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Sample records for cat carotid body

  1. The distribution of cholinesterases in the cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Biscoe, T J; Silver, A

    1966-03-01

    1. The distribution of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase in the carotid body of the cat has been examined histochemically. Studies were made on normal carotid bodies and on carotid bodies from cats in which certain nerves had been cut some time previously. The nerves sectioned were the sinus nerve, the post-ganglionic sympathetic branch of the superior cervical ganglion or the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk.2. It was confirmed that more butyrylcholinesterase than acetylcholinesterase is present. Both enzymes are found in three sites: (i) as strands, (ii) as plexuses, (iii) inside a few cells.3. The distribution is unaffected by cutting the sinus nerve or preganglionic cervical sympathetic nerves. Disorganization and depletion of the cholinesterases in the strands and plexuses occurs when the post-ganglionic branch of the superior cervical ganglion is cut. The cholinesterase in cells is unaffected.4. In carotid bodies in which vessels were filled with red blood cells or in which the vascular bed was injected with carmine-gelatine, it was seen that strands and plexuses are associated with blood vessels, and with blood vessels and cells respectively.5. It is suggested that a cholinergic pathway controlling carotid body blood vessels runs in the post-ganglionic cervical sympathetic.

  2. Thermal effects on ventilation in cats: participation of carotid body chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Fadic, R; Larrain, C; Zapata, P

    1991-10-01

    In pentobarbitone anesthetized cats, raising body temperature from 37 to 40 degrees C by external heat increased respiratory frequency, tidal volume, frequency of spontaneous gasps and mean inspiratory flow. It reduced end-tidal CO2 pressure, together with inspiratory and expiratory durations. After bilateral section of the carotid nerves, raising body temperature still induced hyperventilation, but the increase in gasp frequency was less pronounced and no significant change in tidal volume was observed. In comparison to steady ventilatory values in the intact condition, significant reductions in tidal volume at 38 degrees C and in gasp frequency at 37, 39 and 40 degrees C were observed after bilateral carotid neurotomy. Brief hyperoxic tests induced transient decreases in tidal volume and increases in end-tidal CO2 pressure which were significantly larger at 40 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. These changes disappeared after bilateral carotid neurotomy. Anesthetic block of both carotid nerves produced transient reductions in tidal volume at any given temperature. We conclude that carotid body afferents contribute to the hyperventilation evoked by hyperthermia. After their interruption, such contribution is replaceable from other thermal afferents. PMID:1759053

  3. Hydrogen sulfide activates the carotid body chemoreceptors in cat, rabbit and rat ex vivo preparations.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yingfu; Li, Qian; Sun, Biying; Zhang, Guohua; Rong, Weifang

    2015-03-01

    We and others previously reported experimental evidence suggesting an important role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oxygen sensing in murine carotid body chemoreceptors. More recent data implicated abnormal H2S-mediated chemoreceptor signaling in pathological conditions such as chronic heart failure and hypertension. However, the idea of H2S as a mediator of oxygen-sensing in chemoreceptors has been challenged. In particular, it was shown that exogenous H2S inhibited the release of neurotransmitters (ACh and ATP) from the cat carotid body, raising the possibility that there exists significant species difference in H2S-mediated signaling in chemoreceptors. This study was designed specifically to determine the effect of H2S on chemoreceptors in different species. We conducted multiunit extracellular recordings of the sinus nerve in the ex vivo carotid body preparation taken from the rat, the cat and the rabbit. As observed in the mouse carotid body, H2S donors (NaHS or Na2S) evoked qualitatively similar excitatory responses of the afferent sinus nerves of the species studied here. The excitatory effects of the H2S donors were concentration-dependent and reversible. The sinus nerve responses to H2S donors were prevented by blockade of the transmission between type I cells and the afferent terminals, as was the response to hypoxia. These results demonstrate that exogenous H2S exerts qualitatively similar excitatory effects on chemoreceptor afferents of different species. The role of endogenous H2S-mediated signaling in carotid body function in different species awaits further investigation.

  4. Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats.

    PubMed

    de Burgh Daly, M; Cook, M N

    1999-03-01

    1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response. PMID:10050020

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-induced carotid body inflammation in cats: functional manifestations, histopathology and involvement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ricardo; González, Sergio; Rey, Sergio; Cortés, Paula P; Maisey, Kevin R; Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Larraín, Carolina; Zapata, Patricio

    2008-07-01

    In the absence of information on functional manifestations of carotid body (CB) inflammation, we studied an experimental model in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats was performed by topical application upon the CB surface or by intravenous infusion (endotoxaemia). The latter caused: (i) disorganization of CB glomoids, increased connective tissue, and rapid recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells into the vascular bed and parenchyma within 4 h; (ii) increased respiratory frequency and diminished ventilatory chemoreflex responses to brief hypoxia (breathing 100% N(2) for 10 s) and diminished ventilatory chemosensory drive (assessed by 100% O(2) tests) during normoxia and hypoxia; (iii) tachycardia, increased haematocrit and systemic hypotension in response to LPS i.v.; and (iv) increased basal frequency of carotid chemosensory discharges during normoxia, but no change in maximal chemoreceptor responses to brief hypoxic exposures. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tachypnoea was prevented by prior bilateral carotid neurotomy. Apoptosis was not observed in CBs from cats subjected to endotoxaemia. Searching for pro-inflammatory mediators, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was localized by immunohistochemistry in glomus and endothelial cells; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the CB expresses the mRNAs for both type-1 (TNF-R1) and type-2 TNF-alpha receptors (TNF-R2); Western blot confirmed a band of the size expected for TNF-R1; and histochemistry showed the presence of TNF-R1 in glomus cells and of TNF-R2 in endothelial cells. Experiments in vitro showed that the frequency of carotid nerve discharges recorded from CBs perfused and superfused under normoxic conditions was not significantly modified by TNF-alpha, but that the enhanced frequency of chemosensory discharges recorded along responses to hypoxic stimulation was transiently diminished in a dose-dependent manner by TNF-alpha injections

  6. Carotid body paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Tahir; Ahmed, Bashir; Najam, Atif; Ayub, Zeeshan

    2009-08-01

    Carotid body tumours are benign neoplasms. This case report describes two patients with this rare tumour with diagnostic workup and treatment options. The first case was a 36-year-old gentleman who presented with 6 months history of painless swelling on the left side of neck. The second patient was 60-years-old man who presented with slowly growing swelling on the right side of neck for the last 20 years. Both patients had transmitted pulsations over the swelling. On suspicion of a vascular lesion, a contrast enhanced CT scan and Doppler's ultrasound of neck was advised which suggested the diagnosis of a carotid body tumour. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) confirmed the diagnosis. Excision in collaboration with vascular surgeon was planned for the first case. The second case was subjected to radiation therapy due to the large size of tumour and the patient's age.

  7. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE CAROTID BODY

    PubMed Central

    Biscoe, T. J.; Stehbens, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    An electron microscope investigation was made of the carotid body in the cat and the rabbit. In thin-walled blood vessels the endothelium was fenestrated. Larger vessels were surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers. Among the numerous blood vessels lay groups of cells of two types covered by basement membranes. Aggregates of Type I cells were invested by Type II cells, though occasionally cytoplasmic extensions were covered by basement membrane only. Type I cells contained many electron-opaque cored vesicles (350 to 1900 A in diameter) resembling those in endocrine secretory cells. Type II cells covered nerve endings terminating on Type I cells and enclosed nerve fibers in much the same manner as Schwann cells. The nerve endings contained numerous microvesicles (∼500 A in diameter), mitochondria, glycogen granules, and a few electron-opaque cored vesicles. Junctions between nerve endings and Type I cells were associated with regions of increased density in both intercellular spaces and the adjoining cytoplasm. Cilia of the 9 + 0 fibril pattern were observed in Type I and Type II cells and pericytes. Nonmyelinated nerve fibers, often containing microvesicles, mitochondria, and a few electron-opaque cored vesicles (650 to 1000 A in diameter) were present in Schwann cells, many of which were situated close to blood vessels Ganglion cells near the periphery of the gland, fibrocytes, and segments of unidentified cells were also seen. It was concluded that, according to present concepts of the structure of nerve endings, those endings related to Type I cells could be efferent or afferent. PMID:5971007

  8. The carotid sinus connections: a WGA-HRP study in the cat.

    PubMed

    Torrealba, F; Claps, A

    1988-07-01

    The neural connections of the carotid sinus were studied by administration of horseradish peroxidase or a lectin conjugate to the adventitia of the carotid sinus of cats. The carotid sinus afferents project exclusively to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Rostral to the obex the projection is mainly ipsilateral with a strong contralateral component caudal to the obex. The carotid sinus projects to several NTS territories that do not receive afferents from the carotid body chemoreceptors; they are: the dorsolateral, the lateral extension of the commissural, the caudal intermediate, the ventrolateral and the gelatinosus subnuclei. In addition the carotid sinus central representation includes territories occupied also by carotid body terminals: dorsal, interstitial, rostral intermediate, medial and the medial part of commissural subnuclei (see previous paper). Labeled cell bodies were found in the petrosal (216 +/- 37, mean +/- S.E.M.) nodose (825 +/- 434) and superior cervical ganglia (3583 +/- 1227) demonstrating the sympathetic efferent innervation of the carotid sinus and a dual sensory innervation via both the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. PMID:2458165

  9. Signal processing at mammalian carotid body chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Colin A; Piskuric, Nikol A

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian carotid bodies are richly vascularized chemosensory organs that sense blood levels of O(2), CO(2)/H(+), and glucose and maintain homeostatic regulation of these levels via the reflex control of ventilation. Carotid bodies consist of innervated clusters of type I (or glomus) cells in intimate association with glial-like type II cells. Carotid bodies make afferent connections with fibers from sensory neurons in the petrosal ganglia and receive efferent inhibitory innervation from parasympathetic neurons located in the carotid sinus and glossopharyngeal nerves. There are synapses between type I (chemosensory) cells and petrosal afferent terminals, as well as between neighboring type I cells. There is a broad array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors in the carotid body. This allows for complex processing of sensory stimuli (e.g., hypoxia and acid hypercapnia) involving both autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. This review summarizes and evaluates current knowledge of these pathways and presents an integrated working model on information processing in carotid bodies. Included in this model is a novel hypothesis for a potential role of type II cells as an amplifier for the release of a key excitatory carotid body neurotransmitter, ATP, via P2Y purinoceptors and pannexin-1 channels.

  10. The impact of adenosine and an A2A adenosine receptor agonist on the ACh-induced increase in intracellular calcium of the glomus cells of the cat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Robert S; Shirahata, Machiko; Chang, Irene

    2009-12-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemosensor of arterial blood located next to the internal carotid artery. The basic chemosensing unit is composed of the neurotransmitter (NT)-containing glomus cells (GCs) and the sensory afferent fibers synapsing onto the GCs. Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors have been found on both the sensory afferent fibers and on the GCs. Neural output from the CB (CBNO) increases when arterial blood perfusing it is hypoxic, hypoglycemic, hypercapnic, or acidic. The increased CBNO due to GC release of excitatory NTs must be preceded by an entrance of calcium into the GCs. With repeated release of ACh from the GCs, cholinergic receptors could become desensitized, particularly nicotinic receptors which function as calcium channels. The purpose of the present study was to see if adenosine (ADO), known to alter receptor sensitivities, could attenuate or eliminate any desensitization of the nicotinic receptors occurring during the repeated application of ACh. Cat CBs were harvested with techniques approved by the University's Animal Care/Use Committee. The GCs were cultured and prepared for detecting [Ca(++)](i) with standard techniques. Repeated application of ACh produced a progressively decreasing increase in [Ca(++)](i). With the use of ADO or an A2(A) ADO receptor agonist the decrease was avoided. Though ADO also increased GC [Ca(++)](i), the sum of ADO increase and ACh increase, when superfused separately, was less than the increase when they were both included in the same superfusion. This suggested the possible involvement of a new path in the action. Potential mechanisms to explain the phenomena are discussed. PMID:19761761

  11. Carotid body tumors: a 40-year study.

    PubMed

    Farr, H W

    1980-01-01

    A total of 44 carotid body tumors were observed for over 40 years at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. The true nature of th paraganglioma can remain obscure in those patients without prior tissue biopsy or sophisticated diagnostic studies. Eighteen patients came to surgery without a primary working diagnosis of the conditions, 43 percent of the seris. Significant advances in the preoperative workup of a cervical mass attached to the carotid sheath are now recommended: ultrasonography, radioisotope perfusion scanning, and selective carotid arteriography. Catecholamine determination should be considered for any paraganglioma exhibiting vasomotor instability or hypertension. Prior to 1945 the carotid bifurcation was sacrificed eight times with a 50 percent mortality occurring in relatively youthful subjects. In the 35 years since then, a more sophisticated surgical technique preserving the carotid circulation has resulted in over 30 resections with but one fatality. Multicentricity, both in the sporadic and the familial form, is characteristic of this rare tumor, also called "APUDoma." (APUD is an acronym derived from three of the most important characteristics of these cells: a high amine content, amine precursor uptake, and decarboxylation. Its malignant potential is beyond debate.

