Science.gov

Sample records for caste-specific symbiont policing

  1. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  2. Police. An Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    This unit examines four topic areas related to police: rules and enforcement, police discretion, variety of police tasks, and police differences among societies as products of certain social pressures. High-school students learn about the police as an institution that responds to social and historical pressures. Students study police systems in…

  3. Police Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  4. Caste-specific differences in hindgut microbial communities of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Kapheim, Karen M; Rao, Vikyath D; Yeoman, Carl J; Wilson, Brenda A; White, Bryan A; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera) castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior.

  5. Caste-Specific Differences in Hindgut Microbial Communities of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Carl J.; Wilson, Brenda A.; White, Bryan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera) castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior. PMID:25874551

  6. Afghan National Police Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-27

    effectiveness for a democniticpoilce-force. -Using these measures, representative policing, responsive policing and accountable policing, the paper...AFGHANISTAN COMPARED TO MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS ......................... 11 REPRESENTATIVE POLICING...in any post-conflict society is absolutely necessary for effective and solid reconstruction efforts. Without stabilization, insurgencies will destroy

  7. Insect symbionts in food webs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  8. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  9. Animal behaviour: pigtailed police.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R

    2005-06-07

    A recent study of pigtailed macaques shows that most effective policing interventions in conflict situations are by socially powerful group-members, who sustain relatively low costs by intervening. Questions arise about the ontogenetic and phylogenetic emergence of policing individuals.

  10. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  11. A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

  12. Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  13. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  14. Neighborhood Team Policing: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Peter B.; Specht, David

    The manual for neighborhood team policing, a method of decentralizing police departments, presents guidelines for putting a team policing system into effect. Noticeable results of this type of this type organization have been an increased effectiveness in crime control, improved police-community relations, and improved police morale. Chapter 1…

  15. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  16. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  17. Policing Metropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  18. Police Burglary Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas W.; And Others

    The study is designed to assist police and other law enforcement agencies, as well as local government officials, in planning new burglary prevention activities and modifying existing ones. Information was compiled from (1) a survey of 50 United States police departments, (2) site visits to 12 departments with operating burglary prevention…

  19. Police Patrol Game Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…

  20. Characterization of the Core and Caste-Specific Microbiota in the Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    PubMed Central

    Benjamino, Jacquelynn; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The hindgut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes harbors a complex symbiotic community consisting of protists, bacteria, and archaea. These symbionts aid in the digestion of lignocellulose from the termite’s wood meal. Termite hindguts were sampled and the V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and analyzed from individual termites. The core microbiota of worker termites consisted of 69 OTUs at the 97% identity level, grouped into 16 taxa, and together accounted for 67.05% of the sequences from the bacterial community. The core was dominated by Treponema, which contained 36 different OTUs and accounted for ∼32% of the sequences, which suggests Treponema sp. have an important impact on the overall physiology in the hindgut. Bray–Curtis beta diversity metrics showed that hindgut samples from termites of the same colony were more similar to each other than to samples from other colonies despite possessing a core that accounted for the majority of the sequences. The specific tasks and dietary differences of the termite castes could have an effect on the composition of the microbial community. The hindgut microbiota of termites from the alate castes differed from the worker caste with significantly lower abundances of Treponema and Endomicrobia, which dominated the hindgut microbiota in workers and soldiers. Protist abundances were also quantified in the same samples using qPCR of the 18S rRNA gene. Parabasalia abundances dropped significantly in the winged alates and the Oxymonadida abundances dropped in both alate castes. These data suggest that the changes in diet or overall host physiology affected the protist and bacterial populations in the hindgut. The in-depth bacterial characterization and protist quantification in this study sheds light on the potential community dynamics within the R. flavipes hindgut and identified a large and complex core microbiota in termites obtained from multiple colonies and castes. PMID:26925043

  1. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  2. Symbiont acquisition strategy drives host-symbiont associations in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, M.; Loh, W. K. W.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Carter, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Coral larvae acquire populations of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium from the external environment (horizontal acquisition) or inherit their symbionts from the parent colony (maternal or vertical acquisition). The effect of the symbiont acquisition strategy on Symbiodinium-host associations has not been fully resolved. Previous studies have provided mixed results, probably due to factors such as low sample replication of Symbiodinium from a single coral host, biogeographic differences in Symbiodinium diversity, and the presence of some apparently host-specific symbiont lineages in coral with either symbiont acquisition strategies. This study set out to assess the effect of the symbiont acquisition strategy by sampling Symbiodinium from 10 coral species (five with a horizontal and five with a vertical symbiont acquisition strategy) across two adjacent reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Symbiodinium diversity was assessed using single-stranded conformational polymorphism of partial nuclear large subunit rDNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region. The Symbiodinium population in hosts with a vertical symbiont acquisition strategy partitioned according to coral species, while hosts with a horizontal symbiont acquisition strategy shared a common symbiont type across the two reef environments. Comparative analysis of existing data from the southern Great Barrier Reef found that the majority of corals with a vertical symbiont acquisition strategy associated with distinct species- or genus-specific Symbiodinium lineages, but some could also associate with symbiont types that were more commonly found in hosts with a horizontal symbiont acquisition strategy.

  3. Swapping symbionts in spittlebugs: evolutionary replacement of a reduced genome symbiont.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryuichi; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial symbionts that undergo long-term maternal transmission experience elevated fixation of deleterious mutations, resulting in massive loss of genes and changes in gene sequences that appear to limit efficiency of gene products. Potentially, this dwindling of symbiont functionality impacts hosts that depend on these bacteria for nutrition. One evolutionary escape route is the acquisition of a novel symbiont with a robust genome and metabolic capabilities. Such an acquisition has occurred in an ancestor of Philaenus spumarius, the meadow spittlebug (Insecta: Cercopoidea), which has replaced its ancient association with the tiny genome symbiont Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with an association with a symbiont related to Sodalis glossinidius (Gammaproteobacteria). Spittlebugs feed exclusively on xylem sap, a diet that is low both in essential amino acids and in sugar or other substrates for energy production. The new symbiont genome has undergone proliferation of mobile elements resulting in many gene inactivations; nonetheless, it has selectively maintained genes replacing functions of its predecessor for amino-acid biosynthesis. Whereas ancient symbiont partners typically retain perfectly complementary sets of amino-acid biosynthetic pathways, the novel symbiont introduces some redundancy as it retains some pathways also present in the partner symbionts (Sulcia muelleri). Strikingly, the newly acquired Sodalis-like symbiont retains genes underlying efficient routes of energy production, including a complete TCA cycle, potentially relaxing the severe energy limitations of the xylem-feeding hosts. Although evolutionary replacements of ancient symbionts are infrequent, they potentially enable evolutionary and ecological novelty by conferring novel metabolic capabilities to host lineages.

  4. Swapping symbionts in spittlebugs: evolutionary replacement of a reduced genome symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Ryuichi; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts that undergo long-term maternal transmission experience elevated fixation of deleterious mutations, resulting in massive loss of genes and changes in gene sequences that appear to limit efficiency of gene products. Potentially, this dwindling of symbiont functionality impacts hosts that depend on these bacteria for nutrition. One evolutionary escape route is the acquisition of a novel symbiont with a robust genome and metabolic capabilities. Such an acquisition has occurred in an ancestor of Philaenus spumarius, the meadow spittlebug (Insecta: Cercopoidea), which has replaced its ancient association with the tiny genome symbiont Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with an association with a symbiont related to Sodalis glossinidius (Gammaproteobacteria). Spittlebugs feed exclusively on xylem sap, a diet that is low both in essential amino acids and in sugar or other substrates for energy production. The new symbiont genome has undergone proliferation of mobile elements resulting in many gene inactivations; nonetheless, it has selectively maintained genes replacing functions of its predecessor for amino-acid biosynthesis. Whereas ancient symbiont partners typically retain perfectly complementary sets of amino-acid biosynthetic pathways, the novel symbiont introduces some redundancy as it retains some pathways also present in the partner symbionts (Sulcia muelleri). Strikingly, the newly acquired Sodalis-like symbiont retains genes underlying efficient routes of energy production, including a complete TCA cycle, potentially relaxing the severe energy limitations of the xylem-feeding hosts. Although evolutionary replacements of ancient symbionts are infrequent, they potentially enable evolutionary and ecological novelty by conferring novel metabolic capabilities to host lineages. PMID:24401857

  5. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sébastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-01-01

    Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  6. Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violanti, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Further inquiry into processes that lead to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. Suicide ideation in police officers and possible correlates associated with such ideation is explored in this paper. The focus was on psychologically traumatic police work experiences, the development of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in officers, and the…

  7. Police Robbery Control Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Richard H.; And Others

    The manual was designed as a practical guide for police department personnel in developing robbery control programs. An introductory chapter defines types of robberies and suggests administrative and operational uses of the manual. Research and control strategies are reported according to five robbery types: street (visible and non-visible),…

  8. Symbiont survival and host-symbiont disequilibria under differential vertical transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M S; Arnold, J; Asmussen, M A

    2000-01-01

    Interspecific genetic interactions in host-symbiont systems raise intriguing coevolutionary questions and may influence the effectiveness of public health and management policies. Here we present an analytical and numerical investigation of the effects of host genetic heterogeneity in the rate of vertical transmission of a symbiont. We consider the baseline case with a monomorphic symbiont and a single diallelic locus in its diploid host, where vertical transmission is the sole force. Our analysis introduces interspecific disequilibria to quantify nonrandom associations between host genotypes and alleles and symbiont presence/absence. The transient and equilibrium behavior is examined in simulations with randomly generated initial conditions and transmission parameters. Compared to the case where vertical transmission rates are uniform across host genotypes, differential transmission (i) increases average symbiont survival from 50% to almost 60%, (ii) dramatically reduces the minimum average transmission rate for symbiont survival from 0.5 to 0.008, and (iii) readily creates permanent host-symbiont disequilibria de novo, whereas uniform transmission can neither create nor maintain such associations. On average, heterozygotes are slightly more likely to carry and maintain the symbiont in the population and are more randomly associated with the symbiont. Results show that simple evolutionary forces can create substantial nonrandom associations between two species. PMID:10757775

  9. Niche differentiation in the dynamics of host-symbiont interactions: symbiont prevalence as a coexistence problem.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2014-04-01

    Heritable symbioses can have important ecological effects and have triggered important evolutionary innovations. Current predictions for long-term symbiont prevalence are based on their fitness benefits and vertical transmission rates but ignore nonlinear competitive feedbacks among symbiotic and symbiont-free hosts. We hypothesized that such feedbacks function as stabilizing mechanisms, promoting coexistence of host types and maintaining intermediate symbiont frequency at the population scale. Using a model grass/endophyte symbiosis, we manipulated competition within and between endophyte-symbiotic (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) hosts and fit competition models to experimental data. We show for the first time that symbiont-structured competition can generate stable coexistence of E+ and E- hosts, even under perfect vertical transmission. Niche differentiation was the key to coexistence, causing hosts of each type to limit themselves more strongly than each other. These results establish roles for nonlinear competitive dynamics and niche differentiation in the ecology and evolution of heritable symbionts.

  10. Gene expression changes during caste-specific neuronal development in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the key characters of social insects is the division of labor, in which different tasks are allocated to various castes. In termites, one of the representative groups of social insects, morphological differences as well as behavioral differences can be recognized among castes. However, very little is known about the neuronal and molecular bases of caste differentiation and caste-specific behavior. In almost all termite species, soldiers play defensive roles in their colonies, and their morphology and behavior are largely different from workers (or pseudergates). Therefore, we predicted that some genes linked to defensive behavior and/or those required for neuronal changes are differentially expressed between workers and soldiers, or during the soldier differentiation, respectively. Results Using the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) of the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we first screened genes specifically expressed in soldiers or during soldier differentiation by the differential display method, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No distinctive differences in expression patterns were detected between pseudergates and soldiers. In the course of soldier differentiation, however, five genes were found to be up-regulated in brain and/or SOG: 14-3-3epsilon, fibrillin2, beta-tubulin, ciboulot, and a hypothetical protein containing a SAP motif. Some of these genes are thought to be associated with cytoskeletal structure or motor-associated proteins in neuronal tissues. Conclusion The identified five genes could be involved in soldier-specific neuronal modifications, resulting in defensive behaviors in termite soldiers. The temporal expression patterns of these genes were consistent with the neuronal changes during soldier differentiation, suggesting that molecular machineries, in which the identified factors would participate, play important roles in behavioral differentiation of termite soldiers. PMID

  11. Satisfaction with Campus Police Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James D.; Hueston, Harry; Wilson, Eddie; Moyers, Casey; Hart, Christian L.

    2004-01-01

    Problem: Higher education has seen dramatic increases in student enrollments, diversity and crime rates during the past 25 years. These changes have created the need for new approaches from campus law enforcement agencies. There has been a movement toward community oriented policing (COP) policies and practices by campus police departments to…

  12. Police Stress: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. T. Skip, Comp.; And Others

    The need to perform effectively under stress is a concern in many professions. For police officers and managers, who make split-second life and death decisions, the problem takes on added significance. The annotated documents compiled are in three sections: an overview to describe types and effects of stresses, police stress causal factors, and…

  13. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  14. Police Discretion: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Robert N.; Kravitz, Marjorie

    This bibliography was compiled with two goals. The first goal is to provide police administrators and officers with an overview of the issues involved in developing guidelines for police discretion and a discussion of the options available. The second goal is to demonstrate the need for continuing dialogue and interaction between lawmakers, law…

  15. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  16. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  17. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  18. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  19. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  20. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  1. Acceptable symbiont cell size differs among cnidarian species and may limit symbiont diversity.

    PubMed

    Biquand, Elise; Okubo, Nami; Aihara, Yusuke; Rolland, Vivien; Hayward, David C; Hatta, Masayuki; Minagawa, Jun; Maruyama, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2017-03-21

    Reef-building corals form symbiotic relationships with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Symbiodinium are genetically and physiologically diverse, and corals may be able to adapt to different environments by altering their dominant Symbiodinium phylotype. Notably, each coral species associates only with specific Symbiodinium phylotypes, and consequently the diversity of symbionts available to the host is limited by the species specificity. Currently, it is widely presumed that species specificity is determined by the combination of cell-surface molecules on the host and symbiont. Here we show experimental evidence supporting a new model to explain at least part of the specificity in coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Using the laboratory model Aiptasia-Symbiodinium system, we found that symbiont infectivity is related to cell size; larger Symbiodinium phylotypes are less likely to establish a symbiotic relationship with the host Aiptasia. This size dependency is further supported by experiments where symbionts were replaced by artificial fluorescent microspheres. Finally, experiments using two different coral species demonstrate that our size-dependent-infection model can be expanded to coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis, with the acceptability of large-sized Symbiodinium phylotypes differing between two coral species. Thus the selectivity of the host for symbiont cell size can affect the diversity of symbionts in corals.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 21 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.17.

  2. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic-anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic-anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids.

  3. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  4. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  5. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  6. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  7. Policing guns and youth violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence.

  8. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    PubMed

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  9. Multilevel Models for the Distribution of Hosts and Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Stutz, William E.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont occurrence is influenced by host occurrence and vice versa, which leads to correlations in host-symbiont distributions at multiple levels. Interactions between co-infecting symbionts within host individuals can cause correlations in the abundance of two symbiont species across individual hosts. Similarly, interactions between symbiont transmission and host population dynamics can drive correlations between symbiont and host abundance across habitat patches. If ignored, these interactions can confound estimated responses of hosts and symbionts to other factors. Here, we present a general hierarchical modeling framework for distributions of hosts and symbionts, estimating correlations in host-symbiont distributions at the among-site, within-site, among-species, and among-individual levels. We present an empirical example from a multi-host multi-parasite system involving amphibians and their micro- and macroparasites. Amphibian hosts and their parasites were correlated at multiple levels of organization. Macroparasites often co-infected individual hosts, but rarely co-infected with the amphibian chytrid fungus. Such correlations may result from interactions among parasites and hosts, joint responses to environmental factors, or sampling bias. Joint host-symbiont models account for environmental constraints and species interactions while partitioning variance and dependence in abundance at multiple levels. This framework can be adapted to a wide variety of study systems and sampling designs. PMID:27832124

  10. The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, I.L.; Woyke, T.; Auchtung, T.A.; Dilly, G.F.; Dutton,R.J.; Fisher, M.C.; Fontanez, K.M.; Lau, E.; Stewart, F.J.; Richardson,P.M.; Barry, K.W.; Saunders, E.; Detter, J.C.; Wu, D.; Eisen, J.A.; Cavanaugh, C.M.

    2007-03-01

    Chemoautotrophic endosymbionts are the metabolic cornerstone of hydrothermal vent communities, providing invertebrate hosts with nearly all of their nutrition. The Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) symbiont, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, is the first intracellular sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiont to have its genome sequenced, revealing a suite of metabolic capabilities. The genome encodes major chemoautotrophic pathways as well as pathways for biosynthesis of vitamins, cofactors, and all 20 amino acids required by the clam.

  11. Civilian Police: Future of the Military Police Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Station Security Allison Choike, a reporter with Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri’s The Guidon , writes that the concept of hiring civilians to fill the law...6 Allison Choike, “Fort Leonard Wood Trains DA Installation Civilian Police,” The Guidon , 5 June 2008, <www.myguidon.com/index2.php?option...Bibliography Choike, Allison. “Fort Leonard Wood Trains DA Installation Civilian Police.” The Guidon . 5 June 2008. <http://www.myguidon.com/index2.php

  12. Evolutionary changes in symbiont community structure in ticks.

    PubMed

    Duron, Olivier; Binetruy, Florian; Noël, Valérie; Cremaschi, Julie; McCoy, Karen D; Arnathau, Céline; Plantard, Olivier; Goolsby, John; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Heylen, Dieter J A; Van Oosten, A Raoul; Gottlieb, Yuval; Baneth, Gad; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Opara, Maxwell N; Zenner, Lionel; Vavre, Fabrice; Chevillon, Christine

    2017-03-09

    Ecological specialization to restricted diet niches is driven by obligate, and often maternally inherited, symbionts in many arthropod lineages. These heritable symbionts typically form evolutionarily stable associations with arthropods that can last for millions of years. Ticks were recently found to harbour such an obligate symbiont, Coxiella-LE, that synthesizes B vitamins and cofactors not obtained in sufficient quantities from blood diet. In this study, the examination of 81 tick species shows that some Coxiella-LE symbioses are evolutionarily stable with an ancient acquisition followed by codiversification as observed in ticks belonging to the Rhipicephalus genus. However, many other Coxiella-LE symbioses are characterized by low evolutionary stability with frequent host shifts and extinction events. Further examination revealed the presence of nine other genera of maternally inherited bacteria in ticks. Although these nine symbionts were primarily thought to be facultative, their distribution among tick species rather suggests that at least four may have independently replaced Coxiella-LE and likely represent alternative obligate symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence otherwise indicates that cocladogenesis is globally rare in these symbioses as most originate via horizontal transfer of an existing symbiont between unrelated tick species. As a result, the structure of these symbiont communities is not fixed and stable across the tick phylogeny. Most importantly, the symbiont communities commonly reach high levels of diversity with up to six unrelated maternally inherited bacteria coexisting within host species. We further conjecture that interactions among coexisting symbionts are pivotal drivers of community structure both among and within tick species.

  13. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  14. A Bibliography on Police and Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Martin G., Comp.

    A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…

  15. Central Police Dispatch: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, John J.

    The document presents a description of the Central Police Dispatch (PCD) system of Muskegon County, Michigan. The CPD, a civilian-staffed organization, is concerned with the regionalization of police services and improved police communications. The development of the CPD is traced from the Muskegon Interlocal Public Agency (1969-72) to the present…

  16. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  17. Blue Lies and Police Placebos: The Moralities of Police Lying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockars, Carl B.

    1984-01-01

    The concession that the lie is preferred over force as a means of social control forms the basis for the morality of policy lying, i.e., in any situation in which police have a legitimate right to use force they acquire a moral right to achieve the same ends by lying. (RM)

  18. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic–anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic–anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids. PMID:24914799

  19. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  20. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  1. Taming the symbiont for coexistence: a host PGRP neutralizes a bacterial symbiont toxin.

    PubMed

    Troll, Joshua V; Bent, Eric H; Pacquette, Nicholas; Wier, Andrew M; Goldman, William E; Silverman, Neal; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2010-08-01

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms between marine animals and their bacterial partners, the host environment promotes the initial colonization by specific symbionts that it harvests from the surrounding bacterioplankton. Subsequently, the host must develop long-term tolerance to immunogenic bacterial molecules, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccaride derivatives. We describe the characterization of the activity of a host peptidoglycan recognition protein (EsPGRP2) during establishment of the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Using confocal immunocytochemistry, we localized EsPGRP2 to all epithelial surfaces of the animal, and determined that it is exported in association with mucus shedding. Most notably, EsPGRP2 was released by the crypt epithelia into the extracellular spaces housing the symbionts. This translocation occurred only after the symbionts had triggered host morphogenesis, a process that is induced by exposure to the peptidoglycan monomer tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), a bacterial 'toxin' that is constitutively exported by V. fischeri. Enzymatic analyses demonstrated that, like many described PGRPs, EsPGRP2 has a TCT-degrading amidase activity. The timing of EsPGRP2 export into the crypts provides evidence that the host does not export this protein until after TCT induces morphogenesis, and thereafter EsPGRP2 is constantly present in the crypts ameliorating the effects of V. fischeri TCT.

  2. FBI Police Executive Fellowship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, FBI Director Robert Mueller, III, established the Office of Law Enforcement Coordination to help ensure more effective information-sharing between the Bureau and state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies. One of the hallmarks of this focused effort to enhance communication is the Police Executive…

  3. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  4. Police Educational Characteristics and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Larry T.

    A consensus exists regarding the need to improve law enforcement and to upgrade the quality of police officers through the imposition of higher educational standards. Three rationales for educational upgrading include: (1) to improve effectiveness in performing crime control functions through better motivation and greater ability in applying…

  5. Special-Purpose Public Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the last in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. In this volume, certain types of public forces not having general law-enforcement responsibilities are described, including reserve…

  6. Olenid trilobites: The oldest known chemoautotrophic symbionts?

    PubMed Central

    Fortey, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Late Cambrian to early Ordovician trilobites, the family Olenidae, were tolerant of oxygen-poor, sulfur-rich sea floor conditions, and a case is made that they were chemoautotrophic symbionts. Olenids were uniquely adapted to this habitat in the Lower Paleozoic, which was widespread in the Late Cambrian over Scandinavia. This life habit explains distinctive aspects of olenid morphology: wide thoraces and large numbers of thoracic segments, thin cuticle and, in some species, degenerate hypostome, and the occasional development of brood pouches. Geochemical and field evidence is consistent with this interpretation. Olenids occupied their specialized habitat for 60 million years until their extinction at the end of the Ordovician. PMID:10841557

  7. Dimorphic ovary differentiation in honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae involves caste-specific expression of homologs of ark and buffy cell death genes.

    PubMed

    Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the number of repeated structural units, the ovarioles, in the ovaries is one of the critical events that shape caste polyphenism in social insects. In early postembryonic development, honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae have a pair of ovaries, each one consisting of almost two hundred ovariole primordia. While practically all these ovarioles continue developing in queen-destined larvae, they undergo massive programmed cell death (PCD) in worker-destined larvae. So as to gain insight into the molecular basis of this fundamental process in caste differentiation we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to investigate the expression of the Amark and Ambuffy genes in the ovaries of the two honeybee castes throughout the fifth larval instar. These are the homologs of ark and buffy Drosophila melanogaster genes, respectively, involved in activating and inhibiting PCD. Caste-specific expression patterns were found during this time-window defining ovariole number. Amark transcript levels were increased when ovariole resorption was intensified in workers, but remained at low levels in queen ovaries. The transcripts were mainly localized at the apical end of all the worker ovarioles, but appeared in only a few queen ovarioles, thus strongly suggesting a function in mediating massive ovariolar cell death in worker larvae. Ambuffy was mainly expressed in the peritoneal sheath cells covering each ovariole. The levels of Ambuffy transcripts increased earlier in the developing ovaries of queens than in workers. Consistent with a protective role against cell death, Ambuffy transcripts were localized in practically all queen ovarioles, but only in few worker ovarioles. The results are indicative of a functional relationship between the expression of evolutionary conserved cell death genes and the morphological events leading to caste-specific ovary differentiation in a social insect.

  8. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  9. Standard methods for research on Apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  10. Secondary bacterial symbiont community in aphids responds to plant diversity.

    PubMed

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Meyer, Sebastian T; Sturm, Sarah; Ullmann, Wiebke; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity is important for ecosystem functioning and biotic interactions. In experimental grasslands, increasing plant species richness is known to increase the diversity of associated herbivores and their predators. If these interactions can also involve endosymbionts that reside within a plant or animal host is currently unknown. In plant-feeding aphids, secondary bacterial symbionts can have strong fitness effects on the host, e.g. resistance to natural enemies or fungal pathogens. We examined the secondary symbiont community in three species of aphid, each feeding on a unique host plant across experimental plots that varied in plant species richness. Aphids were collected in May and June, and the symbiont community identified using species-specific PCR assays. Aphis fabae aphids were found to host six different symbiont species with individual aphids co-hosting up to four symbionts. Uroleucon jaceae and Macrosiphum rosae hosted two and three symbiont species, respectively. We found that, at the aphid population level, increasing plant species richness increased the diversity of the aphid symbiont community, whereas at the individual aphid level, the opposite was found. These effects are potentially driven by varying selective pressures across different plant communities of varying diversities, mediated by defensive protection responses and a changing cost-benefit trade-off to the aphid for hosting multiple secondary symbionts. Our work extends documented effects of plant diversity beyond visible biotic interactions to changes in endosymbiont communities, with potentially far-reaching consequences to related ecosystem processes.

  11. Modeling the ecology of symbiont-mediated protection against parasites.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Marek; Vorburger, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that many maternally transmitted symbionts protect their hosts against parasites, thus ensuring their own persistence. Despite the protection they provide, such symbionts are typically found in only a fraction of the host population. This suggests that symbiont-conferred resistance is costly or that the maternal inheritance of symbionts is not perfect. To investigate these hypotheses and other properties of this complex ecological system, we develop a mathematical model based on the example of bacterial endosymbionts that protect aphids against parasitoid wasps. Simulations show that in the absence of more complex effects, a very fine balance between the costs of harboring symbionts and the strength of protection they provide is required to maintain coexistence of protected and unprotected hosts. These constraints are significantly relaxed and coexistence becomes a common outcome if deployment of symbiont-provided defenses upon a parasite attack entails an additional (induced) cost. Transmission rates of symbionts also affect coexistence, which is more frequently observed under high (but not perfect) fidelity of vertical transfer and low rates of horizontal transfer. Finally, we show that the prevalence of defensive symbionts has a strong influence on the population dynamics of hosts and parasites: population sizes are stable if and only if protected hosts dominate.

  12. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  13. [Doctor's attendance in police custody].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.

  14. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  15. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  16. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  17. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  18. Addicted? Reduced host resistance in populations with defensive symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Cao, Chuan; Smith, Sophie; Illingworth, Christopher J. R.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Heritable symbionts that protect their hosts from pathogens have been described in a wide range of insect species. By reducing the incidence or severity of infection, these symbionts have the potential to reduce the strength of selection on genes in the insect genome that increase resistance. Therefore, the presence of such symbionts may slow down the evolution of resistance. Here we investigated this idea by exposing Drosophila melanogaster populations to infection with the pathogenic Drosophila C virus (DCV) in the presence or absence of Wolbachia, a heritable symbiont of arthropods that confers protection against viruses. After nine generations of selection, we found that resistance to DCV had increased in all populations. However, in the presence of Wolbachia the resistant allele of pastrel—a gene that has a major effect on resistance to DCV—was at a lower frequency than in the symbiont-free populations. This finding suggests that defensive symbionts have the potential to hamper the evolution of insect resistance genes, potentially leading to a state of evolutionary addiction where the genetically susceptible insect host mostly relies on its symbiont to fight pathogens. PMID:27335421

  19. Addicted? Reduced host resistance in populations with defensive symbionts.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julien; Cogni, Rodrigo; Cao, Chuan; Smith, Sophie; Illingworth, Christopher J R; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-06-29

    Heritable symbionts that protect their hosts from pathogens have been described in a wide range of insect species. By reducing the incidence or severity of infection, these symbionts have the potential to reduce the strength of selection on genes in the insect genome that increase resistance. Therefore, the presence of such symbionts may slow down the evolution of resistance. Here we investigated this idea by exposing Drosophila melanogaster populations to infection with the pathogenic Drosophila C virus (DCV) in the presence or absence of Wolbachia, a heritable symbiont of arthropods that confers protection against viruses. After nine generations of selection, we found that resistance to DCV had increased in all populations. However, in the presence of Wolbachia the resistant allele of pastrel-a gene that has a major effect on resistance to DCV-was at a lower frequency than in the symbiont-free populations. This finding suggests that defensive symbionts have the potential to hamper the evolution of insect resistance genes, potentially leading to a state of evolutionary addiction where the genetically susceptible insect host mostly relies on its symbiont to fight pathogens.

  20. Insect-symbiont systems: from complex relationships to biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sandra; Neto, Marta; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2009-12-01

    Microbial symbiosis is a ubiquitous aspect of life and was a major element in the ability of insects to explore several adverse environments. To date, the study of symbiosis in insects has been impaired by the unculturability of most symbionts. However, some molecular methods represent powerful tools to help understand insect-microorganism associations and to disclose new symbiont-host systems. Beyond playing an essential role in nutrition and development of the insects, symbionts can produce bioactive compounds that protect the host against adverse environmental conditions, predators and/or direct competitors. Since the search for natural bioactive products and new enzymes is a developing area, understanding the diversity and nature of symbiont-host relationships paves the way for the exploitation of new resources in biotechnology. Furthermore, genetic transformation of the symbionts with genes that code for compounds that are toxic for pathogenic and phytopathogenic agents is also a promising area of application of the insect-symbiont relationships. The search for new bioactive compounds, the use of symbionts for pest and disease control and the molecular strategies applied for these purposes are issues of particular interest for innovative biotechnological applications and are addressed in the present review.

  1. Horizontally Transmitted Symbionts and Host Colonization of Ecological Niches

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.; Peccoud, Jean; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Maiden, Martin J.C.; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Facultative or “secondary” symbionts are common in eukaryotes, particularly insects. While not essential for host survival, they often provide significant fitness benefits [1-5]. It has been hypothesized that secondary symbionts form a “horizontal gene pool” shuttling adaptive genes among host lineages in an analogous manner to plasmids and other mobile genetic elements in bacteria [6, 7]. However, we do not know whether the distributions of symbionts across host populations reflect random acquisitions followed by vertical inheritance or whether the associations have occurred repeatedly in a manner consistent with a dynamic horizontal gene pool. Here we explore these questions using the phylogenetic and ecological distributions of secondary symbionts carried by 1,104 pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We find that not only is horizontal transfer common, but it is also associated with aphid lineages colonizing new ecological niches, including novel plant species and climatic regions. Moreover, aphids that share the same ecologies worldwide have independently acquired related symbiont genotypes, suggesting significant involvement of symbionts in their host’s adaptation to different niches. We conclude that the secondary symbiont community forms a horizontal gene pool that influences the adaptation and distribution of their insect hosts. These findings highlight the importance of symbiotic microorganisms in the radiation of eukaryotes. PMID:23993843

  2. Insect’s intestinal organ for symbiont sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host–symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ’s ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host’s control and symbiont’s motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  3. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects.

