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Sample records for caste-specific symbiont policing

  1. Caste specific alkaloid chemistry of Solenopsis maboya and S

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres; V.E. Zottig; J.E. Co; T.H. Jones; R.R. Snelling

    2001-01-01

    Examination of the alkaloids of Solenopsis maboya Snelling and comparison with those previously found in S. Torresi Snelling, reveals a clear example of caste-specific alkaloid production in the queens and workers of each species. The queens of Solenopsis maboya contain a single piperidine while the workers produce a different piperidine along with two indolizidine...

  2. Police or Military Police?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    their MP to Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejuene as part of the Fleet Assistance Program (FAP).12 (FAP assigns FMF Marines to fill support functions on...1778. The responsibilities of this unit were essentially the same as the MP unit of today. "...[MP] were expected to patrol the camp ... During...Marine Corps. Camp Guards turned into Base Military Police Units and the MP ranks expanded with personnel who laterally moved from every MOS in the

  3. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  4. Police. An Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    This unit examines four topic areas related to police: rules and enforcement, police discretion, variety of police tasks, and police differences among societies as products of certain social pressures. High-school students learn about the police as an institution that responds to social and historical pressures. Students study police systems in…

  5. Gene expression changes in the tyrosine metabolic pathway regulate caste-specific cuticular pigmentation of termites.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    In social insects, all castes have characteristic phenotypes suitable for their own tasks and to engage in social behavior. The acquisition of caste-specific phenotypes was a key event in the course of social insect evolution. However, understanding of the genetic basis and the developmental mechanisms that produce these phenotypes is still very limited. In particular, termites normally possess more than two castes with specific phenotypes (i.e. workers, soldiers, and reproductives), but proximate developmental mechanisms are far from being fully understood. In this study, we focused on the pigmentation of the cuticle as a model trait for caste-specific phenotypes, during the molts of each caste; workers, soldiers, presoldiers (intermediate stage of soldiers), and alates (primary reproductives) in Zootermopsis nevadensis. Expression patterns of cuticular tanning genes (members of the tyrosine metabolic pathway) were different among each molt, and high expression levels of several "key genes" were observed during each caste differentiation. For the differentiation of castes with well-tanned cuticles (i.e. soldiers and alates), all focal genes except DDC in the former were highly expressed. On the other hand, high expression levels of yellow and aaNAT were observed during worker and presoldier molts, respectively, but most other genes in the pathway were expressed at low levels. RNA interference (RNAi) of these key genes affected caste-specific cuticular pigmentation, leading to soldiers with yellowish-white heads and pigmented mandibular tips, presoldiers with partly pigmented head cuticles, and alates with the yellow head capsules. These results suggest that the pigmentation of caste-specific cuticles is achieved by the regulation of gene expression in the tyrosine metabolic pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Police Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  7. Caste-specific differences in hindgut microbial communities of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Kapheim, Karen M; Rao, Vikyath D; Yeoman, Carl J; Wilson, Brenda A; White, Bryan A; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera) castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior.

  8. Caste-Specific Differences in Hindgut Microbial Communities of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Carl J.; Wilson, Brenda A.; White, Bryan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera) castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior. PMID:25874551

  9. Community Policing and the Police Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Edwin, III

    1993-01-01

    The new philosophy of police work has been called "community policing," a term that includes problem-solving techniques, strategic use of resources, and increasingly sophisticated investigative capabilities. The success of new policing strategies depends on the ability to recruit, develop, and field a group of officers who understand…

  10. Afghan National Police Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-27

    effectiveness for a democniticpoilce-force. -Using these measures, representative policing, responsive policing and accountable policing, the paper...AFGHANISTAN COMPARED TO MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS ......................... 11 REPRESENTATIVE POLICING...in any post-conflict society is absolutely necessary for effective and solid reconstruction efforts. Without stabilization, insurgencies will destroy

  11. Insect symbionts in food webs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  12. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  13. Soldier caste-specific gene expression in the mandibular glands of Hodotermopsis japonica (Isoptera: Termopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Toru; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Sawata, Miyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Natori, Syunji; Kubo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    Although “polymorphic castes” in social insects are well known as one of the most important phenomena of polyphenism, few studies of caste-specific gene expressions have been performed in social insects. To identify genes specifically expressed in the soldier caste of the Japanese damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis japonica, we employed the differential-display method using oligo(dT) and arbitrary primers, compared mRNA from the heads of mature soldiers and pseudergates (worker caste), and identified a clone (PCR product) 329 bp in length termed SOL1. Northern blot analysis showed that the SOL1 mRNA is about 1.0 kb in length and is expressed specifically in mature soldiers, but not in pseudergates, even in the presoldier induction by juvenile hormone analogue, suggesting that the product is specific for terminally differentiated soldiers. By using the method of 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full length of SOL1 cDNA, which contained an ORF with a putative signal peptide at the N terminus. The sequence showed no significant homology with any other known protein sequences. In situ hybridization analysis showed that SOL1 is expressed specifically in the mandibular glands. These results strongly suggest that the SOL1 gene encodes a secretory protein specifically synthesized in the mandibular glands of the soldiers. Histological observations revealed that the gland actually develops during the differentiation into the soldier caste. PMID:10570166

  14. Caste-specific visual adaptations to distinct daily activity schedules in Australian Myrmecia ants.

    PubMed

    Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A; Hemmi, Jan M; Ribi, Willi A; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-04-22

    Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion.

  15. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  16. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  17. Animal behaviour: pigtailed police.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R

    2005-06-07

    A recent study of pigtailed macaques shows that most effective policing interventions in conflict situations are by socially powerful group-members, who sustain relatively low costs by intervening. Questions arise about the ontogenetic and phylogenetic emergence of policing individuals.

  18. Muller's ratchet in symbiont populations.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Mats E; Berg, Otto G

    2007-06-01

    Muller's ratchet, the inevitable accumulation of deleterious mutations in asexual populations, has been proposed as a major factor in genome degradation of obligate symbiont organisms. Essentially, if left unchecked the ratchet will with certainty cause extinction due to the ever increasing mutational load. This paper examines the evolutionary fate of insect symbionts, using mathematical modelling to simulate the accumulation of deleterious mutations. We investigate the effects of a hierarchical two level population structure. Since each host contains its own subpopulation of symbionts, there will be a large number of small symbiont populations linked indirectly via selection on the host level. We show that although the separate subpopulations will accumulate deleterious mutations quickly, the symbiont population as a whole will be protected from extinction by selection acting on the hosts. As a consequence, the extent of genome degradation observed in present day symbionts is more likely to represent loss of functions that were (near-) neutral to the host, rather than a snap shot of a decline towards complete genetic collapse.

  19. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  20. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  1. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  2. Sex and Caste-Specific Variation in Compound Eye Morphology of Five Honeybee Species

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  3. A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

  4. Neighborhood Team Policing: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Peter B.; Specht, David

    The manual for neighborhood team policing, a method of decentralizing police departments, presents guidelines for putting a team policing system into effect. Noticeable results of this type of this type organization have been an increased effectiveness in crime control, improved police-community relations, and improved police morale. Chapter 1…

  5. Evolution of worker policing.

    PubMed

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the Core and Caste-Specific Microbiota in the Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    PubMed Central

    Benjamino, Jacquelynn; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The hindgut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes harbors a complex symbiotic community consisting of protists, bacteria, and archaea. These symbionts aid in the digestion of lignocellulose from the termite’s wood meal. Termite hindguts were sampled and the V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and analyzed from individual termites. The core microbiota of worker termites consisted of 69 OTUs at the 97% identity level, grouped into 16 taxa, and together accounted for 67.05% of the sequences from the bacterial community. The core was dominated by Treponema, which contained 36 different OTUs and accounted for ∼32% of the sequences, which suggests Treponema sp. have an important impact on the overall physiology in the hindgut. Bray–Curtis beta diversity metrics showed that hindgut samples from termites of the same colony were more similar to each other than to samples from other colonies despite possessing a core that accounted for the majority of the sequences. The specific tasks and dietary differences of the termite castes could have an effect on the composition of the microbial community. The hindgut microbiota of termites from the alate castes differed from the worker caste with significantly lower abundances of Treponema and Endomicrobia, which dominated the hindgut microbiota in workers and soldiers. Protist abundances were also quantified in the same samples using qPCR of the 18S rRNA gene. Parabasalia abundances dropped significantly in the winged alates and the Oxymonadida abundances dropped in both alate castes. These data suggest that the changes in diet or overall host physiology affected the protist and bacterial populations in the hindgut. The in-depth bacterial characterization and protist quantification in this study sheds light on the potential community dynamics within the R. flavipes hindgut and identified a large and complex core microbiota in termites obtained from multiple colonies and castes. PMID:26925043

  7. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  8. Community Policing and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcrone, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The Police Neighborhood Resource Center is a collaboration among police, educators, and social services to accomplish crime reduction in high-risk areas. Residents increase problem-solving skills and community-police relations improve. (SK)

  9. Police Burglary Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas W.; And Others

    The study is designed to assist police and other law enforcement agencies, as well as local government officials, in planning new burglary prevention activities and modifying existing ones. Information was compiled from (1) a survey of 50 United States police departments, (2) site visits to 12 departments with operating burglary prevention…

  10. Police Patrol Game Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…

  11. Policing Metropolitan America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  12. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  13. Dallas Police Department Youth Services Program: Police Diversion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Police Dept., TX.

    The Youth Section of the Dallas Police Department has instituted an innovative police diversion project entitled the Youth Services Program as an operational unit of the police department. Fourteen civilian counselors supervised by a police lieutenant function as a diversion unit for arrested juveniles between the ages of 10 and 16. Juveniles that…

  14. Genome-Scale Variation of Tubeworm Symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidart, J.; Felbeck, H.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent tubeworms are completely dependent on their bacterial symbionts for nutrition. Despite this dependency, many studies have concluded that bacterial symbionts are acquired anew from the environment, every generation rather than the more reliable mode of symbiont transmission from parent directly to offspring. Ribosomal 16S sequences have shown little variation of symbiont phylogeny from worm to worm, but higher resolution genome-scale analyses have found that there is genomic heterogeneity between symbionts from worms in different environments. What genes can be "spared," while resulting in an intact symbiosis? Have symbionts from one environment gained physiological capabilities that make them more fit in that environment? In order to answer these questions, subtractive hybridization was used on symbionts of Riftia pachyptila tubeworms from different environments to gain insight into which genes are present in one symbiont and absent in the other. Many genes were found to be unique to each symbiont and these results will be presented. This technique will be applied to answer many fundamental questions regarding microbial symbiont evolution to a specific physico-chemical environment, to a different host species, and more.

  15. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  16. The evolution of collective restraint: policing and obedience among non-conjugative plasmids.

    PubMed

    Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; García López, Diana; Brown, Sam P; Goldstein, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC) among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number), delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission.

  17. The Evolution of Collective Restraint: Policing and Obedience among Non-conjugative Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; García López, Diana; Brown, Sam P.; Goldstein, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The repression of competition by mechanisms of policing is now recognized as a major force in the maintenance of cooperation. General models on the evolution of policing have focused on the interplay between individual competitiveness and mutual policing, demonstrating a positive relationship between within-group diversity and levels of policing. We expand this perspective by investigating what is possibly the simplest example of reproductive policing: copy number control (CNC) among non-conjugative plasmids, a class of extra-chromosomal vertically transmitted molecular symbionts of bacteria. Through the formulation and analysis of a multi-scale dynamical model, we show that the establishment of stable reproductive restraint among plasmids requires the co-evolution of two fundamental plasmid traits: policing, through the production of plasmid-coded trans-acting replication inhibitors, and obedience, expressed as the binding affinity of plasmid-specific targets to those inhibitors. We explain the intrinsic replication instabilities that arise in the absence of policing and we show how these instabilities are resolved by the evolution of copy number control. Increasing levels of policing and obedience lead to improvements in group performance due to tighter control of local population size (plasmid copy number), delivering benefits both to plasmids, by reducing the risk of segregational loss and to the plasmid-host partnership, by increasing the rate of cell reproduction, and therefore plasmid vertical transmission. PMID:23637589

  18. Symbiont acquisition strategy drives host-symbiont associations in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, M.; Loh, W. K. W.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Carter, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Coral larvae acquire populations of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium from the external environment (horizontal acquisition) or inherit their symbionts from the parent colony (maternal or vertical acquisition). The effect of the symbiont acquisition strategy on Symbiodinium-host associations has not been fully resolved. Previous studies have provided mixed results, probably due to factors such as low sample replication of Symbiodinium from a single coral host, biogeographic differences in Symbiodinium diversity, and the presence of some apparently host-specific symbiont lineages in coral with either symbiont acquisition strategies. This study set out to assess the effect of the symbiont acquisition strategy by sampling Symbiodinium from 10 coral species (five with a horizontal and five with a vertical symbiont acquisition strategy) across two adjacent reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Symbiodinium diversity was assessed using single-stranded conformational polymorphism of partial nuclear large subunit rDNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region. The Symbiodinium population in hosts with a vertical symbiont acquisition strategy partitioned according to coral species, while hosts with a horizontal symbiont acquisition strategy shared a common symbiont type across the two reef environments. Comparative analysis of existing data from the southern Great Barrier Reef found that the majority of corals with a vertical symbiont acquisition strategy associated with distinct species- or genus-specific Symbiodinium lineages, but some could also associate with symbiont types that were more commonly found in hosts with a horizontal symbiont acquisition strategy.

  19. Swapping symbionts in spittlebugs: evolutionary replacement of a reduced genome symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Ryuichi; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts that undergo long-term maternal transmission experience elevated fixation of deleterious mutations, resulting in massive loss of genes and changes in gene sequences that appear to limit efficiency of gene products. Potentially, this dwindling of symbiont functionality impacts hosts that depend on these bacteria for nutrition. One evolutionary escape route is the acquisition of a novel symbiont with a robust genome and metabolic capabilities. Such an acquisition has occurred in an ancestor of Philaenus spumarius, the meadow spittlebug (Insecta: Cercopoidea), which has replaced its ancient association with the tiny genome symbiont Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with an association with a symbiont related to Sodalis glossinidius (Gammaproteobacteria). Spittlebugs feed exclusively on xylem sap, a diet that is low both in essential amino acids and in sugar or other substrates for energy production. The new symbiont genome has undergone proliferation of mobile elements resulting in many gene inactivations; nonetheless, it has selectively maintained genes replacing functions of its predecessor for amino-acid biosynthesis. Whereas ancient symbiont partners typically retain perfectly complementary sets of amino-acid biosynthetic pathways, the novel symbiont introduces some redundancy as it retains some pathways also present in the partner symbionts (Sulcia muelleri). Strikingly, the newly acquired Sodalis-like symbiont retains genes underlying efficient routes of energy production, including a complete TCA cycle, potentially relaxing the severe energy limitations of the xylem-feeding hosts. Although evolutionary replacements of ancient symbionts are infrequent, they potentially enable evolutionary and ecological novelty by conferring novel metabolic capabilities to host lineages. PMID:24401857

  20. Swapping symbionts in spittlebugs: evolutionary replacement of a reduced genome symbiont.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryuichi; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial symbionts that undergo long-term maternal transmission experience elevated fixation of deleterious mutations, resulting in massive loss of genes and changes in gene sequences that appear to limit efficiency of gene products. Potentially, this dwindling of symbiont functionality impacts hosts that depend on these bacteria for nutrition. One evolutionary escape route is the acquisition of a novel symbiont with a robust genome and metabolic capabilities. Such an acquisition has occurred in an ancestor of Philaenus spumarius, the meadow spittlebug (Insecta: Cercopoidea), which has replaced its ancient association with the tiny genome symbiont Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with an association with a symbiont related to Sodalis glossinidius (Gammaproteobacteria). Spittlebugs feed exclusively on xylem sap, a diet that is low both in essential amino acids and in sugar or other substrates for energy production. The new symbiont genome has undergone proliferation of mobile elements resulting in many gene inactivations; nonetheless, it has selectively maintained genes replacing functions of its predecessor for amino-acid biosynthesis. Whereas ancient symbiont partners typically retain perfectly complementary sets of amino-acid biosynthetic pathways, the novel symbiont introduces some redundancy as it retains some pathways also present in the partner symbionts (Sulcia muelleri). Strikingly, the newly acquired Sodalis-like symbiont retains genes underlying efficient routes of energy production, including a complete TCA cycle, potentially relaxing the severe energy limitations of the xylem-feeding hosts. Although evolutionary replacements of ancient symbionts are infrequent, they potentially enable evolutionary and ecological novelty by conferring novel metabolic capabilities to host lineages.

  1. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sébastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-01-01

    Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  2. Insect's intestinal organ for symbiont sorting.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-09-15

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host-symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ's ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host's control and symbiont's motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor.

  3. Symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hayatsu, Masahito; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nagayama, Atsushi; Tago, Kanako; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-05-29

    Development of insecticide resistance has been a serious concern worldwide, whose mechanisms have been attributed to evolutionary changes in pest insect genomes such as alteration of drug target sites, up-regulation of degrading enzymes, and enhancement of drug excretion. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of insecticide resistance: Infection with an insecticide-degrading bacterial symbiont immediately establishes insecticide resistance in pest insects. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris and allied stinkbugs harbor mutualistic gut symbiotic bacteria of the genus Burkholderia, which are acquired by nymphal insects from environmental soil every generation. In agricultural fields, fenitrothion-degrading Burkolderia strains are present at very low densities. We demonstrated that the fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia strains establish a specific and beneficial symbiosis with the stinkbugs and confer a resistance of the host insects against fenitrothion. Experimental applications of fenitrothion to field soils drastically enriched fenitrothion-degrading bacteria from undetectable levels to >80% of total culturable bacterial counts in the field soils, and >90% of stinkbugs reared with the enriched soil established symbiosis with fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia. In a Japanese island where fenitrothion has been constantly applied to sugarcane fields, we identified a stinkbug population wherein the insects live on sugarcane and ≈8% of them host fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia. Our finding suggests the possibility that the symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance may develop even in the absence of pest insects, quickly establish within a single insect generation, and potentially move around horizontally between different pest insects and other organisms.

  4. Suicidality among police.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2008-09-01

    This paper reviews recent international literature on suicide among police officers. Research examining the incidence and prevalence of suicide and suicidality among police, particularly the extent to which they constitute a high-risk group, has produced conflicting results. Police appear to be at greater risk of posttraumatic stress reactions (resulting from higher exposures to trauma) and job burnout (resulting from the way in which police work is organized), both of which increase the risk of psychosocial problems and suicide. Though worker suicide is the result of a complex interaction of personal vulnerabilities, workplace stressors, and environmental factors, research into police suicide has largely emphasized only two of these components: workplace trauma as a determinant of posttraumatic stress reactions; and organizational stressors as a determinant of job stress and burnout. Personality factors and coping styles have received less attention and there have been few attempts to understand the complex interactions between all of these factors. Prevention strategies have focused on psychological debriefing for traumatic incidents and organizational change designed to improve job commitment and reduce job burnout.

  5. Mental Illness Stigma Expressed by Police to Police.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes mental health related stigma expressed by police to police using a newly developed 11-item Police Officer Stigma Scale and reports on the preliminary psychometric properties (factor structure and internal reliability) of this scale. The scale used an indirect measurement approach adapted from the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale. Five themes appropriate to police culture were adapted and six additional items were added. Responses were rated on a 5-point agreement scale with an additional don't know option. Data were collected from officers attending a mandatory workshop (90.5% response). Exploratory factor analysis showed the scale to be unidimensional and internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha was 0.82). The most endorsed items pertained to avoiding disclosure to a supervisor/manager or to a colleague (85% agreement), that most officers would expect discrimination at work (62%), and that most officers would not want a supervisor or manager who had a mental illness (62%). Findings highlight that (a) Police-to-police mental illness stigma may be a particularly strong feature of police cultures; (b) police should be a focus for targeted anti-stigma interventions; and (c) though further psychometric testing is needed, the Police Office Stigma Scale may provide important insights into the nature and functioning of police-to-police stigma in police cultures in future research.

  6. Integrating Community Policing into Police Selection and Promotional Testing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Walter S.

    General and specific information is offered on integrating community policing and other management philosophies into an organization's selection and promotional testing systems. The concept of community policing is not necessarily a new one for many police organizations, but integrating it fully requires bringing internal support structures into…

  7. Observations on Police Deadly Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, James J.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the common-law rule that police may shoot any fleeing felony suspect. Examines the effects of that rule upon police law enforcement operations and community relations and possible cover-ups. Suggests recommendations to minimize both actual and perceived excesses in police deadly force. (Author/RC)

  8. Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violanti, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Further inquiry into processes that lead to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. Suicide ideation in police officers and possible correlates associated with such ideation is explored in this paper. The focus was on psychologically traumatic police work experiences, the development of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in officers, and the…

  9. Police Selection and Career Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, Marvin D.; Motowidlo, Stephan J.

    Research was conducted to develop the Police Career Index (PCI) and the regional assessment center exercises to provide a total personnel evaluation system to help police departments screen applicants, evaluate on-the-job performance of officers eligible for promotion, and gauge a person's suitability for police work. The PCI is based on actual…

  10. Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violanti, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Further inquiry into processes that lead to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. Suicide ideation in police officers and possible correlates associated with such ideation is explored in this paper. The focus was on psychologically traumatic police work experiences, the development of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) in officers, and the…

  11. Police Attitudes and Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Joseph; Price, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized Richard H. Hall's attitudinal attributes of a professional using a Likert scale. The survey was administered to officers in two similar mid-sized police departments. The first agency had 650 officers, while the second had 350 officers. Agency One requires all applicants to possess a bachelor's degree, while Agency…

  12. Police Robbery Control Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Richard H.; And Others

    The manual was designed as a practical guide for police department personnel in developing robbery control programs. An introductory chapter defines types of robberies and suggests administrative and operational uses of the manual. Research and control strategies are reported according to five robbery types: street (visible and non-visible),…

  13. Symbiont survival and host-symbiont disequilibria under differential vertical transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M S; Arnold, J; Asmussen, M A

    2000-01-01

    Interspecific genetic interactions in host-symbiont systems raise intriguing coevolutionary questions and may influence the effectiveness of public health and management policies. Here we present an analytical and numerical investigation of the effects of host genetic heterogeneity in the rate of vertical transmission of a symbiont. We consider the baseline case with a monomorphic symbiont and a single diallelic locus in its diploid host, where vertical transmission is the sole force. Our analysis introduces interspecific disequilibria to quantify nonrandom associations between host genotypes and alleles and symbiont presence/absence. The transient and equilibrium behavior is examined in simulations with randomly generated initial conditions and transmission parameters. Compared to the case where vertical transmission rates are uniform across host genotypes, differential transmission (i) increases average symbiont survival from 50% to almost 60%, (ii) dramatically reduces the minimum average transmission rate for symbiont survival from 0.5 to 0.008, and (iii) readily creates permanent host-symbiont disequilibria de novo, whereas uniform transmission can neither create nor maintain such associations. On average, heterozygotes are slightly more likely to carry and maintain the symbiont in the population and are more randomly associated with the symbiont. Results show that simple evolutionary forces can create substantial nonrandom associations between two species. PMID:10757775

  14. Culture and manipulation of insect facultative symbionts.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Dale, Colin

    2006-09-01

    Insects from many different taxonomic groups harbor maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts. Some of these associations are ancient in origin and obligate in nature whereas others originated more recently and are facultative. Previous research focused on the biology of ancient obligate symbionts with essential nutritional roles in their insect hosts. However, recent important advances in understanding the biology of facultative associations have been driven by the development of techniques for the culture, genetic modification and manipulation of facultative symbionts. In this review, we examine these available experimental techniques and illustrate how they have provided fascinating new insight into the nature of associations involving facultative symbionts. We also propose a rationale for future research based on the integration of genomics and experimentation.

  15. Gene expression changes during caste-specific neuronal development in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the key characters of social insects is the division of labor, in which different tasks are allocated to various castes. In termites, one of the representative groups of social insects, morphological differences as well as behavioral differences can be recognized among castes. However, very little is known about the neuronal and molecular bases of caste differentiation and caste-specific behavior. In almost all termite species, soldiers play defensive roles in their colonies, and their morphology and behavior are largely different from workers (or pseudergates). Therefore, we predicted that some genes linked to defensive behavior and/or those required for neuronal changes are differentially expressed between workers and soldiers, or during the soldier differentiation, respectively. Results Using the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) of the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we first screened genes specifically expressed in soldiers or during soldier differentiation by the differential display method, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No distinctive differences in expression patterns were detected between pseudergates and soldiers. In the course of soldier differentiation, however, five genes were found to be up-regulated in brain and/or SOG: 14-3-3epsilon, fibrillin2, beta-tubulin, ciboulot, and a hypothetical protein containing a SAP motif. Some of these genes are thought to be associated with cytoskeletal structure or motor-associated proteins in neuronal tissues. Conclusion The identified five genes could be involved in soldier-specific neuronal modifications, resulting in defensive behaviors in termite soldiers. The temporal expression patterns of these genes were consistent with the neuronal changes during soldier differentiation, suggesting that molecular machineries, in which the identified factors would participate, play important roles in behavioral differentiation of termite soldiers. PMID

  16. Niche differentiation in the dynamics of host-symbiont interactions: symbiont prevalence as a coexistence problem.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2014-04-01

    Heritable symbioses can have important ecological effects and have triggered important evolutionary innovations. Current predictions for long-term symbiont prevalence are based on their fitness benefits and vertical transmission rates but ignore nonlinear competitive feedbacks among symbiotic and symbiont-free hosts. We hypothesized that such feedbacks function as stabilizing mechanisms, promoting coexistence of host types and maintaining intermediate symbiont frequency at the population scale. Using a model grass/endophyte symbiosis, we manipulated competition within and between endophyte-symbiotic (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) hosts and fit competition models to experimental data. We show for the first time that symbiont-structured competition can generate stable coexistence of E+ and E- hosts, even under perfect vertical transmission. Niche differentiation was the key to coexistence, causing hosts of each type to limit themselves more strongly than each other. These results establish roles for nonlinear competitive dynamics and niche differentiation in the ecology and evolution of heritable symbionts.

  17. Social evolution: community policing in insects.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2007-07-03

    A recent study shows that, in social insects where workers suppress or 'police' the reproduction of nestmate workers, only a subset of workers act as police. This confirms that policing can serve a collective rather than a selfish interest.

  18. Evolutionary changes in symbiont community structure in ticks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecological specialization to restricted diet niches is driven by obligate, and often maternally inherited, symbionts in many arthropod lineages. These heritable symbionts typically form evolutionarily stable associations with arthropods that can last for millions of years. Ticks were recently found ...

  19. Satisfaction with Campus Police Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James D.; Hueston, Harry; Wilson, Eddie; Moyers, Casey; Hart, Christian L.

    2004-01-01

    Problem: Higher education has seen dramatic increases in student enrollments, diversity and crime rates during the past 25 years. These changes have created the need for new approaches from campus law enforcement agencies. There has been a movement toward community oriented policing (COP) policies and practices by campus police departments to…

  20. Police Communications: Humans and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannes, Estelle

    This volume presents an overview of police communications and analyzes the relationships between the people and hardware in the police system. Chapters discuss the development and use of such communication devices as the telegraph, telephone, and computers; the role of mass media, feedback, and communicative settings in human communication;…

  1. Police Stress: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. T. Skip, Comp.; And Others

    The need to perform effectively under stress is a concern in many professions. For police officers and managers, who make split-second life and death decisions, the problem takes on added significance. The annotated documents compiled are in three sections: an overview to describe types and effects of stresses, police stress causal factors, and…

  2. Satisfaction with Campus Police Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James D.; Hueston, Harry; Wilson, Eddie; Moyers, Casey; Hart, Christian L.

    2004-01-01

    Problem: Higher education has seen dramatic increases in student enrollments, diversity and crime rates during the past 25 years. These changes have created the need for new approaches from campus law enforcement agencies. There has been a movement toward community oriented policing (COP) policies and practices by campus police departments to…

  3. Police Discretion: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Robert N.; Kravitz, Marjorie

    This bibliography was compiled with two goals. The first goal is to provide police administrators and officers with an overview of the issues involved in developing guidelines for police discretion and a discussion of the options available. The second goal is to demonstrate the need for continuing dialogue and interaction between lawmakers, law…

  4. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  5. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  6. Acceptable symbiont cell size differs among cnidarian species and may limit symbiont diversity.

    PubMed

    Biquand, Elise; Okubo, Nami; Aihara, Yusuke; Rolland, Vivien; Hayward, David C; Hatta, Masayuki; Minagawa, Jun; Maruyama, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2017-07-01

    Reef-building corals form symbiotic relationships with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Symbiodinium are genetically and physiologically diverse, and corals may be able to adapt to different environments by altering their dominant Symbiodinium phylotype. Notably, each coral species associates only with specific Symbiodinium phylotypes, and consequently the diversity of symbionts available to the host is limited by the species specificity. Currently, it is widely presumed that species specificity is determined by the combination of cell-surface molecules on the host and symbiont. Here we show experimental evidence supporting a new model to explain at least part of the specificity in coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis. Using the laboratory model Aiptasia-Symbiodinium system, we found that symbiont infectivity is related to cell size; larger Symbiodinium phylotypes are less likely to establish a symbiotic relationship with the host Aiptasia. This size dependency is further supported by experiments where symbionts were replaced by artificial fluorescent microspheres. Finally, experiments using two different coral species demonstrate that our size-dependent-infection model can be expanded to coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis, with the acceptability of large-sized Symbiodinium phylotypes differing between two coral species. Thus the selectivity of the host for symbiont cell size can affect the diversity of symbionts in corals.

  7. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic-anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic-anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids.

  8. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  9. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  10. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence. 637.17 Section 637.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals or groups of individuals in an...

  11. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  12. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  13. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  14. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  15. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  16. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  17. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  18. Multilevel Models for the Distribution of Hosts and Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Stutz, William E.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont occurrence is influenced by host occurrence and vice versa, which leads to correlations in host-symbiont distributions at multiple levels. Interactions between co-infecting symbionts within host individuals can cause correlations in the abundance of two symbiont species across individual hosts. Similarly, interactions between symbiont transmission and host population dynamics can drive correlations between symbiont and host abundance across habitat patches. If ignored, these interactions can confound estimated responses of hosts and symbionts to other factors. Here, we present a general hierarchical modeling framework for distributions of hosts and symbionts, estimating correlations in host-symbiont distributions at the among-site, within-site, among-species, and among-individual levels. We present an empirical example from a multi-host multi-parasite system involving amphibians and their micro- and macroparasites. Amphibian hosts and their parasites were correlated at multiple levels of organization. Macroparasites often co-infected individual hosts, but rarely co-infected with the amphibian chytrid fungus. Such correlations may result from interactions among parasites and hosts, joint responses to environmental factors, or sampling bias. Joint host-symbiont models account for environmental constraints and species interactions while partitioning variance and dependence in abundance at multiple levels. This framework can be adapted to a wide variety of study systems and sampling designs. PMID:27832124

  19. Policing guns and youth violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence.

  20. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    PubMed

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  1. A microsampling method for genotyping coral symbionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, D. W.; Fitt, W. K.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2008-06-01

    Genotypic characterization of Symbiodinium symbionts in hard corals has routinely involved coring, or the removal of branches or a piece of the coral colony. These methods can potentially underestimate the complexity of the Symbiodinium community structure and may produce lesions. This study demonstrates that microscale sampling of individual coral polyps provided sufficient DNA for identifying zooxanthellae clades by RFLP analyses, and subclades through the use of PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of rDNA and denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis. Using this technique it was possible to detect distinct ITS-2 types of Symbiodinium from two or three adjacent coral polyps. These methods can be used to intensely sample coral-symbiont population/communities while causing minimal damage. The effectiveness and fine scale capabilities of these methods were demonstrated by sampling and identifying phylotypes of Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C that co-reside within a single Montastraea faveolata colony.

  2. The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, I.L.; Woyke, T.; Auchtung, T.A.; Dilly, G.F.; Dutton,R.J.; Fisher, M.C.; Fontanez, K.M.; Lau, E.; Stewart, F.J.; Richardson,P.M.; Barry, K.W.; Saunders, E.; Detter, J.C.; Wu, D.; Eisen, J.A.; Cavanaugh, C.M.

    2007-03-01

    Chemoautotrophic endosymbionts are the metabolic cornerstone of hydrothermal vent communities, providing invertebrate hosts with nearly all of their nutrition. The Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) symbiont, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, is the first intracellular sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiont to have its genome sequenced, revealing a suite of metabolic capabilities. The genome encodes major chemoautotrophic pathways as well as pathways for biosynthesis of vitamins, cofactors, and all 20 amino acids required by the clam.