  12. Carotid Body Tumor as a Cause of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Piršic, Ana; Bohm, Tihana; Trajbar, Tomislav; Ivkošic, Ante; Pavlovic, Tomislav; Bielen, Ivan; Soldo-Butkovic, Silva

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to a stroke with left-sided hemiparesis. Ultrasound of the carotid arteries showed a carotid body tumor on the bifurcation of the right common carotid artery, which was subsequently confirmed by a further neuroradiological investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head confirmed an acute ischemic lesion located in the right periventricular region. The carotid body tumor (CBT) was surgically removed and confirmed on histopathology. Our case reveals the role of carotid ultrasound in the diagnosis of a CBT, which may be a potential cause of stroke. PMID:26831027

  13. Role of. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptors in the carotid body response to hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Y.R.; Ernsberger, P.; Cherniack, N.S.; Prabhakar, N.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Clonidine, which acts in part as an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor agonist, depresses ventilation. The authors examined the role of {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors in carotid chemoreceptor activity. The density of {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors was determined in membrane fractions of 18 cat carotid bodies using {sup 125}I-iodoclonidine with 0.1 mM epinephrine or 10 {mu}M SKF-86466 defining nonspecific binding. {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptor density averaged 0.6{plus minus}0.1 fmol/carotid body (mean {plus minus} SEM) and was comparable to other sympathetic target tissues. The authors then studied the effects of an agonist (guanabenz) and an antagonist (SKF-86466; 6-Cl-N-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-H3-benzazepine) specific for {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors on baseline and hypoxia-stimulated carotid body discharge, in 10 anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats. Intracarotid infusion of guanabenz for 5 minutes caused a dose-dependent depression of the baseline activity and reduced the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia by 88.0{plus minus}5.8% of the vehicle-injected controls. Intravenous administration of SKF-86466 reversed the effects of guanabenz on the carotid body activity. in contrast, chemoreceptor depression caused by dopamine was unaffected by SKF-86466. SKF-86466 alone increased baseline discharge and potentiated the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia by 34.0 {plus minus} 9.6% of the controls. These results demonstrate that {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors are present in the cat carotid body and they exert an inhibitory influence on the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia.

  14. Radiation therapy of carotid body tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Valdagni, R.; Amichetti, M. )

    1990-02-01

    Chemodectomas of carotid artery bifurcation are generally managed with surgery, irradiation being reserved for inoperable, bulky, and recurrent tumors. Probably due to this pretreatment selection of patients, chemodectomas are anedoctally considered radioresistant tumors, although this concept is not supported by the recent literature. From 1968 to 1987, 13 carotid body tumors in seven patients were treated with irradiation as sole treatment (10 lesions) or as postoperative modality (three lesions). Familial occurrence and bilateral presentation were observed in 3 of 7 and in 6 of 7 patients, respectively. Total dose of irradiation was of 46-60 Gy (median 50 Gy, mean 52.25 Gy) with dose per fraction of 1.8-2.5 Gy. Local control (subjective or objective) was obtained in all the patients. Clinical results following World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were: 3 of 13 complete response, 7 of 13 partial response and 3 of 13 no change. Follow-up range is 1-19 years. Acute side effects were minimal and mid- or long-term toxicity was absent.32 references.

  15. Peripheral Chemoreceptors: Function and Plasticity of the Carotid Body

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prem; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the sensory nature of the carotid body dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. Following these seminal discoveries, research into carotid body mechanisms moved forward progressively through the 20th century, with many descriptions of the ultrastructure of the organ and stimulus-response measurements at the level of the whole organ. The later part of 20th century witnessed the first descriptions of the cellular responses and electrophysiology of isolated and cultured type I and type II cells, and there now exist a number of testable hypotheses of chemotransduction. The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of current concepts on sensory transduction and transmission of the hypoxic stimulus at the carotid body with an emphasis on integrating cellular mechanisms with the whole organ responses and highlighting the gaps or discrepancies in our knowledge. It is increasingly evident that in addition to hypoxia, the carotid body responds to a wide variety of blood-borne stimuli, including reduced glucose and immune-related cytokines and we therefore also consider the evidence for a polymodal function of the carotid body and its implications. It is clear that the sensory function of the carotid body exhibits considerable plasticity in response to the chronic perturbations in environmental O2 that is associated with many physiological and pathological conditions. The mechanisms and consequences of carotid body plasticity in health and disease are discussed in the final sections of this article. PMID:23728973

  16. Carotid body tumor imitator: An interesting case of Castleman's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shakir, Hakeem J.; Diletti, Sara M.; Hart, Alexandra M.; Meyers, Joshua E.; Dumont, Travis M.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are very few reports in the literature of Castleman's disease affecting the carotid artery and a single previous report of a case of Castleman's disease of the neck originally mistaken as a carotid body tumor. Case Description: We describe a rare case of Castleman's disease, manifesting with classic radiographic hallmarks of a carotid body tumor. The postoperative pathologic examination identified the resected mass as Castleman's lymphadenopathy. The management of this particular case is discussed, and the findings are highlighted. Conclusions: We present a unique case of a tumor initially and incorrectly diagnosed as a carotid body tumor. However, after comprehensive treatment with endovascular and surgical modalities and subsequent pathologic examination, the diagnosis of this rare entity was made. PMID:26677415

  17. Cervical Vertebral Body Chordoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Hampel, R; Taylor-Brown, F; Priestnall, S L

    2016-05-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered female Maine Coon cat with a 6-week history of progressive ataxia was diagnosed with a cervical vertebral body mass using magnetic resonance imaging. The mass displaced and compressed the cervical spinal cord. The cat was humanely destroyed and necropsy examination confirmed a mass within the second cervical vertebral body. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated ('physaliferous') cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin and the final diagnosis was a cervical, vertebral body chordoma. This is only the third report of a chordoma in this species and the first in this location. Chordoma should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for tumours arising from the cervical vertebrae in the cat.

  18. Carotid body tumors: advantages of contrast ultrasound investigation.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Maria F; Irace, Luigi; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Massa, Rita; Gossetti, Bruno; Benedetti-Valentini, Fabrizio

    2009-10-01

    Carotid body tumors are rare neoplasms that have to be considered in the evaluation of all lateral neck mass. Early surgical removal has been recommended to avoid possible cranial nerve injury, the most common perioperative complication. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRA) angiographies are the preferred pre-operative diagnostic imaging investigations, as well as the 111 In-pentetreotide scintigraphic scan, whereas the standard ultrasound investigations have poor sensitivity in characterizing of the blood flows of the parenchimal structure of the carotid body tumors. We describe a case of a patient with a carotid body tumor assessed with contrast ultrasonography that clearly improved the quality of the standard color Duplex. This technique may represent a non-invasive method, easy to use and to repeat, and able to achieve high diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Gasotransmitter regulation of ion channels: a key step in O2 sensing by the carotid body.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Carotid bodies detect hypoxia in arterial blood, translating this stimulus into physiological responses via the CNS. It is long established that ion channels are critical to this process. More recent evidence indicates that gasotransmitters exert powerful influences on O2 sensing by the carotid body. Here, we review current understanding of hypoxia-dependent production of gasotransmitters, how they regulate ion channels in the carotid body, and how this impacts carotid body function.

  20. Sensitivity of the carotid body to within-breath changes in arterial PCO2.

    PubMed

    Band, D M; McClelland, M; Phillips, D L; Saunders, K B; Wolff, C B

    1978-11-01

    Respiration, sinus nerve chemoreceptor discharge, and carotid arterial pH were monitored in cats. Chemoreceptor discharge frequency showed oscillations that had a respiratory period when averaged over many respiratory cycles. These oscillations disappeared when pH oscillations of respiratory period were eliminated from the carotid arterial blood. The maximum sinus nerve discharge was associated with the most acid point of the recorded pH oscillation. Briefly increasing PCO2 by giving CO2-rich saline into the aortic root resulted in brief reduction in carotid arterial pH, and when this reduction occurred during inspiration tidal volume increased, even with a pH change no larger than the pH oscillations. However, increased chemoreceptor discharge could only be demonstrated when each pH change had twice the amplitude of the pH oscillations. Injections of fixed acid mixed with free carbonic anhydrase transiently increased chemoreceptor frequency, whereas injections of fixed acid alone had no effect. The carotid body is therefore sensitive to small rapid changes in arterial PCO2, and the pH electrode record indicates the size of the stimulus except when fixed acid changes are produced too closely upstream.

  1. Carotid body denervation prevents fasting hyperglycemia during chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Yao, Qiaoling; Jun, Jonathan C; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Yoo, Doo-Young; Han, Woobum; Mesarwi, Omar; Richardson, Ria; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Schwartz, Alan R; Shirahata, Machiko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but mechanisms are unknown. Carotid bodies orchestrate physiological responses to hypoxemia by activating the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that carotid body denervation would abolish glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by chronic IH. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent carotid sinus nerve dissection (CSND) or sham surgery and then were exposed to IH or intermittent air (IA) for 4 or 6 wk. Hypoxia was administered by decreasing a fraction of inspired oxygen from 20.9% to 6.5% once per minute, during the 12-h light phase (9 a.m.-9 p.m.). As expected, denervated mice exhibited blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses. In sham-operated mice, IH increased fasting blood glucose, baseline hepatic glucose output (HGO), and expression of a rate-liming hepatic enzyme of gluconeogenesis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), whereas the whole body glucose flux during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was not changed. IH did not affect glucose tolerance after adjustment for fasting hyperglycemia in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. CSND prevented IH-induced fasting hyperglycemia and increases in baseline HGO and liver PEPCK expression. CSND trended to augment the insulin-stimulated glucose flux and enhanced liver Akt phosphorylation at both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. IH increased serum epinephrine levels and liver sympathetic innervation, and both increases were abolished by CSND. We conclude that chronic IH induces fasting hyperglycemia increasing baseline HGO via the CSN sympathetic output from carotid body chemoreceptors, but does not significantly impair whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:25103977

  2. Implications of carotid sinus hypersensitivity following preoperative embolization of a carotid body tumor. An indication for prophylactic intraoperative cardiac pacing.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ashley M; Smith, Russell B; Thorell, William E

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE Carotid body tumors are rare neoplasms of neural crest origin that are both highly vascularized and locally invasive. Treatment options for these tumors often include surgery with preoperative embolization, which can pose major cardiovascular risk to patients. As demonstrated by this case report, hemodynamic instability following preoperative embolization of a carotid body tumor may indicate severe carotid sinus hypersensitivity and the need for temporary cardiac pacing. OBSERVATIONS This case report describes a man in his early 30s who presented for staged surgical resection of bilateral carotid body tumors with preoperative embolization. After embolization of the second tumor, the patient displayed transient episodes of bradycardia and hypotension, which resolved with medical management. Surgery commenced, and with minimal manipulation intraoperatively, the patient became asystolic and required resuscitation. Following a negative cardiac workup, a temporary pacemaker was implanted, and surgical resection of the tumor was successfully completed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is a rare but serious risk of preoperative embolization of carotid body tumors. Postembolization bradycardia or hypotension should be assessed as potential harbingers of carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the need for temporary intraoperative cardiac pacing should be strongly considered. PMID:24651937

  3. The Human Carotid Body Gene Expression and Function in Signaling of Hypoxia and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Eriksson, Lars I; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    Although animal carotid body oxygen sensing and signaling has been extensively investigated, the human carotid body remains essentially uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to study the human carotid body in terms of morphology, global and specific expression of sensing and signaling genes as well as inflammatory genes. The human carotid body response to brief or prolonged hypoxia was studied in carotid body slices from adult surgical patients and ACh, ATP and cytokine release was analyzed. We demonstrate that the human carotid body expresses key oxygen sensing and signaling genes in similarity with animal carotid bodies with a few diverging data. The human carotid body moreover shows enrichment of genes in the inflammatory response and releases pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to prolonged hypoxia. In response to acute hypoxia the human carotid body releases ACh and ATP and we thus translate previous findings in animal models to human tissue. We conclude that by releasing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during hypoxia the human carotid body displays a structural and functional capacity to participate in sensing and mediating systemic inflammation.

