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Sample records for castor oil polymer

  1. ROMP-based thermosetting polymers from modified castor oil with various cross-linking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Rui

    Polymers derived from bio-renewable resources are finding an increase in global demand. In addition, polymers with distinctive functionalities are required in certain advanced fields, such as aerospace and civil engineering. In an attempt to meet both these needs, the goal of this work aims to develop a range of bio-based thermosetting matrix polymers for potential applications in multifunctional composites. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), which recently has been explored as a powerful method in polymer chemistry, was employed as a unique pathway to polymerize agricultural oil-based reactants. Specifically, a novel norbornyl-functionalized castor oil alcohol (NCA) was investigated to polymerize different cross-linking agents using ROMP. The effects of incorporating dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and a norbornene-based crosslinker (CL) were systematically evaluated with respect to curing behavior and thermal mechanical properties of the polymers. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the conversion during cure. Dynamic DSC scans at multiple heating rates revealed conversion-dependent activation energy by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall analysis. The glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and loss modulus for NCA/DCPD and NCA/CL copolymers with different cross-linking agent loading were compared using dynamic mechanical analysis. Cross-link density was examined to explain the very different dynamic mechanical behavior. Mechanical stress-strain curves were developed through tensile test, and thermal stability of the cross-linked polymers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis to further investigate the structure-property relationships in these systems.

  2. Castor oil polymer induces bone formation with high matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Saran, Wallace Rocha; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) expression in newly formed bone tissue at the interface between implants derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) polymer and the tibia medullary canal. Forty-four rabbits were assigned to either Group 1 (n = 12; control) or Group 2 (n = 30), which had the tibial medullary canals reamed bilaterally and filled with polymer. CT scans showed no space between the material surface and the bone at the implant/bone marrow interface, and the density of the tissues at this interface was similar to the density measured of other regions of the bone. At 90 days postimplantation, the interface with the polymer presented a thick layer of newly formed bone tissue rich in osteocytes. This tissue exhibited ongoing maturation at 120 and 150 days postimplantation. Overall, bone remodeling process was accompanied by positive modulation of MMP-2 and low MMP-9 expression. Differently, in control group, the internal surface close to the medullary canal was lined by osteoblasts, followed by a bone tissue zone with few lacunae filled with osteocytes. Maturation of the tissue of the medullary internal surface occurred in the inner region, with the bone being nonlamellar.

  3. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  4. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  5. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The...

  7. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  8. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with...

  9. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  10. Castor oil: Biosynthesis and Uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil is unique among commodity oils in its fatty acid composition, which consists of 90% ricinoleate, (12-hydroxy-octadec-cis 9-enoate). The mid-chain hydroxyl group imparts physical and chemical properties that make it useful in many industrial applications. Among its uses are lithium grease,...

  11. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.

  12. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  13. Synthesis of novel castor oil phosphonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil has served as a versatile hydroxy fatty acid (HFA); its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applications. Additionally, phosphonates and their corresponding phosphonic acids are a functional moiety that ha...

  14. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  15. DEVELOPING A SAFE SOURCE OF CASTOR OIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop with significant industrial value. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S albumins in its seed. We are thus investigating the possibility of developing a safe source...

  16. Castor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) has the potential to become the premier oil crop for industrial oil production across the glove and is an ideal candidate for production of high value, industrial oil because of the very high oil content (48-60%) of the seed, the extremely high levels of potential oil pr...

  17. Rapid development of a castor cultivar with increased oil content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor seed oil contains 90% ricinoleic acid which has a wide range of industrial applications. Improvement in oil content would be of great benefit to castor growers and oil processers. Two cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection were conducted through screening for high oil content castor seeds u...

  18. 75 FR 44917 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...-0232; FRL-8835-3] Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Dioleate; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate; when used as an inert ingredient... permissible level for residues of castor oil, ethoxylated, dioleate on food or feed commodities. DATES:...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Castor oil, hydrogenated. 178.3280 Section 178.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3280 Castor oil, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated castor oil...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Castor oil, hydrogenated. 178.3280 Section 178.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 178.3280 Castor oil, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated castor oil may be safely used in the manufacture of...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Castor oil, hydrogenated. 178.3280 Section 178.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3280 Castor oil, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated castor oil...

  2. Phenylpropanoid esters of lesquerella and castor oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella (LO) and castor oil (CO) were esterified at the secondary hydroxyl groups of their 14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic fatty acids and 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic fatty acids, respectively, with 4-acetoxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (acetoxyferulic acid). The unconventional esterifications were co...

  3. Reconstruction of the Cranial Vault Contour Using Tissue Expander and Castor Oil Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Sylvio Luiz Costa; Afonso, Alexandre Maurity de Paula; Santos, Roberto Gomes Dos; Mattos, Ricardo Pereira; Duarte, E Bruno Gomes

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays the reconstruction of craniofacial defects can be performed with different kinds of materials, which include the bone and the so-called biomaterials, which have the advantage of not needing a surgical site donor. Among these materials, great attention is given to polymers. In this large group, current attention is focused on the castor oil polymer, since this polymer is biocompatible, low cost, and has adequate strength for reconstruction of the craniomaxillofacial complex. This study aims to report the use of a prosthetic castor oil polymer for reconstruction of extensive defect, caused by a trauma, in the temporoparietal region.

  4. Castor oil polyurethane containing silica nanoparticles as filling material of bone defect in rats.

    PubMed

    Nacer, Renato Silva; Poppi, Rodrigo Ré; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo de; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Delben, José Renato Jurkevicz; Delben, Angela Antonia Sanches Tardivo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the biologic behavior of the castor polymer containing silica nanoparticles as a bone substitute in diafisary defect. Twenty seven male Rattus norvegicus albinus Wistar lineage were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. Three experimental groups had been formed with nine animals each: (1) castor oil polymer containing only calcium carbonate; (2) castor oil polymer with calcium carbonate and doped with 5% of silica nanoparticles; (3) castor polymer with calcium carbonate doped with 10% of silica nanoparticles; 3 animals of each group were submitted to euthanasia 15, 30 and 60 days after experimental procedure, and their femurs were removed to histological evaluation. there was bone growth in all the studied groups, with a greater tendency of growth in the group 1. After 30 days all the groups presented similar results. After 60 days a greater amount of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts in group 3 was observed, with integrated activity of 3 kinds of cells involved in the bone activation-reabsorption-formation. The castor polymer associated to the silica nanoparticles is biocompatible and allows osteoconduction. The presence of osteoprogenitors cells suggests silica osteoinduction capacity.

  5. Development of Castor-Oil-Resistant Polyurethane Sonar Encapsulants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7D-S? 576 DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR- OIL -RESISTANT POLYURETHANE SONAR 1/1 ENCRPSULANTS(U) NRVAL RESEARCH LAB MASHINGTON DC UNCLSSIFED T MA3URICE ET AL. 30...ACCESSION NO. Washington, DC 23062 64503N I S0219AS (59)0584 i1 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Development of Castor- Oil -Resistant...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Castor oil -- Sonar transducer encapsulants 11 07 - Polyurethane\\ K , 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if

  6. Novel alpha-hydroxy phosphonic acids via castor oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) have found a number of uses in today’s market, with uses ranging from materials to pharmaceuticals. Castor oil has served as a versatile HFA; its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor oil and has been modified extensively for a number of applica...

  7. Prolonged local anesthetic action through slow release from poly (lactic acid co castor oil).

    PubMed

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a new formulation of bupivacaine loaded in an injectable fatty acid based biodegradable polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) in prolonging motor and sensory block when injected locally. The polyesters were synthesized from DL: -lactic acid and castor oil with feed ratio of 4:6 and 3:7 w/w. Bupivacaine was dispersed in poly(fatty ester) liquid and tested for drug release in vitro. The polymer p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 loaded with 10% bupivacaine was injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice and the duration of sensory and motor nerve blockade was measured. The DL: -lactic acid co castor oil p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 released 65% of the incorporated bupivacaine during 1 week in vitro. Single injection of 10% bupivacaine loaded into this polymer caused motor block that lasted 24 h and sensory block that lasted 48 h. Previously we developed a ricinoleic acid based polymer with incorporated bupivacaine which prolonged anesthesia to 30 h. The new polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 provides slow release of effective doses of the incorporated local anesthetic agent and prolongs anesthesia to 48 h.

  8. Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes: Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macalino, AD; Salen, VA; Reyes, LQ

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyurethanes based on castor oil and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) were synthesized with varying weight ratio of the castor oil and HMDI. The formation of urethane linkages was verified through the use of a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrophilicity of the films was evaluated through the use of a contact angle meter and it was found that the contact angle of all the films were below 90 degrees which confirms their hydrophilicity. The thermal stability of the PU films were studies through the use of a thermal gravimetric analyzer and found that all of the polyurethane films exhibited two weight loss events at elevated temperatures wherein the first weight loss event was observed to occur at 285°C to 384°C while the second weight loss event was observed at around 521°C to 551°C. The hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile elongation of the PU films were determined by using a universal testing machine (UTM) where it was found out that the hardness and the elastic modulus of the film is directly proportional with HMDI loading while the tensile elongation is inversely proportional to it. Lastly, it was known through the swelling studies of the PU films that it does not swell, this is due to the presence of unreacted triglycerides in the material, which prevents water from permeating to the films.

  9. Castor oil for induction of labour: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Neri, Isabella; Dante, Giulia; Pignatti, Lucrezia; Salvioli, Chiara; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of castor oil to induce labour. A retrospective observational case control study was conducted over five years. Castor oil was proposed to women referred to the Birth Centre (Castor Oil group (COG)). They were compared to women who chose to be followed by the traditional doctor-led unit (control group (CG)). Castor oil was administered in a 60 ml single dose in 200 ml of warm water. Inclusion criteria were gestational age between 40 and 41 weeks plus premature rupture of membranes between 12 and 18 hours or amniotic fluid index ≤4 or Bishop Score of ≤4 or absence of spontaneous labour over 41 + 4 weeks. Pharmacological induction of labour was required for 18 women in the COG (45%) and 36 in the CG (90%) (p < .001). The mode of delivery differed significantly between groups: women assuming castor oil showed a higher incidence of vaginal delivery, whereas the incidence of caesarean section was lower in the COG, but no statistical significance was reached. The use of castor oil is related to a higher probability of labour initiation within 24 hours. Castor oil can be considered a safe non-pharmacological method for labour induction.

  10. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... composition the atomic elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 3. The polymer does not contain as an integral...

  11. Long-acting poly(DL:lactic acid-castor oil) 3:7-bupivacaine formulation: effect of hydrophobic additives.

    PubMed

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2011-12-01

    To reduce formulation viscosity of bupivacaine/poly(DL lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 without increasing bupivacaine release rates. Poly(DL lactic acid) 3:7 was synthesized and bupivacaine formulation prepared by mixing with additives ricinoleic acid or castor oil. In vitro release measurements identified optimum formulation. Anesthetized ICR mice were injected around left sciatic nerve using nerve stimulator with 0.1 mL of formulation. Animals received 10% bupivacaine-polymer formulation with 10% castor oil (p(DLLA:CO)3:7-10% bupi-10% CO) or 15% bupivacaine-polymer with 10% castor oil (p(DLLA:CO)3:7-15% bupi-10% CO). Sensory and motor block were measured. Viscosity of 10% and 15% bupivacaine-p(DLLA:CO)3:7 formulations was reduced using hydrophobic additives; however, castor oil reduced bupivacaine release rates and eliminated burst effect. Less than 10% of the incorporated bupivacaine was released during 6 h, and less than 25% released in 24 h in vitro. In vivo formulation injection resulted in a 24 h motor block and a sensory block lasting at least 72 h. Incorporation of hydrophobic low-viscosity additive reduced viscosity in addition to burst release effects. Bupivacaine-polymer formulation with castor oil additive demonstrated prolonged sensory analgesia in vivo, with reduced duration of motor block.

  12. Castor oil for induction of labour: not harmful, not helpful.

    PubMed

    Boel, Machteld Elisabeth; Lee, Sue Jean; Rijken, Marcus Johannes; Paw, Moo Koo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Tan, Saw Oo; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2009-10-01

    Castor oil is one of the most popular drugs for induction of labour in a non-medical setting; however, published data on safety and effectiveness of this compound to induce labour remain sparse. To assess the safety and effectiveness of castor oil for induction of labour in pregnancies with an ultrasound estimated gestational at birth of more than 40 weeks. Data were extracted from hospital-based records of all pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics on the Thai-Burmese border and who were more than 40 weeks pregnant. The effectiveness of castor oil to induce labour was expressed as time to birth and analysed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Measures associated with safety were fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, tachysystole of the uterus, uterine rupture, abnormal maternal blood pressure during labour, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation, stillbirth, post-partum haemorrhage, severe diarrhoea and maternal death. Proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. Of 612 women with a gestation of more than 40 weeks, 205 received castor oil for induction and 407 did not. The time to birth was not significantly different between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.20; n = 509)). Castor oil use was not associated with any harmful effects on the mother or fetus. Castor oil for induction of labour had no effect on time to birth nor were there any harmful effects observed in this large series. Our findings leave no justification for recommending castor oil for this purpose.

  13. Biosynthesis of castor oil studied by the regiospecific analysis of castor triacylglycerols by ESI-MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on the glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the ...

  14. Searching for a Safe Source of Castor Oil Production through Metabolic Engineering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. The production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S albumins in its seed. We are developing a safe source of castor oil by two approaches: blocking gene expres...

  15. Analysis of acylglycerols containing mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by HPLC and MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  16. Regiospecific Quantification of Triacylglycerols Containing Ricinoleate and Dihydroxy Fatty Acids in Castor Oil by Mass Spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint and cosmetics. Ricinoleate occurs as acylglycerols (AG) in castor oil, and about 70% of castor oil is triricinolein. Castor oil is the only commercial source of ricinoleate. ...

  17. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vinay R.; Dumancas, Gerard G.; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C.; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J.

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production. PMID:27656091

  18. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.

  19. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  20. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H. W.; Bui, V. T.

    2007-12-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation.

  1. Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2009-09-01

    The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.

  2. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  3. Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.

  4. The catalytic microwave synthesis of biodegradable polyester polyols based on castor oil and l-lactide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojić, D.; Erceg, T.; Vukić, N.; Teofilović, V.; Ristić, I.; Budinski-Simendić, J.; Aleksić, V.

    2017-01-01

    Various strategies for achieving a functional poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have been developed such as ring-opening copolymerization with a functional monomer, the use of functional initiator and various post polymerization modifications. It is possible to obtain the star shaped polymer using natural oil with at least three OH groups as an initiator. It was estimated that despite of low-molecular mass of star-shaped PLA, the hydrophobic castor oil central core influenced the slow degradation rate in the case of injectable biomedical application. The star-shaped polymers with low-molecular-mass have a lower melt viscosity correlated with linear counterparts. In soft tissue reparation the polymer viscosity increases with fluid body contact and the solid implant can be formed. To ensure liquid state at injection temperature the low molar mass polymer is favorable. There is a particular size for each macromolecular chains at which chain entanglement occurs. In this work the influence of the l-lactide (LA) and the castor oil (CO) contents on the size of biodegradable branched polyester polyols was studied. The average molecular masses of synthesized polymers were estimated by GPC procedure. In sample formulations the [LA]/[CO] ratios were from to 113 to 533. Mn values for obtained polymers were from 5000 to 20000 Da. The molecular mass distribution for the resulting polymers was between 1.09 and 1.37.

  5. Evaluation of castor oil samples for potential toxin contamination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil and its derivatives are widely used as a chemical feedstock for production of lubricants and greases, and for engineering plastics, plasticizers and surfactants. They also have wide application in consumer goods such as lipstick, deodorants and medicinal products. Due to concerns about th...

  6. Composition of acylglycerols in castor oil and their biosynthetic pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil has many industrial uses, such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastics, paints, coatings, and cosmetics, because of its high content of ricinoleate (hydroxy fatty acid). We have identified many molecular species of acylglycerols using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry o...

  7. Develop a New Lesquerella fendleri Crop for Castor Oil Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed oil of Lesquerella fendleri contains a valuable hydroxy fatty acid (HFA), lesquerolic acid (20:1OH). The conventional source of HFA is ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) from castor seeds. Ricinoleic acid and its derivatives are used as raw materials for numerous industrial products, such as lubricants, ...

  8. Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the castor bean polymer doped with silica (SiO2) or barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nacer, Renato Silva; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Poppi, Rodrigo Ré; Silva, Dheywid Karlos Mattos; Cardoso, Vinicius Saura; Delben, José Renato Jurkevicz; Delben, Angela Antonia Sanches Tardivo

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis of castor oil polymer doped with SiO2 or BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Twenty four male rats Wistar were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. The animals were distributed in two experimental groups had been formed with 12 animals each: Group 1 - Castor oil polymer doped with 0.30 grams of SiO2 replacing 0.30 grams of CaCO3. Group 2 - Castor oil polymer doped with 0.30 grams of BaTiO3 replacing 0.30 grams of CaCO3. Euthanasia occurred 30 and 60 days after surgery and the femurs were sent to histological analysis and MEV. The implants were biocompatible and allowed for progressive osteogenesis through osteoconduction in both observation periods. There was significant bone neoformation at 30 and 60 days in both groups within the histomorphometric evaluation, but group 1's osteogenesis was lesser in the 30 and 60-day periods observed when compared to the animals of group 2. The MEV morphometric evaluation evidenced a lesser percentage of osseous tissue filling within the BaTiO2-doped polymer. The castor oil polymer doped with SiO2 or BaTiO3 remained biocompatible and allowed for progressive osteogenesis in both observation periods.

  9. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    PubMed

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  10. Toxin content of commercial castor cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The castor plant Ricinus communis L. is the source of castor oil which has numerous uses and is a key chemical feedstock for an array of products from polymers to cosmetics. Although castor was once widely grown throughout the world, the presence of the toxic protein ricin has deterred the re-introd...

  11. Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Andrade, Kelly Machado de; Pisani, Marina Xavier; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Denture hygiene is essential because denture biofilm is involved in oral infections and systemic diseases. Although there are chemical agents available on the market, none of them have ideal properties and research on such products is still necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a castor bean (Ricinus communis)-based solution for removing denture biofilm, compared to two traditional products (sodium hypochlorite and alkaline peroxide). Fifty maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures after meals and to immerse their dentures once a day in the following solutions: Saline (20 min; control), Polident alkaline peroxide (3 min), NaOCl (20 min) and 2% castor oil solution (20 min). Participants used each solution for a period of 7 consecutive days, according to a random sequence. After each period, the internal surfaces of maxillary complete dentures were stained with a disclosing solution (1% neutral red), photographed and the disclosed biofilm was quantified with the aid of specific software. The influence of treatments on results was verified by the Friedman test (α=0.05). Tested solutions presented significant difference (Fr=51.67; p<0.001). Saline and NaOCl were significantly different (median: 2.0% and 0.0%) whereas Polident and castor oil presented intermediate results (median: 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively). It can be concluded that the castor oil solution tested in this study was comparable to alkaline peroxide in terms of efficiency in denture biofilm removal.

  12. Effect of castor oil enrichment layer produced by reaction on the properties of PLA/HDI-g-starch blends.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhu; Zhang, Lisheng; Ma, Songqi; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chuanzhi; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2013-04-15

    Blends of entirely bio-sourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-compounded by lab-scale co-extruder with castor oil (CO) as a plasticizer. The enrichment of castor oil on starch had great effect on the properties of the blends. If the castor oil was mainly dispersed in PLA matrix, the properties of the blends were poor, but when the hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) was grafted on starch granules the ready reactions between the hydroxyl on CO and the isocyante on the HDI-grafted starch (HGSTs) brought CO molecules enriched on starch particles. DSC analysis shows that the CO layer on starch has a positive effect on the crystallization of PLA in the ternary blend. The accumulation of CO on starch greatly improves the toughness and impact strength of PLA/starch blends. The grafting content of HDI on the starch granules primarily determined the compatibility and properties of the resulted blends.

  13. Identification of minor acylglycerols less polar than triricinolein in castor oil by mass spectrometry and the proposed biosynthetic pathway of castor oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate (OH18:1), a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses such as the manufacture of biodegradable plastics, nylon, plasticizers, lubricants, cosmetics and paints. Castor oil is the only commericial source of ricinoleate which occurs as triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols in castor oil...

  14. Role of tachykinins in castor oil diarrhoea in rats.

    PubMed

    Croci, T; Landi, M; Emonds-Alt, X; Le Fur, G; Maffrand, J P; Manara, L

    1997-06-01

    1. We set out to ascertain the role of tachykinins, neurokinin A and substance P, in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats as disclosed by the inhibitory effect of the non-peptide NK1- and NK2-receptor antagonists. SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively. 2. SR 48968 (0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1, s.c. or p.o.), and the opioid receptor agonist loperamide (1-10 mg kg-1, p.o.), dose-dependently prevented castor oil effects: % inhibition vs castor oil, diarrhoea 0 to 100, increase in faecal mass 7 to 90 and water content 16 to 90. SR 140333 (0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) and the platelet activating factor antagonist SR 27417 (5 to 500 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) did not prevent the increase in faecal water content, but reduced faecal mass (35 to 66%) and diarrhoea (0 to 57%). 3. The R-enantiomers of tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists, SR 140603 and SR 48605 (both at 2 or 20 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) had no effect other than reducing faecal mass at the highest dose tested. 4. SR 48968 (20 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) but not loperamide (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) given 24 h before castor oil, still slightly but significantly reduced by 30% the increase of faecal mass output; both treatments significantly reduced (30 to 70%) the effect of castor oil on faecal water content, although the incidence of diarrhoea was only slightly less than in controls. 5. In castor oil-treated rats, naloxone (2 mg kg-1, s.c.) completely blocked the antidiarrhoeal action of loperamide (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) but not of SR 48968 (20 micrograms kg-1, p.o.): a similar result was obtained on faecal mass and water content. 6. Castor oil strongly increased the occurrence of manometrically recorded propulsive giant contractions (500 to 1000% over control values) of transverse and distal colon, this effect being significantly prevented (80 to 100%) by SR 48968 and loperamide and partially by SR 140333 (35% distal colon, 70% transverse colon). 7. In castor oil free rats, loperamide but not SR 48968 or SR 140333

  15. Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafał; Górski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient β13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.

  16. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  17. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  18. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  19. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    PubMed

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  20. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  1. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9-14-octadecadienoic acids in castor oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fa...

  2. Isocyanate-functionalized chitin and chitosan as gelling agents of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Rocío; Arteaga, Jesús F; Valencia, Concepción; Franco, José M

    2013-06-03

    The main objective of this work was the incorporation of reactive isocyanate groups into chitin and chitosan in order to effectively use the products as reactive thickening agents in castor oil. The resulting gel-like dispersions could be potentially used as biodegradable lubricating greases. Three different NCO-functionalized polymers were obtained: two of them by promoting the reaction of chitosan with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), and the other by using chitin instead of chitosan. These polymers were characterized through 1H-NMR, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermal and rheological behaviours of the oleogels prepared by dispersing these polymers in castor oil were studied by means of TGA and small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. The evolution and values of the linear viscoelasticity functions with frequency for -NCO-functionalized chitosan- and chitin-based oleogels are quite similar to those found for standard lubricating greases. In relation to long-term stability of these oleogels, no phase separation was observed and the values of viscoelastic functions increase significantly during the first seven days of ageing, and then remain almost constant. TGA analysis showed that the degradation temperature of the resulting oleogels is higher than that found for traditional lubricating greases.

  3. Identification of minor acylglycerols less polar than triricinolein in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triacylglycerols in castor oil less polar than triricinolein were identified by electrospray ionization – mass spectrometry using the lithium adducts of the acylglycerols from the HPLC fractions of castor oil. Thirty four new molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in casto...

  4. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry of lithium addicts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycer...

  5. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP3 receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP3 receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP3 receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP3 prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP3 receptor as a target to induce laxative effects. PMID:22615395

  6. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-05

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  7. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core-shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  8. Microbial degradation, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of polyurethanes based on modified castor oil and polycaprolactone.

    PubMed

    Uscátegui, Yomaira L; Arévalo, Fabián R; Díaz, Luis E; Cobo, Martha I; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of type of polyol and concentration of polycaprolactone (PCL) in polyurethanes (PUs) on microbial degradability, cytotoxicity, biological properties and antibacterial activity to establish whether these materials may have biomedical applications. Chemically modified and unmodified castor oil, PCL and isophorone diisocyanate in a 1:1 ratio of NCO/OH were used. PUs were characterized by stress/strain fracture tests and hardness (ASTM D 676-59). Hydrophilic character was determined by contact angle trials and morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Degradability with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by measuring variations in the weight of the polymers. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the ISO 10993-5 (MTT) method with mouse embryonic fibroblasts L-929 (ATCC® CCL-1) in direct contact with the PUs and with NIH/3T3 cells (ATCC® CRL-1658) in indirect contact with the PUs. Antimicrobial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa was determined. PUs derived from castor oil modified (P0 and P1) have higher mechanical properties than PUs obtained from castor oil unmodified (CO). The viability of L-929 mouse fibroblasts in contact with polymers was greater than 70%. An assessment of NIH/3T3 cells in indirect contact with PUs revealed no-toxic degradation products. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the PUs decreased by 77% for E. coli and 56% for P. aeruginosa after 24 h. These results indicate that PUs synthesized with PCL have biocidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria and do not induce cytotoxic responses, indicating the potential use of these materials in the biomedical field.

  9. Production of ricinoleic acid from castor oil by immobilised lipases.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2009-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL), Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), and Castor bean lipase (CBL) were immobilized on celite by deposition from aqueous solution by the addition of hexane. Lipolytic performance of free and immobilized lipases were compared and optimizations of lipolytic enzymatic reactions conditions were performed by free and immobilized derivatives using olive oil as substrate. Afterwards, the influence on lipolysis of castor oil of free lipases and immobilized lipase derivatives have been studied in the case of production of ricinoleic acid. All of the lipases performances were compared and enzyme derivative was selected to be very effective on the production of ricinoleic acid by lipolysis reaction. Various reaction parameters affecting the production of ricinoleic acid were investigated with selected the enzyme derivative. The maximum ricinoleic acid yield was observed at pH 7-8, 50 degrees C, for 3 hours of reaction period with immobilized 1,3-specific PPL on celite. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) were calculated as 1.6 x 10(-4) mM and 22.2 mM from a Lineweaver-Burk plot with the same enzyme derivative. To investigate the operational stability of the lipase, the three step lipolysis process was repeated by transferring the immobilized lipase to a substrate mixture. As a result, the percentage of conversion after usage decreased markedly.

  10. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor.

  11. Enzymatic incorporation of caffeoyl into castor oil to prepare the novel castor oil-based caffeoyl structured lipids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shangde; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Sha

    2017-05-10

    In this work, a novel castor oil-based caffeoyl structured lipids was successfully prepared by the enzymatic transesterification using castor oil (CO) as caffeoyl acceptor. During the structured lipids preparation, two competitive reactions, the hydrolysis of CO to form hydrophilic caffeoyl glycerols (CG)+dicaffeoyl glycerols (DCG) and the transesterification of CO with ethyl caffeate (EC) to form lipophilic caffeoyl mono- and di-acylglycerols (CMAG and CDAG), were found. Reaction progress was monitored using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV. The effects of by-product ethanol removal and reaction variables on the transesterification and reaction selectivity were evaluated. Results showed that, the activation energies for the transesterification and for the selective formations of CMAG+CDAG and CG+DCG were 57.60kJ/mol, 58.86kJ/mol, and 60.53kJ/mol, respectively. Under the optimal reaction conditions (enzyme load 23%, 90°C, 1:3 molar ratio of EC to CO, and 46.5h), EC conversion and the yield of CMAG+CDAG were 93.68±2.52% and 78.11±1.35%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, physical properties and preliminary investigation of hemocompatibility of polyurethanes from aliphatic resources with castor oil participation.

    PubMed

    Szelest-Lewandowska, A; Masiulanis, B; Klocke, A; Glasmacher, B

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of polyurethanes (PURs) from oligoetherdiol, two low molecular diols, castor oil and 4,4'-Methylenebis(cyclohexylisocyanate) is described. These polymers are characterized by measurements of the mechanical bulk and surface properties, preliminary investigation of compatibility with human blood and calcification in static conditions. The critical surface energy of synthesized PURs is similar to the critical surface energy of natural surfaces. Material-induced hemolysis and the changes of platelet counts in blood samples after contact with PURs are very low. Static seven-weeks-calcification testing in a synthetic calcification fluid did not indicate calcification by optical density measurements and by visual inspection and computer image processing of the X-ray films for PURs with and without castor oil.

  13. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers.

  14. Physical properties of a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane modified castor oil based polyurethane/epoxy interpenetrating polymer network composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shoubing; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2011-06-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU)/epoxy resin (EP) graft interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composites modified by a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS) were prepared. The effects of HTPDMS content on the phase structure, damping properties and the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the HTPDMS-modified PU/EP IPN composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition temperature of the composites increased with the increase of HTPDMS content. The tensile strength and impact strength of the IPN composites were also significantly improved, especially when the HTPDMS content was 10%. The modified IPN composites were expected to be used as structural damping materials in the future.

  15. Poly(DL:lactic acid-castor oil) 3:7-bupivacaine formulation: reducing burst effect prolongs efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2010-06-01

    Prolonged analgesia may be achieved using a single injection of slow-release local anesthetic formulation. The study objective was to improve the efficacy of a previously reported formulation comprising 10% bupivacaine in poly(DL:lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7. The polymer was loaded with 15% bupivacaine and injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice. Sensory and motor nerve blockade were measured. The efficacy and toxicity of the polymer-drug combination were determined. Sixty percent of the incorporated bupivacaine was released during 1 week in vitro. During in vitro release no burst effect was seen, suggesting low toxicity of the formulation. Single injection of 0.1 mL of 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation caused motor block that lasted 64 h and sensory block that lasted 96 h. The MTD of the polymer-drug formulation was established as 0.175 mL. Microscopic examination of the injection sites revealed reversible nerve inflammation and normal internal organs. The polymer poly(DL:lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 is a safe carrier for prolonged activity of bupivacaine up to 96 h. The increase of drug load in the formulation reduces the drug release rates due to stronger polymer-drug interactions and higher overall hydrophobicity of the formulation.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of castor oil on initiating labor in term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Azhari, Sedighe; Pirdadeh, Sohaylla; Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh; Shakeri, Mohammad T

    2006-07-01

    To determine the effect of castor oil on initiating labor in term pregnant women. We conducted this randomized control clinical trial on 47 pregnant women from August 2003 to March 2004 in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. There was a significant increase in labor initiation ratio in the castor oil group compared with the control group (54.2% compared with 4.3%, p<0.001). Also, the mean bishop score in the castor oil group increased from 2.50 +/- 1.29 to 6.79 +/- 3.20 (p<0.001). The probability of labor initiation increases during the first 24 hours after using castor oil, however, further studies are recommended to improve its efficacy and safety.

  17. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values < 5). The results showed that the LDPE Young's modulus increases but the other tensile properties and impact resistance deteriorate with the addition of PHB or CC. The tensile strength values of binary mixtures of LDPE lie in the range from 8.9 to 10 MPa. As some commercial grades of LDPE have mechanical strength in this range, it may be inferred that the addition of a certain amount of PHB or CC to LDPE may be considered as a possibility for obtaining LDPE based materials with increased susceptibility to biodegradation. The cubic model in pseudo components was selected for describe the flexural strength of the samples because it was

  18. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica for aroma production from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Adelaide; Belo, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare different materials for Y. lipolytica immobilization that could be used in the production of γ-decalactone (a peach-like aroma) in order to prevent the toxic effect both of the substrate and the aroma upon the cells. Therefore, cells adsorption onto pieces of methyl polymethacrylate and of DupUM(®) was studied and further used in the biotransformation of castor oil into γ-decalactone. The highest aroma concentration was obtained with immobilized cells in DupUM(®), where reconsumption of the aroma by the cells was prevented, contrarily to what happens with free cells. This is a very promising result for γ-decalactone production, with potential to be used at an industrial level since the use of immobilized cells system will facilitate the conversion of a batch process into a continuous mode keeping high cell density and allowing easier recovery of metabolic products.

  19. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anthony J; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2013-07-24

    Castor oil, a potent cathartic, is derived from the bean of the castor plant. Anecdotal reports, which date back to ancient Egypt have suggested the use of castor oil to stimulate labour. Castor oil has been widely used as a traditional method of initiating labour in midwifery practice. Its role in the initiation of labour is poorly understood and data examining its efficacy within a clinical trial are limited. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of castor oil or enemas for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with other methods of cervical ripening or induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing castor oil, bath or enemas used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Three trials, involving 233 women, are included. There was no evidence of differences in caesarean section rates between the two interventions in the two trials reporting this outcome (risk ratio (RR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 4.55). There were no data presented on neonatal or maternal mortality or morbidity.There was no evidence of a difference between castor oil and placebo/no treatment for the rate of instrumental delivery, meconium-stained liquor, or Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. The number of participants was too small to detect all but large differences in outcome. All women who ingested castor oil felt nauseous (RR 59.92, 95% CI 8.46 to 424.52). The three trials included in the review contain small numbers

  20. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The short supply of edible vegetable oils is the limiting factor in the progression of biodiesel technology; thus, in this study, we applied response surface methodology in order to optimize the reaction factors for biodiesel synthesis from inedible castor oil. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of multiple parameters and their reciprocal interactions using a five-level three-factor design. In a total of 20 individual experiments, we optimized the reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and quantity of catalyst. Our model equation predicted that the following conditions would generate the maximum quantity of castor biodiesel (92 wt.%): a 40-min reaction at 35.5 degrees C, with an oil-to-methanol molar ratio of 1:8.24, and a catalyst concentration of 1.45% of KOH by weight of castor oil. Subsequent empirical analyses of the biodiesel generated under the predicted conditions showed that the model equation accurately predicted castor biodiesel yields within the tested ranges. The biodiesel produced from castor oil satisfied the relevant quality standards without regard to viscosity and cold filter plugging point.

  1. Lipase applications in oil hydrolysis with a case study on castor oil: a review.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2013-03-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) is a unique enzyme which can catalyze various types of reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, alcoholysis etc. In particular, hydrolysis of vegetable oil with lipase as a catalyst is widely studied. Free lipase, lipase immobilized on suitable support, lipase encapsulated in a reverse micelle and lipase immobilized on a suitable membrane to be used in membrane reactor are the most common ways of employing lipase in oil hydrolysis. Castor oil is a unique vegetable oil as it contains high amounts (90%) of a hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acid named ricinoleic acid. This industrially important acid can be obtained by hydrolysis of castor oil. Different conventional hydrolysis processes have certain disadvantages which can be avoided by a lipase-catalyzed process. The degree of hydrolysis varies widely for different lipases depending on the operating range of process variables such as temperature, pH and enzyme loading. Immobilization of lipase on a suitable support can enhance hydrolysis by suppressing thermal inactivation and estolide formation. The presence of metal ions also affects lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. Even a particular ion has different effects on the activity of different lipases. Hydrophobic organic solvents perform better than hydrophilic solvents during the reaction. Sonication considerably increases hydrolysis in case of lipolase. The effects of additives on the same lipase vary with their types. Nonionic surfactants enhance hydrolysis whereas cationic and anionic surfactants decrease it. A single variable optimization method is used to obtain optimum conditions. In order to eliminate its disadvantages, a statistical optimization method is used in recent studies. Statistical optimization shows that interactions between any two of the following pH, enzyme concentration and buffer concentration become significant in presence of a nonionic surfactant named Span 80.

  2. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  3. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerols containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. The identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil is reported here. The structure of this novel fat...

  4. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerols containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. The identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil is reported here. The structure of this novel fat...