  4. The bacterial essence of tiny symbiont genomes

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial genomes vary in size over two orders of magnitude. The Mycoplasma genitalium genome has traditionally defined the extreme small end of this spectrum, and has therefore heavily informed theoretical and experimental work aimed at determining the minimal gene content necessary to support cellular life. Recent genomic data from insect symbionts has revealed bacterial genomes that are incredibly small—two to four times smaller than M. genitalium—and these tiny genomes have raised questions about the limits of genome reduction and have blurred the once-clear distinction between autonomous cellular life and highly integrated organelle. New data from various systems with symbiotic bacterial or archaeal partners have begun to shed light on how these bacteria may function with such small gene sets, but major mechanistic questions remain. PMID:20044299

  5. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  6. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  7. Connecting Police Violence With Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ashish; Nseyo, Onouwem; Jackson, Andrea V

    2017-01-01

    Since the police-involved deaths of Michael Brown and Freddie Gray, activists have argued for connecting police violence with reproductive justice. We argue that systematic violence, including police violence, should be evaluated in relation to reproductive health outcomes of individual patients and communities. Beyond emphasizing the relationship between violence and health outcomes, both qualitative and epidemiologic data can be used by activists and caregivers to effectively care for individuals from socially marginalized communities.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of symbionts in feather-feeding lice of the genus Columbicola: evidence for repeated symbiont replacements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many groups of insects have obligate bacterial symbionts that are vertically transmitted. Such associations are typically characterized by the presence of a monophyletic group of bacteria living in a well-defined host clade. In addition the phylogeny of the symbiotic bacteria is typically congruent with that of the host, signifying co-speciation. Here we show that bacteria living in a single genus of feather lice, Columbicola (Insecta: Phthiraptera), present an exception to this typical pattern. Results The phylogeny of Columbicola spp. symbionts revealed the presence of three candidate clades, with the most species-rich clade having a comb-like topology with very short internodes and long terminal branches. Evolutionary simulations indicate that this topology is characteristic of a process of repeated symbiont replacement over a brief time period. The two remaining candidate clades in our study exhibit high levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting accelerated molecular evolution due to relaxed purifying selection or smaller effective population size, which is typical of many vertically transmitted insect symbionts. Representatives of the fast-evolving and slow-evolving symbiont lineages exhibit the same localization, migration, and transmission patterns in their hosts, implying direct replacement. Conclusions Our findings suggest that repeated, independent symbiont replacements have taken place over the course of the relatively recent radiation of Columbicola spp. These results are compatible with the notion that lice and other insects have the capability to acquire novel symbionts through the domestication of progenitor strains residing in their local environment. PMID:23725492

  9. A New Paradigm for the Iraq Police: Applying Community-Oriented Policing to Iraqi Police Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    analysis, the establishment of criminal databases , and the use of polygraph tests. He believed in training all police officers in criminal...level of mutual confidence. There was a lack of formal crime prevention studies in the country. There was a lack of a criminal database arranging...Iraq, 1953, 23. 56 John F. Devlin. "Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis." JSTOR . December 1991. http://www.jstor.org/stabel/2165277 (accessed January

  10. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  11. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  12. Fungal symbionts as manipulators of plant reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Gorischek, Alexander M; Afkhami, Michelle E; Seifert, Elizabeth K; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    Symbioses have shaped the evolution of life, most notably through the fixation of heritable symbionts into organelles. The inheritance of symbionts promotes mutualism and fixation by coupling partner fitness. However, conflicts arise if symbionts are transmitted through only one sex and can shift host resources toward the sex through which they propagate. Such reproductive manipulators have been documented in animals with separate sexes but not in other phyla or sexual systems. Here we investigated whether the investment in male relative to female reproduction differed between hermaphroditic host plants with versus without a maternally inherited fungal symbiont. Plants with the fungus produced more seeds and less pollen than plants lacking the fungus, resulting in an ~40% shift in functional gender and a switch from male-biased to female-biased sex allocation. Given the ubiquity of endophytes in plants, reproductive manipulators of hermaphrodites may be widespread in nature.

  13. Symbiont Acquisition and Replacement as a Source of Ecological Innovation.

    PubMed

    Sudakaran, Sailendharan; Kost, Christian; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-03-20

    Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood. Here we review the known ecological and evolutionary implications of symbiont gains, switches, and replacements, and identify future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of symbiosis as a major driving force of ecological adaptation.

  14. Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Marissa L; Gaines, Steven D; Nisbet, Roger M

    2009-01-01

    Given climate change, thermal stress-related mass coral-bleaching events present one of the greatest anthropogenic threats to coral reefs. While corals and their symbiotic algae may respond to future temperatures through genetic adaptation and shifts in community compositions, the climate may change too rapidly for coral response. To test this potential for response, here we develop a model of coral and symbiont ecological dynamics and symbiont evolutionary dynamics. Model results without variation in symbiont thermal tolerance predict coral reef collapse within decades under multiple future climate scenarios, consistent with previous threshold-based predictions. However, model results with genetic or community-level variation in symbiont thermal tolerance can predict coral reef persistence into the next century, provided low enough greenhouse gas emissions occur. Therefore, the level of greenhouse gas emissions will have a significant effect on the future of coral reefs, and accounting for biodiversity and biological dynamics is vital to estimating the size of this effect.

  15. Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Nathan L.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Miller, Margaret W.; Fogarty, Nicole D.; Santos, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are

  16. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally

  17. Bacterial Symbionts of a Devastating Coffee Plant Pest, the Stinkbug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Serracin, Mario; Tulgetske, Genet M.; Miller, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Stinkbugs of the genus Antestiopsis, so-called antestia bugs or variegated coffee bugs, are notorious pests of coffee plants in Africa. We investigated the symbiotic bacteria associated with Antestiopsis thunbergii, a major coffee plant pest in Rwanda. PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of bacterial genes identified four distinct bacterial lineages associated with A. thunbergii: a gammaproteobacterial gut symbiont and symbionts representing the genera Sodalis, Spiroplasma, and Rickettsia. In situ hybridization showed that the gut symbiont densely occupied the lumen of midgut crypts, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont sparsely and sporadically infected various cells and tissues. Diagnostic PCR survey of 154 A. thunbergii individuals collected at 8 localities in Rwanda revealed high infection frequencies (100% for the gut symbiont, 51.3% for the Sodalis symbiont, 52.6% for the Spiroplasma symbiont, and 24.0% for the Rickettsia symbiont). These results suggest that the gut symbiont is the primary symbiotic associate of obligate nature for A. thunbergii, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont are the secondary symbiotic associates of facultative nature. We observed high coinfection frequencies, i.e., 7.8% of individuals with quadruple infection with all the symbionts, 32.5% with triple infections with the gut symbiont and two of the secondary symbionts, and 39.6% with double infections with the gut symbiont and any of the three secondary symbionts, which were statistically not different from the expected coinfection frequencies and probably reflected random associations. The knowledge of symbiotic microbiota in A. thunbergii will provide useful background information for controlling this devastating coffee plant pest. PMID:24727277

  18. Symbiont modulates expression of specific gene categories in Angomonas deanei

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Luciana Loureiro; Hoffmann, Luísa; de Souza, Silvanna Sant’Anna; Martins, Allan Cézar de Azevedo; Bottaro, Thayane; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Faffe, Débora Souza; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Ürményi, Turán Péter; Silva, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are parasites that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants. Most are non-pathogenic and some harbor a symbiotic bacterium. Endosymbiosis is part of the evolutionary process of vital cell functions such as respiration and photosynthesis. Angomonas deanei is an example of a symbiont-containing trypanosomatid. In this paper, we sought to investigate how symbionts influence host cells by characterising and comparing the transcriptomes of the symbiont-containing A. deanei (wild type) and the symbiont-free aposymbiotic strains. The comparison revealed that the presence of the symbiont modulates several differentially expressed genes. Empirical analysis of differential gene expression showed that 216 of the 7625 modulated genes were significantly changed. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the largest categories of genes that downregulated in the absence of the symbiont were those involved in oxidation-reduction process, ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport and glycolysis. In contrast, among the upregulated gene categories were those involved in proteolysis, microtubule-based movement, and cellular metabolic process. Our results provide valuable information for dissecting the mechanism of endosymbiosis in A. deanei. PMID:27706380

  19. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  20. The Professions, the Police, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Gordon

    In presenting a forecast of the emergence of the police profession using a sociological approach based on societal processes and relations, both the discussion of professionalization of the police in the bourgeois literature and a more general discussion of the professions by Talcott Parsons, taken as the foremost structural-functional theorist of…

  1. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  2. Police Management Guidelines for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapke, Robert A.

    The importance of the rural police function is likely to mount due to increasing urban to rural migration and a climbing crime rate (up as much as 30 percent in some parts of the midwest). Although 92 percent of police departments in the U.S. are comprised of less than 10 officers, there is little information available on the organization and…

  3. Implementing a Community-Oriented Policing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)

  4. A History of the Houston Police Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas A.

    The story of the Houston (Texas) Police Department is a study of times and changes in the fourth largest city in the United States. This history of the Houston Police Department (HPD) examines the Department's beginnings in 1837. The HPD hired its first black officers in 1873. The Department purchased its first patrol car in 1910. In 1930 the…

  5. Police Crisis Intervention. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterman, Thomas, Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses attention on the techniques and training methods used by police during family crisis intervention. The introduction emphasizes the importance of this special aspect of police training, and mentions the different possible target audiences such programs may have: they may be directed to all recruits, to all…

  6. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-07-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host-microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host-symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont.

  7. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  8. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  9. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  10. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  11. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  12. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  13. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  14. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  15. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  16. FTO Views on the Community Policing Skills of Probationary Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Community policing is an approach to policing that goes beyond responding to emergency calls and incorporates the needs of specific communities into the entire fabric of the police force. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has made changes at the level of training to proactively create a more professional and community-oriented police…

  17. Quality or quantity: is nutrient transfer driven more by symbiont identity and productivity than by symbiont abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J; Thacker, Robert W; Baker, David M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2013-01-01

    By forming symbiotic interactions with microbes, many animals and plants gain access to the products of novel metabolic pathways. We investigated the transfer of symbiont-derived carbon and nitrogen to the sponges Aplysina cauliformis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrilla caribensis, Neopetrosia subtriangularis and Xestospongia bocatorensis, all of which host abundant microbial populations, and Niphates erecta, which hosts a sparse symbiont community. We incubated sponges in light and dark bottles containing seawater spiked with 13C- and 15N-enriched inorganic compounds and then measured 13C and 15N enrichment in the microbial (nutrient assimilation) and sponge (nutrient transfer) fractions. Surprisingly, although most sponges hosting abundant microbial communities were more enriched in 13C than N. erecta, only N. subtriangularis was more enriched in 15N than N. erecta. Although photosymbiont abundance varied substantially across species, 13C and 15N enrichment was not significantly correlated with photosymbiont abundance. Enrichment was significantly correlated with the ratio of gross productivity to respiration (P:R), which varied across host species and symbiont phylotype. Because irradiance impacts P:R ratios, we also incubated A. cauliformis in 13C-enriched seawater under different irradiances to determine whether symbiont carbon fixation and transfer are dependent on irradiance. Carbon fixation and transfer to the sponge host occurred in all treatments, but was greatest at higher irradiances and was significantly correlated with P:R ratios. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nutrient transfer from microbial symbionts to host sponges is influenced more by host–symbiont identities and P:R ratios than by symbiont abundance. PMID:23407307

  18. Symbiont transmission entails the risk of parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Hassan; Onchuru, Thomas O.; Bauer, Eugen; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Like many animals, firebugs (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) rely on behavioural adaptations to successfully endow their offspring with microbial mutualists. To transmit the nutritionally beneficial Coriobacteriaceae symbionts, female firebugs smear egg surfaces with symbiont-containing faecal droplets that are subsequently ingested by newly hatched nymphs through active probing to initiate infection. Alternatively, the symbionts can be acquired horizontally through contact with faeces of infected conspecifics. Here, we report that these adaptations ensuring successful transmission of bacterial symbionts among firebugs are exploited by the specialized trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. Using comparative transcriptomics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and controlled bioassays, we demonstrate that the transmission cycle of L. pyrrhocoris mirrors that of the bacterial mutualists, with high efficiency for both vertical and horizontal transmission. This indicates that the parasite capitalizes on pre-existing behavioural adaptations (egg smearing and probing) to facilitate its own transfer within host populations, adaptations that likely evolved to initiate and maintain an association with beneficial gut symbionts. Thus, the transmission of mutualistic microbes across host generations can entail a significant risk of co-transmitting pathogens or parasites, thereby exerting selective pressures on the host to evolve more specific mechanisms of transfer. PMID:26673937

  19. Hitchhiking of host biology by beneficial symbionts enhances transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Cruciger, Michael; Dacks, Andrew M.; Rio, Rita V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission plays a key role in the evolution of symbiosis. Mixed mode transmission combines horizontal and vertical mechanisms for symbiont acquisition. However, features that enable mixed transmission are poorly understood. Here, we determine the mechanistic basis for the recruitment of the beneficial bacterium, Aeromonas veronii by the leech, Hirudo verbana. We demonstrate that host mucosal secretions complement imperfect symbiont vertical transmission. First, we show that the A. veronii population within secretions originates from the host digestive tract and proliferates synchronously with shedding frequency, demonstrating the coupling of partner biology. Furthermore, leeches are attracted to these castings with oral contact proving sufficient for symbiont transmission. Leech attraction to mucus is not affected by the symbiont state of either the host or mucus, suggesting that A. veronii exploits preexisting host behavior and physiological traits. A dual transmission mode, integrating multiple layers of host contributions, may prove evolutionarily advantageous for a wide range of symbioses. Using such a strategy, host infection is ensured, while also providing access to a higher genetic diversity of symbionts. Countless host-associated microbes exhibit mixed mode transmission, supporting the use of the leech symbiosis as a model for enhancing our understanding of the specificity, establishment and persistence of microbiotas. PMID:25059557

  20. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  1. Factors limiting the spread of the protective symbiont HAMILTONELLA DEFENSA in the aphid APHIS CRACCIVORA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects are associated with heritable facultative symbionts that mediate important ecological interactions, including host protection against natural enemies. Despite such benefits, facultative symbionts are commonly found at intermediate frequencies in surveyed populations. The cowpea aphid,...

  2. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  4. Adaptation via symbiosis: recent spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont.

    PubMed

    Jaenike, John; Unckless, Robert; Cockburn, Sarah N; Boelio, Lisa M; Perlman, Steve J

    2010-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that some plants and animals harbor microbial symbionts that protect them against natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that a maternally transmitted bacterium, Spiroplasma, protects Drosophila neotestacea against the sterilizing effects of a parasitic nematode, both in the laboratory and the field. This nematode parasitizes D. neotestacea at high frequencies in natural populations, and, until recently, almost all infections resulted in complete sterility. Several lines of evidence suggest that Spiroplasma is spreading in North American populations of D. neotestacea and that a major adaptive change to a symbiont-based mode of defense is under way. These findings demonstrate the profound and potentially rapid effects of defensive symbionts, which are increasingly recognized as major players in the ecology of species interactions.

  5. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  6. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  7. Ankyrin-repeat proteins from sponge symbionts modulate amoebal phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mary T H D; Liu, Michael; Thomas, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-eukaryote symbiosis occurs in all stages of evolution, from simple amoebae to mammals, and from facultative to obligate associations. Sponges are ancient metazoans that form intimate symbiotic interactions with complex communities of bacteria. The basic nutritional requirements of the sponge are in part satisfied by the phagocytosis of bacterial food particles from the surrounding water. How bacterial symbionts, which are permanently associated with the sponge, survive in the presence of phagocytic cells is largely unknown. Here, we present the discovery of a genomic fragment from an uncultured gamma-proteobacterial sponge symbiont that encodes for four proteins, whose closest known relatives are found in a sponge genome. Through recombinant approaches, we show that these four eukaryotic-like, ankyrin-repeat proteins (ARP) when expressed in Eschericha coli can modulate phagocytosis of amoebal cells and lead to accumulation of bacteria in the phagosome. Mechanistically, two ARPs appear to interfere with phagosome development in a similar way to reduced vacuole acidification, by blocking the fusion of the early phagosome with the lysosome and its digestive enzymes. Our results show that ARP from sponge symbionts can function to interfere with phagocytosis, and we postulate that this might be one mechanism by which symbionts can escape digestion in a sponge host.

  8. A nuptially transmitted Ichthyosproean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional...

  9. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po0oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  10. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po€oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  11. Symbiont-induced odorant binding proteins mediate insect host hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B; Vigneron, Aurélien; Broderick, Nichole A; Wu, Yineng; Sun, Jennifer S; Carlson, John R; Aksoy, Serap; Weiss, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria assist in maintaining homeostasis of the animal immune system. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiont-mediated host immunity are largely unknown. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house maternally transmitted symbionts that regulate the development and function of their host’s immune system. Herein we demonstrate that the obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, up-regulates expression of odorant binding protein six in the gut of intrauterine tsetse larvae. This process is necessary and sufficient to induce systemic expression of the hematopoietic RUNX transcription factor lozenge and the subsequent production of crystal cells, which actuate the melanotic immune response in adult tsetse. Larval Drosophila’s indigenous microbiota, which is acquired from the environment, regulates an orthologous hematopoietic pathway in their host. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie enteric symbiont-stimulated systemic immune system development, and indicate that these processes are evolutionarily conserved despite the divergent nature of host-symbiont interactions in these model systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19535.001 PMID:28079523

  12. Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Ailsa H. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae). We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found in pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants. We found that some H. defensa strains do provide protection against an aphelinid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. Hamiltonella defensa from the Lotus biotype provided high resistance to A. abdominalis and moderate to low resistance to Aphidius ervi, while the reverse was seen from Medicago biotype isolates. Aphids from Ononis showed no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against either wasp species and were relatively vulnerable to both. Our results may reflect the different selection pressures exerted by the parasitoid community on aphids feeding on different host plants, and could help explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial symbionts. PMID:26136451

  13. Highly infectious symbiont dominates initial uptake in coral juveniles.

    PubMed

    Abrego, David; VAN Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2009-08-01

    The majority of reef-building corals acquire their obligate algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) from the environment. However, factors shaping the initial establishment of coral-algal symbioses, including parental effects, local environmental conditions and local availability of symbionts, are not well understood. This study monitored the uptake and maintenance of Symbiodinium in juveniles of two common corals, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora, that were reciprocally explanted between sites where adult colonies host different types of Symbiodinium. We found that coral juveniles were rapidly dominated by type D Symbiodinium, even though this type is not found in adult colonies (including the parental colonies) in four out of the five study populations. Furthermore, type D Symbiodinium was found in less than one-third of a wide range of coral species (n > 50) sampled at the two main study sites, suggesting that its dominance in the acroporid juveniles is not because it is the most abundant local endosymbiotic type. Moreover, dominance by type D was observed irrespective of the light intensity to which juveniles were exposed in a field study. In summary, despite its relatively low abundance in coral assemblages at the study sites and irrespective of the surrounding light environment, type D Symbiodinium is the main symbiont type initially acquired by juveniles of A. millepora and A. tenuis. We conclude that during early ontogeny in these corals, there are few barriers to the uptake of Symbiodinium types which differ from those found in parental colonies, resulting in dominance by a highly infectious and potentially opportunistic symbiont.

  14. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus.

  15. Host-specificity of environmentally transmitted Mycoplasma-like isopod symbionts.

    PubMed

    Fraune, Sebastian; Zimmer, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasms are known as pathogens of economic and medical interest in plants, animals and man. Here, we show a positive correlation between the presence of Mycoplasma-like symbionts in their isopod hosts and survivorship on low-quality food. Most isopods that survived feeding on a cellulose-based low-quality diet for 90 days harboured 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in their midgut glands, while those that died within 90 days mostly either harboured no or other bacterial symbionts. We detected 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in all but one of the examined species of terrestrial isopods from different habitats and locations, suggesting an evolutionarily ancient association between terrestrial isopods and their Mycoplasma-like symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses clustered symbionts from different populations of the same isopod species together, and clearly distinguished between symbionts of different isopod species, indicating host-specificity of 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma', although a previous study provided evidence for environmental symbiont transmission. Nonetheless, horizontal exchange of symbionts between species may have been possible in evolutionary earlier stages, as suggested by only limited congruency of phylogenetic trees of hosts and symbionts. Another symbiont, 'Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum', was only detected in midgut glands of the most terrestrial tribe of isopods (Crinocheta), suggesting an evolutionarily younger host-symbiont association. This symbiont proved to be negatively correlated with host longevity, even on high-quality food.

  16. Fungal symbionts alter plant responses to global change.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Emery, Sarah M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    While direct plant responses to global change have been well characterized, indirect plant responses to global change, via altered species interactions, have received less attention. Here, we examined how plants associated with four classes of fungal symbionts (class I leaf endophytes [EF], arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF], ectomycorrhizal fungi [ECM], and dark septate endophytes [DSE]) responded to four global change factors (enriched CO2, drought, N deposition, and warming). We performed a meta-analysis of 434 studies spanning 174 publications to search for generalizable trends in responses of plant-fungal symbioses to future environments. Specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1) Can fungal symbionts ameliorate responses of plants to global change? (2) Do fungal symbiont groups differ in the degree to which they modify plant response to global change? (3) Do particular global change factors affect plant-fungal symbioses more than others? In all global change scenarios, except elevated CO2, fungal symbionts significantly altered plant responses to global change. In most cases, fungal symbionts increased plant biomass in response to global change. However, increased N deposition reduced the benefits of symbiosis. Of the global change factors we considered, drought and N deposition resulted in the strongest fungal mediation of plant responses. Our analysis highlighted gaps in current knowledge for responses of particular fungal groups and revealed the importance of considering not only the nonadditive effects of multiple global change factors, but also the interactive effects of multiple fungal symbioses. Our results show that considering plant-fungal symbioses is critical to predicting ecosystem response to global change.

  17. The Epidemiology of Cancer Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael; Vena, John E.; Smith, Emily K.; Bauer, Sarah E.; Violanti, John; Burch, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This review summarizes peer-reviewed studies examining cancer risks among police officers. It provides an overview of existing research limitations and uncertainties and the plausible etiologic risk factors associated with cancer in this understudied occupation. Methods Previous cancer studies among police officers were obtained via a systematic review of the MEDLINE, CABDirect, and Web of Science bibliographic databases. Results Quality observational studies of cancer among police officers are sparse and subject to limitations in exposure assessment and other methods. Results from three studies suggested possible increased mortality risks for all cancers, and cancers of the colon, kidney, digestive system, esophagus, male breast, and testis, as well as Hodgkin’s disease. Few incidence studies have been performed, and results have been mixed, although some associations with police work have been observed for thyroid, skin, and male breast cancer. Conclusions Police are exposed to a mix of known or suspected agents or activities that increase cancer risk. Epidemiologic evidence to date is sparse and inconsistent. There is a critical need for more research to understand the biological and social processes underlying exposures and the suggested disproportionate risks and to identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:23255299

  18. POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Police and Voluntary Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  19. The Blue Planet: Informal International Police Networks and National Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    equivalent, border and immigration police, customs police, coastal and river police, military police, inspectors general, gendarmerie, tax and revenue...Embassy in Bogota concerning the location of the camp run by Edgar Navarro, a FARC commander believed to have been involved in the kidnapping. Th e...of over 300 (oft en notorious) American fugitives from overseas. He has served multi-year tours in Bogota , Colombia; Istanbul, Turkey; and most

  20. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... newspapers, and television stations, as well as public service announcements to local and college radio... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... groups; (4) Academic counseling departments within public and private nonprofit colleges and...

  1. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... newspapers, and television stations, as well as public service announcements to local and college radio... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... groups; (4) Academic counseling departments within public and private nonprofit colleges and...

  2. A Comparative Evaluation of Police Suicide Rate Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violanti, John M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assesses sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of official police suicide rates and compares them to those of municipal workers. Official police suicide rates had less sensitivity (83.3% compared to 92.3%) of actual suicides than municipal worker rates. Police suicide rates also showed a lower negative proportion than municipal worker…

  3. Private security and municipal police: an atmosphere of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, John

    2002-01-01

    The author, a former deputy chief of police, discusses the importance of mutual cooperation between private and contract security and local police agencies. He discusses the steps he took to forge a bond between his hospital security staff and the local police department.

  4. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  5. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  6. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  7. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  8. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  9. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  10. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  11. Improving Police Probationer Training through a Democratic Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davis, John Dwyfor

    2005-01-01

    Following a damning report on the state of police probationer training in England and Wales by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, entitled "Training Matters" (2002), the Home Office (2003), as part of its modernisation programme for the police service, decided that what police officers were required to know and learn to execute…

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  13. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  14. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  15. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  16. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  17. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  18. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  19. Police Training. A Selected Bibliography. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, John D., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Ed.

    This bibliography was compiled to highlight the literature on police training for police managers who are interested in expanding or improving their training programs. Following a section that describes how to obtain the documents, citations are presented in three sections. The first section, Overview of Police Training, contains citations related…

  20. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  1. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    PubMed

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid.

  2. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait.

  3. Symbiont acquisition as neoseme: origin of species and higher taxa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Margulis, L.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that, in the origin of species and higher taxa of eukaryotes, symbiont acquisition followed by partner integration has been equivalent to neoseme appearance leading to speciation. The formation of stable symbiotic associations involves partner-surface recognition, behavioral and metabolic interaction, and, in some cases, gene product (RNA, protein) and genic (RNA, DNA) integration. This analysis is applied here to examples of neosemes that define specific taxa and to neosemes in plants, fungi, and animals that involve the appearance of new types of tissue. If this hypothesis is correct--if the origin of major genetic variation leading to speciation and even higher taxa may occur through symbiont acquisition and integration--then the analysis of "origins of species and higher taxa" becomes analogous to the study of microbial community ecology.

  4. A nuptially transmitted ichthyosporean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Hartzer, Kris L; Kambhampati, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional penetration of the lobes. Spores are enveloped in the spermatophores when they are formed at the time of mating and transferred to the female's bursa copulatrix. Infection has not been found in the ovaries. The sequence of the nuclear small subunit rDNA indicates that the symbiont is a member of the Ichthyosporea, a class of protists near the animal-fungi divergence.

  5. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul R; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont "conspiracies" as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors.

  6. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Paul R.; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont “conspiracies” as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors. PMID:26544881

  7. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, Beate M.; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  8. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kirby, H; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

  9. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects.

  10. Winding paths to simplicity: genome evolution in facultative insect symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Huang, Ya-Yi; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis between organisms is an important driving force in evolution. Among the diverse relationships described, extensive progress has been made in insect–bacteria symbiosis, which improved our understanding of the genome evolution in host-associated bacteria. Particularly, investigations on several obligate mutualists have pushed the limits of what we know about the minimal genomes for sustaining cellular life. To bridge the gap between those obligate symbionts with extremely reduced genomes and their non-host-restricted ancestors, this review focuses on the recent progress in genome characterization of facultative insect symbionts. Notable cases representing various types and stages of host associations, including those from multiple genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria), Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) and Spiroplasma (Mollicutes), are discussed. Although several general patterns of genome reduction associated with the adoption of symbiotic relationships could be identified, extensive variation was found among these facultative symbionts. These findings are incorporated into the established conceptual frameworks to develop a more detailed evolutionary model for the discussion of possible trajectories. In summary, transitions from facultative to obligate symbiosis do not appear to be a universal one-way street; switches between hosts and lifestyles (e.g. commensalism, parasitism or mutualism) occur frequently and could be facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:28204477

  11. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, H.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

  12. Facultative bacterial symbionts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Kerry M.; Russell, Jacob A.; Moran, Nancy A.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2003-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between animals and microorganisms are common in nature, yet the factors controlling the abundance and distributions of symbionts are mostly unknown. Aphids have an obligate association with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola (the primary symbiont) that has been shown to contribute directly to aphid fitness. In addition, aphids sometimes harbor other vertically transmitted bacteria (secondary symbionts), for which few benefits of infection have been previously documented. We carried out experiments to determine the consequences of these facultative symbioses in Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) for vulnerability of the aphid host to a hymenopteran parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, a major natural enemy in field populations. Our results show that, in a controlled genetic background, infection confers resistance to parasitoid attack by causing high mortality of developing parasitoid larvae. Compared with uninfected controls, experimentally infected aphids were as likely to be attacked by ovipositing parasitoids but less likely to support parasitoid development. This strong interaction between a symbiotic bacterium and a host natural enemy provides a mechanism for the persistence and spread of symbiotic bacteria. PMID:12563031

  13. Capitol Police: Administrative Improvements and Possible Merger With the Library of Congress Police

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    payroll. Capitol Police officials told GAO Treatment that their retirement benefits are inferior to those of other local lawenforcement organizations. On...the differences between House and Senate retirement provisions for members of the Force and provides for retirement that is comparable to local law...could be provided if a merger took place. Unionization Library Police privates are represented by union Local 2477 of the American Federation of State

  14. Now & Then: Roger Whitmore, Police Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1995-01-01

    Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)

  15. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  16. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  17. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right…

  18. Providing Security: The Strategic Importance of Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    legitimate monopoly on violence, gaining acceptance of the Kosovo Protection Corps ( KPC ) and establishing police presence backed by a perceived...KFOR forces remained the legitimate This idea of developing an integrated KPC was an integral part of the demobilization, demilitarization and

  19. Police Science Program Survey: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. National Origin Desegregation Project (LAU).

    A study, involving two independent surveys and a transcript analysis, was conducted to determine the background characteristics, attitudes, and needs of students enrolled in police science programs at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC). The first survey, which focused on personal characteristics and course enrollment data, was distributed in…

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  1. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  2. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... criteria for JPEN: (1) Non-specific threats; (2) Surveillance; (3) Elicitation; (4) Tests of Security; (5) Repetitive Activities; (6) Bomb Threats/Incidents; and (7) Suspicious Activities/Incidents. (c) If a written... sharing police intelligence is the Joint Protection Enterprise Network (JPEN). JPEN provides users...

  3. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... criteria for JPEN: (1) Non-specific threats; (2) Surveillance; (3) Elicitation; (4) Tests of Security; (5) Repetitive Activities; (6) Bomb Threats/Incidents; and (7) Suspicious Activities/Incidents. (c) If a written... sharing police intelligence is the Joint Protection Enterprise Network (JPEN). JPEN provides users...

  4. Police organizational stress: the impact of negative discipline.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the police organization is considered a difficult work stressor by officers. Of stress factors stemming from the police organization, excessive or unfair discipline rates high among rank and file officers. The police organization may be considered a punishment centered bureaucracy, where emphasis is placed on what is wrong and not on proper or laudatory behavior Although discipline is essential in critical occupations such as police work, it is important that such discipline be properly administered in order to avoid stress and feelings of organizational abandonment. This paper provides a general overview of present police organizational discipline prescriptions, and an example of an alternative positive-based discipline program.

  5. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  6. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed. PMID:24688864

  7. Studying the Complex Communities of Ants and Their Symbionts Using Ecological Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivens, Aniek B F; von Beeren, Christoph; Blüthgen, Nico; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2016-01-01

    Ant colonies provide well-protected and resource-rich environments for a plethora of symbionts. Historically, most studies of ants and their symbionts have had a narrow taxonomic scope, often focusing on a single ant or symbiont species. Here we discuss the prospects of studying these assemblies in a community ecology context using the framework of ecological network analysis. We introduce three basic network metrics that we consider particularly relevant for improving our knowledge of ant-symbiont communities: interaction specificity, network modularity, and phylogenetic signal. We then discuss army ant symbionts as examples of large and primarily parasitic communities, and symbiotic sternorrhynchans as examples of generally smaller and primarily mutualistic communities in the context of these network analyses. We argue that this approach will provide new and complementary insights into the evolutionary and ecological dynamics between ants and their many associates, and will facilitate comparisons across different ant-symbiont assemblages as well as across different types of ecological networks.