  4. Synaptic and paracrine mechanisms at carotid body arterial chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Colin A

    2014-08-15

    Mammalian carotid bodies are the main peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, strategically located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. When stimulated these receptors initiate compensatory respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes to maintain homeostasis. Thus, in response to low oxygen (hypoxia) or increased CO2/H(+) (acid hypercapnia), chemoreceptor type I cells depolarize and release excitatory neurotransmitters, such as ATP, which stimulate postsynaptic P2X2/3 receptors on afferent nerve terminals. The afferent discharge is shaped by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms involving both excitatory and inhibitory neuromodulators such as adenosine, serotonin (5-HT), GABA and dopamine. Recent evidence suggests that paracrine activation of P2Y2 receptors on adjacent glia-like type II cells may help boost the ATP signal via the opening of pannexin-1 channels. The presence of an inhibitory efferent innervation, mediated by release of nitric oxide, provides additional control of the afferent discharge. The broad array of neuromodulators and their receptors appears to endow the carotid body with a remarkable plasticity, most apparent during natural and pathophysiological conditions associated with chronic sustained and intermittent hypoxia.

  5. The human carotid body releases acetylcholine, ATP and cytokines during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Nordlander, Britt; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Prabhakar, Nanduri; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2014-08-01

    Studies on experimental animals established that the carotid bodies are sensory organs for detecting arterial blood O2 levels and that the ensuing chemosensory reflex is a major regulator of cardiorespiratory functions during hypoxia. However, little information is available on the human carotid body responses to hypoxia. The present study was performed on human carotid bodies obtained from surgical patients undergoing elective head and neck cancer surgery. Our results show that exposing carotid body slices to hypoxia for a period as brief as 5 min markedly facilitates the release of ACh and ATP. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia for 1 h induces an increased release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that type 1 cells of the human carotid body express an array of cytokine receptors as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ACh and ATP are released from the human carotid body in response to hypoxia, suggesting that these neurotransmitters, as in several experimental animal models, play a role in hypoxic signalling also in the human carotid body. The finding that the human carotid body releases cytokines in response to hypoxia adds to the growing body of information suggesting that the carotid body may play a role in detecting inflammation, providing a link between the immune system and the nervous system.

  6. Revelations about carotid body function through its pathological role in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Paton, Julian F R; Ratcliffe, Laura; Hering, Dagmara; Wolf, Jacek; Sobotka, Paul A; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-08-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the carotid body because of its potential role in cardiovascular disease states. One disease, neurogenic hypertension, characterised by excessive sympathetic activity, appears dependent on carotid body activity that may or may not be accompanied by sleep-disordered breathing. Herein, we review recent literature suggesting that the carotid body acquires tonicity in hypertension. We predict that carotid glomectomy will be a powerful way to temper excessive sympathetic discharge in diseases such as hypertension. We propose a model to explain that signalling from the 'hypertensive' carotid body is tonic, and hypothesise that there will be a sub-population of glomus cells that channel separately into reflex pathways controlling sympathetic motor outflows. PMID:23828147

  7. Carotid body, insulin, and metabolic diseases: unraveling the links

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Sílvia V.; Sacramento, Joana F.; Guarino, Maria P.; Gonzalez, Constancio; Obeso, Ana; Diogo, Lucilia N.; Monteiro, Emilia C.; Ribeiro, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in arterial blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis activate the CB, which respond by increasing the action potential frequency in their sensory nerve, the carotid sinus nerve (CSN). CSN activity is integrated in the brain stem to induce a panoply of cardiorespiratory reflexes aimed, primarily, to normalize the altered blood gases, via hyperventilation, and to regulate blood pressure and cardiac performance, via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Besides its role in the cardiorespiratory control the CB has been proposed as a metabolic sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis and, more recently, in the regulation of whole body insulin sensitivity. Hypercaloric diets cause CB overactivation in rats, which seems to be at the origin of the development of insulin resistance and hypertension, core features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Consistent with this notion, CB sensory denervation prevents metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in hypercaloric feed animal. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is another chronic disorder characterized by increased CB activity and intimately related with several metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. In this manuscript we review in a concise manner the putative pathways linking CB chemoreceptors deregulation with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension. Also, the link between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and insulin resistance is discussed. Then, a final section is devoted to debate strategies to reduce CB activity and its use for prevention and therapeutics of metabolic diseases with an emphasis on new exciting research in the modulation of bioelectronic signals, likely to be central in the future. PMID:25400585

  8. Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin in a cat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonya C; Smith, Annette N; Kuo, Kendon W; Fish, Eric J; Koehler, Jey W; Martinez-Romero, Gisela; Bacek, Lenore M

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old, female spayed Domestic Shorthair cat was presented to the Auburn University Emergency and Critical Care service for evaluation of pleural effusion and a suspected intrathoracic mass. Computed tomography was performed which confirmed the presence of a large intrathoracic mass, likely heart-based. Fine-needle aspirates were obtained and a cytologic diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor was made. Treatment with toceranib phosphate was briefly attempted at home by the owners. The cat died at home approximately 6 weeks after diagnosis. Necropsy and subsequent histopathologic examination revealed a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin. Aortic body tumors are extremely rare in cats and to the authors' knowledge, a neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin with distant metastases has not yet been reported in a cat. PMID:27564688

  9. Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the rat carotid body by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Bayliss, D A; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1992-04-01

    The activity (Vmax) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; EC 1.14.16.2), the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, is increased in carotid body, superior cervical ganglion, and the adrenal medulla during hypoxia (i.e., reduced PaO2). The present study was undertaken to determine if the increase in TH activity in these tissues during hypoxia is regulated at the level of TH mRNA. Adult rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% O2) or room air for periods lasting from 1 to 48 h. The carotid bodies, superior cervical ganglia, and adrenals were removed and processed for in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled oligonucleotide probes. The concentration of TH mRNA was increased by hypoxia at all time points in carotid body type I cells, but not in cells of either superior cervical ganglion or adrenal medulla. The increase in TH mRNA in carotid body during hypoxia did not require innervation of the carotid body or intact adrenal glands. In addition, hypercapnia, another physiological stimulus of carotid body activity, failed to induce an increase in TH mRNA in type I cells. Our findings suggest that hypoxia stimulates TH gene expression in the carotid body by a mechanism that is intrinsic to type I cells. PMID:1347783

  10. Selective Expression of Galanin in Neuronal-Like Cells of the Human Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Camillo; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zara, Susi; Di Tano, Andrea; Porzionato, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Cataldi, Amelia; Mazzatenta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The carotid body is a neural-crest-derived organ devoted to respiratory homeostasis through sensing changes in blood oxygen levels. The sensory units are the glomeruli composed of clusters of neuronal-like (type I) cells surrounded by glial-like (type II) cells. During chronic hypoxia, the carotid body shows growth, with increasing neuronal-like cell numbers. We are interested in the signals involved in the mechanisms that underlie such response, because they are not well understood and described. Considering that, in literature, galanin is involved in neurotrophic or neuroprotective role in cell proliferation and is expressed in animal carotid body, we investigated its expression in human. Here, we have shown the expression and localisation of galanin in the human carotid body.

  11. An Unusual Case of Laryngeal Paraganglioma in a Patient with Carotid Body Paraganglioma: Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Serap; Senol, Serkan; Imamoglu, Hakan; Abdulrezzak, Ummuhan; Ekinci, Afra; Yuce, Imdat; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Multiple paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare conditions. Carotid paragangliomas are most common multiple paragangliomas. Laryngeal paragangliomas are very rare neuroendocrine tumors and usually are seen as symptomatic solitary lesions. We present multimodality imaging findings of incidentally detected laryngeal paraganglioma in a woman with synchronous carotid body paraganglioma and positive family history. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of laryngeal and carotid body paragangliomas in a patient with positive family history. Radiologists should keep in mind that paragangliomas may occur in various locations as multiple tumors. PMID:26649218

  12. Carotid body oxygen sensing and adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    López-Barneo, José; Macías, David; Platero-Luengo, Aida; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Pardal, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the principal arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. Our understanding of CB function and its role in disease mechanisms has progressed considerably in the last decades, particularly in recent years. The sensory elements of the CB are the neuron-like glomus cells, which contain numerous transmitters and form synapses with afferent sensory fibers. The activation of glomus cells under hypoxia mainly depends on the modulation of O2-sensitive K(+) channels which leads to cell depolarization and the opening of Ca(2+) channels. This model of sensory transduction operates in all mammalian species studied thus far, including man. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of ion channel function by changes in the O2 level are as yet unknown. The CB plays a fundamental role in acclimatization to sustained hypoxia. Mice with CB atrophy or patients who have undergone CB resection due to surgical treatments show a marked intolerance to even mild hypoxia. CB growth under hypoxia is supported by the existence of a resident population of neural crest-derived stem cells of glia-like phenotype. These stem cells are not highly affected by exposure to low O2 tension; however, there are abundant synapse-like contacts between the glomus cells and stem cells (chemoproliferative synapses), which may be needed to trigger progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation under hypoxia. CB hypo- or hyper-activation may also contribute to the pathogenesis of several prevalent human diseases.

  13. General redox environment and carotid body chemoreceptor function.

    PubMed

    Agapito, Maria Teresa; Sanz-Alfayate, Gloria; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Gonzalez, Constancio; Obeso, Ana

    2009-03-01

    Carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells detect physiological levels of hypoxia and generate a hyperventilation, homeostatic in nature, aimed to minimize the deleterious effects of hypoxia. Intimate mechanisms involved in oxygen sensing in chemoreceptor cells remain largely unknown, but reactive oxygen species (ROS) had been proposed as mediators of this process. We have determined glutathione levels and calculated glutathione redox potential (E(GSH); indicator of the general redox environment of cells) in rat diaphragms incubated in the presence of oxidizing agents of two types: nonpermeating and permeating through cell membranes; in the latter group, unspecific oxidants and inhibitors of ROS-disposing enzymes were used. Selected concentrations of oxidizing agents were tested for their ability to modify the normoxic and hypoxic activity of chemoreceptor cells measured in vitro as their rate of release of neurotransmitters. Results evidence variable relationships between E(GSH) and the activity of chemoreceptor cells. The independence of chemoreceptor cell activity from the E(GSH) would imply that the ability of the CB to play its homeostatic role is largely preserved in any pathological or toxicological contingency causing oxidative stress. Consistent with this suggestion, it was also found that CB-mediated hypoxic hyperventilation was not altered by treatment of intact animals with agents that markedly decreased the E(GSH) in all tissues assayed.

