flow field in front of a large-scale single cylinder, mounted in a wind tunnel is discussed. A better understanding of the three dimensional separation occuring in front of the cylinder on the endwall, and of the vortex system that is formed is sought. A data base with which to check analytical and numerical computer models of three dimensional flows is also anticipated.

  19. Turbulent Flow Past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Carlucci, Pasquale; Thangam, Siva

    2009-11-01

    Flow past cylinders aligned along their axis where a base freely spins while attached to a non-spinning forebody is considered from a computational and experimental point of view. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. An anisotropic two-equation Reynolds-stress model that incorporates the effect of rotation-modified energy spectrum and swirl is used to perform computations for the flow past axially rotating cylinders. Both rigid cylinders as well as that of cylinders with free-spinning base are considered from a computational point of view. A subsonic wind tunnel with a forward-sting mounted spinning cylinder is used for experiments. Experiments are performed for a range of spin rates and free stream flow conditions. The experimental results of Carlucci & Thangam (2001) are used to benchmark flow over spinning cylinders. The data is extended to munitions spinning in the wake of other munitions. Applications involving the design of projectiles are discussed.

  20. Expandable pattern casting research. Phase 2, Final report, October 1, 1990--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001--0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  1. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, which is a plastic that can be shaped. Fiberglass casts come in many different colors — if you' ...

  2. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  3. SALT FOG TEST OF SAM2X5 COATED STAINLESS STEEL CYLINDER

    SciTech Connect

    Aprigliano, L F; Rebak, R B; Choi, J; Lian, T; Day, S D

    2007-04-23

    A salt fog test of an iron-based amorphous metal, SAM2X5, coated Type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) cylinder was made. The cylinder was 30-inch diameter by 88-inch long, and 3/8-inch thick. One end was welded shut with a SS316L end cap before coating. The body of the cylinder and the end cap were both coated. The cylinder was coated with SAM2X5 by the HVOF thermal spray process. The coating thickness was 0.015-inch to 0.019-inch thick. The cylinder was tested in a horizontal position. Also included in the test for reference purposes were five coupons (2-inch x 2-inch x 1/8-inch) of uncoated Type 1018 carbon steel (1018CS). The test used an abbreviated form of GM 9540P. Each cycle was 6 hours in duration and the cylinder and reference samples were exposed to a total of eight cycles. The cylinder was in relatively good condition after the test. Along the body of the cylinder only two pinpoint spot sized signs of rust were seen. The 1018CS reference specimens were extensively rusted.

  4. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  5. Blower Cooling of Finned Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1937-01-01

    Several electrically heated finned steel cylinders enclosed in jackets were cooled by air from a blower. The effect of the air conditions and fin dimensions on the average surface heat-transfer coefficient q and the power required to force the air around the cylinders were determined. Tests were conducted at air velocities between the fins from 10 to 130 miles per hour and at specific weights of the air varying from 0.046 to 0.074 pound per cubic foot. The fin dimensions of the cylinders covered a range in pitches from 0.057 to 0.25 inch average fin thicknesses from 0.035 to 0.04 inch, and fin widths from 0.67 to 1.22 inches.

  6. Filament winding cylinders. I - Process model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    A model was developed which describes the filament winding process of composite cylinders. The model relates the significant process variables such as winding speed, fiber tension, and applied temperature to the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of the composite cylinder and the mandrel. Based on the model, a user friendly code was written which can be used to calculate (1) the temperature in the cylinder and the mandrel, (2) the degree of cure and viscosity in the cylinder, (3) the fiber tensions and fiber positions, (4) the stresses and strains in the cylinder and in the mandrel, and (5) the void diameters in the cylinder.

  7. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  8. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, Randall Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses. Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.

  9. 49 CFR 178.68 - Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cylinder must be constructed of aluminum of uniform quality. The following chemical analyses are authorized: Table 1—Authorized Materials Designation Chemical analysis—limits in percent 5154 1 Iron plus silicon 0... information required by § 178.35, the record of chemical analyses must also include applicable information...

  10. Solitary surface waves on a plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-03-01

    By considering electrostatic surface waves propagating along a plasma cylinder, it is demonstrated that solitary variations in the cylinder radius may appear. The properties of these slow perturbations are determined by the surface wave intensities.