  8. A Novel Extracellular Gut Symbiont in the Marine Worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) Reveals an Alphaproteobacterial Symbiont Clade of the Ecdysozoa

    PubMed Central

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Schramm, Andreas; Funch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over 8 years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, these symbionts comprise a novel genus of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified them as extracellular, elongate bacteria closely associated with the microvilli, for which we propose the name “Candidatus Tenuibacter priapulorum”. Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa, which may indicate an evolutionary adaptation of this bacterial group to the microvilli-lined guts of the Ecdysozoa. PMID:27199899

  9. Female-Biased Symbionts and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Infections in Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huifang; Qu, Yufeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhong, Wanfang; Fang, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The female-biased infection of facultative symbionts has been found in Bemisia tabaci; however, whether there are any differences in tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and obligate symbiont infection rates between females and males is unknown. Determining whether such differences exist would be very important for understanding the spread of the plant virus and of the symbionts. We compared both symbiont infection types, including obligate and facultative symbionts, and the rates of TYLCV infection in both sexes in five field populations from Jiangsu Province, China. The obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum was not found in every whitefly tested. In all tested populations, more females than males were found to harbor P. aleyrodidarum; and more females than males also harbored Hamiltonella defense, the most common facultative symbiont as well as Cardinium. In addition to female-biased symbiont infections, there were also female-biased TYLCV infections, and the infection frequencies of this plant virus in females were higher than those in males. Taken together, these results suggested that both the female-biased symbiont infections and female-biased TYLCV infections promoted the rapid spread of TYLCV in China. PMID:24465416

  10. Biparental transmission of Verminephrobacter symbionts in the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Paz, Laura-Carlota; Schramm, Andreas; Lund, Marie Braad

    2017-02-23

    Most lumbricid earthworms harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their excretory organs (nephridia). These symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, where they colonize the embryos. Despite cospeciation for >100 million years with their hosts, Verminephrobacter lack genome reduction and AT bias typical of evolutionary old, vertically transmitted symbionts, caused by recurring bottlenecks. We hypothesized that biparental symbiont transmission into the cocoon enabled genetic mixing and relieved the bottleneck, and tested biparental transmission experimentally for V. aporrectodeae subsp. tuberculata, the specific symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata, for which aposymbiotic worm lines are available. Virgin symbiotic and aposymbiotic adult worms were tagged, mated in pairs, separated before the start of cocoon production, and their offspring assessed for Verminephrobacter. Specific PCR detected the symbionts in 41.5% of 188 juveniles produced by 20 aposymbiotic worms; fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a patchy but successful colonization of their nephridia. Symbionts were present in the mucus but absent in feed, soil, and spermatophora/nephridia of the aposymbiotic partner, suggesting symbiont transfer via mucus during mating. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that genome evolution in Verminephrobacter is distinct from other vertically transmitted symbionts due to genetic mixing during transmission, partially facilitated by biparental transmission.

  11. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  12. The evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Aphids may harbor a wide variety of facultative bacterial endosymbionts. These symbionts are transmitted maternally with high fidelity and they show horizontal transmission as well, albeit at rates too low to enable infectious spread. Such symbionts need to provide a net fitness benefit to their hosts to persist and spread. Several symbionts have achieved this by evolving the ability to protect their hosts against parasitoids. Reviewing empirical work and some models, I explore the evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in order to understand how defensive symbiont frequencies are maintained at the intermediate levels observed in aphid populations. I further show that defensive symbionts alter the reciprocal selection between aphids and parasitoids by augmenting the heritable variation for resistance, by increasing the genetic specificity of the host-parasitoid interaction, and by inducing environment-dependent trade-offs. These effects are conducive to very dynamic, symbiont-mediated coevolution that is driven by frequency-dependent selection. Finally I argue that defensive symbionts represent a problem for biological control of pest aphids, and I propose to mitigate this problem by exploiting the parasitoids' demonstrated ability to rapidly evolve counteradaptations to symbiont-conferred resistance.

  13. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K

    2011-05-01

    Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several fungal symbionts. However, even in the few termite lineages that secondarily adopted vertical symbiont transmission, the fungal symbionts are not monophyletic. We addressed this paradox by studying differential transmission of fungal symbionts by alate male and female reproductives, and the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males. We also document that the symbionts associated with this termite species belong to three main lineages that do not constitute a monophyletic group. The most common lineage occurs over the entire geographical region that we studied, including west, central and southern Africa, where it is also associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent with predominantly clonal reproduction and only occasional recombination. This implies that the genetic population structure of Termitomyces is controlled by the termite host and not by the Termitomyces symbiont.

  14. Sheriffs perceptions of firearm control polices.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dowling, Jamie

    2011-10-01

    Public health professionals can maximize their effectiveness in reducing firearm trauma by seeking partners from law enforcement professionals. This study assessed sheriff's support for various types of firearm control measures and their firearm control advocacy activities. A 29 item valid and reliable survey was used for a three- wave mailing to a national random sample of 650 sheriffs. The majority (over 50%) of sheriffs supported 4 of 14 proposed firearm control policies. Almost 55% of responding sheriffs were members of the NRA and being a member of the NRA was significantly associated with less support for 12 of the 14 firearm control policies. The majority (>70%) of sheriffs did not participate in most firearm control advocacy activities. Sheriffs were found to be far less supportive of potentially important firearm control policies than what has been previously found for police chiefs. Thus, sheriffs may be less helpful than police chiefs as colleagues for public health campaigns to reduce firearm trauma.

  15. Experimental evidence of bark beetle adaptation to a fungal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

    2015-11-01

    The importance of symbiotic microbes to insects cannot be overstated; however, we have a poor understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape most insect-microbe interactions. Many bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) species are involved in what have been described as obligate mutualisms with symbiotic fungi. Beetles benefit through supplementing their nutrient-poor diet with fungi and the fungi benefit through gaining transportation to resources. However, only a few beetle-fungal symbioses have been experimentally manipulated to test whether the relationship is obligate. Furthermore, none have tested for adaptation of beetles to their specific symbionts, one of the requirements for coevolution. We experimentally manipulated the western pine beetle-fungus symbiosis to determine whether the beetle is obligately dependent upon fungi and to test for fine-scale adaptation of the beetle to one of its symbiotic fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B. We reared beetles from a single population with either a natal isolate of E. sp. B (isolated from the same population from which the beetles originated), a non-natal isolate (a genetically divergent isolate from a geographically distant beetle population), or with no fungi. We found that fungi were crucial for the successful development of western pine beetles. We also found no significant difference in the effects of the natal and non-natal isolate on beetle fitness parameters. However, brood adult beetles failed to incorporate the non-natal fungus into their fungal transport structure (mycangium) indicating adaption by the beetle to particular genotypes of symbiotic fungi. Our results suggest that beetle-fungus mutualisms and symbiont fidelity may be maintained via an undescribed recognition mechanism of the beetles for particular symbionts that may promote particular associations through time.

  16. A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Phineas T.; Peng, Fangni; Boulanger, Martin J.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts that protect their hosts against parasites and pathogens are well known from insects, yet the underlying mechanisms of symbiont-mediated defense are largely unclear. A striking example of an ecologically important defensive symbiosis involves the woodland fly Drosophila neotestacea, which is protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Spiroplasma when parasitized by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. The benefit of this defense strategy has led to the rapid spread of Spiroplasma throughout the range of D. neotestacea, although the molecular basis for this protection has been unresolved. Here, we show that Spiroplasma encodes a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) related to Shiga-like toxins from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and that Howardula ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is depurinated during Spiroplasma-mediated protection of D. neotestacea. First, we show that recombinant Spiroplasma RIP catalyzes depurination of 28S rRNAs in a cell-free assay, as well as Howardula rRNA in vitro at the canonical RIP target site within the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. We then show that Howardula parasites in Spiroplasma-infected flies show a strong signal of rRNA depurination consistent with RIP-dependent modification and large decreases in the proportion of 28S rRNA intact at the α-sarcin/ricin loop. Notably, host 28S rRNA is largely unaffected, suggesting targeted specificity. Collectively, our study identifies a novel RIP in an insect defensive symbiont and suggests an underlying RIP-dependent mechanism in Spiroplasma-mediated defense. PMID:26712000

  17. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  18. Sodomites and police in Paris, 1715.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The Archives of the Bastille in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal include hundreds of police reports, none of them currently available in English or even in print, about male same-sex relations in Paris during the first half of the eighteenth century. The documents translated here, interrogations of eight men arrested in 1715, provide information about networks and prostitution, age and class, surveillance and deception in the sodomitical subculture of the capital.

  19. Statewide Police Command and Supervisory Training -- Three Demonstration Projects: New Jersey Mobile Training Units; North Carolina Police Management Institute; Arkansas Regional Courses for Police Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Police Training Commission, Trenton.

    Three police training programs varied markedly and present a selection of models appropriate to different circumstances and training needs. The New Jersey Police Training Commission provides for supervisory training through the use of mobile classrooms staffed with trained professional teams, equipped with modern teaching aids, and experimenting…

  20. Models and approaches to dissect host-symbiont specificity.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Mark J

    2010-11-01

    Animals are symbiotic superorganisms, composed of eukaryotic cells and specific microbial residents that perform essential functions for their host. As humans, we are beginning to appreciate the diversity and function of our own microbiota, but model systems are leading the field in illustrating the molecular mechanisms that allow specific relationships to be recapitulated during each host generation. This review focuses on models in which genetic screens, coupled with genomics, imaging, phylogenetics and population biology, have begun to allow a remarkably detailed investigation into the molecular dissection of the evolution of host specificity in animal symbionts.

  1. [Occupational stress among female police officers].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia de Magalhães; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Constantino, Patrícia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this study is occupational stress among female police officers in Rio de Janeiro. A qualitative approach was initially used (interviews, focal groups and observations) to establish their perceptions regarding gender differences in the performance of police work, the relationship between occupational stress and health issues and the strategies used to mitigate this type of stress. A total of 42 participants including female officers and staff and operational and health professionals were involved. The participants link stress to their daily work, cite a number of symptoms and show how family relationships are affected. Stress originates primarily from work management and organizational issues. Gender discrimination and harassment are also perceived as stressors. Psychic suffering is greater among officers in commanding roles, and operational activities are perceived as more stressful due to the risks involved. Physical exercise is seen as the most effective strategy to mitigate the consequences of stress. The conclusions drawn are that, there is a need for organizational and managerial change from the perspective of gender and investment in preventive measures that can reduce the consequences of stress within the Rio de Janeiro police force.

  2. Nurse-police coalition: improves safety in acute psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Allen, Diane E; Harris, Frank N; de Nesnera, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Although police officers protect and secure the safety of citizens everywhere, nurses are the primary guardians of patient safety within the treatment milieu. At New Hampshire Hospital, both nurses and police officers share ownership of this responsibility, depending on the needs that arise specific to each profession. Psychiatric nurses take pride in their ability to de-escalate agitated and potentially aggressive patients; however, times arise when the best efforts of nurses fail, or when a situation requires intervention from police officers. Nurses and police officers at New Hampshire Hospital have worked together for many years to develop a trusting, respectful alliance. This coalition has resulted in a safe, clear, orderly process for transfer of authority from nurses to police during violent, clinically unmanageable psychiatric emergencies. Nurses and police officers work collaboratively toward the common goal of ensuring safety for patients and staff, while also acknowledging the unique strengths of each profession.

  3. The Role of Host Demographic Storage in the Ecological Dynamics of Heritable Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bibian, Andrew J; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Miller, Tom E X

    2016-10-01

    Heritable symbioses are widespread and ecologically important. Many host organisms have complex life cycles that include diverse opportunities for symbionts to affect their host and be lost during development. Yet, existing theory takes a simplified view of host demography. Here, we generalize symbiosis theory to understand how demographic "storage" in the form of dormant or prereproductive life stages can modify symbiosis dynamics. Using grass-endophyte symbioses as context, we developed models to contrast the role of the seed bank (a storage stage) against the reproductive stage in symbiont persistence and prevalence. We find that the seed bank is as important as or more important than the reproductive stage in driving symbiont dynamics, as long as passage through the seed bank is obligate. Flexible entry to the seed bank substantially weakens its influence on symbiont persistence but can modify prevalence in counterintuitive ways. Our models identify a role for legacy effects, where hosts that lose symbionts retain their demographic influence. The retention of benefits via legacy effects can reduce symbiont prevalence and even cause prevalence to decline with increasing benefits to hosts because symbiont-free hosts carry those benefits. Our results resolve connections between individual-level host-symbiont interactions and population-level patterns, providing guidance for empirical studies.

  4. Heat Stress Affects Facultative Symbiont-Mediated Protection from a Parasitoid Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Eleanor R.

    2016-01-01

    Many insects carry facultative bacterial symbionts, which provide benefits including resistance to natural enemies and abiotic stresses. Little is known about how these beneficial phenotypes are affected when biotic or abiotic threats occur simultaneously. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can host several well-characterized symbiont species. The symbiont known as X-type can protect against both parasitoid wasps and heat stress. Here, we used three pea aphid genotypes that were naturally infected with X-type and the symbiont Spiroplasma sp. We compared aphids coinfected with these two symbionts with those cured from X-type and infected with only Spiroplasma to investigate the ability of X-type to confer benefits to the host when two threats are experienced simultaneously. Our aim is to explore how robust symbiont protection may be outside a benign laboratory environment. Aphids were subjected to heat shock either before or after attack by parasitoid wasps. Under a benign temperature regime, the aphids carrying X-type tended to be better protected from the parasitoid than those cured. When the aphids experienced a heat shock before being parasitized aphids carrying X-type were more susceptible than those cured. Regardless of infection with the symbiont, the aphids benefitted from being heat shocked after parasitization. The results demonstrate how resistance to parasitoid wasps can be strongly environment-dependent and that a beneficial phenotype conferred by a symbiont under controlled conditions in the laboratory does not necessarily equate to a consistently useful effect in natural populations. PMID:27875577

  5. Forever competent: deep-sea bivalves are colonized by their chemosynthetic symbionts throughout their lifetime.

    PubMed

    Wentrup, Cecilia; Wendeberg, Annelie; Schimak, Mario; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic bivalves at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps host chemosynthetic bacteria intracellularly in gill cells. In bivalves, the gills grow continuously throughout their lifetime by forming new filaments. We examined how newly developed gill tissues are colonized in bivalves with horizontal and vertical symbiont transmission (Bathymodiolus mussels versus a vesicoymid clam) using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy. Symbiont colonization was similar in mussels and clams and was independent of the transmission modes. Symbionts were absent in the growth zones of the gills, indicating that symbionts colonize newly formed gill filaments de novo after they are formed and that gill colonization is a continuous process throughout the host's lifetime. Symbiont abundance and distribution suggested that colonization is shaped by the developmental stage of host cells. Self-infection, in which new gill cells are colonized by symbionts from ontogenetically older gill tissues, may also play a role. In mussels, symbiont infection led to changes in gill cell structure similar to those described from other epithelial cells infected by intracellular pathogens, such as the loss of microvilli. A better understanding of the factors that affect symbiont colonization of bivalve gills could provide new insights into interactions between intracellular bacteria and epithelial tissues.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont TC1 in the Anaerobic Ciliate Trimyema compressum.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Seikoh; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakano, Kazuma; Shimoji, Makiko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Hirano, Takashi; Yamada, Takanori; Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Shirai, Yumi; Park, Sanghwa; Narihiro, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-09-22

    A free-living ciliate, Trimyema compressum, found in anoxic freshwater environments harbors methanogenic archaea and a bacterial symbiont named TC1 in its cytoplasm. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the TC1 symbiont, consisting of a 1.59-Mb chromosome and a 35.8-kb plasmid, which was determined using the PacBio RSII sequencer.

  7. Excess algal symbionts increase the susceptibility of reef corals to bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C.

    2013-03-01

    Rising ocean temperatures associated with global climate change are causing mass coral bleaching and mortality worldwide. Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that mitigate coral bleaching susceptibility may aid local management efforts to help coral reefs survive climate change. Although bleaching susceptibility depends partly on the genetic identity of a coral's algal symbionts, the effect of symbiont density, and the factors controlling it, remain poorly understood. By applying a new metric of symbiont density to study the coral Pocillopora damicornis during seasonal warming and acute bleaching, we show that symbiont cell ratio density is a function of both symbiont type and environmental conditions, and that corals with high densities are more susceptible to bleaching. Higher vulnerability of corals with more symbionts establishes a quantitative mechanistic link between symbiont density and the molecular basis for coral bleaching, and indicates that high densities do not buffer corals from thermal stress, as has been previously suggested. These results indicate that environmental conditions that increase symbiont densities, such as nutrient pollution, will exacerbate climate-change-induced coral bleaching, providing a mechanistic explanation for why local management to reduce these stressors will help coral reefs survive future warming.

  8. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host–symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry. PMID:23619306

  9. Hill Street Blues Post Conflict: Host Nation Police Advisor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    International Police Training Force ITAM Iraq Training and Advisory Mission JCSFA Joint Center for Security Force Assistance MoI Ministry of Interior...Advisory Mission ( ITAM ). ITAM fulfilled the larger responsibility of synchronizing the advisory efforts of all entities.149 This included synchronizing...the Military with the Military Police Transition Team efforts that were at the lower levels with the Iraqi Police.150 The ITAM also worked to

  10. Direct evidence for maternal inheritance of bacterial symbionts in small deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae).

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Kamil M; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Duperron, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial symbiont transmission is a key step in the renewal of the symbiotic interaction at each host generation, and different modes of transmission can be distinguished. Vesicomyidae are chemosynthetic bivalves from reducing habitats that rely on symbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, in which two studies suggesting vertical transmission of symbionts have been published, both limited by the imaging techniques used. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts of Isorropodon bigoti, a gonochoristic Vesicomyidae from the Guiness cold seep site, occur intracellularly within female gametes at all stages of gametogenesis from germ cells to mature oocytes and in early postlarval stage. Symbionts are completely absent from the male gonad and gametes. This study confirms the transovarial transmission of symbionts in Vesicomyidae and extends it to the smaller species for which no data were previously available.

  11. Sulcia symbiont of the leafhopper Macrosteles laevis (Ribaut, 1927) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) harbors Arsenophonus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kobiałka, Michał; Michalik, Anna; Walczak, Marcin; Junkiert, Łukasz; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The leafhopper Macrosteles laevis, like other plant sap-feeding hemipterans, lives in obligate symbiotic association with microorganisms. The symbionts are harbored in the cytoplasm of large cells termed bacteriocytes, which are integrated into huge organs termed bacteriomes. Morphological and molecular investigations have revealed that in the bacteriomes of M. laevis, two types of bacteriocytes are present which are as follows: bacteriocytes with bacterium Sulcia and bacteriocytes with Nasuia symbiont. We observed that in bacteriocytes with Sulcia, some cells of this bacterium contain numerous cells of the bacterium Arsenophonus. All types of symbionts are transmitted transovarially between generations. In the mature female, the bacteria Nasuia, bacteria Sulcia, and Sulcia with Arsenophonus inside are released from the bacteriocytes and start to assemble around the terminal oocytes. Next, the bacteria enter the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte. After passing through the follicular cells, the symbionts enter the space between the oocyte and follicular epithelium, forming a characteristic "symbiont ball."

  12. Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jillian M; Kemper, Anna; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald; Cardini, Ulisse; van der Geest, Matthijs; Kleiner, Manuel; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Mußmann, Marc; Herbold, Craig; Seah, Brandon K B; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Liu, Dan; Belitz, Alexandra; Weber, Miriam

    2016-10-24

    Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are the primary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host's nutrition. We sequenced genomes of the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes lucinalis and the stilbonematid nematode Laxus oneistus. The symbionts of both host species encoded nitrogen fixation genes. This is remarkable as no marine chemosynthetic symbiont was previously known to be capable of nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogenase expression by the symbionts of lucinid clams at the transcriptomic and proteomic level. Mean stable nitrogen isotope values of Loripes lucinalis were within the range expected for fixed atmospheric nitrogen, further suggesting active nitrogen fixation by the symbionts. The ability to fix nitrogen may be widespread among chemosynthetic symbioses in oligotrophic habitats, where nitrogen availability often limits primary productivity.

  13. Burkholderia gut symbionts enhance the innate immunity of host Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Jun Beom; Huh, Ye Rang; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Chan-Hee; Yoo, Jin Wook; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-11-01

    The relation between gut symbiosis and immunity has been reported in various animal model studies. Here, we corroborate the effect of gut symbiont to host immunity using the bean bug model. The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a useful gut symbiosis model due to the monospecific gut symbiont, genus Burkholderia. To examine the effect of gut symbiosis to host immunity, we generated the gut symbiont-harboring (symbiotic) insect line and the gut symbiont-lacking (aposymbiotic) insect line. Upon bacterial challenges, the symbiotic Riptortus exhibited better survival than aposymbiotic Riptortus. When cellular immunity was inhibited, the symbiotic Riptortus still survived better than aposymbioic Riptortus, suggesting stronger humoral immunity. The molecular basis of the strong humoral immunity was further confirmed by the increase of hemolymph antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial peptide expression in the symbiotic insects. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that Burkhoderia gut symbiont positively affect the Riptortus systemic immunity.

  14. Genomic signatures of obligate host dependence in the luminous bacterial symbiont of a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; de Wet, Jeffrey R; Dunlap, Paul V

    2014-08-01

    The majority of bacteria engaged in bioluminescent symbiosis are environmentally acquired and facultatively symbiotic. A few enigmatic bioluminescent symbionts have not been successfully cultured, which has led to speculation that they may be obligately dependent on their hosts. Here, we report the draft genome of the uncultured luminous symbiont of an anomalopid flashlight fish, 'Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron'. The genome of the anomalopid symbiont is reduced by 80% compared with close relatives and lacks almost all genes necessary for amino acid synthesis and for metabolism of energy sources other than glucose, supporting obligate dependence on the host for growth. 'Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron' is the first described obligate mutualistic symbiont of a vertebrate. Unlike most other obligate mutualists, the anomalopid symbiont genome has retained complete pathways for chemotaxis and motility as well as most genes involved in cell wall production, consistent with the hypothesis that these bacteria may be transmitted environmentally during an extra-host phase.

  15. The role of symbiont genetic distance and potential adaptability in host preference towards Pseudonocardia symbionts in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael; Maynard, Janielle; Roland, Damien L; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants display symbiont preference in behavioral assays, both towards the fungus they cultivate for food and Actinobacteria they maintain on their cuticle for antibiotic production against parasites. These Actinobacteria, genus Pseudonocardia Henssen (Pseudonocardiacea: Actinomycetales), help defend the ants' fungal mutualist from specialized parasites. In Acromyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutting ants, individual colonies maintain either a single or a few strains of Pseudonocardia, and the symbiont is primarily vertically transmitted between generations by colony-founding queens. A recent report found that Acromyrmex workers are able to differentiate between their native Pseudonocardia strain and non-native strains isolated from sympatric or allopatric Acromyrmex species, and show preference for their native strain. Here we explore worker preference when presented with two non-native strains, elucidating the role of genetic distance on preference between strains and Pseudonocardia origin. Our findings suggest that ants tend to prefer bacteria more closely related to their native bacterium and that genetic similarity is probably more important than whether symbionts are ant-associated or free-living. Preliminary findings suggest that when continued exposure to a novel Pseudonocardia strain occurs, ant symbiont preference is potentially adaptable, with colonies apparently being able to alter symbiont preference over time. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of adaptive recognition, potential ecological flexibility in symbiont preference, and more broadly, in relation to self versus non-self recognition.

  16. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species.

  17. Microbial communities and symbionts in the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) from north China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. Haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in China, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. However, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in H. longicornis under natural conditions. In the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities associated with H. longicornis and evaluated the putative symbionts. Methods The eubacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of H. longicornis were constructed and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. In addition, diagnostic PCR was performed to assess the prevalence, vertical transmission and infection sites of the symbionts in H. longicornis. Results Vertically-transmitted symbionts, potential pathogens and allochthonous nonpathogenic bacteria were identified from the field-collected H. longicornis. Three types of symbionts (Coxiella-like, Arsenophonus-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts) were identified in a single host simultaneously. A series of analyses revealed the vertical transmission, prevalence, and infection sites of these symbionts. However, only Coxiella-like bacteria were transmitted stably in the laboratory-reared ticks. In addition, we identified a novel Coxiella-like agent with 95.31% sequence similarity to the taxon described previously. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that natural H. longicornis harboured a diverse array of microbial communities. Three types of symbionts were identified in a single host simultaneously. Moreover, high prevalence, vertical transmission and the infection sites supported an obligate symbiotic association between Coxiella symbiont and its host. The role of Coxiella symbiont in the host fitness and the interaction among microbial communities remained to be elucidated

  18. Tactical Medical Training for Police Officers: Lessons from U.S. Special Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    tactical medicine pertain to the various police departments’ medical training requirements. The study finds that the main lesson police officers can...tactical medicine pertain to the various police departments’ medical training requirements. The study finds that the main lesson police officers can...lessons in tactical medicine pertain to the various police departments’ medical training requirements. The study finds that the main lesson police

  19. Factors Affecting Police Officers' Acceptance of GIS Technologies: A Study of the Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakar, Bekir

    2011-01-01

    The situations and problems that police officers face are more complex in today's society, due in part to the increase of technology and growing complexity of globalization. Accordingly, to solve these problems and deal with the complexities, law enforcement organizations develop and apply new techniques and methods such as geographic information…

  20. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  1. Moving Toward the Future of Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Network Unrealized,” New York Times, September 7, 2010. Zetter, Kim, “Teen Girl Faced Child Porn Charges for E-Mailing Nude Pictures of Herself to Friends...different parts of the globe. The Los Angeles region is a poster child for the mismatch at the next level up from individual police departments...is a kind of poster child for this overlap. Its 4,000 square miles contain almost 10 million people. It hosts 88 munic- ipalities, including the City

  2. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  3. A bacterial symbiont in the Bacteroidetes induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitoid wasp Encarsia pergandiella.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S; Perlman, Steve J; Kelly, Suzanne E

    2003-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts of arthropods have been implicated in several reproductive manipulations of their hosts. These include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis induction in haplodiploid species (PI), feminization and male killing. One symbiont lineage in the alpha-Proteobacteria, Wolbachia, is the only bacterium known to cause all of these effects, and has been thought to be unique in causing CI, in which the fecundity of uninfected females is reduced after mating with infected males. Here, we provide evidence that an undescribed symbiont in the Bacteroidetes group causes CI in a sexual population of the parasitic wasp Encarsia pergandiella. Wasps were crossed in all four possible combinations of infected and uninfected individuals. In the cross predicted to be incompatible, infected (I) males x uninfected (U) females, progeny production was severely reduced, with these females producing only 12.6% of the number of progeny in other crosses. The incompatibility observed in this haplodiploid species was the female mortality type; dissections showed that most progeny from the incompatible cross died as eggs. The 16S rDNA sequence of this symbiont is 99% identical to a parthenogenesis-inducing symbiont in other Encarsia, and 96% identical to a feminizing symbiont in haplodiploid Brevipalpus mites. Thus, this recently discovered symbiont lineage is capable of inducing three of the four principal manipulations of host reproduction known to be caused by Wolbachia. PMID:14561283

  4. The impact of transmission mode on the evolution of benefits provided by microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jason W; Turner, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    While past work has often examined the effects of transmission mode on virulence evolution in parasites, few studies have explored the impact of horizontal transmission on the evolution of benefits conferred by a symbiont to its host. Here, we identify three mechanisms that create a positive covariance between horizontal transmission and symbiont-provided benefits: pleiotropy within the symbiont genome, partner choice by the host, and consumption of host waste by-products by symbionts. We modify a susceptible-infected model to incorporate the details of each mechanism and examine the evolution of symbiont benefits given variation in either the immigration rate of susceptible hosts or the rate of successful vertical transmission. We find conditions for each case under which greater opportunity for horizontal transmission (higher migration rate) favors the evolution of mutualism. Further, we find the surprising result that vertical transmission can inhibit the evolution of benefits provided by symbionts to hosts when horizontal transmission and symbiont-provided benefits are positively correlated. These predictions may apply to a number of natural systems, and the results may explain why many mutualisms that rely on partner choice often lack a mechanism for vertical transmission. PMID:25535552

  5. Vertical transmission of chemoautotrophic symbionts in the bivalve Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Protobranchia).

    PubMed

    Krueger, D M; Gustafson, R G; Cavanaugh, C M

    1996-04-01

    Adults of the bivalve species Solemya velum live in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria in specialized gill bacteriocytes. The bacteria play an essential nutritional role in the mature association, fixing CO2 via the Calvin cycle with energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. To understand how the continuity of this partnership is maintained between host generations, we investigated the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum. A diagnostic assay using the polymerase chain reaction and primers specific for the S. velum symbiont ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) gene consistently detected bacterial sequence in female gonad tissue, suggesting the presence of symbiont cells in host ovaries and a vertical mode of symbiont transmission from mother to offspring. Furthermore, intracellular bacteria were present in the developing gills of juveniles that had not yet hatched from the gelatinous capsule in which larval development occurs (11 days after fertilization). By 64 days postfertilization, the typical adult gill ultrastructure of alternating bacteriocytes and symbiont-free-intercalary cells was apparent. Knowledge about the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum allows further study into the dynamics of host-symbiont interactions in chemoautotrophic associations.

  6. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms. PMID:27293794

  7. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro; Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms.

  8. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include...

  13. The Public's Perception of Crime and Police Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joel H.; Sherman, Janet Schmidt

    The public's views about behaviors that should be crimes, behaviors that should come under the control of the police, and the public's view of how the police spend their time are examined. A telephone questionnaire survey was conducted with a random sample of 250 persons in San Diego (California). Over 98% of the respondents believed that the…

  14. Problems in Communicating the Suspect's Rights in Interpreted Police Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakane, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    At first glance, communicating a suspect's rights in police interviews appears to be a straightforward task. However, it is more complex than it appears. In particular, for suspects who come from different cultural backgrounds or legal systems and who rely on interpreters in police interviews, ensuring a thorough understanding of their rights and…

  15. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  16. "Policing Schools" Strategies: A Review of the Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…

  17. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND MILITARY POLICE POST IN BACKGROUND ALONG ENTRANCE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  18. 1. LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST WITH MILITARY POLICE POST AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST WITH MILITARY POLICE POST AT LEFT AND MT. WILLIAMSON IN BACKGROUND. POST HELD ENTRANCE SIGN TO MANZANAR. THIS VIEW REPLICATES A PHOTOGRAPH BY ANSEL ADAMS, PUBLISHED IN THE BOOK MANZANAR. - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Military Police Post, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  19. 77 FR 74546 - Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... police are in the national security interest of the United States. This Determination shall...

  20. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  1. Behavioral variables associated with obesity in police officers.

    PubMed

    Can, S Hakan; Hendy, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, stretching), sleep duration, and consumption of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and snack foods. Participants included 172 male police officers who completed questionnaires to report height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (BMI = kg/m(2)) and to divide them into "non-obese" and "obese" groups. They also reported the above behaviors and six non-behavioral variables found associated with obesity risk: age, health problems, family support, police work hours, police stressors, police support. ANCOVAs compared each behavioral variable across obesity status (non-obese, obese), with the six non-behavioral variables used as covariates. Results revealed that cardiovascular and strength-training physical activity were the only behavioral variables that differed significantly between non-obese and obese police officers. The use of self-reported height and weight values may provide Employee Assistance Program with improved cost, time, and officer participation.

  2. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  3. Behavioral Variables Associated with Obesity in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    CAN, S. Hakan; HENDY, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, stretching), sleep duration, and consumption of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and snack foods. Participants included 172 male police officers who completed questionnaires to report height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) and to divide them into “non-obese” and “obese” groups. They also reported the above behaviors and six non-behavioral variables found associated with obesity risk: age, health problems, family support, police work hours, police stressors, police support. ANCOVAs compared each behavioral variable across obesity status (non-obese, obese), with the six non-behavioral variables used as covariates. Results revealed that cardiovascular and strength-training physical activity were the only behavioral variables that differed significantly between non-obese and obese police officers. The use of self-reported height and weight values may provide Employee Assistance Program with improved cost, time, and officer participation. PMID:24694574

  4. Private Police in the United States: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the first in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. Intended for use by the private police industry and by the governmental agencies that regulate it, as well as by the general…

  5. Linking Training and Promotion in a Police Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Damon D. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Police Department training-based promotional system for police officers. Presents a critique of traditional promotional practices and an analysis of relevant case law; offers a theoretical base for a training-based system. Also presents an overview of training delivery, testing, and list…

  6. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  7. National police suicide estimates: web surveillance study III.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Andrew F; Violanti, John M; Levenson, Richard L; Clark, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    The present study is the third in a series of web surveillance of police suicides (prior analyses conducted in 2008 and 2009). In this age of world web communications, a police suicide in even the smallest and most remote community is generally transmitted nationally and through police websites, forums, and blogs. 55,000 police suicide specific web articles were reviewed over the entire year 2012 data was then compared with 2008 and 2009 police suicide data. There were 141 police suicides in 2008. Suicides declined from 143 in 2009 to 126 in 2012 (an 11.9% decrease). Across the three time periods, male and female suicides appeared to occur at a similar rate, averaging 92% and 6% respectively. In 2012, (1) suicides appeared to cluster more in the 40-44 year age group more than in previous years among officers of lower rank; (2) an increase in suicide was seen among officers with 15-19 years of service; (3) gunshots remained the most prevalent means of suicide across all three years (91.5%), and (4) personal problems appeared to be prevalent (83%) with work associated legal problems ranking second (13%). Approximately 11% of suicides were military veterans. California (n = 10) and New York (n = 12) had the highest police suicide rates. Four murder-suicides were noted over the entire year. Suggestions for suicide preventive policies, improving police mental health, and future research are discussed.