  3. Lateral symbiont acquisition in a maternally transmitted chemosynthetic clam endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Frank J; Young, Curtis R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2008-04-01

    Deep-sea clams of the family Vesicomyidae live in symbiosis with intracellular chemosynthetic bacteria. These symbionts are transmitted maternally (vertically) between host generations and should therefore show a pattern of genetic variation paralleling that of the cotransmitted host mitochondrion. However, instances of lateral (nonvertical) symbiont acquisition could still occur, thereby decoupling symbiont and mitochondrial phylogenies. Here, we provide the first evidence against strict maternal cotransmission of symbiont and mitochondrial genomes in vesicomyids. Analysis of Vesicomya sp. mt-II clams from hydrothermal vents on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (northeastern Pacific) revealed a symbiont phylotype (designated symB(VII)) highly divergent from previously described symbionts of the same host lineage. SymB(VII)-hosting clams occurred at low frequency (0.02) relative to individuals hosting the dominant symbiont phylotype. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from a wide range of symbionts and free-living bacteria clustered symB(VII) within the monophyletic clade of vesicomyid symbionts. Further analysis of 3 symbiont loci (23S, dnaK, and soxA) across 11 vesicomyid taxa unambiguously placed symB(VII) as sister to the symbiont of a distantly related host lineage, Vesicomya sp. from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (98.9% median nucleotide identity across protein-coding loci). Using likelihood and Bayesian model discrimination methods, we rejected the strict maternal cotransmission hypothesis by showing a significant decoupling of symbiont and host mitochondrial (COI and mt16S genes) phylogenies. Indeed, decoupling occurred even when symB(VII) was excluded from phylogenetic reconstructions, suggesting a history of host switching in this group. Together, the data indicate a history of lateral symbiont transfer in vesicomyids, with symB(VII) being the most conspicuous example. Interpreted alongside previous studies of the vesicomyid symbiosis, these results suggest a mixed

  4. Interactions among symbionts operate across scales to influence parasite epidemics.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Fletcher W; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2017-10-01

    Parasite epidemics may be influenced by interactions among symbionts, which can depend on past events at multiple spatial scales. Within host individuals, interactions can depend on the sequence in which symbionts infect a host, generating priority effects. Across host individuals, interactions can depend on parasite phenology. To test the roles of parasite interactions and phenology in epidemics, we embedded multiple cohorts of sentinel plants, grown from seeds with and without a vertically transmitted symbiont, into a wild host population, and tracked foliar infections caused by three common fungal parasites. Within hosts, parasite growth was influenced by coinfections, but coinfections were often prevented by priority effects among symbionts. Across hosts, parasite phenology altered host susceptibility to secondary infections, symbiont interactions and ultimately the magnitude of parasite epidemics. Together, these results indicate that parasite phenology can influence parasite epidemics by altering the sequence of infection and interactions among symbionts within host individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Design of a high-speed real-time symbiont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunby, E. I.

    1972-01-01

    The problems involved, approach taken, and solution arrived at are described in a software study to design a high speed, real time symbiont for analog telemetry processing. The symbiont design is based on the need for transferring data from one I/O device to another without significant use of core space or central processor time. The queues, programmed wait states, and teletype commands incorporated in the symbiont design are discussed.

  6. Lifestyle evolution in cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges.

    PubMed

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M; Handley, Kim M; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W; Gilbert, Jack A; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum," each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. While the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus-type cyanobacteria are widely distributed in the world's oceans, a subgroup has established its niche within marine sponge tissues. Recently, the first

  7. Evolutionary changes in symbiont community structure in ticks.

    PubMed

    Duron, Olivier; Binetruy, Florian; Noël, Valérie; Cremaschi, Julie; McCoy, Karen D; Arnathau, Céline; Plantard, Olivier; Goolsby, John; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Heylen, Dieter J A; Van Oosten, A Raoul; Gottlieb, Yuval; Baneth, Gad; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Opara, Maxwell N; Zenner, Lionel; Vavre, Fabrice; Chevillon, Christine

    2017-03-09

    Ecological specialization to restricted diet niches is driven by obligate, and often maternally inherited, symbionts in many arthropod lineages. These heritable symbionts typically form evolutionarily stable associations with arthropods that can last for millions of years. Ticks were recently found to harbour such an obligate symbiont, Coxiella-LE, that synthesizes B vitamins and cofactors not obtained in sufficient quantities from blood diet. In this study, the examination of 81 tick species shows that some Coxiella-LE symbioses are evolutionarily stable with an ancient acquisition followed by codiversification as observed in ticks belonging to the Rhipicephalus genus. However, many other Coxiella-LE symbioses are characterized by low evolutionary stability with frequent host shifts and extinction events. Further examination revealed the presence of nine other genera of maternally inherited bacteria in ticks. Although these nine symbionts were primarily thought to be facultative, their distribution among tick species rather suggests that at least four may have independently replaced Coxiella-LE and likely represent alternative obligate symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence otherwise indicates that cocladogenesis is globally rare in these symbioses as most originate via horizontal transfer of an existing symbiont between unrelated tick species. As a result, the structure of these symbiont communities is not fixed and stable across the tick phylogeny. Most importantly, the symbiont communities commonly reach high levels of diversity with up to six unrelated maternally inherited bacteria coexisting within host species. We further conjecture that interactions among coexisting symbionts are pivotal drivers of community structure both among and within tick species.

  8. The enforcement of cooperation by policing.

    PubMed

    El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

    2010-07-01

    Policing is regarded as an important mechanism for maintaining cooperation in human and animal social groups. A simple model providing a theoretical overview of the coevolution of policing and cooperation has been analyzed by Frank (1995, 1996b, 2003, 2009), and this suggests that policing will evolve to fully suppress cheating within social groups when relatedness is low. Here, we relax some of the assumptions made by Frank, and investigate the consequences for policing and cooperation. First, we address the implicit assumption that the individual cost of investment into policing is reduced when selfishness dominates. We find that relaxing this assumption leads to policing being favored only at intermediate relatedness. Second, we address the assumption that policing fully recovers the loss of fitness incurred by the group owing to selfishness. We find that relaxing this assumption prohibits the evolution of full policing. Finally, we consider the impact of demography on the coevolution of policing and cooperation, in particular the role for kin competition to disfavor the evolution of policing, using both a heuristic "open" model and a "closed" island model. We find that large groups and increased kin competition disfavor policing, and that policing is maintained more readily than it invades. Policing may be harder to evolve than previously thought.

  9. Civilian Police: Future of the Military Police Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Station Security Allison Choike, a reporter with Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri’s The Guidon , writes that the concept of hiring civilians to fill the law...6 Allison Choike, “Fort Leonard Wood Trains DA Installation Civilian Police,” The Guidon , 5 June 2008, <www.myguidon.com/index2.php?option...Bibliography Choike, Allison. “Fort Leonard Wood Trains DA Installation Civilian Police.” The Guidon . 5 June 2008. <http://www.myguidon.com/index2.php

  10. Private security's challenge to police chiefs.

    PubMed

    Connolly, C P

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses why police chiefs who have not yet given thought to developing a security partnership agenda should begin now. Partnerships, he says, should be cultivated between public police and private security.

  11. Dimorphic ovary differentiation in honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae involves caste-specific expression of homologs of ark and buffy cell death genes.

    PubMed

    Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the number of repeated structural units, the ovarioles, in the ovaries is one of the critical events that shape caste polyphenism in social insects. In early postembryonic development, honeybee (Apis mellifera) larvae have a pair of ovaries, each one consisting of almost two hundred ovariole primordia. While practically all these ovarioles continue developing in queen-destined larvae, they undergo massive programmed cell death (PCD) in worker-destined larvae. So as to gain insight into the molecular basis of this fundamental process in caste differentiation we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to investigate the expression of the Amark and Ambuffy genes in the ovaries of the two honeybee castes throughout the fifth larval instar. These are the homologs of ark and buffy Drosophila melanogaster genes, respectively, involved in activating and inhibiting PCD. Caste-specific expression patterns were found during this time-window defining ovariole number. Amark transcript levels were increased when ovariole resorption was intensified in workers, but remained at low levels in queen ovaries. The transcripts were mainly localized at the apical end of all the worker ovarioles, but appeared in only a few queen ovarioles, thus strongly suggesting a function in mediating massive ovariolar cell death in worker larvae. Ambuffy was mainly expressed in the peritoneal sheath cells covering each ovariole. The levels of Ambuffy transcripts increased earlier in the developing ovaries of queens than in workers. Consistent with a protective role against cell death, Ambuffy transcripts were localized in practically all queen ovarioles, but only in few worker ovarioles. The results are indicative of a functional relationship between the expression of evolutionary conserved cell death genes and the morphological events leading to caste-specific ovary differentiation in a social insect.

  12. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic–anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic–anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids. PMID:24914799

  13. Taming the symbiont for coexistence: a host PGRP neutralizes a bacterial symbiont toxin.

    PubMed

    Troll, Joshua V; Bent, Eric H; Pacquette, Nicholas; Wier, Andrew M; Goldman, William E; Silverman, Neal; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2010-08-01

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms between marine animals and their bacterial partners, the host environment promotes the initial colonization by specific symbionts that it harvests from the surrounding bacterioplankton. Subsequently, the host must develop long-term tolerance to immunogenic bacterial molecules, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccaride derivatives. We describe the characterization of the activity of a host peptidoglycan recognition protein (EsPGRP2) during establishment of the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Using confocal immunocytochemistry, we localized EsPGRP2 to all epithelial surfaces of the animal, and determined that it is exported in association with mucus shedding. Most notably, EsPGRP2 was released by the crypt epithelia into the extracellular spaces housing the symbionts. This translocation occurred only after the symbionts had triggered host morphogenesis, a process that is induced by exposure to the peptidoglycan monomer tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), a bacterial 'toxin' that is constitutively exported by V. fischeri. Enzymatic analyses demonstrated that, like many described PGRPs, EsPGRP2 has a TCT-degrading amidase activity. The timing of EsPGRP2 export into the crypts provides evidence that the host does not export this protein until after TCT induces morphogenesis, and thereafter EsPGRP2 is constantly present in the crypts ameliorating the effects of V. fischeri TCT.

  14. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  15. Police Brutality--the New Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.

    1978-01-01

    Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)

  16. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  17. Social evolution: policing without genetic conflict.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2013-03-04

    Insect societies have evolved ways of policing selfish behaviour that arises due to genetic conflicts within the colony. A new case of policing in an ant where colony members are genetically identical highlights the role of colony economics for policing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Bibliography on Police and Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Martin G., Comp.

    A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…

  19. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  20. Police-community safety and trust.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rich

    2017-08-01

    (1)In 2017 alone, 46 states have enacted over 270 laws affecting policing. (2) At least six states have enacted laws to train the public on their rights and expectations during police interactions. (3) Police are increasingly partnering with health care professionals to more safely respond to mental health and substance use disorders.

  1. Can Community Policing Help the Truly Disadvantaged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisig, Michael D.; Parks, Roger B.

    2004-01-01

    Community policing advocates argue that reforms designed to break down barriers between police and citizens can produce favorable outcomes. The authors test a series of related hypotheses in a multivariate context by using four independent data sources--community surveys, patrol officer interviews, Census Bureau, and police crime records--to…

  2. Central Police Dispatch: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, John J.

    The document presents a description of the Central Police Dispatch (PCD) system of Muskegon County, Michigan. The CPD, a civilian-staffed organization, is concerned with the regionalization of police services and improved police communications. The development of the CPD is traced from the Muskegon Interlocal Public Agency (1969-72) to the present…

  3. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  4. Blue Lies and Police Placebos: The Moralities of Police Lying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockars, Carl B.

    1984-01-01

    The concession that the lie is preferred over force as a means of social control forms the basis for the morality of policy lying, i.e., in any situation in which police have a legitimate right to use force they acquire a moral right to achieve the same ends by lying. (RM)

  5. Olenid trilobites: The oldest known chemoautotrophic symbionts?

    PubMed Central

    Fortey, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Late Cambrian to early Ordovician trilobites, the family Olenidae, were tolerant of oxygen-poor, sulfur-rich sea floor conditions, and a case is made that they were chemoautotrophic symbionts. Olenids were uniquely adapted to this habitat in the Lower Paleozoic, which was widespread in the Late Cambrian over Scandinavia. This life habit explains distinctive aspects of olenid morphology: wide thoraces and large numbers of thoracic segments, thin cuticle and, in some species, degenerate hypostome, and the occasional development of brood pouches. Geochemical and field evidence is consistent with this interpretation. Olenids occupied their specialized habitat for 60 million years until their extinction at the end of the Ordovician. PMID:10841557

  6. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca) chemosynthetic symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Irene LG; Girguis, Peter R; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca) are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments. PMID:19055818

  7. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  8. Standard methods for research on Apis mellifera gut symbionts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  9. Secondary bacterial symbiont community in aphids responds to plant diversity.

    PubMed

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Meyer, Sebastian T; Sturm, Sarah; Ullmann, Wiebke; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity is important for ecosystem functioning and biotic interactions. In experimental grasslands, increasing plant species richness is known to increase the diversity of associated herbivores and their predators. If these interactions can also involve endosymbionts that reside within a plant or animal host is currently unknown. In plant-feeding aphids, secondary bacterial symbionts can have strong fitness effects on the host, e.g. resistance to natural enemies or fungal pathogens. We examined the secondary symbiont community in three species of aphid, each feeding on a unique host plant across experimental plots that varied in plant species richness. Aphids were collected in May and June, and the symbiont community identified using species-specific PCR assays. Aphis fabae aphids were found to host six different symbiont species with individual aphids co-hosting up to four symbionts. Uroleucon jaceae and Macrosiphum rosae hosted two and three symbiont species, respectively. We found that, at the aphid population level, increasing plant species richness increased the diversity of the aphid symbiont community, whereas at the individual aphid level, the opposite was found. These effects are potentially driven by varying selective pressures across different plant communities of varying diversities, mediated by defensive protection responses and a changing cost-benefit trade-off to the aphid for hosting multiple secondary symbionts. Our work extends documented effects of plant diversity beyond visible biotic interactions to changes in endosymbiont communities, with potentially far-reaching consequences to related ecosystem processes.

  10. Modeling the ecology of symbiont-mediated protection against parasites.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Marek; Vorburger, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that many maternally transmitted symbionts protect their hosts against parasites, thus ensuring their own persistence. Despite the protection they provide, such symbionts are typically found in only a fraction of the host population. This suggests that symbiont-conferred resistance is costly or that the maternal inheritance of symbionts is not perfect. To investigate these hypotheses and other properties of this complex ecological system, we develop a mathematical model based on the example of bacterial endosymbionts that protect aphids against parasitoid wasps. Simulations show that in the absence of more complex effects, a very fine balance between the costs of harboring symbionts and the strength of protection they provide is required to maintain coexistence of protected and unprotected hosts. These constraints are significantly relaxed and coexistence becomes a common outcome if deployment of symbiont-provided defenses upon a parasite attack entails an additional (induced) cost. Transmission rates of symbionts also affect coexistence, which is more frequently observed under high (but not perfect) fidelity of vertical transfer and low rates of horizontal transfer. Finally, we show that the prevalence of defensive symbionts has a strong influence on the population dynamics of hosts and parasites: population sizes are stable if and only if protected hosts dominate.

  11. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  12. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  13. FBI Police Executive Fellowship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, FBI Director Robert Mueller, III, established the Office of Law Enforcement Coordination to help ensure more effective information-sharing between the Bureau and state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies. One of the hallmarks of this focused effort to enhance communication is the Police Executive…

  14. FBI Police Executive Fellowship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, FBI Director Robert Mueller, III, established the Office of Law Enforcement Coordination to help ensure more effective information-sharing between the Bureau and state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies. One of the hallmarks of this focused effort to enhance communication is the Police Executive…

  15. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  16. Police Educational Characteristics and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Larry T.

    A consensus exists regarding the need to improve law enforcement and to upgrade the quality of police officers through the imposition of higher educational standards. Three rationales for educational upgrading include: (1) to improve effectiveness in performing crime control functions through better motivation and greater ability in applying…

  17. Patronizing and policing elderly people.

    PubMed

    Giles, Howard; Zwang-Weissman, Yardena; Hajek, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    426 students rated a vignette wherein an older person was patronized (more or less) or not by a police officer. Trait attributions were linearly related to extent of patronization: predictably negative for the patronizers, yet positive for the recipients. Visual appearances of patronizers and patronizees did not influence these patterns.

  18. Special-Purpose Public Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the last in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. In this volume, certain types of public forces not having general law-enforcement responsibilities are described, including reserve…

  19. Policing and the mentally disordered.

    PubMed

    Graham, J

    2001-04-01

    I hope this article has given at least a flavour of the variety and complexity of challenges faced at the immediate operational level by police officers who have very little training in recognising the signs or symptoms of mental disorder and who very often have to deal with violent or irrational people who are quite simply criminal rather than ill. There is no question that in Dumfries Division police officers rely heavily upon the personal imput of on-call police doctors. Whilst at an operational level it is believed that incidents involvidng people with mental disorders are on the increase, it is particularly difficult to quantify exact extent of this perceived increase or indeed the impact which increasing abuse of alcohol and cotrolled drugs is having on the perception of mentally disordered offenders in the community. The vast majority of prisoners who are arrested and held within cells at Dumfries Police Office are suffering from some form of drug dependency and are in need of some form of assistance. Many display a variety of irrational behaviours when suffering the effects of drug withdrawal and increasingly it is difficult to keep any prisoner within the cells at Dumfries unless they have been examined by the on call police surgeon. Many are depressed, confused and increasingly providing at least verbal indicators that they are suicidal. It is more often the case that prisoners who are held within cells at Dumfries are in some form of constant observation whilst in our care. Given the increasing presence of mentally vulnerable people within our communities, it is vital that operational police officers play their part in responding appropriately to the needs of these people and the dangers they may pose to themselves or others. Dealing sensitively with increasing public concerns through appropriate community representative channels will also pose a considerable challenge. A challenge which can only be met through increasing awareness of the real situation

  20. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  1. "Just Being Mean to Somebody Isn't a Police Matter": Police Perspectives on Policing Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…

  2. Horizontally Transmitted Symbionts and Host Colonization of Ecological Niches

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.; Peccoud, Jean; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Maiden, Martin J.C.; Ferrari, Julia; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Facultative or “secondary” symbionts are common in eukaryotes, particularly insects. While not essential for host survival, they often provide significant fitness benefits [1-5]. It has been hypothesized that secondary symbionts form a “horizontal gene pool” shuttling adaptive genes among host lineages in an analogous manner to plasmids and other mobile genetic elements in bacteria [6, 7]. However, we do not know whether the distributions of symbionts across host populations reflect random acquisitions followed by vertical inheritance or whether the associations have occurred repeatedly in a manner consistent with a dynamic horizontal gene pool. Here we explore these questions using the phylogenetic and ecological distributions of secondary symbionts carried by 1,104 pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We find that not only is horizontal transfer common, but it is also associated with aphid lineages colonizing new ecological niches, including novel plant species and climatic regions. Moreover, aphids that share the same ecologies worldwide have independently acquired related symbiont genotypes, suggesting significant involvement of symbionts in their host’s adaptation to different niches. We conclude that the secondary symbiont community forms a horizontal gene pool that influences the adaptation and distribution of their insect hosts. These findings highlight the importance of symbiotic microorganisms in the radiation of eukaryotes. PMID:23993843

  3. Molecular evidence for host-symbiont specificity in soritid foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cuetos, Lydia; Pochon, Xavier; Pawlowski, Jan

    2005-12-01

    Symbiosis between the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium and various invertebrates and protists is an ubiquitous phenomenon in shallow tropical and subtropical waters. Molecular studies undertaken on cnidarian symbionts revealed the presence of several distinctive lineages or subgeneric clades of Symbiodinium whose taxonomic level provides limited information about the specificity between invertebrate hosts and their symbionts. This contrasts with the finding of several Symbiodinium clades being present almost exclusively in foraminifera and belonging to the subfamily Soritinae. To test whether such specificity also exists at a lower taxonomic level within Soritinae, we obtained the SSU rDNA sequences from 159 soritid individuals collected in nine localities worldwide and representing all known morphospecies of this subfamily. For each individual, the symbionts were determined either by sequencing or by RFLP analysis. We distinguished 22 phylotypes of Soritinae in relation with a number of symbiont "groups" corresponding to 3 clades and 5 subclades of Symbiodinium. Among the 22 soritid phylotypes, 14 show strict symbiont specificity and only one was found to be a host for more than two "groups" of Symbiodinium. It is suggested that the strong host-symbiont specificity observed in Soritinae is a combined effect of a selective recognition mechanism, vertical transmission of symbionts, and biogeographical isolation.

  4. Insect-symbiont systems: from complex relationships to biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sandra; Neto, Marta; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2009-12-01

    Microbial symbiosis is a ubiquitous aspect of life and was a major element in the ability of insects to explore several adverse environments. To date, the study of symbiosis in insects has been impaired by the unculturability of most symbionts. However, some molecular methods represent powerful tools to help understand insect-microorganism associations and to disclose new symbiont-host systems. Beyond playing an essential role in nutrition and development of the insects, symbionts can produce bioactive compounds that protect the host against adverse environmental conditions, predators and/or direct competitors. Since the search for natural bioactive products and new enzymes is a developing area, understanding the diversity and nature of symbiont-host relationships paves the way for the exploitation of new resources in biotechnology. Furthermore, genetic transformation of the symbionts with genes that code for compounds that are toxic for pathogenic and phytopathogenic agents is also a promising area of application of the insect-symbiont relationships. The search for new bioactive compounds, the use of symbionts for pest and disease control and the molecular strategies applied for these purposes are issues of particular interest for innovative biotechnological applications and are addressed in the present review.

  5. Insect’s intestinal organ for symbiont sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host–symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ’s ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host’s control and symbiont’s motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  6. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects.

  7. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  8. The bacterial essence of tiny symbiont genomes

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial genomes vary in size over two orders of magnitude. The Mycoplasma genitalium genome has traditionally defined the extreme small end of this spectrum, and has therefore heavily informed theoretical and experimental work aimed at determining the minimal gene content necessary to support cellular life. Recent genomic data from insect symbionts has revealed bacterial genomes that are incredibly small—two to four times smaller than M. genitalium—and these tiny genomes have raised questions about the limits of genome reduction and have blurred the once-clear distinction between autonomous cellular life and highly integrated organelle. New data from various systems with symbiotic bacterial or archaeal partners have begun to shed light on how these bacteria may function with such small gene sets, but major mechanistic questions remain. PMID:20044299

  9. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  10. [Doctor's attendance in police custody].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of symbionts in feather-feeding lice of the genus Columbicola: evidence for repeated symbiont replacements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many groups of insects have obligate bacterial symbionts that are vertically transmitted. Such associations are typically characterized by the presence of a monophyletic group of bacteria living in a well-defined host clade. In addition the phylogeny of the symbiotic bacteria is typically congruent with that of the host, signifying co-speciation. Here we show that bacteria living in a single genus of feather lice, Columbicola (Insecta: Phthiraptera), present an exception to this typical pattern. Results The phylogeny of Columbicola spp. symbionts revealed the presence of three candidate clades, with the most species-rich clade having a comb-like topology with very short internodes and long terminal branches. Evolutionary simulations indicate that this topology is characteristic of a process of repeated symbiont replacement over a brief time period. The two remaining candidate clades in our study exhibit high levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting accelerated molecular evolution due to relaxed purifying selection or smaller effective population size, which is typical of many vertically transmitted insect symbionts. Representatives of the fast-evolving and slow-evolving symbiont lineages exhibit the same localization, migration, and transmission patterns in their hosts, implying direct replacement. Conclusions Our findings suggest that repeated, independent symbiont replacements have taken place over the course of the relatively recent radiation of Columbicola spp. These results are compatible with the notion that lice and other insects have the capability to acquire novel symbionts through the domestication of progenitor strains residing in their local environment. PMID:23725492

  12. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  13. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  14. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  15. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  16. Understanding Community Policing as an Innovation: Patterns of Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, community policing was viewed by many as a radical innovation in the field of policing, with the vast majority of police agencies reporting to have adopted the approach. Despite its overwhelming popularity, most police agencies did not adopt the central elements of community policing. This study examines patterns of…

  17. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military police...

  18. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military police...

  19. Compliance with traffic laws by traffic police officers, non-traffic police officers, and civilian drivers.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz

    2014-01-01

    The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.

  20. Connecting Police Violence With Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ashish; Nseyo, Onouwem; Jackson, Andrea V

    2017-01-01

    Since the police-involved deaths of Michael Brown and Freddie Gray, activists have argued for connecting police violence with reproductive justice. We argue that systematic violence, including police violence, should be evaluated in relation to reproductive health outcomes of individual patients and communities. Beyond emphasizing the relationship between violence and health outcomes, both qualitative and epidemiologic data can be used by activists and caregivers to effectively care for individuals from socially marginalized communities.

  1. Fungal symbionts as manipulators of plant reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Gorischek, Alexander M; Afkhami, Michelle E; Seifert, Elizabeth K; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    Symbioses have shaped the evolution of life, most notably through the fixation of heritable symbionts into organelles. The inheritance of symbionts promotes mutualism and fixation by coupling partner fitness. However, conflicts arise if symbionts are transmitted through only one sex and can shift host resources toward the sex through which they propagate. Such reproductive manipulators have been documented in animals with separate sexes but not in other phyla or sexual systems. Here we investigated whether the investment in male relative to female reproduction differed between hermaphroditic host plants with versus without a maternally inherited fungal symbiont. Plants with the fungus produced more seeds and less pollen than plants lacking the fungus, resulting in an ~40% shift in functional gender and a switch from male-biased to female-biased sex allocation. Given the ubiquity of endophytes in plants, reproductive manipulators of hermaphrodites may be widespread in nature.

  2. Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Marissa L; Gaines, Steven D; Nisbet, Roger M

    2009-01-01

    Given climate change, thermal stress-related mass coral-bleaching events present one of the greatest anthropogenic threats to coral reefs. While corals and their symbiotic algae may respond to future temperatures through genetic adaptation and shifts in community compositions, the climate may change too rapidly for coral response. To test this potential for response, here we develop a model of coral and symbiont ecological dynamics and symbiont evolutionary dynamics. Model results without variation in symbiont thermal tolerance predict coral reef collapse within decades under multiple future climate scenarios, consistent with previous threshold-based predictions. However, model results with genetic or community-level variation in symbiont thermal tolerance can predict coral reef persistence into the next century, provided low enough greenhouse gas emissions occur. Therefore, the level of greenhouse gas emissions will have a significant effect on the future of coral reefs, and accounting for biodiversity and biological dynamics is vital to estimating the size of this effect.

  3. Symbiont Acquisition and Replacement as a Source of Ecological Innovation.

    PubMed

    Sudakaran, Sailendharan; Kost, Christian; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-03-20

    Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood. Here we review the known ecological and evolutionary implications of symbiont gains, switches, and replacements, and identify future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of symbiosis as a major driving force of ecological adaptation.

  4. A New Paradigm for the Iraq Police: Applying Community-Oriented Policing to Iraqi Police Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    challenge of transforming themselves from an institution that served the state to an institution that serves the people . They have so far failed to achieve...challenge of transforming themselves from an institution that served the state to an institution that serves the people . They have so far failed to...The Iraqi Police face the challenge of transforming themselves from an institution that served the state to an institution that serves the people . They

  5. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  6. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  7. Police Attitudes toward Policing Partner Violence against Women: Do They Correspond to Different Psychosocial Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Enrique; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered--one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the…

  8. Why Community Oriented Policing Has Failed and the Rise of Policing through Practical Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Justice (www.usdoj.gov), Community Policing is defined as: "The focus on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances…

  9. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing through Education for Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-01-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce…

  10. Tracking Transmission of Apicomplexan Symbionts in Diverse Caribbean Corals

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Nathan L.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Miller, Margaret W.; Fogarty, Nicole D.; Santos, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Symbionts in each generation are transmitted to new host individuals either vertically (parent to offspring), horizontally (from exogenous sources), or a combination of both. Scleractinian corals make an excellent study system for understanding patterns of symbiont transmission since they harbor diverse symbionts and possess distinct reproductive modes of either internal brooding or external broadcast spawning that generally correlate with vertical or horizontal transmission, respectively. Here, we focused on the under-recognized, but apparently widespread, coral-associated apicomplexans (Protista: Alveolata) to determine if symbiont transmission depends on host reproductive mode. Specifically, a PCR-based assay was utilized towards identifying whether planula larvae and reproductive adults from brooding and broadcast spawning scleractinian coral species in Florida and Belize harbored apicomplexan DNA. Nearly all (85.5%; n = 85/89) examined planulae of five brooding species (Porites astreoides, Agaricia tenuifolia, Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragum, Mycetophyllia ferox) and adults of P. astreoides were positive for apicomplexan DNA. In contrast, no (n = 0/10) apicomplexan DNA was detected from planulae of four broadcast spawning species (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata, Pseudodiploria strigosa, and Orbicella faveolata) and rarely in gametes (8.9%; n = 5/56) of these species sampled from the same geographical range as the brooding species. In contrast, tissue samples from nearly all (92.0%; n = 81/88) adults of the broadcast spawning species A. cervicornis, A. palmata and O. faveolata harbored apicomplexan DNA, including colonies whose gametes and planulae tested negative for these symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest apicomplexans are transmitted vertically in these brooding scleractinian coral species while the broadcast spawning scleractinian species examined here acquire these symbionts horizontally. Notably, these transmission patterns are

  11. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally

  12. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kerry M; Noge, Koji; Huang, Emma M; Campos, Jaime M; Becerra, Judith X; Hunter, Martha S

    2012-02-24

    Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally, our results indicate that

  13. Vertically transmitted symbionts as mechanisms of transgenerational effects.

    PubMed

    Gundel, Pedro E; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Whitney, Kenneth D

    2017-05-01

    A transgenerational effect occurs when a biotic or abiotic environmental factor acts on a parental individual and thereby affects the phenotype of progeny. Due to the importance of transgenerational effects for understanding plant ecology and evolution, their underlying mechanisms are of general interest. Here, we introduce the concept that inherited symbiotic microorganisms could act as mechanisms of transgenerational effects in plants. We define the criteria required to demonstrate that transgenerational effects are microbially mediated and review evidence from the well-studied, vertically transmitted plant-fungal symbiosis (grass-Epichloë spp.) in support of such effects. We also propose a basic experimental design to test for the presence of adaptive transgenerational effects mediated by plant symbionts. An increasingly large body of literature shows that vertically transmitted microorganisms are common in plants, with potential to affect the phenotypes and fitness of progeny. Transgenerational effects could occur via parental modification of symbiont presence/absence, symbiont load, symbiont products, symbiont genotype or species composition, or symbiont priming. Several of these mechanisms appear likely in the grass-Epichloë endophytic symbiosis, as there is variation in the proportion of the progeny that carries the fungus, as well as variation in concentrations of mycelia and secondary compounds (alkaloids and osmolytes) in the seed. Symbiont-mediated transgenerational effects could be common in plants and could play large roles in plant adaptation to changing environments, but definitive tests are needed. We hope our contribution will spark new lines of research on the transgenerational effects of vertically transmitted symbionts in plants. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Bacterial Symbionts of a Devastating Coffee Plant Pest, the Stinkbug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Serracin, Mario; Tulgetske, Genet M.; Miller, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Stinkbugs of the genus Antestiopsis, so-called antestia bugs or variegated coffee bugs, are notorious pests of coffee plants in Africa. We investigated the symbiotic bacteria associated with Antestiopsis thunbergii, a major coffee plant pest in Rwanda. PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of bacterial genes identified four distinct bacterial lineages associated with A. thunbergii: a gammaproteobacterial gut symbiont and symbionts representing the genera Sodalis, Spiroplasma, and Rickettsia. In situ hybridization showed that the gut symbiont densely occupied the lumen of midgut crypts, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont sparsely and sporadically infected various cells and tissues. Diagnostic PCR survey of 154 A. thunbergii individuals collected at 8 localities in Rwanda revealed high infection frequencies (100% for the gut symbiont, 51.3% for the Sodalis symbiont, 52.6% for the Spiroplasma symbiont, and 24.0% for the Rickettsia symbiont). These results suggest that the gut symbiont is the primary symbiotic associate of obligate nature for A. thunbergii, whereas the Sodalis symbiont, the Spiroplasma symbiont, and the Rickettsia symbiont are the secondary symbiotic associates of facultative nature. We observed high coinfection frequencies, i.e., 7.8% of individuals with quadruple infection with all the symbionts, 32.5% with triple infections with the gut symbiont and two of the secondary symbionts, and 39.6% with double infections with the gut symbiont and any of the three secondary symbionts, which were statistically not different from the expected coinfection frequencies and probably reflected random associations. The knowledge of symbiotic microbiota in A. thunbergii will provide useful background information for controlling this devastating coffee plant pest. PMID:24727277

  15. Symbiont modulates expression of specific gene categories in Angomonas deanei

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Luciana Loureiro; Hoffmann, Luísa; de Souza, Silvanna Sant’Anna; Martins, Allan Cézar de Azevedo; Bottaro, Thayane; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Faffe, Débora Souza; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Ürményi, Turán Péter; Silva, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are parasites that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants. Most are non-pathogenic and some harbor a symbiotic bacterium. Endosymbiosis is part of the evolutionary process of vital cell functions such as respiration and photosynthesis. Angomonas deanei is an example of a symbiont-containing trypanosomatid. In this paper, we sought to investigate how symbionts influence host cells by characterising and comparing the transcriptomes of the symbiont-containing A. deanei (wild type) and the symbiont-free aposymbiotic strains. The comparison revealed that the presence of the symbiont modulates several differentially expressed genes. Empirical analysis of differential gene expression showed that 216 of the 7625 modulated genes were significantly changed. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the largest categories of genes that downregulated in the absence of the symbiont were those involved in oxidation-reduction process, ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport and glycolysis. In contrast, among the upregulated gene categories were those involved in proteolysis, microtubule-based movement, and cellular metabolic process. Our results provide valuable information for dissecting the mechanism of endosymbiosis in A. deanei. PMID:27706380

  16. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-07-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host-microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host-symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont.