  14. The carotid body and arousal in the fetus and neonate.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO(2). Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO(2) in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and do not know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  15. Mechanisms of carotid body chemoreflex dysfunction during heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Harold D.; Marcus, Noah J.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have drawn interest in the potential for carotid body (CB) ablation or desensitization as an effective strategy for clinical treatment and management of cardio-respiratory diseases including hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and renal failure. These disease states have in common sympathetic overactivity, which plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease and is often associated with breathing dysregulation, which in turn likely mediates or aggravates the autonomic imbalance. Evidence from both chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and animal models indicates that the CB chemoreflex is enhanced in CHF and contributes to the tonic elevation in sympathetic activity and the development of periodic breathing associated with the disease. Although this maladaptive change likely derives from altered function at all levels of the reflex arc, a tonic increase in afferent activity from CB glomus cells is likely to be a main driving force. This report will focus on our understanding of mechanisms that alter CB function in CHF and their potential translational impact on treatment of CHF. PMID:25398713

  16. Baroreflex activation therapy lowers arterial pressure without apparent stimulation of the carotid bodies.

    PubMed

    Alnima, Teba; Goedhart, Emilie J B M; Seelen, Randy; van der Grinten, Chris P M; de Leeuw, Peter W; Kroon, Abraham A

    2015-06-01

    Carotid baroreflex activation therapy produces a sustained fall in blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. Because the activation electrodes are implanted at the level of the carotid sinus, it is conceivable that the nearby located carotid body chemoreceptors are stimulated as well. Physiological stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors not only stimulates respiration but also increases sympathetic activity, which may counteract the effects of baroreflex activation. The aim of this exploratory study is to investigate whether there is concomitant carotid chemoreflex activation during baroreflex activation therapy. Fifteen participants with the Rheos system were included in this single-center study. At arrival at the clinic, the device was switched off for 2 hours while patients were at rest. Subsequently, the device was switched on at 6 electric settings of high and low frequencies and amplitudes. Respiration and blood pressure measurements were performed during all device activation settings. Multilevel statistical models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, antihypertensive therapeutic index, sleep apnea, coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate. There was no change in end-tidal carbon dioxide, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, breath duration, and breathing frequency during any of the electric settings with the device. Nevertheless, mean arterial pressure showed a highly significant decrease during electric activation (P<0.001). Carotid baroreflex activation therapy using the Rheos system did not stimulate respiration at several electric device activation energies, which suggests that there is no appreciable coactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors during device therapy.

  17. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  18. Revisiting cAMP signaling in the carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Ana R.; Holmes, Andrew P.; Conde, Sílvia V.; Gauda, Estelle B.; Monteiro, Emília C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic carotid body (CB) activation is now recognized as being essential in the development of hypertension and promoting insulin resistance; thus, it is imperative to characterize the chemotransduction mechanisms of this organ in order to modulate its activity and improve patient outcomes. For several years, and although controversial, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was considered an important player in initiating the activation of the CB. However, its relevance was partially displaced in the 90s by the emerging role of the mitochondria and molecules such as AMP-activated protein kinase and O2-sensitive K+ channels. Neurotransmitters/neuromodulators binding to metabotropic receptors are essential to chemotransmission in the CB, and cAMP is central to this process. cAMP also contributes to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels, and is intimately related to the cellular energetic status (AMP/ATP ratio). Furthermore, cAMP signaling is a target of multiple current pharmacological agents used in clinical practice. This review (1) provides an outline on the classical view of the cAMP-signaling pathway in the CB that originally supported its role in the O2/CO2 sensing mechanism, (2) presents recent evidence on CB cAMP neuromodulation and (3) discusses how CB activity is affected by current clinical therapies that modify cAMP-signaling, namely dopaminergic drugs, caffeine (modulation of A2A/A2B receptors) and roflumilast (PDE4 inhibitors). cAMP is key to any process that involves metabotropic receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in CB disease states are likely to involve this classical second messenger. Research examining the potential modification of cAMP levels and/or interactions with molecules associated with CB hyperactivity is currently in its beginning and this review will open doors for future explorations. PMID:25389406

  19. Cellular properties and chemosensory responses of the human carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Pardal, Ricardo; Levitsky, Konstantin; Villadiego, Javier; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana Belén; Durán, Rocío; Bonilla-Henao, Victoria; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; Sobrino, Verónica; Ordóñez, Antonio; Oliver, María; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2013-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor in mammals that mediates the acute hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. The CB grows in response to sustained hypoxia and also participates in acclimatisation to chronic hypoxaemia. Knowledge of CB physiology at the cellular level has increased considerably in recent times thanks to studies performed on lower mammals, and rodents in particular. However, the functional characteristics of human CB cells remain practically unknown. Herein, we use tissue slices or enzymatically dispersed cells to determine the characteristics of human CB cells. The adult human CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We found that GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. Moreover, glomus cells exhibited voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents that were qualitatively similar to those reported in lower mammals. These cells responded to hypoxia with an external Ca2+-dependent increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and quantal catecholamine secretion, as reported for other mammalian species. Interestingly, human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycaemia and together these two stimuli can potentiate each other's effects. The chemosensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans. PMID:24167224

  20. Carotid body chemoreflex: a driver of autonomic abnormalities in sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-08-01

    What is the topic of this review? This article presents emerging evidence for heightened carotid body chemoreflex activity as a major driver of sympathetic activation and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. What advances does it heighlight? This article discusses the recent advances on cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex in experimental models of sleep apnoea. The carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen concentration, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of the sympathetic tone, blood pressure and breathing. Sleep apnoea is a disease of the respiratory system that affects several million adult humans. Apnoeas occur during sleep, often as a result of obstruction of the upper airway (obstructive sleep apnoea) or because of defective respiratory rhythm generation by the CNS (central sleep apnoea). Patients with sleep apnoea exhibit several co-morbidities, with the most notable among them being heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Emerging evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia resulting from periodic apnoea stimulates the carotid body, and the ensuing chemoreflex mediates the increased sympathetic tone and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. Rodent models of intermittent hypoxia that simulate the O2 saturation profiles encountered during sleep apnoea have provided important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the heightened carotid body chemoreflex. This article describes how intermittent hypoxia affects the carotid body function and discusses the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex. PMID:27474260

  1. Carotid baroreceptor influence on forearm vascular resistance during low level lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Cynthia A.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of forearm vasoconstriction induced by low levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) provides a measure of the responsiveness of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex. The validity of this measurement is based on the assumption that this vasoconstriction response is not influenced by unloading of carotid baroreceptors. To test the hypothesis that arterial baroreceptor unloading does not alter the degree of forearm vascular resistance during low levels of LBNP, 12 subjects were exposed to -15 and -20 mm Hg LBNP with and without additional artificial (+ 10 mm Hg neck pressure) unloading of the carotid baroreceptors. There was no measurable influence of carotid unloading on forearm vascular resistance at either level of LBNP. It is concluded that forearm vascular resistance measured during cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading is unaffected by carotid baroreceptor unloading within the magnitude encountered during low levels of LBNP.

  2. Evidence for a carotid body homolog in the lizard Tupinambis merianae.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michelle N; Brink, Deidre L; Milsom, William K

    2015-01-15

    The homolog to the mammalian carotid body has not yet been identified in lizards. Observational studies and evolutionary history provide indirect evidence for the existence of a chemoreceptor population at the first major bifurcation of the common carotid artery in lizards, but a chemoreceptive role for this area has not yet been definitively demonstrated. We explored this possibility by measuring changes in cardiorespiratory variables in response to focal arterial injections of the hypoxia mimic sodium cyanide (NaCN) into the carotid artery of 12 unanesthetized specimens of Tupinambis merianae. These injections elicited increases in heart rate (f(H); 101±35% increase) and respiratory rate (f(R); 620±119% increase), but not mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). These responses were eliminated by vagal denervation. Similar responses were elicited by injections of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) but not norepinephrine. Heart rate and respiratory rate increases in response to NaCN could be blocked or reduced by antagonists to ACh (atropine) and/or 5-HT (methysergide). Finally, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate the presence of putative chemoreceptive cells immunopositive for the cholinergic cell marker vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT) and 5-HT on internal lattice-like structures at the carotid bifurcation. These results provide evidence in lizards for the existence of dispersed chemoreceptor cells at the first carotid bifurcation in the central cardiovascular area that have similar properties to known carotid body homologs, adding to the picture of chemoreceptor evolution in vertebrates.

  3. Carotid body overactivity induces respiratory neurone channelopathy contributing to neurogenic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Davi J A; Machado, Benedito H; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-01-01

    Why sympathetic activity rises in neurogenic hypertension remains unknown. It has been postulated that changes in the electrical excitability of medullary pre-sympathetic neurones are the main causal mechanism for the development of sympathetic overactivity in experimental hypertension. Here we review recent data suggesting that enhanced sympathetic activity in neurogenic hypertension is, at least in part, dependent on alterations in the electrical excitability of medullary respiratory neurones and their central modulation of sympatho-excitatory networks. We also present results showing a critical role for carotid body tonicity in the aetiology of enhanced central respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity in neurogenic hypertension. We propose a novel hypothesis of respiratory neurone channelopathy induced by carotid body overactivity in neurogenic hypertension that may contribute to sympathetic excess. Moreover, our data support the notion of targeting the carotid body as a potential novel therapeutic approach for reducing sympathetic vasomotor tone in neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25900825

  4. Carotid body overactivity induces respiratory neurone channelopathy contributing to neurogenic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Davi J A; Machado, Benedito H; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-07-15

    Why sympathetic activity rises in neurogenic hypertension remains unknown. It has been postulated that changes in the electrical excitability of medullary pre-sympathetic neurones are the main causal mechanism for the development of sympathetic overactivity in experimental hypertension. Here we review recent data suggesting that enhanced sympathetic activity in neurogenic hypertension is, at least in part, dependent on alterations in the electrical excitability of medullary respiratory neurones and their central modulation of sympatho-excitatory networks. We also present results showing a critical role for carotid body tonicity in the aetiology of enhanced central respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity in neurogenic hypertension. We propose a novel hypothesis of respiratory neurone channelopathy induced by carotid body overactivity in neurogenic hypertension that may contribute to sympathetic excess. Moreover, our data support the notion of targeting the carotid body as a potential novel therapeutic approach for reducing sympathetic vasomotor tone in neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25900825

  5. Long-term regulation of carotid body function: acclimatization and adaptation--invited article.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, N R; Peng, Y-J; Kumar, G K; Nanduri, J; Di Giulio, C; Lahiri, Sukhamay

    2009-01-01

    Physiological responses to hypoxia either continuous (CH) or intermittent (IH) depend on the O(2)-sensing ability of the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, especially the carotid bodies, and the ensuing reflexes play important roles in maintaining homeostasis. The purpose of this article is to summarize the effects of CH and IH on carotid body function and the underlying mechanisms. CH increases baseline carotid body activity and sensitizes the response to acute hypoxia. These effects are associated with hyperplasia of glomus cells and neovascularization. Enhanced hypoxic sensitivity is due to alterations in ion current densities as well as changes in neurotransmitter dynamics and recruitment of additional neuromodulators (endothelin-1, ET-1) in glomus cells. Morphological alterations are in part due to up-regulation of growth factors (e.g. VEGF). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcriptional activator might underlie the remodeling of carotid body structure and function by CH. Chronic IH, on the other hand, is associated with recurrent apneas in adults and premature infants. Two major effects of chronic IH on the adult carotid body are sensitization of the hypoxic sensory response and long-lasting increase in baseline activity i.e., sensory long-term facilitation (LTF) which involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) and HIF-1. In neonates, chronic IH leads to sensitization of the hypoxic response but does not induce sensory LTF. Chronic IH-induced sensitization of the carotid body response to hypoxia increases the likelihood of unstable breathing perpetuating in more number of apneas, whereas sensory LTF may contribute to increased sympathetic tone and systemic hypertension associated with recurrent apneas.

  6. Big cat, small cat: reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae.

    PubMed

    Cuff, A R; Randau, M; Head, J; Hutchinson, J R; Pierce, S E; Goswami, A

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of body mass is a fundamental topic in evolutionary biology, because it is closely linked to manifold life history and ecological traits and is readily estimable for many extinct taxa. In this study, we examine patterns of body mass evolution in Felidae (Placentalia, Carnivora) to assess the effects of phylogeny, mode of evolution, and the relationship between body mass and prey choice in this charismatic mammalian clade. Our data set includes 39 extant and 26 extinct taxa, with published body mass data supplemented by estimates based on condylobasal length. These data were run through 'SURFACE' and 'bayou' to test for patterns of body mass evolution and convergence between taxa. Body masses of felids are significantly different among prey choice groupings (small, mixed and large). We find that body mass evolution in cats is strongly influenced by phylogeny, but different patterns emerged depending on inclusion of extinct taxa and assumptions about branch lengths. A single Ornstein-Uhlenbeck optimum best explains the distribution of body masses when first-occurrence data were used for the fossil taxa. However, when mean occurrence dates or last known occurrence dates were used, two selective optima for felid body mass were recovered in most analyses: a small optimum around 5 kg and a large one around 100 kg. Across living and extinct cats, we infer repeated evolutionary convergences towards both of these optima, but, likely due to biased extinction of large taxa, our results shift to supporting a Brownian motion model when only extant taxa are included in analyses.