  5. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  6. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, has many industrial uses. Trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spe...

  7. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  8. Castor oil for induction of labor in post-date pregnancies: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Ronit; Hochner, Hagit; Savitsky, Bella; Porat, Shay; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith

    2017-07-24

    Castor oil is a substance used for labor induction in an inpatient setting. However, its efficacy as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in an outpatient setup is unknown. Efficacy of castor oil as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in outpatient settings. Eighty-one women with a low-risk post-date singleton pregnancy with a Bishop score≤7, without effective uterine contractions were randomized to the intervention, 60ml of castor oil, or the control, 60ml of sun-flower oil. The primary outcome was proportion of women entering the active phase of labor 24, 36, 48h after ingestion. Secondary outcomes included meconium stained amniotic fluid, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing, cesarean section rate, instrumental deliveries, birth weight, 5min Apgar score, chorioamnionitis, hypertensive complications, retained placenta, and post-partum hemorrhage. Intervention and control groups included 38 and 43 women, respectively. No differences in baseline characteristics, except for age were noted. The observed interaction between castor oil and parity was significant (pinteraction=0.02). Multiparous women in the intervention group exhibited a significant beneficial effect on entering active labor within 24, 36 and 48h after castor oil consumption compared with the placebo (Hazard Ratio=2.93, p=0.048; Hazard Ratio=3.29, p=0.026; Hazard Ratio=2.78, p=0.042 respectively). This effect was not noted among primiparous women. No differences in rate of obstetric complications or adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. Castor oil is effective for labor induction, in post-date multiparous women in outpatient settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prospective, randomized comparison of castor oil and sodium phosphate preparation for barium enema.

    PubMed

    Apisarnthanarak, Piyaporn; Rotjanaaree, Benjaporn; Komoltri, Chulalak; Charoensak, Aphinya; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Hargrove, Narumol Srisuthapan

    2009-02-01

    To compare castor oil and sodium phosphate preparation (Swiff) in patients' satisfaction, efficacy for colon cleanness, side effects, and prices. One hundred patients referred for barium enema were randomized to receive castor oil (n = 50) and sodium phosphate preparation (n = 50). They graded their satisfaction using a 5-point scale (easy, acceptable, slightly difficult, extremely difficult, and unacceptable). The efficacy for colon cleanness was graded by two radiologists using a 5-point scale (excellent, easy for evaluation, acceptable, difficult for evaluation, and unacceptable). Side effects were evaluated by patients' vital signs, total number of bowel frequency, and 10 associated symptoms. Both preparations revealed no difference in patients' satisfaction (p = 0.882) and efficacy of colon cleanness (p = 0.130). Sodium phosphate preparation was more expensive (79 vs. 10 Baht) and caused higher number of bowel frequency (p < 0.001). With a cheaper price, castor oil was comparable with sodium phosphate preparation in patients' satisfaction and efficacy of colon cleanness.

  10. Preparation and properties of aqueous castor oil-based polyurethane-silica nanocomposite dispersions through a sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne castor oil-based polyurethane-silica nanocomposites with the polymer matrix and silica nanoparticles chemically bonded have been successfully prepared through a sol-gel process. The formation of silica nanoparticles in water not only reinforces the resulting coatings, but also increases the crosslink density of the nanocomposites. The (29)Si solid state NMR spectrum indicates the formation of silica and the TEM indicates that the nanoparticles are embedded in the polymers, resembling a core-shell structure. The silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix play an important role in improving both the mechanical properties and the thermal stabilities of the resulting nanocomposites. This work provides an effective and promising way to prepare biorenewable, high performance nanocomposite coatings.

  11. Castor oil as a natural alternative to labor induction: A retrospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Sundstrom, Beth; Moxley, Grace E; Banks, Kendall; Bishop, Ashlan; Rathbun, Lesley

    2017-08-21

    To describe birthing outcomes among women who consumed castor oil cocktail as part of a freestanding birth center labor induction protocol. De-identified data from birth logs and electronic medical records were entered into SPSS Statistics 22.0 for analysis for all women who received the castor oil cocktail (n=323) to induce labor between January 2008 and May 2015 at a birth center in the United States. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for trends in safety and birthing outcomes. Of the women who utilized the castor oil cocktail to stimulate labor, 293 (90.7%) birthed vaginally at the birth center or hospital. The incidence of maternal adverse effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, extreme diarrhea) was less than 7%, and adverse effects of any kind were reported in less than 15% of births. An independent sample t-test revealed that parous women were more likely to birth vaginally at the birth center after using the castor oil cocktail than their nulliparous counterparts (p<.010), while gestational age (p=.26), woman's age (p=.23), and body mass index (p=.28) were not significantly associated. Nearly 91% of women in the study who consumed the castor oil cocktail to induce labor were able to give birth vaginally with little to no maternal or fetal complications. Findings indicate further research is needed to compare the safety and effectiveness of natural labor induction methodologies, including castor oil, to commonly used labor induction techniques in a prospective study or clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximization of bioconversion of castor oil into ricinoleic acid by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, response surface methodology was applied to optimize process variables like temperature, pH, enzyme concentration (mg/g oil), and buffer concentration (g/g oil) for hydrolysis of castor oil using Candida rugosa lipase. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was used to develop the quadratic model that was subsequently optimized and the optimal conditions were as follows: temperature 40 degrees C, pH 7.72, enzyme concentration 5.28 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 1g/g oil and there was 65.5% conversion in 6 h. These predicted optimal conditions agreed well with the experimental results. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology in castor oil hydrolysis using C. rugosa lipase with higher percentage conversion in 6 h.

  13. Biodegradable Photo-Crosslinked Thin Polymer Networks Based on Vegetable Oil Hydroxyfatty Acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel crosslinked thin polymer networks based on vegetable oil hydroxyfatty acids (HFAs) were prepared by UV photopolymerization and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Two raw materials, castor oil and 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) were used as sources of mono- and di-HFAs, r...

  14. 75 FR 40751 - Castor Oil, Ethoxylated, Oleate; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... low-risk polymers. 1. The polymer is not a cationic polymer nor is it reasonably anticipated to become a cationic polymer in a natural aquatic environment. 2. The polymer does contain as an integral part...

  15. Derivatization of castor oil based estolide esters: Preparation of epoxides and cyclic carbonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estolides that are based on castor oil and oleic acid are versatile starting points for the production of industrial fluids with new properties. A variety of unsaturated estolides were derivatized by epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The epoxidized estolides were further modified using supercritic...

  16. Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cerejo, Sofia de Amorim; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Lima Neto, João Ferreira de; Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz Landim e

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate three methods to isolate rats MSCs and to analyze the potential of a castor oil polyurethane base membrane as a scaffold for MSCs. Four male Wistar rats, aged 20-30 days were used. Bone marrow aspirates from femur and tibia were harvested using DMEM high glucose and heparin. The cell culture was performed in three different ways: direct culture and two types of density gradients. After 15 days, was made the 1st passage and analyzed cell viability with markers Hoerscht 33342 and propidium iodide. The MSCs were characterized by surface markers with the aid of flow cytometry. After this, three types of castor oil polyurethane membranes associated with the MSCs were kept on the 6-well plate for 5 days and were analyzed by optical microscopy to confirm cell aggregation and growth. Separation procedures 1 and 2 allowed adequate isolation of MSCs and favored cell growth with the passage being carried out at 70% confluence after 15 days in culture. The cells could not be isolated using procedure 3. When the 3 castor oil polyurethane membrane types were compared it was possible to observe that the growth of MSCs was around 80% in membrane type 3, 20% in type 2, and 10% in type 1. Both Ficoll-Hypaque densities allow isolation of rat MSCs, and especially castor oil-based membrane type 3 may be used as a scaffold for MSCs.

  17. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions.

  18. Comparative clinical trial of castor oil and diclofenac sodium in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Medhi, B; Kishore, K; Singh, U; Seth, S D

    2009-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of castor oil with diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were given a castor oil capsule 0.9 mL (n = 50) thrice daily for 4 weeks or a capsule of diclofenac sodium (n = 50), 50 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks. The subjects completed an overall evaluation of symptom relief at 2 weeks and 4 weeks of completed treatment. The subjects were evaluated by clinical, routine laboratory and radiographic investigations for improvement of disease conditions and also for adverse drug reaction. On completion of 4 weeks treatment it was observed that both drugs were significantly effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (p < 0.001) and adverse drug reactions were high with diclofenac sodium, whereas with castor oil there were no adverse effects reported. The present study indicates that castor oil can be used as an effective therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis.

  19. Film-forming properties of castor oil polyol ester blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The viscosities and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness properties of binary blends of castor oil with polyol esters were determined experimentally. Predicted blend viscosity was calculated from the viscosity of the pure blend components. Measured viscosity values were closer to the values pre...

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  1. Effect of castor oil emulsion eyedrops on tear film composition and stability.

    PubMed

    Maïssa, Cécile; Guillon, Michel; Simmons, Peter; Vehige, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    An emulsion eyedrop containing castor oil has been shown to modify the tear film lipid layer and increase tear film stability. The primary objectives of this investigation were to measure the prevalence of castor oil in the tear fluid over time and quantify the effects on the lipid layer. A secondary objective was to quantify the initial effects on ocular symptomatology. The investigation was an open label pilot study on 5 normal and 10 dry eye subjects. A single eyedrop (Castor oil emulsion, Allergan) was instilled in each eye; the tear film appearance and composition were monitored for 4h via in vivo visualisation using the Tearscope and post in vivo tear samples analysis by HPLC. Combined results for both normal and dry eye subjects showed that castor oil was detected up to 4h after a single eyedrop instillation and associated with an increase in the level of tear film lipid. The relative amount of various lipid families was also changed. An increase in tear lipid layer thickness was significant up to one hour post-instillation for the symptomatic sub-population. The changes in tear film characteristics were associated with significantly lower symptoms up to four hours post-instillation for the symptomatic sub-population. This pilot investigation showed that castor oil eyedrops achieved a residence time of at least four hours post-instillation, producing a more stable tear film and an associated significant decrease in ocular symptoms over the entire follow-up period for the symptomatic subjects. 2009 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  3. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  4. Polyurethane Foams for Thermal Insulation Uses Produced from Castor Oil and Crude Glycerol Biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Carriço, Camila S; Fraga, Thaís; Carvalho, Vagner E; Pasa, Vânya M D

    2017-07-02

    Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized using a renewable polyol from the simple physical mixture of castor oil and crude glycerol. The effect of the catalyst (DBTDL) content and blowing agents in the foams' properties were evaluated. The use of physical blowing agents (cyclopentane and n-pentane) allowed foams with smaller cells to be obtained in comparison with the foams produced with a chemical blowing agent (water). The increase of the water content caused a decrease in density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and Young's modulus, which indicates that the increment of CO₂ production contributes to the formation of larger cells. Higher amounts of catalyst in the foam formulations caused a slight density decrease and a small increase of thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and Young's modulus values. These green foams presented properties that indicate a great potential to be used as thermal insulation: density (23-41 kg·m(-3)), thermal conductivity (0.0128-0.0207 W·m(-1)·K(-1)), compressive strength (45-188 kPa), and Young's modulus (3-28 kPa). These biofoams are also environmentally friendly polymers and can aggregate revenue to the biodiesel industry, contributing to a reduction in fuel prices.

  5. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions.

  6. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  7. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Arcinas, Arthur; Harden, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C(18) HPLC fractions of castor oil were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of lithium adducts to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids and the dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1. Eight triacylglycerols identified were diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-diOH18:0, diOH18:2-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-diOH18:0-OH18:1, diOH18:2-OH18:1-OH18:1, diOH18:1-OH18:1-OH18:1 and diOH18:0-OH18:1-OH18:1. The locations of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone were not determined. The structures of these three newly identified dihydroxy fatty acids were proposed as 11,12-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, 11,12-dihydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid and 11,12-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid. These individual acylglycerols were at the levels of about 0.5% or less in castor oil and can be isolated from castor oil or overproduced in a transgenic oil seed plant for future industrial uses.

  8. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (p<0.05) on energy metabolites, fatty acid profile, and expression of certain proteins of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. To conclude, this study showed that the establishment of castor de-oiled cake diet for a long period to goats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isozymes of the glycolytic enzymes in endosperm from developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, J A; Dennis, D T

    1982-04-01

    Ion filtration chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 has been used to separate two isozymes each of triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerate 3-phosphate kinase, enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase from homogenates of developing castor oil (Ricinus communis L. cv. Baker 296) seeds. Crude plastid fractions, prepared by differential centrifugation, were enriched in one of the isozymes, whereas the cytosolic fractions were enriched in the other. These data (and data published previously) indicate that plastids from developing castor oil seeds have a complete glycolytic pathway and are capable of conversion of hexose phosphate to pyruvate for fatty acid synthesis. The enzymes of this pathway in the plastids are isozymes of the corresponding enzymes located in the cytosol.

  10. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots stabilized by castor oil and ricinoleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyobe, Joseph William; Mubofu, Egid Beatus; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-02-01

    Castor oil and ricinoleic acid (an isolate of castor oil) are environmentally friendly bio-based organic surfactants that have been used as capping agents to prepare nearly spherical cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) at 230, 250 and 280 °C. The prepared quantum dots were characterized by Ultra violet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) giving an overall CdS QDs average size of 5.14±0.39 nm. The broad XRD pattern and crystal lattice fringes in the HRTEM images showed a hexagonal phase composition of the CdS QDs. The calculated/estimated average size of the prepared castor oil capped CdS QDs for various techniques were 4.64 nm (TEM), 4.65 nm (EMA), 5.35 nm (UV-vis) and 6.46 nm (XRD). For ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs, the average sizes were 5.56 nm (TEM), 4.78 nm (EMA), 5.52 nm (UV-vis) and 8.21 nm (XRD). Optical properties of CdS QDs showed a change of band gap energy from its bulk band gap of 2.42-2.82 eV due to quantum size confinement effect for temperature range of 230-280 °C. Similarly, a blue shift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the as-synthesized CdS QDs structures are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) studies confirms the formation of castor oil and ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs.

  11. Antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite and castor oil solutions for denture cleaning - in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcela Moreira; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% castor oil solutions against specific microorganisms, by counting Colony Forming Units (CFU) of clinically important bacteria and Candida species. Acrylic resin specimens (n = 320; Lucitone 550) were obtained from square metal matrices (10 x 10 x 2 mm), sterilized by microwave (650W, for 6 minutes) and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida glabrata. The specimens were immersed for 20 minutes in one of the following hygiene solutions (n = 10/each): A - 0.25% Sodium hypochlorite; B - 0.5% Sodium hypochlorite; C - 10% Castor oil solution; and D (Control) - saline. Adhered cells were suspended and inoculated into a selective solid medium (37ºC for 24 h). The Student's t-test (α = 0.05) was performed to compare log10(CFU+1)/mL between Groups C and D. The results showed that sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.5%) completely eliminated all detectable microorganisms. The castor oil solution eliminated B. subtilis and reduced counts for other strains. Differences between C and D were significant (p < 0.05) for all species except for E. faecalis. Both sodium hypochlorite solutions (0.25% and 0.5%) were effective in eliminating all microorganisms evaluated, and may be useful as cleaning solutions for complete dentures. The castor oil solution provided moderate efficacy and performed differently on the tested species, with the strongest effect on B. subtilis and with non-significant action on E. faecalis.

  12. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  13. Development of Castor Oil Resistant Urethane Sonar Encapsulants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    materials The systems of choice were found to be commercially ava| aI’ le polyether urethane polymers based upon toluene diisocyanate /polyoxytetramethylene... polymers based upon toluene diisocyanate / polyoxytetramethylene glycol (TDI/PTMG) proved to be the systems of choice. Urethane polymers having... diisocyanate (MDI) analogues of TDI/PTMG based polymers were rejected due to poor container stability and short application lives with the various liquid

  14. Optimization of a supercritical fluid extraction/reaction methodology for the analysis of castor oil using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charlotta; Whitehand, Linda C; Nguyen, Tasha; McKeon, Thomas

    2004-01-14

    The aim of this work was to optimize a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)/enzymatic reaction process for the determination of the fatty acid composition of castor seeds. A lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozyme 435) was used to catalyze the methanolysis reaction in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate effects of various values of pressure (200-400 bar), temperature (40-80 degrees C), methanol concentration (1-5 vol %), and water concentration (0.02-0.18 vol %) on the yield of methylated castor oil. Response surfaces were plotted, and these together with results from some additional experiments produced optimal extraction/reaction conditions for SC-CO(2) at 300 bar and 80 degrees C, with 7 vol % methanol and 0.02 vol % water. These conditions were used for the determination of the castor oil content expressed as fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in castor seeds. The results obtained were similar to those obtained using conventional methodology based on solvent extraction followed by chemical transmethylation. It was concluded that the methodology developed could be used for the determination of castor oil content as well as composition of individual FAMEs in castor seeds.

  15. Behavior study of the doped castor bean polymer rod with bioactive glass and hidroxyapatite in mice femur medullary canal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Viviani Teixeira Dos; Facco, Gilberto Gonçalves; Ortiz, Hudman Cunha; Silva, Iandara Schettert da

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the polymer doped rods behavior with bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite for possible application as a fracture fixing method. Methods Twenty eight Rattus norvegicus Wistar underwent bone defect for access to the femoral medullary canal and distributed into three experimental groups: group A - doped castor bean polymer with bioactive glass; group B - castor bean polymer and; group C - castor bean polymer doped with bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite. After 15 and 60 evaluation days, the femurs were removed and sent for histology and scanning electron microscopy. Results Initially mild and moderate inflammatory infiltrate is observed that decreases as time goes by, and the presence of connective tissue capsule around the graft in all groups. Regarding the biomaterials resorption little was observed. The implanted rods did not favor the osteoconductive process in the femoral medullary canal which was observed only in the C15 group. Conclusions The association of castor bean polymer, bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite was biocompatible and osteointegrable. The osteoconductive only occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass (C15 Group) and little biodegradation was observed.

  16. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate vehicle, castor oil, enhances the contractile effect of oxytocin in human myometrium in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Hehir, Mark P; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Morrison, John J

    2010-05-01

    The possibility exists that the vehicle for 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, castor oil, exerts an effect on human uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on contractility of myometrial preparations that were obtained during pregnancy. Myometrial strips were suspended under isometric conditions. Contractility was induced with oxytocin. Strips were incubated in castor oil or physiologic salt solution and suspended for a further oxytocin challenge. Contractile integrals were compared between both groups. Strips that were exposed to castor oil demonstrated increased contractile activity that was elicited by oxytocin (mean contractility value, 165.53%+/-17.03%; n=8; P=.004), compared with control strips (mean contractility value, 72.57%+/-7.48%; n=8; P=.003). There was a significant increase in contractile activity of the castor oil-exposed strips, compared with those that were exposed to physiologic salt solution (n=8; P<.001). Exposure of human myometrial preparations to castor oil results in enhanced oxytocin-induced contractility. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of trihydroxy fatty acids and the regiospecific quantification of the triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid in castor oil, has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. We report here the identification of diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols containing trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil. The Ci8 HPLC fractions of casto...

  18. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and concentration in the endosperm of developing and germinating castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, R S; Singh, N; Plaxton, W C

    1992-06-01

    Monospecific polyclonal antibodies against maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) were utilized to examine the subunit composition and developmental profile of endosperm PEPC in developing and germinating castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296). PEPC from developing endosperm consists of a single type of 100-kilodalton subunit, whereas the enzyme from 2- to 5-day germinated endosperm appears to contain equal proportions of immunologically related 103- and 108-kilodalton subunits. The maximal activity of PEPC in developing endosperms (2.67 micromoles oxaloacetate produced per minute per gram fresh weight) is approximately 20-fold and threefold greater than that of fully mature (dry seed) and germinating endosperms, respectively. The most significant increase in the activity and concentration of endosperm PEPC occurs during the middle cotyledon to full cotyledon stage of seed development; this period coincides with the most active phase of storage oil accumulation by ripening castor oil seeds. The data are compatible with the recent proposal (RG Smith, DA Gauthier, DT Dennis, DH Turpin [1992] Plant Physiol 1233-1238) that PEPC plays a fundamental role in vivo in the cytosolic production of an important substrate (malate) for fatty acid biosynthesis by developing castor oil seed leucoplasts. Immediately following seed imbibition, PEPC activity and concentration increase in parallel, with the greatest levels attained by the third day of germination. It is suggested that during this early phase of seed germination PEPC has a critical function to build up cellular dicarboxylic acid pools required to initiate significant activities of both the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles.

  19. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  20. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    PubMed

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  1. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Methodology/Principal Findings Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions/Significance It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours. PMID:24260265

  2. Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M; Hilal, Amr; Al Mahdy, Dalia A; Mahrous, Engy A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-06-01

    In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%).

  3. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography. PMID:25874205

  4. Production and characterization of biodiesel using nonedible castor oil by immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Reena

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography.

  5. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, E. C.; da Silva, M. G. A.; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  6. Green superlubricity of Nitinol 60 alloy against steel in presence of castor oil

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng; Martin, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, first, we show that sliding Nitinol 60 alloy against steel under castor oil lubrication exhibits a new case of superlubricity (coefficient of friction CoF ≪ 0.01). So far, CoF below 0.01 have never been achieved under boundary lubrication at high contact pressure and in presence of vegetable oil as a green lubricant. Next, it is demonstrated that superlubricity is controlled by tribochemical reactions, involving chemical degradation of castor oil and the formation of metal oxy-hydroxides. Finally, to explain these findings, we propose a novel superlubricity mechanism consisting of hexanoic acid molecules intercalated between nickel and iron oxy-hydroxide lamellar layers, a structure very similar to the one found in Fe-Ni batteries. We propose that superlubricity is achieved due to repulsive electrostatic forces acting between the intercalated metal oxy-hydroxide lamellar compounds. This system would be suitable for practical engineering applications in many fields including biotechnologies. PMID:27444211

  7. Green superlubricity of Nitinol 60 alloy against steel in presence of castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng; Martin, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, first, we show that sliding Nitinol 60 alloy against steel under castor oil lubrication exhibits a new case of superlubricity (coefficient of friction CoF ≪ 0.01). So far, CoF below 0.01 have never been achieved under boundary lubrication at high contact pressure and in presence of vegetable oil as a green lubricant. Next, it is demonstrated that superlubricity is controlled by tribochemical reactions, involving chemical degradation of castor oil and the formation of metal oxy-hydroxides. Finally, to explain these findings, we propose a novel superlubricity mechanism consisting of hexanoic acid molecules intercalated between nickel and iron oxy-hydroxide lamellar layers, a structure very similar to the one found in Fe-Ni batteries. We propose that superlubricity is achieved due to repulsive electrostatic forces acting between the intercalated metal oxy-hydroxide lamellar compounds. This system would be suitable for practical engineering applications in many fields including biotechnologies.

  8. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4}, glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl{sub 2} (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by {sup 32}P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation.

  9. Green superlubricity of Nitinol 60 alloy against steel in presence of castor oil.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng; Martin, Jean Michel

    2016-07-21

    In the present work, first, we show that sliding Nitinol 60 alloy against steel under castor oil lubrication exhibits a new case of superlubricity (coefficient of friction CoF ≪ 0.01). So far, CoF below 0.01 have never been achieved under boundary lubrication at high contact pressure and in presence of vegetable oil as a green lubricant. Next, it is demonstrated that superlubricity is controlled by tribochemical reactions, involving chemical degradation of castor oil and the formation of metal oxy-hydroxides. Finally, to explain these findings, we propose a novel superlubricity mechanism consisting of hexanoic acid molecules intercalated between nickel and iron oxy-hydroxide lamellar layers, a structure very similar to the one found in Fe-Ni batteries. We propose that superlubricity is achieved due to repulsive electrostatic forces acting between the intercalated metal oxy-hydroxide lamellar compounds. This system would be suitable for practical engineering applications in many fields including biotechnologies.

  10. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  11. Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The castor plant has been cultivated for thousands of years, providing a useful source of medicine, lamp fuel and lubricant long before petroleum came into wide use. The oil content of castor seed ranges from 45 to 60%, with most cultivars closer to 50% oil content. The presence of the hydroxy fatty...

  12. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d.

  13. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from vegetable oil based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-08-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane produced from a canola oil based polyol with primary terminal functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were studied and compared to the IPNs made from commercial castor oil using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as tensile measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical diversity of the starting materials allowed the evaluation of the effects of dangling chains and graftings on the properties of the IPNs. The polymerization process of canola oil based IPNs was accelerated because of the utilization of polyol with primary functional groups, which efficiently lessened the effect of dangling chains and yielded a higher degree of phase mixing. The mechanical properties of canola oil based IPNs containing more than 75 wt % PMMA were comparable to the corresponding castor oil based IPNs; both were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. However, when PMMA content was less than 65 wt %, canola oil based IPNs exhibited a typical mechanical behavior of rigid plastics, whereas castor oil based IPNs showed a typical mechanical behavior of soft rubber. It is proposed that these new IPN materials with high performance prepared from alternative renewable resources can prove to be valuable substitutes for existing materials in various applications.

  14. Effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydrogenated castor oil on naproxen release from sustained-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M H; Lobo, J M; Ferreira, D C

    2001-04-09

    The effect of the concentration of hydrophilic (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC]) and hydrophobic (hydrogenated castor oil [HCO]) products, fillers (lactose and dibasic calcium phosphate), and buffers (sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, and sodium citrate) on naproxen release rate was studied. Matrix tablets were prepared by double compression, and in vitro dissolution tests were performed. The dissolution results showed that an increased amount of HPMC or hydrogenated castor oil resulted in reduced drug release. The inclusion of buffers in the HPMC matrix tablets enhanced naproxen release. For HCO tablets, only sodium bicarbonate enhanced naproxen release. The presence of lactose on HPMC matrix tablets did not show a significantly different result from that obtained with the formulation containing dibasic calcium phosphate as a filler. However, for the tablets containing HCO, the presence of lactose significantly enhanced the naproxen release rate. The matrix-forming materials in this study were suitable for use in sustained-release tablets containing naproxen. The drug release can be modulated by adding suitable amounts of diluents and buffers.

  15. Stripping voltammetric determination of indapamide in serum at castor oil-based carbon paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Radi, A

    2001-01-01

    The diuretic drug indapamide has been characterized voltammetrically at carbon paste electrodes by means of cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. An adsorptive stripping method at carbon paste electrode modified with castor oil for trace determination of indapamide was described. A study of the variation of the peak current with solution variables such as pH, ionic strength, concentration of indapamide, possible interference, and instrumental variables such as scan rate, pulse amplitude, preconcentration time, accumulation potential, paste composition has resulted in the optimization of the oxidation signal for analytical purposes. By anodic stripping differential pulse voltammetry, the calibration plot was linear in the range 5 x 10(-8) x 10(-7) M with a detection limit of 5 x 10(-9) M at carbon paste electrode modified with castor oil in pH 4.0. The preconcentration medium-exchange approach was utilized for selective determination of indapamide in spiked serum. A detection limit of 15 ng ml(-1) was obtained for dilute serum sample after 3 min accumulation and medium-exchange procedure.

  16. Castor oil as secondary carbon source for production of sophorolipids using Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Vinit Kamalkishor; Annapure, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a prominent member of the biosurfactants family are produced in acidic and/or lactonic form by yeast Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 when grown on hydrophilic or hydrophobic or both carbon sources. In current study, ricinoleic acid rich castor oil (10%) was used as hydrophobic and glycerol (10%) was used as hydrophilic carbon source. The yields of 24.5 ± 0.25 g/l sophorolipids were analyzed by anthrone and HPLC method which further increased upto 40.24 ± 0.76 g/l sophorolipids using fed batch process at 5L fermenter level. The structures of sophorolipids synthesized on castor oil were elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), (13)C and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the ricinoleic acid (RA) gets hydroxylated at ω-1 position but incorporated into sophorolipids through already available hydroxyl group at 12(th) position. It resulted in the production of a novel sophorolipids with hydroxyl fatty acid as side chain and has applications as surfactant for novel drug delivery, anti microbial agent, cosmetic ingredient and emulsifier.

  17. The use of castor oil and ricinoleic acid in lead chalcogenide nanocrystal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyobe, Joseph W. M.; Mubofu, Egid B.; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-08-01

    A green solution-based thermolysis method for the synthesis of lead chalcogenide (PbE, E = S, Se, Te) nanocrystals in castor oil (CSTO) and its isolate ricinoleic acid (RA) is described. The blue shift observed from the optical spectra of CSTO and RA-capped PbE nanocrystals (NCs) confirmed the evidence of quantum confinement. The dimensions of PbE NCs obtained from NIR absorption spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were in good agreement. The particle sizes estimated were in the range of 20, 25, and 130 nm for castor oil-capped PbS, PbSe, and PbTe, respectively. Well-defined close to cubic-shaped particles were observed in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of PbSe and PbTe nanocrystals. The high-resolution TEM and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) micrographs of the as-synthesized crystalline PbE NCs showed distinct lattice fringes with d-spacing distances corroborating with the standard values reported in literature.

  18. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  19. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil.

  20. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  1. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  2. Detailed molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates by liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; van Velde, Jan W; Heeren, Ron M A; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-10-07

    The molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates (CASEOs) was studied by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) and multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The developed RPLC method allowed the separation of the various CASEO components, and especially, the baseline separation of multiple nominal isobars (same nominal mass) and isomers (same exact mass). MS and MS(n) were used for the determination and structure elucidation of various structures and for the discrimination of the isobars and isomers. Different ionization techniques and adduct ions were also tested for optimization of the MS detection and the MS(n) fragmentation. A unique fragmentation pathway of ricinoleic acid is proposed, which can be used as a marker of the polymerization process and the topology of ethoxylation in the CASEO. In addition, characteristic neutral losses of ricinoleic acid reveal its (terminal or internal) position in the molecule.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications of carbon nanoparticles derived from castor oil soot.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K Sudhakara; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2012-01-15

    A simple procedure for the modification of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from castor oil soot using acid treatment was described herein. Characterization studies revealed the presence of edge plane sites and surface carbon-oxygen functionalities at the surface of the CNP material. Voltammetric studies revealed the increased electrochemical activity of the CNP-modified electrode toward various biologically important molecules, including dopamine, uric acid, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, tyrosine, and serotonin, relative to those obtained using the unmodified electrode. The improved electro-oxidation potentials for these compounds-and, thereby, the enhanced sensitivity of related sensors-was due directly to the presence of surface C(δ+)O(δ-) functional groups and the greater number of edge plane sites developed after acid treatment of the soot sample.

  4. Allergic axillary dermatitis due to hydrogenated castor oil in a deodorant.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Kathy; Tatnall, Frances; Orton, David

    2008-03-01

    We present a case of axillary dermatitis caused by hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) in a commercially available deodorant. Patch testing with constituents obtained from the manufacturer showed allergic reaction to HCO 'as is', whereas there was no reaction to HCO 30% in pet. Testing 10 controls with HCO 'as is' did not cause irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis to non-HCO in cosmetics has been described previously but sensitization to HCO seems to be rare. Most common allergens identified in deodorants are fragrances, and this case illustrates that HCO is another possible allergen found in this group of personal care products. It is important that it is tested 'as is' to avoid false-negative results.

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Castor-Oil-Based Advanced Polyurethane Functionalized with Glycidol and Siloxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Aiswarea; Kurmvanshi, Surendra; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    Castor-oil-based polyurethane (PU), epoxy (glycidol) terminated polyurethane (EPU), and hydroxy terminated poly (dimethyl siloxane) (HTPDMS) modified EPU (EPDMS) were synthesized. The PU and EPU were synthesized with polyol:diisocyanate and polyol:diisocyanate:glycidol ratio of 1:1.2 and 1:3:3, respectively, whereas EPDMS was prepared by the incorporation of 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, and 30 wt.% of HTPDMS into the EPU. The structural modification of EPDMS was confirmed by solid-state CP/MAS 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The results of a tensile test revealed that the EPDMS with 10 wt.% loading of HTPDMS (EPDMS10) exhibited considerable enhancement in the tensile strength and modulus. The scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to understand the increased phase heterogeneity of the samples.

  6. High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kielczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.

    2008-07-01

    The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours.

  7. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Gülşah Gürol; Eşer, Ismet

    2011-02-01

    This research, conducted at two rest homes in Manisa, Turkey, was undertaken to examine the effect of castor oil pack (COP) administrations on constipation in the elderly. Study participants were monitored for 7 days before, 3 days during, and 4 days after COP administration utilizing the Recall Bias and Visual Scale Analog (RB-VSAQ) as well as the Standard Diary developed by Pamuk et al. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Repeated Measures, Bonferroni, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data analysis. Eighty percent of study subjects had been constipated for 10 years or longer. COP administration did not have an effect on the number of bowel movements or amount of feces, but decreased the feces consistency score, straining during defecation and feeling of complete evacuation after a bowel movement, thus decreasing symptoms of constipation. We conclude that COP may be used for controlling symptoms of constipation.

  8. Fabrication of modified hydrogenated castor oil/GPTMS-ZnO composites and effect on UV resistance of leather.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianzhong; Duan, Limin; Lu, Juan; Lyu, Bin; Gao, Dangge; Wu, Xionghu

    2017-06-16

    Leather products are made from the natural skin collagen fibers. It is vulnerable to the environmental factor such as solar ultraviolet irradiation in the using process. Therefore anti-UV performance is a very important quality, particularly for chrome-free leather. ZnO is a well-known UV absorber commonly used in the cosmetic industry. We have investigated its potential to increase the anti-UV performance of chrome-free leather. Modified hydrogenated castor oil/GPTMS-ZnO (MHCO/ GPTMS-ZnO) composites were prepared using spherical ZnO nanoparticles, hydrogenated castor oil, maleic anhydride and sodium bisulfite. MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites have better anti-UV ability and stability. MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites were applied to the leather processing. The treated samples were exposed to artificial sunlight. Anti-yellowing tests showed that MHCO/GPTMS-ZnO composites significantly improved anti-UV performance of leather.

  9. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of feruloylated structured lipids by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate with castor oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shangde; Zhu, Sha; Bi, Yanlan

    2014-09-01

    A novel enzymatic route of feruloylated structured lipids synthesis by the transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with castor oil, in solvent-free system, was investigated. The transesterification reactions were catalysed by Novozym 435, Lipozyme RMIM, and Lipozyme TLIM, among which Novozym 435 showed the best catalysis performance. Effects of feruloyl donors, reaction variables, and ethanol removal on the transesterification were also studied. High EF conversion (∼100%) was obtained under the following conditions: enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates), reaction temperature 90 °C, substrate molar ratio 1:1 (EF/castor oil), 72 h, vacuum pressure 10 mmHg, and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the transesterification product consisted of 62.6% lipophilic feruloylated structured lipids and 37.3% hydrophilic feruloylated lipids.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of All-Biomass Soy Protein Isolate-Based Films Enhanced by Epoxy Castor Oil Acid Sodium and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Wang, La; Li, Jianzhang; Zhang, Shifeng; Shi, Junyou

    2016-03-15

    All-biomass soy protein-based films were prepared using soy protein isolate (SPI), glycerol, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and epoxy castor oil acid sodium (ECOS). The effect of the incorporated HPC and ECOS on the properties of the SPI film was investigated. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of the resultant films increased from 2.84 MPa (control) to 4.04 MPa and the elongation at break increased by 22.7% when the SPI was modified with 2% HPC and 10% ECOS. The increased tensile strength resulted from the reaction between the ECOS and SPI, which was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). It was found that ECOS and HPC effectively improved the performance of SPI-based films, which can provide a new method for preparing environmentally-friendly polymer films for a number of commercial applications.