  11. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  12. Video Analysis of Rolling Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s[superscript -1], and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined…

  13. Turbulent Flow Between Rotating Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih-I, Pai

    1943-01-01

    The turbulent air flow between rotating cylinders was investigated. The distributions of mean speed and of turbulence were measured in the gap between a rotating inner and a stationary outer cylinder. The measurements led to the conclusion that the turbulent flow in the gap cannot be considered two dimensional, but that a particular type of secondary motion takes place. It is shown that the experimentally found velocity distribution can be fully understood under the assumption that this secondary motion consists of three-dimensional ring-shape vortices. The vortices occur only in pairs, and their number and size depend on the speed of the rotating cylinder; the number was found to decrease with increasing speed. The secondary motion has an essential part in the transmission of the moment of momentum. In regions where the secondary motion is negligible, the momentum transfer follows the laws known for homologous turbulence. Ring-shape vortices are known to occur in the laminar flow between rotating cylinders, but it was hitherto unknown that they exist even at speeds that are several hundred times the critical limit.

  14. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  15. Comparison of aerodynamic noise from three nose-cylinder combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Reding, M. P.

    1970-01-01

    Results of experiments with three different cylinder and blunted nose combinations are discussed. Combinations include smooth cylinder with single 15 deg cone, smooth cylinder with double cone of 25 and 10 deg, and longitudinally corrugated cylinder with similar double cone.

  16. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  17. Size Effect in Ferroelectric Long Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuguo; Zhang, Peilin; Wang, Chunlei; Zhong, Weilie; N, Napp; D, R. Tilly

    1995-02-01

    The Curie temperature and polarization in a ferroelectric cylinder with infinite length have been examined using Landau free energy expansion. The Curie temperature and polarization decrease with decreasing cylinder diameter for the positive extrapolation length, and reach zero at the critical size. For negative extrapolation length, both Curie temperature and polarization increase with decreasing cylinder diameter.

  18. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  19. Evolution of halictine castes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  20. Cast Aluminum Bonding Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    fabricated using P?-’r;est11 bur)ld II19 te(hnll I Oly with 6 cIsL nqs. The cast a lumi num alloy used was A357 . The sur- face preparation was phosphoric acid...from a cast aluminum alloy designated A357 . The bonding surfaces of the adherends were prepared using PAA. One primer and two adhesives considered...System, Cast Aluminum Lap Shear 18 11 Bond Area of 350°F Adhesive System, Cast Aluminum Lap Shear 19 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 A357 Chemical

  1. How iron controls iron.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2009-12-01

    Cells regulate iron homeostasis by posttranscriptional regulation of proteins responsible for iron uptake and storage. This requires RNA-binding activity of iron-regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2. Two studies recently published in Science by Vashisht et al. (2009) and Salahudeen et al. (2009) reveal how cells adjust IRP2 activity.

  2. Surface hardening of parts from ferrite-pearlite gray iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Yu. G.; Ovsyannikov, V. E.; Marfitsyn, V. V.; Frolov, V. A.

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of a simple method of chromizing of parts from ferrite-pearlite gray iron is studied theoretically and proved experimentally. A process for diffusion chromizing of parts from this iron is suggested. When followed by surface hardening the process yields a high-hardness surface layer with abrasive strength comparable to that of white chromium cast iron.

  3. Massless rotating fermions inside a cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2015-12-07

    We study rotating thermal states of a massless quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.

  4. Cast segment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.; Studhalter, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation program to determine feasibility of fabricating segmented rocket engine thrust chambers using low cost, lightweight castings extends state of the art in areas of casting size and complexity, and in ability to provide thin sections and narrow, deep, cooling channels. Related developments are discussed.

  5. Higher Education's Caste System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  6. A cast orientation index.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  7. Conjugate natural convection between horizontal eccentric cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Davood; Dehghan, Ali Akbar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2017-03-01

    This study involved the numerical investigation of conjugate natural convection between two horizontal eccentric cylinders. Both cylinders were considered to be isothermal with only the inner cylinder having a finite wall thickness. The momentum and energy equations were discretized using finite volume method and solved by employing SIMPLER algorithm. Numerical results were presented for various solid-fluid conductivity ratios ( KR) and various values of eccentricities in different thickness of inner cylinder wall and also for different angular positions of inner cylinder. From the results, it was observed that in an eccentric case, and for KR < 10, an increase in thickness of inner cylinder wall resulted in a decrease in the average equivalent conductivity coefficient (overline{{K_{eq} }}); however, a KR > 10 value caused an increase in overline{{K_{eq} }}. It was also concluded that in any angular position of inner cylinder, the value of overline{{K_{eq} }} increased with increase in the eccentricity.