  8. Career Influences in Bridge Employment Among Retired Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Stephen C; Snell, Andrea F; Sterns, Harvey L

    2015-07-01

    The careful examination of factors influencing bridge employment among retired police officers is largely absent in the literature. Two hundred and eleven retired police officers participated in a survey exploring factors that contributed to the participation in bridge employment or employment upon retiring from primary careers in law enforcement. The results indicate that retired officers who held part-time positions while fully employed as police officers were more likely to participate in bridge employment when compared with individuals who did not hold additional part-time employment while fully employed as police officers. Opportunities for training and interventions exist to help retired police officers navigate the working transition at this later-life juncture.

  9. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Korean Police Personnel.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hak Young; Cho, Jae Hwan; Seok, Jong Min; Cho, Taek Sang; Jeon, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. For police officers in special working environments, the importance of basic data is emphasized for human resources (HR) management and the prevention of industrial hazards from an industrial health care perspective. This study was conducted on police officers who visited the national police hospital and who underwent x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. The results revealed that examinations for the lower extremities and spine were most frequently conducted using x-ray, CT, and MRI. In particular, knee and lumbar examinations were most frequently conducted among all lower extremity and spine examinations, respectively.

  10. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  11. An unusual symbiont from the gut of surgeonfishes may be the largest known prokaryote.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, K D; Bullivant, S

    1991-01-01

    Symbionts first reported from the gut of a Red Sea surgeonfish, Acanthurus nigrofuscus (family Acanthuridae), were subsequently described as Epulopiscium fishelsoni. The taxonomic position of this very large (up to 576 microns in length) microorganism has previously been designated in the literature as either uncertain or eukaryotic. We suggest that similar symbionts from Great Barrier Reef surgeonfish may be prokaryotes, which together with E. fishelsoni from the Red Sea may represent the largest known forms of this cell type. Features identifying the symbionts as prokaryotes include the presence of bacterial-type flagella and a bacterial nucleoid and the absence of a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Images PMID:1885516

  12. Staurojoenina and other symbionts in Neotermes from San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, M.; Margulis, L.

    1997-01-01

    Staurojoenina, a conspicuous hypermastigote protist (undocumented in any Neotermes) and other hindgut symbionts are reported for the first time in Neotermes nr. jouteli, a dry-wood-eating termite (Kalotermitidae), from the red mangroves at the northeast corner of San Salvador Island. Other distinctive protists (Macrotrichomonas, Metadevescovina, two morphotypes of small trichomonads) and bacteria (Arthromitus-type filamentous spore-formers) symbionts were also found in this termite. This Staurojoenina sp. replete with epibiotic bacterial symbionts is not distinguished from previously described species of Staurojoenina.

  13. Construction of a metagenomic DNA library of sponge symbionts and screening of antibacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Cui, Chengbin; Fang, Yuchun; Liu, Hongbing; Liu, Peipei; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

    2006-04-01

    To study the bioactive metabolites produced by sponge-derived uncultured symbionts, a metagenomic DNA library of the symbionts of sponge Gelliodes gracilis was constructed. The average size of DNA inserts in the library was 20 kb. This library was screened for antibiotic activity using paper dise assaying. Two clones displayed the antibacterial activity against Micrococcus tetragenus. The metabolites of these two clones were analyzed through HPLC. The result showed that their metabolites were quite different from those of the host E. coli DH5α and the host containing vector pHZ132. This study may present a new approach to exploring bioactive metabolites of sponge symbionts.

  14. α-Proteobacterial Symbionts of Marine Bryozoans in the Genus Watersipora▿

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christine M.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts that resembled mollicutes were discovered in the marine bryozoan Watersipora arcuata in the 1980s. In this study, we used PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, specific fluorescence in situ hybridization, and phylogenetic analysis to determine that the bacterial symbionts of “W. subtorquata” and “W. arcuata” from several locations along the California coast are actually closely related α-Proteobacteria, not mollicutes. We propose the names “Candidatus Endowatersipora palomitas” and “Candidatus Endowatersipora rubus” for the symbionts of “W. subtorquata” and “W. arcuata,” respectively. PMID:17071786

  15. The Role of Police Officers in Elementary and Secondary Schools: Implications for Police-School Social Work Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between law enforcement agencies and elementary and secondary schools focus on the provision of education to students, the safety and security of school property, and public relations efforts aimed at changing youths' attitudes toward the police both inside and outside of schools. The use of police officers in school settings…

  16. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  17. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  18. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  19. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community.

    PubMed

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-06-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42 % of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints were cited as barriers. Whilst 37 % of officers had received training on ASD, a need for training tailored to policing roles (e.g., frontline officers, detectives) was identified. Police responses are discussed with respect to the experiences of the ASD community (31 adults with ASD, 49 parents), who were largely dissatisfied with their experience of the police and echoed the need for police training on ASD.

  20. Baseline shifts in coral skeletal oxygen isotopic composition: a signature of symbiont shuffling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J. E.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Decades-long records of the stable isotopic composition of coral skeletal cores were analyzed from four sites on the Mesoamerican Reef. Two of the sites exhibited baseline shifts in oxygen isotopic composition after known coral bleaching events. Changes in pH at the calcification site caused by a change in the associated symbiont community are invoked to explain the observed shift in the isotopic composition. To test the hypothesis that changes in symbiont clade could affect skeletal chemistry, additional coral samples were collected from Belize for paired Symbiodinium identification and skeletal stable isotopic analysis. We found some evidence that skeletal stable isotopic composition may be affected by symbiont clade and suggest this is an important topic for future investigation. If different Symbiodinium clades leave consistent signatures in skeletal geochemical composition, the signature will provide a method to quantify past symbiont shuffling events, important for understanding how corals are likely to respond to climate change.

  1. The Costs of Policing: Psychosocial Capital and Mental Health Outcomes in a Nigeria Police Sample.

    PubMed

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Balogun, Shyngle K

    2015-10-14

    This study examined the influence of psychosocial capital (psychological and workplace social capital) on mental health outcomes among 340 police personnel in Nigeria. Data were collected via anonymously completed questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling, and the results revealed that in the context of stress and traumatic stress, resilience p < .05, optimism p < .05, self-efficacy p < .05, hope p < .05, and workplace social capital p < .05 can influence the development of mental health problems or adaptation. The findings imply that it is important that both researchers and police organization pay attention to how psychological capital influence the development of psychopathology or resilience and how such issues can be addressed through psychological training in the workplace.

  2. Insights into Symbiont Population Structure among Three Vestimentiferan Tubeworm Host Species at Eastern Pacific Spreading Centers

    PubMed Central

    Juniper, S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The symbiotic relationship between vestimentiferan tubeworms and their intracellular chemosynthetic bacteria is one of the more noteworthy examples of adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. The tubeworm symbionts have never been cultured in the laboratory. Nucleotide sequences from the small subunit rRNA gene suggest that the intracellular symbionts of the eastern Pacific vent tubeworms Oasisia alvinae, Riftia pachyptila, Tevnia jerichonana, and Ridgeia piscesae belong to the same phylotype of gammaproteobacteria, “Candidatus Endoriftia persephone.” Comparisons of symbiont genomes between the East Pacific Rise tubeworms R. pachyptila and T. jerichonana confirmed that these two hosts share the same symbionts. Two Ridgeia symbiont genomes were assembled from trophosome metagenomes from worms collected from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (one and five individuals, respectively). We compared these assemblies to those of the sequenced Riftia and Tevnia symbionts. Pangenome composition, genome-wide comparisons of the nucleotide sequences, and pairwise comparisons of 2,313 orthologous genes indicated that “Ca. Endoriftia persephone” symbionts are structured on large geographical scales but also on smaller scales and possibly through host specificity. IMPORTANCE Remarkably, the intracellular symbionts of four to six species of eastern Pacific vent tubeworms all belong to the same phylotype of gammaproteobacteria, “Candidatus Endoriftia persephone.” Understanding the structure, dynamism, and interconnectivity of “Ca. Endoriftia persephone” populations is important to advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of their host worms, which are often keystone species in vent communities. In this paper, we present the first genomes for symbionts associated with the species R. piscesae, from the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We then combine these genomes with published symbiont genomes from the East Pacific Rise tubeworms R. pachyptila and T

  3. The Combined Effects of Bacterial Symbionts and Aging on Life History Traits in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maretta H.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    While many endosymbionts have beneficial effects on hosts under specific ecological conditions, there can also be associated costs. In order to maximize their own fitness, hosts must facilitate symbiont persistence while preventing symbiont exploitation of resources, which may require tight regulation of symbiont populations. As a host ages, the ability to invest in such mechanisms may lessen or be traded off with demands of other life history traits, such as survival and reproduction. Using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, we measured survival, lifetime fecundity, and immune cell counts (hemocytes, a measure of immune capacity) in the presence of facultative secondary symbionts. Additionally, we quantified the densities of the obligate primary bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and secondary symbionts across the host's lifetime. We found life history costs to harboring some secondary symbiont species. Secondary symbiont populations were found to increase with host age, while Buchnera populations exhibited a more complicated pattern. Immune cell counts peaked at the midreproductive stage before declining in the oldest aphids. The combined effects of immunosenescence and symbiont population growth may have important consequences for symbiont transmission and maintenance within a host population. PMID:24185857

  4. Effects of a Comprehensive Police Suicide Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Brian L.; Martin, Normand

    2012-01-01

    Background: Police suicides are an important problem, and many police forces have high rates. Montreal police suicide rates were slightly higher than other Quebec police rates in the 11 years before the program began (30.5/100,000 per year vs. 26.0/100,000). Aims: To evaluate Together for Life, a suicide prevention program for the Montreal police. Methods: All 4,178 members of the Montreal police participated. The program involved training for all officers, supervisors, and union representatives as well as establishing a volunteer helpline and a publicity campaign. Outcome measures included suicide rates, pre-post assessments of learning, focus groups, interviews, and follow-up of supervisors. Results: In the 12 years since the program began the suicide rate decreased by 79% (6.4/100,000), while other Quebec police rates had a nonsignificant (11%) increase (29.0/100,000). Also, knowledge increased, supervisors engaged in effective interventions, and the activities were highly appreciated. Limitations: Possibly some unidentified factors unrelated to the program could have influenced the observed changes. Conclusions: The decrease in suicides appears to be related to this program since suicide rates for comparable populations did not decrease and there were no major changes in functioning, training, or recruitment to explain the differences. Comprehensive suicide prevention programs tailored to the work environment may significantly impact suicide rates. PMID:22450038

  5. Police liaison and section 136: comparison of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Oliver; Dye, Stephen; Obeng-Asare, Franklin; Nguyen, Nam; Wright, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Aims and method Two police liaison and section 136 schemes were developed alongside police services at different sites within the same NHS trust. In one, a mental health nurse worked with frontline police attending incidents related to mental health. The other involved nurses providing advice from the police control room. Section 136 detentions were measured over two 6-month periods (6 months apart) before and after practice change. Data analysed included total numbers of section 136 assessments, outcomes following subsequent assessment, and relevant diagnostic and demographic factors. Association of any change in section 136 total numbers and proportion subsequently admitted was investigated in both sites. Results The model involving a nurse alongside frontline police showed significant reduction in section 136 numbers (38%, P < 0.01) as well as greater admission rates (P = 0.01). The scheme involving support within the police control room did not show any change in section 136 detention but showed a non-significant (P = 0.16) decrease in subsequent admission. Clinical implications Mental health nurses working alongside frontline police officers can help improve section 136 numbers and outcomes.

  6. Review of police inquiries to an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R; Rainer, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the workload generated by police inquiries to an accident and emergency (A&E) department and the adherence of medical staff to departmental guidelines relating to these inquiries. DESIGN: Prospective analysis of the number, nature, and timing of police inquiries and the information released by medical staff. SETTING: A&E department of an inner city teaching hospital. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of personal and telephone requests for information from police; completion of a form of inquiry; record of patient consent for release of information. RESULTS: A daily average of 8.7 police inquiries were made, but in only 10% of cases was a form of inquiry completed. The patient's consent for release of information to the police was recorded in 4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Police inquiries generate a significant workload for an A&E department, often at clinically busy times. Medical staff need further education to ensure that patient confidentiality is respected while assisting the police with their investigations. Images Figure 2 PMID:8947799

  7. Police liaison and section 136: comparison of two different approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Oliver; Dye, Stephen; Obeng-Asare, Franklin; Nguyen, Nam; Wright, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method Two police liaison and section 136 schemes were developed alongside police services at different sites within the same NHS trust. In one, a mental health nurse worked with frontline police attending incidents related to mental health. The other involved nurses providing advice from the police control room. Section 136 detentions were measured over two 6-month periods (6 months apart) before and after practice change. Data analysed included total numbers of section 136 assessments, outcomes following subsequent assessment, and relevant diagnostic and demographic factors. Association of any change in section 136 total numbers and proportion subsequently admitted was investigated in both sites. Results The model involving a nurse alongside frontline police showed significant reduction in section 136 numbers (38%, P < 0.01) as well as greater admission rates (P = 0.01). The scheme involving support within the police control room did not show any change in section 136 detention but showed a non-significant (P = 0.16) decrease in subsequent admission. Clinical implications Mental health nurses working alongside frontline police officers can help improve section 136 numbers and outcomes.

  8. [Risk and (in)security in the police mission].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Adorno, Sérgio

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a discussion on the history and use of the concepts of risk and security applied to the police officer's mission. The text is developed in an essay format that shows how both terms developed under the constitution of modern industrial societies. The authors begin with the assumption that the organizational structure of the police in various parts of the world retains the same logic since they were created during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and that this format is in crisis: whether it is because the concept of risk and current management thereof has now become much broader; or because the concept of security has also deepened and broadened, fleeing from the scope of the police institution. The crisis of the police apparatus is an international issue and the authors point to the case of the French police. Reverting to the thoughts of important authors in the sociological area, the authors resume the debate on some issues that they consider urgent: reformulation of the breadth of the concepts of risk and security to understand the police mission; enhancement of the police inside and outside corporations; review of the weight of the hierarchical rigidity or inflexibility on careers in a plural and flexible society.

  9. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions

    PubMed Central

    Habersaat, Stephanie A.; Geiger, Ashley M.; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. Methods A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. Results In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. PMID:26364008

  10. Temporal changes of symbiont density and host fitness after rifampicin treatment in a whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yin-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Microbial symbionts are essential or important partners to phloem-feeding insects. Antibiotics have been used to selectively eliminate symbionts from their host insects and establish host lines with or without certain symbionts for investigating functions of the symbionts. In this study, using the antibiotic rifampicin we attempted to selectively eliminate certain symbionts from a population of the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, which harbors the primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and two secondary symbionts "Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" and Rickettsia. Neither the primary nor the secondary symbionts were completely depleted in the adults (F0) that fed for 48 h on a diet treated with rifampicin at concentrations of 1-100 μg/mL. However, both the primary and secondary symbionts were nearly completely depleted in the offspring (F1) of the rifampicin-treated adults. Although the F1 adults produced some eggs (F2), most of the eggs failed to hatch and none of them reached the second instar, and consequently the rifampicin-treated whitefly colony vanished at the F2 generation. Interestingly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that in the rifampicin-treated whiteflies, the density of the primary symbiont was reduced at an obviously slower pace than the secondary symbionts. Mating experiments between rifampicin-treated and untreated adults demonstrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were expressed when the females were treated by the antibiotic, and whether males were treated or not by the antibiotic had little contribution to the negative effects. These observations indicate that with this whitefly population it is not feasible to selectively eliminate the secondary symbionts using rifampicin without affecting the primary symbiont and establish host lines for experimental studies. However, the extinction of the whitefly colony at the second generation after

  11. A Study of the Values and Attitudes of Black and White Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teahan, John E.

    Better understanding, openness, and trust among black and white police officers would increase police effectiveness in dealing with police-community relations. This study discusses a program to improve black-white police relations through role playing techniques and small group interactions on problems of human relationships. Longitudinal in…

  12. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  13. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  14. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of...

  15. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  16. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to...

  17. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to...

  18. Expanding Police Educators' Understanding of Teaching, Are They as Learner-Centred as They Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipton, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Police educators, that is, police and non-police teachers involved in recruit education and training, have traditionally suffered from a lack of organisational focus on developing their teaching and learning practices. The New South Wales (NSW) Police College, which is currently implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL), has begun to take a more…

  19. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  20. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to...

  1. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to...

  2. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  3. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of...

  4. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of...

  5. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  6. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of...

  7. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E,...

  8. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  9. Superparasitism Drives Heritable Symbiont Epidemiology and Host Sex Ratio in a Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Parratt, Steven R.; Frost, Crystal L.; Schenkel, Martijn A.; Rice, Annabel

    2016-01-01

    Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates it, have not been considered in heritable symbiont epidemiology. Here, we tested for the importance of host contact, and resulting horizontal transmission, for the epidemiology of a male-killing heritable symbiont (Arsenophonus nasoniae) in parasitoid wasp hosts. We observed that host contact through superparasitism is necessary for this symbiont’s spread in populations of its primary host Nasonia vitripennis, such that when superparasitism rates are high, A. nasoniae almost reaches fixation, causes highly female biased population sex ratios and consequently causes local host extinction. We further tested if natural interspecific variation in superparasitism behaviours predicted symbiont dynamics among parasitoid species. We found that A. nasoniae was maintained in laboratory populations of a closely related set of Nasonia species, but declined in other, more distantly related pteromalid hosts. The natural proclivity of a species to superparasitise was the primary factor determining symbiont persistence. Our results thus indicate that host contact behaviour is a key factor for heritable microbe dynamics when horizontal transmission is possible, and that ‘reproductive parasite’ phenotypes, such as male-killing, may be of secondary importance in the dynamics of such symbiont infections. PMID:27322651

  10. Uncovering symbiont-driven genetic diversity across North American pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jacob A; Weldon, Stephanie; Smith, Andrew H; Kim, Kyungsun L; Hu, Yi; Łukasik, Piotr; Doll, Steven; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Novin, Matthew; Oliver, Kerry M

    2013-04-01

    Heritable genetic variation is required for evolution, and while typically encoded within nuclear and organellar genomes, several groups of invertebrates harbour heritable microbes serving as additional sources of genetic variation. Hailing from the symbiont-rich insect order Hemiptera, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) possess several heritable symbionts with roles in host plant utilization, thermotolerance and protection against natural enemies. As pea aphids vary in the numbers and types of harboured symbionts, these bacteria provide heritable and functionally important variation within field populations. In this study, we quantified the cytoplasmically inherited genetic variation contributed by symbionts within North American pea aphids. Through the use of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454 amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we explored the diversity of bacteria harboured by pea aphids from five populations, spanning three locations and three host plants. We also characterized strain variation by analysing 16S rRNA, housekeeping and symbiont-associated bacteriophage genes. Our results identified eight species of facultative symbionts, which often varied in frequency between locations and host plants. We detected 28 cytoplasmic genotypes across 318 surveyed aphids, considering only the various combinations of secondary symbiont species infecting single hosts. Yet the detection of multiple Regiella insecticola, Hamiltonella defensa and Rickettsia strains, and diverse bacteriophage genotypes from H. defensa, suggest even greater diversity. Combined, these findings reveal that heritable bacteria contribute substantially to genetic variation in A. pisum. Given the costs and benefits of these symbionts, it is likely that fluctuating selective forces play a role in the maintenance of this diversity.

  11. Population genomics of a symbiont in the early stages of a pest invasion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amanda M V; Huynh, Lynn Y; Bolender, Caitlin M; Nelson, Kelly G; McCutcheon, John P

    2014-03-01

    Invasive species often depend on microbial symbionts, but few studies have examined the evolutionary dynamics of symbionts during the early stages of an invasion. The insect Megacopta cribraria and its bacterial nutritional symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata invaded the southeastern US in 2009. While M. cribraria was initially discovered on wild kudzu plants, it was found as a pest on soybeans within 1 year of infestation. Because prior research suggests Ishikawaella confers the pest status--that is, the ability to thrive on soybeans--in some Megacopta species, we performed a genomic study on Ishikawaella from US. Megacopta cribraria populations to understand the role of the symbiont in driving host plant preferences. We included Ishikawaella samples collected in the first days of the invasion in 2009 and from 23 locations across the insect's 2011 US range. The 0.75 Mb symbiont genome revealed only 47 fixed differences from the pest-conferring Ishikawaella in Japan, with only one amino acid change in a nutrition-provisioning gene. This similarity, along with a lack of fixed substitutions in the US symbiont population, indicates that Ishikawella likely arrived in the US capable of being a soybean pest. Analyses of allele frequency changes between 2009 and 2011 uncover signatures of both positive and negative selection and suggest that symbionts on soybeans and kudzu experience differential selection for genes related to nutrient provisioning. Our data reveal the evolutionary trajectory of an important insect-bacteria symbiosis in the early stages of an invasion, highlighting the role microbial symbionts may play in the spread of invasive species.

  12. The herbaceous landlord: integrating the effects of symbiont consortia within a single host

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Bitty A.; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Johnson, Bart R.; Bridgham, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are typically infected by a consortium of internal fungal associates, including endophytes in their leaves, as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in their roots. It is logical that these organisms will interact with each other and the abiotic environment in addition to their host, but there has been little work to date examining the interactions of multiple symbionts within single plant hosts, or how the relationships among symbionts and their host change across environmental conditions. We examined the grass Agrostis capillaris in the context of a climate manipulation experiment in prairies in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Each plant was tested for presence of foliar endophytes in the genus Epichloë, and we measured percent root length colonized (PRLC) by AMF and DSE. We hypothesized that the symbionts in our system would be in competition for host resources, that the outcome of that competition could be driven by the benefit to the host, and that the host plants would be able to allocate carbon to the symbionts in such a way as to maximize fitness benefit within a particular environmental context. We found a correlation between DSE and AMF PRLC across climatic conditions; we also found a fitness cost to increasing DSE colonization, which was negated by presence of Epichloë endophytes. These results suggest that selective pressure on the host is likely to favor host/symbiont relationships that structure the community of symbionts in the most beneficial way possible for the host, not necessarily favoring the individual symbiont that is most beneficial to the host in isolation. These results highlight the need for a more integrative, systems approach to the study of host/symbiont consortia. PMID:26557442

  13. Genomic versatility and functional variation between two dominant heterotrophic symbionts of deep-sea Osedax worms

    PubMed Central

    Goffredi, Shana K; Yi, Hana; Zhang, Qingpeng; Klann, Jane E; Struve, Isabelle A; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Brown, C Titus

    2014-01-01

    An unusual symbiosis, first observed at ∼3000 m depth in the Monterey Submarine Canyon, involves gutless marine polychaetes of the genus Osedax and intracellular endosymbionts belonging to the order Oceanospirillales. Ecologically, these worms and their microbial symbionts have a substantial role in the cycling of carbon from deep-sea whale fall carcasses. Microheterogeneity exists among the Osedax symbionts examined so far, and in the present study the genomes of the two dominant symbionts, Rs1 and Rs2, were sequenced. The genomes revealed heterotrophic versatility in carbon, phosphate and iron uptake, strategies for intracellular survival, evidence for an independent existence, and numerous potential virulence capabilities. The presence of specific permeases and peptidases (of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline), and numerous peptide transporters, suggests the use of degraded proteins, likely originating from collagenous bone matter, by the Osedax symbionts. 13C tracer experiments confirmed the assimilation of glycine/proline, as well as monosaccharides, by Osedax. The Rs1 and Rs2 symbionts are genomically distinct in carbon and sulfur metabolism, respiration, and cell wall composition, among others. Differences between Rs1 and Rs2 and phylogenetic analysis of chemotaxis-related genes within individuals of symbiont Rs1 revealed the influence of the relative age of the whale fall environment and support possible local niche adaptation of ‘free-living' lifestages. Future genomic examinations of other horizontally-propogated intracellular symbionts will likely enhance our understanding of the contribution of intraspecific symbiont diversity to the ecological diversification of the intact association, as well as the maintenance of host diversity. PMID:24225886

  14. Genomic versatility and functional variation between two dominant heterotrophic symbionts of deep-sea Osedax worms.

    PubMed

    Goffredi, Shana K; Yi, Hana; Zhang, Qingpeng; Klann, Jane E; Struve, Isabelle A; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Brown, C Titus

    2014-04-01

    An unusual symbiosis, first observed at ~3000 m depth in the Monterey Submarine Canyon, involves gutless marine polychaetes of the genus Osedax and intracellular endosymbionts belonging to the order Oceanospirillales. Ecologically, these worms and their microbial symbionts have a substantial role in the cycling of carbon from deep-sea whale fall carcasses. Microheterogeneity exists among the Osedax symbionts examined so far, and in the present study the genomes of the two dominant symbionts, Rs1 and Rs2, were sequenced. The genomes revealed heterotrophic versatility in carbon, phosphate and iron uptake, strategies for intracellular survival, evidence for an independent existence, and numerous potential virulence capabilities. The presence of specific permeases and peptidases (of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline), and numerous peptide transporters, suggests the use of degraded proteins, likely originating from collagenous bone matter, by the Osedax symbionts. (13)C tracer experiments confirmed the assimilation of glycine/proline, as well as monosaccharides, by Osedax. The Rs1 and Rs2 symbionts are genomically distinct in carbon and sulfur metabolism, respiration, and cell wall composition, among others. Differences between Rs1 and Rs2 and phylogenetic analysis of chemotaxis-related genes within individuals of symbiont Rs1 revealed the influence of the relative age of the whale fall environment and support possible local niche adaptation of 'free-living' lifestages. Future genomic examinations of other horizontally-propogated intracellular symbionts will likely enhance our understanding of the contribution of intraspecific symbiont diversity to the ecological diversification of the intact association, as well as the maintenance of host diversity.

  15. The herbaceous landlord: integrating the effects of symbiont consortia within a single host.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Roo; Roy, Bitty A; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Johnson, Bart R; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Plants are typically infected by a consortium of internal fungal associates, including endophytes in their leaves, as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in their roots. It is logical that these organisms will interact with each other and the abiotic environment in addition to their host, but there has been little work to date examining the interactions of multiple symbionts within single plant hosts, or how the relationships among symbionts and their host change across environmental conditions. We examined the grass Agrostis capillaris in the context of a climate manipulation experiment in prairies in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Each plant was tested for presence of foliar endophytes in the genus Epichloë, and we measured percent root length colonized (PRLC) by AMF and DSE. We hypothesized that the symbionts in our system would be in competition for host resources, that the outcome of that competition could be driven by the benefit to the host, and that the host plants would be able to allocate carbon to the symbionts in such a way as to maximize fitness benefit within a particular environmental context. We found a correlation between DSE and AMF PRLC across climatic conditions; we also found a fitness cost to increasing DSE colonization, which was negated by presence of Epichloë endophytes. These results suggest that selective pressure on the host is likely to favor host/symbiont relationships that structure the community of symbionts in the most beneficial way possible for the host, not necessarily favoring the individual symbiont that is most beneficial to the host in isolation. These results highlight the need for a more integrative, systems approach to the study of host/symbiont consortia.

  16. Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host.

    PubMed

    Salem, Hassan; Bauer, Eugen; Strauss, Anja S; Vogel, Heiko; Marz, Manja; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-12-07

    Despite the demonstrated functional importance of gut microbes, our understanding of how animals regulate their metabolism in response to nutritionally beneficial symbionts remains limited. Here, we elucidate the functional importance of the African cotton stainer's (Dysdercus fasciatus) association with two actinobacterial gut symbionts and subsequently examine the insect's transcriptional response following symbiont elimination. In line with bioassays demonstrating the symbionts' contribution towards host fitness through the supplementation of B vitamins, comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes involved in import and processing of B vitamins revealed an upregulation of gene expression in aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) compared with symbiotic individuals; an expression pattern that is indicative of B vitamin deficiency in animals. Normal expression levels of these genes, however, can be restored by either artificial supplementation of B vitamins into the insect's diet or reinfection with the actinobacterial symbionts. Furthermore, the functional characterization of the differentially expressed thiamine transporter 2 through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirms its role in cellular uptake of vitamin B1. These findings demonstrate that despite an extracellular localization, beneficial gut microbes can be integral to the host's metabolic homeostasis, reminiscent of bacteriome-localized intracellular mutualists.

  17. The symbiotic role of O-antigen of Burkholderia symbiont in association with host Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Park, Ha Young; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-07-01

    Riptortus pedestris harboring Burkholderia symbiont is a useful symbiosis model to study the molecular interactions between insects and bacteria. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen is absent in the Burkholderia symbionts isolated from Riptortus guts. Here, we investigated the symbiotic role of O-antigen comprehensively in the Riptortus-Burkholderia model. Firstly, Burkholderia mutant strains deficient of O-antigen biosynthesis genes were generated and confirmed for their different patterns of the lipopolysaccharide by electrophoretic analysis. The O-antigen-deficient mutant strains initially exhibited a reduction of infectivity, having significantly lower level of symbiont population at the second-instar stage. However, both the wild-type and O-antigen mutant symbionts exhibited a similar level of symbiont population from the third-instar stage, indicating that the O-antigen deficiency did not affect the bacterial persistence in the host midgut. Taken together, we showed that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of gut symbiont plays an exclusive role in the initial symbiotic association.

  18. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  19. Convergent patterns in the evolution of mealybug symbioses involving different intrabacterial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Gitta; Schulz, Frederik; Toenshoff, Elena R; Volland, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Omri M; Belkin, Shimshon; Horn, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Mealybugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) maintain obligatory relationships with bacterial symbionts, which provide essential nutrients to their insect hosts. Most pseudococcinae mealybugs harbor a unique symbiosis setup with enlarged betaproteobacterial symbionts (‘Candidatus Tremblaya princeps'), which themselves contain gammaproteobacterial symbionts. Here we investigated the symbiosis of the manna mealybug, Trabutina mannipara, using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the intrabacterial symbiont of T. mannipara represents a novel lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the tentative name ‘Candidatus Trabutinella endobia'. Combining our results with previous data available for the nested symbiosis of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, we show that synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins and translation-related functions partition between the symbiotic partners in a highly similar manner in the two systems, despite the distinct evolutionary origin of the intrabacterial symbionts. Bacterial genes found in both mealybug genomes and complementing missing functions in both symbioses were likely integrated in ancestral mealybugs before T. mannipara and P. citri diversified. The high level of correspondence between the two mealybug systems and their highly intertwined metabolic pathways are unprecedented. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the only known intracellular symbiosis between two bacteria and suggests that the evolution of this unique symbiosis included the replacement of intrabacterial symbionts in ancestral mealybugs. PMID:27983719

  20. Bacterial symbionts in insects or the story of communities affecting communities.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Julia; Vavre, Fabrice

    2011-05-12

    Bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and other animals. Most of them are predominantly vertically transmitted, along with their hosts' genes, and thus extend the heritable genetic variation present in one species. These passengers have a variety of repercussions on the host's phenotypes: besides the cost imposed on the host for maintaining the symbiont population, they can provide fitness advantages to the host or manipulate the host's reproduction. We argue that insect symbioses are ideal model systems for community genetics. First, bacterial symbionts directly or indirectly affect the interactions with other species within a community. Examples include their involvement in modifying the use of host plants by phytophagous insects, in providing resistance to natural enemies, but also in reducing the global genetic diversity or gene flow between populations within some species. Second, one emerging picture in insect symbioses is that many species are simultaneously infected with more than one symbiont, which permits studying the factors that shape bacterial communities; for example, horizontal transmission, interactions between host genotype, symbiont genotype and the environment and interactions among symbionts. One conclusion is that insects' symbiotic complements are dynamic communities that affect and are affected by the communities in which they are embedded.

  1. Negative Fitness Consequences and Transmission Dynamics of a Heritable Fungal Symbiont of a Parasitic Wasp▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cara M.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2009-01-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations. PMID:19286783

  2. Phylogenetic relationship between symbionts of tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma and the sediment microbial community in Kagoshima Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Ajit Kumar; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kwon, Yong Min; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Sato, Takako; Kato, Chiaki; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Vestimentiferan tubeworms acquire their symbionts through horizontal transmission from the surrounding environment. In the present study, we constructed a 16S rRNA gene clone library to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between diverse microbes in the sediment and symbiotic bacteria in the trophosome of the tubeworm, Lamellibrachia satsuma, from Kagoshima Bay, Japan. Two symbiotic bacterial phylotypes belonging to the classes γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria were found from this tubeworm trophosome. They were very closely related to the symbionts of several other marine invertebrates. The most predominant bacteria in the sediment were ɛ-Proteobacteria. A broad diversity of bacteria belonged to non-proteobacterial phyla such as Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi was observed. The presence of sulfur oxidizers (i.e., ɛ-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria) and sulfur reducers (i.e., δ-Proteobacteria) may play a significant role in the sulfur cycle in these habitats and provide multiple sources of nutrition to the cold-seep communities. Closely related clones of ɛ-Proteobacteria symbiont in the species level and of γ-Proteobacteria symbiont in the genus level were found in the surrounding sediment. The similarity of symbiont clones of L. satsuma with other symbionts and free-living bacteria suggests the possibility of opportunistic symbiosis in ɛ-Proteobacteria and the co-evolution of γ-Proteobacteria having occurred after symbiosis with the tubeworms.