  11. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  13. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  14. A Comparison of the Efficacy, Adverse Effects, and Patient Compliance of the Sena-Graph®Syrup and Castor Oil Regimens for Bowel Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil or the test method with 60 mL of Sena-Graph syrup before IVU examination. Demographic data of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience were collected before the examination. Two radiologists, blinded to the method of bowel preparation, reviewed the radiographs and graded the bowel preparation. The compliance and acceptability of both regimens were assessed by using structured questionnaires filled by the patients. The Numbers, ages, weights and gender distribution of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience in the two groups did not differ significantly. The cleanliness scores for the castor oil and Sena-Graph group were 3.97 ± 0.971 and 4.87 ± 0.917, respectively. The results indicated that Sena-Graph syrup causes a better bowel cleansing compared castor oil. Adverse effects in Sena-Graph groups were significantly lower than the castor oil group. Acceptability of the regimen in patients who used Sena-Graph was higher than the other group. The Sena-Graph regimen is significantly more effective and better tolerated than of Castor oil regimen in bowel cleansing. The incidence and severity of the adverse effects from Castor oil was higher than Sena-Graph. PMID:24363727

  15. A comparison of the efficacy, adverse effects, and patient compliance of the sena-graph®syrup and castor oil regimens for bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil or the test method with 60 mL of Sena-Graph syrup before IVU examination. Demographic data of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience were collected before the examination. Two radiologists, blinded to the method of bowel preparation, reviewed the radiographs and graded the bowel preparation. The compliance and acceptability of both regimens were assessed by using structured questionnaires filled by the patients. The Numbers, ages, weights and gender distribution of patients and their prior bowel preparation experience in the two groups did not differ significantly. The cleanliness scores for the castor oil and Sena-Graph group were 3.97 ± 0.971 and 4.87 ± 0.917, respectively. The results indicated that Sena-Graph syrup causes a better bowel cleansing compared castor oil. Adverse effects in Sena-Graph groups were significantly lower than the castor oil group. Acceptability of the regimen in patients who used Sena-Graph was higher than the other group. The Sena-Graph regimen is significantly more effective and better tolerated than of Castor oil regimen in bowel cleansing. The incidence and severity of the adverse effects from Castor oil was higher than Sena-Graph.

  16. BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX AND CASTOR OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS) POLYURETHANE IMPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial. PMID:19089203

  17. Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (Ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial.

  18. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  19. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

    PubMed Central

    CAMARGO, Samira Esteves Afonso; RODE, Sigmar de Mello; do PRADO, Renata Falchete; CARVALHO, Yasmin Rodarte; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Castor oil bean cement (COB) is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH) and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Material and methods The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Results Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH) and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001) was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111) between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells) and COB (330 inflammatory cells) after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02) were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells) than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells). Conclusions These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods. PMID:20857007

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Controlled-Release Avermectin/Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Qin, He; Li, Lingxiao; Zhou, Xiaoteng; Wang, Wei; Kan, Chengyou

    2017-06-12

    Avermectin (AVM) is a low-toxic and high-active biopesticide, but it can be easily degraded by UV light. In this paper, biodegradable castor oil-based polyurethanes (CO-PU) are synthesized and used as carriers to fabricate a new kind of AVM/CO-PU nanoemulsion through an emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the chemical structure, colloidal property, AVM loading capacity, controlled-release behavior, foliar adhesion, and photostability of the AVM/CO-PU drug delivery systems are investigated. Results show that AVM is physically encapsulated in the CO-PU carrier nanospheres, the diameter of the AVM/CO-PU nanoparticles is <50 nm, and the AVM/CO-PU films are flat and smooth without any AVM aggregate. The drug loading capacity is up to 42.3 wt % with a high encapsulation efficiency of >85%. The release profiles indicate that the release rate is relatively high at the early stage and then slows, which can be adjusted by loaded AVM content, temperature, and pH of the release medium. The foliar pesticide retention of the AVM/CO-PU nanoemulsions is improved, and the photolysis rate of AVM in the AVM/CO-PU nanoparticles is significantly slower than that of the free AVM. A release mechanism of the AVM/CO-PU nanoemulsions is proposed, which is controlled by both diffusion and matrix erosion.

  1. Endothelial cell responses to castor oil-based polyurethane substrates functionalized by direct laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Cortella, Lucas; Cestari, Idágene A; Guenther, Denise; Lasagni, Andrés Fabian; Cestari, Ismar Newton

    2017-08-01

    Surface-induced thrombosis and lack of endothelialization are major drawbacks that hamper the widespread application of polyurethanes for the fabrication of implantable cardiovascular devices. Endothelialization of the blood-contacting surfaces of these devices may avoid thrombus formation and can be implemented by strategies that introduce micro and submicron patterns that favor adhesion and growth of endothelial cells. In this study, we used laser radiation to directly introduce topographical patterns in the low micrometer range on castor oil-based polyurethane, which is currently employed to fabricate cardiovascular devices. We have investigated cell adhesion, proliferation, morphology and alignment in response to these topographies. Reported results show that line-like and pillar-like patterns improved adhesion and proliferation rate of cultured endothelial cells. The line-like pattern with 1 µm groove periodicity was the most efficient to enhance cell adhesion and induced marked polarization and alignment. Our study suggests the viability of using laser radiation to functionalize PU-based implants by the introduction of specific microtopography to facilitate the development of a functional endothelium on target surfaces. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. The role of nanocrystalline cellulose on the microstructure of foamed castor-oil polyurethane nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Andrés Ignacio; Amalvy, Javier Ignacio; Fortunati, Elena; Kenny, José María; Chiacchiarelli, Leonel Matías

    2015-12-10

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), obtained by sulphuric acid hydrolysis, was used to synthesize polyurethane foams (PUFs) based on a functionalized castor oil polyol and a Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Formulations with varying isocyanate index (FI) and NCO number were prepared. At 0.5 wt.%, SEM's of the fractured surface underlined that the CNC acted both as a nucleation agent and as a particulate surfactant with cell geometries and apparent density changing selectively. The chemical structure of the PUF (FTIR) changed after the incorporation of CNC by a relative change of the amount of urea, urethane and isocyanurate groups. A low NCO number and isocyanate index contributed to the migration of the CNC to the Hard Segment (HS), acting as reinforcement and improving substantially the compressive mechanical properties (Ec and σc improvements of 63 and 50%, respectively). For a high NCO number or isocyanate index, the CNC migrated to the Soft Segment (SS), without causing a reinforcement effect. The migration of the CNC was also detected with DSC, TGA and DMA, furtherly supporting the hypothesis that a low NCO number and index contributed both to the formation of a microstructure with a higher content of urethane groups.

  3. Preparation and characterization of novel antibacterial castor oil-based polyurethane membranes for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Yari, Abbas; Yeganeh, Hamid; Bakhshi, Hadi; Gharibi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of novel antibacterial and cytocompatible polyurethane membranes as occlusive dressing, which can provide moist and sterile environment over mild exudative wounds is considered in this work. In this regard, an epoxy-terminated polyurethane (EPU) prepolymer based on castor oil and glycidyltriethylammonium chloride (GTEAC) as a reactive bactericidal agent were synthesized. Polyurethane membranes were prepared through cocuring of EPU and different content of GTEAC with 1,4-butane diamine. The physical and mechanical properties, as well as cytocompatibility and antibacterial performance of prepared membranes were studied. Depending on their chemical formulations, the equilibrium water absorption and water vapor transmission rate values of the membranes were in ranges of 3-85% and 53-154g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. Therefore, these transparent membranes can maintain for a long period the moist environment over the wounds with low exudates. Detailed cytotoxicity analysis of samples against mouse L929 fibroblast and MCA-3D keratinocyte cells showed good level of cytocompatibility of membranes after purification via extraction of residual unreacted GTEAC moieties. The antibacterial activity of the membranes against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was also studied. The membrane containing 50% GTEAC exhibited an effective antibacterial activity, while showed acceptable cytocompatibility and therefore, can be applied as an antibacterial occlusive wound dressing.

  4. The emulsion crystallization of hydrogenated castor oil into long thin fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Meirleir, Niels; Pellens, Linda; Broeckx, Walter; De Malsche, Wim

    2013-11-01

    The present study discusses the optimal crystal growth conditions required for the emulsion crystallization of hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) into several crystal morphologies. The best possible crystal shape is furthermore identified in case high rheology modifying performance is required. HCO was crystallized in a meso- and micro-continuous process which allowed for a controlled and fast screening of several crystal morphologies at different crystallization conditions. Applying high isothermal temperatures (above 55 °C) resulted in a combination of rosettes, thick fibers and thin fibers. At lower isothermal temperatures (below 55 °C) the shape gradually evolved to a combination of short needles, spherically shaped and/or irregularly shaped crystals. Crystals with the highest aspect ratio were obtained when crystals were grown between 30 °C and 45 °C and were subsequently reheated above 63 °C, forming high amounts of large thin fibrous crystals. When diluted to 0.25 wt% these fibrous crystals increased the low shear viscosity far better compared to the other crystal shapes.

  5. Gamma radiation effects on mechanical properties and morphology of a polyurethane derivate from castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Elaine Cristina; Orivaldo Chierice, Gilberto; Claro Neto, Salvador; Scheidegger Soboll, Daniel; Mauro Nascimento, Eduardo; Lepienski, Carlos Mauricio

    2011-03-01

    In this study, an adhesive of a polyurethane derivate from castor oil was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co source, at doses from 0.2 to 25 kGy. This adhesive polyurethane is considered for use in hospital furniture because it does not liberate dangerous solvents. Hardness and elastic modulus were measured by instrumented indentation with a pyramidal Berkovich indenter, using loads from 0.08-40 mN with a nanoindenter XP. The instrumented indentation hardness was 110 MPa for an untreated sample, increasing to 124 MPa after irradiation with 25 kGy, at penetration depths of about 5 μm. The increases in elastic modulus induced by radiation were less pronounced. This polyurethane is naturally cross-linked and the relative modifications in the hardness are attributed to an additional cross-linking process induced by radiation. X-ray diffraction indicates a slight increase in crystallinity. The roughness measured by atomic force microscopy increases after gamma irradiation.

  6. Water solubility enhancements of PAHs by sodium castor oil sulfonate microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Zhong; Zhao, Bao-Wei; Li, Zong-Lai

    2003-09-01

    Water solubility enhancements of naphthalene(Naph), phenantherene(Phen) and pyrene(Py) in sodium castor oil sulfonate(SCOS) microemulsions were evaluated. The apparent solubilities of PAHs are linearly proportional to the concentrations of SCOS microemulsion, and the enhancement extent by SCOS solutions is greater than that by ordinary surfactants on the basis of weight solubilization ratio(WSR). The logK(em) values of Naph, Phen, and Py are 3.13, 4.44 and 5.01 respectively, which are about the same as the logK(ow) values. At 5000 mg/L of SCOS concentration, the apparent solubilities are 8.80, 121, and 674 times as the intrinsic solubilities for Naph, Phen, and Py. The effects of inorganic ions and temperature on the solubilization of solutes are also investigated. The solubilization is improved with a moderate addition of Ca2+, Na+, NH4+ and the mixture of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+. WSR values are enhanced by 22.0% for Naph, 23.4% for Phen, and 24.6% for Py with temperature increasing by 5 degrees C. The results indicated that SCOS microemulsions improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) of soil, by increasing solubilities of organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green (Oleaceae) leaf methanol extract against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.

    PubMed

    Amabeoku, George J; Bamuamba, Kapinga

    2010-03-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green is widely used in South Africa by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, little is known scientifically about this South African species in the treatment of diarrhoea. The main aim of the study therefore was to investigate the antidiarrhoeal effect of the leaf methanol extract of the plant species in mice. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana was studied using a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test. The antipropulsive activity of the plant extract was also investigated using the charcoal meal transit test. Standard methods were used to investigate the acute toxicity and effect of O. europaea subsp. africana on castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation. Leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil, significantly decreased the stool mass, significantly delayed the onset of the diarrhoea and protected the animals against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation in mice. The LD50 value was found to be 3475 mg/kg (p.o.). The results obtained suggest that the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana has an antidiarrhoeal property and that, given orally, it may be non-toxic and/or safe in mice.

  8. Influence of MgO on Performance and Emissions of DI Engine using blends of Castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, S.; Padmanabhan, s.; Senthil kumar, J.; Polina, Navakanth; Krishna kumar, Sanivada

    2017-05-01

    With the technological development, the research over alternate fuels is increasing day by day in order to help the upcoming generation with a bright and greener future. In order to preserve the existing petroleum resources for future generation, it is necessary to soon switch to any alternate source which is easily available, renewable as well as environment friendly. In this paper I would like to highlight upon the usage of Diesel, Castor Oil and Nano Particles for a compression ignition engine and study the emission characteristics of this fuel at different mixing ratios and analyze the different levels of residue particles.

  9. Bio-aviation fuel production from hydroprocessing castor oil promoted by the nickel-based bifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyang; Zhu, Qingqing; Guan, Qingxin; He, Liangnian; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bio-aviation fuel was firstly synthesized by hydroprocessing castor oil in a continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor with the main objective to obtain the high yield of aviation fuel and determine the elemental compositions of the product phases as well as the reaction mechanism. Highest aviation range alkane yields (91.6 wt%) were achieved with high isomer/n-alkane ratio (i/n) 4.4-7.2 over Ni supported on acidic zeolites. In addition, different fuel range alkanes can be obtained by adjusting the degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrocracking. And the observations are rationalized by a set of reaction pathways for the various product phases.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development. PMID:24920902

  11. Diametral tensile strength and film thickness of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil

    PubMed Central

    CARMELLO, Juliana Cabrini; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; RIBEIRO, Lígia Nunes de Moraes; CLARO NETO, Salvador; GUAGLIANONI, Dalton Geraldo; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The need to develop new dental luting agents in order to improve the success of treatments has greatly motivated research. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and film thickness (FT) of an experimental dental luting agent derived from castor oil (COP) with or without addition of different quantities of filler (calcium carbonate - CaCO3). Material and Methods Eighty specimens were manufactured (DTS N=40; FT N=40) and divided into 4 groups: Pure COP; COP 10%; COP 50% and zinc phosphate (control). The cements were mixed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and submitted to the tests. The DTS test was performed in the MTS 810 testing machine (10 KN, 0.5 mm/min). For FT test, the cements were sandwiched between two glass plates (2 cm2) and a load of 15 kg was applied vertically on the top of the specimen for 10 min. The data were analyzed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The values of DTS (MPa) were: Pure COP- 10.94±1.30; COP 10%- 30.06±0.64; COP 50%- 29.87±0.27; zinc phosphate- 4.88±0.96. The values of FT (µm) were: Pure COP- 31.09±3.16; COP 10%- 17.05±4.83; COP 50%- 13.03±4.83; Zinc Phosphate- 20.00±0.12. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the groups (DTS - p=1.01E-40; FT - p=2.4E-10). Conclusion The experimental dental luting agent with 50% of filler showed the best diametral tensile strength and film thickness. PMID:22437672

  12. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  13. A novel solubilization of phenanthrene using Winsor I microemulsion-based sodium castor oil sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baowei; Zhu, Lizhong; Gao, Yanzheng

    2005-03-17

    Problems associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. Ex situ soil washing is commonly used for treating contaminated soils by separating the most contaminated fraction of the soil for disposal. Surfactant-enhanced soil washing is being considered with increasing frequency to actually achieve soil-contaminant separation. In this research, a novel solubilization of phenanthrene and extraction of phenanthrene from spiked soil by sodium castor oil sulfate (SCOS) microemulsion was presented and compared with the conventional surfactants, Triton X-100 (TX100), Tween 80 (TW80), Brij35, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Unlike conventional surfactants, SCOS forms stable microemulsion in water and thus behaves much like a separate bulk phase in concentrating organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement is linearly proportional to the concentration of SCOS microemulsion, in contrast with the effect of a conventional surfactant in which a sharp inflection occurs in the vicinity of the measured critical micelle concentration. SCOS microemulsion exhibits the largest mass solubilization ratio among the selected surface active agents (SAAs) in both soil-free system and soil-water system. The partitioning coefficients of phenanthrene between the emulsified phase and the aqueous phase, Kem, is slightly larger than those between the micellar pseudo phase and the aqueous phase, Kmc. The extraction experiments demonstrate high and fast desorption of phenanthrene from spiked soil by SCOS microemulsion perhaps due to its high solubilization capacity compared with the conventional surfactant solutions. The results show that SCOS could be an attractive alternative to synthetic surfactants in ex situ washing for PAH-contaminated soils.

  14. Possible anti-diarrhoeal potential of ethanol leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata in castor oil-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Aba, Patrick Emeka; Joshua, Parker Elija; Ezeonuogu, Francis Chimaobi; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Omoja, Valentine Uneojo; Umeakuana, Paschal Ugochukwu

    2015-12-01

    Chromolaena odorata is a plant commonly used traditionally to treat ailments including diarrhoea in Nigeria. The ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata was studied for its anti-diarrhoeal activity using electrolyte test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea rats' models. Acute toxicity effect of the extract was also evaluated. The extract showed a dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhoea at the tested doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weights). The protection offered by pretreatment with 400 mg/kg body weight of the ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata with regards to reductions in the incidences of faecal wetness and rate of defaecations were statistically comparable to that achieved with Lomotil, a known anti-diarrhoeic drug. The result of the electrolyte test showed that the extract pretreated groups had significantly (p<0.05) lower potassium and sodium ions in their intestinal fluid when compared with the diarrhoeic untreated controls. This is well tolerated. The results indicate that the ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata is safe and possesses anti-diarrhoeal activity with electrolyte reabsorption proposed as the possible mechanism of action.

  15. Formulation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of castor oil based self-nano emulsifying levosulpiride delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Poorani, G; Uppuluri, Spandana; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu

    2016-09-01

    Levosulpiride (LSP) is a hydrophobic benzamide derivative used in the treatment of schizophrenia. SNEDDS were extensively practiced for systemic delivery of poorly aqueous soluble drugs to achieve maximum bioavailability. The present study was focussed on the formulation, optimisation and evaluation of LSP SNEDDS using castor oil, for enhancement of drug absorption and bioavailability. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was plotted to identify the range of SNEDDS components. Twenty formulations were designed, prepared and characterised by its particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability. In vitro dissolution data modelling was performed. Microscopy, FTIR and in vivo bioavailability studies were conducted for optimum formulation. Results, discussion and conclusion: F18 containing castor oil, 0.9 mL; PEG 600, 1.36 mL and Tween 80, 2.74 mL was found to be optimum. The optimised formulation had shown uniform globule size, no interactions of LSP with SNEDDS components and higher pharmacokinetic parameters than that of commercial preparation.

  16. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-07-28

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  17. Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants into castor oil based polyurethane-polyester nonwoven fabric composites.

    PubMed

    Satheesh Kumar, M N; Manjula, K S; Siddaramaiah

    2007-06-25

    Castor oil based polyurethane (PU)-polyester nonwoven fabric composites were fabricated by impregnating the polyester nonwoven fabric in a composition containing castor oil and diisocyanate. Composites were fabricated with two different isocyanates such as toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Transport behavior of n-alkane penetrants (pentane, hexane and heptane) into both PUs and PU-polyester nonwoven fabric composites were studied. Sorption studies were carried out at different temperatures. From the sorption results, the diffusion (D) and permeation (P) coefficients of penetrants have been calculated. Significant increase in the diffusion and permeation coefficients was observed with increase in the temperature of sorption experiments. Drastical reduction in diffusion and permeation coefficients was noticed in the composites compared to neat PUs. Attempts were made to estimate the empirical parameters like n, which suggests the mode of transport and K is a constant depends on the structural characteristics of the composite in addition to its interaction with penetrants. The temperature dependence of the transport coefficients has been used to estimate the activation energy parameter for diffusion (E(D)) and permeation (E(P)) processes from Arrhenius plots. Furthermore, the sorption results have been interpreted in terms of the thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (DeltaH) and entropy (DeltaS).

  18. Anti-diarrhea activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ejeh, Sunday A; Onyeyili, Patrick; Abalaka, Samson E

    2017-07-01

    The use of traditional medicine as an alternative source of cure for many ailments has played an important role in health care delivery in both developing and developed countries. Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae) is used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disease conditions, including diarrhea. The anti-diarrhea activity of the root bark aqueous extract of B. coccineus was investigated in this study. Acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark was performed in exposed rats. Diarrhea was induced in exposed rats with castor oil, and the effect of the extract on castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and enteropooling was consequently investigated. In the acute toxicity study, the extract caused no death in treated rats nor produced signs of delayed toxicity, even at 5000 mg/kg. The aqueous root bark extract of B. coccineus also decreased the distance travelled by activated charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract of treated rats when compared to control rats. Results of castor oil-induced enteropooling revealed slight reduction in the weight of intestinal contents of treated rats compared to control rats. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the frequency of defecation as well as in the number of unformed feces produced by castor oil-induced diarrhea at 100 mg/kg dose with 74.96% inhibition of defecation. The study demonstrated the anti-diarrheic property of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark as currently exploited in our traditional herbal therapy.

  19. Regiospecific Identification of 2-(12-Ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-1,3-diricinoleoyl-glycerol in Castor (Ricinus communis L.)Oil by ESI-MS4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)diricinoleoylglycerol (RRRR), a tetraacylglycerol, was identified earlier in castor oil. Using ESI-MS4, 95% of the 12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl chain was identified at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone of RRRR. Regiospecific location of the 12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl ...

  20. Reducing the toxicity of castor seed meal through processing treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The castor plant produces a seed that is high in oil content and composed of approximately 90% ricinoleate. Due to the numerous uses of castor oil and ricinoleate, the oil is in high demand. However, the presence of a protein toxin in the seed meal is a key concern about processing the castor seed t...

  1. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  2. Leucoplast Pyruvate Kinase from Developing Castor Oil Seeds : Characterization of the Enzyme's Degradation by a Cysteine Endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Plaxton, W C

    1991-12-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase (PK(p); EC 2.7.1.40) from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296) appears to be highly susceptible to limited degradation by a cysteine endopeptidase during the purification of the enzyme or incubation of clarified homogenates at 4 degrees C. Purified castor seed PK(p) was previously reported to consist of immunologically related 57.5 and 44 kilodalton subunits (Plaxton WC, Dennis DT, Knowles VL [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1528-1534). By contrast, immunoreactive polypeptides of about 63.5 and 54 kilodaltons were observed when a western blot of an extract prepared under denaturing conditions was probed with affinity purified rabbit anti-(castor seed PK(p)) immunoglobulin G. Proteolytic activity against PK(p) was estimated by the disappearance of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits and the concomitant appearance of lower molecular mass immunoreactive degradation products during the incubation of clarified homogenates at 4 degrees C. The presence of 2 millimolar dithiothreitol accelerated the degradation of PK(p). The conservation of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits was observed after extraction of the enzyme in the presence of 1 millimolar p-hydroxymecuribenzoate, or 1 millimolar Nalpha-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone, or 10 millimolar iodoacetate. These results reveal that a cysteine endopeptidase was responsible for the in vitro proteolysis of PK(p). This endopeptidase is present throughout all stages of endosperm development. Its PK(p)-degrading activity, however, appears to be most pronounced in preparations from older endosperm. When lysates of purified leucoplasts were incubated at 4 degrees C for up to 21 hours, no degradation of PK(p) was observed; this indicated an extra-leucoplastic localization for the cysteine endopeptidase. Although the in vivo subunit structure of PK(p) remains uniform throughout all stages of endosperm development, the large decrease in PK activity that accompanies

  3. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  4. Studies on performance evaluation of a green plasticizer made by enzymatic esterification of furfuryl alcohol and castor oil fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2017-02-10

    The esterification of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and castor oil fatty acid (COFA) at 3:1 molar ratio, by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (NS 435 from Novozyme) in a solvent free system gave a maximum yield of 88.64% (%w/w) at 5h. Performance of the FA-COFA ester plasticized Ethyl Cellulose (EC) films were evaluated by surface morphologies, XRD analysis, mechanical properties,thermal properties, water vapor permeability and migration stability test. It was an effective plasticizer with better mechanical properties and thermal stability at the increasing concentration of FA-COFA ester (15-25%) containing EC film, than the traditional plasticizer, i.e; dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in producing good quality films. Chemical structure and the intermolecular interactions between FA-COFA ester and ethyl cellulose chains were the causative agents of these outstanding performances. Therefore, this FA-COFA ester, with significant plasticizing property, at a certain concentration, can be a substitute of DBP.

  5. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of "Green" Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-27

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology.

  6. Nickel-carbon nanocomposites prepared using castor oil as precursor: A novel catalyst for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, Neftalí L. V.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Krolow, Mateus; Santos, Cláudia C. G.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    A novel and simple method to prepare nickel-based catalysts for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. The present method was developed using castor oil as a precursor. The results clarify that the nickel-carbon (Ni/C) catalyst has a high activity for ethanol steam reforming. It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be modified according to the experimental conditions employed. Moreover, it is interesting to note that the increase in the catalytic activity of the Ni/C nanocomposite over time, at 500 and 600 °C of reaction temperature, may be associated with the formation of filamentous carbon. The preliminary results indicate that the novel methodology used, led to the obtainment of materials with important properties that can be extended to applications in different catalytic process.

  7. Using a castor oil-balsam of Peru-trypsin ointment to assist in healing skin graft donor sites.

    PubMed

    Carson, Stanley N; Wiggins, Christopher; Overall, Karen; Herbert, Jackie

    2003-06-01

    Skin graft donor sites are partial-thickness wounds that are commonly managed with gauze-type dressings. As such, they often cause more pain and difficulty in healing than the graft-recipient site. A retrospective study was conducted to ascertain the effects of using a castor oil-balsam of Peru-trypsin containing ointment on skin graft donor sites in 36 consecutive patients (16 female, 20 male). All donor sites were epithelialized after 11 days (range 6 to 11 days, mean 8 days) and no wound complications were observed. Given these healing results and product ease of use, this particular formulation has become the facilities' current treatment of choice and further study is indicated and warranted.

  8. Oil recovery process using polymer microemulsion complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Canter, N.H.; Robbins, M.L.

    1982-11-23

    A process for the enhanced recovery of oil from a subterranean formation using a polymer-microemulsion complex is disclosed. The polymer is polyethylene oxide or polyvinyl pyrrolidone which interacts with the surfactant of the microemulsion to form a physical association. The resulting complex is characterized by a complexation energy of at least 2 kcal/mole. Slugs containing the present polymer-microemulsion complexes are stable at high salinity, show reduced destabilization due to surfactant adsorption and retention by the formation, have low interfacial tensions and achieve an early banking, as well as increased displacement of crude oil.

  9. Low voltage reversible electrowetting exploiting lubricated polymer honeycomb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Pogreb, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Grynyov, Roman; Gendelman, Oleg

    2014-04-01

    Low-voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric scheme realized with lubricated honeycomb polymer surfaces is reported. Polycarbonate honeycomb reliefs manufactured with the breath-figures self-assembly were impregnated with silicone and castor oils. The onset of the reversible electrowetting for silicone oil impregnated substrates occurred at 35 V, whereas for castor oil impregnated ones it took place at 80 V. The semi-quantitative analysis of electrowetting of impregnated surfaces is proposed.

  10. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery with polymer flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2016-11-01

    Polymer flooding is a method for enhanced oil recovery, however the mechanism responsible for the effectiveness of polymer flooding is not well understood. We use confocal microscopy and bulk transport measurements to probe the effectiveness of different molecular weight and concentrations of Polyacrylamide solution in imbibition of crude oil in 3D micromodel. We show that large molecular weight and moderate to high concentration of polymer is required for enhanced recovery. By directly measuring the pore level velocities in the medium, we show that polymer retention in the medium results in diversion of flow in some pores. The inhomogeneous changes in the flow velocities result in redistribution of viscous forces and enhanced recovery of oil.

  12. Metabolism of 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine in castor oil biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, J T; Lew, K M; Chen, J M; Iwasaki, Y; McKeon, T A

    2000-05-01

    We have examined the role of 2-oleoyl-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols (TAG) by castor microsomes. In castor microsomal incubation, the label from 14C-oleate of 1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine is incorporated into TAG containing ricinoleate. The enzyme characteristics, such as optimal pH, and the effect of incubation components of the oleoyl-12-hydroxylase using 2-oleoyl-PE as incubation substrate are similar to those for 2-oleoyl-PC (phosphatidylcholine). However, compared to 2-oleoyl-PC, 2-oleoyl-PE is a less efficient incubation substrate of oleoyl-12-hydroxylase in castor microsomes. Unlike 2-oleoyl-PC, 2-oleoyl-PE is not hydroxylated to 2-ricinoleoyl-PE by oleoyl-12-hydroxylase and is not desaturated to 2-linoleoyl-PE by oleoyl-12-desaturase. We have demonstrated the conversion of 2-oleoyl-PE to 2-oleoyl-PC and vice versa. The incorporation of label from 2-[14C]oleoyl-PE into TAG occurs after its conversion to 2-oleoyl-PC, which can then be hydroxylated or desaturated. We detected neither PE-N-monomethyl nor PE-N,N-dimethyl, the intermediates from PE to PC by N-methylation. The conversion of 2-oleoyl-PE to 2-oleoyl-PC likely occurs via hydrolysis to 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol by phospholipase C and then by cholinephosphotransferase. This conversion does not appear to play a key role in driving ricinoleate into TAG.

  13. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil: A possible step in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thalles A; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud V

    2017-11-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35°C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5wt% of enzyme and 5wt% of water contents, 94% of FAME yield and 6.1% of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8h are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability assessment of injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulsifier films.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, S; Kumar, B Ajith; Senthilkumar, S R; Baskar, Raj; Sekharan, T Raja

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were to prepare castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulgator film and to assess the kinetic stability of the prepared cationic emulsion after subjecting it to thermal processing and freeze-thaw cycling. Presence of cryoprotectants (5%, w/w, sucrose +5%, w/w, sorbitol) improved the stability of emulsions to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. After storing the emulsion at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C over a period of up to 6 months, no significant change was noted in mean diameter of the dispersed oil droplets. However, the emulsion stored at the highest temperature did show a progressive decrease in the pH and zeta potential values, whereas the emulsion kept at the lowest temperatures did not. This indicates that at 37 degrees C, free fatty acids were formed from the castor oil, and consequently, the liberated free fatty acids were responsible for the reduction in the emulsion pH and zeta potential values. Thus, the injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion could be useful for incorporating various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are in size from small molecular drugs to large macromolecules such as oligonucleotides.

  15. The In Vitro–In Vivo Safety Confirmation of PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil as a Surfactant for Oral Nanoemulsion Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Novel, Miranti Anggraeni; Ayu, Sri; Berlian, Guntur; Tandrasasmita, Olivia Mayasari; Tjandrawinata, Raymond Rubianto; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation on the safety use of high concentration of polyoxyl 40 (PEG-40) hydrogenated castor oil as a surfactant for oral nanoemulsion was performed in Webster mice. As previously reported, nearly 20% of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil was used to emulsify the glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as an oil to the aqueous phase. Thermodynamically stable and spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by the presence of co-surfactant polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400). Standard parameters were analyzed for nanoemulsion including particle size and particle size distribution, the surface charge of nanoemulsion, and morphology. To ensure the safety of this nanoemulsion, several cell lines were used for cytotoxicity study. In addition, 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of the blank nanoemulsion was given orally to Webster mice once a day for 14 days. Several parameters such as gross anatomy, body weight, and main organs histopathology were observed. In particular, by considering the in vivo data, it is suggested that nanoemulsion composed with a high amount of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil is acceptable for oral delivery of active compounds. PMID:28362322

  16. The In Vitro-In Vivo Safety Confirmation of PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil as a Surfactant for Oral Nanoemulsion Formulation.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Novel, Miranti Anggraeni; Ayu, Sri; Berlian, Guntur; Tandrasasmita, Olivia Mayasari; Tjandrawinata, Raymond Rubianto; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar

    2017-03-31

    Evaluation on the safety use of high concentration of polyoxyl 40 (PEG-40) hydrogenated castor oil as a surfactant for oral nanoemulsion was performed in Webster mice. As previously reported, nearly 20% of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil was used to emulsify the glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as an oil to the aqueous phase. Thermodynamically stable and spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by the presence of co-surfactant polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400). Standard parameters were analyzed for nanoemulsion including particle size and particle size distribution, the surface charge of nanoemulsion, and morphology. To ensure the safety of this nanoemulsion, several cell lines were used for cytotoxicity study. In addition, 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of the blank nanoemulsion was given orally to Webster mice once a day for 14 days. Several parameters such as gross anatomy, body weight, and main organs histopathology were observed. In particular, by considering the in vivo data, it is suggested that nanoemulsion composed with a high amount of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil is acceptable for oral delivery of active compounds.

  17. Anti-diarrhea activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ejeh, Sunday A.; Onyeyili, Patrick; Abalaka, Samson E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of traditional medicine as an alternative source of cure for many ailments has played an important role in health care delivery in both developing and developed countries. Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae) is used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disease conditions, including diarrhea. The anti-diarrhea activity of the root bark aqueous extract of B. coccineus was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark was performed in exposed rats. Diarrhea was induced in exposed rats with castor oil, and the effect of the extract on castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and enteropooling was consequently investigated. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the extract caused no death in treated rats nor produced signs of delayed toxicity, even at 5000 mg/kg. The aqueous root bark extract of B. coccineus also decreased the distance travelled by activated charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract of treated rats when compared to control rats. Results of castor oil-induced enteropooling revealed slight reduction in the weight of intestinal contents of treated rats compared to control rats. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the frequency of defecation as well as in the number of unformed feces produced by castor oil-induced diarrhea at 100 mg/kg dose with 74.96% inhibition of defecation. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the anti-diarrheic property of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark as currently exploited in our traditional herbal therapy. PMID:28831215

  18. Dissociation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Izzo, A A; Gaginella, T S

    1994-01-01

    1. Castor oil (2 ml orally) produced diarrhoea in rats 1-7 h after challenge, which was associated with gross damage to the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. 2. The injury was accompanied by release of acid phosphatase into the gut lumen, indicating cellular injury. 3. Intraperitoneal injection of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 2.5-50 mg kg-1 twice), prevented the diarrhoea. The dose of L-NAME (50 mg kg-1) completely blocked the diarrhoea but increased the release of acid phosphatase and worsened the gross damage. 4. The NO donating compound, isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IMN, 150 mg kg-1 twice) reversed the effects of L-NAME (50 mg kg-1) on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gross damage and acid phosphatase release. 5. The apparent dissociation of the diarrhoeal and intestinal mucosal damaging effects of castor oil suggest that NO has a protective effect on the rat duodenal and jejunal mucosa, but that NO mediates, in part, the diarrhoea effect of this laxative. PMID:7889264

  19. Oil recovery process using a treated polymer solution

    SciTech Connect

    Luetzelschwab, W.E.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a process for recovering oil from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. It comprises the sequential steps of: contacting an aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid with an oxygenating agent, wherein the aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid initially contains hydrogen sulfide in a sufficient concentration to substantially degrade an acrylamide polymer; reducing the initial hydrogen sulfide concentration of the aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid; mixing the aqueous liquid with the acrylamide polymer to form an aqueous acrylamide polymer solution; injecting the aqueous acrylamide polymer solution into the subterranean oil-bearing formation; and recovering oil from the formation.

  20. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer has been selected to study micellar-polymer chemical flooding. The physical properties and phase behavior of this system have been determined. A surfactant-polymer slug has been designed to achieve high efficiency recovery by improving phase behavior and mobility control. Recovery experiments have been performed on linear cores and a quarter 5-spot. The same recovery experiments have been simulated using a commercially available simulator (UTCHEM). Good agreement between experimental data and simulation results has been achieved.