  8. Generalized Bistability in Origami Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Austin; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Lechenault, Frederic

    Origami folded cylinders (origami bellows) have found increasingly sophisticated applications in space flight, medicine, and even experimental nuclear physics. In spite of this interest, a general understanding of the dynamics of an origami folded cylinder has been elusive. By solving the fully constrained behavior of a periodic fundamental origami cell defined by unit vectors, we have found an analytic solution for all possible rigid-face states accessible from a cylindrical Miura-ori pattern. Although an idealized bellows has two rigid-face configurations over a well-defined region, a physical device, limited by nonzero material thickness and forced to balance hinge with plate-bending energy, often cannot stably maintain a stowed configuration. We have identified and measured the parameters which control this emergent bistability, and have demonstrated the ability to fabricate bellows with tunable deployability.

  9. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Trudel, David R.; Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Arnaud, Guy; Bigler, Nicolas

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  10. Metal Penetration in Sand Molds for Steel Castings: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, J.O.; Stefanescu, D.M.; Lane, A.M.; Schreiber, W.C.; Owens, M.; Piwonka, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    Case studies of samples of penetration provided by consortium members showed examples of mechanical-type penetration defects and of what appeared to be chemical penetration. Sessile drop experiments of various mold substrate materials using carbon, stainless, and Mn steels showed that Mn steel wets silica strongly, indicating that silica is not a suitable mod material for this family of alloys. Contact angles were lower for steels than for cast irons. Magnesite appeared to be the best overall mold material, although zircon flour also performed well. A simplified 1-D model was developed which predicts the diffusion rates which could cause chemical penetration. It shows that, contrary to the case in cast iron, chemical penetration is a possibility in medium and low carbon steels, as diffusion of C to the casting surface may not always occur quickly enough to protect the surface from an oxidizing reaction. The mass spectrometer gas chromatograph train was modified for accurately determining the water content of gas at the mold/metal interface. Initial gas measurements indicated that the gas generated at the interface in steel castings is 80% H2-20% CO, instead of the 50% H2- 50% CO mixture found in cast iron.

  11. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  14. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  15. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  16. View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  17. 66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. THE IRON RUNNER IS IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM IS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  19. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  20. Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Margasahayam, Ravi N.

    2009-01-01

    The art of experimental modal vibration analysis (MVA) has been extended to apply to large castings. This extension was made to enable the use of experimental MVA as a relatively inexpensive, simple means of assessing the internal structural integrity of tread shoes of crawler transporters used to move spacecraft to the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center. Each tread shoe is made from cast iron and weighs about a ton (has a mass .907 kg). The present extended version of experimental MVA could also be applied to other large castings. It could be especially useful to manufacturers as a means of rapidly discriminating against large castings that contain unacceptably large concentrations of internal defects. The use of experimental MVA to assess structural integrity is not new. What are new here are those aspects of the extension of experimental MVA that pertain to the application of MVA to objects so massive that it may not be practical or cost effective to mount them in special test fixtures that impose special test boundary conditions to test them in place under normal conditions of use.

  1. Symptomatic stent cast.

    PubMed

    Keohane, John; Moore, Michael; O'Mahony, Seamus; Crosbie, Orla

    2008-02-01

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  2. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  3. Feasibility of producing cast-refractory metal-fiber superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of direct casting as a practical method for producing cast superalloy tungsten or columbium alloy fiber composites while retaining a high percentage of fiber strength. Fourteen nickel base, four cobalt, and three iron based matrices were surveyed for their degree of reaction with the metal fibers. Some stress-rupture results were obtained at temperatures of 760, 816, 871, and 1093 C for a few composite systems. The feasibility of producing acceptable composites of some cast nickel, cobalt, and iron matrix alloys with tungsten or columbium alloy fibers was demonstrated.

  4. Three-dimensional accuracy of different correction methods for cast implant bars

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Yung; Kim, Chang-Whe; Lim, Young-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of three techniques for correction of cast implant bars. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty cast implant bars were fabricated on a metal master model. All cast implant bars were sectioned at 5 mm from the left gold cylinder using a disk of 0.3 mm thickness, and then each group of ten specimens was corrected by gas-air torch soldering, laser welding, and additional casting technique. Three dimensional evaluation including horizontal, vertical, and twisting measurements was based on measurement and comparison of (1) gap distances of the right abutment replica-gold cylinder interface at buccal, distal, lingual side, (2) changes of bar length, and (3) axis angle changes of the right gold cylinders at the step of the post-correction measurements on the three groups with a contact and non-contact coordinate measuring machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test were performed at the significance level of 5%. RESULTS Gap distances of the cast implant bars after correction procedure showed no statistically significant difference among groups. Changes in bar length between pre-casting and post-correction measurement were statistically significance among groups. Axis angle changes of the right gold cylinders were not statistically significance among groups. CONCLUSION There was no statistical significance among three techniques in horizontal, vertical and axial errors. But, gas-air torch soldering technique showed the most consistent and accurate trend in the correction of implant bar error. However, Laser welding technique, showed a large mean and standard deviation in vertical and twisting measurement and might be technique-sensitive method. PMID:24605205

  5. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  6. Chemical aspects of cylinder corrosion and a scenario for hole development

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, E.J.