  17. Police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women: do they correspond to different psychosocial profiles?

    PubMed

    Gracia, Enrique; García, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered-one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the offender) and the other reflecting a general preference for unconditional law enforcement (regardless of the victim's willingness to press charges against the offender). Results from a sample of 378 police officers showed that those police officers who expressed a general preference for unconditional law enforcement scored higher in other-oriented empathy, were less sexist, tended to perceive the same incidents of partner violence as more serious, and felt more personally responsible, as compared to the group of police officers who expressed a preference for a conditional law enforcement approach. Implications for police education are considered.

  18. A History of the Houston Police Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas A.

    The story of the Houston (Texas) Police Department is a study of times and changes in the fourth largest city in the United States. This history of the Houston Police Department (HPD) examines the Department's beginnings in 1837. The HPD hired its first black officers in 1873. The Department purchased its first patrol car in 1910. In 1930 the…

  19. Implementing a Community-Oriented Policing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)

  20. The Professions, the Police, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Gordon

    In presenting a forecast of the emergence of the police profession using a sociological approach based on societal processes and relations, both the discussion of professionalization of the police in the bourgeois literature and a more general discussion of the professions by Talcott Parsons, taken as the foremost structural-functional theorist of…

  1. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  2. Police Management Guidelines for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapke, Robert A.

    The importance of the rural police function is likely to mount due to increasing urban to rural migration and a climbing crime rate (up as much as 30 percent in some parts of the midwest). Although 92 percent of police departments in the U.S. are comprised of less than 10 officers, there is little information available on the organization and…

  3. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  4. Proactive Policing by Post and Community Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famega, Christine N.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected through social observations of 188 police officer shifts, the current research examines the time allocated to proactive and reactive activities by traditional and community police officers to assess (a) the extent to which post officers engage in proactive activities, (b) whether these activities differ from the (proactive)…

  5. Implementing a Community-Oriented Policing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)

  6. Schools, Discipline, and the Uniformed Police Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Traci R.; Murrell, Jim

    1995-01-01

    The presence of a uniformed police officer at a suburban Tennessee high school has benefited both staff and students. The policewoman receives full cooperation from all staff--custodians, teachers, secretaries, and principals. The school uses community policing, which consists of getting to know the public and finding out where they need help.…

  7. Police Crisis Intervention. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterman, Thomas, Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses attention on the techniques and training methods used by police during family crisis intervention. The introduction emphasizes the importance of this special aspect of police training, and mentions the different possible target audiences such programs may have: they may be directed to all recruits, to all…

  8. Cheating in the Classroom: Beyond Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…

  9. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    PubMed

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  10. Quality or quantity: is nutrient transfer driven more by symbiont identity and productivity than by symbiont abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher J; Thacker, Robert W; Baker, David M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2013-01-01

    By forming symbiotic interactions with microbes, many animals and plants gain access to the products of novel metabolic pathways. We investigated the transfer of symbiont-derived carbon and nitrogen to the sponges Aplysina cauliformis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrilla caribensis, Neopetrosia subtriangularis and Xestospongia bocatorensis, all of which host abundant microbial populations, and Niphates erecta, which hosts a sparse symbiont community. We incubated sponges in light and dark bottles containing seawater spiked with 13C- and 15N-enriched inorganic compounds and then measured 13C and 15N enrichment in the microbial (nutrient assimilation) and sponge (nutrient transfer) fractions. Surprisingly, although most sponges hosting abundant microbial communities were more enriched in 13C than N. erecta, only N. subtriangularis was more enriched in 15N than N. erecta. Although photosymbiont abundance varied substantially across species, 13C and 15N enrichment was not significantly correlated with photosymbiont abundance. Enrichment was significantly correlated with the ratio of gross productivity to respiration (P:R), which varied across host species and symbiont phylotype. Because irradiance impacts P:R ratios, we also incubated A. cauliformis in 13C-enriched seawater under different irradiances to determine whether symbiont carbon fixation and transfer are dependent on irradiance. Carbon fixation and transfer to the sponge host occurred in all treatments, but was greatest at higher irradiances and was significantly correlated with P:R ratios. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nutrient transfer from microbial symbionts to host sponges is influenced more by host–symbiont identities and P:R ratios than by symbiont abundance. PMID:23407307

  11. Hitchhiking of host biology by beneficial symbionts enhances transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Cruciger, Michael; Dacks, Andrew M.; Rio, Rita V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission plays a key role in the evolution of symbiosis. Mixed mode transmission combines horizontal and vertical mechanisms for symbiont acquisition. However, features that enable mixed transmission are poorly understood. Here, we determine the mechanistic basis for the recruitment of the beneficial bacterium, Aeromonas veronii by the leech, Hirudo verbana. We demonstrate that host mucosal secretions complement imperfect symbiont vertical transmission. First, we show that the A. veronii population within secretions originates from the host digestive tract and proliferates synchronously with shedding frequency, demonstrating the coupling of partner biology. Furthermore, leeches are attracted to these castings with oral contact proving sufficient for symbiont transmission. Leech attraction to mucus is not affected by the symbiont state of either the host or mucus, suggesting that A. veronii exploits preexisting host behavior and physiological traits. A dual transmission mode, integrating multiple layers of host contributions, may prove evolutionarily advantageous for a wide range of symbioses. Using such a strategy, host infection is ensured, while also providing access to a higher genetic diversity of symbionts. Countless host-associated microbes exhibit mixed mode transmission, supporting the use of the leech symbiosis as a model for enhancing our understanding of the specificity, establishment and persistence of microbiotas. PMID:25059557

  12. Sex affects the infection frequencies of symbionts in Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huipeng; Li, Xianchun; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    While biotype, host plant and geographical location are known to affect the infection dynamics of the six secondary symbionts (S-symbionts) including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea in Bemisia tabaci, it remains unclear whether sex of B. tabaci has an impact on the infection frequencies of the six S-symbionts. To address this issue, gene-specific PCR were conducted to screen for the presence of the six S-symbionts in five host plant-adapted laboratory sub-populations with the same genetic background. Significant variations were exhibited in the infection rates of Rickettsia, Cardinium, Rickettsia + Hamiltonella (RH), Rickettsia + Cardinium (RC), Hamiltonella + Cardinium (HC) and Rickettsia + Hamiltonella + Cardinium (RHC) among the five host plant-adapted sub-populations. Moreover, Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, Cardinium, RH, RC, HC and RHC were present at a significantly higher frequency in the females than in the males of the five host plant-adapted sub-populations. This indicates that sex is another important factor affecting the population dynamics of S-symbionts in B. tabaci. PMID:23060956

  13. Symbiont transmission entails the risk of parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Hassan; Onchuru, Thomas O.; Bauer, Eugen; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Like many animals, firebugs (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) rely on behavioural adaptations to successfully endow their offspring with microbial mutualists. To transmit the nutritionally beneficial Coriobacteriaceae symbionts, female firebugs smear egg surfaces with symbiont-containing faecal droplets that are subsequently ingested by newly hatched nymphs through active probing to initiate infection. Alternatively, the symbionts can be acquired horizontally through contact with faeces of infected conspecifics. Here, we report that these adaptations ensuring successful transmission of bacterial symbionts among firebugs are exploited by the specialized trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. Using comparative transcriptomics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and controlled bioassays, we demonstrate that the transmission cycle of L. pyrrhocoris mirrors that of the bacterial mutualists, with high efficiency for both vertical and horizontal transmission. This indicates that the parasite capitalizes on pre-existing behavioural adaptations (egg smearing and probing) to facilitate its own transfer within host populations, adaptations that likely evolved to initiate and maintain an association with beneficial gut symbionts. Thus, the transmission of mutualistic microbes across host generations can entail a significant risk of co-transmitting pathogens or parasites, thereby exerting selective pressures on the host to evolve more specific mechanisms of transfer. PMID:26673937

  14. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, David Kamanda; Miyake, Sou; Cahill, Matt; Vinu, Manikandan; Hackmann, Timothy J; Blom, Jochen; Tietbohl, Matthew D; Berumen, Michael L; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-09-05

    Herbivorous surgeonfishes are an ecologically successful group of reef fish that rely on marine algae as their principal food source. Here, we elucidated the significance of giant enteric symbionts colonizing these fishes regarding their roles in the digestive processes of hosts feeding predominantly on polysiphonous red algae and brown Turbinaria algae, which contain different polysaccharide constituents. Using metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and metatranscriptomic analyses, we provide evidence of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial herbivores. Over 90% of the enzymes for deconstructing algal polysaccharides emanate from members of a single bacterial lineage, "Candidatus Epulopiscium" and related giant bacteria. These symbionts lack cellulases but encode a distinctive and lineage-specific array of mostly intracellular carbohydrases concurrent with the unique and tractable dietary resources of their hosts. Importantly, enzymes initiating the breakdown of the abundant and complex algal polysaccharides also originate from these symbionts. These are also highly transcribed and peak according to the diel lifestyle of their host, further supporting their importance and host-symbiont cospeciation. Because of their distinctive genomic blueprint, we propose the classification of these giant bacteria into three candidate genera. Collectively, our findings show that the acquisition of metabolically distinct "Epulopiscium" symbionts in hosts feeding on compositionally varied algal diets is a key niche-partitioning driver in the nutritional ecology of herbivorous surgeonfishes.

  15. Factors limiting the spread of the protective symbiont HAMILTONELLA DEFENSA in the aphid APHIS CRACCIVORA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many insects are associated with heritable facultative symbionts that mediate important ecological interactions, including host protection against natural enemies. Despite such benefits, facultative symbionts are commonly found at intermediate frequencies in surveyed populations. The cowpea aphid,...

  16. FTO Views on the Community Policing Skills of Probationary Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Community policing is an approach to policing that goes beyond responding to emergency calls and incorporates the needs of specific communities into the entire fabric of the police force. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has made changes at the level of training to proactively create a more professional and community-oriented police…

  17. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  18. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  19. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  20. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  1. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations...

  2. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military...

  3. FTO Views on the Community Policing Skills of Probationary Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Community policing is an approach to policing that goes beyond responding to emergency calls and incorporates the needs of specific communities into the entire fabric of the police force. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has made changes at the level of training to proactively create a more professional and community-oriented police…

  4. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...

  5. The rules for symbiont community assembly change along a mutualism-parasitism continuum.

    PubMed

    Skelton, James; Doak, Sam; Leonard, Meredith; Creed, Robert P; Brown, Bryan L

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont community assembly is driven by host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions. The effects that symbionts exert on their hosts are often context-dependent, and existing theoretical frameworks of symbiont community assembly do not consider the implications of variable outcomes to assembly processes. We hypothesized that symbiont-symbiont interactions become increasingly important along a parasitism/mutualism continuum because; (i) negative outcomes favour host resistance which in turn reduces symbiont colonization and subsequently reduce symbiont-symbiont interactions, whereas (ii) positive host outcomes favour tolerance and consequently higher symbiont colonization rates, leading to stronger interactions among symbionts. We found support for this hypothesis in the cleaning symbiosis between crayfish and ectosymbiotic branchiobdellidan worms. The symbiosis between crayfish and their worms can shift from parasitism/commensalism to mutualism as crayfish age. Here, field surveys identified changes in worm density, diversity and composition that were concomitant to changing symbiosis outcomes. We conducted several laboratory experiments and behavioural assays to relate patterns from the field to their likely causal processes. Young crayfish typically hosted only two relatively small worm species. Older crayfish hosted two additional larger species. In laboratory experiments, young crayfish exhibited a directed grooming response to all worm species, but were unable to remove small species. Conversely, adult crayfish did not exhibit grooming responses to any worm species. Relaxed grooming allowed the colonization of large worm species and initiated symbiont-symbiont intraguild predation that reduced the abundance and altered the behaviour of small worm species. Thus, the dominant processes of symbiont community assembly shifted from host resistance to symbiont-symbiont interactions through host ontogeny and a concomitant transition towards mutualism. This work

  6. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  7. Adaptation via symbiosis: recent spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont.

    PubMed

    Jaenike, John; Unckless, Robert; Cockburn, Sarah N; Boelio, Lisa M; Perlman, Steve J

    2010-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that some plants and animals harbor microbial symbionts that protect them against natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that a maternally transmitted bacterium, Spiroplasma, protects Drosophila neotestacea against the sterilizing effects of a parasitic nematode, both in the laboratory and the field. This nematode parasitizes D. neotestacea at high frequencies in natural populations, and, until recently, almost all infections resulted in complete sterility. Several lines of evidence suggest that Spiroplasma is spreading in North American populations of D. neotestacea and that a major adaptive change to a symbiont-based mode of defense is under way. These findings demonstrate the profound and potentially rapid effects of defensive symbionts, which are increasingly recognized as major players in the ecology of species interactions.

  8. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls.

  9. Policing Matters: Addressing the Controversial Issue of Policing Through Education for Reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Mella

    2009-05-01

    Policing is widely held to constitute a contentious issue in classrooms on both sides of the border on the island of Ireland, despite the fact that the ongoing peace process has led to a normalising of cross-border policing relationships. The Education for Reconciliation Project works with teachers and members of the two police services to produce teaching/learning modules on law and policing for use in Citizenship Education classrooms. This paper examines the commonly-held teacher perception of policing as a controversial issue and the reasons why these perceptions exist. It takes into consideration the opinion that it is time for schools to begin work on policing, and investigates the implications for practice.

  10. Features governing symbiont persistence in the squid-vibrio association

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Eric J.; Miyashiro, Tim; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction between host and symbiont in a maturing symbiotic organ have presented a challenge for most animal-bacterial associations. Advances in the rearing of the host squid Euprymna scolopes have enabled us to explore the relationship between a defect in symbiont light production and late-stage development (e.g., symbiont persistence and tissue morphogenesis) by experimental colonization with specific strains of the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. During the first four weeks post-inoculation of juvenile squid, the population of wild-type V. fischeri increased 100-fold; in contrast, a strain defective in light production (Δlux) colonized normally the first day, but exhibited an exponential decline to undetectable levels over subsequent weeks. Co-colonization of organs by both strains affected neither the trajectory of colonization by wild type, nor the decline of Δlux levels. Uninfected animals retained the ability to be colonized for at least two weeks post-hatch. However, once colonized by the wild-type strain for 5 days, a subsequent experimentally induced loss of the symbionts could not be followed by a successful recolonization, indicating the host’s entry into a refractory state. However, animals colonized by the Δlux before the loss of their symbionts were receptive to recolonization. Analyses of animals colonized with either a wild-type or a Δlux strain revealed slight, if any, differences in the developmental regression of the ciliated light-organ tissues that facilitate the colonization process. Thus, some other feature(s) of the Δlux strain’s defect also may be responsible for its inability to persist, and its failure to induce a refractory state in the host. PMID:24118200

  11. A Systemic Analysis of the Challenges of Policing Senegal: The Role of the Police in Democracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    foundation for Deflems’ historical and sociological analysis of police in based on the work of Max Weber. The role of the police is thus highly...structuralized and, although not specific to Africa, offers much insight. He offers three propositions based on Webers’ notion of bureaucracy and...politics in which shifts in structure and motivation can lead to lasting and meaningful reform in the Senegalese police. This section also describes some

  12. Long‑term ungulate exclusion reduces fungal symbiont prevalence in native grasslands

    Treesearch

    Jennifer A. Rudgers; Rebecca A. Fletcher; Eric Olivas; Carolyn A. Young; Nikki D. Charlton; Dean E. Pearson; John L. Maron

    2016-01-01

    When symbionts are inherited by offspring, they can have substantial ecological and evolutionary consequences because they occur in all host life stages. Although natural frequencies of inherited symbionts are commonly <100 %, few studies investigate the ecological drivers of variation in symbiont prevalence. In plants, inherited fungal endophytes can...

  13. Evolutionary replacement of obligate symbionts in an ancient and diverse insect lineage.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryuichi; Bennett, Gordon M; Cryan, Jason R; Moran, Nancy A

    2013-07-01

    Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a transitional stage in the evolutionary succession of symbioses. Phylogenetic analyses including symbionts of other Auchenorrhyncha lineages suggest that Zinderia, like Sulcia, descends from an ancestral symbiont present in the common ancestor of Auchenorrhyncha. This betaproteobacterial symbiont has been repeatedly replaced by other symbionts, such as the Sodalis-like symbiont of spittlebugs. Symbiont replacement may offer a route for hosts to escape dependence on an ancient, degraded and potentially inefficient symbiont. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Moving Toward the Future of Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    enforcement), see Bayer , 2010. Framing the Future 7 comparing mentions of al Qaeda in global publications to fatalities from terrorism, including...was working, Harry Raymond , was also bombed. Two Los Angeles police officers were convicted in the bombing (“California: Reform Over Los Angeles... Bayer , Michael D., The Blue Planet: Informal International Police Networks and National Intelligence, Washington, D.C.: NDIC Press, 2010. As of May

  16. Symbiont-induced odorant binding proteins mediate insect host hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B; Vigneron, Aurélien; Broderick, Nichole A; Wu, Yineng; Sun, Jennifer S; Carlson, John R; Aksoy, Serap; Weiss, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria assist in maintaining homeostasis of the animal immune system. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiont-mediated host immunity are largely unknown. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house maternally transmitted symbionts that regulate the development and function of their host’s immune system. Herein we demonstrate that the obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, up-regulates expression of odorant binding protein six in the gut of intrauterine tsetse larvae. This process is necessary and sufficient to induce systemic expression of the hematopoietic RUNX transcription factor lozenge and the subsequent production of crystal cells, which actuate the melanotic immune response in adult tsetse. Larval Drosophila’s indigenous microbiota, which is acquired from the environment, regulates an orthologous hematopoietic pathway in their host. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie enteric symbiont-stimulated systemic immune system development, and indicate that these processes are evolutionarily conserved despite the divergent nature of host-symbiont interactions in these model systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19535.001 PMID:28079523

  17. Reproductive Parasitism: Maternally Inherited Symbionts in a Biparental World

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Gregory D.D.; Frost, Crystal L.

    2015-01-01

    Most species of insect, and many other plants and animals, carry maternally heritable microorganisms—viruses, bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, and fungi that pass from a female host to her progeny. Maternal inheritance establishes a correlation between the fitness of symbiont and host female, which can select for the symbiont to contribute to host fitness. Nevertheless, its lack of transmission through male hosts places the symbiont in conflict with biparentally inherited nuclear genes. In this review, we first examine how this conflict is manifest in selection to promote the production and survival of infected female hosts and gametes. We then examine how the distorted population sex ratios that they produce may affect host reproductive ecology, and thus the intensity of other conflicts associated with sexual reproduction. Finally, we examine evolved host responses to symbiont manipulation. We argue that the unusual intensity of symbiont–host conflict generates extreme selection pressures that can drive changes in sex-determination systems, the basic pathway through which males and females are constructed. PMID:25934011

  18. Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Ailsa H. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae). We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found in pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants. We found that some H. defensa strains do provide protection against an aphelinid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. Hamiltonella defensa from the Lotus biotype provided high resistance to A. abdominalis and moderate to low resistance to Aphidius ervi, while the reverse was seen from Medicago biotype isolates. Aphids from Ononis showed no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against either wasp species and were relatively vulnerable to both. Our results may reflect the different selection pressures exerted by the parasitoid community on aphids feeding on different host plants, and could help explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial symbionts. PMID:26136451

  19. A nuptially transmitted Ichthyosproean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional...

  20. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po€oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  1. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po0oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  2. Ankyrin-repeat proteins from sponge symbionts modulate amoebal phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mary T H D; Liu, Michael; Thomas, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-eukaryote symbiosis occurs in all stages of evolution, from simple amoebae to mammals, and from facultative to obligate associations. Sponges are ancient metazoans that form intimate symbiotic interactions with complex communities of bacteria. The basic nutritional requirements of the sponge are in part satisfied by the phagocytosis of bacterial food particles from the surrounding water. How bacterial symbionts, which are permanently associated with the sponge, survive in the presence of phagocytic cells is largely unknown. Here, we present the discovery of a genomic fragment from an uncultured gamma-proteobacterial sponge symbiont that encodes for four proteins, whose closest known relatives are found in a sponge genome. Through recombinant approaches, we show that these four eukaryotic-like, ankyrin-repeat proteins (ARP) when expressed in Eschericha coli can modulate phagocytosis of amoebal cells and lead to accumulation of bacteria in the phagosome. Mechanistically, two ARPs appear to interfere with phagosome development in a similar way to reduced vacuole acidification, by blocking the fusion of the early phagosome with the lysosome and its digestive enzymes. Our results show that ARP from sponge symbionts can function to interfere with phagocytosis, and we postulate that this might be one mechanism by which symbionts can escape digestion in a sponge host.

  3. Highly infectious symbiont dominates initial uptake in coral juveniles.

    PubMed

    Abrego, David; VAN Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2009-08-01

    The majority of reef-building corals acquire their obligate algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) from the environment. However, factors shaping the initial establishment of coral-algal symbioses, including parental effects, local environmental conditions and local availability of symbionts, are not well understood. This study monitored the uptake and maintenance of Symbiodinium in juveniles of two common corals, Acropora tenuis and Acropora millepora, that were reciprocally explanted between sites where adult colonies host different types of Symbiodinium. We found that coral juveniles were rapidly dominated by type D Symbiodinium, even though this type is not found in adult colonies (including the parental colonies) in four out of the five study populations. Furthermore, type D Symbiodinium was found in less than one-third of a wide range of coral species (n > 50) sampled at the two main study sites, suggesting that its dominance in the acroporid juveniles is not because it is the most abundant local endosymbiotic type. Moreover, dominance by type D was observed irrespective of the light intensity to which juveniles were exposed in a field study. In summary, despite its relatively low abundance in coral assemblages at the study sites and irrespective of the surrounding light environment, type D Symbiodinium is the main symbiont type initially acquired by juveniles of A. millepora and A. tenuis. We conclude that during early ontogeny in these corals, there are few barriers to the uptake of Symbiodinium types which differ from those found in parental colonies, resulting in dominance by a highly infectious and potentially opportunistic symbiont.

  4. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer between obligate leaf nodule symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Carbó, Marta; Sieber, Simon; Dessein, Steven; Wicker, Thomas; Verstraete, Brecht; Gademann, Karl; Eberl, Leo; Carlier, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia establish an obligate symbiosis with plant species of the Rubiaceae and Primulaceae families. The bacteria, housed within the leaves, are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured. We have sequenced and compared the genomes of eight bacterial leaf nodule symbionts of the Rubiaceae plant family. All of the genomes exhibit features consistent with genome erosion. Genes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of kirkamide, an insecticidal C7N aminocyclitol, are conserved in most Rubiaceae symbionts. However, some have partially lost the kirkamide pathway due to genome erosion and are unable to synthesize the compound. Kirkamide synthesis is therefore not responsible for the obligate nature of the symbiosis. More importantly, we find evidence of intra-clade horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events affecting genes of the secondary metabolism. This indicates that substantial gene flow can occur at the early stages following host restriction in leaf nodule symbioses. We propose that host-switching events and plasmid conjugative transfers could have promoted these HGTs. This genomic analysis of leaf nodule symbionts gives, for the first time, new insights in the genome evolution of obligate symbionts in their early stages of the association with plants. PMID:26978165

  5. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  6. Fungal symbionts alter plant responses to global change.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Emery, Sarah M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    While direct plant responses to global change have been well characterized, indirect plant responses to global change, via altered species interactions, have received less attention. Here, we examined how plants associated with four classes of fungal symbionts (class I leaf endophytes [EF], arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF], ectomycorrhizal fungi [ECM], and dark septate endophytes [DSE]) responded to four global change factors (enriched CO2, drought, N deposition, and warming). We performed a meta-analysis of 434 studies spanning 174 publications to search for generalizable trends in responses of plant-fungal symbioses to future environments. Specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1) Can fungal symbionts ameliorate responses of plants to global change? (2) Do fungal symbiont groups differ in the degree to which they modify plant response to global change? (3) Do particular global change factors affect plant-fungal symbioses more than others? In all global change scenarios, except elevated CO2, fungal symbionts significantly altered plant responses to global change. In most cases, fungal symbionts increased plant biomass in response to global change. However, increased N deposition reduced the benefits of symbiosis. Of the global change factors we considered, drought and N deposition resulted in the strongest fungal mediation of plant responses. Our analysis highlighted gaps in current knowledge for responses of particular fungal groups and revealed the importance of considering not only the nonadditive effects of multiple global change factors, but also the interactive effects of multiple fungal symbioses. Our results show that considering plant-fungal symbioses is critical to predicting ecosystem response to global change.

  7. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  8. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Police Officers in Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Idris

    2011-01-01

    A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…

  9. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  10. Occupational colour vision requirements for police officers.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jennifer; Chisholm, Catharine M

    2008-11-01

    Inclusion of public service professions in the UK Disability Discrimination Act in 2004 prompted a review of occupational colour vision requirements for police officers. Changes in the regulations which existed prior to 2003 were proposed. The aim of this study was to obtain the views of serving police officers in Northern Ireland on the importance of good colour discrimination in everyday police work and on the recruitment regulations for patrol constables introduced in 2003 in mainland UK. These views were obtained by means of a questionnaire and informal discussions. More than 65% of police officers who responded to the questionnaire considered that good colour vision was very important for effective policing. Fewer than 2% considered that colour vision was unimportant. Experienced police officers agreed that the employment of colour-deficient patrol constables, as permitted in the new regulations, would lead to reduced efficiency and organisational difficulties at the local level. A number of everyday activities were described which showed the need for accurate colour discrimination. The change in recruitment policy and the lack of clarity in the new regulations show inadequate appreciation of the needs of the occupation, of different types of colour vision anomalies and of the diagnostic function of colour vision tests. Failure to provide guidance on appropriate colour vision tests, examination procedures and counselling services is likely to result in inconsistent employment policies in different police forces. It is recommended that the colour vision standard in place prior to 2003 is reinstated at the recruitment stage. The Ishihara test should be used for screening, and colour-deficient applicants further examined with the Farnsworth D15 test as a replacement for the City University Test 2nd edition.

  11. Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K; Fekedulegn, Desta; Li, Shengqiao; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-09-10

    This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = -0.273, P = .04). This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus.

  13. The Epidemiology of Cancer Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael; Vena, John E.; Smith, Emily K.; Bauer, Sarah E.; Violanti, John; Burch, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This review summarizes peer-reviewed studies examining cancer risks among police officers. It provides an overview of existing research limitations and uncertainties and the plausible etiologic risk factors associated with cancer in this understudied occupation. Methods Previous cancer studies among police officers were obtained via a systematic review of the MEDLINE, CABDirect, and Web of Science bibliographic databases. Results Quality observational studies of cancer among police officers are sparse and subject to limitations in exposure assessment and other methods. Results from three studies suggested possible increased mortality risks for all cancers, and cancers of the colon, kidney, digestive system, esophagus, male breast, and testis, as well as Hodgkin’s disease. Few incidence studies have been performed, and results have been mixed, although some associations with police work have been observed for thyroid, skin, and male breast cancer. Conclusions Police are exposed to a mix of known or suspected agents or activities that increase cancer risk. Epidemiologic evidence to date is sparse and inconsistent. There is a critical need for more research to understand the biological and social processes underlying exposures and the suggested disproportionate risks and to identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:23255299

  14. Alcohol and tobacco consumption among police officers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Devine, Sue; Leggat, Peter A; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    Police occupy an important position within the community as both enforcers of the law and as role models for appropriate behavior. Despite this interesting juxtaposition, research has shown that they may consume alcohol and tobacco at rates higher than the general population. A significant causal factor is occupational stress, and the fact that police are regularly exposed to stressors beyond the range of normal human experiences. Given this ongoing and unavoidable relationship, the recognition and control of stress is paramount within law enforcement. Because police stressors are usually multi-faceted, health promotion interventions should focus on stress-reduction at both the institutional and individual level. Examples of health promotion strategies may include reducing overtime, carefully organizing shift rosters, streamlining administrative processes and allowing rest breaks for those on the night-shift. Interventions which focus on the individual are also important, because excess alcohol and tobacco consumption levels often relate to individual stress-coping mechanisms. Programs to help recognize and prevent excess alcohol and tobacco consumption may be worthwhile, as too, counseling, interpersonal support and critical incident debriefing. Promoting non-drinking and non-smoking stress-reduction activities where police can socialize and de-brief with their colleagues may be beneficial. Encouraging social events at sports clubs and gymnasiums has also been suggested. In order to achieve these goals however, governments will need to place a greater emphasis on the occupational health of police officers and the law enforcement agencies in which they work.

  15. Police investigations: discretion denied yet undeniably exercised

    PubMed Central

    Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2014-01-01

    Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482

  16. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum” and secondary symbiont “Ca. Hamiltonella defensa” as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  17. Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Irmgard; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Schmid, Markus; Fisher, Charles R; Bright, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The siboglinid tubeworm Sclerolinum contortum symbiosis inhabits sulfidic sediments at deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. A single symbiont phylotype in the symbiont-housing organ is inferred from phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) gene and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The phylotype we studied here, and a previous study from an arctic hydrocarbon seep population, reveal identical 16S rRNA symbiont gene sequences. While sulfide is apparently the energy source for the symbionts (and ultimately the gutless host), both partners also have to cope with its toxicity. This study demonstrates abundant large sulfur crystals restricted to the trophosome area. Based on Raman microspectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, these crystals have the same S8 sulfur configuration as the recently described small sulfur vesicles formed in the symbionts. The crystals reside adjacent to the symbionts in the trophosome. This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts. We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues. This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts. PMID:24992535

  18. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    PubMed

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid.

  19. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  20. POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POLICE STATION LOOKING SOUTH WEST, HOSPITAL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Police and Voluntary Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  1. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait.

  2. A nuptially transmitted ichthyosporean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Hartzer, Kris L; Kambhampati, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional penetration of the lobes. Spores are enveloped in the spermatophores when they are formed at the time of mating and transferred to the female's bursa copulatrix. Infection has not been found in the ovaries. The sequence of the nuclear small subunit rDNA indicates that the symbiont is a member of the Ichthyosporea, a class of protists near the animal-fungi divergence. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  3. Defining host-symbiont collaboration in termite lignocellulose digestion

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Zachary J.; Sethi, Amit; Sen, Ruchira; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Boucias, Drion G.

    2011-01-01

    Termites have the unique ability to exploit lignocellulose as a primary nutrition source. Traditionally, termite lignocellulose digestion has been considered as a gut-symbiont-mediated process; however, in recent years the importance of host digestive capabilities have become apparent. Despite this growing understanding, how digestive enzymes from different origins specifically collaborate (i.e., additively or synergistically) has remained largely unknown. In a recent study, we undertook translational-genomic studies to address these questions in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and its symbiotic gut fauna. We used a combination of native gut tissue preparations and recombinant enzymes derived from the host gut transcriptome to identify synergistic collaborations between host and symbiont, and also among enzymes produced exclusively by the host termite. These findings provided important new evidence of synergistic collaboration among enzymes in the release of fermentable monosaccharides from wood lignocellulose, and laid a foundation for future integrative studies into termite digestion, symbiosis and eusociality. PMID:22446549

  4. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul R; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont "conspiracies" as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors.

  5. Host and Symbiont Jointly Control Gut Microbiota during Complete Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Paul R.; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo a radical anatomical re-organisation during metamorphosis. This poses a developmental challenge: the host must replace the larval gut but at the same time retain symbiotic gut microbes and avoid infection by opportunistic pathogens. By manipulating host immunity and bacterial competitive ability, we study how the host Galleria mellonella and the symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii interact to manage the composition of the microbiota during metamorphosis. Disenabling one or both symbiotic partners alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which incurs fitness costs: adult hosts with a gut microbiota dominated by pathogens such as Serratia and Staphylococcus die early. Our results reveal an interaction that guarantees the safe passage of the symbiont through metamorphosis and benefits the resulting adult host. Host-symbiont “conspiracies” as described here are almost certainly widespread in holometobolous insects including many disease vectors. PMID:26544881

  6. Symbiont acquisition as neoseme: origin of species and higher taxa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Margulis, L.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that, in the origin of species and higher taxa of eukaryotes, symbiont acquisition followed by partner integration has been equivalent to neoseme appearance leading to speciation. The formation of stable symbiotic associations involves partner-surface recognition, behavioral and metabolic interaction, and, in some cases, gene product (RNA, protein) and genic (RNA, DNA) integration. This analysis is applied here to examples of neosemes that define specific taxa and to neosemes in plants, fungi, and animals that involve the appearance of new types of tissue. If this hypothesis is correct--if the origin of major genetic variation leading to speciation and even higher taxa may occur through symbiont acquisition and integration--then the analysis of "origins of species and higher taxa" becomes analogous to the study of microbial community ecology.