  1. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  2. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  3. Structure and mechanical properties of new biomass-based nanocomposite: castor oil-based polyurethane reinforced with acetylated cellulose nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Song; Huang, Jin; Chang, Peter R; Wei, Siwen; Xu, Yixiang; Zhang, Qiaoxin

    2013-06-05

    New nanocomposites consisting of a castor oil-based polyurethane matrix filled with acetylated cellulose nanocrystals (ACNs) were developed. The ACN exhibited improved dispersion in tetrahydrofuran as a blending medium, and reduced polarity as compared with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals, resulting in a high loading level of 25 wt% in the nanocomposite. As the ACN loading-level increased from 0% to 25%, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites increased from 2.79 MPa to 10.41 MPa and from 0.98 MPa to 42.61 MPa, respectively. When the ACN loading-level was 10 wt%, the breaking elongation of the nanocomposites reached the maximum value of more than twice that of the polyurethane. The enhanced mechanical performance was primarily attributed to the formation of a three-dimensional ACN network and strong interfacial interactions between filler and matrix. This work produced new polyurethane-based nanocomposites containing modified cellulose nanocrystal with a high biomass content. Its high performance could contribute to potential applications.

  4. Production of a novel mannosylerythritol lipid containing a hydroxy fatty acid from castor oil by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by various yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma, which exhibit excellent surface activities as well as versatile biochemical activities. A study on P. tsukubaensis NBRC1940 as a mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B) producer revealed that the yeast accumulated a novel glycolipid from castor oil at a yield of 22 g/L. Its main chemical structure was identified as 1-O-β-(2'-O-alka(e)noyl-3'-O-hydroxyalka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol designated as "new MEL-B." The new MEL-B, comprising a hydroxy fatty acid had a reduced surface tension of 28.5 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 2.2×10⁻⁵ M in water. The observed CMC was 5-fold higher than that of conventional MEL-B. When conventional MEL-B was dispersed in water, it self-assembled to form the lamellar (L(α)) phase at a wide range of concentrations. In contrast, new MEL-B formed spherical oily droplets similar to the sponge (L₃) phase, which is observed in aqueous solutions of di-acetylated MEL (MEL-A). The data suggest that the newly identified MEL-B is likely to have a different structure and interfacial properties compared to the conventional MELs, and could facilitate an increase in the application of glycolipid biosurfactants.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanotube/nanowire-polyurethane composite based on castor oil and polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Yasaman; Kasra, Mehran; Salahshour Kordestani, Soheila; Bagheri Hariri, Mohiedin

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NW) were synthesized by using the template-assisted electrodeposition technique and mixed with castor oil-polyethylene glycol based polyurethane (PU) to fabricate porous composite scaffolds for biomedical application. 100 and 50 ppm of GNT/NW were used to synthesize composites. The composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cell attachment on polyurethane-GNT/NW composites was investigated using fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Addition of 50 or 100 ppm GNT/NW had significant effects on thermal, mechanical, and cell attachment of polyurethane. Higher crosslink density and better cell attachment and proliferation were observed in polyurethane containing 50 ppm GNT/NW. The results revealed that GNT/NW formed hydrogen bonding with the polyurethane matrix and improved the thermomechanical properties of nanocomposites. Compared with pure PU, better cellular attachment on polyurethane-GNT/NW composites was observed resulting from the improved surface properties of composites.

  6. Effect of polyoxyl 35 castor oil and Polysorbate 80 on the intestinal absorption of digoxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cornaire, G; Woodley, J F; Saivin, S; Legendre, J Y; Decourt, S; Cloarec, A; Houin, G

    2000-06-01

    Surfactants are classically used to improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs such as digoxin. Polysorbate 80 and Cremophor EL (polyoxyl 35 castor oil) are such surfactants but they may also modulate the action of P-glycoprotein, an energy-dependent "counter-transport" system implicated in the phenomenon of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. P-glycoprotein is also present in the intestine on the apical membrane of mature enterocytes and can potentially reduce the absorption of a wide range of drugs. In this study, using the improved everted gut sac method, the effects of Polysorbate 80, Cremophor EL and cyclosporin on the absorption of digoxin were studied. An increase in the uptake of digoxin in the presence of these three products could be shown with our in vitro model. Cremophor EL and Polysorbate 80 had no toxic effects at the concentrations used. These results suggest that surfactants such as Cremophor EL and Polysorbate 80 should not only support solubilization but can also modulate the P-glycoprotein system to improve the bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs.

  7. Colonic cleansing for radiographic detection of neoplasia: efficacy of the magnesium citrate-castor oil-cleansing enema regimen.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, D W; Chen, Y M; Ott, D J

    1988-10-01

    To optimize detection of colonic polyps, we instituted a cleansing regimen of dietary restriction, hydration, magnesium citrate, castor oil, and a cleansing enema. We then conducted a review of serially performed barium enemas to determine the percentage of patients with clean colons in a mixed population of 500 inpatients and outpatients in whom this regimen had been used. The same regimen also was used before single- and double-contrast barium enemas were performed in 139 patients with 234 polyps, and radiologic-endoscopic correlation was used to determine the percentage of polypoid neoplasms detected. The review indicated that a clean colon had been achieved in 97% of the 500 cases. In an additional 1.4% of patients, fecal residue was limited to small amounts in the cecum or ascending colon. In only two cases (0.4%) did fecal material prevent an examination that was suitable for detection of large polypoid or circumferential lesions. The single- and double-contrast barium enemas detected 80% and 91%, respectively, of polypoid lesions of all sizes. Single-contrast examinations detected 94% of polyps 10 mm or larger and 72% of polyps 5-9 mm. Double-contrast studies detected 96% of polyps 10 mm or larger and 88% of those 5-9 mm. The results of this study indicate that with this regimen, fecal residue does not significantly interfere with the detection of colonic polyps via barium enema examination.

  8. Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil.

    PubMed

    Boda, Ravi Kiran; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad; Suthari, Sateesh

    2017-07-09

    Ricinus communis L. (castor bean or castor oil plant) was found growing on metal-contaminated sites (4) of peri-urban Greater Hyderabad comprises of erstwhile industrial areas viz Bollaram, Patancheru, Bharatnagar, and Kattedan industrial areas. During 2013-2017, about 60 research papers have appeared focusing the role of castor bean in phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils, co-generation of biomaterials, and environmental cleanup, as bioenergy crop and sustainable development. The present study is focused on its use as a multipurpose phytoremediation crop for phytostabilization and revegetation of waste disposed peri-urban contaminated soils. To determine the plant tolerance level, metal accumulation, chlorophyll, protein, proline, lipid peroxidation, oil content, and soil properties were characterized. It was noticed that the castor plant and soils have high concentration of metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The soils have high phosphorous (P), adequate nitrogen (N), and low concentration of potassium (K). Iron (Fe) concentrations ranged from1672±50.91 to 2166±155.78 mg kg(-1) in the soil. The trend of metal accumulation Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd was found in different plant parts at polluted sites. The translocation of Cd and Pb showed values more than one in industrial areas viz Bollaram, Kattedan, and Bharatnagar indicating the plants resistance to metal toxicity. Chlorophyll and protein content reduced while proline and malondialdehyde increased due to its tolerance level under metal exposure. The content of ricinoleic acid was higher, and the fatty acids composition of polluted areas was almost similar to that of the control area. Thus, R. communis L. can be employed for reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  9. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation, high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. This report contains data concerning selection of appropriate fluids for use in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer is proposed. The properties of this system has been determined. The experimental set-up has been conditioned for use and experiments involving the aforementioned system have already started. A commercial simulator has been acquired for use in reproducing the experiments. A graduate student has been trained in its use. Linear stability analysis equations have been developed and phase maps for one and two-dimensions are currently computed.

  10. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  11. Wound Healing Bionanocomposites Based on Castor Oil Polymeric Films Reinforced with Chitosan-Modified ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2015-09-14

    Castor oil (CO), which is a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally benign nonedible oil, has been successfully used as matrix material to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposite films filled with chitosan (CS)-modified ZnO nanoparticles. The biocomposites were synthesized via a simple and versatile solution mixing and casting method. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, water absorption, biodegradability, cytocompatibility, barrier, mechanical, viscoelastic, antibacterial, and wound healing properties of the films have been analyzed. FT-IR spectra were used to obtain information about the nanoparticle-matrix interactions. The thermal stability, hydrophilicity, degree of porosity, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability (Dk), and biodegradability of the films increased with the CS-ZnO loading. The WVTR and Dk data obtained are within the range of values reported for commercial wound dressings. Tensile tests demonstrated that the nanocomposites displayed a good balance between elasticity, strength, and flexibility under both dry and simulated body fluid (SBF) environments. The flexibility increased in a moist atmosphere due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water. The nanocomposites also exhibited significantly enhanced dynamic mechanical performance (storage modulus and glass transition temperature) than neat CO under different humidity conditions. The antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus bacteria was investigated in the presence and the absence of UV light. The biocide effect increased progressively with the CS-ZnO content and was systematically stronger against Gram-positive cells. Composites with nanoparticle loading ≤5.0 wt % exhibited very good in vitro cytocompatibility and enabled a faster wound healing than neat CO and control gauze, hence showing great potential to be applied as antibacterial

  12. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed.

  13. Polymer Grafted Nanoparticle-based Oil Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2015-03-01

    Particle-based oil dispersants mainly composed of inorganic nanoparticles such as silica nanoparticles are considered as environmentally friendly oil dispersants due to their biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. The oil-water interfacial tension is reduced when nanoparticles segregate to the oil-water interface and this segregation is improved by grafting interfacially active polymer brushes. In this study, surfactant-like amphiphilic block copolymers were grafted from silica nanoparticles using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method in order to increase their interfacial activity. We have studied the interfacial activity of such hybrid nanoparticles using pendant drop interfacial tension measurements, and their structure using small angle X-ray scattering. Amphiphilic copolymer grafted nanoparticles significantly reduced oil-water interfacial tension compared to the interfacial tension reduction induced by homopolymer grafted nanoparticles or the corresponding free ungrafted copolymer. Moreover, hard and stable oil-water emulsions were formed by applying the block copolymer grafted nanoparticles due to the formation of interparticle network structures, which were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

  14. Effects of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil of Ricinus communis on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the effects of ricinoleic acid esters from Ricinus communis castor oil on the vitellogenesis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to hosts that were fed with commercial rabbit food containing these esters. The oocytes of ticks from the treatment group (TG) showed cytoplasmic changes that inhibited the development of oocytes I and II to the advanced stages (IV and V) in addition to preventing the maturation of oocytes V, resulting in small ones. In addition, sperm was not observed in ampoules. Our findings confirm the acaricide potential of ricinoleic acid esters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and characterization of cytosolic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase from endosperm of germinated castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, R J; Plaxton, W C

    1998-07-15

    Cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase (ALDc) from the endosperm of 4- to 5-day germinated castor oil seeds (COS) has been purified 83-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 2.5 micromol FBP cleaved/min/mg protein. SDS-PAGE and denaturing isoelectric focusing of the final preparation revealed a single protein-staining band of 40 kDa and pI value 7.2. The native Mr was determined by gel-filtration chromatography and multiangle laser light scattering to be 160-175 kDa, indicating that the enzyme is homotetrameric. The enzyme (a) is a class I aldolase, since EDTA or Mg2+ had no effect on its activity; and (b) was relatively heat stable and had an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol. It exhibited a broad pH-activity optima of 7.2, a relatively high affinity for FBP (Km = 0.16 microM), and a forward:reverse Vmax ratio of 0.77. Rabbit anti-(COS ALDc) antibodies cross-reacted with COS ALDc, but not with the corresponding plastidic isozyme. Time-course studies revealed that (a) the increase in total ALD activity that occurs during COS development and early germination coincides with an increase in ALDc concentration and (b) the latter stages of COS maturation and germination are accompanied by marked reductions in ALD activity and ALDc concentration. The most significant elevation in ALDc concentration occurred over the first 4 days of germination when COS initiates the gluconeogenic conversion of P-enolpyruvate and triose-P, derived from reserve triacylglycerols, into the sucrose required to support early seedling growth.

  16. Polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil modulates benzalkonium chloride toxicity: comparison of acute corneal barrier dysfunction induced by travoprost Z and travoprost.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Masafumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Shimoda, Kenichiro; Kusano, Mao; Teshima, Mugen; To, Hideto; Kitahara, Takashi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2011-10-01

    To determine the element that modulates benzalkonium chloride (BAC) toxicity by using a new electrophysiological method to evaluate acute corneal barrier dysfunction induced by travoprost Z with sofZia (Travatan Z(®)), travoprost with 0.015% BAC (Travatan(®)), and its additives. Corneal transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured in live white Japanese rabbits by 2 Ag/AgCl electrodes placed in the anterior aqueous chamber and on the cornea. We evaluated corneal TER changes after a 60-s exposure to travoprost Z, travoprost, and 0.015% BAC. Similarly, TER changes were evaluated after corneas were exposed for 60 s to the travoprost additives ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, boric acid, mannitol, trometamol, and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40) with or without BAC. Corneal damage was examined after exposure to BAC with or without travoprost additives using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a cytotoxicity assay. Although no decreases of TER were noted after exposure to travoprost Z with sofZia and travoprost with 0.015% BAC, a significant decrease of corneal TER was observed after 0.015% BAC exposure. With the exception of BAC, no corneal TER decreases were observed for any travoprost additives. After corneal exposure to travoprost additives with BAC, HCO-40 was able to prevent the BAC-induced TER decrease. SEM observations and the cytotoxicity assay confirmed that there was a remarkable improvement of BAC-induced corneal epithelial toxicity after addition of HCO-40 to the BAC. Travoprost Z with sofZia and travoprost with BAC do not induce acute corneal barrier dysfunction. HCO-40 provides protection against BAC-induced corneal toxicity.

  17. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein kinase from developing castor oil seeds: partial purification, characterization, and reversible control by photosynthate supply.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Jhadeswar; Plaxton, William C

    2007-10-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) protein kinase (PPCK) was purified approximately 1,500-fold from developing castor oil seeds (COS). Gel filtration and immunoblotting with anti-(rice PPCK2)-immune serum indicated that this Ca2+-insensitive PPCK exists as a 31-kDa monomer. COS PPCK-mediated rephosphorylation of the 107-kDa subunit (p107) of COS PEPC1 (Km = 2.2 microM) activated PEPC1 by approximately 80% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 0.2 mM PEP, and 0.125 mM malate). COS PPCK displayed remarkable selectivity for phosphorylating COS PEPC1 (relative to tobacco, sorghum, or maize PEPCs), exhibited a broad pH-activity optima of approximately pH 8.5, and at pH 7.3 was activated 40-65% by 1 mM PEP, or 10 mM Gln or Asn, but inhibited 65% by 10 mM L-malate. The possible control of COS PPCK by disulfide-dithiol interconversion was suggested by its rapid inactivation and subsequent reactivation when incubated with oxidized glutathione and then dithiothreitol. In vitro PPCK activity correlated with in vivo p107 phosphorylation status, with both peaking in mid-cotyledon to full-cotyledon developing COS. Notably, PPCK activity and p107 phosphorylation of developing COS were eliminated following pod excision or prolonged darkness of intact plants. Both effects were fully reversed 12 h following reillumination of darkened plants. These results implicate a direct relationship between the up-regulation of COS PPCK and p107 phosphorylation during the recommencement of photosynthate delivery from illuminated leaves to the non-photosynthetic COS. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that PEPC and PPCK participate in the control of photosynthate partitioning into C-skeletons needed as precursors for key biosynthetic pathways of developing COS.

  18. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  19. Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Keshak; Pal, Nilanjan; Bera, Achinta; Saxena, V. K.; Mandal, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    New synthesized polymeric surfactants have immensely attracted the researchers for further development of chemical enhanced oil recovery method particularly in surfactant flooding. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurement tests are the effective ways to identify proper chemicals/surfactants for enhanced oil recovery by chemical/surfactant flooding. In the present study a new polymeric surfactant was synthesized from pre-synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate (surfactant) and acrylamide for application in chemical enhanced oil recovery. The synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant were used to measure interfacial tension between their aqueous phase and crude oil phase to investigate the efficiency of the surfactants in reduction of interfacial tension. The synthesized polymeric surfactant has also ability to control the mobility because of its viscous nature in aqueous solution. Contact angles of solid-crude oil-surfactant interface were also measured to study the effect of the synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant on wettability alteration mechanism. Synergistic effect was studied by using NaCl and synthesized surfactants on interfacial tension. Dynamic interfacial tensions of the surfactant and polymeric surfactant solutions with crude oil were measured at different NaCl concentrations. Interfacial tension was found to be lowered up to 10-2 to 10-3 mN/m which is effective for oil recovery. Measurement of contact angle indicates the wettability change of the quartz surface. Comparative studies on efficiencies of synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate surfactant and polymeric surfactant were also carried out with respect to interfacial tension reduction and contact angle change.

  20. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  1. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  2. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  3. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be found in our first and

  4. Polymers used to absorb fats and oils: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    One approach to problem of excessive oils and fats is to develop method by which oil is absorbed into solid mixture for elimination as solid waste. Materials proposed for these purposes are cross-linked (network) polymers that have high affinity for aliphatic substances, i. e., petroleum, animal, and vegetable oils.

  5. Dirt-binding particles consisting of hydrogenated castor oil beads constitute a nonirritating alternative for abrasive cleaning of recalcitrant oily skin contamination in a three-step programme of occupational skin protection.

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Erfurt-Berge, C; Schiemann, S; Michael, S; Egloffstein, A; Kuss, O

    2010-04-01

    In occupational fields with exposure to grease, oil, metal particles, coal, black lead or soot, cleansing formulations containing abrasive bodies (e.g. refined walnut shell, corn, wood, plastic or pumice) are used. These may constitute an irritant per se. As an alternative, hydrogenated castor oil (also known as castor wax) beads have been developed as dirt-binding particles. A polar surface contributes to their mechanical cleaning effects in removal of oily grime. Standardized examination of the in vivo effects upon the skin barrier of castor wax beads in comparison with abrasive bodies and pure detergent. Three cleansing preparations - (i) detergent, (ii) detergent containing castor wax beads, (iii) detergent containing walnut shell powder - were each repetitively applied in vivo (four times daily for 3 weeks), mimicking workplace conditions, in 30 healthy volunteers (15 with and 15 without an atopic skin diathesis) and compared vs. (iv) no treatment. The treatment effects upon the skin barrier were monitored by repeated measurements of functional parameters [transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness] and surface topography. After a 3-week treatment, a significant global treatment effect (P < 0.0001) was found in the atopic group concerning TEWL as indicator for barrier function. A significantly higher TEWL and increasing erythema in the area treated with detergent containing walnut shell powder reflected its irritant effect compared with castor wax beads dispensed in the identical detergent. Cleaning properties of the two formulas were comparably superior to detergent alone. Castor wax beads constitute a novel nonirritating alternative for abrasive cleaning of recalcitrant oily skin contamination appropriate for individuals with an atopic skin diathesis in a three-step programme of occupational skin protection. As the skin barrier may additionally be influenced by the composition of dirt and use of skin protection and skin care measures under real workplace

  6. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of “Green” Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-01

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology. PMID:28787878

  8. The bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozyme from developing castor oil seeds is subject to in vivo regulatory phosphorylation at serine-451.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Katie J; O'Leary, Brendan; Brikis, Carolyne; Rao, Srinath K; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry; Plaxton, William C

    2012-04-05

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate-metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (COS) a novel allosterically-densensitized 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex arises from a tight interaction between 107-kDa plant-type PEPC and 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting with anti-phosphoSer451 specific antibodies established that COS BTPC is in vivo phosphorylated at Ser451, a highly conserved target residue that occurs within an intrinsically disordered region. This phosphorylation was enhanced during COS development or in response to depodding. Kinetic characterization of a phosphomimetic (S451D) mutant indicated that Ser451 phosphorylation inhibits the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within the Class-2 PEPC complex.

  9. Castor oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. They ...

  10. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2005-10-15

    Herein we report the synthesis and solution characterization of a novel series of AB diblock copolymers with neutral, water-soluble A blocks comprised of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and pH-responsive B blocks of N,N-dimethylvinylbenzylamine (DMVBA). To our knowledge, this represents the first example of an acrylamido-styrenic block copolymer prepared directly in homogeneous aqueous solution. The best blocking order (using polyDMA as a macro-CTA) was shown to yield well-defined block copolymers with minimal homopolymer impurity. Reversible aggregation of these block copolymers in aqueous media was studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Finally, an example of core-crosslinked micelles was demonstrated by the addition of a difunctional crosslinking agent to a micellar solution of the parent block copolymer. Our ability to form micelles directly in water that are responsive to pH represents an important milestone in developing ''smart'' multifunctional polymers that have potential for oil mobilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes.

  11. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca(2+)-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds.

    PubMed

    Ying, Sheng; Hill, Allyson T; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2017-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC's BTPC subunit's at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca(2+)-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca(2+) binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca(2+)-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca(2+)-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca(2+)-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All

  12. Regulatory Phosphorylation of Bacterial-Type PEP Carboxylase by the Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase RcCDPK1 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Allyson T.; Anderson, Erin M.; She, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a tightly controlled cytosolic enzyme situated at a crucial branch point of central plant metabolism. In developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) a novel, allosterically desensitized 910-kD Class-2 PEPC hetero-octameric complex, arises from a tight interaction between 107-kD plant-type PEPC and 118-kD bacterial-type (BTPC) subunits. The native Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) responsible for in vivo inhibitory phosphorylation of Class-2 PEPC’s BTPC subunit’s at Ser-451 was highly purified from COS and identified as RcCDPK1 (XP_002526815) by mass spectrometry. Heterologously expressed RcCDPK1 catalyzed Ca2+-dependent, inhibitory phosphorylation of BTPC at Ser-451 while exhibiting: (i) a pair of Ca2+ binding sites with identical dissociation constants of 5.03 μM, (ii) a Ca2+-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift, and (iii) a marked Ca2+-independent hydrophobicity. Pull-down experiments established the Ca2+-dependent interaction of N-terminal GST-tagged RcCDPK1 with BTPC. RcCDPK1-Cherry localized to the cytosol and nucleus of tobacco bright yellow-2 cells, but colocalized with mitochondrial-surface associated BTPC-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein when both fusion proteins were coexpressed. Deletion analyses demonstrated that although its N-terminal variable domain plays an essential role in optimizing Ca2+-dependent RcCDPK1 autophosphorylation and BTPC transphosphorylation activity, it is not critical for in vitro or in vivo target recognition. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CPK4 and soybean (Glycine max) CDPKβ are RcCDPK1 orthologs that effectively phosphorylated castor BTPC at Ser-451. Overall, the results highlight a potential link between cytosolic Ca2+ signaling and the posttranslational control of respiratory CO2 refixation and anaplerotic photosynthate partitioning in support of storage oil and protein biosynthesis in developing COS. PMID:28363991

  13. Polymer-microemulsion complexes for the enhanced recovery of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Canter, N.H.; Robbins, M.L.

    1982-10-12

    A polymer-microemulsion complex useful for the enhanced recovery of crude oil is disclosed. The polymer is polyethylene oxide or polyvinyl pyrrolidone and interacts with the surfactant of the microemulsion to form a physical association. The resulting complex is characterized by a complexation energy of at least 2 kcal/mole. The polymer microemulsion complexes are stable at high salinity, reduce adsorption and retention by the formation, lower interfacial tension, achieve retentions as low as 0.1 mg surfactant/gm sand at high salinity and provide for early banking , as well as high recovery of oil.

  14. Bioequivalence of Liposome-Entrapped Paclitaxel Easy-To-Use (LEP-ETU) formulation and paclitaxel in polyethoxylated castor oil: a randomized, two-period crossover study in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Marije; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Rosing, Hilde; Scheulen, Max E; van Warmerdam, Laurence J C; Beijnen, Jos H; Gelderblom, Hans

    2013-12-01

    Preclinical studies comparing paclitaxel formulated with polyethoxylated castor oil with the sonicated formulation of liposome-entrapped paclitaxel (LEP) have demonstrated that LEP was associated with reduced toxicity while maintaining similar efficacy. Preliminary studies on the pharmacokinetics in patients support earlier preclinical data, which suggested that the LEP Easy-to-Use (LEP-ETU) formulation and paclitaxel formulated with castor oil may have comparable pharmacokinetic properties. Our objectives were: (1) to determine bioequivalence of paclitaxel pharmaceutically formulated as LEP-ETU (test) and paclitaxel formulated with castor oil (reference); and (2) to assess the tolerability of LEP-ETU following intravenous administration. Patients with advanced cancer were studied in a randomized, 2-period crossover bioequivalence study. Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) administered as an intravenous infusion over 180 minutes, either as a single-treatment cycle of the test formulation followed by a single-treatment cycle of the reference formulation, or vice versa. Thirty-two of 58 patients were evaluable and were included in the analysis for bioequivalence. Mean total paclitaxel Cmax values for the test and reference formulations were 4955.0 and 5108.8 ng/mL, respectively. Corresponding AUC0-∞ values were 15,853.8 and 18,550.8 ng·h/mL, respectively. Treatment ratios of the geometric means were 97% (90% CI, 91%-103%) for Cmax and 84% (90% CI, 80%-90%) for AUC0-∞. These results met the required 80% to 125% bioequivalence criteria. The most frequently reported adverse events after LEP-ETU administration were fatigue, alopecia, and myalgia. At the studied dose regimen, LEP-ETU showed bioequivalence with paclitaxel formulated with polyethoxylated castor oil. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermoset polymers via ring opening metathesis polymerization of functionalized oils

    DOEpatents

    Larock, Richard C; Henna, Phillip H; Kessier, Michael R

    2012-11-27

    The invention provides a method for producing a thermosetting resin from renewable oils, the method comprising supplying renewable oil molecules containing strained ring alkene moieties; reacting the alkene moieties with cyclic alkenes to create a polymer; and repeating the above two steps until the resin having desired characteristics are obtained. Also provided is a thermoset resin comprising functionalized renewable oil polymerized with a co-monomer.

  16. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science.

    PubMed

    Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2007-11-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute to a sustainable development in the future. Especially plant derived fats and oils bear a large potential for the substitution of currently used petrochemicals, since monomers, fine chemicals and polymers can be derived from these resources in a straightforward fashion. The synthesis of monomers as well as polymers from plant fats and oils has already found some industrial application and recent developments in this field offer promising new opportunities, as is shown within this contribution. (138 references.)

  17. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery: fundamentals and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Rellegadla, Sandeep; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-06-01

    With a rising population, the demand for energy has increased over the years. As per the projections, both fossil fuel and renewables will remain as major energy source (678 quadrillion BTU) till 2030 with fossil fuel contributing 78% of total energy consumption. Hence, attempts are continuously made to make fossil fuel production more sustainable and cheaper. From the past 40 years, polymer flooding has been carried out in marginal oil fields and have proved to be successful in many cases. The common expectation from polymer flooding is to obtain 50% ultimate recovery with 15 to 20% incremental recovery over secondary water flooding. Both naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and synthetic polymers like partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) have been used for this purpose. Earlier laboratory and field trials revealed that salinity and temperature are the major issues with the synthetic polymers that lead to polymer degradation and adsorption on the rock surface. Microbial degradation and concentration are major issues with naturally derived polymers leading to loss of viscosity and pore throat plugging. Earlier studies also revealed that polymer flooding is successful in the fields where oil viscosity is quite higher (up to 126 cp) than injection water due to improvement in mobility ratio during polymer flooding. The largest successful polymer flood was reported in China in 1990 where both synthetic and naturally derived polymers were used in nearly 20 projects. The implementation of these projects provides valuable suggestions for further improving the available processes in future. This paper examines the selection criteria of polymer, field characteristics that support polymer floods and recommendation to design a large producing polymer flooding.

  18. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  19. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  20. Effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (Ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-31

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. Eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. Methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. The use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the environment. This study tested the effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (as an potential acaricide) on the reproductive system of R. sanguineus females, more specifically on the vitellogenesis process. For this, two groups were established: the control group (CG) and the treatment group (TG) with five rabbits in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. NaCl and ester were added to rabbits' food and offered to the hosts. After full engorgement, the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. The ticks ovaries were submitted to histochemical techniques so the effects of esters could be observed over polysaccharides, proteins and lipids yolk. Changes in the deposition of yolk components were observed. This caused modifications on elements of polysaccharide origin and on glycoprotein compounds, interfering in the final yolk synthesis and compromising the development of the future embryo.

  1. Biochar prepared from castor oil cake at different temperatures: A voltammetric study applied for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Kalinke, Cristiane; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2016-11-15

    Biochar is a carbonaceous material similar produced by pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Pyrolysis temperature is an important parameter that can alters biochar characteristics (e.g. surface area, pore size distribution and surface functional groups) and affects it efficacy for adsorption of several probes. In this work, biochar samples have been prepared from castor oil cake using different temperatures of pyrolysis (200-600°C). For the first time, a voltammetric procedure based on carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) was used to investigate the effect of temperature of pyrolysis on the adsorptive characteristics of biochar for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Besides the electrochemical techniques, several characterizations have been performed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of biochar in function of the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Results suggest that biochar pyrolized at 400°C (BC400) showed a better potential for ions adsorption. The CPME modified with BC400 showed better relative current signal with adsorption affinity: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). Kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second order model describes more accurately the adsorption process suggesting that the surface reactions control the adsorption rate. Values found for amount adsorbed were 15.94±0.09; 4.29±0.13 and 2.38±0.39μgg(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively.

  2. Effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the physico-chemical, mechanical properties and biological activity on a mixture of polycaprolactone and polyurethanes obtained from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Fabian; Uscategui, Yomaira L; Diaz, Luis; Cobo, Martha; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, polyurethane materials were obtained from castor oil, polycaprolactone and isophorone diisocyanate by incorporating different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% w/w) as an additive to improve the mechanical properties and the biological activity of polyurethanes. The polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain fracture tests and swelling analysis, and the hydrophilic character of the surface was determined by contact angle trials. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the changes of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties and the in vitro biological activity of the polyurethanes. It was found that the incorporation of chitosan enhances the ultimate tensile strength of the polyurethanes and does not affect the strain at fracture in polyurethanes with 5% w/w of polycaprolactone and concentrations of chitosan ranging from 0 to 2% w/w. In addition, PCL5-Q-PU formulations and their degradation products did not affect cell viability of L929 mouse fibroblast and 3T3, respectively. Polyurethane formulations showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The results of this study have highlighted the potential biomedical application of this polyurethanes related to soft and cardiovascular tissues.

  3. Electroactive polyurethane/siloxane derived from castor oil as a versatile cardiac patch, part I: Synthesis, characterization, and myoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Gharibi, Reza; Yeganeh, Hamid; Miragoli, Michele; Salvarani, Nicolò; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Condorelli, Gianluigi

    2015-11-05

    Tissue-engineered cardiac patch aims at regenerating an infarcted heart by improving cardiac function and providing mechanical support to the diseased myocardium. In order to take advantages of electroactivity, a new synthetic method was developed for the introduction of an electroactive oligoaniline into the backbone of prepared patches. For this purpose, a series of electroactive polyurethane/siloxane films containing aniline tetramer (AT) was prepared through sol-gel reaction of trimethoxysilane functional intermediate polyurethane prepolymers made from castor oil and poly(ethylene glycol). Physicochemical, mechanical, and electrical conductivity of samples were evaluated and the recorded results were correlated to their structural characteristics. The optimized films were proved to be biodegradable and have tensile properties suitable for cardiac patch application. The embedded AT moieties in the backbone of the prepared samples preserved their electroactivity with the electrical conductivity in the range of 10(-4) S/cm. The prepared films were compatible with proliferation of C2C12 and had potential for enhancing myotube formation even without external electrical stimulation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2015.

  4. The application of 1,8-cineole, a terpenoid oxide present in medicinal plants, inhibits castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats.

    PubMed

    Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Maham, Massoud

    2015-04-01

    1,8-Cineole, a terpene, characterized as a major constituent occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants. It is widely used in pharmaceutical industry, as a food additive and for culinary purposes. This study investigates the inhibitory effect of 1,8-cineole on transit time and diarrhea in animal models. Acute toxicity and lethality of 1-8-cineole was determined by Lork's guidelines. The antidiarrheal effect of 1,8-cineole was investigated by determining the intestinal transit and enterpooling in rats. In all experiments, different doses of 1,8-cineole (20-120 mg/kg), atropine, and loperamide were administered orally. The LD50 of 1,8-cineole for oral administration was estimated to be 1280 mg/kg. 1,8-Cineole (20-120 mg/kg) did not show a significant decrease in small intestine transit (p > 0.05); however, the highest dose displayed a significant decrease in comparison with atropine (p < 0.05). This substance decreased the peristaltic index value to 68 ± 0.36% at a dose of 120 mg/kg compared with the control group (85.22 ± 4.31%) in the castor oil transit test. 1,8-Cineole significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea to -142.33 ± 6.08 min at 120 mg/kg, while the time was 103.66 ± 20.73 min for the control and >240 min for the loperamide. Moreover, 1,8-cineole significantly decreased intestinal fluid accumulation (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated antispasmodic and antisecretory activities of 1,8-cineole and rationalized the traditional use of the plant containing various levels of this terpene in the treatment of gastrointestinal complains such as diarrhea.

  5. Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

  6. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M.; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae genome sequence. Our analysis shows that most key castor oil metabolism genes are single-copy while the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage. PMID:20729833

  8. Producing monomers and polymers from plant oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The integration of biobased industrial products into existing markets, where petrochemically-derived materials currently dominate, is a worthy objective. This chapter reviews some technologies that have been developed including olefins of various chain lengths, photo-curable polymers, vinyl monomers...

  9. Expression profile of the genes involved in reserve synthesis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil derived from the seed of castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) and has numerous industrial uses. Despite its economic importance, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of detrimental seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergeni...

  10. Seed Development in Castor (Ricinus communis L.): Morphology, Reserve Synthesis and Gene Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a non-eatable oilseed crop producing seed oil comprising 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of noxious seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S...

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor germplasm within the U.S. collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor is an important oilseed crop and its oil is inedible but has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Castor germplasm collection is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of the entire U.S. ca...

  12. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    PubMed Central

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  13. Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other forms of controlling these ectoparasites. R. sanguineus was artificially infested in host New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into four treatment groups: control (CG1 and CG2) and treatment (TG1 and TG2) groups. TG1 and TG2 hosts were provided with feed supplemented with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil at a concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for 7 and 15 days. Afterward, the ovaries of the female ticks were removed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed ultrastructural changes in the somatic and germ cells of ovaries from TG1 and TG2 females, particularly with respect to chorion deposition, a protective membrane of the oocyte, as well as in the transport process of vitellogenic materials via the hemolymph and pedicel cells. Moreover, the mitochondria were less electron-dense and had cristae that were more disorganized than the mitochondria from CG1 and CG2 individuals. Thus, this study demonstrated the action of esters on the ovaries of R. sanguineus, signaling the prospect of a way to control this ectoparasite without affecting nontarget organisms or the environment.

  14. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-28

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of (32)P(i) from [γ-(32)P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes.

  15. Cytoxicity, dynamic and thermal properties of bio-based rosin-epoxy resin/ castor oil polyurethane/ carbon nanotubes bio-nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Huo, Li; Wang, Dan; Liu, Hongmei; Jia, Pan; Gao, Jungang

    2016-08-01

    In order to prepare bio-nanocomposites with no-cytotoxicity, the rosin-based epoxy resin (MPAER) and castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) were synthesized and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used to enhance the properties of curing MPAER/COPU materials. The curing reaction, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of this system were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DMA, TG et al. The cytotoxicity of materials is evaluated for HeLa cells using a MTT cell-viability assay. The results showed that COPU can cure MPAER and CNTs can increase effectively the properties of MPAER/COPU nanocomposites. The Tg of MPAER/COPU/CNTs has the highest value when CNTs content is 0.4 wt%, which is 52.4 °C higher than the pure MPAER/COPU. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced by the addition of CNTs, the initial decomposition temperature Td5 of the sample No. 0.4 has increased from 284.5 to 305.2 °C, which is 20.7 °C higher than No. 0. The impact strength of the No. 0.4 film is 15 kg cm higher than the pure resin system. The survival rate of HeLa cells to the products is greater than 90% within 48 and 72 h, which demonstrate that this material has excellent biocompatibility and no obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells, which may be used in the medical treatment.