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, two cylinders in the depleted UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards at Portsmouth were discovered to have holes in their walls at the valve-end stiffening ring at a point below the level of the gas-solid interface of the UF{sub 6}. The cylinder with the larger hole, which extended under the stiffening ring, was stacked in a top row 13 years ago. The cylinder with the smaller hole had been stacked in a bottom row 4 years ago. The lifting lugs of the adjacent cylinders pointed directly at the holes. A Cylinder Investigating Committee was appointed to determine the cause or causes of the holes and to assess the implications of these findings. This report contains a listing of the chemically related facts established by the Investigating Committee with the cooperation of the Operations and Technical Support Divisions at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the scenario developed to explain these findings and some implications of this scenario. In summary, the interrelated reactions of water, solid UF{sub 6} and iron presented by R. L. Ritter are used to develop a scenario which explains the observations and deductions made during the investigation. The chemical processes are intimately related to the course of the last three of the four stages of hole development. A simple model is proposed which permits semiquantitative prediction of such information as the HF loss rates as a function of time, the rate of hole enlargement, the time to hydrolyze a cylinder of UF{sub 6} and the approximate size of the hole. The scenario suggests that the environmental consequences associated with a developing hole in a depleted UF{sub 6} cylinder are minimal for the first several years but will become significant if too many years pass before detection. The overall environmental picture is presented in more detail elsewhere.

  7. Two interacting cylinders in cross flow.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Mahbub; Meyer, J P

    2011-11-01

    Cylindrical structures in a group are frequently seen on land and in the ocean. Mutual flow interaction between the structures makes the wake very excited or tranquil depending on the spacing between the structures. The excited wake-enhancing forces in some cases cause a catastrophic failure of the structures. This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of Strouhal number (St), time-mean, and fluctuating forces on, and flow structures around, two identical circular cylinders at stagger angle α = 0°-180° and gap-spacing ratio T/D=0.1-5, where T is the gap width between the cylinders, and D is the diameter of a cylinder. While forces were measured using a load cell, St was from spectral analysis of fluctuating pressures measured on the side surfaces of the cylinders. A flow visualization test was conducted to observe flow structures around the cylinders. Based on forces, St, and flow structures, 19 distinct flow categories in the ranges of α and T/D investigated are observed, including one quadristable flow, three kinds of tristable flows, and four kinds of bistable flows. The quadristable, tristable, and bistable flows ensue from instabilities of the gap flow, shear layers, vortices, separation bubbles, and wakes, engendering a strong jump or drop in forces and St of the cylinders. The two cylinders interact with each other in six different mechanisms, namely interaction between boundary layer and cylinder, shear layer or wake and cylinder, shear layer and shear layer, vortex and cylinder, vortex and shear layer, and vortex and vortex. While the interaction between vortex and cylinder results in a very high fluctuating drag, that between vortex and shear layer results in a high fluctuating lift. On the other hand, the interaction between shear layer or wake and cylinder weakens mean and fluctuating forces and flow unsteadiness. A mutual discussion of forces, St, and flow structures is presented in this paper.

  8. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  9. Transonic Flow Past Cone Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, George E

    1955-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for transonic flow post cone-cylinder, axially symmetric bodies. The drag coefficient and surface Mach number are studied as the free-stream Mach number is varied and, wherever possible, the experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions. Interferometric results for several typical flow configurations are shown and an example of shock-free supersonic-to-subsonic compression is experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical problem of transonic flow past finite cones is discussed briefly and an approximate solution of the axially symmetric transonic equations, valid for a semi-infinite cone, is presented.

  10. Structural and compositional analysis of a casting mold sherd from ancient China

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Lang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuexiang; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Duan, Xiulan; Li, Nannan; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    Casting had symbolic significance and was strictly controlled in the Shang dynasty of ancient China. Vessel casting was mainly distributed around the Shang capital, Yin Ruins, which indicates a rigorous centralization of authority. Thus, for a casting mold to be excavated far from the capital region is rare. In addition to some bronze vessel molds excavated at the Buyao Village site, another key discovery of a bronze vessel mold occurred at Daxinzhuang. The Daxinzhuang site was a core area in the east of Shang state and is an important site to study the eastward expansion of the Shang. Here, combining synchrotron X-rays and other physicochemical analysis methods, nondestructive three-dimensional structure imaging and different elemental analyses were conducted on this mold sherd. Through high penetration X-ray tomography, we obtained insights on the internal structure and discovered some pores. We infer that the generation of pores inside the casting mold sherd was used to enhance air permeability during casting. Furthermore, we suppose that the decorative patterns on the surface were carved and not pasted onto it. Considering the previous compositional studies of bronze vessels, the copper and iron elements were analyzed by different methods. Unexpectedly, a larger amount of iron than of copper was detected on the surface. According to the data analysis and archaeological context, the source of iron on the casting mold sherd could be attributed to local soil contamination. A refined compositional analysis confirms that this casting mold was fabricated locally and used for bronze casting. PMID:28296963

  11. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M.