  7. Symbiont acquisition as neoseme: origin of species and higher taxa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Margulis, L.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that, in the origin of species and higher taxa of eukaryotes, symbiont acquisition followed by partner integration has been equivalent to neoseme appearance leading to speciation. The formation of stable symbiotic associations involves partner-surface recognition, behavioral and metabolic interaction, and, in some cases, gene product (RNA, protein) and genic (RNA, DNA) integration. This analysis is applied here to examples of neosemes that define specific taxa and to neosemes in plants, fungi, and animals that involve the appearance of new types of tissue. If this hypothesis is correct--if the origin of major genetic variation leading to speciation and even higher taxa may occur through symbiont acquisition and integration--then the analysis of "origins of species and higher taxa" becomes analogous to the study of microbial community ecology.

  8. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, Beate M.; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  10. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  11. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  12. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... newspapers, and television stations, as well as public service announcements to local and college radio... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... groups; (4) Academic counseling departments within public and private nonprofit colleges and...

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  14. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  15. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  16. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  17. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  18. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  19. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  20. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation....

  1. Researchers Study Police Brutality against Hispanics and Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    Research on police brutality against ethnic groups is increasing, particularly in Latino communities. Findings suggest a pattern of abuse, often without evidence of a crime and without appropriate review of police action. It is suggested that abuse will abate only when police departments operate openly and undergo public scrutiny. (MSE)

  2. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  3. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  4. Improving Police Probationer Training through a Democratic Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davis, John Dwyfor

    2005-01-01

    Following a damning report on the state of police probationer training in England and Wales by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, entitled "Training Matters" (2002), the Home Office (2003), as part of its modernisation programme for the police service, decided that what police officers were required to know and learn to execute…

  5. A New Campus Police Agency: A Florida Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Campus policing is a geographically focused police practice and the epitome of community oriented policing. Campus law enforcement agencies deal not only with a racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse population, they also deal with populations that change dramatically every year. While some campuses are enclaves unto themselves, many are…

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of Police Suicide Rate Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violanti, John M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assesses sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of official police suicide rates and compares them to those of municipal workers. Official police suicide rates had less sensitivity (83.3% compared to 92.3%) of actual suicides than municipal worker rates. Police suicide rates also showed a lower negative proportion than municipal worker…

  7. Improving Police Probationer Training through a Democratic Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davis, John Dwyfor

    2005-01-01

    Following a damning report on the state of police probationer training in England and Wales by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary, entitled "Training Matters" (2002), the Home Office (2003), as part of its modernisation programme for the police service, decided that what police officers were required to know and learn to execute…

  8. Associations between Police Officer Stress and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Tara A.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Knox, Sarah S.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of police officer stress with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its individual components. Participants included 288 men and 102 women from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey. MetSyn was defined using 2005 guidelines. Results were stratified by gender. ANCOVA was used to describe differences in number of MetSyn components across police stress categories after adjusting for age and smoking status. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for having each MetSyn component by increased police stress levels. The multivariate-adjusted number of MetSyn components increased significantly in women across tertiles of the three perceived stress subscales, and administrative and organizational pressure and lack of support indices for the previous month. No association was found among male officers. Abdominal obesity and reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were consistently associated with police stress in women. Police stress, particularly organizational pressure and lack of support, was associated with MetSyn among female but not male police officers. Given the stress of policing and the adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors prevalent among police officers, exploring the association between specific types of police stress and subclinical CVD is important. PMID:22900458

  9. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  10. Neighborhood Context and Police Vigor: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, James J.; Wu, Yuning; Sun, Ivan Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a partial test of Klinger's ecological theory of police behavior using hierarchical linear modeling on 1,677 suspects who had encounters with police within 24 beats. The current study used data from four sources originally collected by the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), including systematic social observation,…

  11. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  12. Determinants of Police Behavior: A Summary. Criminal Justice Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruse, Daniel; Rubin, Jesse

    Presented in summary fashion, this pilot research project, conducted under the auspices of the Miami, Florida Police Department, was an outgrowth of the dual problems of deteriorating police-citizen relationships and escalating societal violence during recent years. The lack of empirical data on police behavior led to the project, limited in scope…

  13. Private security and municipal police: an atmosphere of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, John

    2002-01-01

    The author, a former deputy chief of police, discusses the importance of mutual cooperation between private and contract security and local police agencies. He discusses the steps he took to forge a bond between his hospital security staff and the local police department.

  14. Campus Community Policing: It All Started with Us...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Gary J.; March, Noel C.

    2008-01-01

    The first police in the United States to embrace the kind of community-focused policing that "modern" law enforcement embraces, and which was extolled by Sir Robert Peel in 1826, were the New Haven, Connecticut police officers hired by Yale University in 1894 to patrol and keep order on campus. Why did Yale not simply rely on the New…

  15. Police Training. A Selected Bibliography. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferry, John D., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Ed.

    This bibliography was compiled to highlight the literature on police training for police managers who are interested in expanding or improving their training programs. Following a section that describes how to obtain the documents, citations are presented in three sections. The first section, Overview of Police Training, contains citations related…

  16. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  17. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal offense...

  18. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, H.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

  19. Winding paths to simplicity: genome evolution in facultative insect symbionts.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Huang, Ya-Yi; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2016-11-01

    Symbiosis between organisms is an important driving force in evolution. Among the diverse relationships described, extensive progress has been made in insect–bacteria symbiosis, which improved our understanding of the genome evolution in host-associated bacteria. Particularly, investigations on several obligate mutualists have pushed the limits of what we know about the minimal genomes for sustaining cellular life. To bridge the gap between those obligate symbionts with extremely reduced genomes and their non-host-restricted ancestors, this review focuses on the recent progress in genome characterization of facultative insect symbionts. Notable cases representing various types and stages of host associations, including those from multiple genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria), Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) and Spiroplasma (Mollicutes), are discussed. Although several general patterns of genome reduction associated with the adoption of symbiotic relationships could be identified, extensive variation was found among these facultative symbionts. These findings are incorporated into the established conceptual frameworks to develop a more detailed evolutionary model for the discussion of possible trajectories. In summary, transitions from facultative to obligate symbiosis do not appear to be a universal one-way street; switches between hosts and lifestyles (e.g. commensalism, parasitism or mutualism) occur frequently and could be facilitated by horizontal gene transfer.

  20. Winding paths to simplicity: genome evolution in facultative insect symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Huang, Ya-Yi; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis between organisms is an important driving force in evolution. Among the diverse relationships described, extensive progress has been made in insect–bacteria symbiosis, which improved our understanding of the genome evolution in host-associated bacteria. Particularly, investigations on several obligate mutualists have pushed the limits of what we know about the minimal genomes for sustaining cellular life. To bridge the gap between those obligate symbionts with extremely reduced genomes and their non-host-restricted ancestors, this review focuses on the recent progress in genome characterization of facultative insect symbionts. Notable cases representing various types and stages of host associations, including those from multiple genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria), Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) and Spiroplasma (Mollicutes), are discussed. Although several general patterns of genome reduction associated with the adoption of symbiotic relationships could be identified, extensive variation was found among these facultative symbionts. These findings are incorporated into the established conceptual frameworks to develop a more detailed evolutionary model for the discussion of possible trajectories. In summary, transitions from facultative to obligate symbiosis do not appear to be a universal one-way street; switches between hosts and lifestyles (e.g. commensalism, parasitism or mutualism) occur frequently and could be facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:28204477

  1. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kirby, H; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

  2. Facultative bacterial symbionts in aphids confer resistance to parasitic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Kerry M.; Russell, Jacob A.; Moran, Nancy A.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2003-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between animals and microorganisms are common in nature, yet the factors controlling the abundance and distributions of symbionts are mostly unknown. Aphids have an obligate association with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola (the primary symbiont) that has been shown to contribute directly to aphid fitness. In addition, aphids sometimes harbor other vertically transmitted bacteria (secondary symbionts), for which few benefits of infection have been previously documented. We carried out experiments to determine the consequences of these facultative symbioses in Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) for vulnerability of the aphid host to a hymenopteran parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, a major natural enemy in field populations. Our results show that, in a controlled genetic background, infection confers resistance to parasitoid attack by causing high mortality of developing parasitoid larvae. Compared with uninfected controls, experimentally infected aphids were as likely to be attacked by ovipositing parasitoids but less likely to support parasitoid development. This strong interaction between a symbiotic bacterium and a host natural enemy provides a mechanism for the persistence and spread of symbiotic bacteria. PMID:12563031

  3. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects.

  4. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, H.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    Harold Kirby's brilliant principle of mastigont multiplicity is published here posthumously more than 40 years after it was written. He applies this principle to large multinucleate protist symbionts of termites in establishing the taxonomy of Calonymphids (Family Calonymphidae in Phylum Zoomastigina, Kingdom Protoctista). The nuclei and kinetosomes in these heterotrophic cells are organized into trichomonad-style mastigont units which reproduce independently of cytokinesis to generate nine new Calonympha and nineteen new Stephanonympha species. The total of six genera (Calonympha, Coronympha, Diplonympha, Metacoronympha, Snyderella and Stephanonympha, all symbionts of dry-wood-eating termites, Kalotermitidae) are recognized. With the aid of Michael Yamin, the distribution of all twenty-eight of Kirby's Calonympha and Stephanonympha species are tabulated. In italic type I have annotated this paper to be comprehensible to a wide readership of cell biologists, protistologists and those interested in insect symbionts. Although this extremely original and careful work was not finished when Kirby died suddenly in 1952, I deemed it important and complete enough to finally publish it so that it would not be lost to scientific posterity.

  5. Studying the Complex Communities of Ants and Their Symbionts Using Ecological Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivens, Aniek B F; von Beeren, Christoph; Blüthgen, Nico; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2016-01-01

    Ant colonies provide well-protected and resource-rich environments for a plethora of symbionts. Historically, most studies of ants and their symbionts have had a narrow taxonomic scope, often focusing on a single ant or symbiont species. Here we discuss the prospects of studying these assemblies in a community ecology context using the framework of ecological network analysis. We introduce three basic network metrics that we consider particularly relevant for improving our knowledge of ant-symbiont communities: interaction specificity, network modularity, and phylogenetic signal. We then discuss army ant symbionts as examples of large and primarily parasitic communities, and symbiotic sternorrhynchans as examples of generally smaller and primarily mutualistic communities in the context of these network analyses. We argue that this approach will provide new and complementary insights into the evolutionary and ecological dynamics between ants and their many associates, and will facilitate comparisons across different ant-symbiont assemblages as well as across different types of ecological networks.

  6. A Novel Extracellular Gut Symbiont in the Marine Worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) Reveals an Alphaproteobacterial Symbiont Clade of the Ecdysozoa

    PubMed Central

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Schramm, Andreas; Funch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over 8 years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, these symbionts comprise a novel genus of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified them as extracellular, elongate bacteria closely associated with the microvilli, for which we propose the name “Candidatus Tenuibacter priapulorum”. Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa, which may indicate an evolutionary adaptation of this bacterial group to the microvilli-lined guts of the Ecdysozoa. PMID:27199899

  7. Capitol Police: Administrative Improvements and Possible Merger With the Library of Congress Police

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    payroll. Capitol Police officials told GAO Treatment that their retirement benefits are inferior to those of other local lawenforcement organizations. On...the differences between House and Senate retirement provisions for members of the Force and provides for retirement that is comparable to local law...could be provided if a merger took place. Unionization Library Police privates are represented by union Local 2477 of the American Federation of State

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  9. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  10. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right…

  11. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  12. Sensational Roots: The Police Court Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Warren

    Part of a broader inquiry into "Investigative Exposure in the Nineteenth Century: The Journalistic Heritage of the Muckrakers," this study traces the evolving reportorial techniques and literary style that gave journalism its form--a form combining strengths and flaws, freedom and inhibitions. Before nineteenth century police court reporting was…

  13. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  14. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  15. Police officer attitudes towards intranasal naloxone training.

    PubMed

    Ray, Bradley; O'Donnell, Daniel; Kahre, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    One approach to reduce fatal opioid overdose is by distributing naloxone to law enforcement officers. While several cities have implemented these naloxone programs, little research has investigated officer attitudes about their training. The present research attempts to fill this gap by analyzing survey data from police officers following intranasal naloxone training. All of the police officers within the same district in Indianapolis, Indiana, underwent training to recognize opioid overdose and to administer intranasal naloxone (N=117). Following training, officers completed a survey that measured prior experience with opioid overdose, perceived importance of training, and items from the Opioid Overdose Attitudes Scale (OOAS) to measure attitudes following training. The officers had overwhelmingly positive feelings about the training, that it was not difficult, and that other officers should be trained to use naloxone. The OOAS items suggest that officers know the appropriate actions to take in the event of an overdose and feel that administering intranasal naloxone will not be difficult. Finally, we found that officers who had more experience with opioid overdose had more positive attitudes about the training. Distributing naloxone to police officers is likely a trend that will continue so it is important to understand how police officers respond to training to assure that future trainings are as effective as possible. Further research is needed to investigate the impact that these programs have on the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  17. Now & Then: Roger Whitmore, Police Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1995-01-01

    Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  19. Providing Security: The Strategic Importance of Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    legitimate monopoly on violence, gaining acceptance of the Kosovo Protection Corps ( KPC ) and establishing police presence backed by a perceived...KFOR forces remained the legitimate This idea of developing an integrated KPC was an integral part of the demobilization, demilitarization and

  20. Police Science Program Survey: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. National Origin Desegregation Project (LAU).

    A study, involving two independent surveys and a transcript analysis, was conducted to determine the background characteristics, attitudes, and needs of students enrolled in police science programs at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC). The first survey, which focused on personal characteristics and course enrollment data, was distributed in…

  1. New Careers Police-Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    Prepared under authority of the Economic Opportunity Act, this New Careers report offers suggestions on how police departments can improve relations with inner city disadvantaged residents (usually minority groups) by using hard core unemployed community members to close the information gap on both sides, provide community services, relieve the…

  2. [Health protection among urban police forces].

    PubMed

    Alovisi, F

    2006-01-01

    After paying homage to the guest Authorities and to the organizers of the meeting, the author briefly describes the main occupational risk factors of local police forces: ergonomic and postural agents, work with videoterminals, air pollution, noise, cold-humid climate, stress. In conclusion, the symbolic importance of the uniform and the related civil and moral responsibilities are recalled.

  3. Campus Police Benefit by Automating Training Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Making sure law enforcement officers are current with their professional training has always been a top priority of police departments whether they must protect a city or a college campus. However, as training has expanded with many new certification categories, tracking all of these for each officer has grown more complex. This has prompted many…

  4. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... criteria for JPEN: (1) Non-specific threats; (2) Surveillance; (3) Elicitation; (4) Tests of Security; (5) Repetitive Activities; (6) Bomb Threats/Incidents; and (7) Suspicious Activities/Incidents. (c) If a written... sharing police intelligence is the Joint Protection Enterprise Network (JPEN). JPEN provides users...

  5. 32 CFR 637.17 - Police Intelligence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... criteria for JPEN: (1) Non-specific threats; (2) Surveillance; (3) Elicitation; (4) Tests of Security; (5) Repetitive Activities; (6) Bomb Threats/Incidents; and (7) Suspicious Activities/Incidents. (c) If a written... sharing police intelligence is the Joint Protection Enterprise Network (JPEN). JPEN provides users...

  6. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed. PMID:24688864

  7. Police organizational stress: the impact of negative discipline.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the police organization is considered a difficult work stressor by officers. Of stress factors stemming from the police organization, excessive or unfair discipline rates high among rank and file officers. The police organization may be considered a punishment centered bureaucracy, where emphasis is placed on what is wrong and not on proper or laudatory behavior Although discipline is essential in critical occupations such as police work, it is important that such discipline be properly administered in order to avoid stress and feelings of organizational abandonment. This paper provides a general overview of present police organizational discipline prescriptions, and an example of an alternative positive-based discipline program.

  8. Police Encounters, Mental Illness and Injury: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Amy N.; Morabito, Melissa; Watson, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Police encounters are believed to be particularly dangerous for people with mental illness and police officers. Despite widespread concern among advocates, researchers and police professionals, little is known about the details of these interactions including the occurrence of injuries. In the current study, we explore injuries to people with mental illness and officers to determine the extent to which situational and individual factors predict injuries. Findings suggest that injuries during police calls involving persons with mental illness are infrequent and rarely require medical attention. Predictors of injuries in these calls are similar to those in police encounters with the general population. PMID:21113331

  9. Biparental transmission of Verminephrobacter symbionts in the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Paz, Laura-Carlota; Schramm, Andreas; Lund, Marie Braad

    2017-02-23

    Most lumbricid earthworms harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their excretory organs (nephridia). These symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, where they colonize the embryos. Despite cospeciation for >100 million years with their hosts, Verminephrobacter lack genome reduction and AT bias typical of evolutionary old, vertically transmitted symbionts, caused by recurring bottlenecks. We hypothesized that biparental symbiont transmission into the cocoon enabled genetic mixing and relieved the bottleneck, and tested biparental transmission experimentally for V. aporrectodeae subsp. tuberculata, the specific symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata, for which aposymbiotic worm lines are available. Virgin symbiotic and aposymbiotic adult worms were tagged, mated in pairs, separated before the start of cocoon production, and their offspring assessed for Verminephrobacter. Specific PCR detected the symbionts in 41.5% of 188 juveniles produced by 20 aposymbiotic worms; fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a patchy but successful colonization of their nephridia. Symbionts were present in the mucus but absent in feed, soil, and spermatophora/nephridia of the aposymbiotic partner, suggesting symbiont transfer via mucus during mating. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that genome evolution in Verminephrobacter is distinct from other vertically transmitted symbionts due to genetic mixing during transmission, partially facilitated by biparental transmission.

  10. Beneficial Effect of Verminephrobacter Nephridial Symbionts on the Fitness of the Earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Marie B.; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente A.; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing the growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts given high (cow dung)- and low (straw)-nutrient diets. There were no differences in worm growth or the number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured of their symbionts when grown on the low-nutrient diet. Thus, Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon, total nitrogen, or total hydrolyzable amino acid content, which strongly questions the hypothesized role of the symbionts in nitrogen recycling for the host. PMID:20511426

  11. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K

    2011-05-01

    Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several fungal symbionts. However, even in the few termite lineages that secondarily adopted vertical symbiont transmission, the fungal symbionts are not monophyletic. We addressed this paradox by studying differential transmission of fungal symbionts by alate male and female reproductives, and the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males. We also document that the symbionts associated with this termite species belong to three main lineages that do not constitute a monophyletic group. The most common lineage occurs over the entire geographical region that we studied, including west, central and southern Africa, where it is also associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent with predominantly clonal reproduction and only occasional recombination. This implies that the genetic population structure of Termitomyces is controlled by the termite host and not by the Termitomyces symbiont.

  12. Aphid secondary symbionts do not affect prey attractiveness to two species of predatory lady beetles

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Candice; Voisin, Dené; Wolf, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Heritable symbionts have been found to mediate interactions between host species and their natural enemies in a variety of organisms. Aphids, their facultative symbionts, and their potential fitness effects have been particularly well-studied. For example, the aphid facultative symbiont Regiella can protect its host from infection from a fungal pathogen, and aphids with Hamiltonella are less likely to be parasitized by parasitic wasps. Recent work has also found there to be negative fitness effects for the larvae of two species of aphidophagous lady beetles that consumed aphids with facultative symbionts. In both species, larvae that consumed aphids with secondary symbionts were significantly less likely to survive to adulthood. In this study we tested whether adult Harmonia axyridis and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles avoided aphids with symbionts in a series of choice experiments. Adults of both lady beetle species were as likely to choose aphids with symbionts as those without, despite the potential negative fitness effects associated with consuming aphids with facultative symbionts. This may suggest that under natural conditions aphid secondary symbionts are not a significant source of selection for predatory lady beetles. PMID:28880922

  13. Aphid facultative symbionts reduce survival of the predatory lady beetle Hippodamia convergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts also play a defensive role against predation in this system. We tested whether feeding on aphids harboring different facultative symbionts affected the fitness of an aphid predator, the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Results While these aphid faculative symbionts did not deter lady beetle feeding, they did decrease survival of lady beetle larvae. Lady beetle larvae fed a diet of aphids with facultative symbionts had significantly reduced survival from egg hatching to pupation and therefore had reduced survival to adult emergence. Additionally, lady beetle adults fed aphids with facultative symbionts were significantly heavier than those fed facultative symbiont-free aphids, though development time was not significantly different. Conclusions Aphids reproduce clonally and are often found in large groups. Thus, aphid symbionts, by reducing the fitness of the aphid predator H. convergens, may indirectly defend their hosts’ clonal descendants against predation. These findings highlight the often far-reaching effects that symbionts can have in ecological systems. PMID:24555501

  14. Female-Biased Symbionts and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Infections in Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huifang; Qu, Yufeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhong, Wanfang; Fang, Jichao

    2014-01-01

    The female-biased infection of facultative symbionts has been found in Bemisia tabaci; however, whether there are any differences in tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and obligate symbiont infection rates between females and males is unknown. Determining whether such differences exist would be very important for understanding the spread of the plant virus and of the symbionts. We compared both symbiont infection types, including obligate and facultative symbionts, and the rates of TYLCV infection in both sexes in five field populations from Jiangsu Province, China. The obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum was not found in every whitefly tested. In all tested populations, more females than males were found to harbor P. aleyrodidarum; and more females than males also harbored Hamiltonella defense, the most common facultative symbiont as well as Cardinium. In addition to female-biased symbiont infections, there were also female-biased TYLCV infections, and the infection frequencies of this plant virus in females were higher than those in males. Taken together, these results suggested that both the female-biased symbiont infections and female-biased TYLCV infections promoted the rapid spread of TYLCV in China. PMID:24465416

  15. The evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Aphids may harbor a wide variety of facultative bacterial endosymbionts. These symbionts are transmitted maternally with high fidelity and they show horizontal transmission as well, albeit at rates too low to enable infectious spread. Such symbionts need to provide a net fitness benefit to their hosts to persist and spread. Several symbionts have achieved this by evolving the ability to protect their hosts against parasitoids. Reviewing empirical work and some models, I explore the evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in order to understand how defensive symbiont frequencies are maintained at the intermediate levels observed in aphid populations. I further show that defensive symbionts alter the reciprocal selection between aphids and parasitoids by augmenting the heritable variation for resistance, by increasing the genetic specificity of the host-parasitoid interaction, and by inducing environment-dependent trade-offs. These effects are conducive to very dynamic, symbiont-mediated coevolution that is driven by frequency-dependent selection. Finally I argue that defensive symbionts represent a problem for biological control of pest aphids, and I propose to mitigate this problem by exploiting the parasitoids' demonstrated ability to rapidly evolve counteradaptations to symbiont-conferred resistance.

  16. Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah; Moore, Lisa; Gruskin, Sofia; Krieger, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of violence’s health consequences and the World Health Organization’s recent classification of police officers’ excessive use of force as a form of violence, public health investigators have produced scant research characterizing police-perpetrated abuse. Using qualitative data from a study of a police drug crackdown in 2000 in 1 New York City police precinct, we explored 40 injection drug using and 25 non–drug using precinct residents’ perceptions of and experiences with police-perpetrated abuse. Participants, particularly injection drug users and non–drug using men, reported police physical, psychological, and sexual violence and neglect; they often associated this abuse with crackdown-related tactics and perceived officer prejudice. We recommend that public health research address the prevalence, nature, and public health implications of police violence. PMID:15226128

  17. Experimental evidence of bark beetle adaptation to a fungal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

    2015-11-01

    The importance of symbiotic microbes to insects cannot be overstated; however, we have a poor understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape most insect-microbe interactions. Many bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) species are involved in what have been described as obligate mutualisms with symbiotic fungi. Beetles benefit through supplementing their nutrient-poor diet with fungi and the fungi benefit through gaining transportation to resources. However, only a few beetle-fungal symbioses have been experimentally manipulated to test whether the relationship is obligate. Furthermore, none have tested for adaptation of beetles to their specific symbionts, one of the requirements for coevolution. We experimentally manipulated the western pine beetle-fungus symbiosis to determine whether the beetle is obligately dependent upon fungi and to test for fine-scale adaptation of the beetle to one of its symbiotic fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B. We reared beetles from a single population with either a natal isolate of E. sp. B (isolated from the same population from which the beetles originated), a non-natal isolate (a genetically divergent isolate from a geographically distant beetle population), or with no fungi. We found that fungi were crucial for the successful development of western pine beetles. We also found no significant difference in the effects of the natal and non-natal isolate on beetle fitness parameters. However, brood adult beetles failed to incorporate the non-natal fungus into their fungal transport structure (mycangium) indicating adaption by the beetle to particular genotypes of symbiotic fungi. Our results suggest that beetle-fungus mutualisms and symbiont fidelity may be maintained via an undescribed recognition mechanism of the beetles for particular symbionts that may promote particular associations through time.

  18. A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Phineas T.; Peng, Fangni; Boulanger, Martin J.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts that protect their hosts against parasites and pathogens are well known from insects, yet the underlying mechanisms of symbiont-mediated defense are largely unclear. A striking example of an ecologically important defensive symbiosis involves the woodland fly Drosophila neotestacea, which is protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Spiroplasma when parasitized by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. The benefit of this defense strategy has led to the rapid spread of Spiroplasma throughout the range of D. neotestacea, although the molecular basis for this protection has been unresolved. Here, we show that Spiroplasma encodes a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) related to Shiga-like toxins from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and that Howardula ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is depurinated during Spiroplasma-mediated protection of D. neotestacea. First, we show that recombinant Spiroplasma RIP catalyzes depurination of 28S rRNAs in a cell-free assay, as well as Howardula rRNA in vitro at the canonical RIP target site within the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. We then show that Howardula parasites in Spiroplasma-infected flies show a strong signal of rRNA depurination consistent with RIP-dependent modification and large decreases in the proportion of 28S rRNA intact at the α-sarcin/ricin loop. Notably, host 28S rRNA is largely unaffected, suggesting targeted specificity. Collectively, our study identifies a novel RIP in an insect defensive symbiont and suggests an underlying RIP-dependent mechanism in Spiroplasma-mediated defense. PMID:26712000

  19. Models and approaches to dissect host-symbiont specificity.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Mark J

    2010-11-01

    Animals are symbiotic superorganisms, composed of eukaryotic cells and specific microbial residents that perform essential functions for their host. As humans, we are beginning to appreciate the diversity and function of our own microbiota, but model systems are leading the field in illustrating the molecular mechanisms that allow specific relationships to be recapitulated during each host generation. This review focuses on models in which genetic screens, coupled with genomics, imaging, phylogenetics and population biology, have begun to allow a remarkably detailed investigation into the molecular dissection of the evolution of host specificity in animal symbionts.

  20. The Role of Host Demographic Storage in the Ecological Dynamics of Heritable Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bibian, Andrew J; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Miller, Tom E X

    2016-10-01

    Heritable symbioses are widespread and ecologically important. Many host organisms have complex life cycles that include diverse opportunities for symbionts to affect their host and be lost during development. Yet, existing theory takes a simplified view of host demography. Here, we generalize symbiosis theory to understand how demographic "storage" in the form of dormant or prereproductive life stages can modify symbiosis dynamics. Using grass-endophyte symbioses as context, we developed models to contrast the role of the seed bank (a storage stage) against the reproductive stage in symbiont persistence and prevalence. We find that the seed bank is as important as or more important than the reproductive stage in driving symbiont dynamics, as long as passage through the seed bank is obligate. Flexible entry to the seed bank substantially weakens its influence on symbiont persistence but can modify prevalence in counterintuitive ways. Our models identify a role for legacy effects, where hosts that lose symbionts retain their demographic influence. The retention of benefits via legacy effects can reduce symbiont prevalence and even cause prevalence to decline with increasing benefits to hosts because symbiont-free hosts carry those benefits. Our results resolve connections between individual-level host-symbiont interactions and population-level patterns, providing guidance for empirical studies.

  1. Excess algal symbionts increase the susceptibility of reef corals to bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C.

    2013-03-01

    Rising ocean temperatures associated with global climate change are causing mass coral bleaching and mortality worldwide. Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that mitigate coral bleaching susceptibility may aid local management efforts to help coral reefs survive climate change. Although bleaching susceptibility depends partly on the genetic identity of a coral's algal symbionts, the effect of symbiont density, and the factors controlling it, remain poorly understood. By applying a new metric of symbiont density to study the coral Pocillopora damicornis during seasonal warming and acute bleaching, we show that symbiont cell ratio density is a function of both symbiont type and environmental conditions, and that corals with high densities are more susceptible to bleaching. Higher vulnerability of corals with more symbionts establishes a quantitative mechanistic link between symbiont density and the molecular basis for coral bleaching, and indicates that high densities do not buffer corals from thermal stress, as has been previously suggested. These results indicate that environmental conditions that increase symbiont densities, such as nutrient pollution, will exacerbate climate-change-induced coral bleaching, providing a mechanistic explanation for why local management to reduce these stressors will help coral reefs survive future warming.

  2. Forever competent: deep-sea bivalves are colonized by their chemosynthetic symbionts throughout their lifetime.

    PubMed

    Wentrup, Cecilia; Wendeberg, Annelie; Schimak, Mario; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic bivalves at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps host chemosynthetic bacteria intracellularly in gill cells. In bivalves, the gills grow continuously throughout their lifetime by forming new filaments. We examined how newly developed gill tissues are colonized in bivalves with horizontal and vertical symbiont transmission (Bathymodiolus mussels versus a vesicoymid clam) using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy. Symbiont colonization was similar in mussels and clams and was independent of the transmission modes. Symbionts were absent in the growth zones of the gills, indicating that symbionts colonize newly formed gill filaments de novo after they are formed and that gill colonization is a continuous process throughout the host's lifetime. Symbiont abundance and distribution suggested that colonization is shaped by the developmental stage of host cells. Self-infection, in which new gill cells are colonized by symbionts from ontogenetically older gill tissues, may also play a role. In mussels, symbiont infection led to changes in gill cell structure similar to those described from other epithelial cells infected by intracellular pathogens, such as the loss of microvilli. A better understanding of the factors that affect symbiont colonization of bivalve gills could provide new insights into interactions between intracellular bacteria and epithelial tissues. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Heat Stress Affects Facultative Symbiont-Mediated Protection from a Parasitoid Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Eleanor R.

    2016-01-01

    Many insects carry facultative bacterial symbionts, which provide benefits including resistance to natural enemies and abiotic stresses. Little is known about how these beneficial phenotypes are affected when biotic or abiotic threats occur simultaneously. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can host several well-characterized symbiont species. The symbiont known as X-type can protect against both parasitoid wasps and heat stress. Here, we used three pea aphid genotypes that were naturally infected with X-type and the symbiont Spiroplasma sp. We compared aphids coinfected with these two symbionts with those cured from X-type and infected with only Spiroplasma to investigate the ability of X-type to confer benefits to the host when two threats are experienced simultaneously. Our aim is to explore how robust symbiont protection may be outside a benign laboratory environment. Aphids were subjected to heat shock either before or after attack by parasitoid wasps. Under a benign temperature regime, the aphids carrying X-type tended to be better protected from the parasitoid than those cured. When the aphids experienced a heat shock before being parasitized aphids carrying X-type were more susceptible than those cured. Regardless of infection with the symbiont, the aphids benefitted from being heat shocked after parasitization. The results demonstrate how resistance to parasitoid wasps can be strongly environment-dependent and that a beneficial phenotype conferred by a symbiont under controlled conditions in the laboratory does not necessarily equate to a consistently useful effect in natural populations. PMID:27875577

  4. Bacterial Symbiont Transmission in the Wood-Boring Shipworm Bankia setacea (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Alison R.; Wilbur, Ami E.; Cary, S. Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Teredinidae (shipworms) are a morphologically diverse group of marine wood-boring bivalves that are responsible each year for millions of dollars of damage to wooden structures in estuarine and marine habitats worldwide. They exist in a symbiosis with cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide the host with the necessary enzymes for survival on a diet of wood cellulose. These symbiotic bacteria reside in distinct structures lining the interlamellar junctions of the gill. This study investigated the mode by which these nutritionally essential bacterial symbionts are acquired in the teredinid Bankia setacea. Through 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, the symbiont residing within the B. setacea gill was phylogenetically characterized and shown to be distinct from previously described shipworm symbionts. In situ hybridization using symbiont-specific 16S rRNA-directed probes bound to bacterial ribosome targets located within the host gill coincident with the known location of the gill symbionts. These specific probes were then used as primers in a PCR-based assay which consistently detected bacterial rDNA in host gill (symbiont containing), gonad tissue, and recently spawned eggs, demonstrating the presence of symbiont cells in host ovary and offspring. These results suggest that B. setacea ensures successful inoculation of offspring through a vertical mode of symbiont transmission and thereby enables a broad distribution of larval settlement. PMID:10742261

  5. Bacterial symbiont transmission in the wood-boring shipworm Bankia setacea (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).