  7. Towards the Sensory Nature of the Carotid Body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans†

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The carotid body or glomus caroticum is a chemosensory organ bilaterally located between the external and internal carotid arteries. Although known by anatomists since the report included by Von Haller and Taube in the mid XVIII century, its detailed study started the first quarter of the XX. The Austro-German physiologist Heinrich E. Hering studied the cardio-respiratory reflexes searched for the anatomical basis of this reflex in the carotid sinus, while the Ghent School leaded by the physio-pharmacologists Jean-François Heymans and his son Corneille focussed in the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region. In 1925, Fernando De Castro, one of the youngest and more brilliant disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (Madrid, Spain), profited from some original novelties in histological procedures to study the fine structure and innervation of the carotid body. De Castro unravelled them in a series of scientific papers published between 1926 and 1929, which became the basis to consider the carotid body as a sensory receptor (or chemoreceptor) to detect the chemical changes in the composition of the blood. Indeed, this was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors. Impressed by the novelty and implications of the work of De Castro, Corneille Heymans invited the Spanish neurologist to visit Ghent on two occasions (1929 and 1932), where both performed experiences together. Shortly after, Heymans visited De Castro at the Instituto Cajal (Madrid). From 1932 to 1933, Corneille Heymans focused all his attention on the carotid body his physiological demonstration of De Castro's hypothesis regarding chemoreceptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1938, just when Spain was immersed in its catastrophic Civil War. PMID:20057927

  8. Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: hering, de castro and heymansdagger.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The carotid body or glomus caroticum is a chemosensory organ bilaterally located between the external and internal carotid arteries. Although known by anatomists since the report included by Von Haller and Taube in the mid XVIII century, its detailed study started the first quarter of the XX. The Austro-German physiologist Heinrich E. Hering studied the cardio-respiratory reflexes searched for the anatomical basis of this reflex in the carotid sinus, while the Ghent School leaded by the physio-pharmacologists Jean-François Heymans and his son Corneille focussed in the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region. In 1925, Fernando De Castro, one of the youngest and more brilliant disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (Madrid, Spain), profited from some original novelties in histological procedures to study the fine structure and innervation of the carotid body. De Castro unravelled them in a series of scientific papers published between 1926 and 1929, which became the basis to consider the carotid body as a sensory receptor (or chemoreceptor) to detect the chemical changes in the composition of the blood. Indeed, this was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors. Impressed by the novelty and implications of the work of De Castro, Corneille Heymans invited the Spanish neurologist to visit Ghent on two occasions (1929 and 1932), where both performed experiences together. Shortly after, Heymans visited De Castro at the Instituto Cajal (Madrid). From 1932 to 1933, Corneille Heymans focused all his attention on the carotid body his physiological demonstration of De Castro's hypothesis regarding chemoreceptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1938, just when Spain was immersed in its catastrophic Civil War.

  9. Sleep-Mediated Heart Rate Variability after Bilateral Carotid Body Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Niemeijer, Nicolasine D.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.M.; Reijntjes, Robert H.A.M.; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J. Gert; Thijs, Roland D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The carotid bodies are thought to play an important role in sleep-dependent autonomic changes. Patients who underwent resection of bilateral carotid body tumors have chronically attenuated baroreflex sensitivity. These subjects provide a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the baroreflex during sleep. Design: One-night ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) recording. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Nine patients with bilateral carotid body tumor resection (bCBR) (four women, mean age 50.4 ± 7.2 years) and nine controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Sleep parameters were obtained from PSG. Heart rate (HR) and its variability were calculated using 30-s epochs. Results: In bCBR patients, HR was slightly but not significantly increased during wake and all sleep stages. The effect of sleep on HR was similar for patients and controls. Low frequency (LF) power of the heart rate variability spectrum was significantly lower in bCBR patients in active wakefulness, sleep stage 1 and REM sleep. No differences were found between patients and controls for high frequency (HF) power and the LF/HF ratio. Conclusions: Bilateral carotid body tumor resection (bCBR) is associated with decreased low frequency power during sleep, suggesting impaired baroreflex function. Despite this, sleep-related heart rate changes were similar between bCBR patients and controls. These findings suggest that the effects of sleep on heart rate are predominantly generated through central, non-baroreflex mediated pathways. Citation: Niemeijer ND, Corssmit EP, Reijntjes RH, Lammers GJ, van Dijk JG, Thijs RD. Sleep-mediated heart rate variability after bilateral carotid body tumor resection. SLEEP 2015;38(4):633–639. PMID:25325476

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of dopamine D2 receptor in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Jun; Takayama, Anna; Yokoyama, Takuya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine modulates the chemosensitivity of arterial chemoreceptors, and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is expected to localize in the glomus cells and/or sensory nerve endings of the carotid body. In the present study, the localization of D2R in the rat carotid body was examined using double immunofluorescence for D2R with various cell markers. D2R immunoreactivity was mainly localized in glomus cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), but not in S100B-immunoreactive sustentacular cells. Furthermore, D2R immunoreactivity was observed in petrosal ganglion cells and nerve bundles in the carotid body, but not in the nerve endings with P2X2 immunoreactivity. In the carotid ganglion, a few punctate D2R-immunoreactive products were detected in DBH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. These results showed that D2R was mainly distributed in glomus cells, and suggested that D2R plays a role in the inhibitory modulation of chemosensory activity in a paracrine and/or autocrine manner. PMID:26272445

  11. Coexpression of Galanin and Nestin in the Chemoreceptor Cells of the Human Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Marconi, Guya D; Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Cataldi, Amelia; Di Giulio, Camillo; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The carotid body is a highly specialized chemoreceptive organ of neural crest origin whose role is to detect changes in arterial oxygen content. The sensory units are the chemoreceptor cells, which are neuronal-like cells, surrounded by sustentacular or glial-like cells. It is suggested that the carotid body contains self-renewing multipotent stem cells, which are putatively represented by glial-like sustentacular cells. The mechanisms of renewal of neuronal-like cells are unclear. Recently, we have demonstrated the expression of galanin, a peptide promoting neurogenesis, in chemoreceptor cells in the human CB. Thus, in the present study we seek to determine whether galanin expression in chemoreceptor cells could be matched with that of nestin, a peptide that is a marker of multipotent neural stem cells, or rather with the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for glial cells. The latter would underscore the pluasibly essential role of sustentacular cells in the self-renewal capability of chemorecetors. We found that galanin expression is matched with nestin in chemoreceptor cells of the human carotid body, but not with that of GFAP. Thus, galanin expression in chemoreceptor cells could provide a signal for neurogenesis and chemoreceptor cell differentiation in the carotid body.

  12. Effect of bilateral carotid body resection on cardiac baroreflex control of blood pressure during hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Taylor, Jennifer L; Mozer, Michael T; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A; Curry, Timothy B; Joyner, Michael J; Wehrwein, Erica A

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia results in a reduction in cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a shift in the baroreflex working range to higher heart rates. This effect is mediated, in part, by the carotid chemoreceptors. Therefore, we hypothesized hypoglycemia-mediated changes in baroreflex control of heart rate would be blunted in carotid body-resected patients when compared with healthy controls. Five patients with bilateral carotid body resection for glomus tumors and 10 healthy controls completed a 180-minute hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic (≈3.3 mmol/L) clamp. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity were assessed. Baseline baroreflex sensitivity was not different between groups (P>0.05). Hypoglycemia resulted in a reduction in baroreflex sensitivity in both the groups (main effect of time, P<0.01) and responses were lower in resected patients when compared with controls (main effect of group, P<0.05). Hypoglycemia resulted in large reductions in systolic (-17±7 mm Hg) and mean (-14±5 mm Hg) blood pressure in resected patients that were not observed in controls (interaction of group and time, P<0.05). Despite lower blood pressures, increases in heart rate with hypoglycemia were blunted in resected patients (interaction of group and time, P<0.01). Major novel findings from this study demonstrate that intact carotid chemoreceptors are essential for increasing heart rate and maintaining arterial blood pressure during hypoglycemia in humans. These data support a contribution of the carotid chemoreceptors to blood pressure control and highlight the potential widespread effects of carotid body resection in humans.

  13. A case of congenital agenesis of the common carotid artery associated with an ectopic parathyroid adenoma mimicking a carotid body tumor.

    PubMed

    Malm, Ian-James; Olcott, Clara M; Chan, Jason Y K; Loyo, Myriam; Kim, Young J

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas can be encountered during four gland explorations, but nearly 80% of adenomas are localized with ultrasound and sestamibi imaging. Ectopic adenomas are thought to arise from abnormal migration during development. As a cervical congenital anomaly, common carotid artery agenesis is an extremely rare anomaly characterized by separate origins of the internal and external carotid arteries directly from the aortic arch. Here we present a case of a 75 year old man with primary hyperparathyroidism who was found to have congenital agenesis of the common carotid artery associated with an ectopic parathyroid adenoma within the parapharyngeal space, which mimicked a carotid body tumor based on location and imaging. The successful identification and resection of the ectopic parathyroid adenoma presented here demonstrate the importance of preoperative imaging studies to allow appropriate operative planning as well as the utility of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay in predicting cure during surgery.

  14. Multiple osseous metastases of a carotid body tumor in a dog.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Mina; Shimada, Akinori; Morita, Takehito; Yoshikawa, Masako; Nishida, Koji

    2007-03-01

    Metastasis of malignant carotid body tumor to multiple bones was detected in a 13-year-old female Siberian husky dog. Radiographs exhibited an abnormal mass in the retropharyngeal site and osteolytic lesions in the vertebral bodies, spinous process, tibia, and ribs. At necropsy, multiple masses were observed in the bones as well as at the dorsal area of the retropharynx. Histologically, the tumor cells, arranged in sheets and clusters, had eosinophilic finely granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumor cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin. Electron microscopy demonstrated a number of dense membrane-bound granules in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as multiple bone metastases of a malignant carotid body tumor. Spinal cord damage induced by the tumor mass was the cause of the hind limb paralysis of the present dog.

  15. Percutaneous Injection of Lidocaine Within the Carotid Body Area in Carotid Artery Stenting: An 'Old-New' Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mourikis, Dimitrios; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Katsenis, Konstantinos; Vlahos, Lampros; Chatziioannou, Achilles

    2008-07-15

    Severe bradycardia is a common untoward effect during balloon angioplasty when performing carotid artery stenting. Therefore atropine injection even before dilatation and the presence of an anesthesiologist are advocated in all patients. In the surgical literature, injection of a local anesthetic agent into the carotid sinus before carotid endarterectomy was performed in an attempt to ameliorate perioperative hemodynamic instability. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that percutaneous infiltration of the carotid sinus with local anesthetic immediately before balloon dilatation reduces bradycardia and ameliorates the need for atropine injection or the presence of an anesthesiologist. Infiltration of the carotid sinus with 5 ml of 1% lidocaine, 3 min before dilatation, was performed in 30 consecutive patients. No one exhibited any significant rhythm change that required atropine injection. The anesthesiologist did not face any hemodynamic instability during the carotid artery stenting procedure.

  16. Role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in baroreflex control of blood pressure during hypoglycaemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Taylor, Jennifer L; Dube, Simmi; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Joyner, Michael J; Wehrwein, Erica A

    2014-04-01

    Activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with hypoxia alters baroreceptor-mediated responses. We aimed to examine whether this relationship can be translated to other chemoreceptor stimuli (i.e. hypoglycaemia) by testing the following hypotheses: (i) activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with hypoglycaemia would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (sCBRS) in healthy humans; and (ii) desensitization of the carotid chemoreceptors with hyperoxia would restore sCBRS to baseline levels during hypoglycaemia. Ten young healthy adults completed two 180 min hyperinsulinaemic [2 mU (kg fat-free mass)(-1) min(-1)], hypoglycaemic (∼ 3.2 μmol ml(-1)) clamps, separated by at least 1 week and randomized to normoxia (arterial partial pressure of O2, 122 ± 10 mmHg) or hyperoxia (arterial partial pressure of O2, 424 ± 123 mmHg; to blunt activation of the carotid body glomus cells). Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma catecholamines, heart rate variability (HRV) and sCBRS were assessed. During hypoglycaemia, HRV and sCBRS were reduced (P < 0.05) and the baroreflex working range was shifted to higher heart rates. When hyperoxia was superimposed on hypoglycaemia, there was a greater reduction in blood pressure and a blunted rise in heart rate when compared with normoxic conditions (P < 0.05); however, there was no detectable effect of hyperoxia on sCBRS or HRV during hypoglycaemia (P > 0.05). In summary, hypoglycaemia-mediated changes in HRV and sCBRS cannot be attributed exclusively to the carotid chemoreceptors; however, the chemoreceptors appear to play a role in resetting the baroreflex working range during hypoglycaemia.