    1996-01-31

    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  12. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  13. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  14. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  15. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehlke, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  16. Overseas shipments of 48Y cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R.T.; Furlan, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes experiences with two incidents of overseas shipments of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The first incident involved nine empty UF{sub 6} cylinders in enclosed sea containers. Three UF{sub 6} cylinders broke free from their tie-downs and damaged and contaminated several sea containers. This paper describes briefly how decontamination was carried out. The second incident involved a shipment of 14 full UF{sub 6} cylinders. Although the incident did not cause an accident, the potential hazard was significant. The investigation of the cause of the near accident is recounted. Recommendations to alleviate future similar incidents for both cases are presented.

  17. Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foeppl, L.

    1983-01-01

    Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.

  18. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  19. SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Cylinder head cover structure for a V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Nishida, M.; Hokazono, K.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a cylinder head cover structure for a cylinder engine having first and second cylinder heads for forming first and second cylinder banks, each cylinder head being provided, in an inner side wall thereof, with intake ports each communicating with a cylinder formed in the cylinder bank, at least one camshaft provided in each cylinder bank above intake and exhaust valves to drive the valves in synchronization with rotation of the engine and supported for rotation by a plurality of bearings, discrete intake passages each of which is connected to one of the intake ports of one of the cylinder banks and extends above the other cylinder bank, and cylinder head covers mounted on the respective cylinder heads, characterized in that recessed portions are formed in each of the cylinder head covers at corresponding portions of the camshaft and respective the discrete intake passages extend through corresponding ones of the recessed portions.

  1. A Winning Cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

  2. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  3. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  4. 46 CFR 56.60-15 - Ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 56.01-2) may be used in hydraulic systems at pressures in excess of 7500... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES... hydraulic cylinders, are examined as specified for a casting quality factor of 90 percent in accordance...

  5. Vibrations and stresses in layered anisotropic cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, G. P.; Gupta, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation describing the radial displacement in a k layered anisotropic cylinder was obtained. The cylinders are initially unstressed but are subjected to either a time dependent normal stress or a displacement at the external boundaries of the laminate. The solution is obtained by utilizing the Vodicka orthogonalization technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure.

  6. Topping pressure for gas-storage cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haben, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    With charts derived from gas-storage system model, required topping pressure can be determined from initial cylinder pressure and temperature of gas entering cylinder. Charts are available for hydrogen and oxygen and can be developed for other important industrial gases as well.

  7. Positive displacement cylinder measures corrosive liquid volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariman, R. A.; Vendl, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Positive displacement cylinder accurately measures volumetric flow rates of corrosive liquids. The cylinder is compatible with corrosive liquids and handles flow rates from zero to 75 gpm at pressures to 900 psig with an accuracy of 0.25 per cent.

  8. Efficient visual grasping alignment for cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Monocular information from a gripper-mounted camera is used to servo the robot gripper to grasp a cylinder. The fundamental concept for rapid pose estimation is to reduce the amount of information that needs to be processed during each vision update interval. The grasping procedure is divided into four phases: learn, recognition, alignment, and approach. In the learn phase, a cylinder is placed in the gripper and the pose estimate is stored and later used as the servo target. This is performed once as a calibration step. The recognition phase verifies the presence of a cylinder in the camera field of view. An initial pose estimate is computed and uncluttered scan regions are selected. The radius of the cylinder is estimated by moving the robot a fixed distance toward the cylinder and observing the change in the image. The alignment phase processes only the scan regions obtained previously. Rapid pose estimates are used to align the robot with the cylinder at a fixed distance from it. The relative motion of the cylinder is used to generate an extrapolated pose-based trajectory for the robot controller. The approach phase guides the robot gripper to a grasping position. The cylinder can be grasped with a minimal reaction force and torque when only rough global pose information is initially available.