  16. Corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate and castor oil on a porcine short-term dry eye model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Amako, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tazawa, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear.

  17. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis.

  18. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser425 provides a further tier of enzyme control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Rao, Srinath K; Plaxton, William C

    2011-01-01

    PEPC [PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase] is a tightly controlled anaplerotic enzyme situated at a pivotal branch point of plant carbohydrate metabolism. Two distinct oligomeric PEPC classes were discovered in developing COS (castor oil seeds). Class-1 PEPC is a typical homotetramer of 107 kDa PTPC (plant-type PEPC) subunits, whereas the novel 910-kDa Class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from a tight interaction between Class-1 PEPC and 118 kDa BTPC (bacterial-type PEPC) subunits. Mass spectrometric analysis of immunopurified COS BTPC indicated that it is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation at Ser425. We show that immunoblots probed with phosphorylation site-specific antibodies demonstrated that Ser425 phosphorylation is promoted during COS development, becoming maximal at stage IX (maturation phase) or in response to depodding. Kinetic analyses of a recombinant, chimaeric Class-2 PEPC containing phosphomimetic BTPC mutant subunits (S425D) indicated that Ser425 phosphorylation results in significant BTPC inhibition by: (i) increasing its Km(PEP) 3-fold, (ii) reducing its I50 (L-malate and L-aspartate) values by 4.5- and 2.5-fold respectively, while (iii) decreasing its activity within the physiological pH range. The developmental pattern and kinetic influence of Ser425 BTPC phosphorylation is very distinct from the in vivo phosphorylation/activation of COS Class-1 PEPC's PTPC subunits at Ser11. Collectively, the results establish that BTPC's phospho-Ser425 content depends upon COS developmental and physiological status and that Ser425 phosphorylation attenuates the catalytic activity of BTPC subunits within a Class-2 PEPC complex. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for the in vivo control of vascular plant BTPC activity.

  19. Coimmunopurification of phosphorylated bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases with the plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; O'Leary, Brendan; Spang, H Elizabeth; MacDonald, Justin A; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2008-03-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) interactome of developing castor oil seed (COS; Ricinus communis) endosperm was assessed using coimmunopurification (co-IP) followed by proteomic analysis. Earlier studies suggested that immunologically unrelated 107-kD plant-type PEPCs (p107/PTPC) and 118-kD bacterial-type PEPCs (p118/BTPC) are subunits of an unusual 910-kD hetero-octameric class 2 PEPC complex of developing COS. The current results confirm that a tight physical interaction occurs between p118 and p107 because p118 quantitatively coimmunopurified with p107 following elution of COS extracts through an anti-p107-IgG immunoaffinity column. No PEPC activity or immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides were detected in the corresponding flow-through fractions. Although BTPCs lack the N-terminal phosphorylation motif characteristic of PTPCs, Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein staining, immunoblotting with phospho-serine (Ser)/threonine Akt substrate IgG, and phosphate-affinity PAGE established that coimmunopurified p118 was multiphosphorylated at unique Ser and/or threonine residues. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of an endoproteinase Lys-C p118 peptide digest demonstrated that Ser-425 is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation. The co-IP of p118 with p107 did not appear to be influenced by their phosphorylation status. Because p118 phosphorylation was unchanged 48 h following elimination of photosynthate supply due to COS depodding, the signaling mechanisms responsible for photosynthate-dependent p107 phosphorylation differ from those controlling p118's in vivo phosphorylation. A 110-kD PTPC coimmunopurified with p118 and p107 when depodded COS was used. The plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC(pl)) was identified as a novel PEPC interactor. Thus, a putative metabolon involving PEPC and PDC(pl) could function to channel carbon from phosphoenolpyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A and/or to recycle CO(2) from PDC(pl) to PEPC.

  20. Dynamic contact angles in oil-aqueous polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Al-Shareef, Amer; Neogi, P; Bai, Baojun

    2017-01-25

    Polymer flooding is an important process in enhanced oil recovery. The displacement front is unstable when low viscosity brine displaces the heavy crude oil in the reservoir. Water-soluble polymers are added to the brine to increase its viscosity which stabilizes the displacement process. To analyze the displacement process at the micro-level, we have investigated the dynamic contact angles in silicone oil-polymer (polyethylene oxide) solution and for the first time. The dynamic contact angle is the apparent contact angle at the three-phase contact line which governs the capillary pressure, and thus is important for the displacement process. The data show no obvious signs of either shear thinning or elastic behavior, although for some systems with highest elastic effects some unexplained effects on dynamic contact angles are observed that correlate with elastic effects. Overall, dynamic contact angles are explained well using existing models for two Newtonian fluids, when the zero shear viscosity is used for the polymer solution.

  1. Optimized polymer enhanced foam flooding for ordinary heavy oil reservoir after cross-linked polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Hou, Jian; Pan, Guangming; Xia, Zhizeng

    2016-01-01

    A successful cross-linked polymer flooding has been implemented in JD reservoir, an ordinary heavy oil reservoir with high permeability zones. For all that, there are still significant volumes of continuous oil remaining in place, which can not be easily extracted due to stronger vertical heterogeneity. Considering selective plugging feature, polymer enhanced foam (PEF) flooding was taken as following EOR technology for JD reservoir. For low cost and rich source, natural gas was used as foaming gas in our work. In the former work, the surfactant systems CEA/FSA1 was recommended as foam agent for natural gas foam flooding after series of compatibility studies. Foam performance evaluation experiments showed that foaming volume reached 110 mL, half-life time reached 40 min, and dimensionless filter coefficient reached 1.180 when CEA/FSA1 reacted with oil produced by JD reservoir. To compare the recovery efficiency by different EOR technologies, series of oil displacement experiments were carried out in a parallel core system which contained cores with relatively high and low permeability. EOR technologies concerned in our work include further cross-linked polymer (C-P) flooding, surfactant-polymer (S-P) flooding, and PEF flooding. Results showed that PEF flooding had the highest enhanced oil recovery of 19.2 % original oil in place (OOIP), followed by S-P flooding (9.6 % OOIP) and C-P flooding (6.1 % OOIP). Also, produced liquid percentage results indicated PEF flooding can efficiently promote the oil recovery in the lower permeability core by modifying the injection profile.

  2. Hydrolysis of fish oils containing polymers of triacylglycerols by pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R J; Burkow, I C; Millar, R M

    1993-04-01

    Fish oils containing different levels of polymers of triacylglycerols formed during autoxidation were incubated with pancreatic lipase to establish whether these polymers are substrates for lipase hydrolysis. With oils containing low amounts (less than 4%) of triacylglycerol polymers as substrates, both triacylglycerols and polymers of triacylglycerols were almost completely hydrolyzed, and fatty acid monomers and monoacylglycerols were the major lipid products. Under the same incubation conditions, some triacylglycerols remained intact when highly oxidized oils containing 20 or 30% triacylglycerol polymers were the substrate. The fatty acid composition of these residual triacylglycerols was almost identical to that of triacylglycerols present at the start of the assay. When fish oil containing 30% triacylglycerol polymers was incubated with the lipase, the component triacylglycerols and polymers of triacylglycerols were hydrolyzed at similar rates, and fatty acid dimers were detected as a product. It is concluded that the high molecular weight polymers of triacylglycerols present in oxidized fish oils can be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase in vitro.

  3. Characterization of novel soybean-oil-based thermosensitive amphiphilic polymers for drug delivery applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterization, aggregation behavior, physical properties and drug-polymer interaction of novel soybean oil-based polymers i.e., hydrolyzed polymers of (epoxidized) soybean oil (HPESO), were studied. The surface tension method was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC). CMC w...

  4. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  5. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser(11) in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca(2+)-dependent Ser(11) phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca(2+) ions [K0.5(Ca(2+)) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser(11) phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser(451), RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca(2+)-signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development.

  6. A review on the challenges for increassed production of castor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oil produced by castor (Ricinus communis) is an important raw material for chemical industry for its unique properties such as the only commercial source of a hydroxilated fatty acid that composes around 90% of the oil. This crop has a remarkable potential for increasing importance as a raw mate...

  7. Catalytic transformation of waste polymers to fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Keane, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Waste not, want not: The increase in waste polymer generation, which continues to exceed recycle, represents a critical environmental burden. However, plastic waste may be viewed as a potential resource and, with the correct treatment, can serve as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil, as described in this Minireview.Effective waste management must address waste reduction, reuse, recovery, and recycle. The consumption of plastics continues to grow, and, while plastic recycle has seen a significant increase since the early 1990s, consumption still far exceeds recycle. However, waste plastic can be viewed as a potential resource and can serve, with the correct treatment, as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil. This Minireview considers the role of catalysis in waste polymer reprocessing and provides a critical overview of the existing waste plastic treatment technologies. Thermal pyrolysis results in a random scissioning of the polymer chains, generating products with varying molecular weights. Catalytic degradation provides control over the product composition/distribution and serves to lower significantly the degradation temperature. Incineration of waste PVC is very energy demanding and can result in the formation of toxic chloro emissions. The efficacy of a catalytic transformation of PVC is also discussed.

  8. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  9. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehensive resource on Castor, Castor DB, is required to facilitate research on this important plant. Findings CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein. Conclusion CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners. PMID:21914200

  10. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  11. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  12. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  13. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  14. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  15. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

  16. Molecular Interactions between a Novel Soybean Oil-Based Polymer and Doxorubicin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel soybean oil-based polymer, hydrolyzed polymers of epoxidized soybean oil (HPESO), was developed and investigated for drug delivery. This work was aimed at determining the molecular interactions between HPESO and doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug. Powder X-ray diffraction, ATR-FTIR and ...

  17. Study of soybean oil-based polymers for controlled release anticancer drugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean oil-based polymers were prepared by the ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil with Lewis acid catalyst. The formed polymers (HPESO) could be converted into hydrogels through hydrolysis. Characterization and viscoelastic properties of this soy hydrogel and application in contr...

  18. Polymers for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Hester, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    This report focuses on the FY-89 results of a fundamental research program underway in the Polymer Science Laboratories at the University of Southern Mississippi to develop novel associative polymers which should be significantly more efficient than those presently used in Enhanced Oil Recovery processes. These new systems rely on cooperative hydrophobic associations to yield appropriate rheological behavior. We hope to ultimately develop, with the help of appropriate rheological behavior. We hope to ultimately develop, with the help of industry, simple copolymer systems which could be easily utilized by independent oil operators in mobility control processes. Research has focused on preparation, characterization and rheological study of copolymers possessing intra- or intermolecular associations. Associative copolymers of acrylamide with N-alklacrylamides; terpolymers of acrylamide, N-decylacrylamide, and NaAMPS, NaA, or NaAMB; and copolymers of acrylamide with the zwitterionic AMPDAPS monomer have been shown to possess rheological behavior of potential in EOR processes. The salt-induced conformational responses and resulting association mechanisms are being studied by a number of techniques including rheometry, gel permeation chromatography, quasielastic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. 114 refs., 50 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers for improved oil recovery: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.; Nasr-El-Din, H.A.

    1995-11-01

    Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers are reviewed with particular emphasis on their application in improved oil recovery (IOR). These polymers are very similar to conventional water-soluble polymers used in IOR, except that they have a small number of hydrophobic groups incorporated into the polymer backbone. At levels of incorporation of less than 1 mol%, these hydrophobic groups can significantly change polymer performance. These polymers have potential for use in mobility control, drilling fluids and profile modification. This review includes synthesis, characterization, stability, rheology and flow in porous media of associating polymers in IOR are also examined. 100 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Phase Transition Behavior of Novel Soybean Oil-based Thermosensitive Polymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The thermal phase transition behavior of novel soybean oil-based polymers was studied. The effect of polymer concentration on the cloud points was investigated. The light transmittance increased sharply with increasing temperature suggesting dissociation of polymer aggregates. The cloud points we...

  1. Robust polymer grafted Fe3O4 nanospheres for benign removal of oil from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhusudhana Reddy, P.; Chang, Chi-Jung; Chen, Jem-Kun; Wu, Meng-Ting; Wang, Chih-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Removal of oil from the oil-water mixture (O-W mixture) or oil-in-water emulsions (O/W emulsion) is highly imperative. We have fabricated two series of polymer grafted iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanospheres. The oil removal efficiency of the nanospheres was found to be dependent on the grafted amount of polymers. The polystyrene grafted Fe3O4 nanospheres have shown better oil removal efficiency than the corresponding poly(butyl acrylate) grafted Fe3O4 nanospheres. The higher amount of grafted polystyrene can provide more hydrophobic character to FS series nanospheres. The FS series nanospheres exhibited higher oil-absorption capability than FB series nanospheres. Both the series of nanospheres can be recycled by simple washing method. The present results can pave the way to fabricate the robust materials for efficient absorption of various oils or organic solvents from both the oil-water mixture and oil-water emulsion.

  2. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  3. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested

  4. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions.

  5. Large scale production of inexpensive flooding polymers for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K.G.

    1981-02-03

    In a process for recovering oil from underground formations of the type wherein a dilute aqueous solution of an acrylamide polymer is injected into one or more wells the improvement comprises: establishing near the one or more wells a small chemical plant and a source of acrylonitrile for producing an acrylamide polymer in the form of water-in-oil emulsion. The plant performs the following sequence of steps: forming a water-in-oil emulsion of acrylonitrile utilizing a an oil source crude oil recovered from the underground formation; contacting said emulsion with a conversion catalyst unde reaction conditions to convert a substantial portion of the acrylonitrile to acrylamide thereby forming a water-in-crude-oil emulsion which contains a substantial portion of acrylamide; polymerizing the water-in-crude-oil emulsion of acrylamide I the presence of a free radical catalyst to provide a water-incrude-oil emulsion of acrylamide polymers, and then; injecting the water-in-crude-oil emulsion of the acrylamide polymer in the presence of an inverting agent into the underground formation under conditions whereby the formation is contacted with the dilute solution of the acrylamide polymer.

  6. Polymer nanoparticles containing essential oils: new options for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Jesser, Emiliano Nicolás; Yeguerman, Cristhian Alan; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, two different essential oils (EO) (geranium, Geranium maculatum, and bergamot, Citrus bergamia) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (PN) were elaborated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (Qx) as the polymeric matrix/coating. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal acute and residual activity of the PN was evaluated on Culex pipiens pipiens. The physicochemical characterization of PN revealed that PEG-PN had sizes <255 nm and encapsulation efficiency between 68 and 77%; Qx-PN showed sizes <535 nm and encapsulation efficiency between 22 and 38%. From the toxicological test, it was observed that Qx-PN produced higher acute and residual activity than PEG-PN. Overall, this study highlights that polymer nanoparticles containing essential oil are a promising source of eco-friendly mosquito larvicidal products.

  7. Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

  8. Molecular species of acylglycerols incorporating radiolabeled fatty acids from castor (Ricinus communis L.) microsomal incubations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Jennifer M; Liao, Lucy P; McKeon, Thomas A

    2002-08-28

    Sixty-one molecular species of triacylglycerols (TAG) and diacylglycerols produced from castor microsomal incubations incorporating six different (14)C-labeled fatty acids have been identified and quantified. The preference for incorporation into TAG was in the order ricinoleate > oleate > linoleate > linolenate > stearate > palmitate. Ricinoleate was the major fatty acid incorporated, whereas stearate, linolenate, and palmitate were incorporated at low levels. Twenty-one molecular species of acylglycerols (HPLC peaks) in castor oil have also been assigned. The levels of TAG in castor oil are RRR (triricinolein) > RR-TAG > R-TAG > no R-TAG. The levels of the molecular species within the groups of RR-TAG, RL-TAG, and LL-TAG individually are ricinoleate > linoleate > oleate > linolenate, stearate, and palmitate. The results of the labeled fatty acid incorporation are consistent with ricinoleate being preferentially driven into TAG and oleate being converted to ricinoleate in castor oil biosynthesis.

  9. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  10. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm within the U.S. collection assessed with EST-SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire U.S. castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not...

  12. Plant oil-based polymers prepared in green media and functionalized into useful materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conversion of plant oils to polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years in order to replace or augment the traditional petro-chemical based polymers and resins. This is due to concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non renewable feedstocks. In this ...

  13. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  14. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  15. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  16. Castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase type1(DGAT1)displays greater activity with diricinolein than Arabidopsis DGAT1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil contains the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleate as a major (90%) component. The diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) carries out the final reaction step in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol, the principal constituent of seed oil, and has been considered to be the step that controls the oil...

  17. Viscosity of the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer and nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Tushar; Kumar, G. Suresh; Chon, Bo Hyun; Sangwai, Jitendra S.

    2014-11-01

    Information on the viscosity of Pickering emulsion is required for their successful application in upstream oil and gas industry to understand their stability at extreme environment. In this work, a novel formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion stabilized using nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer (polyacrylamide) system as formulated in our earlier work (Sharma et al., Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2014) is investigated for rheological stability at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions using a controlled-strain rheometer. The nanoparticle (SiO2 and clay) concentration is varied from 1.0 to 5.0 wt%. The results are compared with the rheological behavior of simple o/w emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. Both the emulsions exhibit non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. A positive shift in this behavior is observed for surfactant-polymer stabilized emulsion at high pressure conditions. Yield stress is observed to increase with pressure for surfactant-polymer emulsion. In addition, increase in temperature has an adverse effect on the viscosity of emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. In case of nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer stabilized o/w emulsion system, the viscosity and yield stress are predominantly constant for varying pressure and temperature conditions. The viscosity data for both o/w emulsion systems are fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and found to be satisfactory. In general, the study indicates that the Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system shows improved and stable rheological properties as compared to conventional emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system indicating their successful application for HPHT environment in upstream oil and gas industry.

  18. Purification of leucoplast pyruvate kinase from developing castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Plaxton, W C; Dennis, D T; Knowles, V L

    1990-12-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.; cv Baker) has been purified 1370-fold to a specific activity of 41.1 micromoles pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme resulted in a single protein staining band that co-migrated with pyruvate kinase activity. However, following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, two major protein staining bands of 57.5 and 44 kilodaltons, which occurred in an approximate 2:1 ratio, respectively, were observed. The native molecular mass was approximately 305 kilodaltons. Rabbit antiserum raised against the final enzyme preparation effectively immunoprecipitated leucoplast pyruvate kinase. The 57.5- and 44-kilodalton polypeptides are immunologically related as both proteins cross-reacted strongly on Western blots probed with the rabbit anti-(developing castor seed endosperm leucoplast pyruvate kinase) immunoglobulin that had been affinity-purified against the 57.5-kilodalton polypeptide. In contrast, pyruvate kinases from the following sources showed no immunological cross-reactivity with the same immunoglobulin: the cytosolic enzyme from developing or germinating castor bean endosperm; chloroplastic pyruvate kinase from expanding leaves of the castor oil plant; chloroplastic or cytosolic pyruvate kinase from the green alga, Selenastrum minutum; and mammalian or bacterial pyruvate kinases.

  19. Biopolymers from vegetable oils via catalyst- and solvent-free "click" chemistry: effects of cross-linking density.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jian; Luo, Qiang; Wan, Xianmei; Petrović, Zoran S; Shah, Bipin K

    2012-01-09

    New monomers were prepared by introducing the azide groups in castor, canola, corn, soybean, and linseed oils. Polymerization of the azidated oils with alkynated soybean oil under thermal "click" chemistry conditions (without using a solvent or a catalyst) yielded fully cross-linked elastomers (1-5) of almost the same density (1.05 × 10(-3) kg/m(3)). The degree of cross-linking gradually increased from the castor-derived polymer (220 mol/m(3)) to the linseed-derived polymer (683 mol/m(3)). A systematic correlation between the degree of cross-linking and the thermal and mechanical properties was observed in these biopolymers. Tensile strength (0.62-3.39 MPa) and glass transition temperature (-5 to 16 °C) increased and the linear thermal expansion coefficient decreased in the series from the canola-derived polymer (2) to the linseed-derived polymer (5). The castor-derived polymer (1) that possesses an additional hydroxyl group per fatty acid chain behaved differently.

  20. Development of emulsification resistant heavier-than-water tamponades using high molecular weight silicone oil polymers.

    PubMed

    Caramoy, Albert; Kearns, Victoria R; Chan, Yau Kei; Hagedorn, Nadine; Poole, Robert J; Wong, David; Fauser, Sascha; Kugler, Wilfried; Kirchhof, Bernd; Williams, Rachel L

    2015-08-01

    Developing new blends of heavier-than-water silicone oil tamponade agents containing high molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane polymer for use in vitreoretinal surgery. The viscoelastic properties of heavier-than-water silicone oil blends (30.5% F6H8 + 69.5% polydimethylsiloxane) containing high molecular weight polymer additive at increasing concentrations were measured using a controlled-stress rheometer (TA Instruments Rheolyst AR 1000 N). Emulsification of the blends was induced using a sonication device and a pluronic surfactant as a strong emulsifier. The percentage emulsion area was photographed and measured using ImageJ software. In a second in vitro emulsification assessment, silicone oil blends were dispersed using a high shear homogenizer and the oil-in-water droplets were counted using a coulter counter particle analyser. The addition of the high molecular weight polymer increased shear viscosity and viscoelasticity of the oil blends, which were measureable and to some extent predictable. The in vitro emulsification models produced contradictory results. This demonstrates the difficulty of designing and using in vitro models to evaluate the emulsification tendency of tamponade agents in vivo. Addition of a high molecular weight polymer to heavy silicone oil can increase the viscoelasticity. These findings might contribute to the development of emulsification resistant heavy silicone oils. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2004-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report is performed jointly by, Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures and the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results do not show a

  2. The synthesis of fluorescent polymers in the microstructured environment of water-in-oil microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Premchandran, R.; Banerjee, S.; John, V.T.

    1996-10-01

    The synthesis of highly conjugated 2-naphthol polymer, and its copolymers with 4-ethyl phenol is reported. The polymers are prepared in AOT/isooctane water-in-oil microemulsions by using an oxidative enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, solubilized within the aqueous core of the microemulsion droplets. The resulting polymers and copolymers are all fluorescent, have low molecular weights ranging from 600-1100, and are highly soluble in polar organic solvents. The fluorescence and UV-vis spectra indicate the presence of highly conjugated structures within the polymer. These conjugated moieties are of the quinonoid and diquinone type, as identified by FTIR and NMR studies. The polymer fluorescence can be tuned by varying the polymer composition.

  3. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  4. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2005-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by the independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report was performed by Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures, the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks, and computer simulations. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on

  6. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  7. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  8. Ink-Jet Printing of High-Molecular-Weight Polymers in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Ashley S; Bain, Colin D

    2017-07-12

    Ink-jet printing of high-molecular-weight polymers is inhibited by the extensional elasticity of the polymer chains. This article describes how emulsions can be used to print high-molecular-weight polymers at much higher concentrations than is possible in a binary solution. The polymers are dissolved in the dispersed phase of an oil-in-water emulsion. The surface tension of the oil-water interface opposes deformation of the oil droplets during ejection from the nozzle and leads to the extensional strain occurring in the polymer-free continuous phase. We show that a solution of polystyrene (PS) (Mn = 419 kDa, polydispersity index = 1.21) can be printed at an overall concentration of 3.8 wt % in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-stabilized emulsion of methyl benzoate in water, an order of magnitude higher in concentration than previously reported for PS dissolved in binary solutions [ Hoath , S. D. , Harlen , O. G. , and Hutchings , I. M. J. Rheol. 2012 , 56 ( 5 ), 1109 - 1127 ]. Factors influencing the formulation of emulsions for ink-jet printing of polymers are discussed.

  9. Phosphorylation of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase suggests a link between Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic pathway control in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hill, Allyson T; Ying, Sheng; Plaxton, William C

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the native protein kinase [BTPC (bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase)-K (BTPC Ser451 kinase)] that in vivo phosphorylates Ser451 of the BTPC subunits of an unusual Class-2 PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) carboxylase hetero-octameric complex of developing COS (castor oil seeds). COS BTPC-K was highly purified by PEG fractionation and hydrophobic size-exclusion anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. BTPC-K phosphorylated BTPC strictly at Ser451 (Km=1.0 μM; pH optimum=7.3), a conserved target residue occurring within an intrinsically disordered region, as well as the protein histone III-S (Km=1.7 μM), but not a COS plant-type PEP carboxylase or sucrose synthase or α-casein. Its activity was Ca2+- (K0.5=2.7 μM) and ATP- (Km=6.6 μM) dependent, and markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, 3-phosphoglycerate and PEP, but insensitive to calmodulin or 14-3-3 proteins. BTPC-K exhibited a native molecular mass of ~63 kDa and was soluble rather than membrane-bound. Inactivation and reactivation occurred upon BTPC-K's incubation with GSSG and then DTT respectively. Ser451 phosphorylation by BTPC-K inhibited BTPC activity by ~50% when assayed under suboptimal conditions (pH 7.3, 1 mM PEP and 10 mM L-malate). Our collective results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and anaplerotic flux control in developing COS.

  10. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  11. Synthesis of alpha-hydroxyphosphonic acids from Lesquerella oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella oil has been a substance of growing chemical interest, due to the ease with which it is produced and its similarity in structure to castor oil. The primary fatty acid in Lesquerella oil, lesquerolic acid, is very similar to the principal component of castor oil, ricinoleic acid, and may ...

  12. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  13. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  14. Polyurethaneurea/vinyl polymer hybrid aqueous dispersions based on renewable material.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y S; Tao, Y; Hu, C P

    2001-01-01

    A series of polyurethaneurea-vinyl polymer (PUA) hybrid aqueous dispersions were synthesized from castor oil and/or difunctional poly(oxypropylene) polyol (GE-210, M(n) = 1000), butyl acrylate, and styrene. The effect of hybrid between the polyurethaneurea (PUU) and vinyl polymer (PA) on the morphologies and the mechanical properties for these PUA films was examined and studied. The experimental results showed that there was appreciable miscibility between the PUU and PA phases for the PUA prepared with GE-210, giving rise to less ordered hard segments in PUU and resulting in lowering of some mechanical properties compared with those of pure PUU synthesized with GE-210. For PUA based on castor oil, the compatibility between the PUU and PA phases was also observed, although there was a network structure in the system. Moreover, the particle-accumulation morphology during the film formation process for this PUA system disappeared, but this behavior was found for a similar PUU. In this case, a great improvement of mechanical properties for such a PUA specimen was observed. The other PUA specimens with high content of castor oil exhibit excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, resulting from the reinforcement of cross-linked PUU phase existing in the systems.

  15. Use of array of conducting polymers for differentiation of coconut oil products.

    PubMed

    Rañola, Rey Alfred G; Santiago, Karen S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2016-01-01

    An array of chemiresistors based on conducting polymers was assembled for the differentiation of coconut oil products. The chemiresistor sensors were fabricated through the potentiostatic electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANi), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (P-3MTp) on the gap separating two planar gold electrodes set on a Teflon substrate. The change in electrical resistance of the sensors was measured and observed after exposing the array to the headspace of oil samples. The sensor response was found rapid, reversible and reproducible. Different signals were obtained for each coconut oil sample and pattern recognition techniques were employed for the analysis of the data. The developed system was able to distinguish virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached & deodorised coconut oil (RBDCO), flavoured VCO, homemade VCO, and rancid VCO.

  16. Effect of glyphosate on the castor plant Ricinus communis L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of a toxin in the castor seed has been a major impediment to the reintroduction of castor as a domestic crop in the US. Because dehiscent forms of castor are invasive and castor seed remains viable for years under the right conditions, there is concern that if castor were widely cultiva...

  17. Oil-water separation property of polymer-contained wastewater from polymer-flooding oilfields in Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-xing; Tang, Hong-ming; Duan, Ming; Liu, Yi-gang; Liu, Min; Zhao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gravitational settling time, temperature, speed and time of centrifugation, flocculant type and dosage, bubble size and gas amount were investigated. The results show that the simple increase in settling time and temperature is of no use for oil-water separation of the three wastewater samples. As far as oil-water separation efficiency is concerned, increasing centrifugal speed and centrifugal time is highly effective for L sample, and has a certain effect on J sample, but is not valid for S sample. The flocculants are highly effective for S and L samples, and the oil-water separation efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of inorganic cationic flocculants. There exist critical reagent concentrations for the organic cationic and the nonionic flocculants, wherein a higher or lower concentration of flocculant would cause a decrease in the treatment efficiency. Flotation is an effective approach for oil-water separation of polymer-contained wastewater from the three oilfields. The oil-water separation efficiency can be enhanced by increasing floatation agent concentration, flotation time and gas amount, and by decreasing bubble size.

  18. Polymers prepared from plant oils in liquid carbon dioxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, attention has been focused on the preparation of polymers in environmentally friendly media. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is a promising candidate. The low toxicity of CO2 and lack of toxic solvent residues in the final products make CO2 an attractive medium for the synthesis of ...

  19. Synthesis and properties of a novel bio-based polymer from modified soybean oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.; Tang, Z. J.

    2017-02-01

    Maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) was prepared by acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleic anhydride. AESO were obtained by the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with acrylic acid as the ring-opening reagent. The polymer was prepared by MAESO react with styrene. The structures of the products were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and were consistent with the theoretical structures. Swelling experiment indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO. Thermal properties was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), indicating that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO, and thermal stability of polymer have a good correlation with the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties analysis presented that tensile strength and impact strength affected by epoxy value of ESO. With the increase of epoxy value, the tensile strength increase, while the impact strength decrease. The property of the polymer ranged from elastomer to plastic character depended on the functionality of the ESO.

  20. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction.

  1. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. PMID:25140479

  2. Mineral oil barrier sequential polymer treatment for recycled paper products in food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Uttam C.; Fragouli, Despina; Bayer, Ilker S.; Mele, Elisa; Conchione, Chiara; Cingolani, Roberto; Moret, Sabrina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    Recycled cellulosic paperboards may include mineral oils after the recycle process, which together with their poor water resistance limit their use as food packaging materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a proper functionalization of the recycled paper with two successive polymer treatments, imposes a mineral oil migration barrier and simultaneously renders it waterproof and grease resistant, making it an ideal material for food contact. The first poly (methyl methacrylate) treatment penetrates the paper network and creates a protective layer around every fiber, permitting thus the transformation of the paperboard to a hydrophobic material throughout its thickness, reducing at the same time the mineral oil migration. Subsequently, the second layer with a cyclic olefin copolymer fills the open pores of the surface, and reduces the mineral oil hydrocarbons migration at levels below those proposed by the BMEL. Online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection quantitatively demonstrate that this dual functional treatment prevents the migration of both saturated (mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons) and aromatic hydrocarbon (mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons) mineral oils from the recycled paperboard to a dry food simulant.

  3. Polymer grafted hard carbon microspheres at an oil/water interface.

    PubMed

    Cremaldi, Joseph; Ejaz, Muhammad; Oak, Shreyas; Holleran, Mary K; Roberts, Katherine; Cheng, Guanggui; Wang, Ying; Grayson, Scott M; John, Vijay; Pesika, Noshir S

    2016-05-15

    Pickering emulsions offer an established method of stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions as either an alternative to surfactants or as an additive together with surfactants, providing greater colloidal stability even at low particle concentrations. This work presents a novel experimental approach to study the influence of several system parameters on the effectiveness of Pickering emulsion systems. Specifically, a dodecane oil drop stabilized by hard carbon microspheres in an aqueous saline solution is used as a model system to obtain both quantitative and qualitative information on the effectiveness of the microspheres as a function of their surface wetting properties. The test setup, in which a macroscopic oil drop is brought into contact with a test surface in a controlled motion and environment, allows for several aspects of the test (for e.g., oil drop size, approach velocity, normal force, solution ionic strength, temperature, pH, and presence of surfactants) to be potentially controlled and studied precisely. To demonstrate the capabilities of the experimental set-up, hard carbon microspheres are modified with a poly(styrenesulfonate) shell through ATRP in order to tune the wettability of the particles through choice of polymer, which are then used to stabilize a dodecane oil drop in an aqueous saline solution. The particles effectively form a steric barrier preventing the spreading of an oil drop on hydrophobic surfaces and also preventing the coalescence of stabilized oil drops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Crude oil specific gravity sensor design using polymer optical fiber with structural imperfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistianto, Junivan; Hatta, Agus M.; Sekartedjo, Ir.

    2016-11-01

    Crude oil is a products of oil and gas industries. One of the parameters which has in crude oil is specific gravity. In the oil and gas industries, specific gravity is used to classify crude oil which to be produced. specific gravity can be measured using ASTM D-1298 method. Disadvantage of this method is there are need of special environments and still using manual transcription. This research has been conducted a crude oil specific gravity sensor design by implementing structural imperfect to improve the performance of specific gravity sensors. In this research, polymer optical fiber is used as a sensor to measure specific gravity of crude oil. There are three variation of the amount of defect that were used in this research. Sample which used in this research has span of specific gravity value from 0,842218 to 0,9097. Based on the result, sensor with 3 imperfect structure have the best performance with linearity coefficient value 0,9438 and the span of measurement is 1,75792 dBm.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of triglyceride based thermosetting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Erde

    2005-07-01

    Plant oils, which are found in abundance in all parts of the world and are easily replenished annually, have the potential to replace petroleum as a chemical feedstock for making polymers. Within the past few years, there has been growing interest to use triglycerides as the basic constituent of thermosetting polymers with the necessary rigidity, strength and glass transition temperatures required for engineering applications. Plant oils are not polymerizable in their natural form, however various functional groups that can polymerize can easily be attached to the triglyceride structure making them ideal cross-linking monomers for thermosetting liquid molding resins. Through this research project a number of thermosetting liquid molding resins based on soybean and castor oil, which is a specialty oil with hydroxyls on its fatty acids, have been developed. The triglyceride based monomers were prepared via the malination of the alcoholysis products of soybean and castor oil with various polyols, such as pentaerythritol, glycerol, and Bisphenol A propoxylate. The malinated glycerides were then cured in the presence of a reactive diluent, such as styrene, to form rigid glassy materials with a wide range of properties. In addition to maleate half-esters, methacrylates were also introduced to the glyceride structure via methacrylation of the soybean oil glycerolysis product with methacrylic anhydride. This product, which contains methacrylic acid as by-product, and its blends with styrene also gave rigid materials when cured. The triglyceride based monomers were characterized via conventional spectroscopic techniques. Time resolved FTIR analysis was used to determine the curing kinetics and the final conversions of polymerization of the malinated glyceride-styrene blends. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determine the thermomechanical behavior of these polymers and other mechanical properties were determined via standard mechanical tests. The use of lignin

  6. New polymer-based phantom for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Iwazaki, Hideaki; Ida, Taiichiro; Nishi, Taiji; Tanikawa, Yukari; Nitta, Naotaka

    2014-03-01

    We will report newly developed polymer-based phantom for photoacoustic (PA) imaging systems. Phantoms are important for performance evaluation and calibration of new modalities; however, there is no established method for making phantoms with no long-term change. We have developed skin mimicking phantoms simulating both optical and acoustic properties (i.e. optical scattering and absorption coefficients, and sound velocity). Furthermore, the phantoms are able to give accurate simulation of blood vessels by Inkjet-printing. Newly developed phantoms are consisted of castor oil included acrylic block copolymer and we can fabricate 0.8mm or less thick sheets and pile them using their self-adhesiveness.