  17. The discovery of sensory nature of the carotid bodies--invited article.

    PubMed

    De Castro, F

    2009-01-01

    Although the carotid body (or glomus caroticum) was a structure familiar to anatomists in the XVIIIth century, it was not until the beginning of the XXth century that its role was revealed. It was then that the German physiologist Heinrich Hering described the respiratory reflex and he began to study the anatomical basis of this reflex focusing on the carotid region, and the carotid sinus in particular. At this time, the physiologists and pharmacologists associated with Jean-François Heymans and his son (Corneille) in Ghent (Belgium) adopted a different approach to resolve this issue, and they centred their efforts on the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region. However, at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (Madrid, Spain), one of the youngest and more brilliant disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Fernando De Castro, took advantage of certain technical advances to study the fine structure of the carotid body (De Castro, 1925). In successive papers (1926, 1928, 1929), De Castro unravelled most of the histological secrets of this small structure and described the exact localisation of the "chemoreceptors" within the glomus. Indeed, his was the first description of cells specifically devoted to detect changes in the chemical composition of blood. Heymans was deeply interested in the work of De Castro, and he extended two invitations to the Spanish neurologist to visit (1929 and 1932) so that they could share their experiences. From 1932-1933, Corneille Heymans focused his attention on the carotid body and his physiological demonstration of De Castro's hypothesis regarding chemoreceptors led to him obtaining the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1938, while Spain was immersed in its catastrophic Civil War.

  18. Carotid body remodelling in l-NAME-induced hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Felix, A S; Rocha, V N; Nascimento, A L R; de Carvalho, J J

    2012-05-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a chemoreceptor organ located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. It is made up of the carotid glomus, a structure containing type 1 cells surrounded by type 2 cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of the CB and carotid glomus in the rat model of l-NAME-induced hypertension. Male Wistar rats were divided in two groups: control untreated rats (C) and rats receiving l-NAME 40 mg/kg/day (LN) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the systolic blood pressure was 63% higher in the LN group compared with the C group. Morphometric analysis showed that the area of the CB was 29% greater in the LN group compared with the C group. The density of nuclei in the CB was similar between groups, but it was 31% less in the carotid glomus of the LN group. Cells in the CB of the LN group displayed cytoplasmic vacuolation and expressed several biogenic amines. There were more elastic fibres, proteoglycans and collagen fibres in the LN group compared with the C group. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of nuclear factor kB, substance P, vascular endothelial growth factor and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the LN group, while expression of the protein gene product 9.5 was decreased. l-NAME alters cell morphology and the expression of extracellular matrix molecules in the CB and carotid glomus in rats with l-NAME-induced hypertension. PMID:21899859

  19. CT AND MRI FEATURES OF CAROTID BODY PARAGANGLIOMAS IN 16 DOGS.

    PubMed

    Mai, Wilfried; Seiler, Gabriela S; Lindl-Bylicki, Britany J; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (paragangliomas) arise from chemoreceptors located at the carotid bifurcation. In imaging studies, this neoplasm may be confused with other neck neoplasms such as thyroid carcinoma. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of confirmed carotid body tumors in a multi-institutional sample of dogs. A total of 16 dogs met inclusion criteria (14 examined using CT and two with MRI). The most common reason for imaging was a palpable cervical mass or respiratory signs (i.e., dyspnea or increased respiratory noises). The most commonly affected breed was Boston terrier (n = 5). Dogs were predominantly male castrated (n = 10) and the median age was 9 years [range 3-14.5]. Most tumors appeared as a large mass centered at the carotid bifurcation, with poor margination in six dogs and discrete margins in ten dogs. Masses were iso- to hypoattenuating to adjacent muscles in CT images and hyperintense to muscles in T1- and T2-weighted MRI. For both CT and MRI, masses typically showed strong and heterogeneous contrast enhancement. There was invasion into the adjacent structures in 9/16 dogs. In six of these nine dogs, the basilar portion of the skull was affected. The external carotid artery was entrapped in seven dogs. There was invasion into the internal jugular vein in three dogs, and into the external jugular, maxillary, and linguo-facial veins in one dog. Imaging characteristics helped explain some clinical presentations such as breathing difficulties, Horner's syndrome, head tilt, or facial nerve paralysis. PMID:25846946

  20. Metastasis of carcinoma of the lung to a carotid body paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Bury, Yvonne; Green, Richard; Jain, Mona; Moor, James

    2012-04-04

    Tumour-to-tumour metastasis is a rare phenomenon, but has been described in the literature in just over 100 cases. It can be particularly puzzling for the reporting pathologists, when encountered unexpectedly in a tumour showing abrupt transition from the usual morphology to another unusual pattern. The literature reports a variety of combinations with carcinoma-to-carcinoma being the most common; and renal cell carcinomas appear to the most common recipient tumours with common donor tumours being breast, lung and renal cell carcinomas. The authors report a case of poorly-differentiated lung carcinoma metastasising into a carotid body paraganglioma. Our case is unique and in our knowledge the first described case of carotid body paraganglioma with metastasis from a lung primary. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this interesting biological phenomenon in this combination.

  1. Presynaptic action of adenosine on a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in the rat carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Vandier, C; Conway, A F; Landauer, R C; Kumar, P

    1999-01-01

    Plasma adenosine concentration increases during hypoxia to a level that excites carotid body chemoreceptors by an undetermined mechanism. We have examined this further by determining the electrophysiological responses to exogenous adenosine of sinus nerve chemoafferents in vitro and of whole-cell currents in isolated type I cells.Steady-state, single-fibre chemoafferent discharge was increased approximately 5-fold above basal levels by 100 μM adenosine. This adenosine-stimulated discharge was reversibly and increasingly reduced by methoxyverapamil (D600, 100 μM), by application of nickel chloride (Ni2+, 2 mM) and by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These effects strongly suggest a presynaptic, excitatory action of adenosine on type I cells of the carotid body.Adenosine decreased whole-cell outward currents at membrane potentials above -40 mV in isolated type I cells recorded during superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered saline solution at 34–36 °C. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent with a maximal effect at 10 μM.The degree of current inhibition induced by 10 μM adenosine was voltage independent (45.39 ± 2.55% (mean ± s.e.m.) between −40 and +30 mV) and largely (∼75%), but not entirely, Ca2+ independent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM) decreased the amplitude of the control outward current by 80.60 ± 3.67% and abolished the effect of adenosine.Adenosine was without effect upon currents near the resting membrane potential of approximately −55 mV and did not induce depolarization in current-clamp experiments.We conclude that adenosine acts to inhibit a 4-AP-sensitive current in isolated type I cells of the rat carotid body and suggest that this mechanism contributes to the chemoexcitatory effect of adenosine in the whole carotid body. PMID:10050009

  2. Gene expression and function of adenosine A(2A) receptor in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    2000-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether rat carotid bodies express adenosine (Ado) A(2A) receptors and whether this receptor is involved in the cellular response to hypoxia. Our results demonstrate that rat carotid bodies express the A(2A) and A(2B) Ado receptor mRNAs but not the A(1) or A(3) receptor mRNAs as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of the A(2A) receptor mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies further showed that the A(2A) receptor is expressed in the carotid body and that it is colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase in type I cells. Whole cell voltage-clamp studies using isolated type I cells showed that Ado inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents and that this inhibition was abolished by the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM-241385. Ca(2+) imaging studies using fura 2 revealed that exposure to severe hypoxia induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in type I cells and that extracellularly applied Ado significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together, our findings indicate that A(2A) receptors are present in type I cells and that activation of A(2A) receptors modulates Ca(2+) accumulation during hypoxia. This mechanism may play a role in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and cellular excitability during hypoxia. PMID:10926550

  3. Changes in oxygen sensitivity of TASK in carotid body glomus cells during early postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghee; Papreck, Justin R.; Kim, Insook; Donnelly, David F.; Carroll, John L.

    2011-01-01

    A post-natal increase in carotid body (CB) hypoxia responsiveness occurs at the level of carotid sinus nerve activity, intracellular calcium, cell membrane depolarization and hypoxic inhibition of O2-sensitive background K+ conductance. TASK-1, TASK-1/3 and TASK-3 are functionally expressed in CB glomus cells, with TASK-1/3 providing the major part of the O2-sensitive TASK-like background K+ conductance. Here we report the effects of graded hypoxia on TASK-like channel activity in CB glomus cells from rats aged 0-1, 6-7 and 16-18 days; the time frame of postnatal CB functional maturation. TASK was active in nearly all cell-attached patches and TASK activity during normoxia did not differ across ages. Hypoxia produced a progressive decrease in channel opening frequency with graded decreases in O2 level and also produced glomus cell depolarization, as assessed by the shift in reversal potential of TASK single channel current. Hypoxic inhibition of TASK activity was least at P0-P1 and increased with age mainly between 6-7 and 16-18 days. The O2-sensitive TASK activity was significantly greater in glomus cells from P16-P18 when compared to cells from P0-P1 day old rats. These results support the hypothesis that postnatal carotid body functional maturation is due, at least in part, to changes in the sensitivity of TASK to the hypoxic signals generated in glomus cells. PMID:21530688

  4. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  5. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation. PMID:25520668

  6. Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation

  7. Effects of angiotensin II on leptin and downstream leptin signaling in the carotid body during acute intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J M; Messenger, S A; Ciriello, J

    2015-12-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is known to promote leptin production and secretion. Although ANG II type 1 receptors (AT1Rs) and leptin are expressed within the carotid body, it is not known whether AT1R and leptin are co-expressed in the same glomus cells nor if these peptides are affected within the carotid body by intermittent hypoxia (IH). This study was done to investigate whether ANG II modulated leptin signaling in the carotid body during IH. Rats were treated with captopril (Capt) or the AT1R blocker losartan (Los) in the drinking water for 3days prior to being exposed to IH (8h) or normoxia (8h). IH induced increases in plasma ANG II and leptin compared to normoxic controls. Capt treatment abolished the plasma leptin changes to IH, whereas Los treatment had no effect on the IH induced increase in plasma leptin. Additionally, carotid body glomus cells containing both leptin and the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb) were found to co-express AT1R protein, and IH increased the expression of only AT1R protein within the carotid body in both Capt- and non-Capt-treated animals. On the other hand, Los treatment did not modify AT1R protein expression to IH. Additionally, Capt and Los treatment eliminated the elevated carotid body leptin protein expression, and the changes in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription three protein, the short form of the leptin receptor (OB-R100), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, and phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression induced by IH. However, Capt elevated the expression of OB-Rb protein, whereas Los abolished the changes in OB-Rb protein to IH. These findings, taken together with the previous observation that ANG II modifies carotid body chemosensitivity, suggest that the increased circulating levels of ANG II and leptin induced by IH act at the carotid body to alter leptin signaling within the carotid body which in turn may influence chemoreceptor function.

  8. Radical resection of a Shamblin type III carotid body tumour without cerebro-neurological deficit: Improved technique with preoperative embolization and carotid stenting.

    PubMed

    Ong, H S; Fan, X D; Ji, T

    2014-12-01

    The surgical resection of a large unfavourable Shamblin type III carotid body tumour (CBT) can be very challenging technically, with many potential significant complications. Preoperative embolization aids in shrinking the lesion, reducing intraoperative blood loss, and improving visualization of the surgical field. Preoperative internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting aids in reinforcing the arterial wall, thereby providing a better dissection plane. A woman presented to our institution with a large right-sided CBT. Failure of the preoperative temporary balloon occlusion (TBO) test emphasized the importance of intraoperative preservation of the ipsilateral ICA. A combination of both preoperative embolization and carotid stenting allowed a less hazardous radical resection of the CBT. An almost bloodless surgical field permitted meticulous dissection, hence reducing the risk of intraoperative vascular and nerve injury. Embolization and carotid stenting prior to surgical resection should be considered in cases with bilateral CBT or a skull base orientated high CBT, and for those with intracranial extension and patients who have failed the TBO test.