    PubMed

    Sipe, A R; Wilbur, A E; Cary, S C

    2000-04-01

    The Teredinidae (shipworms) are a morphologically diverse group of marine wood-boring bivalves that are responsible each year for millions of dollars of damage to wooden structures in estuarine and marine habitats worldwide. They exist in a symbiosis with cellulolytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide the host with the necessary enzymes for survival on a diet of wood cellulose. These symbiotic bacteria reside in distinct structures lining the interlamellar junctions of the gill. This study investigated the mode by which these nutritionally essential bacterial symbionts are acquired in the teredinid Bankia setacea. Through 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, the symbiont residing within the B. setacea gill was phylogenetically characterized and shown to be distinct from previously described shipworm symbionts. In situ hybridization using symbiont-specific 16S rRNA-directed probes bound to bacterial ribosome targets located within the host gill coincident with the known location of the gill symbionts. These specific probes were then used as primers in a PCR-based assay which consistently detected bacterial rDNA in host gill (symbiont containing), gonad tissue, and recently spawned eggs, demonstrating the presence of symbiont cells in host ovary and offspring. These results suggest that B. setacea ensures successful inoculation of offspring through a vertical mode of symbiont transmission and thereby enables a broad distribution of larval settlement.

  6. Competition between a biological control fungus, Ophiostoma piliferum, and symbionts of the southern pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Kier D. Klepzig

    1998-01-01

    A colorless isolate of O. piliferum was paired in a series of competitive interactions with three fungal symbionts of Dendroctonus frontalis, the southern pine beetle. Two of these fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are considered to be mutualists of the southern pine beetle.The third fungal symbiont, O. minus, is considered to be an...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont TC1 in the Anaerobic Ciliate Trimyema compressum.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Seikoh; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakano, Kazuma; Shimoji, Makiko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Hirano, Takashi; Yamada, Takanori; Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Shirai, Yumi; Park, Sanghwa; Narihiro, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-09-22

    A free-living ciliate, Trimyema compressum, found in anoxic freshwater environments harbors methanogenic archaea and a bacterial symbiont named TC1 in its cytoplasm. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the TC1 symbiont, consisting of a 1.59-Mb chromosome and a 35.8-kb plasmid, which was determined using the PacBio RSII sequencer.

  8. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host–symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry. PMID:23619306

  9. Building capability throughout a change effort: leading the transformation of a police agency to community policing.

    PubMed

    Ford, J Kevin

    2007-06-01

    This case describes a change effort to move a police agency to become a community policing organization. The community policing effort was seen as a means to make a transformational change to become a learning organization with the goal of improving the delivery of police services. The case describes the steps taken to meet the new vision of community policing as well as the steps taken to deal with the challenges or realities of trying to make change happen. The lens for this case is the leadership role across the stages of change (exploration, planning, implementation, monitoring and institutionalization) in building capacity within the organization to sustain the change effort. The capacity building focused on incorporating systems thinking into the mindset of the members of the organization, breaking down the command and control mindset by building a new norm around high involvement of committed teams, and developing skill sets to support continuous learning and improvement in order to align organizational systems. A key lesson learned is that effective leaders do not just prepare an organization prior to a change effort. They must have the patience to constantly build the capacity for change among organizational members throughout the various stages of the change effort.

  10. Sheriffs perceptions of firearm control polices.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dowling, Jamie

    2011-10-01

    Public health professionals can maximize their effectiveness in reducing firearm trauma by seeking partners from law enforcement professionals. This study assessed sheriff's support for various types of firearm control measures and their firearm control advocacy activities. A 29 item valid and reliable survey was used for a three- wave mailing to a national random sample of 650 sheriffs. The majority (over 50%) of sheriffs supported 4 of 14 proposed firearm control policies. Almost 55% of responding sheriffs were members of the NRA and being a member of the NRA was significantly associated with less support for 12 of the 14 firearm control policies. The majority (>70%) of sheriffs did not participate in most firearm control advocacy activities. Sheriffs were found to be far less supportive of potentially important firearm control policies than what has been previously found for police chiefs. Thus, sheriffs may be less helpful than police chiefs as colleagues for public health campaigns to reduce firearm trauma.

  11. International Police Cooperation on Countering Transnational Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    to Colonel Shahbaz Ahmad from Pakistan, LTC Jesus Durante from the Philippines, and LCDR Walter Allman from the U.S. for their sincere friendship ...efficiency.5 Police officials have utilized, especially in the last two decades, informal communication channels such as phone calls...of an investigation, major event, or a crisis. These teams can be considered as small mobile NCBs and carry online/offline INTERPOL services

  12. Sodomites and police in Paris, 1715.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The Archives of the Bastille in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal include hundreds of police reports, none of them currently available in English or even in print, about male same-sex relations in Paris during the first half of the eighteenth century. The documents translated here, interrogations of eight men arrested in 1715, provide information about networks and prostitution, age and class, surveillance and deception in the sodomitical subculture of the capital.

  13. Increasing Information Sharing Among Independent Police Departments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    www.cpt-mi.org/pdf/NJPoliceGuide.pdf [accessed February 5, 2008]. 24 Ibid. 25 Michael Fickes , “Calling All Radios,” Government Security (June 1...independent law enforcement agencies in Los Angles County and the Los Angeles Joint Regional Intelligence Center. 47.6 percent or 20 chiefs agreed...improve information sharing between independent police agencies and/or the Los Angles Joint Regional Intelligence Center if every organization had

  14. Public perceptions of police operations and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Kathryn J.

    1997-01-01

    New 'less than lethal' technologies being introduced into the law enforcement community will inevitably be challenged in the courts. From local jurisdictions to the highest courts in the land, law suits are filed at an alarming rate. Many are ultimately declared frivolous, but until they are resolved, all require human resources, money, and time to defend. Addressing liability issues head on could help to minimize potential law suits and the drain of our resources. Police administrators utilize education and training as tools to limit potential liability in their day to day operations. One such tool is the 'use of force continuum,' a simplistic progressive formula which identifies levels of action and reaction available to an officer when encountering any situation. Teaching an officer to understand this concept is relatively simple; the ability for that officer to correctly make a decision is more difficult. Determining where a specific action should be placed on the 'grid,' which ranges from 'officer's presence' to 'lethal encounter,' requires an officer to consider possible 'after effects' into the equation. With new attitudes emerging toward police operations, their available weapons, and applied techniques, repeated training will be necessary for this concept to remain effective. Scientists, engineers, manufacturers, and police administrators are responsible for the appropriate placement of new technology on the 'use of force continuum.' Adequate training and education should include detailed tactical, medical, and legal documentation to the police practitioner and to the public. Public education on the weapons and training used by those who 'serve and protect' them is critical to the process of achieving community acceptance and cooperation, ultimately reducing potential liability.

  15. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...

  16. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...

  17. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...

  18. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...

  19. 24 CFR 960.505 - Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occupancy by police officers to... HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.505 Occupancy by police officers to provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police...

  20. Responding to Spouse Abuse and Wife Beating: A Guide for Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Nancy

    This police guide reports on police responses to spouse abuse and wife beating calls based on research collected from visits to 17 police departments, interviews with police managers, a survey of 130 police officers, and interviews with social service professionals. The first chapter explains the purposes of the report, i.e., to: (1) provide…

  1. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  2. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  3. Direct evidence for maternal inheritance of bacterial symbionts in small deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae).

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Kamil M; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Duperron, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial symbiont transmission is a key step in the renewal of the symbiotic interaction at each host generation, and different modes of transmission can be distinguished. Vesicomyidae are chemosynthetic bivalves from reducing habitats that rely on symbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, in which two studies suggesting vertical transmission of symbionts have been published, both limited by the imaging techniques used. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts of Isorropodon bigoti, a gonochoristic Vesicomyidae from the Guiness cold seep site, occur intracellularly within female gametes at all stages of gametogenesis from germ cells to mature oocytes and in early postlarval stage. Symbionts are completely absent from the male gonad and gametes. This study confirms the transovarial transmission of symbionts in Vesicomyidae and extends it to the smaller species for which no data were previously available.

  4. Coral ontogeny affects early symbiont acquisition in laboratory-reared recruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Shelby E.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    2017-09-01

    In most coral species, the critical association with a subset of genetically diverse algal endosymbionts, Symbiodinium, is re-established anew each generation in early coral ontogeny. Yet little is known about the window during which these associations are established or the potential for altering symbiont associations through early exposure to non-native, and/or ecologically beneficial (e.g., stress tolerant), symbiont strains. This study examined the ontogenetic window of symbiont uptake in a restoration target species. Orbicella faveolata recruits, maintained aposymbiotic in laboratory tanks for 4 months, showed a significant decrease in symbiont acquisition upon exposure to natural seawater. Recruits initially inoculated with cultured Symbiodinium readily acquired additional strains from environmental symbiont populations upon exposure, but exogenous uptake also decreased in frequency after 4 months of laboratory rearing. Early exposure to Symbiodinium may benefit laboratory-reared recruits (e.g., enhance growth), but the potential for establishing long-term novel symbiotic associations may be limited.

  5. Genomic signatures of obligate host dependence in the luminous bacterial symbiont of a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; de Wet, Jeffrey R; Dunlap, Paul V

    2014-08-01

    The majority of bacteria engaged in bioluminescent symbiosis are environmentally acquired and facultatively symbiotic. A few enigmatic bioluminescent symbionts have not been successfully cultured, which has led to speculation that they may be obligately dependent on their hosts. Here, we report the draft genome of the uncultured luminous symbiont of an anomalopid flashlight fish, 'Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron'. The genome of the anomalopid symbiont is reduced by 80% compared with close relatives and lacks almost all genes necessary for amino acid synthesis and for metabolism of energy sources other than glucose, supporting obligate dependence on the host for growth. 'Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron' is the first described obligate mutualistic symbiont of a vertebrate. Unlike most other obligate mutualists, the anomalopid symbiont genome has retained complete pathways for chemotaxis and motility as well as most genes involved in cell wall production, consistent with the hypothesis that these bacteria may be transmitted environmentally during an extra-host phase.

  6. Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jillian M; Kemper, Anna; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald; Cardini, Ulisse; van der Geest, Matthijs; Kleiner, Manuel; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Mußmann, Marc; Herbold, Craig; Seah, Brandon K B; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Liu, Dan; Belitz, Alexandra; Weber, Miriam

    2016-10-24

    Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are the primary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host's nutrition. We sequenced genomes of the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes lucinalis and the stilbonematid nematode Laxus oneistus. The symbionts of both host species encoded nitrogen fixation genes. This is remarkable as no marine chemosynthetic symbiont was previously known to be capable of nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogenase expression by the symbionts of lucinid clams at the transcriptomic and proteomic level. Mean stable nitrogen isotope values of Loripes lucinalis were within the range expected for fixed atmospheric nitrogen, further suggesting active nitrogen fixation by the symbionts. The ability to fix nitrogen may be widespread among chemosynthetic symbioses in oligotrophic habitats, where nitrogen availability often limits primary productivity.

  7. Burkholderia gut symbionts enhance the innate immunity of host Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Jun Beom; Huh, Ye Rang; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Chan-Hee; Yoo, Jin Wook; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-11-01

    The relation between gut symbiosis and immunity has been reported in various animal model studies. Here, we corroborate the effect of gut symbiont to host immunity using the bean bug model. The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a useful gut symbiosis model due to the monospecific gut symbiont, genus Burkholderia. To examine the effect of gut symbiosis to host immunity, we generated the gut symbiont-harboring (symbiotic) insect line and the gut symbiont-lacking (aposymbiotic) insect line. Upon bacterial challenges, the symbiotic Riptortus exhibited better survival than aposymbiotic Riptortus. When cellular immunity was inhibited, the symbiotic Riptortus still survived better than aposymbioic Riptortus, suggesting stronger humoral immunity. The molecular basis of the strong humoral immunity was further confirmed by the increase of hemolymph antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial peptide expression in the symbiotic insects. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that Burkhoderia gut symbiont positively affect the Riptortus systemic immunity.

  8. Sulcia symbiont of the leafhopper Macrosteles laevis (Ribaut, 1927) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) harbors Arsenophonus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kobiałka, Michał; Michalik, Anna; Walczak, Marcin; Junkiert, Łukasz; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The leafhopper Macrosteles laevis, like other plant sap-feeding hemipterans, lives in obligate symbiotic association with microorganisms. The symbionts are harbored in the cytoplasm of large cells termed bacteriocytes, which are integrated into huge organs termed bacteriomes. Morphological and molecular investigations have revealed that in the bacteriomes of M. laevis, two types of bacteriocytes are present which are as follows: bacteriocytes with bacterium Sulcia and bacteriocytes with Nasuia symbiont. We observed that in bacteriocytes with Sulcia, some cells of this bacterium contain numerous cells of the bacterium Arsenophonus. All types of symbionts are transmitted transovarially between generations. In the mature female, the bacteria Nasuia, bacteria Sulcia, and Sulcia with Arsenophonus inside are released from the bacteriocytes and start to assemble around the terminal oocytes. Next, the bacteria enter the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte. After passing through the follicular cells, the symbionts enter the space between the oocyte and follicular epithelium, forming a characteristic "symbiont ball."

  9. Direct evidence for maternal inheritance of bacterial symbionts in small deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranski, Kamil M.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; Duperron, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial symbiont transmission is a key step in the renewal of the symbiotic interaction at each host generation, and different modes of transmission can be distinguished. Vesicomyidae are chemosynthetic bivalves from reducing habitats that rely on symbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, in which two studies suggesting vertical transmission of symbionts have been published, both limited by the imaging techniques used. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts of Isorropodon bigoti, a gonochoristic Vesicomyidae from the Guiness cold seep site, occur intracellularly within female gametes at all stages of gametogenesis from germ cells to mature oocytes and in early postlarval stage. Symbionts are completely absent from the male gonad and gametes. This study confirms the transovarial transmission of symbionts in Vesicomyidae and extends it to the smaller species for which no data were previously available.

  10. Is rarity of pinedrops (Pterospora andromedea) in eastern north America linked to rarity of its unique fungal symbiont?

    Treesearch

    Christina Hazard; Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas R. Horton

    2012-01-01

    Like other myco-heterotrophic plants, Pterospora andromedea (pinedrops) is dependent upon its specific fungal symbionts for survival. The rarity of pinedrops fungal symbiont was investigated in the eastern United States where pinedrops are rare. Wild populations of eastern pinedrops were sampled, and the plant haplotypes and fungal symbionts were...

  11. Statewide Police Command and Supervisory Training -- Three Demonstration Projects: New Jersey Mobile Training Units; North Carolina Police Management Institute; Arkansas Regional Courses for Police Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Police Training Commission, Trenton.

    Three police training programs varied markedly and present a selection of models appropriate to different circumstances and training needs. The New Jersey Police Training Commission provides for supervisory training through the use of mobile classrooms staffed with trained professional teams, equipped with modern teaching aids, and experimenting…

  12. [Occupational stress among female police officers].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia de Magalhães; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Constantino, Patrícia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this study is occupational stress among female police officers in Rio de Janeiro. A qualitative approach was initially used (interviews, focal groups and observations) to establish their perceptions regarding gender differences in the performance of police work, the relationship between occupational stress and health issues and the strategies used to mitigate this type of stress. A total of 42 participants including female officers and staff and operational and health professionals were involved. The participants link stress to their daily work, cite a number of symptoms and show how family relationships are affected. Stress originates primarily from work management and organizational issues. Gender discrimination and harassment are also perceived as stressors. Psychic suffering is greater among officers in commanding roles, and operational activities are perceived as more stressful due to the risks involved. Physical exercise is seen as the most effective strategy to mitigate the consequences of stress. The conclusions drawn are that, there is a need for organizational and managerial change from the perspective of gender and investment in preventive measures that can reduce the consequences of stress within the Rio de Janeiro police force.

  13. The role of symbiont genetic distance and potential adaptability in host preference towards Pseudonocardia symbionts in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael; Maynard, Janielle; Roland, Damien L; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants display symbiont preference in behavioral assays, both towards the fungus they cultivate for food and Actinobacteria they maintain on their cuticle for antibiotic production against parasites. These Actinobacteria, genus Pseudonocardia Henssen (Pseudonocardiacea: Actinomycetales), help defend the ants' fungal mutualist from specialized parasites. In Acromyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutting ants, individual colonies maintain either a single or a few strains of Pseudonocardia, and the symbiont is primarily vertically transmitted between generations by colony-founding queens. A recent report found that Acromyrmex workers are able to differentiate between their native Pseudonocardia strain and non-native strains isolated from sympatric or allopatric Acromyrmex species, and show preference for their native strain. Here we explore worker preference when presented with two non-native strains, elucidating the role of genetic distance on preference between strains and Pseudonocardia origin. Our findings suggest that ants tend to prefer bacteria more closely related to their native bacterium and that genetic similarity is probably more important than whether symbionts are ant-associated or free-living. Preliminary findings suggest that when continued exposure to a novel Pseudonocardia strain occurs, ant symbiont preference is potentially adaptable, with colonies apparently being able to alter symbiont preference over time. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of adaptive recognition, potential ecological flexibility in symbiont preference, and more broadly, in relation to self versus non-self recognition.

  14. The Role of Symbiont Genetic Distance and Potential Adaptability in Host Preference Towards Pseudonocardia Symbionts in Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Michael; Maynard, Janielle; Roland, Damien L; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants display symbiont preference in behavioral assays, both towards the fungus they cultivate for food and Actinobacteria they maintain on their cuticle for antibiotic production against parasites. These Actinobacteria, genus Pseudonocardia Henssen (Pseudonocardiacea: Actinomycetales), help defend the ants' fungal mutualist from specialized parasites. In Acromyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutting ants, individual colonies maintain either a single or a few strains of Pseudonocardia, and the symbiont is primarily vertically transmitted between generations by colony-founding queens. A recent report found that Acromyrmex workers are able to differentiate between their native Pseudonocardia strain and non-native strains isolated from sympatric or allopatric Acromyrmex species, and show preference for their native strain. Here we explore worker preference when presented with two non-native strains, elucidating the role of genetic distance on preference between strains and Pseudonocardia origin. Our findings suggest that ants tend to prefer bacteria more closely related to their native bacterium and that genetic similarity is probably more important than whether symbionts are ant-associated or free-living. Preliminary findings suggest that when continued exposure to a novel Pseudonocardia strain occurs, ant symbiont preference is potentially adaptable, with colonies apparently being able to alter symbiont preference over time. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of adaptive recognition, potential ecological flexibility in symbiont preference, and more broadly, in relation to self versus non-self recognition. PMID:22225537

  15. Microbial communities and symbionts in the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) from north China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. Haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in China, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. However, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in H. longicornis under natural conditions. In the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities associated with H. longicornis and evaluated the putative symbionts. Methods The eubacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of H. longicornis were constructed and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. In addition, diagnostic PCR was performed to assess the prevalence, vertical transmission and infection sites of the symbionts in H. longicornis. Results Vertically-transmitted symbionts, potential pathogens and allochthonous nonpathogenic bacteria were identified from the field-collected H. longicornis. Three types of symbionts (Coxiella-like, Arsenophonus-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts) were identified in a single host simultaneously. A series of analyses revealed the vertical transmission, prevalence, and infection sites of these symbionts. However, only Coxiella-like bacteria were transmitted stably in the laboratory-reared ticks. In addition, we identified a novel Coxiella-like agent with 95.31% sequence similarity to the taxon described previously. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that natural H. longicornis harboured a diverse array of microbial communities. Three types of symbionts were identified in a single host simultaneously. Moreover, high prevalence, vertical transmission and the infection sites supported an obligate symbiotic association between Coxiella symbiont and its host. The role of Coxiella symbiont in the host fitness and the interaction among microbial communities remained to be elucidated

  16. Specific Midgut Region Controlling the Symbiont Population in an Insect-Microbe Gut Symbiotic Association

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Kim, Na Hyang; Jang, Ho Am; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kim, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Many insects possess symbiotic bacteria that affect the biology of the host. The level of the symbiont population in the host is a pivotal factor that modulates the biological outcome of the symbiotic association. Hence, the symbiont population should be maintained at a proper level by the host's control mechanisms. Several mechanisms for controlling intracellular symbionts of insects have been reported, while mechanisms for controlling extracellular gut symbionts of insects are poorly understood. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a betaproteobacterial extracellular symbiont of the genus Burkholderia in the midgut symbiotic organ designated the M4 region. We found that the M4B region, which is directly connected to the M4 region, also harbors Burkholderia symbiont cells, but the symbionts therein are mostly dead. A series of experiments demonstrated that the M4B region exhibits antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial activity is specifically potent against the Burkholderia symbiont but not the cultured Burkholderia and other bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the M4B region was detected in symbiotic host insects, reaching its highest point at the fifth instar, but not in aposymbiotic host insects, which suggests the possibility of symbiont-mediated induction of the antimicrobial activity. This antimicrobial activity was not associated with upregulation of antimicrobial peptides of the host. Based on these results, we propose that the M4B region is a specialized gut region of R. pedestris that plays a critical role in controlling the population of the Burkholderia gut symbiont. The molecular basis of the antimicrobial activity is of great interest and deserves future study. PMID:24038695

  17. An Entomopathogenic Nematode Extends Its Niche by Associating with Different Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Maher, Abigail M D; Asaiyah, Mohamed A M; Brophy, Caroline; Griffin, Christine T

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts are increasingly recognised as mediators of ecologically important traits of their animal hosts, with acquisition of new traits possible by uptake of novel symbionts. The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis downesi associates with two bacterial symbionts, Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata and P. temperata subsp. cinerea. At one intensively studied coastal dune site, P. temperata subsp. cinerea is consistently more frequently isolated than P. temperata subsp. temperata in H. downesi recovered from under the bare sand/Ammophila arrenaria of the front dunes (where harsh conditions, including drought, prevail). This is not the case in the more permissive closed dune grassland further from the sea. No differences were detected in ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer) sequence between nematode lines carrying either of the two symbiont subspecies, nor did they differ in their ability to utilise insects from three orders. The two symbionts could be readily swapped between lines, and both were carried in equal numbers within infective juveniles. In laboratory experiments, we tested whether the symbionts differentially affected nematode survival in insect cadavers that were allowed to dry. We assessed numbers of nematode infective juveniles emerging from insects that had been infected with H. downesi carrying either symbiont subspecies and then allowed to desiccate for up to 62 days. In moist conditions, cadavers produced similar numbers of nematodes, irrespective of the symbiont subspecies present, while under desiccating conditions, P. temperata subsp. cinerea cadavers yielded more nematode progeny than P. temperata subsp. temperata cadavers. Desiccating cadavers with the same nematode isolates, carrying either one or the other symbiont subspecies, confirmed that the symbiont was responsible for differences in nematode survival. Moreover, cadavers harbouring P. temperata subsp. cinerea had a reduced rate of drying relative to cadavers

  18. Vertically transmitted symbiont reduces host fitness along temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Dusi, E; Krenek, S; Schrallhammer, M; Sachse, R; Rauch, G; Kaltz, O; Berendonk, T U

    2014-04-01

    Parasites with exclusive vertical transmission from host parent to offspring are an evolutionary puzzle. With parasite fitness entirely linked to host reproduction, any fitness cost for infected hosts risks their selective elimination. Environmental conditions likely influence parasite impact and thereby the success of purely vertical transmission strategies. We tested for temperature-dependent virulence of Caedibacter taeniospiralis, a vertically transmitted bacterial symbiont of the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. We compared growth of infected and cured host populations at five temperatures (16–32 °C). Infection reduced host density at all temperatures, with a peak of −30% at 28 °C. These patterns were largely consistent across five infected Paramecium strains. Similar to Wolbachia symbionts, C. taeniospiralis may compensate fitness costs by conferring to the host a ‘killer trait’, targeting uninfected competitors. Considerable loss of infection at 32 °C suggests that killer efficacy is not universal and that limited heat tolerance restricts the conditions for persistence of C. taeniospiralis.

  19. Genetic transformation and phylogeny of bacterial symbionts from tsetse.

    PubMed

    Beard, C B; O'Neill, S L; Mason, P; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R; Tesh, R B; Richards, F F; Aksoy, S

    1993-01-01

    Two isolates of bacterial endosymbionts, GP01 and GM02, were established in cell free medium from haemolymph of the tsetse, Glossina pallidipes and G. morsitans. These microorganisms appear similar to rickettsia-like organisms reported previously from various tsetse species. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis, however, placed them within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria, phylogenetically distinct from most members of the Rickettsiaceae which align with the alpha subdivision. Distinct multiple endogenous plasmids are harboured by GP01 and GM02, suggesting that the two isolates are different. Restriction mapping analysis showed that one of the conserved plasmids is present in high copy number and is at least 80 kb in size. A heterologous plasmid pSUP204, which contains the broad host range oriV replication origin, was used to transfect bacterial cultures. The symbiont GM02 was transformed, and it expressed plasmid encoded resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Transformation of these symbionts may provide a novel means for expressing anti-parasitic genes within tsetse populations.

  20. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species.

  1. Diversifying selection by Desmodiinae legume species on Bradyrhizobium symbionts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A; Jankowiak, Jennifer G; Landrigan, Grace K

    2015-07-01

    Desmodium and Hylodesmum (Papilionoideae Subtribe Desmodiinae) are among the most common herbaceous perennial legumes native to eastern North America. To analyze the population structure of their Bradyrhizobium sp. root-nodule bacteria, 159 isolates were sampled from ten host species across a 1000 km region. Phylogenetic analysis of four housekeeping loci (2164 bp) and two loci in the symbiosis island (SI) chromosomal region (1374 bp) indicated extensive overlap in symbiont utilization, with each common bacterial clade found on 2-7 species of these legume genera. However, host species differed considerably in the relative proportion of symbionts belonging to different Bradyrhizobium clades. High phylogenetic incongruence between trees for housekeeping loci and SI loci suggested that diversification of these Bradyrhizobium lineages involved substantial horizontal gene transfer. Plant inoculation with strains from six Bradyrhizobium clades revealed marked disparity in relative bacterial reproductive success across four Desmodium species. Estimated yield of Bradyrhizobium progeny cells per plant ranged from zero to >10(9), and strains with high fitness on one host sometimes reproduced poorly on other host species. Diversifying selection on bacteria, arising from differential success in habitats with different Desmodium and Hylodesmum taxa, is therefore likely to affect Bradyrhizobium diversity patterns at the landscape level. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sexual Assault Victim Participation in Police Investigations and Prosecution.

    PubMed

    Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna

    This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.

  3. Nurse-police coalition: improves safety in acute psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Allen, Diane E; Harris, Frank N; de Nesnera, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Although police officers protect and secure the safety of citizens everywhere, nurses are the primary guardians of patient safety within the treatment milieu. At New Hampshire Hospital, both nurses and police officers share ownership of this responsibility, depending on the needs that arise specific to each profession. Psychiatric nurses take pride in their ability to de-escalate agitated and potentially aggressive patients; however, times arise when the best efforts of nurses fail, or when a situation requires intervention from police officers. Nurses and police officers at New Hampshire Hospital have worked together for many years to develop a trusting, respectful alliance. This coalition has resulted in a safe, clear, orderly process for transfer of authority from nurses to police during violent, clinically unmanageable psychiatric emergencies. Nurses and police officers work collaboratively toward the common goal of ensuring safety for patients and staff, while also acknowledging the unique strengths of each profession.

  4. Surveys of Police Chiefs and Sheriffs and of Police Officers About CIT Programs.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Broussard, Beth; Reed, Thomas A; Crisafio, Anthony; Watson, Amy C

    2015-07-01

    Two surveys were conducted on the crisis intervention team (CIT) model, a police-based program designed to improve responses to individuals with mental illnesses. Data were collected between July and September 2013 from 171 police chiefs and sheriffs (42 had implemented CIT in their agency), and 353 law enforcement officers (273 had CIT training) in Georgia. Police chiefs and sheriffs reported barriers to implementing CIT, such as not having enough officers and insufficient access to mental health services. CIT-trained officers differed from non-CIT-trained officers only with regard to being less likely to use force in response to a man with psychotic agitation described in a vignette, when the analysis controlled for whether the officer carried an electronic control device. Some hypothesized differences, such as in job satisfaction and work burnout, were not observed. However, CIT-trained officers appeared to be less likely to revert to force in a situation involving psychotic agitation.

  5. Hill Street Blues Post Conflict: Host Nation Police Advisor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    International Police Training Force ITAM Iraq Training and Advisory Mission JCSFA Joint Center for Security Force Assistance MoI Ministry of Interior...Advisory Mission ( ITAM ). ITAM fulfilled the larger responsibility of synchronizing the advisory efforts of all entities.149 This included synchronizing...the Military with the Military Police Transition Team efforts that were at the lower levels with the Iraqi Police.150 The ITAM also worked to

  6. Community-Oriented Policing and Counterinsurgency: A Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    accordance with the rule of law and norms of human rights. A basic search through the materials available leads to the British experience against...recent experience are examined in order to arrive at some practical recommendations to best employ the community policing model as a counterinsurgency...challenges and effects of community- oriented policing. Wesley G. Skogan and Susan M Hartnett wrote Community Policing: Chicago Style in 1997, and their work

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss in French police officers.

    PubMed

    Lesage, François-Xavier; Jovenin, Nicolas; Deschamps, Frederic; Vincent, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    There is a lack of data about police officers' hearing thresholds and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) associated with this occupation. In France, 129,000 national police officers, 96,000 state police force members and 16000 municipal police officers may be affected by occupational noise exposure. To evaluate the association between police employment and NIHL. We undertook a cross-sectional study using review of medical records. Audiometric and otological data and information on potential confounders were extracted from medical records. Global hearing loss and selective 4000 Hz hearing loss were analysed. Of total, 1692 subjects (887 policemen and 805 civil servants) participated in the study. After adjusting for potential cofounders, police officers were 1.4 times more likely to have a selective 4000 Hz hearing loss than civil servants (95% CI 1.1-1.9). This difference was greater between motorcycle police officers and civil servants (OR = 3; 95% CI 1.4-6.3). These data suggest that occupational noise exposure in police work, particularly in motorcycle police officers, may induce hearing loss. Noise sources need to be more accurately defined to confirm high-level noise exposures, to better define significant sources of noise and to identify effective solutions.

  8. 75 FR 14183 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed..., Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington... collection: None. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (4) Affected...

  9. 75 FR 30061 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Community Oriented Policing Services, 1100 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20530. Written comments and.... Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  10. Dynamic Acquisition and Loss of Dual-Obligate Symbionts in the Plant-Sap-Feeding Adelgidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    von Dohlen, Carol D.; Spaulding, Usha; Patch, Kistie B.; Weglarz, Kathryn M.; Foottit, Robert G.; Havill, Nathan P.; Burke, Gaelen R.