  9. Extinction properties of infinitely long graphite cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazbi, B.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    1991-12-01

    The extinction efficiencies of randomly oriented infinite graphite cylinders, including hollow cylinders are calculated, using the rigorous Kerker-Matijevic formulas. The peak in the mid-UV extinction varies in wavelength with particle radius and cavity size in a way that makes such particles of limited interest as models of interstellar grains.

  10. Stabilization of flow past a rounded cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis on low-Re flow past a rounded cylinder. The cylinder corners are rounded with a radius R, normalized as R+ = R / D where D is the cylinder diameter, and its effect on the flow stability characteristics is investigated. We compute the critical Reynolds number (Recr) for the onset of first instability, and quantify the perturbation growth rate for the super-critical flows. It is found that the flow can be stabilized by partially rounding the cylinder. Compared with the square and circular cylinders, the partially rounded cylinder has a higher Recr , attaining a maximum at around R+ = 0 . 30 , and the perturbation growth rate of the super-critical flows is reduced for Re <= 100 . We perform sensitivity analysis to explore the source of the stabilization. The growth rate sensitivity to base flow modification has two different spatial structures: the growth rate is sensitive to the wake backflow in a large region for square-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 00), while only the near-wake backflow is crucial for circular-like cylinders (R+ -> 0 . 50). The stability analysis results are also verified with those of the direct simulations and very good agreement is achieved. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.

  11. Capillarity in metal casting mold filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilden, Jon L.

    In metal casting processes, surface tension of the molten metal typically resists filling of the metal into the mold. The effects are greater for smaller mold cavities, and ultimately, the smallest cavities may not be filled. Surface tension forces can be overcome by applying pressure (head) to the molten metal, thus forcing metal into the cavities. However, a pressure-window will exist, too little pressure resulting in non-filled cavities and too much pressure resulting in penetration of the mold, which is itself porous. Filling-pressure windows are investigated for cylindrical-shaped mold cavities on both a theoretical and experimental basis. The lower bound of the filling pressure window is examined by treating cylindrical mold cavities as cylinders lined with packed spheres representing mold particles. The upper bound is examined by treating the mold as a 3-D array of close-packed spheres. The experimental work concerns industrial-scale vacuum investment casting of superalloy IN718 into molds containing various cylindrical mold cavities at various heights (heads). The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical modeling predictions for filling of rough (sphere-lined) cylindrical mold cavities.

  12. 9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure cylinder on left and low pressure cylinder on right. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  13. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  14. Spin-up in a rectangular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Dawn L.

    1993-12-01

    We examined the spin-up from rest of water in a rectangular cylinder. The presence of corners in the cylinder causes the formation of eddies. We found that the number of eddies, as well as eddy size, position, and rotation rate were dependent on the aspect ratio of the cylinder, the depth of the fluid, and the final angular velocity of the cylinder. Two time scales were found to be important in this experiment: the traditional Ekman number based on depth, which defines the time scale required for spin-up and an additional Ekman number based on the cylinder length which provides some information about the evolution of the fluid pathlines in route to spin-up. This second Eckman number appears to provide an explanation for both the agreement and disagreement of the experimental results herein and previously published results.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SCREW TYPE, ALLOY AND CYLINDER POSITION ON THE MARGINAL FIT OF IMPLANT FRAMEWORKS BEFORE AND AFTER LASER WELDING

    PubMed Central

    Castilio, Daniela; Pedreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro do Vale; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Rossetti, Leylha Maria Nunes; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. Methods: After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected prosthetic components. Five specimens were one-piece cast in titanium and five in cobalt-chromium alloy. On each specimen, tests were conducted with hexagonal titanium and slotted gold screws separately, performing a total of thirty tested screws. Measurements at the interfaces were performed using an optical microscope with 5 μm accuracy. After sectioning, specimens were laser welded and new measurements were obtained. Data were submitted to a four-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (α =0.05). Results: Slotted and hexagonal screws did not present significant differences regarding to the fit of cylinders cast in titanium, either in one-piece casting framework or after laser welding. When slotted and hexagonal screws were tested on the cobalt-chromium specimens, statistically significant differences were found for the one-piece casting condition, with the slotted screws presenting better fit (24.13μm) than the hexagonal screws (27.93 μm). Besides, no statistically significant differences were found after laser welding. Conclusions: 1) The use of different metal alloys do exert influence on the marginal fit, 2) The slotted and hexagonal screws play the exclusive role of fixing the prosthesis, and did not improve the fit of cylinders, and 3) cylinder position did not affect marginal fit values. PMID:19089035

  16. Tests on Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Marshall

    1941-01-01

    Compressive tests were made of two series of stiffened circular cylindrical shells under axial load. All the shells were 16 inches in diameter by 24 inches in length and were made of aluminum-alloy sheet curved to the proper radius and welded with one longitudinal weld. The ratios of diameter to thickness of shell wall in the two series of specimens were 258 and 572. Strains were measured with Huggenberger tensometers at a number of gage lines on the stiffeners and shell. The results of these tests indicate that a spacing of circumferential stiffeners equal to 0.67 times the radius is too great to strengthen the shell wall appreciably. The results are not inclusive enough to show the optimum in stiffeners. Plain cylinders without stiffeners developed ultimate strengths approximately half as great as the buckling strengths computed by the equation resulting from the classical theory and slightly greater than those computed by Donnell's large deflection theory.