  9. GabaB receptors activation in the NTS blocks the glycemic responses induced by carotid body receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lemus, Mónica; Montero, Sergio; Cadenas, José Luis; Lara, José Jesús; Tejeda-Chávez, Héctor Rafael; Alvarez-Buylla, Ramón; de Alvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces

    2008-08-18

    The carotid body receptors participate in glucose regulation sensing glucose levels in blood entering the cephalic circulation. The carotid body receptors information, is initially processed within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and elicits changes in circulating glucose and brain glucose uptake. Previous work has shown that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in NTS modulates respiratory reflexes, but the role of GABA within NTS in glucose regulation remains unknown. Here we show that GABA(B) receptor agonist (baclofen) or antagonists (phaclofen and CGP55845A) locally injected into NTS modified arterial glucose levels and brain glucose retention. Control injections outside NTS did not elicit these responses. In contrast, GABA(A) agonist and antagonist (muscimol or bicuculline) produced no significant changes in blood glucose levels. When these GABAergic drugs were applied before carotid body receptors stimulation, again, only GABA(B) agonist or antagonist significantly affected glycemic responses; baclofen microinjection significantly reduced the hyperglycemic response and brain glucose retention observed after carotid body receptors stimulation, while phaclofen produced the opposite effect, increasing significantly hyperglycemia and brain glucose retention. These results indicate that activation of GABA(B), but not GABA(A), receptors in the NTS modulates the glycemic responses after anoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors, and suggest the presence of a tonic inhibitory mechanism in the NTS to avoid hyperglycemia.

  10. Stroke from Delayed Embolization of Polymerized Glue Following Percutaneous Direct Injection of a Carotid Body Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Rajan, Jayadevan E; Thomas, Bejoy

    2007-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with right carotid body tumor underwent direct percutaneous glue (n-butylcyanoacrylate [NBCA]) embolization. Several hours later, he developed left hemiparesis from embolization of the polymerized glue cast. Migration of glue during percutaneous tumor embolization is presumed to occur only in the liquid state, which may lead to stroke or cranial nerve deficits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of delayed glue embolization from a treated hypervascular tumor of the head and neck. PMID:17554195

  11. Stroke from delayed embolization of polymerized glue following percutaneous direct injection of a carotid body tumor.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Thamburaj; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Rajan, Jayadevan E; Thomas, Bejoy

    2007-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with right carotid body tumor underwent direct percutaneous glue (n-butylcyanoacrylate [NBCA]) embolization. Several hours later, he developed left hemiparesis from embolization of the polymerized glue cast. Migration of glue during percutaneous tumor embolization is presumed to occur only in the liquid state, which may lead to stroke or cranial nerve deficits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of delayed glue embolization from a treated hypervascular tumor of the head and neck.

  12. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  13. Expanding role of ATP as a versatile messenger at carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Piskuric, Nikol A; Nurse, Colin A

    2013-01-15

    In mammals, peripheral arterial chemoreceptors monitor blood chemicals (e.g. O(2), CO(2), H(+), glucose) and maintain homeostasis via initiation of respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes. Whereas chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies (CBs), located bilaterally at the carotid bifurcation, control primarily respiratory functions, those in the more diffusely distributed aortic bodies (ABs) are thought to regulate mainly cardiovascular functions. Functionally, CBs sense partial pressure of O(2) ( ), whereas ABs are considered sensors of O(2) content. How these organs, with essentially a similar complement of chemoreceptor cells, differentially process these two different types of signals remains enigmatic. Here, we review evidence that implicates ATP as a central mediator during information processing in the CB. Recent data allow an integrative view concerning its interactions at purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors within the chemosensory complex that contains elements of a 'quadripartite synapse'. We also discuss recent studies on the cellular physiology of ABs located near the aortic arch, as well as immunohistochemical evidence suggesting the presence of pathways for P2X receptor signalling. Finally, we present a hypothetical 'quadripartite model' to explain how ATP, released from red blood cells during hypoxia, could contribute to the ability of ABs to sense O(2) content.

  14. A pilot study of the body weight of pure-bred client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, Ellen; Moik, Katja

    2011-10-01

    A total of 539 pure-bred and seventy-five cats without a pedigree were weighed and scored at cat shows or in veterinary surgeries. Data from normal-weight cats with a body condition score (BCS) of 5 (ideal) were only used. Breeds were grouped into five classes. For female cats, the mean weight for these groups were as follows: very light (2.8 kg); light (3.2 kg); medium (3.5 kg); large (4.0 kg); giant (4.9) kg. For male cats, the corresponding values were 3.6, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1 and 6.1 kg. Siamese/Oriental Shorthair were identified as a very light breed, the Norwegian Forest and the Siberian Cat as a large breed and the Maine Coon as a giant breed. Males and females of the same breed did not always belong to the same class. In some breeds, individuals of the same sex were found in two different classes. The percentage of intact overweight cats (BCS >5) was low (7 % of intact males, 3 % of intact females). Incidence of overweight in neutered cats was 50 % in males and 38 % in females. Among pedigreed cats, there were differences in the incidence of overweight in neutered cats: high in Norwegian Forest Cats (males 75 %, females 50 %) and low in Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cats (males 25 %, females 1 %). Cats with a BCS of 6, 7 and 8 had on average 120, 154 and 214 % of the normal weight of their breed, respectively.

  15. Signal transduction of aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors is not modified by central command during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Kadowaki, Akito; Ishida, Tomoko; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Liang, Nan

    2014-05-15

    Our laboratory has suggested that central command provides selective inhibition of the cardiomotor component of aortic baroreflex at the start of exercise, preserving carotid sinus baroreflex. It is postulated that central command may modify the signal transduction of aortic baroreceptors, so as to decrease aortic baroreceptor input to the cardiovascular centers, and, thereby, can cause the selective inhibition of aortic baroreflex. To test the hypothesis, we directly analyzed the responses in multifiber aortic nerve activity (AoNA) and carotid sinus nerve activity (CsNA) during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate, paralyzed cats. The increases of 62-104% in mean AoNA and CsNA were found during spontaneous motor activity, in proportion to a rise of 35 ± 3 mmHg (means ± SE) in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and had an attenuating tendency by restraining heart rate (HR) at the lower intrinsic frequency of 154 ± 6 beats/min. Brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta was conducted before and during spontaneous motor activity to produce a mechanically evoked increase in MAP and, thereby, to examine the stimulus-response relationship of arterial baroreceptors. Although the sensitivity of the MAP-HR baroreflex curve was markedly blunted during spontaneous motor activity, the stimulus-response relationships of AoNA and CsNA were not influenced by spontaneous motor activity, irrespective of the absence or presence of the HR restraint. Thus, it is concluded that aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors can code beat-by-beat blood pressure during spontaneous motor activity in decerebrate cats and that central command is unlikely to modulate the signal transduction of arterial baroreceptors.

  16. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  17. H2S production by reactive oxygen species in the carotid body triggers hypertension in a rodent model of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoxiang; Peng, Ying-Jie; Khan, Shakil A; Nanduri, Jayasri; Singh, Amritha; Vasavda, Chirag; Semenza, Gregg L; Kumar, Ganesh K; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-01-01

    Sleep apnea is a prevalent respiratory disease in which episodic cessation of breathing causes intermittent hypoxia. Patients with sleep apnea and rodents exposed to intermittent hypoxia exhibit hypertension. The carotid body senses changes in blood O2 concentrations, and an enhanced carotid body chemosensory reflex contributes to hypertension in sleep apnea patients. A rodent model of intermittent hypoxia that mimics blood O2 saturation profiles of patients with sleep apnea has shown that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the carotid body enhances the chemosensory reflex and triggers hypertension. CO generated by heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) induces a signaling pathway that inhibits hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), leading to suppression of carotid body activity. We found that ROS inhibited CO generation by HO-2 in the carotid body and liver through a mechanism that required Cys(265) in the heme regulatory motif of heterologously expressed HO-2. We showed that ROS induced by intermittent hypoxia inhibited CO production and increased H2S concentrations in the carotid body, which stimulated its neural activity. In rodents, blockade of H2S synthesis by CSE, by either pharmacologic or genetic approaches, inhibited carotid body activation and hypertension induced by intermittent hypoxia. Thus, our results indicate that oxidant-induced inactivation of HO-2, which leads to increased CSE-dependent H2S production in the carotid body, is a critical trigger of hypertension in rodents exposed to intermittent hypoxia. PMID:27531649

  18. Deactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors by hyperoxia decreases blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Sinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Jacek; Przybylski, Jacek; Zalewski, Paweł; Symonides, Bartosz; Abramczyk, Piotr; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that hyperoxia-induced deactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors reduces sympathetic activity in hypertensive patients but it does not affect blood pressure. The maintenance of blood pressure can be explained by the direct, vasoconstrictive effect of hyperoxia, which offsets diminished sympathetic activity. This study compares the effect of acute hyperoxia on hemodynamic parameters between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Twelve males with hypertension (age 39.4±2.4 years; body mass index 27.4±1.1 kg m(-2)) and 11 normotensive males (age 39.9±2.7 years; body mass index 25.4±0.7 kg m(-2)) received, via non-rebreathing mask ventilation, ambient air, followed by 100% oxygen for 20 min. The stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, respiratory rate, baroreceptor control of heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded continuously. Several 30 s periods were analyzed before, during and after inducing hyperoxia. At baseline, the hypertensive subject's blood pressure was higher and their baroreflex control of heart rate was lower when compared with the normotensive control group. After the first 30 s of hyperoxia, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures, as well as the total peripheral resistance, decreased significantly in hypertensives but not in normotensives. After 20 min of 100% oxygen ventilation, systolic and mean blood pressures and total peripheral resistance was increased in hypertensive patients, and the cardiac output and stroke volume had decreased in both groups. The results of this study confirm that deactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors can acutely decrease blood pressure in humans.

  19. Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria J.; Sacramento, Joana F.; Gonzalez, Constancio; Guarino, Maria P.; Monteiro, Emília C.; Conde, Sílvia V.

    2013-01-01

    Increased sympathetic activity is a well-known pathophysiological mechanism in insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension (HT). The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that classically respond to hypoxia by increasing chemosensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), causing hyperventilation and activation of the sympathoadrenal system. Besides its role in the control of ventilation, the CB has been proposed as a glucose sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. However, to date no studies have anticipated its role in the development of IR. Herein, we propose that CB overstimulation is involved in the etiology of IR and HT, core metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances of highly prevalent diseases like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnoea. We demonstrate that CB activity is increased in IR animal models and that CSN resection prevents CB overactivation and diet-induced IR and HT. Moreover, we show that insulin triggers CB, highlighting a new role for hyperinsulinemia as a stimulus for CB overactivation. We propose that CB is implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances through sympathoadrenal overactivation and may represent a novel therapeutic target in these diseases. PMID:23530003

  20. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, carotid body function and erythropoietin production in adult rats perinatally exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Ramirez, Maria; Olea, Elena; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Cogolludo, Angel; Castañeda, Javier; Yubero, Sara; Agapito, Teresa; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Rocher, Asuncion; Rigual, Ricardo; Obeso, Ana; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; González, Constancio

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalians possess three cell systems that are activated by acute bodily hypoxia: pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), carotid body chemoreceptor cells (CBCC) and erythropoietin (EPO)-producing cells. In rats, chronic perinatal hyperoxia causes permanent carotid body (CB) atrophy and functional alterations of surviving CBCC. There are no studies on PASMC or EPO-producing cells. Our aim is to define possible long-lasting functional changes in PASMC or EPO-producing cells (measured as EPO plasma levels) and, further, to analyse CBCC functional alterations. We used 3- to 4-month-old rats born and reared in a normal atmosphere or exposed to perinatal hyperoxia (55–60% O2 for the last 5–6 days of pregnancy and 4 weeks after birth). Perinatal hyperoxia causes an almost complete loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which was correlated with lung oxidative status in early postnatal life and prevented by antioxidant supplementation in the diet. O2-sensitivity of K+ currents in the PASMC of hyperoxic animals is normal, indicating that their inhibition is not sufficient to trigger HPV. Perinatal hyperoxia also abrogated responses elicited by hypoxia on catecholamine and cAMP metabolism in the CB. An increase in EPO plasma levels elicited by hypoxia was identical in hyperoxic and control animals, implying a normal functioning of EPO-producing cells. The loss of HPV observed in adult rats and caused by perinatal hyperoxia, comparable to oxygen therapy in premature infants, might represent a previously unrecognized complication of such a medical intervention capable of aggravating medical conditions such as regional pneumonias, atelectases or general anaesthesia in adult life. Key points Adult animals that have been perinatally exposed to oxygen-rich atmospheres (hyperoxia), recalling those used for oxygen therapy in infants, exhibit a loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas vasoconstriction elicited by depolarizing agents is