    2017-01-01

    Sap-sucking insects typically engage in obligate relationships with symbiotic bacteria that play nutritional roles in synthesizing nutrients unavailable or in scarce supply from the plant-sap diets of their hosts. Adelgids are sap-sucking insects with complex life cycles that involve alternation between conifer tree species. While all adelgid species feed on spruce during the sexual phase of their life cycle, each adelgid species belongs to a major lineage that feeds on a distinct genus of conifers as their alternate host. Previous work on adelgid symbionts had discovered pairs of symbionts within each host species, and unusual diversity across the insect family, but left several open questions regarding the status of bacterial associates. Here, we explored the consistency of symbionts within and across adelgid lineages, and sought evidence for facultative vs. obligate symbiont status. Representative species were surveyed for symbionts using 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing, confirming that different symbiont pairs were consistently present within each major adelgid lineage. Several approaches were used to establish whether symbionts exhibited characteristics of long-term, obligate mutualists. Patterns of symbiont presence across adelgid species and diversification with host insects suggested obligate relationships. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy localized symbionts to bacteriocyte cells within the bacteriome of each species (with one previously known exception), and detection of symbionts in eggs indicated their vertical transmission. Common characteristics of long-term obligate symbionts, such as nucleotide compositional bias and pleomorphic symbiont cell shape were also observed. Superimposing microbial symbionts on the adelgid phylogeny revealed a dynamic pattern of symbiont gains and losses over a relatively short period of time compared to other symbionts associated with sap-sucking insects, with each adelgid species possessing an

  11. Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution in gut symbiotic bacteria of acanthosomatid stinkbugs.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Meng, Xian-Ying; Kamagata, Yoichi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2009-01-15

    Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution have been commonly observed among obligate endocellular insect symbionts, while such examples have rarely been identified among extracellular ones, the only case reported being from gut symbiotic bacteria of stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae. Considering that gut symbiotic communities are vulnerable to invasion of foreign microbes, gut symbiotic associations have been thought to be evolutionarily not stable. Stinkbugs of the family Acanthosomatidae harbor a bacterial symbiont in the midgut crypts, the lumen of which is completely sealed off from the midgut main tract, thereby retaining the symbiont in the isolated cryptic cavities. We investigated histological, ecological, phylogenetic, and genomic aspects of the unique gut symbiosis of the acanthosomatid stinkbugs. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the acanthosomatid symbionts constitute a distinct clade in the gamma-Proteobacteria, whose sister groups are the obligate endocellular symbionts of aphids Buchnera and the obligate gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs Ishikawaella. In addition to the midgut crypts, the symbionts were located in a pair of peculiar lubricating organs associated with the female ovipositor, by which the symbionts are vertically transmitted via egg surface contamination. The symbionts were detected not from ovaries but from deposited eggs, and surface sterilization of eggs resulted in symbiont-free hatchlings. The symbiont-free insects suffered retarded growth, high mortality, and abnormal morphology, suggesting important biological roles of the symbiont for the host insects. The symbiont phylogeny was generally concordant with the host phylogeny, indicating host-symbiont co-speciation over evolutionary time despite the extracellular association. Meanwhile, some local host-symbiont phylogenetic discrepancies were found, suggesting occasional horizontal symbiont transfers across the host lineages. The symbionts exhibited AT

  12. What do Afghans Want from the Police? Views from Helmand Province

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    figures Figure 1. Police in Garm Ser district bazaar, February 2011 8 Figure 2. Police checkpoint along a main road through Garm Ser...weapons, or drugs. As "patrol bases," these positions also provide the police with staging grounds for conducting police patrols. Figure 2. Police ... checkpoint along a main road through Carm Ser district, February 201 T ;-TTT*J a. Photo by Patricio Asfura-Heim, CNA The public’s perception of police

  13. Dynamic energy budgets in syntrophic symbiotic relationships between heterotrophic hosts and photoautotrophic symbionts.

    PubMed

    Muller, Erik B; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Edmunds, Peter J; Doyle, Francis J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2009-07-07

    In this paper we develop and investigate a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model describing the syntrophic symbiotic relationship between a heterotrophic host and an internal photoautotrophic symbiont. The model specifies the flows of matter and energy among host, symbiont and environment with minimal complexity and uses the concept of synthesizing units to describe smoothly the assimilation of multiple limiting factors, in particular inorganic carbon and nitrogen, and irradiance. The model has two passive regulation mechanisms: the symbiont shares only photosynthate that it cannot use itself, and the host delivers only excess nutrients to the symbiont. With parameter values plausible for scleractinian corals, we show that these two regulation mechanisms suffice to obtain a stable symbiotic relationship under constant ambient conditions, provided those conditions support sustenance of host and symbiont. Furthermore, the symbiont density in the host varies relatively little as a function of ambient food density, inorganic nitrogen and irradiance. This symbiont density tends to increase with light deprivation or nitrogen enrichment, either directly or via food. We also investigate the relative benefit each partner derives from the relationship and conclude that this relationship may shift from mutualism to parasitism as environmental conditions change.

  14. Relationship between symbiont density and photosynthetic carbon acquisition in the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, M.; Beraud, E.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2010-03-01

    This study quantified variation in net photosynthetic carbon gain in response to natural fluctuations in symbiont density for the Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa, and evaluated which density maximized photosynthetic carbon acquisition. To do this, carbon acquisition was modeled as an explicit function of symbiont density. The model was parameterized using measurements of rates of photosynthesis and respiration for small colonies with a broad range of zooxanthella concentrations. Results demonstrate that rates of net photosynthesis increase asymptotically with symbiont density, whereas rates of respiration increase linearly. In combination, these functional responses meant that colony energy acquisition decreased at both low and at very high zooxanthella densities. However, there was a wide range of symbiont densities for which net daily photosynthesis was approximately equivalent. Therefore, significant changes in symbiont density do not necessarily cause a change in autotrophic energy acquisition by the colony. Model estimates of the optimal range of cell densities corresponded well with independent observations of symbiont concentrations obtained from field and laboratory studies of healthy colonies. Overall, this study demonstrates that the seasonal fluctuations, in symbiont numbers observed in healthy colonies of the Mediterranean coral investigated, do not have a strong effect on photosynthetic energy acquisition.

  15. A bacterial symbiont in the Bacteroidetes induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitoid wasp Encarsia pergandiella.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S; Perlman, Steve J; Kelly, Suzanne E

    2003-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts of arthropods have been implicated in several reproductive manipulations of their hosts. These include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis induction in haplodiploid species (PI), feminization and male killing. One symbiont lineage in the alpha-Proteobacteria, Wolbachia, is the only bacterium known to cause all of these effects, and has been thought to be unique in causing CI, in which the fecundity of uninfected females is reduced after mating with infected males. Here, we provide evidence that an undescribed symbiont in the Bacteroidetes group causes CI in a sexual population of the parasitic wasp Encarsia pergandiella. Wasps were crossed in all four possible combinations of infected and uninfected individuals. In the cross predicted to be incompatible, infected (I) males x uninfected (U) females, progeny production was severely reduced, with these females producing only 12.6% of the number of progeny in other crosses. The incompatibility observed in this haplodiploid species was the female mortality type; dissections showed that most progeny from the incompatible cross died as eggs. The 16S rDNA sequence of this symbiont is 99% identical to a parthenogenesis-inducing symbiont in other Encarsia, and 96% identical to a feminizing symbiont in haplodiploid Brevipalpus mites. Thus, this recently discovered symbiont lineage is capable of inducing three of the four principal manipulations of host reproduction known to be caused by Wolbachia. PMID:14561283

  16. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  17. The impact of transmission mode on the evolution of benefits provided by microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jason W; Turner, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    While past work has often examined the effects of transmission mode on virulence evolution in parasites, few studies have explored the impact of horizontal transmission on the evolution of benefits conferred by a symbiont to its host. Here, we identify three mechanisms that create a positive covariance between horizontal transmission and symbiont-provided benefits: pleiotropy within the symbiont genome, partner choice by the host, and consumption of host waste by-products by symbionts. We modify a susceptible-infected model to incorporate the details of each mechanism and examine the evolution of symbiont benefits given variation in either the immigration rate of susceptible hosts or the rate of successful vertical transmission. We find conditions for each case under which greater opportunity for horizontal transmission (higher migration rate) favors the evolution of mutualism. Further, we find the surprising result that vertical transmission can inhibit the evolution of benefits provided by symbionts to hosts when horizontal transmission and symbiont-provided benefits are positively correlated. These predictions may apply to a number of natural systems, and the results may explain why many mutualisms that rely on partner choice often lack a mechanism for vertical transmission. PMID:25535552

  18. Vertical transmission of chemoautotrophic symbionts in the bivalve Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Protobranchia).

    PubMed

    Krueger, D M; Gustafson, R G; Cavanaugh, C M

    1996-04-01

    Adults of the bivalve species Solemya velum live in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria in specialized gill bacteriocytes. The bacteria play an essential nutritional role in the mature association, fixing CO2 via the Calvin cycle with energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. To understand how the continuity of this partnership is maintained between host generations, we investigated the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum. A diagnostic assay using the polymerase chain reaction and primers specific for the S. velum symbiont ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) gene consistently detected bacterial sequence in female gonad tissue, suggesting the presence of symbiont cells in host ovaries and a vertical mode of symbiont transmission from mother to offspring. Furthermore, intracellular bacteria were present in the developing gills of juveniles that had not yet hatched from the gelatinous capsule in which larval development occurs (11 days after fertilization). By 64 days postfertilization, the typical adult gill ultrastructure of alternating bacteriocytes and symbiont-free-intercalary cells was apparent. Knowledge about the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum allows further study into the dynamics of host-symbiont interactions in chemoautotrophic associations.

  19. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms. PMID:27293794

  20. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro; Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms.

  1. Police Mental Health Partnership project: Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response (PACER) model development.

    PubMed

    Huppert, David; Griffiths, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    To review internationally recognized models of police interactions with people experiencing mental health crises that are sometimes complex and associated with adverse experience for the person in crisis, their family and emergency service personnel. To develop, implement and review a partnership model trial between mental health and emergency services that offers alternative response pathways with improved outcomes in care. Three unique models of police and mental health partnership in the USA were reviewed and used to develop the PACER (Police Ambulance Crisis Emergency Response) model. A three month trial of the model was implemented and evaluated. Significant improvements in response times, the interactions with and the outcomes for people in crisis were some of the benefits shown when compared with usual services. The pilot showed that a partnership involving mental health and police services in Melbourne, Australia could be replicated based on international models. Initial data supported improvements compared with usual care. Further data collection regarding usual care and this new model is required to confirm observed benefits. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. North Charleston Police Department: A Strategic Plan for the Community Policing Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-17

    recources to strengthen neighborhoods (Brown, 1988, p 2-3). Citizen involvement and developing an interactive community relationship were two points...mid 1950’s the National Institute on Police and Community Relations was formed. It was a program of workshop training in human relations and community

  3. Factors Affecting Police Officers' Acceptance of GIS Technologies: A Study of the Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakar, Bekir

    2011-01-01

    The situations and problems that police officers face are more complex in today's society, due in part to the increase of technology and growing complexity of globalization. Accordingly, to solve these problems and deal with the complexities, law enforcement organizations develop and apply new techniques and methods such as geographic information…

  4. Community Policing and D.A.R.E.: A Practitioner's Perspective. BJA Bulletin. Community Policing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David L.

    Community policing and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) are evolving initiatives that can respond to changing social problems and demands. However, many of the challenges faced by both programs arise out of the fundamentals of human nature. Among the greatest barriers to overcome are: (1) the resistance to change that affects law…

  5. Factors Affecting Police Officers' Acceptance of GIS Technologies: A Study of the Turkish National Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakar, Bekir

    2011-01-01

    The situations and problems that police officers face are more complex in today's society, due in part to the increase of technology and growing complexity of globalization. Accordingly, to solve these problems and deal with the complexities, law enforcement organizations develop and apply new techniques and methods such as geographic information…

  6. 78 FR 26656 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Police Check...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Police Check Inquiry and Pre-Screening Qualifications Certification ACTION... existing collection of information. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police Check Inquiry and...

  7. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  8. Staurojoenina and other symbionts in Neotermes from San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, M.; Margulis, L.

    1997-01-01

    Staurojoenina, a conspicuous hypermastigote protist (undocumented in any Neotermes) and other hindgut symbionts are reported for the first time in Neotermes nr. jouteli, a dry-wood-eating termite (Kalotermitidae), from the red mangroves at the northeast corner of San Salvador Island. Other distinctive protists (Macrotrichomonas, Metadevescovina, two morphotypes of small trichomonads) and bacteria (Arthromitus-type filamentous spore-formers) symbionts were also found in this termite. This Staurojoenina sp. replete with epibiotic bacterial symbionts is not distinguished from previously described species of Staurojoenina.

  9. Construction of a metagenomic DNA library of sponge symbionts and screening of antibacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai; Cui, Chengbin; Fang, Yuchun; Liu, Hongbing; Liu, Peipei; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

    2006-04-01

    To study the bioactive metabolites produced by sponge-derived uncultured symbionts, a metagenomic DNA library of the symbionts of sponge Gelliodes gracilis was constructed. The average size of DNA inserts in the library was 20 kb. This library was screened for antibiotic activity using paper dise assaying. Two clones displayed the antibacterial activity against Micrococcus tetragenus. The metabolites of these two clones were analyzed through HPLC. The result showed that their metabolites were quite different from those of the host E. coli DH5α and the host containing vector pHZ132. This study may present a new approach to exploring bioactive metabolites of sponge symbionts.

  10. α-Proteobacterial Symbionts of Marine Bryozoans in the Genus Watersipora▿

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christine M.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts that resembled mollicutes were discovered in the marine bryozoan Watersipora arcuata in the 1980s. In this study, we used PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, specific fluorescence in situ hybridization, and phylogenetic analysis to determine that the bacterial symbionts of “W. subtorquata” and “W. arcuata” from several locations along the California coast are actually closely related α-Proteobacteria, not mollicutes. We propose the names “Candidatus Endowatersipora palomitas” and “Candidatus Endowatersipora rubus” for the symbionts of “W. subtorquata” and “W. arcuata,” respectively. PMID:17071786

  11. An unusual symbiont from the gut of surgeonfishes may be the largest known prokaryote.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, K D; Bullivant, S

    1991-01-01

    Symbionts first reported from the gut of a Red Sea surgeonfish, Acanthurus nigrofuscus (family Acanthuridae), were subsequently described as Epulopiscium fishelsoni. The taxonomic position of this very large (up to 576 microns in length) microorganism has previously been designated in the literature as either uncertain or eukaryotic. We suggest that similar symbionts from Great Barrier Reef surgeonfish may be prokaryotes, which together with E. fishelsoni from the Red Sea may represent the largest known forms of this cell type. Features identifying the symbionts as prokaryotes include the presence of bacterial-type flagella and a bacterial nucleoid and the absence of a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Images PMID:1885516

  12. Caste-specific tyramides from Myrmicine ants

    Treesearch

    T.H. Jones; H.M. Garrafo; T.F. Spande; N.R. Andriamaharavo; J.S.T. Gorman; A.J. Snyder; A.W. Jeter; J.A. Torres; John W. Daly

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the extracts of male ants of Monomorium minimum and Monomorium ebeninum by GC-MS and GC-FTIR revealed the presence of tyramides 2 and 4c, for which the structures were established by comparison with synthetic samples. These compounds and their analogues 1 and 3 were also found in males of other Monomorium species, males of Myrmicaria opaciventris, and males...

  13. The Integration of Counterterrorism into the DNA of American Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Institute IACP International Association of Chiefs of Police IED improvised explosive device ILP intelligence led policing IQ intelligence quotient ...Education & Training (E): This topic starts with a holistic approach of raising the terrorism intelligence quotient (IQ) within each individual...actively gather intelligence and detect terrorists. L.E.A.D asserts that HS starts with hometown security, which begins by individual local LE

  14. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  15. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  16. Police referrals at the psychiatric emergency service in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus

    2015-12-01

    The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Fostering Student Police Officers' Creativity in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…

  18. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  19. Police Use of Force: A Community Relations Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompa, Gilbert G.

    Addressed in this speech are police/minority relations problems, particularly the issue of police use of excessive force. References are made to studies and reports on the subject and the difficulty in getting adequate and substantial information on the patterns of occurrence where community friction arising from the use of excessive force is…

  20. "Policing Schools" Strategies: A Review of the Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…

  1. Sports Related Riots: Understanding Group Behavior To Improve Police Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    and 2015. Using the normative and social identity theories as models, this thesis shows that sports riots follow a specific pattern of social... identity , police, behavioral traits, social norming, social identity theory, strategy, prevention, Tucson Police Department, playoffs, University of...using supporting data from case studies of college sporting events between 1997 and 2015. Using the normative and social identity theories as models

  2. A Survey of Students' Attitudes Toward Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver Board of School Trustees (British Columbia). Dept. of Planning and Evaluation.

    This 40 item questionnaire was developed to measure students' attitudes toward police officers. For the first 28 items the students read a statement and select a response ranging from agreeing strongly to disagreeing strongly on a five point scale. The students indicate their attitudes toward police on a scale of semantic distance between pairs of…

  3. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF INTERNAL POLICE POST IN FOREGROUND AND MILITARY POLICE POST IN BACKGROUND ALONG ENTRANCE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  4. 1. LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST WITH MILITARY POLICE POST AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST WITH MILITARY POLICE POST AT LEFT AND MT. WILLIAMSON IN BACKGROUND. POST HELD ENTRANCE SIGN TO MANZANAR. THIS VIEW REPLICATES A PHOTOGRAPH BY ANSEL ADAMS, PUBLISHED IN THE BOOK MANZANAR. - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Military Police Post, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  5. Behavioral variables associated with obesity in police officers.

    PubMed

    Can, S Hakan; Hendy, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, stretching), sleep duration, and consumption of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and snack foods. Participants included 172 male police officers who completed questionnaires to report height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (BMI = kg/m(2)) and to divide them into "non-obese" and "obese" groups. They also reported the above behaviors and six non-behavioral variables found associated with obesity risk: age, health problems, family support, police work hours, police stressors, police support. ANCOVAs compared each behavioral variable across obesity status (non-obese, obese), with the six non-behavioral variables used as covariates. Results revealed that cardiovascular and strength-training physical activity were the only behavioral variables that differed significantly between non-obese and obese police officers. The use of self-reported height and weight values may provide Employee Assistance Program with improved cost, time, and officer participation.

  6. Linking Training and Promotion in a Police Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Damon D. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Police Department training-based promotional system for police officers. Presents a critique of traditional promotional practices and an analysis of relevant case law; offers a theoretical base for a training-based system. Also presents an overview of training delivery, testing, and list…

  7. Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Lorenzo R S; Miller, Sophie D L; Faria, Christiana M A; Almond, Edd J; Huggins, Tim J; Jordan, William C; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2012-12-01

    Worker policing (mutual repression of reproduction) in the eusocial Hymenoptera represents a leading example of how coercion can facilitate cooperation. The occurrence of worker policing in "primitively" eusocial species with low mating frequencies, which lack relatedness differences conducive to policing, suggests that separate factors may underlie the origin and maintenance of worker policing. We tested this hypothesis by investigating conflict over male parentage in the primitively eusocial, monandrous bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Using observations, experiments, and microsatellite genotyping, we found that: (a) worker- but not queen-laid male eggs are nearly all eaten (by queens, reproductive, and nonreproductive workers) soon after being laid, so accounting for low observed frequencies of larval and adult worker-produced males; (b) queen- and worker-laid male eggs have equal viabilities; (c) workers discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs using cues on eggs and egg cells that almost certainly originate from queens. The cooccurrence in B. terrestris of these three key elements of "classical" worker policing as found in the highly eusocial, polyandrous honeybees provides novel support for the hypothesis that worker policing can originate in the absence of relatedness differences maintaining it. Worker policing in B. terrestris almost certainly arose via reproductive competition among workers, that is, as "selfish" policing. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. The Charge of Thought-Policing in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyraz, Suzan

    2006-01-01

    A phrase used for internal criticism within leftist movements in the 70s and 80s, "politically correct," has now become equivalent to "thought policing" in the minds of many professional academicians. Taking University of Toronto as an example, this essay questions whether the thought policing (as enforcement of political…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include services...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include services...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include services...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include services...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions are in the organized police... a member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms “police officer” and “firefighter” do not include services...

  14. The Public's Perception of Crime and Police Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joel H.; Sherman, Janet Schmidt

    The public's views about behaviors that should be crimes, behaviors that should come under the control of the police, and the public's view of how the police spend their time are examined. A telephone questionnaire survey was conducted with a random sample of 250 persons in San Diego (California). Over 98% of the respondents believed that the…

  15. The Public's Perception of Crime and Police Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joel H.; Sherman, Janet Schmidt

    The public's views about behaviors that should be crimes, behaviors that should come under the control of the police, and the public's view of how the police spend their time are examined. A telephone questionnaire survey was conducted with a random sample of 250 persons in San Diego (California). Over 98% of the respondents believed that the…

  16. Police-Juvenile Diversion: An Alternative to Prosecution. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jack R.; Rothenberger, Dale M.

    This manual is the outcome of a one-year study of police action to divert youthful offenders from the juvenile justice system, an action advocated by every major commission examining the system since the early sixties. The manual is intended to guide police, social service agencies, and other concerned individuals and organizations through the…

  17. Problems in Communicating the Suspect's Rights in Interpreted Police Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakane, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    At first glance, communicating a suspect's rights in police interviews appears to be a straightforward task. However, it is more complex than it appears. In particular, for suspects who come from different cultural backgrounds or legal systems and who rely on interpreters in police interviews, ensuring a thorough understanding of their rights and…

  18. "Policing Schools" Strategies: A Review of the Evaluation Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…

  19. Stress and quality of life of senior Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Marilda E Novaes

    2009-11-01

    This study examines levels of occupational stress, quality of life, work-related stressors, and coping strategies among senior police officers in Brazil. A quantitative questionnaire survey conducted among 418 senior members of the São Paulo Police Force reveals that high-ranking Brazilian police officers perceive their profession as being very stressful. A large proportion (43%) of police officers are found to have significant stress symptoms. A greater proportion of females (54%) than males (40%) are found to have stress. The most frequently reported stressor is interaction with other departments within the police force. Quality of life is found to be deficient in the 'professional' and 'health' areas. This study is the first to show a clear association between high levels of emotional stress and poor quality of life in Brazilian police officers. The large number of stress symptoms and poor quality of life identified in the present study indicates that there is a need for preventive actions inside the Brazilian police force to motivate lifestyle changes, improve stress-management skills, and promote a better quality of life among high-ranking police officers.

  20. The Impact of Community Policing in Four Houston Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, David A.; Duncan, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    A study of the impact of community policing on calls for service, crime, and narcotics cases in four Houston (Texas) neighborhoods used time series analysis and examined lagged and dynamic effects. The analysis indicated that the community policing programs had no significant impact on neighborhood crime. (SLD)

  1. Keeping the Peace: Police Discretion and Mentally Ill Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplin, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    In many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. This article highlights the police role in handling mentally ill persons. Law enforcement options are discussed, including both formal and informal options. It is noted that officers decisions to hospitalize, arrest, or deal with a…

  2. National police suicide estimates: web surveillance study III.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Andrew F; Violanti, John M; Levenson, Richard L; Clark, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    The present study is the third in a series of web surveillance of police suicides (prior analyses conducted in 2008 and 2009). In this age of world web communications, a police suicide in even the smallest and most remote community is generally transmitted nationally and through police websites, forums, and blogs. 55,000 police suicide specific web articles were reviewed over the entire year 2012 data was then compared with 2008 and 2009 police suicide data. There were 141 police suicides in 2008. Suicides declined from 143 in 2009 to 126 in 2012 (an 11.9% decrease). Across the three time periods, male and female suicides appeared to occur at a similar rate, averaging 92% and 6% respectively. In 2012, (1) suicides appeared to cluster more in the 40-44 year age group more than in previous years among officers of lower rank; (2) an increase in suicide was seen among officers with 15-19 years of service; (3) gunshots remained the most prevalent means of suicide across all three years (91.5%), and (4) personal problems appeared to be prevalent (83%) with work associated legal problems ranking second (13%). Approximately 11% of suicides were military veterans. California (n = 10) and New York (n = 12) had the highest police suicide rates. Four murder-suicides were noted over the entire year. Suggestions for suicide preventive policies, improving police mental health, and future research are discussed.

  3. Private Police in the United States: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the first in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. Intended for use by the private police industry and by the governmental agencies that regulate it, as well as by the general…

  4. Linking Training and Promotion in a Police Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Damon D. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Police Department training-based promotional system for police officers. Presents a critique of traditional promotional practices and an analysis of relevant case law; offers a theoretical base for a training-based system. Also presents an overview of training delivery, testing, and list…

  5. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police.... (b) Requests for assignment of a MPC will be included in the planning phase of military operations...

  6. 32 CFR 635.20 - Military Police Codes (MPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police.... (b) Requests for assignment of a MPC will be included in the planning phase of military operations...

  7. Behavioral Variables Associated with Obesity in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    CAN, S. Hakan; HENDY, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has documented that non-behavioral variables (such as long work hours, exposure to police stressors) are associated with obesity risk in police officers, but limited research has examined behavioral variables that might be targeted by Employee Assistance Programs for police weight management. The present study compared non-obese and obese officers for behavioral variables found associated with obesity in other adult samples: physical activity (cardiovascular, strength-training, stretching), sleep duration, and consumption of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and snack foods. Participants included 172 male police officers who completed questionnaires to report height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) and to divide them into “non-obese” and “obese” groups. They also reported the above behaviors and six non-behavioral variables found associated with obesity risk: age, health problems, family support, police work hours, police stressors, police support. ANCOVAs compared each behavioral variable across obesity status (non-obese, obese), with the six non-behavioral variables used as covariates. Results revealed that cardiovascular and strength-training physical activity were the only behavioral variables that differed significantly between non-obese and obese police officers. The use of self-reported height and weight values may provide Employee Assistance Program with improved cost, time, and officer participation. PMID:24694574

  8. Bullying in Schools: Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Rana

    This guide summarizes knowledge about how the police can help reduce bullying and violence in schools and provides measures to assess the effectiveness of problem-solving efforts. The guide draws on research findings and police practice from the U.S., the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia. In section…

  9. Understanding regulation of the host-mediated gut symbiont population and the symbiont-mediated host immunity in the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Jun Beom; Jang, Ho Am; Han, Yeon Soo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-11-01

    Valuable insect models have tremendously contributed to our understanding of innate immunity and symbiosis. Bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a useful insect symbiosis model due to harboring cultivable monospecific gut symbiont, genus Burkholderia. Bean bug is a hemimetabolous insect whose immunity is not well-understood. However, we recently identified three major antimicrobial peptides of Riptortus and examined the relationship between gut symbiosis and host immunity. We found that the presence of Burkholderia gut symbiont positively affects Riptortus immunity. From studying host regulation mechanisms of symbiont population, we revealed that the symbiotic Burkholderia cells are much more susceptible to Riptortus immune responses than the cultured cells. We further elucidated that the immune-susceptibility of the Burkholderia gut symbionts is due to the drastic change of bacterial cell envelope. Finally, we show that the immune-susceptible Burkholderia symbionts are able to prosper in host owing to the suppression of immune responses of the symbiotic midgut. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Career Influences in Bridge Employment Among Retired Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Stephen C; Snell, Andrea F; Sterns, Harvey L

    2015-07-01

    The careful examination of factors influencing bridge employment among retired police officers is largely absent in the literature. Two hundred and eleven retired police officers participated in a survey exploring factors that contributed to the participation in bridge employment or employment upon retiring from primary careers in law enforcement. The results indicate that retired officers who held part-time positions while fully employed as police officers were more likely to participate in bridge employment when compared with individuals who did not hold additional part-time employment while fully employed as police officers. Opportunities for training and interventions exist to help retired police officers navigate the working transition at this later-life juncture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Korean Police Personnel.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hak Young; Cho, Jae Hwan; Seok, Jong Min; Cho, Taek Sang; Jeon, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. For police officers in special working environments, the importance of basic data is emphasized for human resources (HR) management and the prevention of industrial hazards from an industrial health care perspective. This study was conducted on police officers who visited the national police hospital and who underwent x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. The results revealed that examinations for the lower extremities and spine were most frequently conducted using x-ray, CT, and MRI. In particular, knee and lumbar examinations were most frequently conducted among all lower extremity and spine examinations, respectively.

  12. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  13. The crime prevention value of hot spots policing.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews the available research evidence on the effectiveness of hot spots policing programs in reducing crime and disorder. The research identified five randomized controlled experiments and four non-equivalent control group quasi-experiments evaluating the effects of hot spots policing interventions on crime. Seven of nine selected evaluations reported noteworthy crime and disorder reductions. Meta-analyses of the randomized experiments revealed statistically significant mean effect sizes favoring hot spots policing interventions in reducing citizen calls for service in treatment places relative to control places. When immediate spatial displacement was measured, it was very limited and unintended crime prevention benefits were associated with the hot spots policing programs. The results of this review suggest that hot spots policing is an effective crime prevention strategy.

  14. Policing and risk of overdose mortality in urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Nandi, Arijit; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Accidental drug overdose is a major cause of mortality among drug users. Fears of police arrest may deter witnesses of drug overdose from calling for medical help and may be a determinant of drug overdose mortality. To our knowledge, no studies have empirically assessed the relation between levels of policing and drug overdose mortality. We hypothesized that levels of police activity, congruent with fears of police arrest, are positively associated with drug overdose mortality. We assembled cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City (NYC) police precincts over the period 1990-1999 using data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of NYC, the NYC Police Department, and the US Census Bureau. Misdemeanor arrest rate-reflecting police activity-was our primary independent variable of interest, and overdose rate our primary dependent variable of interest. The mean overdose rate per 100,000 among police precincts in NYC between 1990 and 1999 was 10.8 (standard deviation=10.0). In a Bayesian hierarchical model that included random spatial and temporal effects and a space-time interaction, the misdemeanor arrest rate per 1000 was associated with higher overdose mortality (posterior median=0.003, 95% credible interval=0.001, 0.005) after adjustment for overall drug use in the precinct and demographic characteristics. Levels of police activity in a precinct are associated with accidental drug overdose mortality. Future research should examine aspects of police-community interactions that contribute to higher overdose mortality. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Policing and risk of overdose mortality in urban neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Nandi, Arijit; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Background Accidental drug overdose is a major cause of mortality among drug users. Fears of police arrest may deter witnesses of drug overdose from calling for medical help and may be a determinant of drug overdose mortality. To our knowledge, no studies have empirically assessed the relation between levels of policing and drug overdose mortality. We hypothesized that levels of police activity, congruent with fears of police arrest, are positively associated with drug overdose mortality. Methods We assembled cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City (NYC) police precincts over the period 1990–1999 using data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of NYC, the NYC Police Department, and the US Census Bureau. Misdemeanor arrest rate—reflecting police activity—was our primary independent variable of interest, and overdose rate our primary dependent variable of interest. Results The mean overdose rate per 100,000 among police precincts in NYC between 1990 and 1999 was 10.8 (standard deviation = 10.0). In a Bayesian hierarchical model that included random spatial and temporal effects and a space-time interaction, the misdemeanor arrest rate per 1,000 was associated with higher overdose mortality (posterior median = 0.003, 95% Credible Interval = 0.001, 0.005) after adjustment for overall drug use in the precinct and demographic characteristics. Conclusions Levels of police activity in a precinct are associated with accidental drug overdose mortality. Future research should examine aspects of police-community interactions that contribute to higher overdose mortality. PMID:20727684

  16. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  17. The Role of Police Officers in Elementary and Secondary Schools: Implications for Police-School Social Work Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between law enforcement agencies and elementary and secondary schools focus on the provision of education to students, the safety and security of school property, and public relations efforts aimed at changing youths' attitudes toward the police both inside and outside of schools. The use of police officers in school settings…

  18. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  19. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  20. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  1. The Role of Police Officers in Elementary and Secondary Schools: Implications for Police-School Social Work Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between law enforcement agencies and elementary and secondary schools focus on the provision of education to students, the safety and security of school property, and public relations efforts aimed at changing youths' attitudes toward the police both inside and outside of schools. The use of police officers in school settings…

  2. The Impact of Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Styles on Perceptions of Police Integrity Violations: The Case of Diyarbakir Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Timur

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main areas: first, the study evaluates whether the ethical leadership style of a direct supervisor has an impact on the police officers' perception of the integrity violations; second, the study scrutinizes whether police officers' moral judgment of integrity violations makes a difference in the amount of such violations. The…

  3. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  4. The Effect of Algal Symbionts on the Accuracy of Sr/Ca Paleotemperatures from Coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Anne L.; Owens, Kathryn E.; Layne, Graham D.; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2002-04-01

    The strontium-to-calcium ratio (Sr/Ca) of reef coral skeleton is commonly used as a paleothermometer to estimate sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at crucial times in Earth's climate history. However, these estimates are disputed, because uptake of Sr into coral skeleton is thought to be affected by algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) living in the host tissue. Here, we show that significant distortion of the Sr/Ca temperature record in coral skeleton occurs in the presence of algal symbionts. Seasonally resolved Sr/Ca in coral without symbionts reflects local SSTs with a temperature sensitivity equivalent to that of laboratory aragonite precipitated at equilibrium and the nighttime skeletal deposits of symbiotic reef corals. However, up to 65% of the Sr/Ca variability in symbiotic skeleton is related to symbiont activity and does not reflect water temperature.

  5. Baseline shifts in coral skeletal oxygen isotopic composition: a signature of symbiont shuffling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J. E.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Decades-long records of the stable isotopic composition of coral skeletal cores were analyzed from four sites on the Mesoamerican Reef. Two of the sites exhibited baseline shifts in oxygen isotopic composition after known coral bleaching events. Changes in pH at the calcification site caused by a change in the associated symbiont community are invoked to explain the observed shift in the isotopic composition. To test the hypothesis that changes in symbiont clade could affect skeletal chemistry, additional coral samples were collected from Belize for paired Symbiodinium identification and skeletal stable isotopic analysis. We found some evidence that skeletal stable isotopic composition may be affected by symbiont clade and suggest this is an important topic for future investigation. If different Symbiodinium clades leave consistent signatures in skeletal geochemical composition, the signature will provide a method to quantify past symbiont shuffling events, important for understanding how corals are likely to respond to climate change.

  6. Insights into Symbiont Population Structure among Three Vestimentiferan Tubeworm Host Species at Eastern Pacific Spreading Centers.