  7. Mixed fuel composition. [fuel oil, coal powder, and polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-07-13

    A mixed fuel composition comprises (A) a fuel oil, (B) a coal powder having an (H)/(C) ratio according to the coalification band method in the range of 0.4-0.75 and an (O)/(C) ratio in the range of 0.09-0.18 and (C) a partially amidated copolymer obtained by reacting a copolymer of a polymerizable, unsaturated hydrocarbon and maleic anhydride with an aliphatic amine of 2-36 carbon-atoms or a salt thereof as a stabilizer.

  8. A two-step flocculation process on oil sands tailings treatment using oppositely charged polymer flocculants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiuyi; Yan, Bin; Xie, Lei; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Hongbo

    2016-09-15

    Water management and treatment of mineral tailings and oil sands tailings are becoming critical challenges for the sustainable development of natural resources. Polymeric flocculants have been widely employed to facilitate the flocculation and settling of suspended fine solid particles in tailings, resulting in the separation of released water and solid sediments. In this study, a new flocculation process was developed for the treatment of oil sands tailings by using two oppositely charged polymers, i.e. an anionic polyacrylamide and a natural cationic biopolymer, chitosan. The new process was able to not only improve the clarity of supernatant after settling but also achieve a high settling efficiency. Treatment of the oil sands tailings using pure anionic polyacrylamide showed relatively high initial settling rate (ISR) of ~10.3m/h but with poor supernatant clarity (>1000NTU); while the treatment using pure cationic polymer resulted in clear supernatant (turbidity as low as 22NTU) but relatively low ISR of >2m/h. In the new flocculation process, the addition of anionic polyacrylamide to the tailings was followed by a cationic polymer, which showed both a high ISR (~7.7m/h) and a low turbidity (71NTU) of the supernatant. The flocculation mechanism was further investigated via the measurements of floc size, zeta potential and surface forces. The new flocculation process was revealed to include two steps: (1) bridging of fine solids by anionic polyacrylamide, and (2) further aggregation and flocculation mediated by charge neutralisation of the cationic polymer, which significantly eliminated the fine solids in the supernatants as well as increases floc size. Our results provide insights into the basic understanding of the interactions between polymer flocculants and solid particles in tailings treatment, as well as the development of novel tailings treatment technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    PubMed

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  10. Oil-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Asymmetric Polymersomes Formed by AC + BC Block Polymer Co-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Asano, Itaru; So, Soonyong; Lodge, Timothy P

    2016-04-13

    We demonstrate a facile route to asymmetric polymersomes by blending AC and BC block copolymers in oil-in-oil emulsions containing polystyrene (PS) and polybutadiene (PB) in chloroform (CHCl3). Polymersomes were prepared by mixing polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SO) and polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (BO) in the oil-in-oil emulsion, where the droplets and continuous phase are PS- and PB-rich, respectively. The polymersome structure was directly visualized using dye-labeled SO and BO with confocal fluorescence microscopy; SO and BO with a high O block fraction co-assemble to produce asymmetric polymersomes. As the O block is insoluble in both PS and PB, we infer that the detailed structure of the polymersomes is a bilayer in which the S and B blocks face the PS-inner and PB-outer phases, respectively, while the common O blocks form the core membrane. This structure is only observed for sufficiently long O blocks. It is remarkable that although all the polymers are soluble in CHCl3, such elaborate structures are created by straightforward co-assembly. These asymmetric polymersomes should provide robust bilayer membranes around emulsion droplets, leading to stable nanoscopic dispersions of two fluids.

  11. From oligomers to molecular giants of soybean oil in supercritical carbon dioxide medium: 1. Preparation of polymers with lower molecular weight from soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengshe; Sharma, Brajendra K; Erhan, Sevim Z

    2007-01-01

    Polymers with a low molecular weight derived from soybean oil have been prepared in a supercritical carbon dioxide medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate was used as an initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, amount of initiator, and carbon dioxide pressure on the molecular weight were investigated. It is shown that the higher polymerization temperature favors polymers with relatively higher molecular weights. Larger amounts of initiator also provide polymers with higher molecular weights. Higher pressure favors polymers with relatively higher molecular weights. The applications of these soy-based materials will be in the lubrication and hydraulic fluid areas.

  12. Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

  13. Novel mini-reactor of silicone oil droplets for synthesis of morphology-controlled polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Daisuke; Ohta, Tatsuya; Ishii, Haruyuki; Imhof, Arnout; Konno, Mikio

    2012-12-21

    Inside spaces of emulsion droplets can be used as mini-reactors for material synthesis. The novel application of sol-gel derived silicone oil droplets as mini-reactors was examined for the case of polymerization of styrene (St) and comonomers with the oil-soluble initiator 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile). Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) droplets prepared from dimethylsiloxane were used as the mini-reactors, in which the polymerization of St without comonomers was first conducted. In the polymerization, the St/PDMS volume ratio was varied from 0.025 to 0.10. After the polymerization, each PDMS droplet contained a polystyrene (PSt) particle. The St/PDMS ratio of 0.05 enabled the synthesis of micrometer-sized, spherical PSt particles with low polydispsersity. Copolymerization of St with comonomers having hydrophilic groups deformed the spherical shape of particles to lens-like or disk-like morphologies that were obtained with acrylic acid or sodium 4-styrene sulfonate, respectively. In another copolymerization, with divinylbenzene used as a cross-linker, hemispherical polymer particles were formed. To diversify the particle morphologies further, the proposed mini-reactor synthesis was combined with the recently proposed silicone oil droplet templating method (Ohta et al., 2012). Around the PDMS droplets containing a polymer particle, polymeric shells with a depression were successfully formed with the proposed method. The remaining PDMS oil inside the polymeric shells was extracted with ethanol, which caused hemispherical polymeric bowl-shaped capsules having a protrusion on the inside.

  14. An analysis of expressed sequence tags of developing castor endosperm using a full-length cDNA library

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chaofu; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Castor seeds are a major source for ricinoleate, an important industrial raw material. Genomics studies of castor plant will provide critical information for understanding seed metabolism, for effectively engineering ricinoleate production in transgenic oilseeds, or for genetically improving castor plants by eliminating toxic and allergic proteins in seeds. Results Full-length cDNAs are useful resources in annotating genes and in providing functional analysis of genes and their products. We constructed a full-length cDNA library from developing castor endosperm, and obtained 4,720 ESTs from 5'-ends of the cDNA clones representing 1,908 unique sequences. The most abundant transcripts are genes encoding storage proteins, ricin, agglutinin and oleosins. Several other sequences are also very numerous, including two acidic triacylglycerol lipases, and the oleate hydroxylase (FAH12) gene that is responsible for ricinoleate biosynthesis. The role(s) of the lipases in developing castor seeds are not clear, and co-expressing of a lipase and the FAH12 did not result in significant changes in hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Only one oleate desaturase (FAD2) gene was identified in our cDNA sequences. Sequence and functional analyses of the castor FAD2 were carried out since it had not been characterized previously. Overexpression of castor FAD2 in a FAH12-expressing Arabidopsis line resulted in decreased accumulation of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic seeds. Conclusion Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation of FAD2 and FAH12 genes maybe one of the mechanisms that contribute to a high level of ricinoleate accumulation in castor endosperm. The full-length cDNA library will be used to search for additional genes that affect ricinoleate accumulation in seed oils. Our EST sequences will also be useful to annotate the castor genome, which whole sequence is being generated by shotgun sequencing at the Institute for Genome

  15. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  16. Design and preparation of plant oil-based polymers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Jun Kollbe

    Renewable materials are desirable for many applications due to the finite fossil resources and environmental issues. Plant oil is one of the most promising renewable feedstocks. Plant oils and functionalized oleo-chemicals including functionalized soybean oils have become attractive sustainable chemicals for industrial applications. Especially, epoxidized oleo-chemicals such as epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) are one of the most well-known readily available inexpensive functionalized plant oils. In this study, novel polymers and nanocomposites for sustainable materials applications were designed and prepared via ring-opening of epoxide in plant oils, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized. The novel transparent elastomers derived from functionalized plant oils have a great potential as flexible electronic and biological applications with their inherent low toxicity. Especially, their rheological properties showed a potential for pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The dominant thermal stability and transparency were obtained via green processing: one pot, single step, fast reactions in moderate conditions, or solvent-free UV curing conditions. These oleo-based elastomers presented excellent end-use properties for PSAs application comparable to commercial PSA tapes. Based on the principal chemical studies, the roles of the each component have been identified: polymer derived from the ring-opening of epoxides as an elastomer, and dihydroxylated triglycerides as a tackifier. Their interaction was also elucidated with an element label analysis. The mechanical and rheological properties of the oleo-polymer as PSAs were able to be improved with a rosin ester tackifier. In addition, biogreases and bio-thermoplastics were developed via the environmentally benign process, which will contribute to further application on the production of new bio-based materials. Further, this study essays a novel acid functionalized iron/iron oxide nanoparticles catalyst

  17. Components of complex lipid biosynthetic pathways in developing castor (Ricinus communis) seeds identified by MudPIT analysis of enriched endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian P; Kroon, Johan T M; Topping, Jennifer F; Robson, Joanne L; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2011-08-05

    Ricinoleic acid is a feedstock for nylon-11 (N11) synthesis which is currently obtained from castor (Ricinus communis) oil. Production of this fatty acid in a temperate oilseed crop is of great commercial interest, but the highest reported level in transgenic plant oils is 30%, below the 90% observed in castor and insufficient for commercial exploitation. To identify castor oil-biosynthetic enzymes and inform strategies to improve ricinoleic acid yields, we performed MudPIT analysis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) purified from developing castor bean endosperm. Candidate enzymes for all steps of triacylglycerol synthesis were identified among 72 proteins in the data set related to complex-lipid metabolism. Previous reported proteomic data from oilseeds had not included any membrane-bound enzyme that might incorporate ricinoleic acid into oil. Analysis of enriched ER enabled determination of which protein isoforms for these enzymes were in developing castor seed. To complement this data, quantitative RT-PCR experiments with castor seed and leaf RNA were performed for orthologues of Arabidopsis oil-synthetic enzymes, determining which were highly expressed in the seed. These data provide important information for further manipulation of ricinoleic acid content in oilseeds and peptide data for future quantification strategies.

  18. Engineering Lesquerella for Safe Castor Oil Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a part of genetic approach to engineering ricinoleate synthesis, we investigated the seed development in L. fendleri. The morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed development of Lesquerella fendleri were characterized from 7 days after pollination (DAP) to desiccation. The...

  19. Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that β-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that β-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct Interfacial Fluorescence in Oil-in-Water Emulsions via Exciton Migration of Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Koo, Byungjin; Swager, Timothy M

    2017-09-01

    Commercial dyes are extensively utilized to stain specific phases for the visualization applications in emulsions and bioimaging. In general, dyes emit only one specific fluorescence signal and thus, in order to stain various phases and/or interfaces, one needs to incorporate multiple dyes and carefully consider their compatibility to avoid undesirable interactions with each other and with the components in the system. Herein, surfactant-type, perylene-endcapped fluorescent conjugated polymers that exhibit two different emissions are reported, which are cyan in water and red at oil-water interfaces. The interfacially distinct red emission results from enhanced exciton migration from the higher-bandgap polymer backbone to the lower-bandgap perylene endgroup. The confocal microscopy images exhibit the localized red emission exclusively from the circumference of oil droplets. This exciton migration and dual fluorescence of the polymers in different physical environments can provide a new concept of visualization methods in many amphiphilic colloidal systems and bioimaging. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composite Films at the Oil/Water Interface: Assembly and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, David; Feng, Tao; Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-01

    Efficient carbon nanotube assembly at the oil/water interface was achieved by dissolving cationic polymers in the oil phase and oxidized nanotubes in the water phase, the two components spontaneously forming salt bridges to produce a composite interfacial film of nanoscopic thickness. As seen by pendant drop tensiometry, parameters such as carbon nanotube and polymer concentration, pH, polymer molecular weight, and degree of nanotube oxidation all affect assembly strongly, with measured trends to be described and explained. The frequency-dependent elastic and viscous moduli of films in dilation were characterized by interfacial pendant drop rheology. Structural (fast, minutes) and adsorption/desorption (slow, tens of minutes) relaxations were both noted, and at frequencies intermediate to the two, almost insensitive to assembly parameters, the films displayed expected behaviors for 2D critical gels, i.e., at the crossover between fluid and solid. Tan(delta) was frequency-independent over one to two decades of frequency, and the modulus of linear stress relaxation was a power law in time. Films wrinkled by larger (nonlinear) strains recovered over the structural relaxation time. Support: NSF-sponsored UMass MRSEC and the US DoE Office of Basic Energy Science through Contract DE-FG02-04ER46126.

  2. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  3. [Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Irzmańska, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils.

  4. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  5. Numerical investigation of complex flooding schemes for surfactant polymer based enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant-polymer flooding is a widely used method of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in which an array of complex fluids containing suitable and varying amounts of surfactant or polymer or both mixed with water is injected into the reservoir. This is an example of multiphase, multicomponent and multiphysics porous media flow which is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns and is modeled by a system of strongly coupled nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here we propose and discuss a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics to accurately solve the system. Several types of flooding schemes and rheological properties of the injected fluids are used to numerically study the effectiveness of various injection policies in minimizing the viscous fingering and maximizing oil recovery. Numerical simulations are also performed to investigate the effect of various other physical and model parameters such as heterogeneity, relative permeability and residual saturation on the quantities of interest like cumulative oil recovery, sweep efficiency, fingering intensity to name a few. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  6. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2001-01-22

    This report describes the progress of the first year of a three-year research program. This program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  8. Cyclodextrin polymers as highly effective adsorbents for removal and recovery of polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) contaminants in insulating oil.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shintaro; Kida, Toshiyuki; Miyawaki, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Yuki; Kato, Eiichi; Nakano, Takeshi; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2014-07-15

    A total of 179 countries (parties) ratified the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and agreed to destroy polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and develop a sound management plan by 2028. Currently, still 3 million tons of PCB-contaminated oil and equipment need to be managed under the Stockholm Convention. Thus, the development of a facile and environmentally benign method to treat large amounts of oil stockpiles contaminated with PCBs is a crucial subject. Herein, we report that cyclodextrin (CD) polymers, which are easily prepared by cross-linking the renewable cyclic oligosaccharide γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) with dibasic acid dichlorides, are a new selective and powerful adsorbent to remove PCB contaminants in oil. When PCB (100 ppm)-contaminated oil was passed through a column packed with the terephthaloyl-cross-linked γ-CD polymer (TP-γ-CD polymer) at 80-110 °C, the PCB contaminants were completely removed from the oil. Additionally, methyl esterification of the free carboxylic groups of the TP-γ-CD polymer enabled the complete recovery of the PCBs adsorbed on the polymer (with >99.9% recovery efficiency) by simply washing with acetone. The methyl-esterified TP-γ-CD polymer could be recycled at least 10 times for PCB adsorption without any loss in the adsorption capability. These results revealed that the γ-CD polymers can function as highly effective and powerful adsorbents for the removal and recovery of PCBs from PCB-contaminated oil and, thus, significantly contribute to the protection of the global environment.

  9. Cationic polymer drilling fluid can sometimes replace oil-based mud

    SciTech Connect

    Beihoffer, T.W.; Dorrough, D.S.; Deem, C.K.; Schmidt, D.D.; Bray, R.P. )

    1992-03-16

    A recently developed cationic polymer/brine drilling fluid (CBF) system, tested in a number of wells drilled in the U.S. and the North Sea, can replace oil-based fluids in certain applications. This paper reports that the field tests have shown CBF to be more inhibitive than other water-based muds used in the same areas. To date, the primary applications have been in large diameter hole sections drilled through Tertiary shales with high semectite clay content. The CBF system uses a cationic polymer and potassium chloride for shale inhibition, starch for fluid loss control, and a biopolymer for rheology. Tests have been developed to quantitatively measure the concentrations of the inhibitive additives in the fluid, allowing the fluid to be run with a high degree of control.

  10. Observation of the electrorheological effect of silicone oil/polymer particles suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsuzuka, Kyoko; Miura, Keiji; Kuramoto, Noriyuki; Asano, Kazutoshi

    1995-05-01

    A liquid insulator that suspends small particles is one of the electrorheological fluids (ERF) whose apparent viscosity becomes larger under an electric field because of the formation of particle chains. Since many possible applications of ERF are expected, the development of a more practical ERF is required. The authors have investigated the ER effect of silicone oil in which small particles are suspended. Silica particles, silica particles coated by conductive polymer film, and polymer particles (microcrystalline cellulose), with a diameter between 5 {approximately} 100 {mu}m, are investigated in order to clarify the difference between suspending materials. To measure the ER effect, a rotational viscometer was constructed. It became clear that the shear stress for cellulose particles is much stronger than that for other particles because of its peculiar particle chain formation due to the particle shape.

  11. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  12. Processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch as filler material of polymer recycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saepulloh, D. R.; Nikmatin, S.; Hardhienata, H.

    2017-05-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) is waste from crude palm oil (CPO) processing plants. This research aims to process OPEFB to be a reinforcement polymer recycle with the mechanical milling method and identify each establishment molecular with the orbital hybridization theory. OPEFB fibers were synthesized using a mechanical milling until the size shortfiber and microfiber. Then do the biocomposite granular synthesis with single screw extruder. TAPPI chemical test shows levels of α-cellulose fibers amounted 41.68%. Based on density, the most optimum composition contained in the filler amounted 15% with the size is the microfiber. The test results of morphology with SEM showed deployment of filler OPEFB fiber is fairly equitable distributed. Regarding the molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB fiber, described by the theory of orbital hybridization. But the explanation establishment of the bond for more complex molecules likes this from the side of the molecular orbital theory is necessary complete information of the hybrid levels.

  13. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the OLE-1 high-oleic castor seed (Ricinus communis L.) mutant.

    PubMed

    Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    The natural OLE-1 high-oleic castor mutant has been characterized, demonstrating that point mutations in the FAH12 gene are responsible for the high-oleic phenotype. The contribution of each mutation was evaluated by heterologous expression in yeast, and lipid studies in developing OLE-1 seeds provided new evidence of unusual fatty acids channeling into TAGs. Ricinus communis L. is a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family well known for producing seeds whose oil has a very high ricinoleic (12-hydroxyoctadecenoic) acid content. Castor oil is considered the only commercially renewable source of hydroxylated fatty acids, which have many applications as chemical reactants. Accordingly, there has been great interest in the field of plant lipid biotechnology to define how ricinoleic acid is synthesized, which could also provide information that might serve to increase the content of other unusual fatty acids in oil crops. Accordingly, we set out to study the biochemistry of castor oil synthesis by characterizing a natural castor bean mutant deficient in ricinoleic acid synthesis (OLE-1). This mutant accumulates high levels of oleic acid and displays remarkable alterations in its seed lipid composition. To identify enzymes that are critical for this phenotype in castor oil, we cloned and sequenced the oleate desaturase (FAD2) and hydroxylase (FAH12) genes from wild-type and OLE-1 castor bean plants and analyzed their expression in different tissues. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that three modifications to the OLE-1 FAH12 protein were responsible for its weaker hydroxylase activity. In addition, we studied the expression of the genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway at different developmental stages, as well as that of other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, both in wild-type and mutant seeds.

  14. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  15. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  16. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  17. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  18. Synthesis of vegetable-oil based polymer by terpolymerization of epoxidized soybean oil, propylene oxide and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Shaarani, Farra Wahida; Bou, Jordi J

    2017-11-15

    Although carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as one of the major green-house gases, it is also an economical C1 resource. Thus, CO2 has been regarded as an appealing starting material for the synthesis of polymers, like polycarbonates by the reaction with epoxides. Herein the reaction between natural epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), propylene oxide (PO) and CO2 under high pressure (4.0MPa) with the presence of Co-Zn double metal cyanide (Co-Zn DMC) catalyst was studied. Temperature and reaction time were varied accordingly and the products obtained were characterized by FTIR, GPC and (1)H NMR. The results obtained indicate the formation of polycarbonates in the samples collected with yields vary from 60 to 85%. The number average molecular weight (Mn) of the resultant polymer prepared at reaction temperature of 80°C and reaction time of 6h can reach up to 6498g/mol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced treatment of oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding by UV/H2O2/O3 and fine filtration.

    PubMed

    Guang-Meng, Ren; De-Zhi, Sun; Chunk, Jong Shik

    2006-01-01

    In order to purify oil recovery wastewater from polymer flooding (ORWPF) in tertiary oil recovery in oil fields, advanced treatment of UV/H2O2/O3 and fine filtration were investigated. The experimental results showed that polyacrylamide and oil remaining in ORWPF after the conventional treatment process could be effectively removed by UV/H2O2/O3 process. Fine filtration gave a high performance in eliminating suspended solids. The treated ORWPF can meet the quality requirement of the wastewater-bearing polymer injection in oilfield and be safely re-injected into oil reservoirs for oil recovery.

  20. Purification of Leucoplast Pyruvate Kinase from Developing Castor Bean Endosperm 1

    PubMed Central

    Plaxton, William C.; Dennis, David T.; Knowles, Vicki L.

    1990-01-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.; cv Baker) has been purified 1370-fold to a specific activity of 41.1 micromoles pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme resulted in a single protein staining band that co-migrated with pyruvate kinase activity. However, following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, two major protein staining bands of 57.5 and 44 kilodaltons, which occurred in an approximate 2:1 ratio, respectively, were observed. The native molecular mass was approximately 305 kilodaltons. Rabbit antiserum raised against the final enzyme preparation effectively immunoprecipitated leucoplast pyruvate kinase. The 57.5- and 44-kilodalton polypeptides are immunologically related as both proteins cross-reacted strongly on Western blots probed with the rabbit anti-(developing castor seed endosperm leucoplast pyruvate kinase) immunoglobulin that had been affinity-purified against the 57.5-kilodalton polypeptide. In contrast, pyruvate kinases from the following sources showed no immunological cross-reactivity with the same immunoglobulin: the cytosolic enzyme from developing or germinating castor bean endosperm; chloroplastic pyruvate kinase from expanding leaves of the castor oil plant; chloroplastic or cytosolic pyruvate kinase from the green alga, Selenastrum minutum; and mammalian or bacterial pyruvate kinases. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16667885

  1. Mechanically flexible and multifunctional polymer-based graphene foams for elastic conductors and oil-water separators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Huang, Xingyi; Wu, Xinfeng; Qian, Rong; Jiang, Pingkai

    2013-10-18

    We present a novel strategy for the fabrication of ordered and flexible polymer-based graphene foams by self-assembly of graphene sheets on a 3D polymer skeleton. The obtained graphene foams show excellent mechanical, electrical, and hydrophobic properties, thus holding great potential as elastic conductors and oil-water separators. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Preparation and characterization of aqueous polyurethane oil/polyacrylate latex interpenetrating polymer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M. M.; Ma, L. L.; Du, J.; Cao, F.; Xiao, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    A series of aqueous polyurethane oil (network I)/polyacrylate (network II) latex interpenetrating polymer networks (LIPNs) were synthesized via the technology of latex interpenetrating polymer network combined seed emulsion polymerization process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, laser particle size distributing analyzer and universal tension machine were utilized to characterize the bulk structures and mechanical properties of LIPNs. For used as damping material, the damping performance of LIPNs were analyzed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). It was found that the damping temperature region of LIPN was wider than those of aqueous polyurethane oil, the temperature region with greater tanδ changed with the TPGDA content and hard-/soft-segment mass weight ratio (mMMA/mBA) and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the network I and network II in LIPN occurred within shift each other, even overlap with increasing mMMA/mBA value. The results show that LIPNs synthesized through the combined process have greater tanδ and wider damping temperature region, which is suitable for the use of damping coatings.

  3. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A) with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He) with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly useful for both genetic

  4. Robust Thermoresponsive Polymer Composite Membrane with Switchable Superhydrophilicity and Superhydrophobicity for Efficient Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ranwen; Wei, Jing; Jiang, Lei; Simon, George P; Wang, Huanting

    2016-01-19

    Herein, we report for the first time on the fabrication of a robust, thermoresponsive polymer membrane produced by the combination of an elastic polyurethane (TPU) microfiber web and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). PNIPAM hydrogel is evenly coated on the surface of TPU microfibers, and thus, the wettability of TPU-PNIPAM membrane is amplified by taking advantage of the hierarchical structure and increased surface roughness. The TPU-PNIPAM membrane possesses switchable superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity as the temperature of membrane changes from 25 to 45 °C. The composite membrane is shown successfully able to separate a 1 wt % oil-in-water emulsion and 1 wt % water-in-oil emulsion at 25 and 45 °C, respectively, with a high separation efficiency of ≥99.26%. Furthermore, the composite membranes show excellent mechanical properties, and they are highly flexible and mechanically tough. The smart composite membranes reported here have shown great potential for further development for practical high-efficiency oil-water separations.

  5. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. Results Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2) and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. Conclusions The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor bean and other members

  6. Development and physical characterization of polymer-fish oil bigel (hydrogel/oleogel) system as a transdermal drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-Fish oil bigel (hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture) was developed by using fish oil and natural (sodium alginate) and synthetic (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) polymer for pharmaceutical purposes. The bigels were closely monitored and thermal, rheological and mechanical properties were compared with the conventional hydrogels for their potential use as an effective transdermal drug delivery vehicle. Stability of the fish oil fatty acids (especially eicosapentanoic acid, EPA and docosahexanoic acid, DHA) was determined by gas chromatography and the drug content (imiquimod) was assessed with liquid chromatography. Furthermore, in vitro permeation study was conducted to determine the capability of the fish oil-bigels as transdermal drug delivery vehicle. The bigels showed pseudoplastic rheological features, with excellent mechanical properties (adhesiveness, peak stress and hardness), which indicated their excellent spreadability for application on the skin. Bigels prepared with mixture of sodium alginate and fish oil (SB1 and SB2), and the bigels prepared with the mixture of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and fish oil (HB1-HB3) showed high cumulative permeation and drug flux compared to hydrogels. Addition of fish oil proved to be beneficial in increasing the drug permeation and the results were statistically significant (p < 0.05, one-way Anova, SPSS 20.0). Thus, it can be concluded that bigel formulations could be used as an effective topical and transdermal drug delivery vehicle for pharmaceutical purposes.

  7. Computational and experimental investigation of molecular imprinted polymers for selective extraction of dimethoate and its metabolite omethoate from olive oil.

    PubMed

    Bakas, Idriss; Oujji, Najwa Ben; Moczko, Ewa; Istamboulie, Georges; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Ait-Addi, Elhabib; Ait-Ichou, Ihya; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2013-01-25

    This work presents the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective extraction of dimethoate from olive oil. Computational simulations allowed selecting itaconic acid as the monomer showing the highest affinity towards dimethoate. Experimental validation confirmed modelling predictions and showed that the polymer based on IA as functional monomer and omethoate as template molecule displays the highest selectivity for the structurally similar pesticides dimethoate, omethoate and monocrotophos. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method was developed and applied to the clean-up of olive oil extracts. It was found that the most suitable solvents for loading, washing and elution step were respectively hexane, hexane-dichloromethane (85:15%) and methanol. The developed MIPSE was successfully applied to extraction of dimethoate from olive oil, with recovery rates up to 94%. The limits of detection and quantification of the described method were respectively 0.012 and 0.05 μg g(-1).

  8. Evaluation of sublethal effects of polymer-based essential oils nanoformulation on the german cockroach.

    PubMed

    González, Jorge Werdin; Yeguerman, Cristhian; Marcovecchio, Diego; Delrieux, Claudio; Ferrero, Adriana; Band, Beatriz Fernández

    2016-08-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sublethal activity of polymer-based essential oils (EOs) nanoparticles (NPs) on adults of B. germanica. The LC50 and LC25 for contact toxicity were determined. To evaluate the repellency of EOs and NPs at LC25, a software was specially created in order to track multiple insects on just-recorded videos, and generate statistics using the obtained information. The effects of EOs and NPs at LC25 and LC50 on the nutritional physiology were also evaluated. The results showed that NPs exerted sublethal effects on the German cockroach, since these products enhance the repellent effects of the EOs and negatively affected the nutritional indices and the feeding deterrence index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Polymer Network of Phenolic and Epoxies Resins Mixed with Linseed Oil: Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Cardona, F.; Rogers, D.; Munoz, J.-C.

    2010-08-01

    Epoxy resin was mixed with phenolic resins in different percentages by weight. Composite 40/60 means the proportion by weight of epoxy resin is 40%. It was found that only composites 50/50 and 40/60 could be cured in ambient conditions. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that only these two composites form interpenetrating polymer network. The addition of linseed oil to the two resins results also in the formation of interpenetrating network irrespective of proportion by weight of the resins; the mechanical properties will only be better when the percentage by weight of epoxy resin is higher; the aim of reducing cost and at the same time maintaining the mechanical properties cannot be fully achieved because epoxy resin is much more expensive than its counterpart.

  10. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Righini, Silvana; Badia, Mariana Beatriz; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Drincovich, María Fabiana; Saigo, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Malic enzymes (ME) catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields. PMID:27347875

  11. Improved polymers for enhanced oil recovery synthesis and rheology. Sixth annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Hester, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    During the six years of our research endeavors, several fundamental concepts have been probed which now allow synthesis and characterization of polymers with properties which may be of much greater value than those presently utilized in Enhanced Oil Recovery. In the previous annual report, we documented improved salt tolerance and phase behavior of random and graft copolymers of acrylamide (AM) with sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate (NaAMPS). This report focuses upon synthesis characterization, and solution properties of random and graft copolymers of AM with diacetone acrylamide (DAAM). These polymers at certain compositions exhibit the unusual characteristic of increased hydrodynamic volume with added NaCl or CaCl/sub 2/. Additionally, we report analytical techniques developed through FY 1983 in our laboratories for the challenging study of water-soluble polymers of high molecular weight. Specific studies reported are: (1) copolymers of acrylamide with N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxybutyl) acrylamide and N,N-dimethylacrylamide - synthesis and characterization; (2) copolymers of acrylamide with N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxybutyl) acrylamide and N,N-dimethylacrylamide - solution properties; (3) selectivity in the graft copolymerization of acrylamide/N-(1,1 dimethyl-3-oxybutyl) acrylamide comonomers onto dextran by Ce(IV)-induced initiation; (4) selectivity in graft copolymerization of acrylamide/N-(1,1 dimethyl-3-oxybutyl) acrylamide comonomers onto dextran by Ce(IV)-induced initiation; (5) determination of molecular mass and hydrodynamic properties of several partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides; (6) deconvolution of overlapping chromatograms using constrained non-linear optimization; and (7) pressure detectors for aqueous size exclusion chromatography.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of oil entrapped gastroretentive floating gel beads of loratadine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shashi Kiran; Pathak, Kamla

    2008-06-01

    A gastro retentive controlled release system of loratadine was formulated to increase the residence time in stomach and to modulate the release behaviour of the drug. Oil entrapped floating microbeads prepared by the emulsion gelation method were optimized by 23 factorial design and a polymer ratio of 2.5:1.5 (pectin/sodium alginate) by mass, 15% (m/V) of oil (mineral oil or castor oil) and 0.45 mol L(-1) calcium chloride solution as the optimized processing conditions for the desired buoyancy and physical stability. In vitro drug release in the fed state conditions demonstrated sustained release of loratadine for 8 h, which best fitted the Peppas model with n<0.45. The ethyl cellulose coating on microbeads optimized by 22 factorial design resulted in a controlled release formulation of loratadine that provided zero-order release for 8 h.

  13. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Nguyen, Ba; Kien Ngo, Trung; Bui, Truong Han; Khanh Pham, Duy; Loc Dinh, Xuan; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2015-03-01

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water-oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-24

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  15. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5′UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3′UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5′UTRs and 3′UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (∼70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species. PMID:21687555

  16. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  17. Repertoire of SSRs in the Castor Bean Genome and Their Utilization in Genetic Diversity Analysis in Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean and Jatropha contain seed oil of industrial importance, share taxonomical and biochemical similarities, which can be explored for identifying SSRs in the whole genome sequence of castor bean and utilized in Jatropha curcas. Whole genome analysis of castor bean identified 5,80,986 SSRs with a frequency of 1 per 680 bp. Genomic distribution of SSRs revealed that 27% were present in the non-genic region whereas 73% were also present in the putative genic regions with 26% in 5'UTRs, 25% in introns, 16% in 3'UTRs and 6% in the exons. Dinucleotide repeats were more frequent in introns, 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs whereas trinucleotide repeats were predominant in the exons. The transferability of randomly selected 302 SSRs, from castor bean to 49 J. curcas genotypes and 8 Jatropha species other than J. curcas, showed that 211 (∼70%) amplified on Jatropha out of which 7.58% showed polymorphisms in J. curcas genotypes and 12.32% in Jatropha species. The higher rate of transferability of SSR markers from castor bean to Jatropha coupled with a good level of PIC (polymorphic information content) value (0.2 in J. curcas genotypes and 0.6 in Jatropha species) suggested that SSRs would be useful in germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships, and so forth, in J. curcas as well as other Jatropha species.

  18. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; de Melo, E.J.T.; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained. PMID:22911344

  19. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) shall include: Chinawood oil (tung oil). Dehydrated castor oil. Linseed oil. Tall oil. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.26 Drying oils as components of finished resins....

  20. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) shall include: Chinawood oil (tung oil). Dehydrated castor oil. Linseed oil. Tall oil. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.26 Drying oils as components of finished resins....

  1. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) shall include: Chinawood oil (tung oil). Dehydrated castor oil. Linseed oil. Tall oil. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.26 Drying oils as components of finished resins....

  2. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) shall include: Chinawood oil (tung oil). Dehydrated castor oil. Linseed oil. Tall oil. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.26 Drying oils as components of finished resins....

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm within the US collection assessed with EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, M L; Dzievit, M; Chen, Z; Morris, J B; Norris, J E; Barkley, N A; Tonnis, B; Pederson, G A; Yu, J

    2017-03-01

    Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire US castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not been determined. Based on the screening results of oil content, fatty acid composition, and country origins, 574 accessions were selected and genotyped with 22 polymorphic EST-SSR markers. The results from cluster analysis, population structure, and principal component analysis were consistent, and partitioned accessions into four subpopulations. Although there were certain levels of admixtures among groups, these clusters and subpopulations aligned with geographic origins. Both divergent and redundant accessions were identified in this study. The US castor germplasm collection encompasses a moderately high level of genetic diversity (pairwise dissimilarity coefficient = 0.53). The results obtained here will be useful for choosing accessions as parents to make crosses in breeding programs and prioritizing accessions for regeneration to improve germplasm management. A subset of 230 accessions was selected and will be planted in the field for establishing a core collection of the US castor germplasm. Further evaluation of the US castor germplasm collection is also discussed.

  4. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  5. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  6. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  7. Super-Absorbent Polymer Gels for Oil and Grease Removal from Metal and Non-Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-21

    morphology, phase transition, and functional groups of the synthesized polymers before the cleaning tests using: Infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV...50 60 70 80 90 100 0 24 48 72 96 120 Q hours Imbiber beads oil ethanol water methylene chloride Swelling ratios, Q, for the gel alkyl...chain ・Reversible change 25-40 °C 40-60 °C ・ Increment of compatibility by heating ・ Irreversible change Red region Blue region 15

  8. Cytosolic pyruvate kinase: subunit composition, activity, and amount in developing castor and soybean seeds, and biochemical characterization of the purified castor seed enzyme.