  17. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  18. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  19. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  20. Spanwise plumes in wakes behind heated cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Ajith; Lal, S. Anil; Sameen, A.

    2013-11-01

    3D wake transition in flow past cylinder is interesting theoretically and industrially. A three dimensional Finite volume computation has been performed on an incompressible flow past heated cylinder to understand the wake behavior behind the cylinder, under the Boussinesq assumption. We study the heat transfer characteristics and the coherent structures behind the cylinder at different Prandtl numbers. In forced convection, the 3D transition occurs above Reynolds number, Re = 180-190 (Re is based on the cylinder diameter). However, the present 3D computational analyses show that in mixed convection, the so called ``mode-E'' instability (3D transition of wake behind the cylinder caused by the heating of the cylinder) happens at a much lower Reynolds number. The co-existence of mushroom like coherent structures called the plumes along with the shed vortices is observed for a range of heating conditions. These plumes originates from the core of the upper vortex rows at a definite span wise wavelengths. The dependence of Prandtl number on the span wise wavenumber of these plumes is also analyzed.

  1. Gas cylinder release rate testing and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph; Yedave, Sharad; Chambers, Barry

    2012-11-01

    There are varying cylinder technologies employed for the storage of gases, each resulting in a potentially different hazard level to the surroundings in the event of a gas release. Subatmospheric Gas delivery Systems Type I (SAGS I) store and deliver gases subatmospherically, while Subatmospheric Gas delivery Systems Type II (SAGS II) deliver gases subatmospherically, but store them at high pressure. Standard high pressure gas cylinders store and deliver their contents at high pressure. Due to the differences in these cylinder technologies, release rates in the event of a leak or internal component failure, can vary significantly. This paper details the experimental and theoretical results of different Arsine (AsH3) gas cylinder release scenarios. For the SAGS II experimental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the spatial concentration profiles when a surrogate gas, CF4, was released via a simulated leak within an ion implanter. Various SAGS I and SAGS II cylinder types and failure modes were tested. Additionally, theoretical analysis was performed to support an understanding of the different potential AsH3 leak rates. The results of this work show that the effects of a leak from the various cylinder types can be quite different, with the concentrations resulting from cylinders containing high pressure gas often being in excess of IDLH levels.

  2. Electrostatic field between non-concentric cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M

    2000-01-10

    This report describes a closed-form solution to the electrostatic potential, and the electric field, between non-concentric cylinders, with the inner cylinder charged and the outer cylinder grounded. This problem is an abstraction of the situation of an electron beam within a drift tube. Capacitive and surface current probes on the inner wall of the outer cylinder are used to detect the asymmetry of the field when the beam is off center. The solution of this problem allows for a quantitative relationship between probe-array signals and beam deflection. probe-arrays of this type are called ''beam bugs'' at LLNL. The solution described here is suggested by the analysis presented in [3]. The essential point is that the 2D potential for a line source decreases along a radius as the logarithm of the distance. The non-concentric cylinder problem has a unique profile of this type for each ray from ({rho}, {sigma}) linking the inner cylinder at equipotential V{sub 2}, and the outer cylinder at equipotential 0.

  3. The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W

    1929-01-01

    The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.

  4. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    castings. Liquid-solid slurries were cast Rheocasting ) to evaluate cast- ing properties and opportunities for enhanced mold life with a reduced temperature...pouring temperature, 600 0C mold temperature, all-metal mold. Figure 29 Schem.atic of rheocasting attachment for vacuum melting furnace. Motor and gear...33 Alumina paddle and rheocasting . Paddle cracked during itirring. Casting did not fill, probably due to poor stirring of melt. Figure 34 ZrO 2

  5. Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

  6. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Donovan, T E; White, L E

    1985-05-01

    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines.