    PubMed

    Perez, Maëva; Juniper, S Kim

    2016-09-01

    The symbiotic relationship between vestimentiferan tubeworms and their intracellular chemosynthetic bacteria is one of the more noteworthy examples of adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. The tubeworm symbionts have never been cultured in the laboratory. Nucleotide sequences from the small subunit rRNA gene suggest that the intracellular symbionts of the eastern Pacific vent tubeworms Oasisia alvinae, Riftia pachyptila, Tevnia jerichonana, and Ridgeia piscesae belong to the same phylotype of gammaproteobacteria, "Candidatus Endoriftia persephone." Comparisons of symbiont genomes between the East Pacific Rise tubeworms R. pachyptila and T. jerichonana confirmed that these two hosts share the same symbionts. Two Ridgeia symbiont genomes were assembled from trophosome metagenomes from worms collected from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (one and five individuals, respectively). We compared these assemblies to those of the sequenced Riftia and Tevnia symbionts. Pangenome composition, genome-wide comparisons of the nucleotide sequences, and pairwise comparisons of 2,313 orthologous genes indicated that "Ca Endoriftia persephone" symbionts are structured on large geographical scales but also on smaller scales and possibly through host specificity. Remarkably, the intracellular symbionts of four to six species of eastern Pacific vent tubeworms all belong to the same phylotype of gammaproteobacteria, "Candidatus Endoriftia persephone." Understanding the structure, dynamism, and interconnectivity of "Ca Endoriftia persephone" populations is important to advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of their host worms, which are often keystone species in vent communities. In this paper, we present the first genomes for symbionts associated with the species R. piscesae, from the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We then combine these genomes with published symbiont genomes from the East Pacific Rise tubeworms R. pachyptila and T. jerichonana to develop a portrait of the

  7. Insights into Symbiont Population Structure among Three Vestimentiferan Tubeworm Host Species at Eastern Pacific Spreading Centers

    PubMed Central

    Juniper, S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The symbiotic relationship between vestimentiferan tubeworms and their intracellular chemosynthetic bacteria is one of the more noteworthy examples of adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. The tubeworm symbionts have never been cultured in the laboratory. Nucleotide sequences from the small subunit rRNA gene suggest that the intracellular symbionts of the eastern Pacific vent tubeworms Oasisia alvinae, Riftia pachyptila, Tevnia jerichonana, and Ridgeia piscesae belong to the same phylotype of gammaproteobacteria, “Candidatus Endoriftia persephone.” Comparisons of symbiont genomes between the East Pacific Rise tubeworms R. pachyptila and T. jerichonana confirmed that these two hosts share the same symbionts. Two Ridgeia symbiont genomes were assembled from trophosome metagenomes from worms collected from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (one and five individuals, respectively). We compared these assemblies to those of the sequenced Riftia and Tevnia symbionts. Pangenome composition, genome-wide comparisons of the nucleotide sequences, and pairwise comparisons of 2,313 orthologous genes indicated that “Ca. Endoriftia persephone” symbionts are structured on large geographical scales but also on smaller scales and possibly through host specificity. IMPORTANCE Remarkably, the intracellular symbionts of four to six species of eastern Pacific vent tubeworms all belong to the same phylotype of gammaproteobacteria, “Candidatus Endoriftia persephone.” Understanding the structure, dynamism, and interconnectivity of “Ca. Endoriftia persephone” populations is important to advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of their host worms, which are often keystone species in vent communities. In this paper, we present the first genomes for symbionts associated with the species R. piscesae, from the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We then combine these genomes with published symbiont genomes from the East Pacific Rise tubeworms R. pachyptila and T

  8. The Combined Effects of Bacterial Symbionts and Aging on Life History Traits in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maretta H.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    While many endosymbionts have beneficial effects on hosts under specific ecological conditions, there can also be associated costs. In order to maximize their own fitness, hosts must facilitate symbiont persistence while preventing symbiont exploitation of resources, which may require tight regulation of symbiont populations. As a host ages, the ability to invest in such mechanisms may lessen or be traded off with demands of other life history traits, such as survival and reproduction. Using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, we measured survival, lifetime fecundity, and immune cell counts (hemocytes, a measure of immune capacity) in the presence of facultative secondary symbionts. Additionally, we quantified the densities of the obligate primary bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and secondary symbionts across the host's lifetime. We found life history costs to harboring some secondary symbiont species. Secondary symbiont populations were found to increase with host age, while Buchnera populations exhibited a more complicated pattern. Immune cell counts peaked at the midreproductive stage before declining in the oldest aphids. The combined effects of immunosenescence and symbiont population growth may have important consequences for symbiont transmission and maintenance within a host population. PMID:24185857

  9. Experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Policing in England and Wales: Surveying Police and the Autism Community.

    PubMed

    Crane, Laura; Maras, Katie L; Hawken, Tamsyn; Mulcahy, Sue; Memon, Amina

    2016-06-01

    An online survey gathered the experiences and views of 394 police officers (from England and Wales) regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Just 42 % of officers were satisfied with how they had worked with individuals with ASD and reasons for this varied. Although officers acknowledged the need for adjustments, organisational/time constraints were cited as barriers. Whilst 37 % of officers had received training on ASD, a need for training tailored to policing roles (e.g., frontline officers, detectives) was identified. Police responses are discussed with respect to the experiences of the ASD community (31 adults with ASD, 49 parents), who were largely dissatisfied with their experience of the police and echoed the need for police training on ASD.

  10. Pyrosequencing analysis of endosymbiont population structure: co-occurrence of divergent symbiont lineages in a single vesicomyid host clam.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Frank J; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2009-08-01

    Bacteria-eukaryote endosymbioses are perhaps the most pervasive co-evolutionary associations in nature. Here, intracellular chemosynthetic symbionts of deep-sea clams (Vesicomyidae) were analysed by amplicon pyrosequencing to explore how symbiont transmission mode affects the genetic diversity of the within-host symbiont population. Vesicomyid symbionts (Gammaproteobacteria) are presumed to be obligately intracellular, to undergo nearly strict vertical transmission between host generations, and to be clonal within a host. However, recent data show that vesicomyid symbionts can be acquired laterally via horizontal transfer between hosts or uptake from the environment, potentially creating opportunities for multiple symbiont strains to occupy the same host. Here, genotype-specific PCR and direct sequencing of the bacterial internal transcribed spacer initially demonstrated the co-occurrence of two symbiont strains, symA and symB (93.5% nt identity), in 8 of 118 Vesicomya sp. clams from 3 of 7 hydrothermal vent sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. To confirm multiple strains within individual clams, amplicon pyrosequencing of two symbiont loci was used to obtain deep-coverage measurements (mean: approximately 1500x coverage per locus per clam) of symbiont population structure. Pyrosequencing confirmed symA-symB co-occurrence for two individuals, showing the presence of both genotypes in amplicon pools. However, in the majority of clams, the endosymbiont population was remarkably homogenous, with > 99.5% of sequences collapsing into a single symbiont genotype in each clam. These results support the hypothesis that a predominantly vertical transmission strategy leads to the fixation of a single symbiont strain in most hosts. However, mixed symbiont populations do occur in vesicomyids, potentially facilitating the exchange of genetic material between divergent symbiont lineages.

  11. Temporal changes of symbiont density and host fitness after rifampicin treatment in a whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yin-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Microbial symbionts are essential or important partners to phloem-feeding insects. Antibiotics have been used to selectively eliminate symbionts from their host insects and establish host lines with or without certain symbionts for investigating functions of the symbionts. In this study, using the antibiotic rifampicin we attempted to selectively eliminate certain symbionts from a population of the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, which harbors the primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and two secondary symbionts "Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" and Rickettsia. Neither the primary nor the secondary symbionts were completely depleted in the adults (F0) that fed for 48 h on a diet treated with rifampicin at concentrations of 1-100 μg/mL. However, both the primary and secondary symbionts were nearly completely depleted in the offspring (F1) of the rifampicin-treated adults. Although the F1 adults produced some eggs (F2), most of the eggs failed to hatch and none of them reached the second instar, and consequently the rifampicin-treated whitefly colony vanished at the F2 generation. Interestingly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that in the rifampicin-treated whiteflies, the density of the primary symbiont was reduced at an obviously slower pace than the secondary symbionts. Mating experiments between rifampicin-treated and untreated adults demonstrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were expressed when the females were treated by the antibiotic, and whether males were treated or not by the antibiotic had little contribution to the negative effects. These observations indicate that with this whitefly population it is not feasible to selectively eliminate the secondary symbionts using rifampicin without affecting the primary symbiont and establish host lines for experimental studies. However, the extinction of the whitefly colony at the second generation after

  12. Live imaging of symbiosis: spatiotemporal infection dynamics of a GFP-labelled Burkholderia symbiont in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-03-01

    Many insects possess endosymbiotic bacteria inside their body, wherein intimate interactions occur between the partners. While recent technological advancements have deepened our understanding of metabolic and evolutionary features of the symbiont genomes, molecular mechanisms underpinning the intimate interactions remain difficult to approach because the insect symbionts are generally uncultivable. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris is associated with the betaproteobacterial Burkholderia symbiont in a posterior region of the midgut, which develops numerous crypts harbouring the symbiont extracellularly. Distinct from other insect symbiotic systems, R. pedestris acquires the Burkholderia symbiont not by vertical transmission but from the environment every generation. By making use of the cultivability and the genetic tractability of the symbiont, we constructed a transgenic Burkholderia strain labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled detailed observation of spatiotemporal dynamics and the colonization process of the symbiont in freshly prepared specimens. The symbiont live imaging revealed that, at the second instar, colonization of the symbiotic midgut M4 region started around 6 h after inoculation (hai). By 24 hai, the symbiont cells appeared in the main tract and also in several crypts of the M4. By 48 hai, most of the crypts were colonized by the symbiont cells. By 72 hai, all the crypts were filled up with the symbiont cells and the symbiont localization pattern continued during the subsequent nymphal development. Quantitative PCR of the symbiont confirmed the infection dynamics quantitatively. These results highlight the stinkbug-Burkholderia gut symbiosis as an unprecedented model for comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underpinning insect symbiosis. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genomic versatility and functional variation between two dominant heterotrophic symbionts of deep-sea Osedax worms.

    PubMed

    Goffredi, Shana K; Yi, Hana; Zhang, Qingpeng; Klann, Jane E; Struve, Isabelle A; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Brown, C Titus

    2014-04-01

    An unusual symbiosis, first observed at ~3000 m depth in the Monterey Submarine Canyon, involves gutless marine polychaetes of the genus Osedax and intracellular endosymbionts belonging to the order Oceanospirillales. Ecologically, these worms and their microbial symbionts have a substantial role in the cycling of carbon from deep-sea whale fall carcasses. Microheterogeneity exists among the Osedax symbionts examined so far, and in the present study the genomes of the two dominant symbionts, Rs1 and Rs2, were sequenced. The genomes revealed heterotrophic versatility in carbon, phosphate and iron uptake, strategies for intracellular survival, evidence for an independent existence, and numerous potential virulence capabilities. The presence of specific permeases and peptidases (of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline), and numerous peptide transporters, suggests the use of degraded proteins, likely originating from collagenous bone matter, by the Osedax symbionts. (13)C tracer experiments confirmed the assimilation of glycine/proline, as well as monosaccharides, by Osedax. The Rs1 and Rs2 symbionts are genomically distinct in carbon and sulfur metabolism, respiration, and cell wall composition, among others. Differences between Rs1 and Rs2 and phylogenetic analysis of chemotaxis-related genes within individuals of symbiont Rs1 revealed the influence of the relative age of the whale fall environment and support possible local niche adaptation of 'free-living' lifestages. Future genomic examinations of other horizontally-propogated intracellular symbionts will likely enhance our understanding of the contribution of intraspecific symbiont diversity to the ecological diversification of the intact association, as well as the maintenance of host diversity.

  14. Population genomics of a symbiont in the early stages of a pest invasion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amanda M V; Huynh, Lynn Y; Bolender, Caitlin M; Nelson, Kelly G; McCutcheon, John P

    2014-03-01

    Invasive species often depend on microbial symbionts, but few studies have examined the evolutionary dynamics of symbionts during the early stages of an invasion. The insect Megacopta cribraria and its bacterial nutritional symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata invaded the southeastern US in 2009. While M. cribraria was initially discovered on wild kudzu plants, it was found as a pest on soybeans within 1 year of infestation. Because prior research suggests Ishikawaella confers the pest status--that is, the ability to thrive on soybeans--in some Megacopta species, we performed a genomic study on Ishikawaella from US. Megacopta cribraria populations to understand the role of the symbiont in driving host plant preferences. We included Ishikawaella samples collected in the first days of the invasion in 2009 and from 23 locations across the insect's 2011 US range. The 0.75 Mb symbiont genome revealed only 47 fixed differences from the pest-conferring Ishikawaella in Japan, with only one amino acid change in a nutrition-provisioning gene. This similarity, along with a lack of fixed substitutions in the US symbiont population, indicates that Ishikawella likely arrived in the US capable of being a soybean pest. Analyses of allele frequency changes between 2009 and 2011 uncover signatures of both positive and negative selection and suggest that symbionts on soybeans and kudzu experience differential selection for genes related to nutrient provisioning. Our data reveal the evolutionary trajectory of an important insect-bacteria symbiosis in the early stages of an invasion, highlighting the role microbial symbionts may play in the spread of invasive species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genomic versatility and functional variation between two dominant heterotrophic symbionts of deep-sea Osedax worms

    PubMed Central

    Goffredi, Shana K; Yi, Hana; Zhang, Qingpeng; Klann, Jane E; Struve, Isabelle A; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Brown, C Titus

    2014-01-01

    An unusual symbiosis, first observed at ∼3000 m depth in the Monterey Submarine Canyon, involves gutless marine polychaetes of the genus Osedax and intracellular endosymbionts belonging to the order Oceanospirillales. Ecologically, these worms and their microbial symbionts have a substantial role in the cycling of carbon from deep-sea whale fall carcasses. Microheterogeneity exists among the Osedax symbionts examined so far, and in the present study the genomes of the two dominant symbionts, Rs1 and Rs2, were sequenced. The genomes revealed heterotrophic versatility in carbon, phosphate and iron uptake, strategies for intracellular survival, evidence for an independent existence, and numerous potential virulence capabilities. The presence of specific permeases and peptidases (of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline), and numerous peptide transporters, suggests the use of degraded proteins, likely originating from collagenous bone matter, by the Osedax symbionts. 13C tracer experiments confirmed the assimilation of glycine/proline, as well as monosaccharides, by Osedax. The Rs1 and Rs2 symbionts are genomically distinct in carbon and sulfur metabolism, respiration, and cell wall composition, among others. Differences between Rs1 and Rs2 and phylogenetic analysis of chemotaxis-related genes within individuals of symbiont Rs1 revealed the influence of the relative age of the whale fall environment and support possible local niche adaptation of ‘free-living' lifestages. Future genomic examinations of other horizontally-propogated intracellular symbionts will likely enhance our understanding of the contribution of intraspecific symbiont diversity to the ecological diversification of the intact association, as well as the maintenance of host diversity. PMID:24225886

  16. Superparasitism Drives Heritable Symbiont Epidemiology and Host Sex Ratio in a Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Parratt, Steven R.; Frost, Crystal L.; Schenkel, Martijn A.; Rice, Annabel

    2016-01-01

    Heritable microbial symbionts have profound impacts upon the biology of their arthropod hosts. Whilst our current understanding of the dynamics of these symbionts is typically cast within a framework of vertical transmission only, horizontal transmission has been observed in a number of cases. For instance, several symbionts can transmit horizontally when their parasitoid hosts share oviposition patches with uninfected conspecifics, a phenomenon called superparasitism. Despite this, horizontal transmission, and the host contact structures that facilitates it, have not been considered in heritable symbiont epidemiology. Here, we tested for the importance of host contact, and resulting horizontal transmission, for the epidemiology of a male-killing heritable symbiont (Arsenophonus nasoniae) in parasitoid wasp hosts. We observed that host contact through superparasitism is necessary for this symbiont’s spread in populations of its primary host Nasonia vitripennis, such that when superparasitism rates are high, A. nasoniae almost reaches fixation, causes highly female biased population sex ratios and consequently causes local host extinction. We further tested if natural interspecific variation in superparasitism behaviours predicted symbiont dynamics among parasitoid species. We found that A. nasoniae was maintained in laboratory populations of a closely related set of Nasonia species, but declined in other, more distantly related pteromalid hosts. The natural proclivity of a species to superparasitise was the primary factor determining symbiont persistence. Our results thus indicate that host contact behaviour is a key factor for heritable microbe dynamics when horizontal transmission is possible, and that ‘reproductive parasite’ phenotypes, such as male-killing, may be of secondary importance in the dynamics of such symbiont infections. PMID:27322651

  17. The herbaceous landlord: integrating the effects of symbiont consortia within a single host

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Bitty A.; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Johnson, Bart R.; Bridgham, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are typically infected by a consortium of internal fungal associates, including endophytes in their leaves, as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in their roots. It is logical that these organisms will interact with each other and the abiotic environment in addition to their host, but there has been little work to date examining the interactions of multiple symbionts within single plant hosts, or how the relationships among symbionts and their host change across environmental conditions. We examined the grass Agrostis capillaris in the context of a climate manipulation experiment in prairies in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Each plant was tested for presence of foliar endophytes in the genus Epichloë, and we measured percent root length colonized (PRLC) by AMF and DSE. We hypothesized that the symbionts in our system would be in competition for host resources, that the outcome of that competition could be driven by the benefit to the host, and that the host plants would be able to allocate carbon to the symbionts in such a way as to maximize fitness benefit within a particular environmental context. We found a correlation between DSE and AMF PRLC across climatic conditions; we also found a fitness cost to increasing DSE colonization, which was negated by presence of Epichloë endophytes. These results suggest that selective pressure on the host is likely to favor host/symbiont relationships that structure the community of symbionts in the most beneficial way possible for the host, not necessarily favoring the individual symbiont that is most beneficial to the host in isolation. These results highlight the need for a more integrative, systems approach to the study of host/symbiont consortia. PMID:26557442

  18. Uncovering symbiont-driven genetic diversity across North American pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jacob A; Weldon, Stephanie; Smith, Andrew H; Kim, Kyungsun L; Hu, Yi; Łukasik, Piotr; Doll, Steven; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Novin, Matthew; Oliver, Kerry M

    2013-04-01

    Heritable genetic variation is required for evolution, and while typically encoded within nuclear and organellar genomes, several groups of invertebrates harbour heritable microbes serving as additional sources of genetic variation. Hailing from the symbiont-rich insect order Hemiptera, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) possess several heritable symbionts with roles in host plant utilization, thermotolerance and protection against natural enemies. As pea aphids vary in the numbers and types of harboured symbionts, these bacteria provide heritable and functionally important variation within field populations. In this study, we quantified the cytoplasmically inherited genetic variation contributed by symbionts within North American pea aphids. Through the use of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454 amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we explored the diversity of bacteria harboured by pea aphids from five populations, spanning three locations and three host plants. We also characterized strain variation by analysing 16S rRNA, housekeeping and symbiont-associated bacteriophage genes. Our results identified eight species of facultative symbionts, which often varied in frequency between locations and host plants. We detected 28 cytoplasmic genotypes across 318 surveyed aphids, considering only the various combinations of secondary symbiont species infecting single hosts. Yet the detection of multiple Regiella insecticola, Hamiltonella defensa and Rickettsia strains, and diverse bacteriophage genotypes from H. defensa, suggest even greater diversity. Combined, these findings reveal that heritable bacteria contribute substantially to genetic variation in A. pisum. Given the costs and benefits of these symbionts, it is likely that fluctuating selective forces play a role in the maintenance of this diversity.

  19. Symbionts modify interactions between insects and natural enemies in the field.

    PubMed

    Hrček, Jan; McLean, Ailsa H C; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-11-01

    Eukaryotes commonly host communities of heritable symbiotic bacteria, many of which are not essential for their hosts' survival and reproduction. There is laboratory evidence that these facultative symbionts can provide useful adaptations, such as increased resistance to natural enemies. However, we do not know how symbionts affect host fitness when the latter are subject to attack by a natural suite of parasites and pathogens. Here, we test whether two protective symbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella defensa, increase the fitness of their host, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), under natural conditions. We placed experimental populations of two pea aphid lines, each with and without symbionts, in five wet meadow sites to expose them to a natural assembly of enemy species. The aphids were then retrieved and mortality from parasitoids, fungal pathogens and other causes assessed. We found that both Regiella and Hamiltonella reduce the proportion of aphids killed by the specific natural enemies against which they have been shown to protect in laboratory and cage experiments. However, this advantage was nullified (Hamiltonella) or reversed (Regiella) by an increase in mortality from other natural enemies and by the cost of carrying the symbiont. Symbionts therefore affect community structure by altering the relative success of different natural enemies. Our results show that protective symbionts are not necessarily advantageous to their hosts, and may even behave more like parasites than mutualists. Nevertheless, bacterial symbionts may play an important role in determining food web structure and dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  20. The herbaceous landlord: integrating the effects of symbiont consortia within a single host.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Roo; Roy, Bitty A; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Johnson, Bart R; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Plants are typically infected by a consortium of internal fungal associates, including endophytes in their leaves, as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in their roots. It is logical that these organisms will interact with each other and the abiotic environment in addition to their host, but there has been little work to date examining the interactions of multiple symbionts within single plant hosts, or how the relationships among symbionts and their host change across environmental conditions. We examined the grass Agrostis capillaris in the context of a climate manipulation experiment in prairies in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Each plant was tested for presence of foliar endophytes in the genus Epichloë, and we measured percent root length colonized (PRLC) by AMF and DSE. We hypothesized that the symbionts in our system would be in competition for host resources, that the outcome of that competition could be driven by the benefit to the host, and that the host plants would be able to allocate carbon to the symbionts in such a way as to maximize fitness benefit within a particular environmental context. We found a correlation between DSE and AMF PRLC across climatic conditions; we also found a fitness cost to increasing DSE colonization, which was negated by presence of Epichloë endophytes. These results suggest that selective pressure on the host is likely to favor host/symbiont relationships that structure the community of symbionts in the most beneficial way possible for the host, not necessarily favoring the individual symbiont that is most beneficial to the host in isolation. These results highlight the need for a more integrative, systems approach to the study of host/symbiont consortia.

  1. Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Hassan; Bauer, Eugen; Strauss, Anja S.; Vogel, Heiko; Marz, Manja; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated functional importance of gut microbes, our understanding of how animals regulate their metabolism in response to nutritionally beneficial symbionts remains limited. Here, we elucidate the functional importance of the African cotton stainer's (Dysdercus fasciatus) association with two actinobacterial gut symbionts and subsequently examine the insect's transcriptional response following symbiont elimination. In line with bioassays demonstrating the symbionts' contribution towards host fitness through the supplementation of B vitamins, comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes involved in import and processing of B vitamins revealed an upregulation of gene expression in aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) compared with symbiotic individuals; an expression pattern that is indicative of B vitamin deficiency in animals. Normal expression levels of these genes, however, can be restored by either artificial supplementation of B vitamins into the insect's diet or reinfection with the actinobacterial symbionts. Furthermore, the functional characterization of the differentially expressed thiamine transporter 2 through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirms its role in cellular uptake of vitamin B1. These findings demonstrate that despite an extracellular localization, beneficial gut microbes can be integral to the host's metabolic homeostasis, reminiscent of bacteriome-localized intracellular mutualists. PMID:25339726

  2. Convergent patterns in the evolution of mealybug symbioses involving different intrabacterial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Gitta; Schulz, Frederik; Toenshoff, Elena R; Volland, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Omri M; Belkin, Shimshon; Horn, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Mealybugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) maintain obligatory relationships with bacterial symbionts, which provide essential nutrients to their insect hosts. Most pseudococcinae mealybugs harbor a unique symbiosis setup with enlarged betaproteobacterial symbionts ('Candidatus Tremblaya princeps'), which themselves contain gammaproteobacterial symbionts. Here we investigated the symbiosis of the manna mealybug, Trabutina mannipara, using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the intrabacterial symbiont of T. mannipara represents a novel lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the tentative name 'Candidatus Trabutinella endobia'. Combining our results with previous data available for the nested symbiosis of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, we show that synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins and translation-related functions partition between the symbiotic partners in a highly similar manner in the two systems, despite the distinct evolutionary origin of the intrabacterial symbionts. Bacterial genes found in both mealybug genomes and complementing missing functions in both symbioses were likely integrated in ancestral mealybugs before T. mannipara and P. citri diversified. The high level of correspondence between the two mealybug systems and their highly intertwined metabolic pathways are unprecedented. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the only known intracellular symbiosis between two bacteria and suggests that the evolution of this unique symbiosis included the replacement of intrabacterial symbionts in ancestral mealybugs.

  3. The symbiotic role of O-antigen of Burkholderia symbiont in association with host Riptortus pedestris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Park, Ha Young; Lee, Bok Luel

    2016-07-01

    Riptortus pedestris harboring Burkholderia symbiont is a useful symbiosis model to study the molecular interactions between insects and bacteria. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen is absent in the Burkholderia symbionts isolated from Riptortus guts. Here, we investigated the symbiotic role of O-antigen comprehensively in the Riptortus-Burkholderia model. Firstly, Burkholderia mutant strains deficient of O-antigen biosynthesis genes were generated and confirmed for their different patterns of the lipopolysaccharide by electrophoretic analysis. The O-antigen-deficient mutant strains initially exhibited a reduction of infectivity, having significantly lower level of symbiont population at the second-instar stage. However, both the wild-type and O-antigen mutant symbionts exhibited a similar level of symbiont population from the third-instar stage, indicating that the O-antigen deficiency did not affect the bacterial persistence in the host midgut. Taken together, we showed that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of gut symbiont plays an exclusive role in the initial symbiotic association.

  4. Whitefly genome expression reveals host-symbiont interaction in amino acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, K

    2015-01-01

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) complex is a serious insect pest of several crop plants worldwide. It comprises several morphologically indistinguishable species, however very little is known about their genetic divergence and biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex and analyzed the interaction of host-symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. We obtained about 83 million reads using Illumina sequencing that assembled into 72716 unitigs. A total of 21129 unitigs were annotated at stringent parameters. Annotated unitigs were mapped to 52847 gene ontology (GO) terms and 131 Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Expression analysis of the genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis pathways revealed the complementation between whitefly and its symbiont partner Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum. Most of the non-essential amino acids and intermediates of essential amino acid pathways were supplied by the host insect to its symbiont. The symbiont expressed the pathways for the essential amino acids arginine, threonine and tryptophan and the immediate precursors of valine, leucine, isoleucine and phenyl-alanine. High level expression of the amino acid transporters in the whitefly suggested the molecular mechanisms for the exchange of amino acids between the host and the symbiont. Our study provides a comprehensive transcriptome data for Asia 1 species of B. tabaci complex that focusses light on integration of host and symbiont genes in amino acid biosynthesis pathways.

  5. Negative Fitness Consequences and Transmission Dynamics of a Heritable Fungal Symbiont of a Parasitic Wasp▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cara M.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2009-01-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations. PMID:19286783

  6. Vitamin supplementation by gut symbionts ensures metabolic homeostasis in an insect host.

    PubMed

    Salem, Hassan; Bauer, Eugen; Strauss, Anja S; Vogel, Heiko; Marz, Manja; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-12-07

    Despite the demonstrated functional importance of gut microbes, our understanding of how animals regulate their metabolism in response to nutritionally beneficial symbionts remains limited. Here, we elucidate the functional importance of the African cotton stainer's (Dysdercus fasciatus) association with two actinobacterial gut symbionts and subsequently examine the insect's transcriptional response following symbiont elimination. In line with bioassays demonstrating the symbionts' contribution towards host fitness through the supplementation of B vitamins, comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes involved in import and processing of B vitamins revealed an upregulation of gene expression in aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) compared with symbiotic individuals; an expression pattern that is indicative of B vitamin deficiency in animals. Normal expression levels of these genes, however, can be restored by either artificial supplementation of B vitamins into the insect's diet or reinfection with the actinobacterial symbionts. Furthermore, the functional characterization of the differentially expressed thiamine transporter 2 through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirms its role in cellular uptake of vitamin B1. These findings demonstrate that despite an extracellular localization, beneficial gut microbes can be integral to the host's metabolic homeostasis, reminiscent of bacteriome-localized intracellular mutualists.

  7. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  8. Bacterial symbionts in insects or the story of communities affecting communities.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Julia; Vavre, Fabrice

    2011-05-12

    Bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and other animals. Most of them are predominantly vertically transmitted, along with their hosts' genes, and thus extend the heritable genetic variation present in one species. These passengers have a variety of repercussions on the host's phenotypes: besides the cost imposed on the host for maintaining the symbiont population, they can provide fitness advantages to the host or manipulate the host's reproduction. We argue that insect symbioses are ideal model systems for community genetics. First, bacterial symbionts directly or indirectly affect the interactions with other species within a community. Examples include their involvement in modifying the use of host plants by phytophagous insects, in providing resistance to natural enemies, but also in reducing the global genetic diversity or gene flow between populations within some species. Second, one emerging picture in insect symbioses is that many species are simultaneously infected with more than one symbiont, which permits studying the factors that shape bacterial communities; for example, horizontal transmission, interactions between host genotype, symbiont genotype and the environment and interactions among symbionts. One conclusion is that insects' symbiotic complements are dynamic communities that affect and are affected by the communities in which they are embedded.

  9. Convergent patterns in the evolution of mealybug symbioses involving different intrabacterial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Gitta; Schulz, Frederik; Toenshoff, Elena R; Volland, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Omri M; Belkin, Shimshon; Horn, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Mealybugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) maintain obligatory relationships with bacterial symbionts, which provide essential nutrients to their insect hosts. Most pseudococcinae mealybugs harbor a unique symbiosis setup with enlarged betaproteobacterial symbionts (‘Candidatus Tremblaya princeps'), which themselves contain gammaproteobacterial symbionts. Here we investigated the symbiosis of the manna mealybug, Trabutina mannipara, using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the intrabacterial symbiont of T. mannipara represents a novel lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the tentative name ‘Candidatus Trabutinella endobia'. Combining our results with previous data available for the nested symbiosis of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, we show that synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins and translation-related functions partition between the symbiotic partners in a highly similar manner in the two systems, despite the distinct evolutionary origin of the intrabacterial symbionts. Bacterial genes found in both mealybug genomes and complementing missing functions in both symbioses were likely integrated in ancestral mealybugs before T. mannipara and P. citri diversified. The high level of correspondence between the two mealybug systems and their highly intertwined metabolic pathways are unprecedented. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the only known intracellular symbiosis between two bacteria and suggests that the evolution of this unique symbiosis included the replacement of intrabacterial symbionts in ancestral mealybugs. PMID:27983719

  10. Phylogenetic relationship between symbionts of tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma and the sediment microbial community in Kagoshima Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Ajit Kumar; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kwon, Yong Min; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Sato, Takako; Kato, Chiaki; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Vestimentiferan tubeworms acquire their symbionts through horizontal transmission from the surrounding environment. In the present study, we constructed a 16S rRNA gene clone library to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between diverse microbes in the sediment and symbiotic bacteria in the trophosome of the tubeworm, Lamellibrachia satsuma, from Kagoshima Bay, Japan. Two symbiotic bacterial phylotypes belonging to the classes γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria were found from this tubeworm trophosome. They were very closely related to the symbionts of several other marine invertebrates. The most predominant bacteria in the sediment were ɛ-Proteobacteria. A broad diversity of bacteria belonged to non-proteobacterial phyla such as Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi was observed. The presence of sulfur oxidizers (i.e., ɛ-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria) and sulfur reducers (i.e., δ-Proteobacteria) may play a significant role in the sulfur cycle in these habitats and provide multiple sources of nutrition to the cold-seep communities. Closely related clones of ɛ-Proteobacteria symbiont in the species level and of γ-Proteobacteria symbiont in the genus level were found in the surrounding sediment. The similarity of symbiont clones of L. satsuma with other symbionts and free-living bacteria suggests the possibility of opportunistic symbiosis in ɛ-Proteobacteria and the co-evolution of γ-Proteobacteria having occurred after symbiosis with the tubeworms.

  11. The Costs of Policing: Psychosocial Capital and Mental Health Outcomes in a Nigeria Police Sample.

    PubMed

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Balogun, Shyngle K

    2015-10-14

    This study examined the influence of psychosocial capital (psychological and workplace social capital) on mental health outcomes among 340 police personnel in Nigeria. Data were collected via anonymously completed questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling, and the results revealed that in the context of stress and traumatic stress, resilience p < .05, optimism p < .05, self-efficacy p < .05, hope p < .05, and workplace social capital p < .05 can influence the development of mental health problems or adaptation. The findings imply that it is important that both researchers and police organization pay attention to how psychological capital influence the development of psychopathology or resilience and how such issues can be addressed through psychological training in the workplace.