  3. Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Hassan; Bauer, Eugen; Strauss, Anja S.; Vogel, Heiko; Marz, Manja; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated functional importance of gut microbes, our understanding of how animals regulate their metabolism in response to nutritionally beneficial symbionts remains limited. Here, we elucidate the functional importance of the African cotton stainer's (Dysdercus fasciatus) association with two actinobacterial gut symbionts and subsequently examine the insect's transcriptional response following symbiont elimination. In line with bioassays demonstrating the symbionts' contribution towards host fitness through the supplementation of B vitamins, comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes involved in import and processing of B vitamins revealed an upregulation of gene expression in aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) compared with symbiotic individuals; an expression pattern that is indicative of B vitamin deficiency in animals. Normal expression levels of these genes, however, can be restored by either artificial supplementation of B vitamins into the insect's diet or reinfection with the actinobacterial symbionts. Furthermore, the functional characterization of the differentially expressed thiamine transporter 2 through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirms its role in cellular uptake of vitamin B1. These findings demonstrate that despite an extracellular localization, beneficial gut microbes can be integral to the host's metabolic homeostasis, reminiscent of bacteriome-localized intracellular mutualists. PMID:25339726

  4. Algal endosymbiosis in brown hydra: host/symbiont specificity.

    PubMed

    Rahat, M; Reich, V

    1986-12-01

    Host/symbiont specificity has been investigated in non-symbiotic and aposymbiotic brown and green hydra infected with various free-living and symbiotic species and strains of Chlorella and Chlorococcum. Morphology and ultrastructure of the symbioses obtained have been compared. Aposymbiotic Swiss Hydra viridis and Japanese H. magnipapillata served as controls. In two strains of H. attenuata stable hereditary symbioses were obtained with Chlorococcum isolated from H. magnipapillata. In one strain of H. vulgaris, in H. oligactis and in aposymbiotic H. viridis chlorococci persisted for more than a week. Eight species of free-living Chlorococcum, 10 symbiotic and 10 free-living strains of Chlorella disappeared from the brown hydra within 1-2 days. In H. magnipapillata there was a graded distribution of chlorococci along the polyps. In hypostomal cells there were greater than 30 algae/cell while in endodermal cells of the mid-section or peduncle less than 10 algae/cell were found. In H. attenuata the algal distribution was irregular, there were up to five chlorocci/cell, and up to 20 cells/hydra hosted algae. In the dark most cells of Chlorococcum disappeared from H. magnipapillata and aposymbiotic hydra were obtained. Chlorococcum is thus an obligate phototroph, and host-dependent heterotrophy is not required for the preservation of a symbiosis. The few chlorococci that survived in the dark seem to belong to a less-demanding physiological strain. In variance with known Chlorella/H. viridis endosymbioses the chlorococci in H. magnipapillata and H. attenuata were tightly enveloped in the vacuolar membrane of the hosting cells with no visible perialgal space. Chlorococcum reproduced in these vacuoles and up to eight daughter cells were found within the same vacuole. We suggest that the graded or scant distribution of chlorococci in the various brown hydra, their inability to live in H. viridis and the inability of the various chlorellae to live in brown hydra are the

  5. The Integrated National Police in Philippine Counterinsurgency Operations -- The Great Difference.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Continued) 7-. I Recent developments in the Philippine local police system have proved the police has a significant role in the overall government...administrativ operational and logistical support, training, and the proper leadership at all levels of command, the local police as a national organization...against Communist insurgency. F, Recent developments in the Philippine local police system have proved the police has a significant role in the overall

  6. Co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. To complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium Portiera aleyrodidarum. B. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbionts, including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea. T. vaporariorum is only known to harbor P. aleyrodidarum and Arsenophonus. We conducted a study to survey the distribution of whitefly species in Croatia, their infection status by secondary symbionts, and the spatial distribution of these symbionts in the developmental stages of the two whitefly species. Results T. vaporariorum was found to be the predominant whitefly species across Croatia, while only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found across the coastal part of the country. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were detected in collected T. vaporariorum populations, however, not all populations harbored both symbionts, and both symbionts showed 100% infection rate in some of the populations. Only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found in the populations tested and they harbored Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium, while Arsenophonus and Fritschea were not detected in any B. tabaci populations. None of the detected symbionts appeared in all populations tested, and multiple infections were detected in some of the populations. All endosymbionts tested were localized inside the bacteriocyte in both species, but only Rickettsia and Cardinium in B. tabaci showed additional localization outside the bacteriocyte. Conclusions Our study revealed unique co-infection patterns by secondary symbionts in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum. Co-sharing of the bacteriocyte by the primary

  7. "What makes you think you have special privileges because you are a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.

  8. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.

  9. Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue. Police station (building no. 17) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Fyffe Avenue. Police station (building no. 17) is shown in foreground. Camera facing northwest. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  10. An HRD Approach to Police Diversion for Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an innovative Youth Services Program, an operational unit of the Dallas Police Department, which has drastically reduced the rearrest/recidivism rate for juvenile offenders. The program teaches three basic skills: physical fitness, interpersonal skills and study skills. (HMV)

  11. Police lie detection accuracy: the effect of lie scenario.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet

    2009-12-01

    Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.

  12. Aggressive Policing and the Mental Health of Young Urban Men

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Tyler, Tom; Link, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed young men on their experiences of police encounters and subsequent mental health. Methods. Between September 2012 and March 2013, we conducted a population-based telephone survey of 1261 young men aged 18 to 26 years in New York City. Respondents reported how many times they were approached by New York Police Department officers, what these encounters entailed, any trauma they attributed to the stops, and their overall anxiety. We analyzed data using cross-sectional regressions. Results. Participants who reported more police contact also reported more trauma and anxiety symptoms, associations tied to how many stops they reported, the intrusiveness of the encounters, and their perceptions of police fairness. Conclusions. The intensity of respondent experiences and their associated health risks raise serious concerns, suggesting a need to reevaluate officer interactions with the public. Less invasive tactics are needed for suspects who may display mental health symptoms and to reduce any psychological harms to individuals stopped. PMID:25322310

  13. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  14. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis).

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike H; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris W W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2002-10-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  15. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  16. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults.

  17. Superoxide Dismutase in the Symbiont Anabaena azollae Strasb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Canini, A.; Galiazzo, F.; Rotilio, G.; Caiola, M. Grilli

    1991-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase was investigated in the symbiont Anabaena azollae Strasb. living in Azolla filiculoides Lam. In vegetative cells, three isoenzymatic forms of superoxide dismutase, containing manganese, iron, and the hybrid iron-manganese, respectively, were present. Hybrid superoxide dismutase, detected for the first time in cyanobacteria, was 7% of the total superoxide dismutase present in vegetative cells. All three superoxide dismutase forms increased in the Anabaena vegetative cells obtained from irradiated plants grown in winter. In heterocysts, only an iron superoxide dismutase was present, which amounted to 25% of total vegetative cell superoxide dismutase activity. Hybrid superoxide dismutase appeared in heterocysts after irradiation. In vegetative cells of Anabaena from plants grown in summer, the basal level of total superoxide dismutase increased by 60% as compared with winter, and was unaffected by irradiation. The levels of superoxide dismutase in heterocysts from control and exposed plants grown in summer were comparable to those observed in heterocysts obtained from the plants grown during winter. No direct correlation was found between nitrogenase activity and superoxide dismutase in heterocysts. The presence of cyanophycin granules, either within the heterocyst pore channel or close to the transversal septum of vegetative cells, suggested a mechanism to stop communications between vegetative cells and heterocysts. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668392

  18. Comparative Genomics of a Parthenogenesis-Inducing Wolbachia Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Amelia R. I.; Werren, John H.; Richards, Stephen; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia is an intracellular symbiont of invertebrates responsible for inducing a wide variety of phenotypes in its host. These host-Wolbachia relationships span the continuum from reproductive parasitism to obligate mutualism, and provide a unique system to study genomic changes associated with the evolution of symbiosis. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain (wTpre) infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum. The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of 496 sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. In the wTpre genome, there is evidence for truncation of the protein coding sequences in 20% of ORFs, mostly as a result of frameshift mutations. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects. We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain. PMID:27194801

  19. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  20. Endozoicomonas Are Specific, Facultative Symbionts of Sea Squirts

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Funch, Peter; Jensen, Jeppe; Obst, Matthias; López-Legentil, Susanna; Schramm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ascidians are marine filter feeders and harbor diverse microbiota that can exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Pharyngeal samples of Scandinavian and Mediterranean ascidians were screened for consistently associated bacteria by culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Representatives of the Endozoicomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Hahellaceae) clade were detected in the ascidian species Ascidiella aspersa, Ascidiella scabra, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Styela clava, and multiple Ascidia/Ascidiella spp. In total, Endozoicomonas was detected in more than half of all specimens screened, and in 25–100% of the specimens for each species. The retrieved Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences formed an ascidian-specific subclade, whose members were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as extracellular microcolonies in the pharynx. Two strains of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were isolated in pure culture and characterized. Both strains are chemoorganoheterotrophs and grow on mucin (a mucus glycoprotein). The strains tested negative for cytotoxic or antibacterial activity. Based on these observations, we propose ascidian-associated Endozoicomonas to be commensals, living off the mucus continuously secreted into the pharynx. Members of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were also detected in seawater from the Scandinavian sampling site, which suggests acquisition of the symbionts by horizontal transmission. The combined results indicate a host-specific, yet facultative symbiosis between ascidians and Endozoicomonas. PMID:27462299

  1. Standing genetic variation in host preference for mutualist microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Anna K.; Stinchcombe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Many models of mutualisms show that mutualisms are unstable if hosts lack mechanisms enabling preferential associations with mutualistic symbiotic partners over exploitative partners. Despite the theoretical importance of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms, we have little empirical evidence to infer their evolutionary dynamics in response to exploitation by non-beneficial partners. Using a model mutualism—the interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil symbionts—we tested for quantitative genetic variation in plant responses to mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic rhizobia in controlled greenhouse conditions. We found significant broad-sense heritability in a legume host's preferential association with mutualistic over exploitative symbionts and selection to reduce frequency of associations with exploitative partners. We failed to detect evidence that selection will favour the loss of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms in the absence of exploitation, as we found no evidence for a fitness cost to the host trait or indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Our results show that genetic variation in the ability to preferentially reduce associations with an exploitative partner exists within mutualisms and is under selection, indicating that micro-evolutionary responses in mutualism-stabilizing traits in the face of rapidly evolving mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic bacteria can occur in natural host populations. PMID:25355477

  2. Streptomyces as symbionts: an emerging and widespread theme?

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are ubiquitous in soil, conferring the characteristic earthy smell, and they have an important ecological role in the turnover of organic material. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which streptomycetes are not in all cases simply free-living soil bacteria but have also evolved to live in symbiosis with plants, fungi and animals. Furthermore, much of the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces species has most likely evolved as a direct result of their interactions with other organisms. Here we review what is currently known about the role of streptomycetes as symbionts with fungi, plants and animals. These interactions can be parasitic, as is the case for scab-causing streptomycetes, which infect plants, and the Streptomyces species Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis that infect humans. However, in most cases they are beneficial and growth promoting, as is the case with many insects, plants and marine animals that use streptomycete-produced antibiotics to protect themselves against infection. This is an exciting and newly emerging field of research that will become increasingly important as the search for new antibiotics switches to unusual and under-explored environments.

  3. Temporal stability of bacterial symbionts in a temperate ascidian

    PubMed Central

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier; Espluga, Roger; Erwin, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate seas, both bacterioplankton communities and invertebrate lifecycles follow a seasonal pattern. To investigate whether the bacterial community associated with the Mediterranean ascidian Didemnum fulgens exhibited similar variations, we monitored its bacterial community structure monthly for over a year using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses based on a nearly full length fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. D. fulgens harbored a bacterial consortium typical of ascidians, including numerous members of the phylum Proteobacteria, and a few members of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria. The overall bacterial community in D. fulgens had a distinct signature from the surrounding seawater and was stable over time and across seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Bacterial symbionts were also observed around animal cells in the tunic of adult individuals and in the inner tunic of D. fulgens larvae by transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that, as seen for sponges and corals, some species of ascidians host stable and unique bacterial communities that are at least partially inherited by their progeny by vertical transmission. PMID:26441944

  4. The Integration of Counterterrorism into the DNA of American Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur.”7 On April 15, 2013, the Boston Marathon bombings signified the unfortunate... Marathon attack, the Tsarnaev brothers were careful and obedient readers of Inspire.32 They have also become the poster boys for the new breed of... Marathon bombings, former Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis cautioned that local police departments must rely on their local communities to provide

  5. Women's police stations and intimate partner violence: Evidence from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perova, Elizaveta; Reynolds, Sarah Anne

    2017-02-01

    Although women's police stations have gained popularity as a measure to address intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little quantitative evaluation of their impacts on the incidence of IPV. This paper estimates the effects of women's police stations in Brazil on female homicides, a measure of the most severe form of IPV. Given that a high fraction of female deaths among women ages 15-49 years can be attributed to aggression by an intimate partner, female homicides appear the best proxy for severe IPV considering the scarcity of data on IPV in Brazil. We assemble a panel of 2074 municipalities from 2004 to 2009 and apply a difference-in-differences approach using location and timing to estimate the effect of establishing a women's police station on the municipal female homicide rate. Although we do not find a strong association on average, women's police stations appear to be highly effective among young women living in metropolitan areas. Establishing a women's police station in a metropolitan municipality is associated with a reduction in the female homicide rate by 1.23 deaths per 100,000 women ages 15-49 years (approximately a 17 percent reduction in the female homicide rate in metropolitan municipalities). The reduction in the homicide rate of women ages 15 to 24 is even higher: 5.57 deaths per 100,000 women. Better economic opportunities and less traditional social norms in metropolitan areas may explain the heterogeneous impacts of women's police stations.

  6. [The identity of civil police officers and successive mirroring studies].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Romeu; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perceptions of civil police officers regarding their professional identity, the institution they belong to and their opinion concerning the image society has of their performance. The data are derived from a survey focused on their work and health conditions, using a questionnaire, interviews and focus groups including managers, sheriffs and officers. The relative frequency and average return for answers about working conditions, professional fulfillment and life quality improvement after joining the institution were then determined. Qualitative questions were selected about the officers' opinion of how society perceives the civil police and what it is to be a police officer in the area under study using sense interpretation method analysis. The results point to a negative image that the police officers believe society has about them, which reaffirms the bad image associated with the profession. Rejecting this negative identity, they try to distinguish the differences between the civil police and the military police officers. The conclusion is that action is required to improve working conditions and develop channels of dialogue with the community and promote health campaigns.

  7. Bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Toenshoff, Elena R; Penz, Thomas; Narzt, Thomas; Collingro, Astrid; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Stefan; Klepal, Waltraud; Wagner, Michael; Weinmaier, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Adelgids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Adelgidae) are known as severe pests of various conifers in North America, Canada, Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first molecular identification of bacteriocyte-associated symbionts in these plant sap-sucking insects. Three geographically distant populations of members of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex, identified based on coI and ef1alpha gene sequences, were investigated. Electron and light microscopy revealed two morphologically different endosymbionts, coccoid or polymorphic, which are located in distinct bacteriocytes. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences assigned both symbionts to novel lineages within the Gammaproteobacteria sharing <92% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with each other and showing no close relationship with known symbionts of insects. Their identity and intracellular location were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the names ‘Candidatus Steffania adelgidicola' and ‘Candidatus Ecksteinia adelgidicola' are proposed for tentative classification. Both symbionts were present in all individuals of all investigated populations and in different adelgid life stages including eggs, suggesting vertical transmission from mother to offspring. An 85 kb genome fragment of ‘Candidatus S. adelgidicola' was reconstructed based on a metagenomic library created from purified symbionts. Genomic features including the frequency of pseudogenes, the average length of intergenic regions and the presence of several genes which are absent in other long-term obligate symbionts, suggested that ‘Candidatus S. adelgidicola' is an evolutionarily young bacteriocyte-associated symbiont, which has been acquired after diversification of adelgids from their aphid sister group. PMID:21833037

  8. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F.; dos Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Methods Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Key Results Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the ‘Old World’ Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. Conclusions The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the ‘local’ Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial. PMID:23712450

  9. Candidatus Sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: Phylogenetically Independent Comparative Model to the Tsetse Fly Symbiont Sodalis glossinidius

    PubMed Central

    Chrudimský, Tomáš; Husník, Filip; Nováková, Eva; Hypša, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Sodalis live in symbiosis with various groups of insects. The best known member of this group, a secondary symbiont of tsetse flies Sodalis glossinidius, has become one of the most important models in investigating establishment and evolution of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It represents a bacterium in the early/intermediate state of the transition towards symbiosis, which allows for exploring such interesting topics as: usage of secretory systems for entering the host cell, tempo of the genome modification, and metabolic interaction with a coexisting primary symbiont. In this study, we describe a new Sodalis species which could provide a useful comparative model to the tsetse symbiont. It lives in association with Melophagus ovinus, an insect related to tsetse flies, and resembles S. glossinidius in several important traits. Similar to S. glossinidius, it cohabits the host with another symbiotic bacterium, the bacteriome-harbored primary symbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. As a typical secondary symbiont, Candidatus Sodalis melophagi infects various host tissues, including bacteriome. We provide basic morphological and molecular characteristics of the symbiont and show that these traits also correspond to the early/intermediate state of the evolution towards symbiosis. Particularly, we demonstrate the ability of the bacterium to live in insect cell culture as well as in cell-free medium. We also provide basic characteristics of type three secretion system and using three reference sequences (16 S rDNA, groEL and spaPQR region) we show that the bacterium branched within the genus Sodalis, but originated independently of the two previously described symbionts of hippoboscoids. We propose the name Candidatus Sodalis melophagi for this new bacterium. PMID:22815743

  10. Symbiotic adaptation drives genome streamlining of the cyanobacterial sponge symbiont "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum".

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Batang, Zenon B; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaz M; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" is a cyanobacterial symbiont widely distributed in sponges, but its functions at the genome level remain unknown. Here, we obtained the draft genome (1.66 Mbp, 90% estimated genome recovery) of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" strain SH4 inhabiting the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens. Phylogenomic analysis revealed a high dissimilarity between SH4 and free-living cyanobacterial strains. Essential functions, such as photosynthesis, the citric acid cycle, and DNA replication, were detected in SH4. Eukaryoticlike domains that play important roles in sponge-symbiont interactions were identified exclusively in the symbiont. However, SH4 could not biosynthesize methionine and polyamines and had lost partial genes encoding low-molecular-weight peptides of the photosynthesis complex, antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, and proteins involved in resistance to environmental toxins and in biosynthesis of capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. These genetic modifications imply that "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" SH4 represents a low-light-adapted cyanobacterial symbiont and has undergone genome streamlining to adapt to the sponge's mild intercellular environment. IMPORTANCE Although the diversity of sponge-associated microbes has been widely studied, genome-level research on sponge symbionts and their symbiotic mechanisms is rare because they are unculturable. "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" is a widely distributed uncultivated cyanobacterial sponge symbiont. The genome of this symbiont will help to characterize its evolutionary relationship and functional dissimilarity to closely related free-living cyanobacterial strains. Knowledge of its adaptive mechanism to the sponge host also depends on the genome-level research. The data presented here provided an alternative strategy to obtain the draft genome of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" strain SH4 and provide insight into its evolutionary and functional features.

  11. Outcomes achieved by and police and clinician perspectives on a joint police officer and mental health clinician mobile response unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stuart J; Thomas, Phillipa; Doulis, Chantelle; Bowles, Doug; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Perez, Eva; Stafrace, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Despite their limited mental health expertise, police are often first to respond to people experiencing a mental health crisis. Often the person in crisis is then transported to hospital for care, instead of receiving more immediate assessment and treatment in the community. The current study conducted an evaluation of an Australian joint police-mental health mobile response unit that aimed to improve the delivery of a community-based crisis response. Activity data were audited to demonstrate utilization and outcomes for referred people. Police officers and mental health clinicians in the catchment area were also surveyed to measure the unit's perceived impact. During the 6-month pilot, 296 contacts involving the unit occurred. Threatened suicide (33%), welfare concerns (22%) and psychotic episodes (18%) were the most common reasons for referral. The responses comprised direct admission to a psychiatric unit for 11% of contacts, transportation to a hospital emergency department for 32% of contacts, and community management for the remainder (57%). Police officers were highly supportive of the model and reported having observed benefits of the unit for consumers and police and improved collaboration between services. The joint police-mental health clinician unit enabled rapid delivery of a multi-skilled crisis response in the community.

  12. Helping the police with their inquiries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitson, Anthony J.

    1995-09-01

    The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.

  13. Signatures of host/symbiont genome coevolution in insect nutritional endosymbioses

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alex C. C.; Duncan, Rebecca P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of symbiosis in bacterial symbiont genome evolution is well understood, yet the ways that symbiosis shapes host genomes or more particularly, host/symbiont genome coevolution in the holobiont is only now being revealed. Here, we identify three coevolutionary signatures that characterize holobiont genomes. The first signature, host/symbiont collaboration, arises when completion of essential pathways requires host/endosymbiont genome complementarity. Metabolic collaboration has evolved numerous times in the pathways of amino acid and vitamin biosynthesis. Here, we highlight collaboration in branched-chain amino acid and pantothenate (vitamin B5) biosynthesis. The second coevolutionary signature is acquisition, referring to the observation that holobiont genomes acquire novel genetic material through various means, including gene duplication, lateral gene transfer from bacteria that are not their current obligate symbionts, and full or partial endosymbiont replacement. The third signature, constraint, introduces the idea that holobiont genome evolution is constrained by the processes governing symbiont genome evolution. In addition, we propose that collaboration is constrained by the expression profile of the cell lineage from which endosymbiont-containing host cells, called bacteriocytes, are derived. In particular, we propose that such differences in bacteriocyte cell lineage may explain differences in patterns of host/endosymbiont metabolic collaboration between the sap-feeding suborders Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhynca. Finally, we review recent studies at the frontier of symbiosis research that are applying functional genomic approaches to characterization of the developmental and cellular mechanisms of host/endosymbiont integration, work that heralds a new era in symbiosis research. PMID:26039986

  14. Physiological correlates of symbiont migration during bleaching of two octocoral species.

    PubMed

    Netherton, Sarah E; Scheer, Daniele M; Morrison, Patrick R; Parrin, Austin P; Blackstone, Neil W

    2014-05-01

    Perturbed colonies of Phenganax parrini and Sarcothelia sp. exhibit migration of symbionts of Symbiodinium spp. into the stolons. Densitometry and visual inspection indicated that polyps bleached while stolons did not. When migration was triggered by temperature, light and confinement, colonies of Sarcothelia sp. decreased rates of oxygen formation in the light (due to the effects of perturbation on photosynthesis and respiration) and increased rates of oxygen uptake in the dark (due to the effects of perturbation on respiration alone). Colonies of P. parrini, by contrast, showed no significant changes in either aspect of oxygen metabolism. When migration was triggered by light and confinement, colonies of Sarcothelia sp. showed decreased rates of oxygen formation in the light and increased rates of oxygen uptake in the dark, while colonies of P. parrini maintained the former and increased the latter. During symbiont migration into their stolons, colonies of both species showed dramatic increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), as visualized with a fluorescent probe, with stolons of Sarcothelia sp. exhibiting a nearly immediate increase of ROS. Differences in symbiont type may explain the greater sensitivity of colonies of Sarcothelia sp. Using fluorescent probes, direct measurements of migrating symbionts in the stolons of Sarcothelia sp. showed higher levels of reactive nitrogen species and lower levels of ROS than the surrounding host tissue. As measured by native fluorescence, levels of NAD(P)H in the stolons were unaffected by perturbation. Symbiont migration thus correlates with dramatic physiological changes and may serve as a marker for coral condition.

  15. Bacterial symbionts: prospects for the sustainable production of invertebrate-derived pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Piel, J

    2006-01-01

    Invertebrate animals, such as sponges, tunicates and bryozoans, are among the most important sources of biomedically relevant natural products. However, as these animals generally contain only low quantities of the compounds, further pharmacological development is in most cases difficult. There is increasing evidence that many metabolites, in particular polyketides and nonribosomally synthesized peptides, are not produced by the animals themselves but by associated bacterial symbionts. This symbiont hypothesis currently attracts considerable interest, since it implicates that animal-independent production systems based on bacterial fermentation processes could be created. This review gives an overview about recent developments in the research on natural product symbiosis. Different techniques will be discussed that have been employed to pinpoint the actual producer. Since bacterial symbionts are highly fastidious and have been generally resistant to cultivation attempts, emphasis will be laid on culture-independent strategies, such as cell separation approaches and the cloning of biosynthetic genes. These strategies have provided insights into possible sources of several natural products, e.g. the bryostatins, pederin, the onnamides, swinholide A and theopalauamide. Finally, potential techniques for the generation of renewable supplies of symbiont-derived drug candidates will be discussed. Cultivation approaches and the heterologous expression of cloned biosynthesis genes from uncultured symbionts could in future provide access to several important marine drug candidates, including bryostatin 1, halichondrin or ET-743.

  16. Landscape ecology of algal symbionts creates variation in episodes of coral bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Rob; Knowlton, Nancy; Baker, Andrew; Jara, Javier

    1997-07-01

    Reef-building corals are obligate, mutualistic symbioses of heterotrophic animals and phototrophic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.). Contrary to the earlier, widely accepted belief that corals harbour only one symbiont, we found that the ecologically dominant Caribbean corals Montastraea annularis and M. faveolata can act as hosts to dynamic, multi-species communities of Symbiodinium. Composition of these communities follows gradients of environmental irradiance, implying that physiological acclimatization is not the only mechanism by which corals cope with environmental heterogeneity. The importance of this diversity was underlined by analysis of a natural episode of coral bleaching. Patterns of bleaching could be explained by the preferential elimination of a symbiont associated with low irradiance from the brightest parts of its distribution. Comparative analyses of symbionts before and after bleaching from the same corals supported this interpretation, and suggested that some corals were protected from bleaching by hosting an additional symbiont that is more tolerant of high irradiance and temperature. This `natural experiment' suggests that temporal and spatial variability can favour the coexistence of diverse symbionts within a host, despite the potential for destabilizing competition among them,.

  17. Recognition- and defense-related gene expression at 3 resynthesis stages in lichen symbionts.

    PubMed

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and defense responses are early events in plant-pathogen interactions and between lichen symbionts. The effect of elicitors on responses between lichen symbionts is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in recognition- and defense-related gene expression as a result of culture extracts (containing secreted water-soluble elicitors) from compatible and incompatible interactions at each of 3 resynthesis stages in the symbionts of Cladonia rangiferina. This study investigated gene expression by quantitative PCR in cultures of C. rangiferina and its algal partner, Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis, after incubation with liquid extracts from cultures of compatible and incompatible interactions at 3 early resynthesis stages. Recognition-related genes were significantly upregulated only after physical contact, demonstrating symbiont recognition in later resynthesis stages than expected. One of 3 defense-related genes, chit, showed significant downregulation in early resynthesis stages and upregulation in the third resynthesis stage, demonstrating a need for the absence of chitinase early in thallus formation and a need for its presence in later stages as an algal defense reaction. This study revealed that recognition- and defense-related genes are triggered by components in culture extracts at 3 stages of resynthesis, and some defense-related genes may be induced throughout thallus growth. The parasitic nature of the interaction shows parallels between lichen symbionts and plant pathogenic systems.

  18. Symbiont recognition of mutualistic bacteria by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzi M; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2007-08-01

    Symbiont choice has been proposed to play an important role in shaping many symbiotic relationships, including the fungus-growing ant-microbe mutualism. Over millions of years, fungus-growing ants have defended their fungus gardens from specialized parasites with antibiotics produced by an actinomycete bacterial mutualist (genus Pseudonocardia). Despite the potential of being infected by phylogenetically diverse strains of parasites, each ant colony maintains only a single Pseudonocardia symbiont strain, which is primarily vertically transmitted between colonies by the founding queens. In this study, we show that Acromyrmex leaf-cutter ants are able to differentiate between their native actinomycete strain and a variety of foreign strains isolated from sympatric and allopatric Acromyrmex species, in addition to strains originating from other fungus-growing ant genera. The recognition mechanism is sufficiently sensitive for the ants to discriminate between closely related symbiont strains. Our findings suggest that symbiont recognition may play a crucial role in the fungus-growing ant-bacterium mutualism, likely allowing the ants to retain ecological flexibility necessary for defending their garden from diverse parasites and, at the same time, resolve potential conflict that can arise from rearing competing symbiont strains.

  19. Superresolution Imaging Captures Carbohydrate Utilization Dynamics in Human Gut Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Eric C.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut microbes play a key role in human health and nutrition by catabolizing a wide variety of glycans via enzymatic activities that are not encoded in the human genome. The ability to recognize and process carbohydrates strongly influences the structure of the gut microbial community. While the effects of diet on the microbiota are well documented, little is known about the molecular processes driving metabolism. To provide mechanistic insight into carbohydrate catabolism in gut symbionts, we studied starch processing in real time in the model Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) by single-molecule fluorescence. Although previous studies have explored Sus protein structure and function, the transient interactions, assembly, and collaboration of these outer membrane proteins have not yet been elucidated in live cells. Our live-cell superresolution imaging reveals that the polymeric starch substrate dynamically recruits Sus proteins, serving as an external scaffold for bacterial membrane assembly of the Sus complex, which may promote efficient capturing and degradation of starch. Furthermore, by simultaneously localizing multiple Sus outer membrane proteins on the B. thetaiotaomicron cell surface, we have characterized the dynamics and stoichiometry of starch-induced Sus complex assembly on the molecular scale. Finally, based on Sus protein knockout strains, we have discerned the mechanism of starch-induced Sus complex assembly in live anaerobic cells with nanometer-scale resolution. Our insights into the starch-induced outer membrane protein assembly central to this conserved nutrient uptake mechanism pave the way for the development of dietary or pharmaceutical therapies to control Bacteroidetes in the intestinal tract to enhance human health and treat disease. PMID:25389179

  20. Acetic Acid Bacteria, Newly Emerging Symbionts of Insects▿

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  1. Relationship between Ileal symbiont intracellularis and porcine proliferative enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G F; Ward, G E; Murtaugh, M P; Rose, R; Gebhart, C J

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between Ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis, formerly known as a Campylobacter-like organism, and porcine proliferative enteritis (PE) was studied by use of pigs with experimentally transmitted PE. Twenty one pigs were experimentally inoculated with homogenized ileal mucosa from a pig that died with PE, and 7 were maintained as uninoculated controls. Fecal samples were collected, and pigs were necropsied weekly postinoculation. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to examine tissues for lesions of PE and infectious agents. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and assayed for the presence of sequences specific for IS intracellularis by dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction amplification. IS intracellularis was detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the feces of 20 of 21 inoculated pigs but not in the feces of uninoculated pigs. Seven inoculated pigs but no uninoculated pigs were detected shedding IS intracellularis by dot blot hybridization. Shedding was detected 1 to 5 weeks after inoculation, and clinical signs were seen in the second to fifth weeks after inoculation. Few pigs without lesions of PE were found to shed IS intracellularis. There was a highly significant association between the presence of IS intracellularis in feces or tissue and the presence of microscopic proliferative lesions and between the severity of the lesions of PE and the percentage of IS intracellularis-infected intestinal crypts. Pigs that ceased shedding IS intracellularis were significantly less likely to have proliferative lesions. These and previous reports are consistent with the hypothesis that IS intracellularis is a necessary causative agent of PE. Images PMID:8225599

  2. Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas; Page, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    We undertook qualitative interviews with 209 injecting drug users (IDUs) (primarily heroin) in three Russian cities: Moscow, Barnaul, and Volgograd. We explored IDU's accounts of HIV and health risk. Policing practices and how these violate health and self, emerged as a primary theme. Findings show that policing practices violate health and rights directly, but also indirectly, through the reproduction of social suffering. Extrajudicial policing practices produce fear and terror in the day-to-day lives of drug injectors, and ranged from the mundane (arrest without legal justification; the planting of evidence to expedite arrest or detainment; and the extortion of money or drugs for police gain) to the extreme (physical violence as a means of facilitating "confession" and as an act of "moral" punishment without legal cause or rationale; the use of methods of "torture"; and rape). We identify the concept of police bespredel-living with the sense that there are "no limits" to police power-as a key to perpetuating fear and terror, internalized stigma, and a sense of fatalist risk acceptance. Police besprediel is analyzed as a form of structural violence, contributing to "oppression illness." Yet, we also identify cases of resistance to such oppression, characterized by strategies to preserve dignity and hope. We identify hope for change as a resource of risk reduction as well as escape, if only temporarily, from the pervasiveness of social suffering. Future drug use(r)-related policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope, and dignity.