    PubMed

    Turner, William L; Knowles, Vicki L; Plaxton, William C

    2005-12-01

    Antibodies against Brassica napus cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) (EC 2.7.1.40) were employed to examine PKc subunit composition and developmental profiles in castor and soybean seeds. A 56-kDa immunoreactive polypeptide was uniformly detected on immunoblots of clarified extracts from developing castor endosperm or soybean embryos. Maximal PKc activities occurred early in castor oil seed (COS) and soybean development (7.1 and 5.5 (micromol of pyruvate produced/min) g(-1) FW, respectively) and were up to 25-fold greater than those of fully mature seeds. Time-course studies revealed a close correlation between extractable PKc activity and the relative amount of the immunoreactive 56-kDa PKc polypeptide. PKc from developing COS was purified 1,874-fold to homogeneity and a final specific activity of 73.1 (micromol of pyruvate produced/min) mg(-1) protein. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE indicated that this PKc exists as a 230-kDa homotetramer composed of 56-kDa subunits. The mass fingerprint of tryptic peptides of the 56-kDa COS PKc subunit best matched three putative PK(c)s from Arabidopsis thaliana. The purified enzyme was relatively heat-stable and displayed a broad pH optimum of 6.4. However, more efficient substrate utilization (in terms of Vmax /Km for phosphoenolpyruvate or ADP) was observed at pH 7.4. Glutamate was the most effective inhibitor, whereas aspartate functioned as an activator by partially relieving glutamate inhibition. Together with our previous studies, the results: (1) allow a model to be formulated regarding the coordinate allosteric control of PKc and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by aspartate and glutamate in developing COS, and (2) provide further biochemical evidence that castor plant PKc exists as tissue-specific isozymes that exhibit substantial differences in their respective physical and regulatory properties.

  9. Residual oil fly ash and charged polymers activate epithelial cells and nociceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Oortgiesen, M; Veronesi, B; Eichenbaum, G; Kiser, P F; Simon, S A

    2000-04-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is an industrial pollutant that contains metals, acids, and unknown materials complexed to a particulate core. The heterogeneous composition of ROFA hampers finding the mechanism(s) by which it and other particulate pollutants cause airway toxicity. To distinguish culpable factors contributing to the effects of ROFA, synthetic polymer microsphere (SPM) analogs were synthesized that resembled ROFA in particle size (2 and 6 microm in diameter) and zeta potential (-29 mV). BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons responded to both ROFA and charged SPMs with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and the release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, whereas neutral SPMs bound with polyethylene glycol (0-mV zeta potential) were relatively ineffective. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, the SPM-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were correlated with the presence of acid- and/or capsaicin-sensitive pathways. We hypothesized that the acidic microenvironment associated with negatively charged colloids like ROFA and SPMs activate irritant receptors in airway target cells. This causes subsequent cytokine release, which mediates the pathophysiology of neurogenic airway inflammation.

  10. Synthesis of sustainable polymers from vegetable oil: Applications in coatings and nanoparticle surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Harjyoti

    Polymeric materials are increasing being used in many household, industrial, and health and personal care products. These materials, being either non-degradable or slow degradable, remain in the environment for a long time and are posing increasingly significant threats to the ecosystem components including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and crustaceans. Renewable resource based materials are the best raw materials for the development of sustainable products. Vegetable oil and polyglycol based novel copolymers have been synthesized in this research. Poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers were synthesized from 2-(vinyloxyethyl) soyate (2-VEOS) and tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl vinyl ether (TEGEVE) via cationic polymerization. They were used in waterborne coating as self-dispersible polymers and as surfmers. Four different copolymers were synthesized having 2-VOES wt% as 10, 15, 25, 50 and rest being TEGEVE. In addition to that water insoluble poly(2-VOES) copolymers were synthesized from soybean oil. All copolymers were used as self-dispersible polymers and their coating property were analyzed by measuring glass transition temperature, drying time, gloss, transparency, contact angle, hysteresis, tensile strength, and hardness. Results showed that the coatings can be cured by autoxidation drying process within 6.1 to 8.2 h. Results also showed high transparency (coated in glass panel) with maximum 2% absorbance which is comparable to uncoated substrate (clean glass). Copolymer having 2-VOES wt% 15 and 50 were used as surfmers to disperse poly(2-VOES) and they were cured using autoxidation method. Results showed that the curing of film can be achieved within 2.6 to 8.0 h. High gloss and transparency confirmed that the surfmers get copolymerized with poly(2-VOES). Another set of poly(2-VOES-r-TEGEVE) copolymers with 2-VOES wt% 15, 25, 50, 75 and 85 were synthesized and then functionalized with a carboxyl group. These carboxyl functionalized polymer were used to coat nanoscale

  11. Evaluation of the Sho-Vel-Tum Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Oil Recovery Project - Stephens County, OK

    SciTech Connect

    French, Troy

    1999-08-16

    Le Norman Energy Company conducted research on field application of alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's plan to maximize the production of our domestic oil resources. In addition to having substantial technical merit, the process uses chemicals that are environmentally acceptable. Le Norman's field project is located in the Sho-Vel-Tum (OK) oil field, which was a major producer of crude oil in past years, but has since been extensively waterflooded. This reservoir in this portion of the field is typical of many shallow reservoirs in the Oklahoma-Kansas area and is a good demonstration site for that area. The pay zones are located approximately 700 ft. deep, and this project is the shallowest field test for ASP flooding.

  12. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  13. 21 CFR 181.26 - Drying oils as components of finished resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). Dehydrated castor oil. Linseed oil. Tall oil. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drying oils as components of finished resins. 181... Drying oils as components of finished resins. Substances classified as drying oils, when migrating...

  14. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Boulanouar, Sara; Combès, Audrey; Mezzache, Sakina; Pichon, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    The increasing use of pesticides in agriculture causes environmental issues and possible serious health risks to humans and animals. Their determination at trace concentrations in vegetable oils constitutes a significant analytical challenge. Therefore, their analysis often requires both an extraction and a purification step prior to separation with liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. This work aimed at developing sorbents that are able to selectively extract from vegetable oil samples several organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides presenting a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Therefore, different conditions were screened to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by a non-covalent approach. The selectivity of the resulting polymers was evaluated by studying the OPs retention in pure media on both MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIP) used as control. The most promising MIP sorbent was obtained using monocrotophos (MCP) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker with a molar ratio of 1/4/20 respectively. The repeatability of the extraction procedure and of the synthesis procedure was demonstrated in pure media. The capacity of this MIP was 1mg/g for malathion. This MIP was also able to selectively extract three OPs from almond oil by applying the optimized SPE procedure. Recoveries were between 73 and 99% with SD values between 4 and 6% in this oil sample. The calculated LOQs (between 0.3 and 2μg/kg) in almond seeds with a SD between 0.1 and 0.4μg/kg were lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established for the corresponding compounds in almond seed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  16. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  17. Improved polymers for enhanced oil recovery synthesis and rheology. Second annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Hester, R.D.; Neidlinger, H.H.; Wildman, G.C.

    1980-06-01

    The status of the following studies is given: macromolecular syntheses of model polymers (homopolymer synthesis, random copolymer synthesis, graft-copolymer syntheses); macromolecular characterization by size exclusion chromatography; dilute solution studies (ageing effects on viscosity, shear rate effects on viscosity, structure effects on viscosity, turbidimetric studies); polymer solution rheological studies; macromolecular flow through controlled porous media; and polymer solution flow through simulated porous reservoirs.

  18. Water-in-oil emulsions prepared by peptide-silicone hybrid polymers as active interfacial modifier: effects of silicone oil species on dispersion stability of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Iijima, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Endo, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Yamashita, Yuji; Natsuisaka, Makoto; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Kazutami

    2013-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new general concept regarding amphiphilic materials that have been named as "active interfacial modifier (AIM)." In emulsion systems, an AIM is essentially insoluble in both water and organic solvents; however, it possesses moieties that are attracted to each of these immiscible liquid phases. Hence, an AIM practically stays just at the interface between the two phases and makes the resulting emulsion stable. In this study, the effects of silicone oil species on the dispersion stability of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions in the presence of an AIM sample were evaluated in order to understand the destabilization mechanism in such emulsion systems. The AIM sample used in this study is an amphiphilic polymer consisting of a silicone backbone modified with hydrocarbon chains and hydrolyzed silk peptides. The Stokes equation predicts that the sedimentation velocity of water droplets dispersed in a continuous silicone oil phase simply depends on the expression (ρ - ρ₀)/η assuming that the droplet size is constant (where ρ is the density of the dispersed water phase, ρ₀ is the density of the continuous silicone oil phase, and η is the viscosity of the oil phase). The experimental results shown in this paper are consistent with the Stokes prediction: i.e., in the low-viscous genuine or quasi-Newtonian fluid region, the dispersion stability increases in the following order: dodecamethylpentasiloxane (DPS) < decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D₅) ≤ dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D₆). This order agrees well with the order obtained by using the expression (ρ - ρ₀)/η as DPS > D₅ > D₆. This indicates that our emulsion system experiences destabilization through sedimentation, but hardly any coalescence occurs owing to the presence of an additional third phase consisting of the AIM that stabilizes the silicone oil/water interface in the emulsions.

  19. Biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide by bacteria isolated from production water after polymer flooding in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Bao, Mutai; Chen, Qingguo; Li, Yiming; Jiang, Guancheng

    2010-12-15

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in production water after polymer flooding in oil filed causes environmental problems, such as increases the difficulty in oil-water separation, degrades naturally to produce toxic acrylamide and endanger local ecosystem. Biodegradation of HPAM may be an efficient way to solve these problems. The biodegradability of HPAM in an aerobic environment was studied. Two HPAM-degrading bacterial strains, named PM-2 and PM-3, were isolated from the produced water of polymer flooding. They were subsequently identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp., respectively. The utilization of HPAM by the two strains was explored. The amide group of HPAM could serve as a nitrogen source for the two microorganisms, the carbon backbone of these polymers could be partly utilized by microorganisms. The HPAM samples before and after bacterial biodegradation were analyzed by the infrared spectrum, high performance liquid chromatography and scanning electronic microscope. The results indicated that the amide group of HPAM in the biodegradation products had been converted to a carboxyl group, and no acrylamide monomer was found. The HPAM carbon backbone was metabolized by the bacteria during the course of its growth. Further more, the hypothesis about the biodegradation of HPAM in aerobic bacterial culture is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.; Snyder, W.O.

    1981-04-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.4-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5 and 5.0-acre patterns increased from 8.6% and 5.2%, respectively in September 1979, to 11.0% and 5.9% in September 1980. The oil cut performance has consistently exceeded that predicted for the project. This Fourth Annual Report is organized under the following three Work Breakdown Structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  1. Encapsulation of Mentha Oil in Chitosan Polymer Matrix Alleviates Skin Irritation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Sinha, Priyam; Kanaujia, Archana; Chanda, Debabrata; Jakhmola, Apurva; Saikia, Dharmendra; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Mentha spicata L. var. viridis oil (MVO) is a potent antifungal agent, but its application in the topical treatment is limited due to its irritancy and volatility. It was aimed to develop more efficient, chitosan-incrusted MVO microspheres with reduced volatility and lesser irritancy and to dispense it in the form of ointment. Simple coacervation technique was employed to microencapsulate MVO in chitosan matrix. Morphological properties and polymer cross-linking were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Optimization was carried out on the basis of entrapment efficiency (EE) using response surface methodology. Well-designed microspheres having smooth surface and spherical shape were observed. EE (81.20%) of optimum batch (R21) was found at 1.62% w/v of cross-linker, 5.4:5 of MVO to chitosan ratio and at 1000 rpm. R21 showed 69.38 ± 1.29% in vitro MVO release in 12 h and 96.92% retention of MVO in microspheres even after 8 week. Ointments of PEG 4000 and PEG 400 comprising MVO (F1) and R21 (F2) were developed separately. F2 showed comparatively broader zone of growth inhibition (13.33 ± 1.76-18.67 ± 0.88 mm) and less irritancy (PII 0.5833, irritation barely perceptible) than that of F1. F2 was able to avoid the direct contact of mild irritant MVO with the skin and to reduce its rapid volatility. Controlled release of MVO helped in lengthening the duration of availability of MVO in agar media and hence improved its therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, a stable and non-irritant formulation with improved therapeutic potential was developed.

  2. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated.

  3. Fine study on single sand body and measures for tapping the potential of residual oil during polymer flooding in Pubei reservoir of Daqing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to effectively guide the narrow channel sand body oil fields to exploit, according to the sand body distribution characteristics and geological genesis of narrow channel sand body oil fields, the type of single sand body is clarified. By means of identification of logging curves and correlation of well-tie profile, the internal structure of single sand body is recognized. and then the remaining oil genesis, distribution characteristics and the potential areas for polymer flooding are clarified by combining numerical simulation technology and dynamic analysis technology, and the remaining oil potential tapping method is designed by taking into consideration various factors including the characteristics of the remaining oil, reservoir property and product dynamic character. The result shows that the single sand body is divided into five types including multiphase channel superposition, distributary channel, single channel, sheet sand and lenticular sand. Potential remaining oil mainly are distributed in thick oil layers of multiphase channel superposition type and distributary channel type in which channel sands were developed and sedimentary environment are stable inner front facies and lake regressive inner front facies. The remaining oil is developed by optimizing the parameters of polymer flooding and combining many different measures. The study provides technical support for the efficient exploration for polymer flooding.

  4. pH-induced inversion of water-in-oil emulsions to oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) using core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer as interfacial stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qijing; Deng, Xiaoyong; An, Zesheng

    2014-06-01

    A pH-responsive core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions containing toluene (80 v%) and water (20 v%). In the pH range of 12.1-9.3, ordinary water-in-oil emulsions were formed. Intermediate multiple emulsions of oil-in-water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water were formed at pH 8.6 and 7.5, respectively. Further lowering the pH resulted in the formation of gelled high internal phase emulsions of oil-in-water type in the pH range of 6.4-0.6. The emulsion behavior was correlated with interfacial tension, conductivity and configuration of the CCS polymer at different pH. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  6. Screening of microbes for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction. More than 30.6 million tons of soybean oil were produced worldwide annually and the major use of this oil is for food products. Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA), e.g., castor oil, have many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plasti...

  7. Thiokol Corporation's Castor 120 solid propulsion booster program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilden, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Castor 120 program aimed at developing a solid propulsion booster for expandable launch vehicles is discussed. The booster is based on a light weight epoxy case, HTPB propellant, and flexible bearing nozzle. The Castor 120 will be capable of satisfying multiple launch vehicle functions for use as a strap-on, a first- or a second stage.

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  9. Improved method for extraction of castor seed for toxin determination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effort to identify castor seeds with low ricin content is considered to be a key to increasing cultivation of the castor plant for industrial applications. The procedure used to obtain soluble protein from the seed is a limiting factor for screening large numbers of seeds. Usually, the seed is...

  10. Risk of ricin from commercial castor production in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial production of castor, as a source of highly valuable hydroxyl fatty acids, has been limited by both the real and perceived risks of commercial castor production in North America. Crop commodity groups, regulatory governmental agencies, and much of the general public may have reservations ...

  11. [Research on population structure and distribution characteristic of indigenous microorganism in post-polymer-flooding oil reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-Xia; Gao, Pei-Ke; Cao, Mei-Na; Gao, Meng-Li; Li, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Xu-Dong; Ma, Ting

    2012-02-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method and principal component analysis (PCA) method were used to analyze the structures of microorganism population in injection wells and production wells of a post-polymer-flooding oil reservoir in Daqing oil field. The results showed that the dominant species in injection wellhead were aerobic bacteria Pseudomonas and Acinenobacter. Facultative anaerobic bacteria Enterbacter was the dominant bacteria in near area of injection wells. Bacteria detected in production wells included Thauera, Clostridia, Pseudomonas, Petrobacter and some uncultured bacteria. Methanosaeta turned out to be the only archaea detected in injection wells, which was an aceticlastic methane-producing archaeon. Archaea detected in production wells consisted of Methanomicrobium, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium. In general, aerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobe, and strictly anaerobic bacteria distributed successively from injection wells to production wells in this block. The dominant populations of archaea were different between injection wells and production wells, while were influenced by different environments and microbial metabolism products.

  12. Delayed in situ crosslinking of acrylamide polymers for oil recovery applications in high-temperature formations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a process for plugging a region of a high-temperature hydrocarbon-bearing formation below an earthen surface with a cross-linked acrylamide polymer gel wherein the formation is penetrated by a wellbore in communication with the region. The process comprising: admixing a gelation system at the earthen surface comprising an aqueous solvent, an unhydrolyzed acrylamide polymer made up of monomeric groups, and a polyvalent metal crosslinking agent. Wherein less than about 1.0 mole percent of the monomeric groups in the unhydrolyzed acrylamide polymer contain a carboxylate constituent based on the total number of the monomeric groups in the polymer. Wherein the polyvalent metal crosslinking agent is a salt or a complex of a trivalent or quatravalent metal cation capable of crosslinking a partially hydrolyzed acrylamide polymer; injecting the gelation system into the treatment region of the formation wherein the formation has a temperature of at least about 60{sup 0}C, hydrolyzing the polymer in the region at the formation temperature such that more than about 1.0 mole percent of the monomeric groups in the polymer contain a carboxylate constituent based on the total number of the monomeric groups in the polymer; and crosslinking the gelation system in the region to substantial completion to form the continuous immobile crosslinked acrylamide polymer gel which plugs at least a portion of the treatment region.

  13. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  14. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-09-27

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation.

  15. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments, Annual Report, June 16,2000-June 15, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2002-05-22

    This program was aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  16. Genetic divergence in elite castor bean lineages based on TRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Simões, K S; Silva, S A; Machado, E L; Silva, M S

    2017-09-27

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a tropical plant of great commercial interest and a potential source of biodiesel. The development of genetically improved cultivars with high amounts of oil in the seeds and low ricin toxicity is crucial to increase the productivity of this crop. The use of TRAP (target region amplification polymorphism) markers to develop elite lineages and study genetic divergence is fundamental to advance the genetic improvement of this species. The goal of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among 40 elite lineages of R. communis, which belong to the NBIO-UFRB Genetic Improvement Program, using TRAP markers involved in the biosynthesis of oil and ricin. Total DNA was extracted and quantified from the leaf tissue of the castor bean plants, and 70 TRAP combinations (fixed and arbitrary primers) were used to genotype the 40 lineages. Of the 580 fragments amplified, 335 were polymorphic (58%). The genetic dissimilarity among the lineages was calculated by the Jaccard dissimilarity index using the UPGMA grouping method. A dendrogram was generated, and four groups formed, showing divergence among the elite lineages that favors selection. The TRAP molecular markers were efficient at characterizing the genetic variability among the lineages and, because TRAP markers are functional markers involved in the biosynthesis of oil and ricin, they are important when studying the association between a marker and a candidate gene.

  17. The use of x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy to study the influence of cationic polymers on silicone oil deposition from shampoo.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J V; Lamoureux, B R; Joshi, N; Moral, L

    2001-01-01

    In this study, x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy was employed, in a non-destructive way, to analyze the influence that water-soluble, cationic hydroxyethylcellulose (i.e., polyquaternium-10) has on the deposition of silicone oil (dimethicone) onto hair. Virgin brown hair tresses were washed with various model shampoos that contained emulsified dimethicone. The shampoos were modified only by the addition or absence of polyquaternium-10. The results indicate that the cationic polymers do influence silicone oil deposition onto hair during the shampooing process. In the absence of cationic polymer, the silicone oils deposit readily, but appear to show "build-up" phenomena upon repeated washings. When a cationic polymer is present in the continuous phase of the shampoo, the build-up phenomena is significantly diminished, and silicone oil deposition remains relatively constant in repeated washings. In addition, we have noted that the molecular weight of the cationic polymer can have a strong effect on silicone oil deposition. It appears that the higher the molecular weight of the polyquaternium-10, the greater the amount of silicone deposition onto the surface of the hair. To demonstrate that the analysis technique has potential applications in commercial shampoos, we examined a commercial "2-in-1" shampoo that contains dimethicone and polyquaternium-10 and found that the data for our simple model shampoos and the commercial shampoo correlated closely.

  18. Structural properties of polymer-brush-grafted gold nanoparticles at the oil-water interface: insights from coarse-grained simulations.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xuebo; Peng, ChunWang; Dong, Jiaqi; Zhou, Jian

    2016-04-14

    In this work, the structural properties of amphiphilic polymer-brush-grafted gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at the oil-water interface were investigated by coarse-grained simulations. The effects of grafting architecture (diblock, mixed and Janus brush-grafted AuNPs) and hydrophilicity of polymer brushes are discussed. Simulation results indicate that functionalized AuNPs present abundant morphologies including typical core-shell, Janus-type, jellyfish-like, etc., in a water or oil-water solvent environment. It is found that hydrophobic/weak hydrophilic polymer-brush-grafted AuNPs have better phase transfer performance, especially for AuNPs modified with hydrophobic chains as outer blocks and weak hydrophilic chains as inner blocks. This kind of AuNP can cross the interface region and move into the oil phase completely. For hydrophobic/strong hydrophilic polymer-brush-grafted AuNPs, they are trapped in the interface region instead of moving into any phase. The mechanism of phase transfer is ascribed to the flexibility and mobility of outer blocks. Besides, we study the desorption energy by PMF analysis. The results demonstrate that Janus brush-grafted AuNPs show the highest interfacial stability and activity, which can be further strengthened by increasing the hydrophilicity of grafted polymer brushes. This work will promote the industrial applications of polymer-brush-grafted NPs such as phase transfer catalysis and Pickering emulsion catalysis.

  19. Biocompatibility of Ricinus comunnis polymer compared to titanium implant used in artificial hearts. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando; Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos de Salles; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Sobral, Ana Cristina Lira; Olandoski, Marcia; Kubrusly, Fernando Bermudez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine if the tissue reaction to the Riccinus communis (mamona) polymer has significant statistical difference compared to the tissue reaction provoked by the titanium implant. Thirty two Cavia porcellus were divided into four groups containing eight animals each one. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were sacrificed at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. The quantitative analysis did not show difference between the tissue reaction of the two materials (P>0.05). The analysis of the qualitative variable also did not show difference between the tissue reaction of the materials (P>0.05). Macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant has no significant statistical difference compared to the titanium implant tissue reaction.

  20. Influence of zinc chloride addition on the chemical structure of bio-oil obtained during co-pyrolysis of wood/synthetic polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Piotr

    2009-12-01

    The chemical structure of liquid products of the pinewood sawdust (W) co-pyrolysis with polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) with and without the zinc chloride as an additive was investigated. The pyrolysis process was carried out at 450 degrees C with the heating rate of 5 degrees C/min. The yield of liquid products of pyrolysis was in the range of 37-91 wt% and their form was liquid or semi-solid depending on the composition of the wood/polymer blend. The zinc chloride addition to wood/polymer blends has influenced the range of samples decomposition as well as the chemical structure of resulted bio-oils. All bio-oils from wood/polypropylene blends were two-phase (liquid and solid). Contrarily, all bio-oils obtained from biopolymer/polypropylene blends with zinc chloride added were yellow liquids. All analyses proved that the structure and the quality of bio-oil strongly depend on both the composition of the blend and the presence of ZnCl(2) as an additive. The FT-IR analyses of oils showed that oxygen-containing groups and hydrocarbons content highly depend on the composition of biomass/synthetic polymer mixture. The fractionation of bio-oils by column chromatography with four different solvents was followed by GC-MS analysis. Results confirmed the significant removal and/or transformation of oxygen-containing organic compounds due to the zinc chloride presence during pyrolysis process.

  1. Responses of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) to predator chemicals.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, A; Müller-Schwarze, D

    1995-09-01

    Free-ranging beaver (Castor canadensis) in two different beaver populations in New York State were exposed to predator chemicals to test feeding inhibition. Solvent extracts of feces were applied to stem sections of aspen, the preferred food tree of beavers, permitting smelling and tasting the samples. Predator odors were from wolf (Canis lupus), coyote (Canis latrans), dog (Canis familiaris), black bear (Ursus americanus), river otter (Lutra canadensis), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and African lion (Panthera leo). The experiment was repeated. The predator odors reduced feeding compared to untreated or solvent-treated controls. One population consumed 17.0% of the samples with predator odor and 27.0% of the controls in summer, and 48.4% and 60.0%, respectively, in autumn. The other population accepted 3.15% of the predator odor samples and 11.05% of the controls in summer. Coyote, lynx, and river otter odors had the strongest effects. Diesel oil and bitter-tasting neem extract had weaker effects. Predator odors are promising as feeding repellents for beaver.

  2. Polymer/reduced graphene oxide functionalized sponges as superabsorbents for oil removal and recovery.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Wu, Wen-Ping; Ravindranath, Rini; Roy, Prathik; Lin, Guan-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2017-01-30

    Polyurethane dish-washing (PU-DW) sponges are functionalized sequentially with polyethylenimine (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO) to form PEI/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) PU-DW sponges. The PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge consists of PEI/RGO sheets having numerous pores, with diameters ranging from 236 to 254nm. To further enhance hydrophobicity and absorption capacity of oil, PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge is further coated with 20% phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS). The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge absorbs various oils within 20s, with maximum absorption capacity values of 880% and 840% for bicycle chain oil and motorcycle engine oil, respectively. The absorbed oils were released completely by squeezing or immersed in hexane. The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge efficiently separates oil/water mixtures through a flowing system. Having the advantages of faster absorption rate, reusability, and low cost, the PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge holds great potential as a superabsorbent for efficient removal and recovery of oil spills as well as for the separation of oil/water mixtures.

  3. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

  4. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

  5. Rheological Properties of a Biological Thermo-Hydrogel Produced from Soybean Oil Polymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at room temperature and viscous fluid b...

  6. Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion for controlled release of Aza-A.

    PubMed

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Sureshkumar, R S; Anjali, C H; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-11-06

    Azadirachtin a biological compound found in neem have medicinal and pesticidal properties. The present work reports on the encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion using sodium alginate (Na-Alg) by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. Starch and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as coating agents for smooth surface of beads. The SEM images showed beads exhibited nearly spherical shape. Swelling of the polymeric beads reduced with coating which in turn decreased the rate of release of Aza-A. Starch coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion was found to be effective when compared to PEG coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion. The release rate of neem Aza-A from the beads into an aqueous environment was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometer (214 nm). The encapsulated neem oil nanoemulsion have the potential for controlled release of Aza-A. Neem oil nanoemulsion encapsulated beads coated with PEG was found to be toxic in lymphocyte cells.

  7. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112... elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 3. The polymer does not contain as an integral part of its...

  8. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Seventh annual report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1985-05-01

    Information in this report is presented under three Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2100 - fluid injection; WBS 2300 - performance monitoring; and WBS 2400 - economic monitoring. WBS No. 2100 - Fluid Injection: (1) Polymer injection was completed in the 2.5-acre pattern while injection continues at a concentration of 625 ppM in the 5.0-acre pattern. Polymer concentration at the 2.5-acre pattern was reduced from 100 ppM to 50 ppM and then, upon completion of polymer injection, from 50 ppM to fresh water. (2) Copper coils are used to reduce injection rates at the M-1 because the coils can reduce wellhead pressure and still minimize the shear degradation of the polymer. WBS No. 2300 - Performance Monitoring: (1) Presently, the 2.5- and 5.0-acre patterns are producing at oil cuts of 2.7% and 8.6%, respectively. (2) The annual transient test results for the six injectors and their six offset producers are reported. The results are compared to previous years' results and indicate little change in mobility and skin factor over the past year. (3) Subsequent to injection of tritiated water into ten injection wells, all producing wells have been analyzed regularly for the presence of tritiated water. A discussion of the directional flow trends determined from tritiated water analysis is reported. (4) Samples of produced fluid are analyzed regularly for water soluble sulfonate content (a micellar slug component). An analysis of samples taken in June, 1984, shows 81 2.5-acre wells (89%) and 39 5.0-acre wells (95%) with sulfonate levels above background levels. (5) The M-1 biocide was switched from Tretolite XC-215 to Tretolite SC-510 in November, 1983. WBS No. 2400 - Economic Monitoring: (1) An economic analysis of the M-1 Project indicates that the production, investment, and expense which occur after 1983 do not significantly affect project economics. 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Synthesis of highly hydrophobic floating magnetic polymer nanocomposites for the removal of oils from water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Shen, Ping; Ma, Peichang; Gu, Junjun; Mao, Jianyu; Li, Fengsheng

    2013-12-01

    The removal of organic contaminants, particularly oil spills from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. In this article, we present a novel, economic and environment-friendly core-shell composite material based on magnetic hollow Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) that was fabricated by two-step process, which can fast and efficiently separate oils from water surface under a magnetic field. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with a polystyrene layer successfully to form water-repellent and oil-absorbing surfaces, which could float on water and selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3 times of the particles’ weight while completely repelling water. More importantly, the oils could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanocomposites by a simple treatment and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic characteristics, so the nanocomposites have an excellent recyclability in the oil-absorbent capacity. Several techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used in the characterization of the materials. In addition, magnetic force and oils removal capability tests were also performed. It will open up a potential and broad application in wastewater treatment.

  10. Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication.

    PubMed

    Walro, J M; Svendsen, G E

    1982-05-01

    Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is plicate and comprised of three distinct zones: an outer layer of vascular connective tissue, a two-to five-cell-thick layer of mitotic epithelial cells, and several densely packed layers of cornified epithelium which grade into more widely separated sheets toward the lumen. Monocultures of a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium were present in the lumen of all castor sac preparations. Differences in the frequency of castoreum deposition were not attributable to differences in the structure of the castor sacs. The anal glands of beavers are holocrine sebaceous glands. These glands develop more rapidly than the castor sacs. Anal gland tissue from embryos exhibited cellular characteristics associated with the production of sebum. Secretory activity was evident in all preparations. The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed.

  11. Lubrication properties of new crop oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

  12. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

  13. Removal of Toxic Mercury from Petroleum Oil by Newly Synthesized Molecularly-Imprinted Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Khairi, Nor Ain Shahera; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Mohammad, Faruq

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted the attention of several researchers due to their capability for molecular recognition, easiness of preparation, stability and cost-effective production. By taking advantage of these facts, Hg(II) imprinted and non-imprinted copolymers were prepared by polymerizing mercury nitrate stock solution (or without it) with methacrylic acid (MAA), 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methanol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the monomer, co-monomer solvent (porogen) and cross-linker, respectively. Thus, the formed Hg(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The separation and preconcentration characteristics of Hg(II) imprinted polymer were investigated by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and an optimal pH of 7 was investigated as ideal. The specific surface area of the Hg(II) imprinted polymer was found to be 19.45 m2/g with a size range from 100 to 140 µm in diameter. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed to be 1.11 mg/g of Hg(II) imprinted beads with 87.54% removal of Hg(II) ions within the first 5 min. The results of the study therefore confirm that the Hg(II) imprinted polymer can be used multiple times without significantly losing its adsorption capacity. PMID:26006226

  14. Removal of toxic mercury from petroleum oil by newly synthesized molecularly-imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Khairi, Nor Ain Shahera; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Mohammad, Faruq

    2015-05-08

    In recent years, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted the attention of several researchers due to their capability for molecular recognition, easiness of preparation, stability and cost-effective production. By taking advantage of these facts, Hg(II) imprinted and non-imprinted copolymers were prepared by polymerizing mercury nitrate stock solution (or without it) with methacrylic acid (MAA), 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methanol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the monomer, co-monomer solvent (porogen) and cross-linker, respectively. Thus, the formed Hg(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The separation and preconcentration characteristics of Hg(II) imprinted polymer were investigated by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and an optimal pH of 7 was investigated as ideal. The specific surface area of the Hg(II) imprinted polymer was found to be 19.45 m2/g with a size range from 100 to 140 µm in diameter. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed to be 1.11 mg/g of Hg(II) imprinted beads with 87.54% removal of Hg(II) ions within the first 5 min. The results of the study therefore confirm that the Hg(II) imprinted polymer can be used multiple times without significantly losing its adsorption capacity.

  15. Elastohydrodynamics of farm-based blends comprising amphiphilic oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils contain non-polar hydrocarbon chains and polar ester groups (and possibly also other functional groups such as hydroxyl groups in castor oil). The presence of polar and non-polar groups within the same molecule gives vegetable oil amphiphilic character. The density, refractive index, ...

  16. Formation of Pickering emulsions stabilized via interaction between nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous phase and polymer end groups dissolved in oil phase.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hayata; Fujii, Syuji; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-06-26

    The influence of end groups of a polymer dissolved in an oil phase on the formation of a Pickering-type hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion and on the morphology of HAp nanoparticle-coated microspheres prepared by evaporating solvent from the emulsion was investigated. Polystyrene (PS) molecules with varying end groups and molecular weights were used as model polymers. Although HAp nanoparticles alone could not function as a particulate emulsifier for stabilizing dichloromethane (oil) droplets, oil droplets could be stabilized with the aid of carboxyl end groups of the polymers dissolved in the oil phase. Lower-molecular-weight PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups formed small droplets and deflated microspheres, due to the higher concentration of carboxyl groups on the droplet/microsphere surface and hence stronger adsorption of the nanoparticles at the water/oil interface. In addition, Pickering-type suspension polymerization of styrene droplets stabilized by PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups successfully led to the formation of spherical HAp-coated microspheres.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Don W. Green; Stan McCool; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2004-02-01

    The objectives of the research are to improve the effectiveness of polymer gels to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes and to reduce water production in production wells. The research is based on experimental data and conceptual and mathematical models developed from interpretation of experimental data. This report describes two types of mathematical models that were developed. One model type simulates the chemical reactions where polymer molecules are crosslinked to form a 3-dimensional network or gel. The model is based on statistical probabilities of reactions and yields molecular weights averages and distributions as functions of conversion. The second model type simulates the transport of chromium acetate, a common polymer crosslinker, through porous dolomite rock and includes the mechanisms of dolomite dissolution and chromium precipitation. The chromium transport model reasonably agreed with experimental data.

  18. 28. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CASTOR IV MODIFICATIONS LAUNCH COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CASTOR IV MODIFICATIONS LAUNCH COMPLEX 17A: LEVEL 1A PLATFORMS-STRUCTURAL, 1973. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. 29. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CASTOR IV MODIFICATIONS LAUNCH COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CASTOR IV MODIFICATIONS LAUNCH COMPLEX 17A: LEVEL 17A PLATFORMS-STRUCTURAL, 1973. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Wheat gluten-based renewable and biodegradable polymer materials with enhanced hydrophobicity by using epoxidized soybean oil as a modifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Do, My Dieu; Kurniawan, Lusiana; Qiao, Greg G

    2010-10-13

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was applied as an additive for wheat gluten (WG) to modify the properties of the renewable and biodegradable natural polymer materials. Optimum intermolecular interactions and crosslinking between ESO chains and the WG matrix were achieved under alkaline conditions. The WGESO materials were heterogeneous on a scale of 20-30 nm, but the homogeneity was improved upon increasing the amount of glycerol as a plasticizer in the materials. The combination of plasticization and crosslinking effects derived from ESO resulted in good retention in mechanical strength for the plasticized WGESO materials as compared to those without 10 wt% of mobile ESO additives. The hydrophobicity of the plasticized WG materials was also enhanced significantly by using the ESO additives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and application of novel composites of associative polymers with organically modified montmorillonites in water/oil emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zixuan; Jiang, Guancheng; Li, Qingyang

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the rheology performance of water in oil (W/O) emulsions with novel composites of associative polymer/organically modified montmorillonite (AP/OMMT), further the mechanism of AP/OMMT is explored and then applied into deepwater drilling industry. In this study, both the yield point and gel strengths of W/O emulsions showed stability in a wide temperature range. Based on a combined use of FT-IR, particle-size distribution, XRD and TEM analysis, the probable mechanism was determined due to the identification of the structure of AP/OMMT. The results indicate that the formation of interlayered AP/OMMT between dispersed water droplets and the OMMT layers is primarily responsible for the excellent ability of improving rheology. In addition to this, the slippage and separation of OMMT colloidal particles due to the "weak multi-points adsorption" also contributed considerably to the rheology.