  12. Evidence of indirect symbiont conferred protection against the predatory lady beetle Harmonia axyridis in the pea aphid.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Jennifer L; Wolf, Candice; Voisin, Dené; Wolf, Seth

    2017-07-11

    Defensive symbionts can provide significant fitness advantages to their hosts. Facultative symbionts can protect several species of aphid from fungal pathogens, heat shock, and parasitism by parasitoid wasps. Previous work found that two of these facultative symbionts can also indirectly protect pea aphids from predation by the lady beetle Hippocampus convergens. When aphids reproduce asexually, there is extremely high relatedness among aphid clone-mates and often very limited dispersal. Under these conditions, symbionts may indirectly protect aphid clone-mates from predation by negatively affecting the survival of a predator after the consumption of aphids harboring the same vertically transmitted facultative symbionts. In this study, we wanted to determine whether this indirect protection extended to another lady beetle species, Harmonia axyridis. We fed Ha. axyridis larvae aphids from one of four aphid sub-clonal symbiont lines which all originated from the same naturally symbiont free clonal aphid lineage. Three of the sub-clonal lines harbor different facultative symbionts that were introduced to the lines via microinjection. Therefore these sub-clonal lineages vary primarily in their symbiont composition, not their genetic background. We found that aphid facultative symbionts affected larval survival as well as pupal survival in their predator Ha. axyridis. Additionally, Ha. axyridis larvae fed aphids with the Regiella symbiont had significantly longer larval developmental times than beetle larvae fed other aphids, and females fed aphids with the Regiella symbiont as larvae weighed less as adults. These fitness effects were different from those previously found in another aphid predator Hi. convergens suggesting that the fitness effects may not be the same in different aphid predators. Overall, our findings suggest that some aphid symbionts may indirectly benefit their clonal aphid hosts by negatively impacting the development and survival of a lady beetle

  13. [Health status analysis of Guangzhou traffic police officers in 2013].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Duan, Danping; Duan, Chuanwei; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yimin

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the health examination results of Guangzhou traffic police officers in 2013, and to investigate their health status and provide a scientific basis for the health management of traffic police officers. The physical examination data of the Guangzhou traffic police officers in 2013 were analyzed. The data were sorted in Excel and analyzed using SPSS software. The results showed that 82.95%of the Guangzhou traffic police officers who underwent physical examination in our hospital in 2013 had diseases or abnormal examination indices. The diseases or abnormal examination indices that ranked among the top three were hyperlipidemia (53.70%), hyperuricemia (46.51%), and overweight/obesity (43.43%). All diseases or abnormal examination indices except thyroid diseases were significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.05). The proportion of diseases or abnormal examination indices varied significantly between different age groups (P < 0.05). Among the 345 female traffic police officers, the prevalence of mammary gland hyperplasia or mammary nodules was the highest, and the prevalence of mammary gland hyperplasia or mammary nodules, cervicitis, and uterine fibroids varied significantly between different age groups (P < 0.05). The health problems in Guangzhou traffic police officers are serious, especially chronic noninfectious diseases. Therefore, both society and individuals should take effective measures in order to deal with this problem. Regular health check-ups are necessary to promote good health for Guangzhou traffic police officers.

  14. Effects of a Comprehensive Police Suicide Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Brian L.; Martin, Normand

    2012-01-01

    Background: Police suicides are an important problem, and many police forces have high rates. Montreal police suicide rates were slightly higher than other Quebec police rates in the 11 years before the program began (30.5/100,000 per year vs. 26.0/100,000). Aims: To evaluate Together for Life, a suicide prevention program for the Montreal police. Methods: All 4,178 members of the Montreal police participated. The program involved training for all officers, supervisors, and union representatives as well as establishing a volunteer helpline and a publicity campaign. Outcome measures included suicide rates, pre-post assessments of learning, focus groups, interviews, and follow-up of supervisors. Results: In the 12 years since the program began the suicide rate decreased by 79% (6.4/100,000), while other Quebec police rates had a nonsignificant (11%) increase (29.0/100,000). Also, knowledge increased, supervisors engaged in effective interventions, and the activities were highly appreciated. Limitations: Possibly some unidentified factors unrelated to the program could have influenced the observed changes. Conclusions: The decrease in suicides appears to be related to this program since suicide rates for comparable populations did not decrease and there were no major changes in functioning, training, or recruitment to explain the differences. Comprehensive suicide prevention programs tailored to the work environment may significantly impact suicide rates. PMID:22450038

  15. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  16. [Risk and (in)security in the police mission].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Adorno, Sérgio

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a discussion on the history and use of the concepts of risk and security applied to the police officer's mission. The text is developed in an essay format that shows how both terms developed under the constitution of modern industrial societies. The authors begin with the assumption that the organizational structure of the police in various parts of the world retains the same logic since they were created during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and that this format is in crisis: whether it is because the concept of risk and current management thereof has now become much broader; or because the concept of security has also deepened and broadened, fleeing from the scope of the police institution. The crisis of the police apparatus is an international issue and the authors point to the case of the French police. Reverting to the thoughts of important authors in the sociological area, the authors resume the debate on some issues that they consider urgent: reformulation of the breadth of the concepts of risk and security to understand the police mission; enhancement of the police inside and outside corporations; review of the weight of the hierarchical rigidity or inflexibility on careers in a plural and flexible society.

  17. Police liaison and section 136: comparison of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Oliver; Dye, Stephen; Obeng-Asare, Franklin; Nguyen, Nam; Wright, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Aims and method Two police liaison and section 136 schemes were developed alongside police services at different sites within the same NHS trust. In one, a mental health nurse worked with frontline police attending incidents related to mental health. The other involved nurses providing advice from the police control room. Section 136 detentions were measured over two 6-month periods (6 months apart) before and after practice change. Data analysed included total numbers of section 136 assessments, outcomes following subsequent assessment, and relevant diagnostic and demographic factors. Association of any change in section 136 total numbers and proportion subsequently admitted was investigated in both sites. Results The model involving a nurse alongside frontline police showed significant reduction in section 136 numbers (38%, P < 0.01) as well as greater admission rates (P = 0.01). The scheme involving support within the police control room did not show any change in section 136 detention but showed a non-significant (P = 0.16) decrease in subsequent admission. Clinical implications Mental health nurses working alongside frontline police officers can help improve section 136 numbers and outcomes.

  18. Police liaison and section 136: comparison of two different approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Oliver; Dye, Stephen; Obeng-Asare, Franklin; Nguyen, Nam; Wright, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method Two police liaison and section 136 schemes were developed alongside police services at different sites within the same NHS trust. In one, a mental health nurse worked with frontline police attending incidents related to mental health. The other involved nurses providing advice from the police control room. Section 136 detentions were measured over two 6-month periods (6 months apart) before and after practice change. Data analysed included total numbers of section 136 assessments, outcomes following subsequent assessment, and relevant diagnostic and demographic factors. Association of any change in section 136 total numbers and proportion subsequently admitted was investigated in both sites. Results The model involving a nurse alongside frontline police showed significant reduction in section 136 numbers (38%, P < 0.01) as well as greater admission rates (P = 0.01). The scheme involving support within the police control room did not show any change in section 136 detention but showed a non-significant (P = 0.16) decrease in subsequent admission. Clinical implications Mental health nurses working alongside frontline police officers can help improve section 136 numbers and outcomes. PMID:28400964

  19. Review of police inquiries to an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R; Rainer, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the workload generated by police inquiries to an accident and emergency (A&E) department and the adherence of medical staff to departmental guidelines relating to these inquiries. DESIGN: Prospective analysis of the number, nature, and timing of police inquiries and the information released by medical staff. SETTING: A&E department of an inner city teaching hospital. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of personal and telephone requests for information from police; completion of a form of inquiry; record of patient consent for release of information. RESULTS: A daily average of 8.7 police inquiries were made, but in only 10% of cases was a form of inquiry completed. The patient's consent for release of information to the police was recorded in 4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Police inquiries generate a significant workload for an A&E department, often at clinically busy times. Medical staff need further education to ensure that patient confidentiality is respected while assisting the police with their investigations. Images Figure 2 PMID:8947799

  20. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions.

    PubMed

    Habersaat, Stephanie A; Geiger, Ashley M; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-10-01

    Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions

    PubMed Central

    Habersaat, Stephanie A.; Geiger, Ashley M.; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. Methods A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. Results In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. PMID:26364008

  2. Algal endosymbiosis in brown hydra: host/symbiont specificity.

    PubMed

    Rahat, M; Reich, V

    1986-12-01

    Host/symbiont specificity has been investigated in non-symbiotic and aposymbiotic brown and green hydra infected with various free-living and symbiotic species and strains of Chlorella and Chlorococcum. Morphology and ultrastructure of the symbioses obtained have been compared. Aposymbiotic Swiss Hydra viridis and Japanese H. magnipapillata served as controls. In two strains of H. attenuata stable hereditary symbioses were obtained with Chlorococcum isolated from H. magnipapillata. In one strain of H. vulgaris, in H. oligactis and in aposymbiotic H. viridis chlorococci persisted for more than a week. Eight species of free-living Chlorococcum, 10 symbiotic and 10 free-living strains of Chlorella disappeared from the brown hydra within 1-2 days. In H. magnipapillata there was a graded distribution of chlorococci along the polyps. In hypostomal cells there were greater than 30 algae/cell while in endodermal cells of the mid-section or peduncle less than 10 algae/cell were found. In H. attenuata the algal distribution was irregular, there were up to five chlorocci/cell, and up to 20 cells/hydra hosted algae. In the dark most cells of Chlorococcum disappeared from H. magnipapillata and aposymbiotic hydra were obtained. Chlorococcum is thus an obligate phototroph, and host-dependent heterotrophy is not required for the preservation of a symbiosis. The few chlorococci that survived in the dark seem to belong to a less-demanding physiological strain. In variance with known Chlorella/H. viridis endosymbioses the chlorococci in H. magnipapillata and H. attenuata were tightly enveloped in the vacuolar membrane of the hosting cells with no visible perialgal space. Chlorococcum reproduced in these vacuoles and up to eight daughter cells were found within the same vacuole. We suggest that the graded or scant distribution of chlorococci in the various brown hydra, their inability to live in H. viridis and the inability of the various chlorellae to live in brown hydra are the

  3. Superresolution imaging captures carbohydrate utilization dynamics in human gut symbionts.

    PubMed

    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S; Cameron, Elizabeth A; Martens, Eric C; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Biteen, Julie S

    2014-11-11

    Gut microbes play a key role in human health and nutrition by catabolizing a wide variety of glycans via enzymatic activities that are not encoded in the human genome. The ability to recognize and process carbohydrates strongly influences the structure of the gut microbial community. While the effects of diet on the microbiota are well documented, little is known about the molecular processes driving metabolism. To provide mechanistic insight into carbohydrate catabolism in gut symbionts, we studied starch processing in real time in the model Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) by single-molecule fluorescence. Although previous studies have explored Sus protein structure and function, the transient interactions, assembly, and collaboration of these outer membrane proteins have not yet been elucidated in live cells. Our live-cell superresolution imaging reveals that the polymeric starch substrate dynamically recruits Sus proteins, serving as an external scaffold for bacterial membrane assembly of the Sus complex, which may promote efficient capturing and degradation of starch. Furthermore, by simultaneously localizing multiple Sus outer membrane proteins on the B. thetaiotaomicron cell surface, we have characterized the dynamics and stoichiometry of starch-induced Sus complex assembly on the molecular scale. Finally, based on Sus protein knockout strains, we have discerned the mechanism of starch-induced Sus complex assembly in live anaerobic cells with nanometer-scale resolution. Our insights into the starch-induced outer membrane protein assembly central to this conserved nutrient uptake mechanism pave the way for the development of dietary or pharmaceutical therapies to control Bacteroidetes in the intestinal tract to enhance human health and treat disease. In this study, we used nanometer-scale superresolution imaging to reveal dynamic interactions between the proteins involved in starch processing by the prominent human gut symbiont

  4. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of institution...

  5. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to the...

  6. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of institution...

  7. Expanding Police Educators' Understanding of Teaching, Are They as Learner-Centred as They Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipton, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Police educators, that is, police and non-police teachers involved in recruit education and training, have traditionally suffered from a lack of organisational focus on developing their teaching and learning practices. The New South Wales (NSW) Police College, which is currently implementing Problem Based Learning (PBL), has begun to take a more…

  8. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of institution...

  9. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to the...

  10. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  11. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of institution...

  12. 28 CFR 92.2 - Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Police Corps? 92.2 Section 92.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.2 Am I eligible to apply to participate in the Police Corps? (a) You should consider applying to the...

  13. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  14. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  15. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  16. A Study of the Values and Attitudes of Black and White Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teahan, John E.

    Better understanding, openness, and trust among black and white police officers would increase police effectiveness in dealing with police-community relations. This study discusses a program to improve black-white police relations through role playing techniques and small group interactions on problems of human relationships. Longitudinal in…

  17. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  18. Twenty-First Century Police Training: Recruits' Problem-Solving Skills Following Scenario-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse requirements of 21st-century police work and the increasing emphasis on community-policing philosophy, the Los Angeles Police Department has implemented changes within its academy curricula and methods of instruction, including the use of adult-learning concepts, a community policing problem-solving model known as…

  19. Correlates of Police Involvement among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tint, Ami; Palucka, Anna M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to describe police interactions, satisfaction with police engagement, as well as examine correlates of police involvement among 284 adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed over a 12- to 18-month period. Approximately 16% of individuals were reported to have some form of police involvement during the…

  20. Ten years of police defibrillation: program characteristics and personnel attitudes.

    PubMed

    Papson, Kendra; Mosesso, Vincent N

    2005-01-01

    In 1992,a study to evaluate the effectiveness of police defibrillation was initiated in seven suburban police departments. This paper describes the characteristics of those programs and the attitudes of chiefs and officers ten years after the commencement of that study. A 32-item survey instrument including questions on department demographics, defibrillation program characteristics, and attitudes was mailed to the chiefs. A separate 25-item survey was developed to assess officers' attitudes; a non-management officer distributed and collected these surveys anonymously. Responses are reported descriptively. All seven chiefs and 78% of the officers completed surveys. Police arrive prior to emergency medical services on 80% or more of calls, with a mean +/- standard deviation response interval of 3.1 +/-1.7 minutes. All departments identify a program coordinator and six a medical director; three departments have a quality-improvement program. Five departments have liability coverage for the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED), and no department reported any liability-related problems. Five of the chiefs and 82% of the officers disagreed or strongly disagreed that liability issues are a concern or a source of hesitation in using the AED. Ninety-six percent of the officers agreed or strongly agreed that police AED use is beneficial to cardiac arrest victims. All seven police chiefs and 89% of the officers agreed or strongly agreed that AED use by police is appropriate. In these seven police departments with ten years of program experience, defibrillation has become integrated into the law-enforcement culture. Liability issues are not a prominent concern of chiefs or officers. Police chiefs and officers in these departments continue to support police-based defibrillation programs.

  1. Co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. To complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium Portiera aleyrodidarum. B. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbionts, including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea. T. vaporariorum is only known to harbor P. aleyrodidarum and Arsenophonus. We conducted a study to survey the distribution of whitefly species in Croatia, their infection status by secondary symbionts, and the spatial distribution of these symbionts in the developmental stages of the two whitefly species. Results T. vaporariorum was found to be the predominant whitefly species across Croatia, while only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found across the coastal part of the country. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were detected in collected T. vaporariorum populations, however, not all populations harbored both symbionts, and both symbionts showed 100% infection rate in some of the populations. Only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found in the populations tested and they harbored Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium, while Arsenophonus and Fritschea were not detected in any B. tabaci populations. None of the detected symbionts appeared in all populations tested, and multiple infections were detected in some of the populations. All endosymbionts tested were localized inside the bacteriocyte in both species, but only Rickettsia and Cardinium in B. tabaci showed additional localization outside the bacteriocyte. Conclusions Our study revealed unique co-infection patterns by secondary symbionts in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum. Co-sharing of the bacteriocyte by the primary

  2. Genome reduction and co-evolution between the primary and secondary bacterial symbionts of psyllids.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Moran, Nancy A

    2012-12-01

    Genome reduction in obligately intracellular bacteria is one of the most well-established patterns in the field of molecular evolution. In the extreme, many sap-feeding insects harbor nutritional symbionts with genomes that are so reduced that it is not clear how they perform basic cellular functions. For example, the primary symbiont of psyllids (Carsonella) maintains one of the smallest and most AT-rich bacterial genomes ever identified and has surprisingly lost many genes that are thought to be essential for its role in provisioning its host with amino acids. However, our understanding of this extreme case of genome reduction is limited, as genomic data for Carsonella are available from only a single host species, and little is known about the functional role of "secondary" bacterial symbionts in psyllids. To address these limitations, we analyzed complete Carsonella genomes from pairs of congeneric hosts in three divergent genera within the Psyllidae (Ctenarytaina, Heteropsylla, and Pachypsylla) as well as complete secondary symbiont genomes from two of these host species (Ctenarytaina eucalypti and Heteropsylla cubana). Although the Carsonella genomes are generally conserved in size, structure, and GC content and exhibit genome-wide signatures of purifying selection, we found that gene loss has remained active since the divergence of the host species and had a particularly large impact on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways that define the symbiotic role of Carsonella. In some cases, the presence of additional bacterial symbionts may compensate for gene loss in Carsonella, as functional gene content indicates a high degree of metabolic complementarity between co-occurring symbionts. The genomes of the secondary symbionts also show signatures of long-term evolution as vertically transmitted, intracellular bacteria, including more extensive genome reduction than typically observed in facultative symbionts. Therefore, a history of co-evolution with secondary

  3. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts.

    PubMed

    van Dam, J W; Uthicke, S; Beltran, V H; Mueller, J F; Negri, A P

    2015-09-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Streptomyces as symbionts: an emerging and widespread theme?

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are ubiquitous in soil, conferring the characteristic earthy smell, and they have an important ecological role in the turnover of organic material. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which streptomycetes are not in all cases simply free-living soil bacteria but have also evolved to live in symbiosis with plants, fungi and animals. Furthermore, much of the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces species has most likely evolved as a direct result of their interactions with other organisms. Here we review what is currently known about the role of streptomycetes as symbionts with fungi, plants and animals. These interactions can be parasitic, as is the case for scab-causing streptomycetes, which infect plants, and the Streptomyces species Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis that infect humans. However, in most cases they are beneficial and growth promoting, as is the case with many insects, plants and marine animals that use streptomycete-produced antibiotics to protect themselves against infection. This is an exciting and newly emerging field of research that will become increasingly important as the search for new antibiotics switches to unusual and under-explored environments. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  6. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  7. Standing genetic variation in host preference for mutualist microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Anna K.; Stinchcombe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Many models of mutualisms show that mutualisms are unstable if hosts lack mechanisms enabling preferential associations with mutualistic symbiotic partners over exploitative partners. Despite the theoretical importance of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms, we have little empirical evidence to infer their evolutionary dynamics in response to exploitation by non-beneficial partners. Using a model mutualism—the interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil symbionts—we tested for quantitative genetic variation in plant responses to mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic rhizobia in controlled greenhouse conditions. We found significant broad-sense heritability in a legume host's preferential association with mutualistic over exploitative symbionts and selection to reduce frequency of associations with exploitative partners. We failed to detect evidence that selection will favour the loss of mutualism-stabilizing mechanisms in the absence of exploitation, as we found no evidence for a fitness cost to the host trait or indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Our results show that genetic variation in the ability to preferentially reduce associations with an exploitative partner exists within mutualisms and is under selection, indicating that micro-evolutionary responses in mutualism-stabilizing traits in the face of rapidly evolving mutualistic and exploitative symbiotic bacteria can occur in natural host populations. PMID:25355477

  8. Linking symbiont community structures in a model arbuscular mycorrhizal system.

    PubMed

    Meadow, James F; Zabinski, Catherine A

    2012-05-01

    • The influence of plant communities on symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities is difficult to study in situ as both symbionts are strongly influenced by some of the same soil and environmental conditions, and thus we have a poor understanding of the potential links in community composition and structure between host and fungal communities. • AMF were characterized in colonized roots of thermal soil Mimulus guttatus in both isolated plants supporting AMF for only a few months of the growing season and plants growing in mixed plant communities composed of annual and perennial hosts. Cluster and discriminant analysis were used to compare competing models based on either communities or soil conditions. • Mimulus guttatus in adjacent contrasting plant community situations harbored distinct AMF communities with few fungal taxa occurring in both community types. Isolated plants harbored communities of fewer fungal taxa with lower diversity than plants in mixed communities. Host community type was more indicative than pH of AMF community structure. • Our results support an inherent relationship between host plant and AMF community structures, although pH-based models were also statistically supported. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Endozoicomonas Are Specific, Facultative Symbionts of Sea Squirts

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Funch, Peter; Jensen, Jeppe; Obst, Matthias; López-Legentil, Susanna; Schramm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ascidians are marine filter feeders and harbor diverse microbiota that can exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Pharyngeal samples of Scandinavian and Mediterranean ascidians were screened for consistently associated bacteria by culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Representatives of the Endozoicomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Hahellaceae) clade were detected in the ascidian species Ascidiella aspersa, Ascidiella scabra, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Styela clava, and multiple Ascidia/Ascidiella spp. In total, Endozoicomonas was detected in more than half of all specimens screened, and in 25–100% of the specimens for each species. The retrieved Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences formed an ascidian-specific subclade, whose members were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as extracellular microcolonies in the pharynx. Two strains of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were isolated in pure culture and characterized. Both strains are chemoorganoheterotrophs and grow on mucin (a mucus glycoprotein). The strains tested negative for cytotoxic or antibacterial activity. Based on these observations, we propose ascidian-associated Endozoicomonas to be commensals, living off the mucus continuously secreted into the pharynx. Members of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were also detected in seawater from the Scandinavian sampling site, which suggests acquisition of the symbionts by horizontal transmission. The combined results indicate a host-specific, yet facultative symbiosis between ascidians and Endozoicomonas. PMID:27462299

  10. Endozoicomonas Are Specific, Facultative Symbionts of Sea Squirts.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper U; Funch, Peter; Jensen, Jeppe; Obst, Matthias; López-Legentil, Susanna; Schramm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ascidians are marine filter feeders and harbor diverse microbiota that can exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Pharyngeal samples of Scandinavian and Mediterranean ascidians were screened for consistently associated bacteria by culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Representatives of the Endozoicomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Hahellaceae) clade were detected in the ascidian species Ascidiella aspersa, Ascidiella scabra, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Styela clava, and multiple Ascidia/Ascidiella spp. In total, Endozoicomonas was detected in more than half of all specimens screened, and in 25-100% of the specimens for each species. The retrieved Endozoicomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences formed an ascidian-specific subclade, whose members were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as extracellular microcolonies in the pharynx. Two strains of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were isolated in pure culture and characterized. Both strains are chemoorganoheterotrophs and grow on mucin (a mucus glycoprotein). The strains tested negative for cytotoxic or antibacterial activity. Based on these observations, we propose ascidian-associated Endozoicomonas to be commensals, living off the mucus continuously secreted into the pharynx. Members of the ascidian-specific Endozoicomonas subclade were also detected in seawater from the Scandinavian sampling site, which suggests acquisition of the symbionts by horizontal transmission. The combined results indicate a host-specific, yet facultative symbiosis between ascidians and Endozoicomonas.

  11. Superoxide Dismutase in the Symbiont Anabaena azollae Strasb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Canini, A.; Galiazzo, F.; Rotilio, G.; Caiola, M. Grilli

    1991-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase was investigated in the symbiont Anabaena azollae Strasb. living in Azolla filiculoides Lam. In vegetative cells, three isoenzymatic forms of superoxide dismutase, containing manganese, iron, and the hybrid iron-manganese, respectively, were present. Hybrid superoxide dismutase, detected for the first time in cyanobacteria, was 7% of the total superoxide dismutase present in vegetative cells. All three superoxide dismutase forms increased in the Anabaena vegetative cells obtained from irradiated plants grown in winter. In heterocysts, only an iron superoxide dismutase was present, which amounted to 25% of total vegetative cell superoxide dismutase activity. Hybrid superoxide dismutase appeared in heterocysts after irradiation. In vegetative cells of Anabaena from plants grown in summer, the basal level of total superoxide dismutase increased by 60% as compared with winter, and was unaffected by irradiation. The levels of superoxide dismutase in heterocysts from control and exposed plants grown in summer were comparable to those observed in heterocysts obtained from the plants grown during winter. No direct correlation was found between nitrogenase activity and superoxide dismutase in heterocysts. The presence of cyanophycin granules, either within the heterocyst pore channel or close to the transversal septum of vegetative cells, suggested a mechanism to stop communications between vegetative cells and heterocysts. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668392

  12. Marine sponges and their microbial symbionts: love and other relationships.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole S; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-02-01

    Many marine sponges harbour dense and diverse microbial communities of considerable ecological and biotechnological importance. While the past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity of sponge-associated microorganisms (more than 25 bacterial phyla have now been reported from sponges), it is only in the past 3-4 years that the in situ activity and function of these microbes has become a major research focus. Already the rewards of this new emphasis are evident, with genomics and experimental approaches yielding novel insights into symbiont function. Key steps in the nitrogen cycle [denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox)] have recently been demonstrated in sponges for the first time, with diverse bacteria - including the sponge-associated candidate phylum 'Poribacteria'- being implicated in these processes. In this minireview we examine recent major developments in the microbiology of sponges, and identify several research areas (e.g. biology of viruses in sponges, effects of environmental stress) that we believe are deserving of increased attention. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Temporal stability of bacterial symbionts in a temperate ascidian

    PubMed Central

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier; Espluga, Roger; Erwin, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate seas, both bacterioplankton communities and invertebrate lifecycles follow a seasonal pattern. To investigate whether the bacterial community associated with the Mediterranean ascidian Didemnum fulgens exhibited similar variations, we monitored its bacterial community structure monthly for over a year using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses based on a nearly full length fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. D. fulgens harbored a bacterial consortium typical of ascidians, including numerous members of the phylum Proteobacteria, and a few members of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria. The overall bacterial community in D. fulgens had a distinct signature from the surrounding seawater and was stable over time and across seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Bacterial symbionts were also observed around animal cells in the tunic of adult individuals and in the inner tunic of D. fulgens larvae by transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that, as seen for sponges and corals, some species of ascidians host stable and unique bacterial communities that are at least partially inherited by their progeny by vertical transmission. PMID:26441944

  14. Comparative Genomics of a Parthenogenesis-Inducing Wolbachia Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Amelia R. I.; Werren, John H.; Richards, Stephen; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia is an intracellular symbiont of invertebrates responsible for inducing a wide variety of phenotypes in its host. These host-Wolbachia relationships span the continuum from reproductive parasitism to obligate mutualism, and provide a unique system to study genomic changes associated with the evolution of symbiosis. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain (wTpre) infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum. The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of 496 sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. In the wTpre genome, there is evidence for truncation of the protein coding sequences in 20% of ORFs, mostly as a result of frameshift mutations. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects. We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain. PMID:27194801

  15. The Integrated National Police in Philippine Counterinsurgency Operations -- The Great Difference.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Continued) 7-. I Recent developments in the Philippine local police system have proved the police has a significant role in the overall government...administrativ operational and logistical support, training, and the proper leadership at all levels of command, the local police as a national organization...against Communist insurgency. F, Recent developments in the Philippine local police system have proved the police has a significant role in the overall

  16. The geographical patterns of symbiont diversity in the invasive legume Mimosa pudica can be explained by the competitiveness of its symbionts and by the host genotype.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, Rémy; Moulin, Lionel; Béna, Gilles; Tisseyre, Pierre; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Heulin, Karine; Rezkallah, Naïma; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gonzalez, Sophie; Simon, Marcelo; Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    Variations in the patterns of diversity of symbionts have been described worldwide on Mimosa pudica, a pan-tropical invasive species that interacts with both α and β-rhizobia. In this study, we investigated if symbiont competitiveness can explain these variations and the apparent prevalence of β- over α-rhizobia. We developed an indirect method to measure the proportion of nodulation against a GFP reference strain and tested its reproducibility and efficiency. We estimated the competitiveness of 54 strains belonging to four species of β-rhizobia and four of α-rhizobia, and the influence of the host genotype on their competitiveness. Our results were compared with biogeographical patterns of symbionts and host varieties. We found: (i) a strong strain effect on competitiveness largely explained by the rhizobial species, with Burkholderia phymatum being the most competitive species, followed by B. tuberum, whereas all other species shared similar and reduced levels of competitiveness; (ii) plant genotype can increase the competitiveness of Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The latter data support the likelihood of the strong adaptation of C. taiwanensis with the M. pudica var. unijuga and help explain its prevalence as a symbiont of this variety over Burkholderia species in some environments, most notably in Taiwan.

  17. Effective State, Local, and Tribal Police Intelligence: The New York City Police Department’s Intelligence Enterprise -- A Smart Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Sir Robert Peel, former prime minister (1834–35 and 1841–46) and home secretary of the United Kingdom, is known as the father of modern policing...of criminals (NYPD, 2000). 1. Three Cs Sir Robert Peel’s seminal premise for policing, “the basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent...with wanted to “do jihad.” The suspects, James Cromitie, David Williams , Onta Williams , and Laguerre Payen, talked about Jash-e-Mohammed, an 80 FBI

  18. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F.; dos Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Methods Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Key Results Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the ‘Old World’ Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. Conclusions The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the ‘local’ Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial. PMID:23712450

  19. An invasive Mimosa in India does not adopt the symbionts of its native relatives.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Tak, Nisha; Kaushik, Muskan; Mitra, Shubhajit; Chen, Wen-Ming; Poweleit, Nicole; Panwar, Dheeren; Poonar, Neetu; Parihar, Rashmita; Tak, Alkesh; Sankhla, Indu Singh; Ojha, Archana; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Simon, Marcelo F; Reis Junior, Fabio Bueno Dos; Perigolo, Natalia; Tripathi, Anil K; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2013-07-01

    The large monophyletic genus Mimosa comprises approx. 500 species, most of which are native to the New World, with Central Brazil being the main centre of radiation. All Brazilian Mimosa spp. so far examined are nodulated by rhizobia in the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia. Approximately 10 Mya, transoceanic dispersal resulted in the Indian subcontinent hosting up to six endemic Mimosa spp. The nodulation ability and rhizobial symbionts of two of these, M. hamata and M. himalayana, both from north-west India, are here examined, and compared with those of M. pudica, an invasive species. Nodules were collected from several locations, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Rhizobia isolated from them were characterized in terms of their abilities to nodulate the three Mimosa hosts. The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the rhizobia were determined by analysis of 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA gene sequences. Both native Indian Mimosa spp. nodulated effectively in their respective rhizosphere soils. Based on 16S rRNA, nifH and nodA sequences, their symbionts were identified as belonging to the alphaproteobacterial genus Ensifer, and were closest to the 'Old World' Ensifer saheli, E. kostiensis and E. arboris. In contrast, the invasive M. pudica was predominantly nodulated by Betaproteobacteria in the genera Cupriavidus and Burkholderia. All rhizobial strains tested effectively nodulated their original hosts, but the symbionts of the native species could not nodulate M. pudica. The native Mimosa spp. in India are not nodulated by the Burkholderia symbionts of their South American relatives, but by a unique group of alpha-rhizobial microsymbionts that are closely related to the 'local' Old World Ensifer symbionts of other mimosoid legumes in north-west India. They appear not to share symbionts with the invasive M. pudica, symbionts of which are mostly beta-rhizobial.

  20. Bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Toenshoff, Elena R; Penz, Thomas; Narzt, Thomas; Collingro, Astrid; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Stefan; Klepal, Waltraud; Wagner, Michael; Weinmaier, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Adelgids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Adelgidae) are known as severe pests of various conifers in North America, Canada, Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first molecular identification of bacteriocyte-associated symbionts in these plant sap-sucking insects. Three geographically distant populations of members of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex, identified based on coI and ef1alpha gene sequences, were investigated. Electron and light microscopy revealed two morphologically different endosymbionts, coccoid or polymorphic, which are located in distinct bacteriocytes. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences assigned both symbionts to novel lineages within the Gammaproteobacteria sharing <92% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with each other and showing no close relationship with known symbionts of insects. Their identity and intracellular location were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the names ‘Candidatus Steffania adelgidicola' and ‘Candidatus Ecksteinia adelgidicola' are proposed for tentative classification. Both symbionts were present in all individuals of all investigated populations and in different adelgid life stages including eggs, suggesting vertical transmission from mother to offspring. An 85 kb genome fragment of ‘Candidatus S. adelgidicola' was reconstructed based on a metagenomic library created from purified symbionts. Genomic features including the frequency of pseudogenes, the average length of intergenic regions and the presence of several genes which are absent in other long-term obligate symbionts, suggested that ‘Candidatus S. adelgidicola' is an evolutionarily young bacteriocyte-associated symbiont, which has been acquired after diversification of adelgids from their aphid sister group. PMID:21833037