  3. Policing Drug Users in Russia: Risk, Fear, and Structural Violence

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas; Page, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    We undertook qualitative interviews with 209 injecting drug users (primarily heroin) in three Russian cities: Moscow, Barnaul, and Volgograd. We explored drug injectors’ accounts of HIV and health risk. Policing practices and how these violate health and self emerged as a primary theme. Findings show that policing practices violate health and rights directly, but also indirectly, through the reproduction of social suffering. Extrajudicial policing practices produce fear and terror in the day-to-day lives of drug injectors, and ranged from the mundane (arrest without legal justification; the planting of evidence to expedite arrest or detainment; the extortion of money or drugs for police gain) to the extreme (physical violence as a means of facilitating ‘confession’ and as an act of ‘moral’ punishment without legal cause or rationale; the use of methods of ‘torture’; and rape). We identify the concept of police bespredel – living with the sense that there are ‘no limits’ to police power – as key to perpetuating fear and terror, internalized stigma, and a sense of fatalist risk acceptance. ‘Police besprediel’ is analyzed as a form of structural violence, contributing to ‘oppression illness’. Yet we also identify cases of resistance to such oppression, characterised by strategies to preserve dignity and hope. We identify hope for change as a resource of risk reduction as well as escape, if only temporarily, from the pervasiveness of social suffering. Future drug policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope and human dignity. PMID:20397872

  4. 5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed...

  5. 5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed...

  6. 5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed...

  7. 5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed...

  8. 5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA). (a) Who may elect. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed...

  9. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as of... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan...

  10. Genomic deletions disrupt nitrogen metabolism pathways of a cyanobacterial diatom symbiont.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Jason A; Foster, Rachel A; Tripp, H James; Carter, Brandon J; Zehr, Jonathan P; Villareal, Tracy A

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms with symbiotic N₂-fixing cyanobacteria are often abundant in the oligotrophic open ocean gyres. The most abundant cyanobacterial symbionts form heterocysts (specialized cells for N₂ fixation) and provide nitrogen (N) to their hosts, but their morphology, cellular locations and abundances differ depending on the host. Here we show that the location of the symbiont and its dependency on the host are linked to the evolution of the symbiont genome. The genome of Richelia (found inside the siliceous frustule of Hemiaulus) is reduced and lacks ammonium transporters, nitrate/nitrite reductases and glutamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In contrast, the genome of the closely related Calothrix (found outside the frustule of Chaetoceros) is more similar to those of free-living heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The genome of Richelia is an example of metabolic streamlining that has implications for the evolution of N₂-fixing symbiosis and potentially for manipulating plant-cyanobacterial interactions.

  11. Plant-mediated interspecific horizontal transmission of an intracellular symbiont in insects.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Elena; Pajoro, Massimo; Marzorati, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Mandrioli, Mauro; Pontini, Marianna; Bulgari, Daniela; Negri, Ilaria; Sacchi, Luciano; Chouaia, Bessem; Daffonchio, Daniele; Alma, Alberto

    2015-11-13

    Intracellular reproductive manipulators, such as Candidatus Cardinium and Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to progeny but rarely show co-speciation with the host. In sap-feeding insects, plant tissues have been proposed as alternative horizontal routes of interspecific transmission, but experimental evidence is limited. Here we report results from experiments that show that Cardinium is horizontally transmitted between different phloem sap-feeding insect species through plants. Quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization experiments indicated that the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus releases Cardinium from its salivary glands during feeding on both artificial media and grapevine leaves. Successional time-course feeding experiments with S. titanus initially fed sugar solutions or small areas of grapevine leaves followed by feeding by the phytoplasma vector Macrosteles quadripunctulatus or the grapevine feeder Empoasca vitis revealed that the symbionts were transmitted to both species. Explaining interspecific horizontal transmission through plants improves our understanding of how symbionts spread, their lifestyle and the symbiont-host intermixed evolutionary pattern.

  12. Initial symbiont contact orchestrates host-organ-wide transcriptional changes that prime tissue colonization.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Natacha; Philipp, Eva E R; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Brennan, Caitlin A; Kraemer, Lars; Altura, Melissa A; Augustin, René; Häsler, Robert; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Peyer, Suzanne M; Schwartzman, Julia; Rader, Bethany A; Ruby, Edward G; Rosenstiel, Philip; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2013-08-14

    Upon transit to colonization sites, bacteria often experience critical priming that prepares them for subsequent, specific interactions with the host; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. During initiation of the symbiosis between the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and its squid host, which can be observed directly and in real time, approximately five V. fischeri cells aggregate along the mucociliary membranes of a superficial epithelium prior to entering host tissues. Here, we show that these few early host-associated symbionts specifically induce robust changes in host gene expression that are critical to subsequent colonization steps. This exquisitely sensitive response to the host's specific symbiotic partner includes the upregulation of a host endochitinase, whose activity hydrolyzes polymeric chitin in the mucus into chitobiose, thereby priming the symbiont and also producing a chemoattractant gradient that promotes V. fischeri migration into host tissues. Thus, the host responds transcriptionally upon initial symbiont contact, which facilitates subsequent colonization.

  13. Cophylogenetics and biogeography reveal a coevolved relationship between sloths and their symbiont algae.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Carlson, Jenna; Peery, M Zachariah

    2017-05-01

    Specialized species, like arboreal folivores, often develop beneficial relationships with symbionts to exploit ecologically constrained lifestyles. Although coevolution can drive speciation by specialization of a symbiont to a host, a symbiotic relationship is not indicative of coevolution between host and symbiont. We tested for coevolved relationships between highly specialized two- and three-toed sloths (Choloepus spp. and Bradypus spp., respectively) and their symbiotic algae using cophylogenies and phylogeography. Our phylogeographic analysis showed a biogeographic pattern for the sloth distribution that was not found in the algal phylogeny. We found support for congruence between the sloth and algae phylogenies, implying cospeciation, only in the Bradypus lineage. Algae host-switching occurred from Bradypus spp. to Choloepus spp. Our results support a previously hypothesized symbiotic relationship between sloths and the algae in their fur and indicate that coevolution may have played a role in algae diversification. More broadly, convergent evolution may facilitate host switching between deeply diverged host lineages.

  14. Early molecular investigations of lichen-forming symbionts: 1986-2001*.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Paula T

    2004-01-01

    From the mid-1980s the symbionts in lichen associations, heterotrophic fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria, were the subject of increasing numbers of molecular investigations. Many of the studies examined the phylogenetic placement of the individual symbiotic partners with their free-living relatives, refining their nomenclature and classification. Resulting phylogenies permitted the mapping of transitions to and from lichenization and stimulated discussion of the relative ease of gaining and losing symbiotic lifestyles. Comparing symbiont phylogenies both rejected strict cospeciation and mirrored phylogenies and hinted at more complex forces of coevolution, including symbiont switching and selection. Studies at the species and population levels examined patterns of species delimitation and geographic dispersion and processes such as gene flow, self-fertilization, and founder effect. Significant genetic variation often was associated with mobile elements, group I and spliceosomal introns. This review examines the influence of molecular investigation on lichenology during this first 15 years.

  15. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    PubMed

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  16. Molecular evidence for polyphyletic origin of the primary symbionts of sucking lice (phthiraptera, anoplura).

    PubMed

    Hypsa, Václav; Krízek, Jaroslav

    2007-08-01

    Based on 16S rDNA analyses, the primary symbionts of sucking lice were found to form a polyphyletic assemblage of several distant lineages that have arisen several times within Enterobacteriaceae and at least once within Legionellaceae. Another independent lineage of endosymbiotic enterobacteria inhabits a sister group of the sucking lice, Rhynchophthirina. The inspection of 16S rDNA supports the symbiotic nature of the investigated bacteria; they display a typical trait of degenerative processes, an increased AT content (Adenine-Thymine content) in comparison with free-living bacteria. The calculation of divergence time between the closest anopluran and rhynchophthirine symbionts further support their independent origin. The results shown here, together with evidence from other groups, indicate that the significance of primary symbionts for blood-feeding insects should be reconsidered.

  17. Abundant toxin-related genes in the genomes of beneficial symbionts from deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels

    PubMed Central

    Sayavedra, Lizbeth; Kleiner, Manuel; Ponnudurai, Ruby; Wetzel, Silke; Pelletier, Eric; Barbe, Valerie; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Fink, Dennis; Breusing, Corinna; Reusch, Thorsten BH; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus B; Becher, Dörte; Schweder, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie; Dubilier, Nicole; Petersen, Jillian M

    2015-01-01

    Bathymodiolus mussels live in symbiosis with intracellular sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) bacteria that provide them with nutrition. We sequenced the SOX symbiont genomes from two Bathymodiolus species. Comparison of these symbiont genomes with those of their closest relatives revealed that the symbionts have undergone genome rearrangements, and up to 35% of their genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Many of the genes specific to the symbionts were homologs of virulence genes. We discovered an abundant and diverse array of genes similar to insecticidal toxins of nematode and aphid symbionts, and toxins of pathogens such as Yersinia and Vibrio. Transcriptomics and proteomics revealed that the SOX symbionts express the toxin-related genes (TRGs) in their hosts. We hypothesize that the symbionts use these TRGs in beneficial interactions with their host, including protection against parasites. This would explain why a mutualistic symbiont would contain such a remarkable ‘arsenal’ of TRGs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07966.001 PMID:26371554

  18. Investigating the causes and consequences of symbiont shuffling in a multi-partner reef coral symbiosis under environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cunning, R; Silverstein, R N; Baker, A C

    2015-06-22

    Dynamic symbioses may critically mediate impacts of climate change on diverse organisms, with repercussions for ecosystem persistence in some cases. On coral reefs, increases in heat-tolerant symbionts after thermal bleaching can reduce coral susceptibility to future stress. However, the relevance of this adaptive response is equivocal owing to conflicting reports of symbiont stability and change. We help reconcile this conflict by showing that change in symbiont community composition (symbiont shuffling) in Orbicella faveolata depends on the disturbance severity and recovery environment. The proportion of heat-tolerant symbionts dramatically increased following severe experimental bleaching, especially in a warmer recovery environment, but tended to decrease if bleaching was less severe. These patterns can be explained by variation in symbiont performance in the changing microenvironments created by differentially bleached host tissues. Furthermore, higher proportions of heat-tolerant symbionts linearly increased bleaching resistance but reduced photochemical efficiency, suggesting that any change in community structure oppositely impacts performance and stress tolerance. Therefore, even minor symbiont shuffling can adaptively benefit corals, although fitness effects of resulting trade-offs are difficult to predict. This work helps elucidate causes and consequences of dynamism in symbiosis, which is critical to predicting responses of multi-partner symbioses such as O. faveolata to environmental change.

  19. Investigating the causes and consequences of symbiont shuffling in a multi-partner reef coral symbiosis under environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Cunning, R.; Silverstein, R. N.; Baker, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic symbioses may critically mediate impacts of climate change on diverse organisms, with repercussions for ecosystem persistence in some cases. On coral reefs, increases in heat-tolerant symbionts after thermal bleaching can reduce coral susceptibility to future stress. However, the relevance of this adaptive response is equivocal owing to conflicting reports of symbiont stability and change. We help reconcile this conflict by showing that change in symbiont community composition (symbiont shuffling) in Orbicella faveolata depends on the disturbance severity and recovery environment. The proportion of heat-tolerant symbionts dramatically increased following severe experimental bleaching, especially in a warmer recovery environment, but tended to decrease if bleaching was less severe. These patterns can be explained by variation in symbiont performance in the changing microenvironments created by differentially bleached host tissues. Furthermore, higher proportions of heat-tolerant symbionts linearly increased bleaching resistance but reduced photochemical efficiency, suggesting that any change in community structure oppositely impacts performance and stress tolerance. Therefore, even minor symbiont shuffling can adaptively benefit corals, although fitness effects of resulting trade-offs are difficult to predict. This work helps elucidate causes and consequences of dynamism in symbiosis, which is critical to predicting responses of multi-partner symbioses such as O. faveolata to environmental change. PMID:26041354

  20. Fickle or Faithful: The Roles of Host and Environmental Context in Determining Symbiont Composition in Two Bathymodioline Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Laming, Sven R.; Szafranski, Kamil M.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Le Bris, Nadine; Duperron, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea and adjoining East Atlantic Ocean host a diverse array of small-sized mussels that predominantly live on sunken, decomposing organic remains. At least two of these, Idas modiolaeformis and Idas simpsoni, are known to engage in gill-associated symbioses; however, the composition, diversity and variability of these symbioses with changing habitat and location is poorly defined. The current study presents bacterial symbiont assemblage data, derived from 454 pyrosequencing carried out on replicate specimens of these two host species, collected across seven sample sites found in three oceanographic regions in the Mediterranean and East Atlantic. The presence of several bacterial OTUs in both the Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic suggests that similar symbiont candidates occur on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. The results reveal markedly different symbiotic modes in the two species. Idas modiolaeformis displays high symbiont diversity and flexibility, with strong variation in symbiont composition from the East Mediterranean to the East Atlantic. Idas simpsoni displays low symbiont diversity but high symbiont fidelity, with a single dominant OTU occurring in all specimens analysed. These differences are argued to be a function of the host species, where subtle differences in host evolution, life-history and behaviour could partially explain the observed patterns. The variability in symbiont compositions, particularly in Idas modiolaeformis, is thought to be a function of the nature, context and location of the habitat from which symbiont candidates are sourced. PMID:26710314

  1. Drivers of symbiont diversity in freshwater snails: a comparative analysis of resource availability, community heterogeneity, and colonization opportunities.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Keegan; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2017-04-01

    Decades of community ecology research have highlighted the importance of resource availability, habitat heterogeneity, and colonization opportunities in driving biodiversity. Less clear, however, is whether a similar suite of factors explains the diversity of symbionts. Here, we used a hierarchical dataset involving 12,712 freshwater snail hosts representing five species to test the relative importance of potential factors in driving symbiont richness. Specifically, we used model selection to assess the explanatory power of variables related to host species identity, resource availability (average body size, host density), ecological heterogeneity (richness of hosts and other taxa), and colonization opportunities (wetland size and amount of neighboring wetland area) on symbiont richness in 146 snail host populations in California, USA. We encountered a total of 23 taxa of symbionts, including both obligatory parasites such as digenetic trematodes as well as more commensal, mutualistic, or opportunistic groups such as aquatic insect larvae, annelids, and leeches. After validating richness estimates per host population using species accumulative curves, we detected positive effects on symbiont richness from host body size, total richness of the aquatic community, and colonization opportunities. Neither snail density nor the richness of snail species accounted for significant variation in symbiont diversity. Host species identity also affected symbiont richness, with higher gamma and average alpha diversity among more common host species with higher local abundances. These findings highlight the importance of multiple, concurrent factors in driving symbiont richness that extend beyond epidemiological measures of host abundance or host diversity alone.

  2. Long-term ungulate exclusion reduces fungal symbiont prevalence in native grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Fletcher, Rebecca A; Olivas, Eric; Young, Carolyn A; Charlton, Nikki D; Pearson, Dean E; Maron, John L

    2016-08-01

    When symbionts are inherited by offspring, they can have substantial ecological and evolutionary consequences because they occur in all host life stages. Although natural frequencies of inherited symbionts are commonly <100 %, few studies investigate the ecological drivers of variation in symbiont prevalence. In plants, inherited fungal endophytes can improve resistance to herbivory, growth under drought, and competitive ability. We evaluated whether native ungulate herbivory increased the prevalence of a fungal endophyte in the common, native bunchgrass, Festuca campestris (rough fescue, Poaceae). We used large-scale (1 ha) and long-term (7-10 year) fencing treatments to exclude native ungulates and recorded shifts in endophyte prevalence at the scale of plant populations and for individual plants. We characterized the fungal endophyte in F. campestris, Epichloë species FcaTG-1 (F. campestris taxonomic group 1) for the first time. Under ungulate exclusion, endophyte prevalence was 19 % lower in plant populations, 25 % lower within plant individuals, and 39 % lower in offspring (seeds) than in ungulate-exposed controls. Population-level endophyte frequencies were also negatively correlated with soil moisture across geographic sites. Observations of high within-plant variability in symbiont prevalence are novel for the Epichloë species, and contribute to a small, but growing, literature that documents phenotypic plasticity in plant-endophyte symbiota. Altogether, we show that native ungulates can be an important driver of symbiont prevalence in native plant populations, even in the absence of evidence for direct mechanisms of mammal deterrence. Understanding the ecological controls on symbiont prevalence could help to predict future shifts in grasslands that are dominated by Epichloë host plants.

  3. Bacteriome-Localized Intracellular Symbionts in Pollen-Feeding Beetles of the Genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Benjamin; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont ('Candidatus Dasytiphilus stammeri') that amounts to 52.4-98.7% of the adult beetles' entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4-87.4%). Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae's carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host's nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized.

  4. Bacteriome-Localized Intracellular Symbionts in Pollen-Feeding Beetles of the Genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Benjamin; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont (‘Candidatus Dasytiphilus stammeri’) that amounts to 52.4–98.7% of the adult beetles’ entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4–87.4%). Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae’s carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host’s nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized. PMID:27713733

  5. Symbiont polyphyly, co-evolution, and necessity in pentatomid stinkbugs from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Bistolas, Kalia S. I.; Sakamoto, Reid I.; Fernandes, José A. M.; Goffredi, Shana K.

    2014-01-01

    Interdomain symbioses with bacteria allow insects to take advantage of underutilized niches and provide the foundation for their evolutionary success in neotropical ecosystems. The gut microbiota of 13 micro-allopatric tropical pentatomid species, from a Costa Rican lowland rainforest, was characterized and compared with insect and host plant phylogenies. Like other families within the Pentatomomorpha, these insects (within seven genera—Antiteuchus, Arvelius, Edessa, Euschistus, Loxa, Mormidea, and Sibaria) house near-monocultures of gamma-proteobacteria in midgut crypts, comprising three distinct lineages within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Identity of the dominant bacteria (78–100% of the recovered 16S rRNA genes) was partially congruent with insect phylogeny, at the level of subfamily and tribe, with bacteria closely related to Erwinia observed in six species of the subfamily Pentatominae, and bacteria in a novel clade of Enterobacteriaceae for seven species within the subfamilies Edessinae and Discocephalinae. Symbiont replacement (i.e., bacterial “contamination” from the environment) may occur during maternal transmission by smearing of bacteria onto the egg surfaces during oviposition. This transmission strategy was experimentally confirmed for Sibaria englemani, and suspected for four species from two subfamilies, based on observation of egg probing by nymphs. Symbiont-deprived S. englemani, acquired via egg surface sterilization, exhibited significantly extended second instars (9.1 days compared with 7.9 days for symbiotic nymphs; p = 0.0001, Wilcoxon's rank with Bonferroni correction), slower linearized growth rates (p = 0.005, Welch 2-sample t-test), and qualitative differences in ceca morphology, including increased translucency of crypts, elongation of extracellular cavities, and distribution of symbionts, compared to symbiotic nymphs. Combined, these results suggest a role of the symbiont in host development, the reliable transference of

  6. Differential responses of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci symbionts to unfavorable low and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yu-Heng; Bing, Xiao-Li; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yin-Quan

    2014-10-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex contains many cryptic species, of which the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) are notorious invasive pests. In our field-collected whitefly samples, MEAM1 harbors an obligate primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and two secondary symbionts, "Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" and Rickettsia sp., whereas MED has only "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa." Both "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa" are intracellular endosymbionts residing in the bacteriomes, whereas Rickettsia sp. has a scattered distribution throughout the host body cavity. We examined responses of these symbionts to adverse temperatures as well as survival of the host insects. After cold treatment at 5 or 10 °C or heat treatment at 35 or 40 °C for 24 h, respectively, the infection rates of all symbionts were not significantly decreased based on diagnosis PCR. However, quantitative PCR assays indicated significant reduction of "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa" at 40 °C, and the reduction became greater as the duration increased. Compared with "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa," "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" was initially less affected in the first day but then showed more rapid reduction at days 3-5. The density of Rickettsia sp. fluctuated but was not reduced significantly at 40 °C. Meanwhile, the mortality rates of the host whiteflies elevated rapidly as the duration of exposure to heat treatment increased. The differential responses of various symbionts to adverse temperatures imply complex interactions among the symbionts inside the same host insect and highlight the importance of taking the whole bacterial community into account in studies of symbioses.

  7. Burkholderia Species Are the Most Common and Preferred Nodulating Symbionts of the Piptadenia Group (Tribe Mimoseae)

    PubMed Central

    Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sergio Miana; dos Santos, José Miguel Ferreira; Tisseyre, Pierre; Silva, Michele; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gross, Eduardo; James, Euan K.; Prin, Yves; Moulin, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia legume symbionts (also called α-rhizobia) are ancient in origin and are the main nitrogen-fixing symbionts of species belonging to the large genus Mimosa in Brazil. We investigated the extent of the affinity between Burkholderia and species in the tribe Mimoseae by studying symbionts of the genera Piptadenia (P.), Parapiptadenia (Pp.), Pseudopiptadenia (Ps.), Pityrocarpa (Py.), Anadenanthera (A.) and Microlobius (Mi.), all of which are native to Brazil and are phylogenetically close to Mimosa, and which together with Mimosa comprise the “Piptadenia group”. We characterized 196 strains sampled from 18 species from 17 locations in Brazil using two neutral markers and two symbiotic genes in order to assess their species affiliations and the evolution of their symbiosis genes. We found that Burkholderia are common and highly diversified symbionts of species in the Piptadenia group, comprising nine Burkholderia species, of which three are new ones and one was never reported as symbiotic (B. phenoliruptrix). However, α-rhizobia were also detected and were occasionally dominant on a few species. A strong sampling site effect on the rhizobial nature of symbionts was detected, with the symbiont pattern of the same legume species changing drastically from location to location, even switching from β to α-rhizobia. Coinoculation assays showed a strong affinity of all the Piptadenia group species towards Burkholderia genotypes, with the exception of Mi. foetidus. Phylogenetic analyses of neutral and symbiotic markers showed that symbiosis genes in Burkholderia from the Piptadenia group have evolved mainly through vertical transfer, but also by horizontal transfer in two species. PMID:23691052

  8. What can symbiont titres tell us about co-evolution of Wolbachia and their host?

    PubMed

    Correa, C Carolina; Ballard, J William O

    2014-05-01

    There is a long-standing prediction that associations with vertically transmitted symbionts evolve towards maximisation of host reproductive success, eventually leading to mutualist symbiosis and coadaptation. Under this scenario, the regulation of symbiont titres in host tissues would be expected to be greater when partners have coevolved for a long time than when they have recently met. Wolbachia pipientis, a common vertically transmitted symbiont of invertebrates, often has the capacity to spread through the host population without being beneficial to the hosts, by means of reducing the hatch rate in crosses between uninfected females and infected males. This manipulation, namely cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), may exert strong selection on the accuracy of infection transmission from mother to offspring, and therefore, on regulation of symbiont titres in the ova. Here, we examined the symbiont density dynamics in gonads of Drosophila simulans infected with the wMa strain of Wolbachia, known to cause mild CI and likely to be the oldest Wolbachia infection known to this fly species. Further, we compared these results with those obtained for the more recent association between D. simulans and the potent CI-inducer wHa (Correa and Ballard, 2012). We aimed to determine if the regulation of Wolbachia density in fly gonads is greater in the older association, as would be predicted solely by gradual coadaptation, or if the selection exerted by CI on reproductive fitness could also play a role, therefore showing tighter regulation on flies with the stronger CI-inducing strain. We observed that Wolbachia density in gonads of wMa infected flies changed with laboratory adaptation and were disturbed by environmental challenges, which contrasted with the stability of ovarian wHa density to the same treatments. Our observations are in line with the prediction that selection on reproductive fitness influences the evolution symbiont density regulation in Drosophila, and may

  9. Quality-of-life policing Do offenders get the message?

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.; Taylor, Angela; Eterno, John

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990s, the New York City Police Department expanded its focus on reducing behaviors that detract from the overall quality of life (QOL) in the city. Many have credited this effort for the decline in the city’s overall crime rate. They often cite the fixing broken windows argument, which maintains that reducing disorder sets off a chain of events leading to less crime. However, systematic research has not yet documented this chain of events. Looks at one of the first linkages, whether QOL policing sends a message to offenders not to engage in disorderly behaviors in public locales. The project interviewed 539 New York City arrestees in 1999. Almost all of them were aware that police were targeting various disorderly behaviors. Among those that engaged in disorderly behaviors, about half reported that they had stopped or cut back in the past six months. They reported a police presence was the most important factor behind their behavioral changes. These findings support the idea that QOL policing has a deterrent effect. PMID:24431981

  10. How to Improve Interactions between Police and the Mentally Ill

    PubMed Central

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law-enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic “hands-on” scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioral change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues. PMID:25642196

  11. Mainstreaming gender in the police: the Maharashtra experience.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, S

    1998-11-01

    This study reviewed the history of sex segregation in the police forces of Maharashtra state, India, and policy interventions since 1994 to reverse the trends; it also describes the process of improving gender equity in the policy department as part of a gender aim to control violence against women. Police jobs are allocated based on gender. Passage of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act was not implemented fully within police departments. In fact, the Police Force actively worked to keep itself outside the purview of the Act. Supervisors maintained the attitude that women were unsuitable for police work. Women were suspected of lacking in career commitments and were limited to only a small number within the force. These attitudes restricted women's entry, deployment, and promotions. The Government of Maharashtra has been pressured by district level women's groups to secure women's rights and to change the social environment that supports violence against women. The efforts uncovered violence unreported due to social pressure. It was thought that women's greater presence in policy departments would encourage women to report domestic crimes. The policemen disliked the interference of women. Since women were recruited for specific duties, the result was low self-esteem, frustration due to lack of promotions, sexual harassment, ostracism, and reduced job expectations. In 1993, officers received gender-sensitizing training. The training at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex focused on rules, practices, access to resources, and formal and informal inclusions and exclusions.

  12. [Psychological distress among civilian police: A gender-based analysis].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Franco, Letícia Gastão; Meireles, Camila de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vanessa Tokunaga; Dos Santos, Nilton César

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential psychological distress among members of the civilian police force, based on gender differences. It analyzes data from previous research on work, health conditions, and quality of life in the civilian police using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included and tested data from the questionnaire applied to a statistically representative sample of 2,746 civilian police (80.8% males and 19.2% females) from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, according to gender variables and position in the police force (administrative, technical, and operational law enforcement). The study presents an overview of social and economic characteristics, job conditions, health problems, and quality of life, highlighting the areas of information where gender appears as an important factor. The Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to investigate psychological distress comparing males and females. The results did not show gender differences in psychological distress, but did identify significant differences in some items in the scale. Female police, especially in technical positions, showed a higher proportion than males. The conclusions corroborate some previous research.

  13. Automatic target recognition flight prototype for police helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Haisch, Stefan; Wolf, Peter

    2002-07-01

    A cooperation between the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company AG (EADS) and the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior was started at the beginning of 2001 to develop an application for automatic target recognition technology for police helicopter missions. The Bavarian Police Air Support Unit is the main support partner and first user. Bavarian polic helicopters are equipped with a modern infrared system (FLIR) especially for night missions. EADS has extensive knowledge in the area of sensor image exploitation and automatic target recognition (ATR). The technology has been developed for military aircraft reconnaissance missions. The same software kernel is used for a flight prototype which is integrated in a police helicopter. The integration concept presented in this paper is set up so as not to interfere the existing FLIR system in any way. The flight prototype which will be described in detail consists of standard hardware (COTS) components and has the main functionality of detecting pre-selected object classes. With the flight prototype a comprehensive in-flight testing of the automatic target recognition application is enabled. The test procedure and first results of the flight tests are explained with selected examples. The cooperation will go on to further enhance the operational effectiveness of the Bavarian police helicopters.

  14. Revised NEO Personality Inventory normative data for police officer selection.

    PubMed

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T

    2013-11-01

    The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) has demonstrated utility in the personnel selection context. Its use in police officer selection has been relatively limited, in part, because there are no published normative data for the NEO PI-R for police officer applicants. The authors present normative data on NEO PI-R domain and facet scores for a large sample (N = 288) of police officer applicants in a large, urban, Midwestern police department who completed the NEO PI-R as part of a preemployment psychological evaluation. Applicants reported low levels of Neuroticism and high levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scores were strongly and consistently correlated with the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) research validity scale of the NEO PI-R. Extraversion and Agreeableness scores were moderately and less consistently correlated with PPM. These data may serve as a normative comparison group for professionals and researchers who use or may want to use the NEO PI-R in the police officer selection context.

  15. Advances in Marine Microbial Symbionts in the China Sea and Related Pharmaceutical Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    Marine animals and plants such as sponges, sea squirts, corals, worms and algae host diverse and abundant symbiotic microorganisms. Marine microbial symbionts are possible the true producers or take part in the biosynthesis of some bioactive marine natural products isolated from the marine organism hosts. Investigation of the pharmaceutical metabolites may reveal the biosynthesis mechanisms of related natural products and solve the current problem of supply limitation in marine drug development. This paper reviews the advances in diversity revelation, biological activity and related pharmaceutical metabolites, and functional genes of marine microbial symbionts from the China Sea. PMID:19597576

  16. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from

  17. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  18. 76 FR 5207 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Review: Community Policing Self-Assessment (CP-SAT). The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community...: Community Policing Self- Assessment (CP-SAT). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable...

  19. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement... Police Personal History Statement) to collect detailed personal history information from applicants... information, including financial data and residence history. Selective Service information and military...

  20. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  1. Dialogic reverberations: police, domestic abuse, and the discontinuance of cases.

    PubMed

    Lea, Susan J; Lynn, Nick

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging Decision." Access to such sensitive material is usually denied to researchers; therefore, this study offers unusual insights into the treatment of victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence by the police. Discourse analysis revealed three dominant speech genres: impartiality, credibility, and the "real" victim. These genres separately and in interaction served to construct domestic abuse cases in ways that did not support the victim's account. The "dialogic reverberations" of these findings are discussed and the implications of the work for research and practice are considered.

  2. Shift Work and Sleep Quality Among Urban Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Methods Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n =363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P <0.001) and 49% higher among those on the afternoon shift (P =0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Conclusions Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers. PMID:26949891

  3. Elbow dislocation secondary to fall during police arrest.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R J; Clark, K; Kelliher, T

    2014-02-01

    A case of total elbow dislocation with significant swelling and loss of distal pulses during police arrest is described. To date, this specific injury in relation to police arrest has not been described in the literature. Whilst attempting to remove the detainee from a public transport vehicle, the patient and the officers involved fell to the ground with his arm slightly flexed. He was handcuffed to the rear and taken to the police office. Whilst there, it was noted that his left elbow was swelling dramatically and he complained of pain. The detainee and officers attended the emergency room and he was found to have a total dislocation of the left elbow and vascular compromise of the limb. The elbow was promptly reduced with sedation and a post reduction angiogram demonstrated injury to the tissues surrounding the brachial artery.

  4. Police Officers' Attitudes and Challenges With Charging Stalking.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kellie R; Logan, T K

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 2 groups of police officers on perceived barriers and attitudes related to charging stalking. Police officers who categorized into groups based on if they had (n=73) or had not (n=90) previously charged stalking. Results indicated that officers who had never charged stalking viewed stalking as less dangerous, believed that officers do not file reports when called for stalking, and perceived all barriers related to charging stalking as more challenging than officers who had previously charged stalking. Officers who charged stalking had greater comprehension of the stalking statute and identified specific problems within the statute. The results have implications related to improving specialized police training in an effort to better protect victims of stalking and increase stalking charges.