  2. The Castor 120 (TM) motor: Development and qualification testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilden, Jack G.; Poirer, Beverly M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Thiokol Corporation's static test results for the development and qualification program of the Castor 120(TM) motor. The demonstration program began with a 25,000-pound motor to demonstrate the new technologies and processes that would be used on the larger Castor 120(TM) motor. The Castor 120(TM) motor was designed to be applicable as a first stage, second stage, or strap-on motor. Static test results from the Castor 25 and two Castor 120(TM) motors are discussed in this paper. The results verified the feasibility of tailoring the propellant grain configuration and nozzle throat diameter to meet various customer requirements. The first and second motors were conditioned successfully at ambient temperature and 28 F, respectively, to demonstrate that the design could handle a wide range of environmental launch conditions. Furthermore, the second Castor 120(TM) motor demonstrated a systems tunnel and forward skirt extension to verify flight-ready stage hardware. It is anticipated that the first flight motor will be ready by the fall of 1994.

  3. Interaction of oil sands tailings particles with polymers and microbial cells: First steps toward reclamation to soil.

    PubMed

    Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    Production of bitumen by surface mining of Alberta's oil sands has given rise to tailings ponds, containing large volumes of finely dispersed clays (10(8) m(3)), which settle only slowly. The mature fine tailings (MFT) in these ponds are operationally defined as consisting of particles smaller than 44 μm with a solids content in excess of 30% (w/w). Increasing the rate of densification of MFT is a rate-limiting step in tailings pond reclamation. Accelerated densification has been achieved through mixing of MFT with sand in the presence of calcium sulfate as a binding agent to generate consolidated tailings. Addition of negatively charged polymer, together with either calcium or magnesium ions, is similarly effective. Although toxic to higher aquatic life, tailings ponds harbour a wide variety of mainly anaerobic microbes. These convert residual hydrocarbon, causing methane emissions of up to 10(4) m(3) day(-1). Interestingly, anaerobic microbial activity also accelerates tailings pond densification. Hence, many technologies designed to accelerate densification move tailings, at least conceptually, towards soil in which sand and clay particles are linked by large amounts of humic and fulvic acid polymers supporting large numbers of microbes in a mechanically stable structure.

  4. Development of an anti-insect sachet using a polyvinyl alcohol-cinnamon oil polymer strip against Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heon-Joo; Park, Ki-Moon; Min, Sea C; Na, Ja Hyun; Park, Ki Hwan; Han, Jaejoon

    2013-11-01

    Plodia interpunctella is a major storage pest that penetrates into food packaging and causes serious economic losses, as well as posing health risks. The goal of this study was to develop effective anti-insect polymer strips against P. interpunctella by using plant essential oil (EO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The EO of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, CO) bark was used as an insect repellent, and fumigant mortality and the repellent activity of CO were measured to evaluate subsistent anti-insect properties through newly designed traps. Repellent activity was also examined with several foods to simulate the storage environment. The mortality rate with CO after fumigation for 120 h was 63%. In the repellent assay, CO-treated strips, but not control strips, effectively repelled P. interpunctella in both "with foods" and "without foods" groups. A PVA-CO strip sachet (PCO sachet) was developed to control the volatility of CO, and the PCO sachet demonstrated robust repellent activity. The loading contents of CO at the center and edges of strips were 39.41% and 39.59%, respectively, and through the results of FT-IR, it inferred that CO was physically diffused in the PVA polymer matrix, not forming chemical bonds. In a release test using a gas chromatography, the PCO sachet showed remarkable controlled release of CO. These results demonstrate that the anti-insect effects of CO can be maintained throughout the distribution and storage periods of foods using PCO sachets.

  5. CASTOR: Structural dynamics in the MIR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vialaneix, J. P.; Bousquet, P.; Dancet, Y.; Guay, P.; Mercier, F.

    1996-10-01

    Prediction and reduction of space structure vibrations have become critical issues over the last ten years. Motivating factors include optical systems with high stability requirements, large antennas, sensitive micro gravity payloads, compatibility of flexible appendages with attitude control, and large orbital infrastructure surviving. The experiment "CASTOR" (French acronym for ChAracterisation of STructures in ORbit) is dedicated to the identification of the structural dynamic modes of the MIR station and to the investigation of the dynamic behaviour—in zero g conditions—of a truss mock-up equipped with various passive and active damping technologies. The measured modal parameters of MIR are to be compared with the results of a finite element model analysis. The differences between in-flight and on-ground dynamics of the truss will be thoroughly analysed. This project has been conceived and is managed by CNES. The flight hardware will be delivered by the end of 1995, and the experimental work will be performed by a French cosmonaut within the framework of the CASSIOPEE mission in June 1996. In the first place, a comprehensive overview of CNES activities in the prediction of in-flight structural dynamics, and of similar experimental efforts found in literature will be discussed. Afterwards, the motivations behind the CASTOR experiment will be shown, followed by a full description of its equipment. The results of the ground tests and analyses, and the in-orbit test plan will then be presented extensively. Particular emphasis will be laid on the performances of the active damping systems which will be validated in flight. In conclusion, the potential re-utilisation of the experiment material within the framework of later flights will be highlighted.

  6. CASTOR damping experiment in-flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay, Philippe; Bousquet, Paul W.; Courau, E.; Mercier, F.

    2001-07-01

    Over the past ten years, space structures such as optical systems, large antennae or sensitive microgravity payloads have increased their stability requirements. To answer this need, prediction and reduction of vibration levels have been widely studied. The 'CASTOR' truss experiment (French acronym for ChAracterization of STructures in ORbit) is mainly dedicated to the investigation of the dynamic behaviour -in zero g conditions- of a truss mock-up with various damping technologies. The performances of various dampers have been validated in flight, measurements compared with the predictions and the results analysed for different technological solutions. This project was developed under CNES management, and the final experimental work was performed in orbit by a French cosmonaut on MIR station during the summer of 1999. In the first place, the French space agency's interest in structural dynamics behind the CASTOR experiment will be recalled. The flight hardware will then be fully described and a short clip filmed during the PERSEUS mission in MIR will supported this. The truss test bench will be presented, together with the design drivers for damping the first structural modes below 100Hz. The dampers -which are efficient- are located in some strategic bars in the truss. Their performance has been optimized using an energetic criterion. This paper will then focus on the design of the damping, using either piezoelectric active control or passive energy dissipation in elastomer or fluid devices. Particular emphasis will be laid upon the excellent flight results obtained with all the various damping systems, and on the effect of in-orbit conditions. A comparison between the different technologies here tested will also be made with regards to performances achieved and their suitability for space applications. In conclusion, lessons learned during the development process will be highlighted and further work on spacecraft applications discussed.

  7. Preparation of refractive index matching polymer film alternative to oil for use in a portable surface-plasmon resonance phenomenon-based chemical sensor method.

    PubMed

    Masadome, Takashi; Asano, Yasukazu; Imato, Toshihiko; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Tobita, Tatsuya; Tabei, Hisao; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Niwa, Osamu; Fushinuki, Yoshito

    2002-07-01

    In order to simplify the procedure for assembling a surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, a refractive index matching polymer film was prepared as an alternative to the conventionally used matching oil. The refractive index matching polymer film, the refractive index of which was nearly equal to the prism and sensor chip material (a cover glass) of the SPR sensor, was prepared by casting a tetrahydrofuran solution of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing equal weights of dioctyl phthalate and tricresyl phosphate. The refractive index matching polymer film was found to have a refractive index of 1.516, which is identical to that of the prism and the cover glass used for the present SPR sensor. The utility of the matching polymer film for the SPR sensor was confirmed by the detection of anti-human albumin, based on an antigen-antibody reaction.

  8. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Technical progress report, November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Maraflood oil recovery process, M-1 Project, throughout the month of November, 1984. Information is presented under two Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2100 - Fluid Injection and WBS 2300 - Performance Monitoring. Fluid Injection reporting includes a discussion of hydrogen peroxide stimulation of twelve 5.0-acre injection wells. Performance Monitoring reporting includes discussions of the 2.5-acre and 5.0-acre pattern oil cut performance for November, 1984, the October, 1984, high sulfonate content wells, and the October, 1984, tritiated water analysis. 16 figures.

  9. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Monthly progress report, March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Maraflood oil recovery process, M-1 Project, throughout the month of March 1985. Information is presented under two Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2300 - performance monitoring; and WBS 2400 - economic monitoring. Performance monitoring reporting includes discussions of the 2.5-acre and 5.0-acre pattern oil cut performance for March 1985. Economic monitoring discusses the abandonment of one producing well in the 2.5-acre pattern area of the M-1 Project. 15 figures.

  10. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Maraflood oil recovery process, M-1 Project, throughout the month of October, 1985. Information is presented under two Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2100 - Fluid Injection and WBS 2300 - Performance Monitoring. Fluid Injection reporting consists of a short discussion concerning injection wells recently stimulated in the 5.0-acre pattern area and the reason for this area's sudden injection rate increase. Performance Monitoring reporting includes a discussion of the 2.5-acre and 5.0-acre pattern oil cut performance for October, 1985. 16 figs.

  11. Polyamines are essential for the synthesis of 2-ricinoleoyl phosphatidic acid in developing seeds of castor.

    PubMed

    Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro; Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Saito, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    The major fatty acid component of castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil is ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid), and unsaturated hydroxy acid accounts for >85% of the total fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG). TAG had a higher ricinoleate content at position 2 than at positions 1 and 3. Although lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51), which catalyzes acylation of LPA at position 2, was expected to utilize ricinoleoyl-CoA preferentially over other fatty acyl-CoAs, no activity was found for ricinoleoyl-CoA in vitro at concentrations at which other unsaturated acyl-CoAs were incorporated rapidly. However, activity for ricinoleoyl-CoA appeared with addition of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), while polyamines decreased the rates of incorporation of other acyl-CoAs into position 2. The order of effect of polyamines on LPA acyltransferase activity was spermine > spermidine > putrescine. At concentrations of spermine and spermidine of >0.1 mM, ricinoleoyl-CoA served as an effective substrate for LPA acyltransferase reaction. The concentrations of spermine and spermidine in the developing seeds were estimated at approximately 0.09 and approximately 0.63 mM, respectively. These stimulatory effects for incorporation of ricinoleate were specific to polyamines, but basic amino acids were ineffective as cations. In contrast, in microsomes from safflower seeds that do not contain ricinoleic acid, spermine and spermidine stimulated the LPA acyltransferase reaction for all acyl-CoAs tested, including ricinoleoyl-CoA. Although the fatty acid composition of TAG depends on both acyl-CoA composition in the cell and substrate specificity of acyltransferases, castor bean polyamines are crucial for incorporation of ricinoleate into position 2 of LPA. Polyamines are essential for synthesis of 2-ricinoleoyl phosphatidic acid in developing castor seeds.

  12. Rheological and textural properties of microemulsion-based polymer gels with indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Anna; Osmałek, Tomasz; Kunstman, Paweł; Roszak, Rafał; Białas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present novel microemulsion (ME)-based semisolid polymer gels designed for topical administration of poorly water soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Indomethacin (IND) was used as a model compound. The ME consisted of castor oil, water, Tween®80 as a surfactant and ethanol as cosurfactant. To obtain the desired consistency of the formulations Carbopol®960 was applied as a thickening agent. The aim of the study was to analyze in detail the mechanical properties of the obtained systems, with special attention paid to the features crucial for topical application. The rheological and textural experiments performed for samples with and without the incorporated drug clearly indicate that flow characteristics, viscoelastic properties and texture profiles were affected by the presence of IND. Novel semisolid formulations with IND described for the first time in this paper can be considered as an alternative for commercially available conventional topical dosage forms.

  13. Robust magnetic/polymer hybrid nanoparticles designed for crude oil entrapment and recovery in aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Zhang, Shiyi; Flores, Jeniree A; Sanders, Jonathan E; Raymond, Jeffery E; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-09-24

    Well-defined, magnetic shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles (MSCKs) with hydrodynamic diameters ca. 70 nm were constructed through the co-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers of PAA20-b-PS280 and oleic acid-stabilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using tetrahydrofuran, N,N-dimethylformamide, and water, ultimately transitioning to a fully aqueous system. These hybrid nanomaterials were designed for application as sequestering agents for hydrocarbons present in crude oil, based upon their combination of amphiphilic organic domains, for aqueous solution dispersibility and capture of hydrophobic guest molecules, with inorganic core particles for magnetic responsivity. The employment of these MSCKs in a contaminated aqueous environment resulted in the successful removal of the hydrophobic contaminants at a ratio of 10 mg of oil per 1 mg of MSCK. Once loaded, the crude oil-sorbed nanoparticles were easily isolated via the introduction of an external magnetic field. The recovery and reusability of these MSCKs were also investigated. These results suggest that deployment of hybrid nanocomposites, such as these, could aid in environmental remediation efforts, including at oil spill sites, in particular, following the bulk recovery phase.

  14. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  15. Modified Thermoresponsive Hyperbranched Polymers for Improved Viscosity and Enhanced Lubricity of Engine Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Robinson, Joshua W.; Bays, John Timothy; Qu, Jun; West, Brian

    2016-09-30

    The manuscript captures the chronological succession of the molecular design progression through multiple architectures and topologies of the polymeric viscosity index improvers and their rheology bench test performance. Tribology testing was also performed on selected analogs and their friction and wear was evaluated. Finally, a top performing polymer was selected for engine testing, scaled-up, and its rheological performance in a complete formulation was assessed. The engine performance of the viscosity index improver was examined against an industry-established baseline.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine, propylene glycol diamine and aliphatic polyamine, N... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether,...

  17. WIDER DISSEMINATION OF CASTOR BEAN ALLERGEN—Factors Presaging Increasing Incidence of Disease in California

    PubMed Central

    Small, Willard S.

    1953-01-01

    With the growing, transportation and processing of castor beans in California rapidly in creasing, it is probable that the incidence of allergic disease owing to sensitivity to the castor bean allergen also will increase. PMID:13019607

  18. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  19. Castor Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Facilitates Efficient Metabolism of Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Bates, Philip D.; Burgal, Julie; Shockey, Jay; Browse, John

    2011-01-01

    Producing unusual fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants has been a long-standing goal of green chemistry. However, expression of the enzymes that catalyze the primary synthesis of these unusual FAs in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of the desired FA. For example, seed-specific expression of castor (Ricinus communis) fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in only 17% hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) in the seed oil. In order to increase HFA levels, we investigated castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). We cloned cDNAs encoding three putative PDAT enzymes from a castor seed cDNA library and coexpressed them with RcFAH12. One isoform, RcPDAT1A, increased HFA levels to 27%. Analysis of HFA-triacylglycerol molecular species and regiochemistry, along with analysis of the HFA content of phosphatidylcholine, indicates that RcPDAT1A functions as a PDAT in vivo. Expression of RcFAH12 alone leads to a significant decrease in FA content of seeds. Coexpression of RcPDAT1A and RcDGAT2 (for diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2) with RcFAH12 restored FA levels to nearly wild-type levels, and this was accompanied by a major increase in the mass of HFAs accumulating in the seeds. We show the usefulness of RcPDAT1A for engineering plants with high levels of HFAs and alleviating bottlenecks due to the production of unusual FAs in transgenic oilseeds. PMID:21173026

  20. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. 3. As a component of resinous and polymeric coatings Complying with § 175.300 of this... § 176.170 of this chapter. 5. As a component of closures with sealing gaskets for food containers...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3280 - Castor oil, hydrogenated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... component of resinous and polymeric coatings Complying with § 175.300 of this chapter. 4. As a component of.... As a component of closures with sealing gaskets for food containers Complying with § 177.1210 of this...

  2. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  3. Coefficient of friction effects of polymers, silicone oil, and mini-rollers in cable pulling

    SciTech Connect

    Fee, J.M.; Solheid, D.P.

    1994-12-31

    Cable pulling friction coefficients are determined for several control pulling compounds, and those same compounds supplemented with a silicone polymer (dimethyl polysiloxane) and/or mini-rollers (small plastic spheres). The data are developed for fiber optic cable in polyethylene duct and electrical cable in PVC duct by pulling cables through a multi-bend conduit system and calculating the effective coefficient of friction. The data should provide a quantitative means to evaluate the effect of cable pulling lubricants supplemented with these components.

  4. Oil Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-23

    particles are not to 0 be confused with polymer spheres or oxide spheres. The polymer spheres are thought to be the result of polymerization of oil...Contact Fatigue Spall Particles ...... 119 33 Ball Bearing Test Sequence BC (162 Million Revs.) " Friction Polymer ...translucent but often contains thousands of metal particles. Various contaminant polymers such as gasket material and plasticizers are the major sources of

  5. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  6. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Lipopeptides from Biodegradable Polymers against Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Lea H; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Sol, Asaf; Zeharia, Rotem; Shai, Yechiel; Beyth, Shaul; Domb, Abraham J; Bachrach, Gilad; Beyth, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    The development of antibacterial drugs to overcome various pathogenic species, which inhabit the oral cavity, faces several challenges, such as salivary flow and enzymatic activity that restrict dosage retention. Owing to their amphipathic nature, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve as the first line of defense of the innate immune system. The ability to synthesize different types of AMPs enables exploitation of their advantages as alternatives to antibiotics. Sustained release of AMPs incorporated in biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high levels of the peptides. In this study, four potent ultra-short lipopeptides, conjugated to an aliphatic acid chain (16C) were incorporated in two different biodegradable polymers: poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (PLACO) and ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) (P(SA-RA)) for sustained release. The lipopeptide and polymer formulations were tested for antibacterial activity during one week, by turbidometric measurements of bacterial outgrowth, anti-biofilm activity by live/dead staining, biocompatibility by hemolysis and XTT colorimetric assays, mode of action by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and release profile by a fluorometric assay. The results show that an antibacterial and anti-biofilm effect, as well as membrane disruption, can be achieved by the use of a formulation of lipopeptide incorporated in biodegradable polymer.

  7. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Lipopeptides from Biodegradable Polymers against Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Eckhard, Lea H.; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Sol, Asaf; Zeharia, Rotem; Shai, Yechiel; Beyth, Shaul; Domb, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of antibacterial drugs to overcome various pathogenic species, which inhabit the oral cavity, faces several challenges, such as salivary flow and enzymatic activity that restrict dosage retention. Owing to their amphipathic nature, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve as the first line of defense of the innate immune system. The ability to synthesize different types of AMPs enables exploitation of their advantages as alternatives to antibiotics. Sustained release of AMPs incorporated in biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high levels of the peptides. In this study, four potent ultra-short lipopeptides, conjugated to an aliphatic acid chain (16C) were incorporated in two different biodegradable polymers: poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (PLACO) and ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) (P(SA-RA)) for sustained release. The lipopeptide and polymer formulations were tested for antibacterial activity during one week, by turbidometric measurements of bacterial outgrowth, anti-biofilm activity by live/dead staining, biocompatibility by hemolysis and XTT colorimetric assays, mode of action by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and release profile by a fluorometric assay. The results show that an antibacterial and anti-biofilm effect, as well as membrane disruption, can be achieved by the use of a formulation of lipopeptide incorporated in biodegradable polymer. PMID:27606830

  8. Effect of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibers reinforced polymer recycled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermawan, B.; Nikmatin, S.; Sudaryanto; Alatas, H.; Sukaryo, S. G.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research is to process the OPEFB to become fiber with various sizes which will be used as a filler of polymer matrix recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Molecular analysis and mechanical test have been done to understand the influence of fiber size toward material capability to receive outer deformation. Single screw extruder formed a biocomposites granular continued with injection moulding to shaped test pieces. Maleic anhydride was added as coupling agent between filler and matrix. Filler concentration were 10 and 20% in fiber size respectively with constant additif. Two kind of fiber glass (10%) were used as comparator. In order to analyze the results of the mechanical test Fisher least significant difference (LSD) in ANOVA method was performed (-with α=0,05-).

  9. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  10. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  11. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans.

    PubMed

    Alpi, A; Beevers, H

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, a tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloidstorage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  12. A Novel Methodology for the Synthesis of Acyloxy Castor Polyol Esters: Low Pour Point Lubricant Base Stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Mahesh, Goli; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil, a non-edible oil containing hydroxyl fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (89.3 %) was chemically modified employing a two step procedure. The first step involved acylation (C(2)-C(6) alkanoic anhydrides) of -OH functionality employing a green catalyst, Kieselguhr-G and solvent free medium. The catalyst after reaction was filtered and reused several times without loss in activity. The second step is esterification of acylated castor fatty acids with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE) to obtain 16 novel base stocks. The base stocks when evaluated for different lubricant properties have shown very low pour points (-30 to -45°C) and broad viscosity ranges 20.27 cSt to 370.73 cSt, higher viscosity indices (144-171), good thermal and oxidative stabilities, and high weld load capacities suitable for multi-range industrial applications such as hydraulic fluids, metal working fluids, gear oil, forging and aviation applications. The study revealed that acylated branched mono- and polyol esters rich in monounsaturation is desirable for developing low pour point base stocks.

  13. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  14. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses.

  16. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  18. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.

  19. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  20. Quantification of TAG and DAG in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil by HPLC and MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil has many industrial uses because of its high content (90%) of the hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (OH1218:19). Lesquerella oil containing lesquerolic acid (Ls, OH1420:111, 56.5%) is potentially useful in industry. Ten diacylglycerols (DAG) and 74 triacylglycerols (TAG) in the seed oil...

  1. A Polymer/Oil Based Nanovaccine as a Single-Dose Immunization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Sara; Diaz-Freitas, Belen; Peleteiro, Mercedes; Sanchez, Alejandro; Pascual, David W.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Africa; Alonso, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    The recognized necessity for new antigen delivery carriers with the capacity to boost, modulate and prolong neutralizing immune responses prompted our approach, in which we describe a multifunctional nanocarrier consisting of an oily nanocontainer protected by a polymeric shell made of chitosan (CS), named CS nanocapsules (CSNC). The CS shell can associate the antigen on its surface, whereas the oily core might provide additional immunostimulating properties. In this first characterization of the system, we intended to study the influence of different antigen organizations on the nanocarrier's surface (using the recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen –rHBsAg– as a model antigen) on their long-term immunopotentiating effect, without any additional immunostimulant. Thus, two prototypes of antigen-loaded CSNC (CSNC+ and CSNC−), exhibiting similar particle size (200 nm) and high antigen association efficiency (>80%), were developed with different surface composition (polymer/antigen ratios) and surface charge (positive/negative, respectively). The biological evaluation of these nanovaccines evidenced the superiority of the CSNC+ as compared to CSNC- and alum-rHBsAg in terms of neutralizing antibody responses, following intramuscular vaccination. Moreover, a single dose of CSNC+ led to similar IgG levels to the positive control. The IgG1/IgG2a ratio suggested a mixed Th1/Th2 response elicited by CSNC+, in contrast to the typical Th2-biased response of alum. Finally, CSNC+ could be freeze-dried without altering its physicochemical properties and adjuvant effect in vivo. In conclusion, the evaluation of CSNC+ confirms its interesting features for enhancing, prolonging and modulating the type of immune response against subunit antigens, such as rHBsAg. PMID:23614052

  2. Identification of Drying Oils in Paints by Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Stearic 4. Oleic 5. Linoleic 6. Impurity 7. Ricinoleic Figure 2. Chromatogram of castor oil methyl ester. 7 DISTRIBUTION FOR MERADCOM REPORT 2360 No...as methyl esters shown on the chromatogram. D D W 103 ENtTIo* OF 0 NOV 4s IS o06IErTE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TfIS PAGE tfta Date...ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Title Page I Chromatogram of Soybean Oil Methyl Ester 6 2 Chromatogram of Castor Oil Methyl Ester 7 TABLES Table Title Page I Drying Oils

  3. IN VITRO REGENERATION CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.) USING COTYLEDON EXPLANTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel plant regeneration protocol was established for castor (Ricinus communis L.), an important oilseed crop. Mature seed-derived cotyledon explants produced adventitious shoots when placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). The rate of shoot regeneration was maximal...

  4. GNS Castor V/21 Headspace Gas Sampling 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, Philip Lon

    2016-01-01

    Prior to performing an internal visual inspection, samples of the headspace gas of the GNS Castor V/21 cask were taken on June 12, 2014. These samples were taken in support of the CREIPI/Japanese nuclear industry effort to validate fuel integrity without visual inspection by measuring the 85Kr content of the cask headspace

  5. Effect of the shell-forming polymer ratio on the encapsulation of tea tree oil by complex coacervation as a natural biocide.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Limiñana, María Ángeles; Payá-Nohales, Federico J; Arán-Ais, Francisca; Orgilés-Barceló, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop footwear materials with antimicrobial properties using microencapsulated Tea Tree oil (TTO) as a natural biocide. For that purpose, gelatine-carboxymethylcellulose based microcapsules containing TTO were synthesised by a complex coacervation process. Furthermore, the influence of the gelatine (G)/sodium carboxymethylmethyl cellulose (CMC) ratio (G/C) on the microcapsule properties, as well as in the microencapsulation oil efficiency, was evaluated. The microcapsules were characterised by different experimental techniques and applied to footwear materials (leather and textile) to evaluate their performance. The microcapsule durability under different conditions, such as rubbing and ironing, was analysed in order to simulate shoe manufacturing and shoe wearing. The properties of the microcapsules obtained by complex coacervation, using gelatine and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as shell-forming polymers, are determined by the ratio between those two polymers (G/C). The results obtained showed a notable effect of G/C ratio on the formation of the coacervate during the synthesis process and also on the encapsulation efficiency of the antimicrobial oil, with the optimal value for the G/C ratio being around 10.

  6. Biodegradability of regenerated cellulose films coated with polyurethane/natural polymers interpenetrating polymer networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Zhou, J.; Huang, J.; Gong, P. Zhou, Q.; Zheng, L.; Du, Y.

    1999-11-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) coatings synthesized from castor-oil-based polyurethane (PU) with chitosan, nitrocellulose, or elaeostearin were coated on regenerated cellulose (RC) film for curing at 80--100 C for 2--5 min, providing biodegradable, water-resistant cellulose films coded, respectively, as RCCH, RCNC, and RCEs. The coated films were buried in natural soil for decaying and inoculated with a spore suspension of fungi on the agar medium, respectively, to test biodegradability. The viscosity-average molecular weight, M{sub {eta}}, and the weight of the degraded films decreased sharply with the progress of degradation. The degradation half-lifes, t{sub 1/2}, of the films in soil at 30 C were found to be 19 days for RC, 25 days for RCNC, 32 days for RCCH, and 45 days for the RCEs films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the extent of decay followed in the order RC {gt} RCNC {gt} RCCH {gt} RCEs. SEM, infrared (IR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and CO{sub 2} evolution results indicated that the microorganisms directly attacked the water-resistant coating layer and then penetrated into the cellulose to speedily metabolize, while accompanying with producing CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, glucose cleaved from cellulose, and small molecules decomposed from the coatings.

  7. The Development of Oil Incendiary Bombs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-02-07

    BOfc3 EJECTION TESTS 11 VII DESIGN /JD TESTING OF HULL IilCENDL-RY BOBS 12 VIII FUTURE- KORK 15 IX CONCLUSIONS 14 Lsvaaax IISL ES I t o IV...34 Cottonseed oil (or castor oil) £..0 » Caustic soda 1.1 " Ittw 2.2 " Motor gasoline 31.4 » 100.0 wt.Jg E. Burning tests have been carried out...FOFftULi’. 1£2 Mt Vrii 1 Hydrofol Storrtc /cid Koain (Gum) Koüin (’.ood) Cottonseed Oil Crstor Oil Fi.«h Oil (Totr.l) Crustic Sod: ifUHOB Pounds j

  8. Large-scale and environmentally friendly synthesis of pH-responsive oil-repellent polymer brush surfaces under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Urata, Chihiro; Miranda, Daniel F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2014-08-13

    Contrary to conventional ATRP, aqueous A(R)GET-ATRP at ambient temperature without deoxygenating reaction solutions is an extremely facile method to create polymer brushes. Using these techniques, extremely thick poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] polymer brushes can be prepared (∼700 nm), or reaction solutions can be low chemical-content, consisting of 99% v/v water. Based on these techniques, we have also developed an easy and inexpensive method, referred to as "paint on"-ATRP, that directly pastes reaction solutions onto various large-scale real-life substrates open to the air. The resulting brush surfaces possess excellent oil-repellent properties, which can be activated or deactivated in response to solution pH.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  13. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Leng, Jinsong; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term "4D printing" refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from -8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at -18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and development of

  14. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term “4D printing” refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from −8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at −18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and

  15. The wetting of steel, DLC coatings, ceramics and polymers with oils and water: The importance and correlations of surface energy, surface tension, contact angle and spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, M.; Polajnar, M.

    2014-02-01

    The importance of wetting is becoming increasingly obvious and its control is inevitable in many engineering applications, including tribology and interface nanotechnology. However, the relations between the key parameters affecting surface-liquid wetting behaviour under realistic conditions are not very well understood, especially for typical engineering materials and lubricants (oils), often leading to exceptions and contradictions, which impede their use in engineering models and theories, and so the possible optimisation of the interfaces of engineering systems. In this paper we present the correlations between the contact angle, the spreading, the surface tension and the surface energy of fourteen frequently used engineering materials belonging to four different classes of materials (steel, DLC coatings, ceramics, and polymers) wetted with four different liquids: three oils (a non-polar synthetic oil of two different viscosities and a polar natural-based oil) and water. The results represent systematically and consistently obtained data about the wetting-relevant parameters of the selected materials and lubricants and numerous correlations between them. However, the most striking result suggests that the spreading parameter correlates very linearly with the surface energy for all the materials and liquids studied, in both the adhesion-wetting and spreading-wetting regimes. The experimentally determined spreading vs. surface energy correlation functions that appear generally valid for a broad range of properties of the materials and oils can thus be applied as an engineering tool to tailor and design the required/desired wetting performance and nature of the solid-liquid interfaces. The spreading parameter SP - in contrast to the contact angle - was found to be a reliable and relevant parameter for describing the wetting of oils with selected engineering materials.

  16. Self-healing polymers---The importance of choosing an adequate healing monomer, and the olefin metathesis polymerization of agricultural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, Timothy C.

    Modern society's immense and ill-fated reliance on petrochemical-based polymeric materials will likely necessitate a shift in polymer production paradigms in the near future. The work presented herein attempts to address this issue via a two-pronged approach. First, efforts to improve the duration of composite materials by incorporation of a self-healing function are discussed, the fruitful application of which can potentially reduce or eliminate the massive carbon footprints associated with the repair/replacement of damaged materials. And second, polymeric materials derived predominately from natural and renewable feedstock---namely vegetable oils---are developed. Early microcapsule-based self-healing materials utilized dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' olefin metathesis catalyst to initiate the healing mechanism. However, the patent-protected catalyst, made from the precious metal ruthenium and sometimes costly ligands, will likely never be inexpensive and therefore limit large-scale applications. Hence, clever approaches to reduce the healing catalyst loading in self-healing polymers are of great interest. To this end, our efforts have revolved around solving the problem of the relatively inefficient use of Grubbs' catalyst during the healing mechanism. Given that the mismatch of the olefin metathesis polymerization and Grubbs' catalyst dissolution (in monomer) kinetics is a known cause of this inefficient use of the catalyst, we attempted to tune the "latency" (i.e. pot life) of the olefin metathesis polymerization to ensure more complete dissolution of catalyst in monomer. In an alternative approach to improving efficient catalyst dissolution, we developed a simple model to predict relative dissolution rates of Grubbs' catalyst in a small library of healing monomers. This model was shown experimentally to be able to aid in the selection of, for example, reactive monomer additives that can yield impressive improvements in catalyst dissolution

  17. Development of a novel set of microsatellite markers for castor bean, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Kiihl, Tammy Aparecida Manabe; Batista, Carlos Eduardo Araújo; Monteiro, Mariza; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) to investigate genetic diversity and population structure, and to provide support to germplasm management. Eleven microsatellite loci were isolated using an enrichment cloning protocol and used to characterize castor bean germplasm from the collection at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC). In a survey of 76 castor bean accessions, the investigated loci displayed polymorphism ranging from two to five alleles. The information derived from microsatellite markers led to significant gains in conserved allelic richness and provides support to the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies for castor bean.

  18. Thermoplastic shape-memory polyurethanes based on natural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saralegi, Ainara; Foster, E. Johan; Weder, Christoph; Eceiza, Arantxa; Corcuera, Maria Angeles

    2014-02-01

    A new family of segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes with thermally activated shape-memory properties was synthesized and characterized. Polyols derived from castor oil with different molecular weights but similar chemical structures and a corn-sugar-based chain extender (propanediol) were used as starting materials in order to maximize the content of carbon from renewable resources in the new materials. The composition was systematically varied to establish a structure-property map and identify compositions with desirable shape-memory properties. The thermal characterization of the new polyurethanes revealed a microphase separated structure, where both the soft (by convention the high molecular weight diol) and the hard phases were highly crystalline. Cyclic thermo-mechanical tensile tests showed that these polymers are excellent candidates for use as thermally activated shape-memory polymers, in which the crystalline soft segments promote high shape fixity values (close to 100%) and the hard segment crystallites ensure high shape recovery values (80-100%, depending on the hard segment content). The high proportion of components from renewable resources used in the polyurethane formulation leads to the synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes with shape-memory properties.

  19. Commercial scale demonstration. Enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Eighth annual report, October 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.M.

    1986-02-01

    Information in this report is presented under the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements: WBS 2100 - Fluid Injection; WBS 2300 - Performance Monitoring; and WBS 2400 - Economic Monitoring. WBS No. 2100 - Fluid Injection: (1) in an effort to increase injection in some of the 5.0-acre pattern area injection wells, a treatment program was undertaken in late 1984. A discussion of the treatment program and its results is given; (2) water softening was discontinued in the 2.5-acre pattern area during the year; (3) in December 1984, the biocide used at the M-1 was switched from Tretolite X-CIDE 510 to Tretolite X-CIDE 215; and (4) polymer concentration was reduced from 625 ppM to 411 ppM at the 5.0-acre pattern area during 1985. WBS No. 2300 - Performance Monitoring: (1) present oil cuts at the 2.5- and 5.0-acre pattern areas are 1.5% and 5.2%, respectively; (2) the final annual transient test results for the six injection wells and their offsetting producing wells are reported. The results are compared to previous years' results and are presented in tabular form; (3) subsequent to the injection of tritiated water into ten injection wells, all producing wells are being analyzed regularly for the presence of tritiated water. To date, 132 project wells have shown the presence of tritiated water; and (4) samples of produced water have been analyzed bi-monthly for sulfonate content. Data from the most recent analysis is presented and compared to earlier data collected. WBS No. 2400 - Economic Monitoring: (1) two producing wells in the 2.5-acre pattern area of the M-1 Project were abandoned during the year; and (2) with the 2.5-acre pattern area nearing its economic limit, several of the producing wells in this area have been temporarily shut-in pending an evaulation of their remaining potential. A discussion of the economics justifying the shut-ins is presented. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Castor bean toxicity re-examined: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Rauber, A; Heard, J

    1985-12-01

    Commonly used references present a very gloomy prognosis for castor seed ingestion. This appears to be based chiefly on extrapolations from laboratory animal studies of toxicity of the component, ricin. This is not in concordance with actual experience when actual case report experience is sought out and examined in detail. The literature has been confused by recursive references among secondary sources and mortality statistics have been distorted by reliance on data generated nearly a century ago which do not accurately reflect the capabilities of modern medical management. This is elucidated by actually tracking down and studying difficult-to-find original case reports from the early decades of the 20th century. It is time to reappraise our estimates of the hazard of ingesting castor seeds in the light of present day medical capabilities.