  7. Hot-tearing of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys based on casting load measurements in a constrained permanent mold

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Mirmiran, Seyed; Glaspie, Christopher; Li, Shimin; Apelian, Diran; Shyam, Amit; Haynes, James A; Rodriguez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Hot-tearing is a major casting defect that is often difficult to characterize, especially for multicomponent Al alloys used for cylinder head castings. The susceptibility of multicomponent Al-Cu alloys to hot-tearing during permanent mold casting was investigated using a constrained permanent mold in which the load and displacement was measured. The experimental results for hot tearing susceptibility are compared with those obtained from a hot-tearing criterion based temperature range evaluated at fraction solids of 0.87 and 0.94. The Cu composition was varied from approximately 5 to 8 pct. (weight). Casting experiments were conducted without grain refining. The measured load during casting can be used to indicate the severity of hot tearing. However, when small hot-tears are present, the load variation cannot be used to detect and assess hot-tearing susceptibility.

  8. ToxCast Dashboard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  9. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  10. Microporosity in casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A J

    1975-06-01

    Three series of tensile test pieces were produced using a nickel base partial denture casting alloy. For the first series induction heating was employed, for the second a resistance crucible, and for the third an oxy-acetylene torch. Samples from each series were sectioned longitudinally, mounted, polished and examined microscopically for evidence of microporosity.

  11. ShakeCast Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

  12. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  13. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  14. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  15. RUN OUTS OCCUR WHEN IRON HAS UNSEATED MOLDING SAND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUN OUTS OCCUR WHEN IRON HAS UNSEATED MOLDING SAND AND RUN OUT OF THE MOLD UNDER POURING JACKETS AND SPILLS ONTO THE MOLDING PLATFORM. WORKERS GENERALLY WAIT SEVERAL MINUTES FOR THE IRON TO SOLIDIFY AND, WHILE IT IS STILL RED-HOT, REMOVE IT FROM THE PLATFORM AND SCRAP THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  16. Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

  17. Cast Aluminum Primary Aircraft Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    ABSTRAC R A A A357 cast aluminum alloy forward fuselage pressure bulkhead has been developed and manufactured for the AMST-YC-14 aircraft. This work...urring in castings. Test coupons were! removed from castings containing defU-ts and subjected to repeated loads. The shift of the S-N curve for A357 ...selected for the casting is A357 . The cast bulkhead (Fig 2) measures approximately 2.29 m (7.5 ft) by 1.37 m (4.5 ft). It is designed to replace the

  18. Improved turbine cylinder bolting system

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new cylinder bolting system to replace the main joint hardware for both combustion (and steam) turbine applications. The new bolts are designed to be hydraulically tensioned to the specified preload and utilize ultrasonic verification of elongation. The new bolting system uses a reduced number of components in each assembly and the individual components themselves are of a simplified design. The new hardware can be applied to new equipment without modification and retrofitted to customer-owned equipment as a direct replacement for existing joint hardware. The prototype, production, and field testing of this hardware, the installation tooling; and ultrasonic elongation measuring equipment are described. This testing has shown significant savings in assembly and disassembly cycle times even after prolonged exposure to turbine operating temperatures in a corrosive environment. The new design of bolting is now standard equipment for the CE251B11/B12 combustion turbine manufactured by Westinghouse P.G.B.U.

  19. Quantum walk on a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, Luis A.; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Pérez, Armando; Roldán, Eugenio; Silva, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    We consider the two-dimensional alternate quantum walk on a cylinder. We concentrate on the study of the motion along the open dimension, in the spirit of looking at the closed coordinate as a small or "hidden" extra dimension. If one starts from localized initial conditions on the lattice, the dynamics of the quantum walk that is obtained after tracing out the small dimension shows the contribution of several components which can be understood from the study of the dispersion relations for this problem. In fact, these components originate from the contribution of the possible values of the quasimomentum in the closed dimension. In the continuous space-time limit, the different components manifest as a set of Dirac equations, with each quasimomentum providing the value of the corresponding mass. We briefly discuss the possible link of these ideas to the simulation of high-energy physical theories that include extra dimensions. Finally, entanglement between the coin and spatial degrees of freedom is studied, showing that the entanglement entropy clearly overcomes the value reached with only one spatial dimension.

  20. Investigations of Flow past Spinning Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald; Aljallis, Elias; Thangam, Siva

    2013-11-01

    A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on flow past spinning cylinders. The blunt cylinders are sting-mounted and oriented such that their axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number range of up to 300000 and rotation numbers of up to 1.2 (based on cylinder diameter). The results for spinning cylinders with both rear-mounted and fore-mounted stings are presented. Computations are performed using a two-equation anisotropic turbulence model that is based on proper representation of the energy spectrum to capture rotation and curvature. The model performance is validated with benchmark experimental flows and implemented for analyzing the flow configuration used in the experimental study. Funded in part by U. S. Army, ARDEC.