  5. Police interviewing and interrogation: a self-report survey of police practices and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Kassin, Saul M; Leo, Richard A; Meissner, Christian A; Richman, Kimberly D; Colwell, Lori H; Leach, Amy-May; La Fon, Dana

    2007-08-01

    By questionnaire, 631 police investigators reported on their interrogation beliefs and practices-the first such survey ever conducted. Overall, participants estimated that they were 77% accurate at truth and lie detection, that 81% of suspects waive Miranda rights, that the mean length of interrogation is 1.6 hours, and that they elicit self-incriminating statements from 68% of suspects, 4.78% from innocents. Overall, 81% felt that interrogations should be recorded. As for self-reported usage of various interrogation tactics, the most common were to physically isolate suspects, identify contradictions in suspects' accounts, establish rapport, confront suspects with evidence of their guilt, and appeal to self-interests. Results were discussed for their consistency with prior research, policy implications, and methodological shortcomings.

  6. 21st Century Policing: The Institutionalization of Homeland Security in Local Law Enforcement Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    45 Glenn Frankel, "Four Britons Tied to London Blasts," Washington Post, July 13 2005, A1. 21 IV. THE RESPONSE A...William D. Flores , Position Paper: Non-Biased Policing (San Diego, CA: National Latino Police Officers Association), 4. 63 U.S. Department of Justice...Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2005. Flores , William D. Position Paper: Non-Biased Policing. San Diego: National Latino Police Officers

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these

  8. Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: the Belgian case.

    PubMed

    Vandebosch, Heidi; Beirens, Luc; D'Haese, Wim; Wegge, Denis; Pabian, Sara

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst youngsters, with potentially severe negative effects. Besides students, parents, schools, and Internet Service Providers, the police have been identified as an important actor in approaches against cyberbullying. Departing from the situation in Belgium, this article describes how the police can: help to prevent cyberbullying, by informing students, parents, and schools about the issue; play a role in the detection of cyberbullying, for instance, by creating online reporting systems (apart from the offline channels) and finally, assist in handling existing cyberbullying cases, by identifying perpetrators and helping victims.

  9. How many symbionts are provided by mothers, acquired by offspring, and needed for successful vertical transmission in an obligate insect-bacterium mutualism?

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-12-01

    Vertical symbiont transmission is among the most pivotal processes for maintenance of symbiotic associations. However, it is poorly understood whether and how the levels of resource allocation and investment upon vertical transmission are regulated. The stinkbug Megacopta punctatissima is obligatorily associated with the gut symbiotic bacterium 'Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata', whose transmission is mediated by a unique mechanism called 'symbiont capsule'. We investigated the population dynamics of the symbiont during vertical transmission in the host-symbiont mutualism. The stinkbug mothers produced one capsule for around 3.6 eggs irrespective of clutch size, suggesting a strict maternal control over symbiont supply for the offspring. However, experimental manipulation of egg/capsule ratios revealed that one capsule is sufficient for symbiont transmission to six nymphs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that a capsule contains 1.2 x 10(8) symbionts, a newborn nymph possesses 2 x 10(7) symbionts from a capsule, and thus one capsule certainly contains a sufficient amount of symbiont cells for six nymphs. These results indicated that the stinkbug mothers produce 1.7 times more symbiont capsules than needed. The newborn nymphs consistently harboured around 2 x 10(7) symbionts, also suggesting a nymphal control over symbiont transmission. The threshold symbiont titre minimally needed for successful vertical transmission was estimated to be 1.9 x 10(6) symbionts, which is only 1/10 of the actual symbiont titre detected in a newborn nymph. These results illuminate several ecological factors that may be relevant to parental and offspring controls over symbiotic resource allocation through host insect generations.

  10. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  11. Drug-Trafficking and Police Corruption: A Comparison of Colombia and Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    AND ACRONYMS AFI Agencia Federal de Investigaciones /Federal Investigative Police CENDRO Centro de Planeación para el Control de Drogas /National...related police corruption, plaza system, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, Federal Preventative Police (PFP), Agencia Federal de Investigaciones ...Nacional para el Combate a las Drogas /National Institute to Combat Drugs INCLE International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement program Los Pepes

  12. Discovering the Impact of Community Policing: The Broken Windows Thesis, Collective Efficacy, and Citizens' Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yili; Fiedler, Mora L.; Flaming, Karl H.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the structure, mechanisms, and efficacy of community policing and its impact on perceived disorder, crime, quality of life in the community, citizens' fear, and satisfaction with the police. It compares traditional and community policing paradigms on three dimensions: goal, measurement of…

  13. Extending the Thin Blue Line: Constabulary Police Development in Phase Zero Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-16

    Extending the Thin Blue Line Constabulary Police Development in Phase Zero Operations A Monograph...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extending the Thin Blue Line : Constabulary Police Development in Phase Zero Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Candidate: MAJ Tara Kaiser Monograph Title: Extending the Thin Blue Line : Constabulary Police Development in Phase Zero Operations Approved by

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  15. Should You Turn Yourself in? The Consequences of Environmental Self-Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Sarah L.

    2007-01-01

    Facilities that self-police under the Environmental Protection Agency's Audit Policy are eligible for reduced penalties on disclosed violations. This paper investigates whether self-policing has additional consequences; in particular, whether self-policing reduces future enforcement activity. Using data on U.S. hazardous waste enforcement and…

  16. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  17. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  18. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  19. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  20. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  1. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment... applicant's qualification and suitability as a VA police officer. DATES: Written comments and... information technology. Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist, VA Form 0120. OMB...

  2. 75 FR 26877 - Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... 8518 of May 7, 2010 Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2010 By the President of the United... which it falls as ``Police Week.'' NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of..., as Police Week. I call upon all Americans to observe these events with appropriate ceremonies...

  3. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  4. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  5. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  6. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  7. 26 CFR 1.120-1 - Statutory subsistence allowance received by police.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... police. 1.120-1 Section 1.120-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....120-1 Statutory subsistence allowance received by police. (a) Section 120 excludes from the gross income of an individual employed as a police official by a State, Territory, or possession of the...

  8. 32 CFR 635.14 - Accounting for military police record disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors...

  9. 78 FR 59954 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Michigan State Police... the Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer...

  10. Police Response to Domestic Violence: Making Decisions about Risk and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…

  11. Secretly Recording the Police: The Confluence of Communication, Culture, and Technology in the Public Sphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies have changed the way that police do their job. Since the Rodney King beating outside of Los Angeles in 1991, literally thousands of police brutality videos have surfaced on the internet that document perceived acts of violence carried out against seemingly defenseless perpetrators. Police organizations throughout…

  12. Police Departments Connect to School District Camera Feeds to Aid Incident Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    School systems and police departments are community partners, and ensuring student, faculty, and officer safety is a high priority for both. In Pennsylvania, police departments are being both innovative and proactive by using wireless technology to handle school safety. If there's an emergency, local police departments can increase situational…

  13. Women on Patrol: A Pilot Study of Police Performance in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Joyce L.; And Others

    The patrol performance of forty-one female police officers was compared to that of forty-one male police officers in New York City in 1975/1976; the males and females were matched by length of time on force, patrol experience, and type of precinct. Direct observation by police and civilian personnel was the principal research method. The findings…

  14. "The Regular Routine": Proactive Policing and Adolescent Development among Young, Poor Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, proactive policing, in which departments use data on reported crimes to determine where local police officers will target their surveillance, has increased police contact with residents in certain neighborhoods. Drawing on field research conducted over a three-year period (2007-2010) among adult and adolescent…

  15. Organizational, Administrative, and Environmental Correlates of Complaints about Police Use of Force: Does Minority Representation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew J.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Minority representation among police personnel, relative to the communities they serve, has long been advanced as an explanatory factor for the prevalence of negative police--public interactions as well as police agency responsiveness to public concerns, particularly with regard to the use of force. But minority representation has rarely been…

  16. An Ex Post Facto Evaluation Framework for Place-Based Police Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…

  17. Law Enforcement Technology (Police Science Technology). A Suggested Two-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    The suggested curriculum guide for law enforcement (police science) programs was designed to assist those responsible for implementing a course of study that is becoming a job requirement prior to employment in police service. Law enforcement education programs are discussed in terms of background, police roles, employment opportunities, and…

  18. Growth tradeoffs associated with thermotolerant symbionts in the coral Pocillopora damicornis are lost in warmer oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, R.; Gillette, P.; Capo, T.; Galvez, K.; Baker, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    The growth and survival of reef corals are influenced by their symbiotic algal partners ( Symbiodinium spp.), which may be flexible in space and time. Tradeoffs among partnerships exist such that corals with thermotolerant symbionts (e.g., clade D) resist bleaching but grow more slowly, making the long-term ecosystem-level impacts of different host-symbiont associations uncertain. However, much of this uncertainty is due to limited data regarding these tradeoffs and particularly how they are mediated by the environment. To address this knowledge gap, we measured growth and survival of Pocillopora damicornis with thermally sensitive (clade C) or tolerant (clade D) symbionts at three temperatures over 18-55 weeks. Warming reduced coral growth overall, but altered the tradeoffs associated with symbiont type. While clade D corals grew 35-40 % slower than clade C corals at cooler temperatures (26 °C), warming of 1.5-3 °C reduced and eliminated this growth disadvantage. These results suggest that although warmer oceans will negatively impact corals, clade D may enhance survival at no cost to growth relative to clade C. Understanding these genotype-environment interactions can help improve modeling efforts and conservation strategies for reefs under global climate change.

  19. Metabolite profiling of symbiont and host during thermal stress and bleaching in the coral Acropora aspera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyer, Katie E.; Dias, Daniel A.; Lutz, Adrian; Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Roessner, Ute; Davy, Simon K.

    2017-03-01

    Rising seawater temperatures pose a significant threat to the persistence of coral reefs. Despite the importance of these systems, major gaps remain in our understanding of how thermal stress and bleaching affect the metabolic networks that underpin holobiont function. We applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics to detect changes in the intracellular free metabolite pools (polar and semi-polar compounds) of in hospite dinoflagellate symbionts and their coral hosts (and any associated microorganisms) during early- and late-stage thermal bleaching (a reduction of approximately 50 and 70% in symbiont density, respectively). We detected characteristic changes to the metabolite profiles of each symbiotic partner associated with individual cellular responses to thermal, oxidative and osmotic stress, which progressed with the severity of bleaching. Alterations were also indicative of changes to energy-generating and biosynthesis pathways in both partners, with a shift to the increased catabolism of lipid stores. Specifically, in symbiont intracellular metabolite pools, we observed accumulations of multiple free fatty acids, plus the chloroplast-associated antioxidant alpha-tocopherol. In the host, we detected a decline in the abundance of pools of multiple carbohydrates, amino acids and intermediates, in addition to the antioxidant ascorbate. These findings further our understanding of the metabolic changes that occur to symbiont and host (and its associated microorganisms) during thermal bleaching. These findings also provide further insight into the largely undescribed roles of free metabolite pools in cellular homeostasis, signalling and acclimation to thermal stress in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

  20. Heterogeneous composition of key metabolic gene clusters in a vent mussel symbiont population

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Tetsuro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Shimamura, Shigeru; Tsuda, Miwako; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Aoki, Yui; Inoue, Koji; Teruya, Morimi; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Hirano, Takashi; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Chemosynthetic symbiosis is one of the successful systems for adapting to a wide range of habitats including extreme environments, and the metabolic capabilities of symbionts enable host organisms to expand their habitat ranges. However, our understanding of the adaptive strategies that enable symbiotic organisms to expand their habitats is still fragmentary. Here, we report that a single-ribotype endosymbiont population in an individual of the host vent mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum has heterogeneous genomes with regard to the composition of key metabolic gene clusters for hydrogen oxidation and nitrate reduction. The host individual harbours heterogeneous symbiont subpopulations that either possess or lack the gene clusters encoding hydrogenase or nitrate reductase. The proportions of the different symbiont subpopulations in a host appeared to vary with the environment or with the host's development. Furthermore, the symbiont subpopulations were distributed in patches to form a mosaic pattern in the gill. Genomic heterogeneity in an endosymbiont population may enable differential utilization of diverse substrates and confer metabolic flexibility. Our findings open a new chapter in our understanding of how symbiotic organisms alter their metabolic capabilities and expand their range of habitats. PMID:26418631

  1. Bacterial Gut Symbionts Contribute to Seed Digestion in an Omnivorous Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obligate bacterial symbionts alter the diets of host animals in numerous ways, but the ecological roles of facultative bacterial residents that consistently colonize insect guts remain unclear. Carabid beetles are a common group of beneficial insects appreciated for their ability to consume insect p...

  2. EVIDENCE FOR A CRYPTOMONAD SYMBIONT IN THE CILIATE, CYCLOTRICHIUM MEUNIERI(1).

    PubMed

    Barber, R T; White, A W; Siegelman, H W

    1969-03-01

    Extracts of the marine ciliate Cyclotrichium meunieri contained chlorophylls a and c, carotenoids, and a phycoerythrin with a single absorbance maximum at 542 nm. This assemblage of pigments suggests that the numerous photosynthetic symbionts present in each ciliate cell belong to the Cryptophyceae.

  3. Symbiont shift towards Rhizobium nodulation in a group of phylogenetically related Phaseolus species.

    PubMed

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Zayas-Del Moral, Alejandra; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco A; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Sánchez, Federico; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    Bean plants from the Phaseolus genus are widely consumed and represent a nitrogen source for human nutrition. They provide biological fertilization by establishing root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To establish a successful interaction, bean plants and their symbiotic bacteria need to synchronize a proper molecular crosstalk. Within the Phaseolus genus, P. vulgaris has been the prominent species to study nodulation with Rhizobium symbionts. However the Phaseolus genus comprises diverse species whose symbionts have not been analyzed. Here we identified and studied nodule bacteria from representative Phaseolus species not previously analyzed and from all the described wild species related to P. vulgaris. We found Bradyrhizobium in nodules from most species representing all Phaseolus clades except in five phylogenetically related species from the P. vulgaris clade. Therefore we propose that Bradyrhizobium nodulation is common in Phaseolus and that there was a symbiont preference shift to Rhizobium nodulation in few related species. This work sets the basis to further study the genetic basis of this symbiont substitution.

  4. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians

    PubMed Central

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A.; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment. PMID:27582179

  5. The impact of microbial symbionts on host plant utilization by herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Allison K; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-03-01

    Herbivory, defined as feeding on live plant tissues, is characteristic of highly successful and diverse groups of insects and represents an evolutionarily derived mode of feeding. Plants present various nutritional and defensive barriers against herbivory; nevertheless, insects have evolved a diverse array of mechanisms that enable them to feed and develop on live plant tissues. For decades, it has been suggested that insect-associated microbes may facilitate host plant use, and new molecular methodologies offer the possibility to elucidate such roles. Based on genomic data, specialized feeding on phloem and xylem sap is highly dependent on nutrient provisioning by intracellular symbionts, as exemplified by Buchnera in aphids, although it is unclear whether such symbionts play a substantive role in host plant specificity of their hosts. Microorganisms present in the gut or outside the insect body could provide more functions including digestion of plant polymers and detoxification of plant-produced toxins. However, the extent of such contributions to insect herbivory remains unclear. We propose that the potential functions of microbial symbionts in facilitating or restricting the use of host plants are constrained by their location (intracellular, gut or environmental), and by the fidelity of their associations with insect host lineages. Studies in the next decade, using molecular methods from environmental microbiology and genomics, will provide a more comprehensive picture of the role of microbial symbionts in insect herbivory.

  6. Lactic acid bacterial symbionts in honeybees - an unknown key to honey's antimicrobial and therapeutic activities.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Butler, Èile; Markowicz, Pawel; Lindholm, Christina; Larsson, Lennart; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2016-10-01

    Could honeybees' most valuable contribution to mankind besides pollination services be alternative tools against infections? Today, due to the emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens, we are facing a new era of searching for alternative tools against infections. Natural products such as honey have been applied against human's infections for millennia without sufficient scientific evidence. A unique lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota was discovered by us, which is in symbiosis with honeybees and present in large amounts in fresh honey across the world. This work investigates if the LAB symbionts are the source to the unknown factors contributing to honey's properties. Hence, we tested the LAB against severe wound pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) among others. We demonstrate a strong antimicrobial activity from each symbiont and a synergistic effect, which counteracted all the tested pathogens. The mechanisms of action are partly shown by elucidating the production of active compounds such as proteins, fatty acids, anaesthetics, organic acids, volatiles and hydrogen peroxide. We show that the symbionts produce a myriad of active compounds that remain in variable amounts in mature honey. Further studies are now required to investigate if these symbionts have a potential in clinical applications as alternative tools against topical human and animal infections.

  7. Marine Maladies? Worms, Germs, and Other Symbionts from the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Robin M.

    Parasites and related symbionts of marine and estuarine hosts of the northern Gulf of Mexico are described in this guidebook. It is meant primarily to serve as a teaching aid for the novice student, but it also contains more technical aspects for the experienced parasitologist. Forms and examples of symbiosis are explained in an introductory…

  8. Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum." The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and OLO. Based on these results, we propose "Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci.

  9. Repeated replacement of an intrabacterial symbiont in the tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Husnik, Filip; McCutcheon, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Stable endosymbiosis of a bacterium into a host cell promotes cellular and genomic complexity. The mealybug Planococcus citri has two bacterial endosymbionts with an unusual nested arrangement: the γ-proteobacterium Moranella endobia lives in the cytoplasm of the β-proteobacterium Tremblaya princeps. These two bacteria, along with genes horizontally transferred from other bacteria to the P. citri genome, encode gene sets that form an interdependent metabolic patchwork. Here, we test the stability of this three-way symbiosis by sequencing host and symbiont genomes for five diverse mealybug species and find marked fluidity over evolutionary time. Although Tremblaya is the result of a single infection in the ancestor of mealybugs, the γ-proteobacterial symbionts result from multiple replacements of inferred different ages from related but distinct bacterial lineages. Our data show that symbiont replacement can happen even in the most intricate symbiotic arrangements and that preexisting horizontally transferred genes can remain stable on genomes in the face of extensive symbiont turnover. PMID:27573819

  10. Exploring the chemistry of uncultivated bacterial symbionts: antitumor polyketides of the pederin family.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jörn; Butzke, Daniel; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Hui, Dequan; Platzer, Matthias; Wen, Gaiping; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    Symbiotic bacteria have long been proposed as being responsible for the production of numerous natural products isolated from invertebrate animals. However, systematic studies of invertebrate-symbiont associations are usually associated with serious technical challenges, such as the general resistance of symbionts to culturing attempts and the complexity of many microbial consortia. Herein an overview is provided on the culture-independent, metagenomic strategies recently employed by our group to contribute to a better understanding of natural product symbiosis. Using terrestrial Paederus spp. beetles and the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei as model animals, the putative genes responsible for the production of pederin-type antitumor polyketides have been isolated. In Paederus fuscipes, which uses pederin for chemical defense, these genes belong to an as-yet unculturable symbiont closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To study the extremely complex association of T. swinhoei and its multispecies bacterial consortium, we used a phylogenetic approach that allowed the isolation of onnamide/theopederin polyketide synthase genes from an uncultured sponge symbiont. Analysis of the biosynthesis genes provided unexpected insights into a possible evolution of pederin-type pathways. Besides revealing new facets of invertebrate chemical ecology, these first gene clusters from uncultivated symbiotic producers suggest possible biotechnological strategies to solve the supply problem associated with the development of most marine drug candidates.

  11. Antitumor polyketide biosynthesis by an uncultivated bacterial symbiont of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jörn; Hui, Dequan; Wen, Gaiping; Butzke, Daniel; Platzer, Matthias; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2004-11-16

    Bacterial symbionts have long been suspected to be the true producers of many drug candidates isolated from marine invertebrates. Sponges, the most important marine source of biologically active natural products, have been frequently hypothesized to contain compounds of bacterial origin. This symbiont hypothesis, however, remained unproven because of a general inability to cultivate the suspected producers. However, we have recently identified an uncultured Pseudomonas sp. symbiont as the most likely producer of the defensive antitumor polyketide pederin in Paederus fuscipes beetles by cloning the putative biosynthesis genes. Here we report closely related genes isolated from the highly complex metagenome of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei, which is the source of the onnamides and theopederins, a group of polyketides that structurally resemble pederin. Sequence features of the isolated genes clearly indicate that it belongs to a prokaryotic genome and should be responsible for the biosynthesis of almost the entire portion of the polyketide structure that is correlated with antitumor activity. Besides providing further proof for the role of the related beetle symbiont-derived genes, these findings raise intriguing ecological and evolutionary questions and have important general implications for the sustainable production of otherwise inaccessible marine drugs by using biotechnological strategies.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 122, a Nitrogen-Fixing Soybean Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Tsukui, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takakazu; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Shusei; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Mitsui, Hisayuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 122, a nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont. The genome consists of a 9.1 Mb circular chromosome, and 8,551 coding sequences (CDSs) were predicted on the genome. The sequence will provide insight into the evolution of rhizobial genome, and the symbiotic compatibility with host plants. PMID:28254989

  13. Aiptasia sp. larvae as a model to reveal mechanisms of symbiont selection in cnidarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfowicz, Iliona; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voss, Philipp A.; Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hatta, Masayuki; Guse, Annika

    2016-09-01

    Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear. Here we show for the first time that symbiont selection patterns for larvae of two Acropora coral species and the model anemone Aiptasia are similar under controlled conditions. We find that Aiptasia larvae distinguish between compatible and incompatible symbionts during uptake into the gastric cavity and phagocytosis. Using RNA-Seq, we identify a set of candidate genes potentially involved in symbiosis establishment. Together, our data complement existing molecular resources to mechanistically dissect symbiont phagocytosis in cnidarians under controlled conditions, thereby strengthening the role of Aiptasia larvae as a powerful model for cnidarian endosymbiosis establishment.

  14. Host-Symbiont Interactions between a Marine Mussel and Methanotrophic Bacterial Endosymbionts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-15

    condition index of the mussels, when compared to freshly collected animals. This second study also demonstrates that neither unicellular algae (as a food ... source ) nor thiosulfate (as a symbiont energy source) is sufficient for either shell or soft tissue growth in this mussel (Thiosulfate was suggested as

  15. Disparate origins of Bradyrhizobium symbionts for invasive populations of Cytisus scoparius (Leguminosae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Horn, Kevin; Parker, Ingrid M; Malek, Wanda; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Parker, Matthew A

    2014-07-01

    To identify the geographic origin of nodule bacteria associated with invasion of the European legume Cytisus scoparius in the United States, isolates from 15 sites in six states were compared to > 200 Bradyrhizobium strains from indigenous legumes in the U.S., Mexico, Europe (six countries), Morocco, and Australia. Portions of five housekeeping loci (2849 bp) were sequenced, along with the nifD locus in the symbiosis island (SI) portion of the Bradyrhizobium chromosome. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that North American C. scoparius symbionts had highly heterogeneous ancestry. Some were grouped into three distinct clades of European C. scoparius symbionts. One isolate had both housekeeping and SI genes belonging to a Bradyrhizobium clade from native legumes in western North America. Two other clades had mosaic ancestry: sequences for nifD as well as two other SI genes (nifH, nodC) were highly similar or identical to a C. scoparius strain from Spain, while their housekeeping loci belonged to American Bradyrhizobium clades. Thus, it appears that bacteria ancestrally associated with other North American legumes have evolved to utilize C. scoparius, by acquiring SI-region genes from European C. scoparius symbionts. Inoculation assays indicated that North American isolates were as competent as European strains in promoting plant growth, consistent with the findings on symbiont ancestry.

  16. Characterization and evolution of two bacteriome-inhabiting symbionts in cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Pentastirini).

    PubMed

    Bressan, Alberto; Arneodo, Joel; Simonato, Mauro; Haines, William P; Boudon-Padieu, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Like other plant sap-sucking insects, planthoppers within the family Cixiidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) host a diversified microbiota. We report the identification and first molecular characterization of symbiotic bacteria in cixiid planthoppers (tribe: Pentastirini). Using universal eubacterial primers we first screened the eubacterial 16S rRNA sequences in Pentastiridius leporinus (Linnaeus) with PCR amplification, cloning, and restriction fragment analysis. We identified three main 16S rRNA sequences that corresponded to a Wolbachia bacterium, a plant pathogenic bacterium, and a novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont. A fourth bacterial species affiliated with 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' was detected in PCR assays using primers specific for the Bacteroidetes. Within females of two selected cixiid planthoppers, P. leporinus and Oliarus filicicola, fluorescence In situ hybridization analysis and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that 'Ca. Sulcia muelleri' and the novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont were housed in separate bacteriomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of these symbionts occurred in at least four insect genera within the tribe Pentastirini. 'Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum' was proposed as the novel gammaproteobacterial symbiont.

  17. Symbiosis and insect diversification: an ancient symbiont of sap-feeding insects from the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy A; Tran, Phat; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2005-12-01

    Several insect groups have obligate, vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts that provision hosts with nutrients that are limiting in the diet. Some of these bacteria have been shown to descend from ancient infections. Here we show that the large group of related insects including cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, spittlebugs, and planthoppers host a distinct clade of bacterial symbionts. This newly described symbiont lineage belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes indicate that the symbiont phylogeny is completely congruent with the phylogeny of insect hosts as currently known. These results support the ancient acquisition of a symbiont by a shared ancestor of these insects, dating the original infection to at least 260 million years ago. As visualized in a species of spittlebug (Cercopoidea) and in a species of sharpshooter (Cicadellinae), the symbionts have extraordinarily large cells with an elongate shape, often more than 30 mum in length; in situ hybridizations verify that these correspond to the phylum Bacteroidetes. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" is proposed as the name of the new symbiont.

  18. Dual symbiosis with co-occurring sulfur-oxidizing symbionts in vestimentiferan tubeworms from a Mediterranean hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Judith; Lott, Christian; Weber, Miriam; Ramette, Alban; Bright, Monika; Dubilier, Nicole; Petersen, Jillian M

    2014-12-01

    Vestimentiferan Tws colonize hydrothermal vents and cold seeps worldwide. They lack a digestive system and gain nutrition from endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. It is currently assumed that vestimentiferan Tws harbour only a single endosymbiont type. A few studies found indications for additional symbionts, but conclusive evidence for a multiple symbiosis is still missing. We investigated Tws from Marsili Seamount, a hydrothermal vent in the Mediterranean Sea. Molecular and morphological analyses identified the Tws as Lamellibrachia anaximandri. 16S ribosomal RNA clone libraries revealed two distinct gammaproteobacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences from other Lamellibrachia symbionts. Catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with specific probes showed that these sequences are from two distinct symbionts. We also found two variants of key genes for sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation, suggesting that both symbiont types are autotrophic sulfur oxidizers. Our results therefore show that vestimentiferans can host multiple co-occurring symbiont types. Statistical analyses of vestimentiferan symbiont diversity revealed that host genus, habitat type, water depth and geographic region together accounted for 27% of genetic diversity, but only water depth had a significant effect on its own. Phylogenetic analyses showed a clear grouping of sequences according to depth, thus confirming the important role water depth played in shaping vestimentiferan symbiont diversity.

  19. Diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Skaljac, M; Zanić, K; Hrnčić, S; Radonjić, S; Perović, T; Ghanim, M

    2013-02-01

    Several whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. All whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. We surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) from areas in the east cost of the Adriatic Sea. Both the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci genetic groups were detected in Montenegro, whereas only the MED was confirmed in Croatia. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and S. phillyreae were found in all areas surveyed. MEAM1 and MED exhibited similarity to previously reported infections, while populations of T. vaporariorum from Montenegro harbored Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium in addition to previously reported Hamiltonella and Arsenopnohus. Siphoninus phillyreae harbored Hamiltonella, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus, with the latter appearing in two alleles. Multiple infections of all symbionts were common in the three insect species tested, with some reaching near fixation. Florescent in situ hybridization showed new localization patterns for Hamiltonella in S. phillyreae, and the morphology of the bacteriosome differed from that observed in other whitefly species. Our results show new infections with bacterial symbionts in the whitefly species studied. Infections with the same symbionts in reproductively isolated whitefly species confirm complex relationships between whiteflies and bacterial symbionts, and suggest possible horizontal transfer of some of these bacteria.

  20. Does Coral Disease Affect Symbiodinium? Investigating the Impacts of Growth Anomaly on Symbiont Photophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John Henrik Robert; Gregg, Toni Makani; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2013-01-01

    Growth anomaly (GA) is a commonly observed coral disease that impairs biological functions of the affected tissue. GA is prevalent at Wai ‘ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai ‘i Island. Here two distinct forms of this disease, Type A and Type B, affect the coral, Montiporacapitata. While the effects of GA on biology and ecology of the coral host are beginning to be understood, the impact of this disease on the photophysiology of the dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium spp., has not been investigated. The GA clearly alters coral tissue structure and skeletal morphology and density. These tissue and skeletal changes are likely to modify not only the light micro-environment of the coral tissue, which has a direct impact on the photosynthetic potential of Symbiodinium spp., but also the physiological interactions within the symbiosis. This study utilized Pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM) to characterize the photophysiology of healthy and GA-affected M. capitata tissue. Overall, endosymbionts within GA-affected tissue exhibit reduced photochemical efficiency. Values of both Fv/Fm and ΔF/ Fm’ were significantly lower (p<0.01) in GA tissue compared to healthy and unaffected tissues. Tracking the photophysiology of symbionts over a diurnal time period enabled a comparison of symbiont responses to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) among tissue conditions. Symbionts within GA tissue exhibited the lowest values of ΔF/Fm’ as well as the highest pressure over photosystem II (p<0.01). This study provides evidence that the symbionts within GA-affected tissue are photochemically compromised compared to those residing in healthy tissue. PMID:23967301

  1. Contrasting physiological plasticity in response to environmental stress within different cnidarians and their respective symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, Daniel. T.; Dodge, Danielle; Warner, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Given concerns surrounding coral bleaching and ocean acidification, there is renewed interest in characterizing the physiological differences across the multiple host-algal symbiont combinations commonly found on coral reefs. Elevated temperature and CO2 were used to compare physiological responses within the scleractinian corals Montipora hirsuta ( Symbiodinium C15) and Pocillopora damicornis ( Symbiodinium D1), as well as the corallimorph (a non-calcifying anthozoan closely related to scleractinians) Discosoma nummiforme ( Symbiodinium C3). Several physiological proxies were affected more by temperature than CO2, including photochemistry, algal number and cellular chlorophyll a. Marked differences in symbiont number, chlorophyll and volume contributed to distinctive patterns of chlorophyll absorption among these animals. In contrast, carbon fixation either did not change or increased under elevated temperature. Also, the rate of photosynthetically fixed carbon translocated to each host did not change, and the percent of carbon translocated to the host increased in the corallimorph. Comparing all data revealed a significant negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and symbiont density that corroborates previous hypotheses about carbon limitation in these symbioses. The ratio of symbiont-normalized photosynthetic rate relative to the rate of symbiont-normalized carbon translocation (P:T) was compared in these organisms as well as the anemone, Exaiptasia pallida hosting Symbiodinium minutum, and revealed a P:T close to unity ( D. nummiforme) to a range of 2.0-4.5, with the lowest carbon translocation in the sea anemone. Major differences in the thermal responses across these organisms provide further evidence of a range of acclimation potential and physiological plasticity that highlights the need for continued study of these symbioses across a larger group of host taxa.

  2. Oxygen Metabolic Responses of Three Species of Large Benthic Foraminifers with Algal Symbionts to Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kazuhiko; Okai, Takaaki; Hosono, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature affects the physiology of large benthic foraminifers (LBFs) with algal symbionts dwelling in coral reef environments. However, the detailed physiological responses of LBF holobionts to temperature ranges occurring in their habitats are not known. We report net oxygen (O2) production and respiration rates of three LBF holobionts (Baculogypsina sphaerulata and Calcarina gaudichaudii hosting diatom symbionts, and Amphisorus kudakajimensis hosting dinoflagellate symbionts) measured in the laboratory at water temperatures ranging from 5°C to 45°C in 2.5°C or 5°C intervals and with light saturation levels of ∼500 µmol m−2 s−1. In addition, the recovery of net O2 production and respiration rates after exposure to temperature stress was assessed. The net O2 production and respiration rates of the three LBF holobionts peaked at ∼30°C, indicating their optimal temperature for a short exposure period. At extreme high temperatures (≥40°C), the net O2 production rates of all three LBF holobionts declined to less than zero and the respiration rates slightly decreased, indicating that photosynthesis of algal symbionts was inactivated. At extreme low temperatures (≤10°C for two calcarinid species and ≤5°C for A. kudakajimensis), the net O2 production and respiration rates were near zero, indicating a weakening of holobiont activity. After exposure to extreme high or low temperature, the net O2 production rates did not recover until the following day, whereas the respiration rates recovered rapidly, suggesting that a longer time (days) is required for recovery from damage to the photosystem by temperature stress compared to the respiration system. These results indicate that the oxygen metabolism of LBF holobionts can generally cope well with conditions that fluctuate diurnally and seasonally in their habitats. However, temporal heat and cold stresses with high light levels may induce severe damage to algal symbionts and also damage to host

  3. Oxygen metabolic responses of three species of large benthic foraminifers with algal symbionts to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazuhiko; Okai, Takaaki; Hosono, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature affects the physiology of large benthic foraminifers (LBFs) with algal symbionts dwelling in coral reef environments. However, the detailed physiological responses of LBF holobionts to temperature ranges occurring in their habitats are not known. We report net oxygen (O2) production and respiration rates of three LBF holobionts (Baculogypsina sphaerulata and Calcarina gaudichaudii hosting diatom symbionts, and Amphisorus kudakajimensis hosting dinoflagellate symbionts) measured in the laboratory at water temperatures ranging from 5°C to 45°C in 2.5°C or 5°C intervals and with light saturation levels of ∼500 µmol m(-2) s(-1). In addition, the recovery of net O2 production and respiration rates after exposure to temperature stress was assessed. The net O2 production and respiration rates of the three LBF holobionts peaked at ∼30°C, indicating their optimal temperature for a short exposure period. At extreme high temperatures (≥40°C), the net O2 production rates of all three LBF holobionts declined to less than zero and the respiration rates slightly decreased, indicating that photosynthesis of algal symbionts was inactivated. At extreme low temperatures (≤10°C for two calcarinid species and ≤5°C for A. kudakajimensis), the net O2 production and respiration rates were near zero, indicating a weakening of holobiont activity. After exposure to extreme high or low temperature, the net O2 production rates did not recover until the following day, whereas the respiration rates recovered rapidly, suggesting that a longer time (days) is required for recovery from damage to the photosystem by temperature stress compared to the respiration system. These results indicate that the oxygen metabolism of LBF holobionts can generally cope well with conditions that fluctuate diurnally and seasonally in their habitats. However, temporal heat and cold stresses with high light levels may induce severe damage to algal symbionts and also damage to host

  4. Brigade Combat Team the World’s Police: Understanding the United States Army Brigade Combat Team’s role in Developing Foreign Police

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    hypothetical scenario, whereby a U.S. Army BCT is deployed to Kenya to support the development of the Kenyan National Police Services. Using a...scenario, whereby a U.S. Army BCT is deployed to Kenya to support the development of the Kenyan National Police Services. Using a Strengths, Weaknesses...protect, and mobilizing the public to work with the police to prevent crime (U.S. Agency for International Aid 2005). Ultimately, the concept of

  5. Police in the Dorms: Student Safety or Privacy Infringement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970, officers on the Seattle campus have regularly patrolled the hallways of dormitories of the University of Washington. It is a community-policing strategy, a low-key way to engage students. However, the practice might cease this fall. In June, the state's Court of Appeals ruled that students have the same right to privacy in dormitory…

  6. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  7. Learning Strategies for Police Organization--Modeling Organizational Learning Perquisites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Markku; Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    The factors contributing to organizational learning in police units in Finland and elsewhere were examined to find strategies to improve the prerequisites of learning and compare linear and nonlinear methods of modeling organizational learning prerequisites. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the 281 staff members of five police…

  8. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  9. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  10. Policing of reproduction by hidden threats in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Cant, Michael A; Nichols, Hazel J; Johnstone, Rufus A; Hodge, Sarah J

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies is associated with mechanisms to suppress individual selfishness. In insect societies, queens and workers enforce cooperation by "policing" selfish reproduction by workers. Insect policing typically takes the form of damage limitation after individuals have carried out selfish acts (such as laying eggs). In contrast, human policing is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the first place, minimizing the need for damage limitation. Policing by threat could in principle be used to enforce reproductive suppression in animal societies, but testing this idea requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive transgression and provoke out-of-equilibrium behavior. We carried out an experiment of this kind on a wild population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Uganda. In this species, each group contains multiple female breeders that give birth to a communal litter, usually on the same day. In a 7-y experiment we used contraceptive injections to manipulate the distribution of maternity within groups, triggering hidden threats of infanticide. Our data suggest that older, socially dominant females use the threat of infanticide to deter selfish reproduction by younger females, but that females can escape the threat of infanticide by synchronizing birth to the same day as older females. Our study shows that reproduction in animal societies can be profoundly influenced by threats that remain hidden until they are triggered experimentally. Coercion may thus extend well beyond the systems in which acts of infanticide are common.

  11. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... Codes (MPC). (a) MPCs identify individual Provost Marshal Offices/Directorates of Emergency...

  13. Professionalism and the Police: The Cop as Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh. James Leo

    1970-01-01

    This paper discusses attitudinal differences between highly professional police officers and those classified as low-professionals, and compares their attitudes toward animals" (problem people who put them in a can't-win" position) with the attitudes of medical students toward crocks." Five hypotheses about policemen's actions and attitudes are…

  14. ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The University at Albany Police and the University at Albany Athletics Department have teamed together to implement a ground breaking program aimed at identifying, addressing and managing negative behavior among student athletes. ATLAS stands for: Athletics, Team Building, Leadership Development, And Mentoring for Student Athletes. The program was…

  15. Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

  16. Military Police: Assisting in Securing the United States Southern Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    has not been a flood of companies fleeing Mexico for safety reasons. However, security is a significant concern. Most experts who are monitoring the...Aguilar, “Texas Police Under Cross-Border Gunfire,” Tucson Sentinel Online, June 9, 2011, http://www.tucsonsentinel.com/nationworld/report

  17. Quorum sensing and policing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa social cheaters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Greenberg, E Peter

    2015-02-17

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium.

  18. Police Traffic Services Supervisor Instructor Training Institute. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleven, Arlene M.

    The purpose of the study was to expose key individuals to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) developed curriculum materials for police traffic services supervisors and to teach them how to teach. The objective was accomplished through the conduct of five 30-hour instructor training institutes conducted in various areas of…

  19. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  20. Expanding Professional Learning: Inside/Outside Police Firearms Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighton, Chris; Poma, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the developing relationship between higher education (HE) practices and professional training for UK firearms officers. In particular, this paper's analysis challenges some common assumptions about the role of HE and the drive to professionalization in the context of police firearms training. The potential for effective…

  1. Downside Seen in Rush to Hire School-Based Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…

  2. The Private Police Industry: Its Nature and Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the second in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. In this report, the nature, size, growth, and operation of the industry and its personnel are described, including the results…

  3. Current Regulation of Private Police: Regulatory Agency Experience and Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the third in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, present regulation, and the laws impinging on it. Licensing and regulation of the industry in every state and several cities are described in this volume. Extensive tables present the…

  4. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, David J.; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J.; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability—a group that has come to be known as ‘super-recognisers’. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits ‘super-recognisers’ from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police ‘super-recognisers’ perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition. PMID:26918457

  5. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates.

  6. 28 CFR 92.5 - What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What educational expenses does the Police... (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.5 What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?...

  7. 28 CFR 92.3 - How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application...

  8. 28 CFR 92.5 - What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What educational expenses does the Police... (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.5 What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?...

  9. 28 CFR 92.3 - How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application...

  10. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as...

  11. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as...

  12. 28 CFR 92.5 - What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What educational expenses does the Police... (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.5 What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?...

  13. 28 CFR 92.5 - What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What educational expenses does the Police... (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.5 What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?...

  14. 28 CFR 92.3 - How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application...

  15. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as...

  16. 28 CFR 92.3 - How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application...

  17. 28 CFR 92.5 - What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What educational expenses does the Police... (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.5 What educational expenses does the Police Corps cover, and how will they be paid?...

  18. 28 CFR 92.3 - How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... participate in the Police Corps? 92.3 Section 92.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.3 How and when should I apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) The application...

  19. 5 CFR 842.810 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers employed by the Metropolitan Washington... § 842.810 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police... Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) police officers employed as members of the MWAA police force as...

  20. Shift Work and Occupational Stress in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K.; Hartley, Tara A.; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. Methods The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27–66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. Results During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p < 0.05). These differences were independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and police rank. The frequency of these stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Conclusion Non–day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered. PMID:25830066

  1. Police Work Absence: An Analysis of Stress and Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Charles, Luenda; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Police work is a high stress occupation and stress has been implicated in work absence. The present study examined (1) associations between specific types of police stress and work absences, (2) distinctions between “voluntary” (1-day) and “involuntary” (> 3-days) absences; and (3) the modifying effect of resiliency. Officers (n=337) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study were included in the present study. The sample was 72% male, 77% Caucasian, 73% married, and 75% patrol officers. Mean age was 41 years (SD=6.4). Measures included: the Spielberger Police Stress Survey, 1-year payroll absence data, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale. The negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) of 1-day and >3-days work absences for increasing stress scores. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, rank, smoking status, alcohol intake, and sleep duration. For one-unit increase in stress scores, the covariate adjusted RRs for one-day work absences were: total stress score (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.04–1.36); administrative stress (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05–2.18); physical/psychological stress (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.14–2.07); and lack of support (RR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01–3.05). Results suggest that officers were more likely to take voluntary 1-day absences due to specific types of stress at work. When the entire sample was considered, there was no significant association between police specific stress and episodes of work absence lasting at least three consecutive days. Hardy individuals, including those with high scores on the challenge sub-score, may use 1-day absences as a positive coping strategy. PMID:26709384

  2. Pulmonary function test in traffic police personnel in Pondicherry.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pravati; John, Robert A; Dutta, T K; Pal, G K

    2010-01-01

    Traffic policemen working in the busy traffic signal areas get exposed to the vehicular emissions for years together. The fumes, chemicals and particles present in the emission are reported to be damaging to the lung functions of these individuals. Since there were no data available on the PFT parameters of traffic police personnel of Pondicherry, this study was taken up to assess the effect of traffic air pollution on their pulmonary functions. PFT parameters were recorded in age- and BMI-matched 30 traffic police personnel (study group) and 30 general police personnel (control group) of male gender. As chronic smoking is known to be a critical factor in altering lung function, PFT parameters were compared between the smokers as well as nonsmokers of both the groups. In nonsmokers, there was significant decrease in VC (P < 0.05), FEV1 (P < 0.01), FEF-25 (P < 0.05) and PIF (P < 0.05) in study group compared to the control group. In smokers, there was significant decrease in VC (P < 0.05), FEV1 (P <00001), PEF (P < 0.0001), MVV (P < 0.0001), FEF-25 (P < 0.0001), and PIF (P < 0.01) in study group compared to the control group. These changes indicate restriction to the lung expansion, obstruction and narrowing of the airways in traffic police personnel compared to the general police personnel. This may be due to exposure to vehicular pollution for several hours in a day for many years causing decreased functional capacity of the lungs and chronic smoking worsens the condition.

  3. Police Work Absence: An Analysis of Stress and Resiliency.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2014-03-01

    Police work is a high stress occupation and stress has been implicated in work absence. The present study examined (1) associations between specific types of police stress and work absences, (2) distinctions between "voluntary" (1-day) and "involuntary" (> 3-days) absences; and (3) the modifying effect of resiliency. Officers (n=337) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study were included in the present study. The sample was 72% male, 77% Caucasian, 73% married, and 75% patrol officers. Mean age was 41 years (SD=6.4). Measures included: the Spielberger Police Stress Survey, 1-year payroll absence data, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale. The negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) of 1-day and >3-days work absences for increasing stress scores. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, rank, smoking status, alcohol intake, and sleep duration. For one-unit increase in stress scores, the covariate adjusted RRs for one-day work absences were: total stress score (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.36); administrative stress (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.18); physical/psychological stress (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.07); and lack of support (RR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01-3.05). Results suggest that officers were more likely to take voluntary 1-day absences due to specific types of stress at work. When the entire sample was considered, there was no significant association between police specific stress and episodes of work absence lasting at least three consecutive days. Hardy individuals, including those with high scores on the challenge sub-score, may use 1-day absences as a positive coping strategy.

  4. 'May issue' gun carrying laws and police discretion: Some evidence from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G

    2015-08-01

    In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.

  5. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L.; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-01-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42% of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints…

  6. Loss of genes related to Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) and implications for reductive genome evolution in symbionts of deep-sea vesicomyid clams

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Shigeru; Kaneko, Takashi; Ozawa, Genki; Matsumoto, Mamiko Nishino; Koshiishi, Takeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Kato, Chiaki; Takai, Ken; Yoshida, Takao; Fujikura, Katsunori; Barry, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular thioautotrophic symbionts of deep-sea vesicomyid clams lack some DNA repair genes and are thought to be undergoing reductive genome evolution (RGE). In this study, we addressed two questions, 1) how these symbionts lost their DNA repair genes and 2) how such losses affect RGE. For the first question, we examined genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (NER; uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, uvrD, uvrD paralog [uvrDp] and mfd) in 12 symbionts of vesicomyid clams belonging to two clades (5 clade I and 7 clade II symbionts). While uvrA, uvrDp and mfd were conserved in all symbionts, uvrB and uvrC were degraded in all clade I symbionts but were apparently intact in clade II symbionts. UvrD was disrupted in two clade II symbionts. Among the intact genes in Ca. Vesicomyosocius okutanii (clade I), expressions of uvrD and mfd were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but those of uvrA and uvrDp were not. In contrast, all intact genes were expressed in the symbiont of Calyptogena pacifica (clade II). To assess how gene losses affect RGE (question 2), genetic distances of the examined genes in symbionts from Bathymodiolus septemdierum were shown to be larger in clade I than clade II symbionts. In addition, these genes had lower guanine+cytosine (GC) content and higher repeat sequence densities in clade I than measured in clade II. Our results suggest that NER genes are currently being lost from the extant lineages of vesicomyid clam symbionts. The loss of NER genes and mutY in these symbionts is likely to promote increases in genetic distance and repeat sequence density as well as reduced GC content in genomic genes, and may have facilitated reductive evolution of the genome. PMID:28199404

  7. [Consumption of licit and illicit substances by police officers in the city of Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Schenker, Miriam; Constantino, Patrícia; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of psychoactive substances by civil and military police of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated. Data was gathered from two cross-sectional studies on a questionnaire on work and health conditions given to a sample from the two corporations. The results show higher frequencies of regular consumption of tobacco (23.3% by civil police and 19.1% by military police), daily use of alcohol (12% by civil police and 11% by military police) and tranquilizers in the past year (13.3% by civil police and 10.1% by military police). The consumption of marijuana among officers was 0.1% by civil police and 1.1% by military police, and cocaine use among the military police was 1.1%. Alcohol consumption proved to be intense and causes problems at work and in the social and family relationships of these officers. The need for preventive policies for addiction and the possible underestimation of information on illicit substances is emphasized.

  8. Political Culture versus Socioeconomic Approaches to Predicting Police Strength in U.S. Police Agencies: Results of a Longitudinal Study, 1993 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…

  9. Minimum Standards for Police Services. A Report of the Police Standards Committee to the Governor's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, Cockeysville, MD.

    The publication enumerates the minimum standards for police services in Maryland which were developed by the Police Standards Committee of the Maryland Governor's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice. They are the result of intensive study after a series of public hearings held throughout the State at which testimony was…

  10. Tetraponera ants have gut symbionts related to nitrogen-fixing root-nodule bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    van Borm, Steven; Buschinger, Alfred; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Billen, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Some Tetraponera ants (Formicidae, Pseudomyrmecinae) subsist almost entirely on amino acid deficient honeydew secretions of pseudococcids and harbour a dense aggregation of bacterial symbionts in a unique pouch-shaped organ at the junction of the midgut and the intestine. The organ is surrounded by a network of intruding tracheae and Malpighian tubules, suggesting that these bacteria are involved in the oxidative recycling of nitrogen-rich metabolic waste. We have examined the ultrastructure of these bacteria and have amplified, cloned and sequenced ribosomal RNA-encoding genes, showing that the ant pouch contains a series of close relatives of Flavobacteria and Rhizobium, Methylobacterium, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas nitrogen-fixing root-nodule bacteria. We argue that pouch bacteria have been repeatedly 'domesticated' by the ants as nitrogen-recycling endosymbionts. This ant-associated community of mutualists is, to our knowledge, the first finding of symbionts related to root-nodule bacteria in animals. PMID:12396501

  11. Genetic transformation of a Corynebacterial symbiont from the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Ravi V; Sundaram, Ranjini K; Kirsch, Philipp; Hurwitz, Ivy; Crawford, Carl V; Dotson, Ellen; Beard, Charles B

    2008-05-01

    Insect-borne diseases have experienced a troubling resurgence in recent years. Emergence of resistance to pesticides greatly hampers control efforts. Paratransgenesis, or the genetic transformation of bacterial symbionts of disease vectors, is an alternative to traditional approaches. Previously, we developed paratransgenic lines of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease in Central America. Here, we report identification of a Corynebacterial species as a symbiont of Triatoma infestans, a leading vector of Chagas disease in South America. We have modified this bacterium to produce an immunologically active single chain antibody fragment, termed rDB3. This study establishes the basis for generating paratransgenic T. infestans as a strategy for control of Chagas disease.

  12. Anthropogenic perturbation of coral reef environments near Natal, Brazil: Clues from symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, P.; Vital, H.; Sen Gupta, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Besides global stressors such as temperature rise and acidification, local anthropogenic disturbances, especially those connected with tourism, affect many Atlantic patch reefs off the Brazilian shore. Using reef-inhabiting foraminifera with algal symbionts as environmental indicators, we confirmed this problem in coastal reefs near Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The foraminiferal community is particularly depauperate in the small reefs of Pirangi, about 25 km south of Natal (~6o S, water depth <5-m), showing the result of numerous tourists trampling or otherwise damaging the reef substrate. Shells of Amphistegina gibbosa, the characteristic reef foraminifer of tropical America, have an exceptionally patchy distribution here, with rare living individuals. A few other symbiont bearers, e.g. Archaias angulatus, Amphisorus hemprichii, and Heterostegina antillarum, are present, but in extremely small numbers. In general, the dominant species is Quinqueloculina lamarckiana, a eurytopic, small miliolid (without symbionts), but many specimens are brown or black, indicating a mixing of relict and living populations. Compared to known foraminiferal communities in other Brazilian reefs, species diversity at Pirangi is remarkably low. About 77 km north of Pirangi, in the more extensive patch reef system of Maracajaú, the foraminiferal community is apparently healthier, except in an area targeted for tourism. However, living Amphistegina is still rare, and the only living Amphisorus is found in seagrass habitats. In contrast, many symbiont-bearing taxa, including peneroplids (virtually absent in Pirangi and Maracajaú) exist in sizeable populations northwest of Maracajaú, in the small patch reefs of the drowned Açu river valley (~4o 50' S).

  13. Improving Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for tsetse flies through research on their symbionts and pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alla, Adly M.M.; Bergoin, Max; Parker, Andrew G.; Maniania, Nguya K.; Vlak, Just M.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Boucias, Drion G.; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the cyclical vectors of the trypanosomes, which cause human African trypanosomosis (HAT) or sleeping sickness in humans and African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) or nagana in animals. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and inexpensive drugs for HAT, and the development of resistance of the trypanosomes against the available trypanocidal drugs, vector control remains the most efficient strategy for sustainable management of these diseases. Among the control methods used for tsetse flies, Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), in the frame of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM), represents an effective tactic to suppress and/or eradicate tsetse flies. One constraint in implementing SIT is the mass production of target species. Tsetse flies harbor obligate bacterial symbionts and salivary gland hypertrophy virus which modulate the fecundity of the infected flies. In support of the future expansion of the SIT for tsetse fly control, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture implemented a six year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled “Improving SIT for Tsetse Flies through Research on their Symbionts and Pathogens”. The consortium focused on the prevalence and the interaction between the bacterial symbionts and the virus, the development of strategies to manage virus infections in tsetse colonies, the use of entomopathogenic fungi to control tsetse flies in combination with SIT, and the development of symbiont-based strategies to control tsetse flies and trypanosomosis. The results of the CRP and the solutions envisaged to alleviate the constraints of the mass rearing of tsetse flies for SIT are presented in this special issue. PMID:22841636

  14. Improving Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for tsetse flies through research on their symbionts and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Bergoin, Max; Parker, Andrew G; Maniania, Nguya K; Vlak, Just M; Bourtzis, Kostas; Boucias, Drion G; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the cyclical vectors of the trypanosomes, which cause human African trypanosomosis (HAT) or sleeping sickness in humans and African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) or nagana in animals. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and inexpensive drugs for HAT, and the development of resistance of the trypanosomes against the available trypanocidal drugs, vector control remains the most efficient strategy for sustainable management of these diseases. Among the control methods used for tsetse flies, Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), in the frame of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM), represents an effective tactic to suppress and/or eradicate tsetse flies. One constraint in implementing SIT is the mass production of target species. Tsetse flies harbor obligate bacterial symbionts and salivary gland hypertrophy virus which modulate the fecundity of the infected flies. In support of the future expansion of the SIT for tsetse fly control, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture implemented a six year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled "Improving SIT for Tsetse Flies through Research on their Symbionts and Pathogens". The consortium focused on the prevalence and the interaction between the bacterial symbionts and the virus, the development of strategies to manage virus infections in tsetse colonies, the use of entomopathogenic fungi to control tsetse flies in combination with SIT, and the development of symbiont-based strategies to control tsetse flies and trypanosomosis. The results of the CRP and the solutions envisaged to alleviate the constraints of the mass rearing of tsetse flies for SIT are presented in this special issue.

  15. Genetic connectivity between north and south Mid-Atlantic Ridge chemosynthetic bivalves and their symbionts.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Karina; Petersen, Jillian M; Dubilier, Nicole; Borowski, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Transform faults are geological structures that interrupt the continuity of mid-ocean ridges and can act as dispersal barriers for hydrothermal vent organisms. In the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, it has been hypothesized that long transform faults impede gene flow between the northern and the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and disconnect a northern from a southern biogeographic province. To test if there is a barrier effect in the equatorial Atlantic, we examined phylogenetic relationships of chemosynthetic bivalves and their bacterial symbionts from the recently discovered southern MAR hydrothermal vents at 5°S and 9°S. We examined Bathymodiolus spp. mussels and Abyssogena southwardae clams using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a phylogenetic marker for the hosts and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a marker for the symbionts. Bathymodiolus spp. from the two southern sites were genetically divergent from the northern MAR species B. azoricus and B. puteoserpentis but all four host lineages form a monophyletic group indicating that they radiated after divergence from their northern Atlantic sister group, the B. boomerang species complex. This suggests dispersal of Bathymodiolus species from north to south across the equatorial belt. 16S rRNA genealogies of chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts of Bathymodiolus spp. were inconsistent and did not match the host COI genealogy indicating disconnected biogeography patterns. The vesicomyid clam Abyssogena southwardae from 5°S shared an identical COI haplotype with A. southwardae from the Logatchev vent field on the northern MAR and their symbionts shared identical 16S phylotypes, suggesting gene flow across the Equator. Our results indicate genetic connectivity between the northern and southern MAR and suggest that a strict dispersal barrier does not exist.

  16. Host-symbiont relationships in hydrothermal vent gastropods of the genus Alviniconcha from the Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohey; Kojima, Shigeaki; Sasaki, Takenori; Suzuki, Masae; Utsumi, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Tsuchida, Shinji; Nunoura, Takuro; Hirayama, Hisako; Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-02-01

    Hydrothermal vent gastropods of the genus Alviniconcha are unique among metazoans in their ability to derive their nutrition from chemoautotrophic gamma- and epsilon-proteobacterial endosymbionts. Although host-symbiont relationships in Alviniconcha gastropods from the Central Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean and the Mariana Trough in the Western Pacific have been studied extensively, host-symbiont relationships in Alviniconcha gastropods from the Southwest Pacific remain largely unknown. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences of host gastropods from the Manus, North Fiji, and Lau Back-Arc Basins in the Southwest Pacific has revealed a new host lineage in a Alviniconcha gastropod from the Lau Basin and the occurrence of the host lineage Alviniconcha sp. type 2 in the Manus Basin. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of bacterial endosymbionts, two gamma-proteobacterial lineages and one epsilon-proteobacterial lineage were identified in the present study. The carbon isotopic compositions of the biomass and fatty acids of the gastropod tissues suggest that the gamma- and epsilon-proteobacterial endosymbionts mediate the Calvin-Benson cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively, for their chemoautotrophic growth. Coupling of the host and symbiont lineages from the three Southwest Pacific basins revealed that each of the Alviniconcha lineages harbors different bacterial endosymbionts belonging to either the gamma- or epsilon-Proteobacteria. The host specificity exhibited in symbiont selection provides support for the recognition of each of the host lineages as a distinct species. The results from the present study also suggest the possibility that Alviniconcha sp. types 1 and 2 separately inhabit hydrothermal vent sites approximately 120 m apart in the North Fiji Basin and 500 m apart in the Manus Basin.

  17. Differential Genome Evolution Between Companion Symbionts in an Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, John P.; MacDonald, Bradon R.; Romanovicz, Dwight; Moran, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obligate symbioses with bacteria allow insects to feed on otherwise unsuitable diets. Some symbionts have extremely reduced genomes and have lost many genes considered to be essential in other bacteria. To understand how symbiont genome degeneration proceeds, we compared the genomes of symbionts in two leafhopper species, Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy-winged sharpshooter [GWSS]) and Graphocephala atropunctata (blue-green sharpshooter [BGSS]) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Each host species is associated with the anciently acquired “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” (Bacteroidetes) and the more recently acquired “Candidatus Baumannia cicadellinicola” (Gammaproteobacteria). BGSS “Ca. Baumannia” retains 89 genes that are absent from GWSS “Ca. Baumannia”; these underlie central cellular functions, including cell envelope biogenesis, cellular replication, and stress response. In contrast, “Ca. Sulcia” strains differ by only a few genes. Although GWSS “Ca. Baumannia” cells are spherical or pleomorphic (a convergent trait of obligate symbionts), electron microscopy reveals that BGSS “Ca. Baumannia” maintains a rod shape, possibly due to its retention of genes involved in cell envelope biogenesis and integrity. Phylogenomic results suggest that “Ca. Baumannia” is derived from the clade consisting of Sodalis and relatives, a group that has evolved symbiotic associations with numerous insect hosts. Finally, the rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions are higher in “Ca. Baumannia” than in “Ca. Sulcia,” which may be due to a lower mutation rate in the latter. Taken together, our results suggest that the two “Ca. Baumannia” genomes represent different stages of genome reduction in which many essential functions are being lost and likely compensated by hosts. “Ca. Sulcia” exhibits much greater genome stability and slower sequence evolution, although the mechanisms underlying these differences are poorly understood

  18. TonB-Dependent Heme Iron Acquisition in the Tsetse Fly Symbiont Sodalis glossinidius

    PubMed Central

    Hrusa, Gili; Farmer, William; Weiss, Brian L.; Applebaum, Taylor; Roma, Jose Santinni; Szeto, Lauren; Aksoy, Serap

    2015-01-01

    Sodalis glossinidius is an intra- and extracellular symbiont of the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.), which feeds exclusively on vertebrate blood. S. glossinidius resides in a wide variety of tsetse tissues and may encounter environments that differ dramatically in iron content. The Sodalis chromosome encodes a putative TonB-dependent outer membrane heme transporter (HemR) and a putative periplasmic/inner membrane ABC heme permease system (HemTUV). Because these gene products mediate iron acquisition processes by other enteric bacteria, we characterized their regulation and physiological role in the Sodalis/tsetse system. Our results show that the hemR and tonB genes are expressed by S. glossinidius in the tsetse fly. Furthermore, transcription of hemR in Sodalis is repressed in a high-iron environment by the iron-responsive transcriptional regulator Fur. Expression of the S. glossinidius hemR and hemTUV genes in an Escherichia coli strain unable to use heme as an iron source stimulated growth in the presence of heme or hemoglobin as the sole iron source. This stimulation was dependent on the presence of either the E. coli or Sodalis tonB gene. Sodalis tonB and hemR mutant strains were defective in their ability to colonize the gut of tsetse flies that lacked endogenous symbionts, while wild-type S. glossinidius proliferated in this same environment. Finally, we show that the Sodalis HemR protein is localized to the bacterial membrane and appears to bind hemin. Collectively, this study provides strong evidence that TonB-dependent, HemR-mediated iron acquisition is important for the maintenance of symbiont homeostasis in the tsetse fly, and it provides evidence for the expression of bacterial high-affinity iron acquisition genes in insect symbionts. PMID:25681181

  19. Dynamics of symbiont-mediated antibiotic production reveal efficient long-term protection for beewolf offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insects have evolved a wide range of mechanisms to defend themselves and their offspring against antagonists. One of these strategies involves the utilization of antimicrobial compounds provided by symbiotic bacteria to protect the host or its nutritional resources from pathogens and parasites. In the symbiosis of the solitary digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), the bacterial symbiont ‘Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi’ defends the developing larvae against pathogens by producing a mixture of at least nine antimicrobial substances on the cocoon surface. This antibiotic cocktail inhibits the growth of a broad range of detrimental fungi and bacteria, thereby significantly enhancing the offspring’s survival probability. Results Here we show that the production of antimicrobial compounds by the beewolf symbionts is confined to the first two weeks after cocoon spinning, leading to a high concentration of piericidins and streptochlorin on the cocoon surface. Expression profiling of housekeeping, sporulation, and antibiotic biosynthesis genes indicates that antibiotic production coincides with morphological differentiation that enables the symbionts to survive the nutrient-limited conditions on the beewolf cocoon. The antibiotic substances remain stable on the cocoon surface for the entire duration of the beewolf’s hibernation period, demonstrating that the compounds are resistant against environmental influences. Conclusions The antibiotic production by the beewolf symbionts serves as a reliable protection for the wasp offspring against pathogenic microorganisms during the long and unpredictable developmental phase in the subterranean brood cells. Thus, the beewolf-Streptomyces symbiosis provides one of the rare examples of antibiotics serving as an efficient defense in the natural environment and may aid in devising new strategies for the utilization of antibiotic combination therapies in human medicine against increasingly

  20. Pyrosequencing of Bacterial Symbionts within Axinella corrugata Sponges: Diversity and Seasonal Variability

    PubMed Central

    White, James R.; Patel, Jignasa; Ottesen, Andrea; Arce, Gabriela; Blackwelder, Patricia; Lopez, Jose V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marine sponge species are of significant interest to many scientific fields including marine ecology, conservation biology, genetics, host-microbe symbiosis and pharmacology. One of the most intriguing aspects of the sponge “holobiont” system is the unique physiology, interaction with microbes from the marine environment and the development of a complex commensal microbial community. However, intraspecific variability and temporal stability of sponge-associated bacterial symbionts remain relatively unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We have characterized the bacterial symbiont community biodiversity of seven different individuals of the Caribbean reef sponge Axinella corrugata, from two different Florida reef locations during variable seasons using multiplex 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA amplicons. Over 265,512 high-quality 16 S rRNA sequences were generated and analyzed. Utilizing versatile bioinformatics methods and analytical software such as the QIIME and CloVR packages, we have identified 9,444 distinct bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Approximately 65,550 rRNA sequences (24%) could not be matched to bacteria at the class level, and may therefore represent novel taxa. Differentially abundant classes between seasonal Axinella communities included Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacter and Nitrospira. Comparisons with a proximal outgroup sponge species (Amphimedon compressa), and the growing sponge symbiont literature, indicate that this study has identified approximately 330 A. corrugata-specific symbiotic OTUs, many of which are related to the sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae. This family appeared exclusively within A. corrugata, comprising >34.5% of all sequenced amplicons. Other A. corrugata symbionts such as Deltaproteobacteria, Bdellovibrio, and Thiocystis among many others are described. Conclusions/Significance Slight shifts in several bacterial taxa were observed