  1. Acrolein inhalation alters arterial blood gases and triggers carotid body-mediated cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Christina M.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Air pollution exposure affects autonomic function, heart rate, blood pressure and left ventricular function. While the mechanism for these effects is uncertain, several studies have reported that air pollution exposure modifies activity of the carotid body, the major organ that senses changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and elicits downstream changes in autonomic control and cardiac function. Objective We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde and mucosal irritant found in cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, would activate the carotid body chemoreceptor response and lead to secondary cardiovascular responses in rats. Materials and methods Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed once for 3 h to 3 ppm acrolein gas or filtered air in whole body plethysmograph chambers. To determine if the carotid body mediated acrolein-induced cardiovascular responses, rats were pretreated with an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme essential for carotid body signal transduction. Results Acrolein exposure induced several cardiovascular effects. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure increased during exposure, while cardiac contractility decreased 1 day after exposure. The cardiovascular effects were associated with decreases in pO2, breathing frequency and expiratory time, and increases in sympathetic tone during exposure followed by parasympathetic dominance after exposure. The CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein exposure. Discussion and conclusion Pretreatment with the CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein, suggesting that the cardiovascular responses with acrolein may be mediated by carotid body-triggered changes in autonomic tone. (This abstract does not reflect EPA policy.) PMID:25600140

  2. Chemotransduction in the Carotid Body: K+ Current Modulated by Po2 in Type I Chemoreceptor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Barneo, Jose; Lopez-Lopez, Jose R.; Urena, Juan; Gonzalez, Constancio

    1988-07-01

    The ionic currents of carotid body type I cells and their possible involvement in the detection of oxygen tension (Po2) in arterial blood are unknown. The electrical properties of these cells were studied with the whole-cell patch clamp technique, and the hypothesis that ionic conductances can be altered by changes in Po2 was tested. The results show that type I cells have voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium channels. Sodium and calcium currents were unaffected by a decrease in Po2 from 150 to 10 millimeters of mercury, whereas, with the same experimental protocol, potassium currents were reversibly reduced by 25 to 50 percent. The effect of hypoxia was independent of internal adenosine triphosphate and calcium. Thus, ionic conductances, and particularly the O2-sensitive potassium current, play a key role in the transduction mechanism of arterial chemoreceptors.

  3. Effects of osmotic changes on the chemoreceptor cell of rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Zoltán; Petheo, Gábor L; Fülöp, Csaba; Spät, András

    2003-01-15

    The carotid body plays a crucial role in cardiorespiratory regulation. In the present study we investigated the effect of osmotic changes on cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) and pH (pH(i)) of isolated chemoreceptor cells of the rat carotid body. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-buffered medium, reduction of osmolality from the control level of 300 mosmol kg(-1) to 250-285 mosmol kg(-1) resulted in a rise in [Ca(2+)](c), as measured with Indo-1, whereas elevation of osmolality to 350 mosmol kg(-1) had no effect. The Ca(2+) response required extracellular Ca(2+) and was reduced by application of the L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nifedipine (10 microM). The hyposmosis-induced Ca(2+) response could be prevented by application of niflumic acid (300 microM), an inhibitor of the swelling-activated Cl(-) channel. In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments niflumic acid abolished the swelling-activated Cl(-) current but only slightly depressed the Ca(2+) current. The inhibition of Ca(2+) current by niflumic acid does not account for its action in preventing of hyposmosis-induced Ca(2+) response, which seems to be initiated by Cl(-)-mediated depolarisation. Withdrawal of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) also prevented the Ca(2+) response. Reduction of the osmotic concentration by 50 mosmol kg(-1) induced a small but sustained decrease in pH(i), while elevation by 50 mosmol kg(-1) had an inverse effect, as measured fluorimetrically with carboxy SNARF-1. Our conclusion is that in the rat chemoreceptor cell the activation of Cl(-) channels, e.g. by hyposmotic challenge, induces depolarisation, which, in turn, activates voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

  4. Brainstem PCO2 modulates phrenic responses to specific carotid body hypoxia in an in situ dual perfused rat preparation

    PubMed Central

    Day, Trevor A; Wilson, Richard J A

    2007-01-01

    Inputs from central (brainstem) and peripheral (carotid body) respiratory chemoreceptors are coordinated to protect blood gases against potentially deleterious fluctuations. However, the mathematics of the steady-state interaction between chemoreceptors has been difficult to ascertain. Further, how this interaction affects time-dependent phenomena (in which chemoresponses depend upon previous experience) is largely unknown. To determine how central PCO2 modulates the response to peripheral chemostimulation in the rat, we utilized an in situ arterially perfused, vagotomized, decerebrate preparation, in which central and peripheral chemoreceptors were perfused separately (i.e. dual perfused preparation (DPP)). We carried out two sets of experiments: in Experiment 1, we alternated steady-state brainstem PCO2 between 25 and 50 Torr in each preparation, and applied specific carotid body hypoxia (60 Torr PO2 and 40 Torr PCO2) under both conditions; in Experiment 2, we applied four 5 min bouts (separated by 5 min) of specific carotid body hypoxia (60 Torr PO2 and 40 Torr PCO2) while holding the brainstem at either 30 Torr or 50 Torr PCO2. We demonstrate that the level of brainstem PCO2 modulates (a) the magnitude of the phrenic responses to a single step of specific carotid body hypoxia and (b) the magnitude of time-dependent phenomena. We report that the interaction between chemoreceptors is negative (i.e. hypo-additive), whereby a lower brainstem PCO2 augments phrenic responses resulting from specific carotid body hypoxia. A negative interaction may underlie the pathophysiology of central sleep apnoea in populations that are chronically hypocapnic. PMID:17082232

  5. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. PMID:27572923

  6. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J; Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-01

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity is enhanced and is associated with oscillatory (Cheyne–Stokes) breathing patterns, increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and increased arrhythmia incidence. We hypothesized that denervation of the CB (CBD) chemoreceptors would reduce SNA, reduce apnoea and arrhythmia incidence and improve ventricular function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits. Resting breathing, renal SNA (RSNA) and arrhythmia incidence were measured in three groups of animals: (1) sham CHF/sham–CBD (sham–sham); (2) CHF/sham–CBD (CHF–sham); and (3) CHF/CBD (CHF–CBD). Chemoreflex sensitivity was measured as the RSNA and minute ventilatory () responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Respiratory pattern was measured by plethysmography and quantified by an apnoea–hypopnoea index, respiratory rate variability index and the coefficient of variation of tidal volume. Sympatho-respiratory coupling (SRC) was assessed using power spectral analysis and the magnitude of the peak coherence function between tidal volume and RSNA frequency spectra. Arrhythmia incidence and low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability were assessed using ECG and blood pressure waveforms, respectively. RSNA and responses to hypoxia were augmented in CHF–sham and abolished in CHF–CBD animals. Resting RSNA was greater in CHF–sham compared to sham–sham animals (43 ± 5% max vs. 23 ± 2% max, P < 0.05), and this increase was not found in CHF–CBD animals (25 ± 1% max, P < 0.05 vs. CHF–sham). Low frequency/high frequency heart rate variability ratio was similarly increased in CHF and reduced by CBD (P < 0.05). Respiratory rate variability index, coefficient of variation of tidal volume and apnoea–hypopnoea index were increased in CHF–sham animals and reduced in CHF–CBD animals (P < 0.05). SRC (peak coherence) was increased in CHF–sham animals (sham–sham 0.49 ± 0.05; CHF–sham 0.79

  7. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body: mechanisms and role in adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    López-Barneo, José; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gao, Lin; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Pardal, Ricardo; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia

    2016-04-15

    Oxygen (O2) is fundamental for cell and whole-body homeostasis. Our understanding of the adaptive processes that take place in response to a lack of O2(hypoxia) has progressed significantly in recent years. The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the acute cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation) triggered by hypoxia. The CB is composed of clusters of cells (glomeruli) in close contact with blood vessels and nerve fibers. Glomus cells, the O2-sensitive elements in the CB, are neuron-like cells that contain O2-sensitive K(+)channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia. This leads to cell depolarization, Ca(2+)entry, and the release of transmitters to activate sensory fibers terminating at the respiratory center. The mechanism whereby O2modulates K(+)channels has remained elusive, although several appealing hypotheses have been postulated. Recent data suggest that mitochondria complex I signaling to membrane K(+)channels plays a fundamental role in acute O2sensing. CB activation during exposure to low Po2is also necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxia. CB growth during sustained hypoxia depends on the activation of a resident population of stem cells, which are also activated by transmitters released from the O2-sensitive glomus cells. These advances should foster further studies on the role of CB dysfunction in the pathogenesis of highly prevalent human diseases.

  8. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and distensibility in children and adolescents: reference values and role of body dimensions.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Anke; Kracht, Daniela; Bayazit, Aysun K; Deveci, Murat; Duzova, Ali; Krmar, Rafael T; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Niemirska, Anna; Oguz, Berna; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Sözeri, Betul; Querfeld, Uwe; Melk, Anette; Schaefer, Franz; Wühl, Elke

    2013-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery distensibility are reliable screening methods for vascular alterations and the assessment of cardiovascular risk in adult and pediatric cohorts. We sought to establish an international reference data set for the childhood and adolescence period and explore the impact of developmental changes in body dimensions and blood pressure (BP) on carotid wall thickness and elasticity. cIMT, the distensibility coefficient, the incremental modulus of elasticity, and the stiffness index β were assessed in 1155 children aged 6 to 18 years and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed from 1051 nonobese and nonhypertensive children. The role of body dimensions, BP, and family history, as well as the association between cIMT and distensibility, was investigated. cIMT increased and distensibility decreased with age, height, body mass index, and BP. A significant sex difference was apparent from the age of 15 years. Age- and height-normalized cIMT and distensibility values differed in children who are short or tall for their age. By stepwise multivariate analysis, standardized systolic BP and body mass index were independently positively associated with cIMT SD scores (SDS). Systolic BP SDS independently predicted all distensibility measures. Distensibility coefficient SDS was negatively and β SDS positively associated with cIMT SDS, whereas incremental modulus of elasticity was independent of cIMT. Morphological and functional aspects of the common carotid artery are particularly influenced by age, body dimensions, and BP. The reference charts established in this study allow to accurately compare vascular phenotypes of children with chronic conditions with those of healthy children.

  9. Stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors does not influence the discharge of A1 neurons projecting to the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, S M; Harris, M C

    1989-01-01

    Stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors activates putative vasopressin neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, an effect which has been abolished by lesions in the caudal ventrolateral medulla. Stimulation within the A1 catecholamine cell group in the ventrolateral medulla also activates supraoptic neurons and releases vasopressin. Therefore the A1 catecholamine neurons may be the means by which carotid body chemoreceptors influence the supraoptic nucleus and other parts of the forebrain. To test this possibility the influence of carotid body chemoreceptors on the discharge of rostrally-projecting neurons in the A1 region of the caudal ventrolateral medulla has been assessed in rats anaesthetized with a mixture of urethane and sodium pentobarbitone. Tests were performed on 131 neurons, 23 of which were antidromically invaded following electrical stimulation within the supraoptic nucleus, the medial forebrain bundle or the ventral noradrenergic bundle. The positions of all antidromically invaded neurons were marked with dye and in six animals subsequent fluorescence histochemistry showed that the blue spots were in the proximity of one or more catecholamine-containing cell bodies in the ventrolateral medulla. The recorded neurons were therefore presumed to be part of the A1 group of catecholamine-containing neurons. All neurons located were tested for their responses to specific stimulation of ipsilateral carotid body chemoreceptors and also to general baroreflex activation. Not one of the antidromically invaded neurons was affected by chemoreceptor stimulation and only one was activated by baroreflex activation. Of the non-antidromically invaded neurons, seven were activated and 13 were depressed following chemoreceptor stimulation but in many cases the latency to onset was very long.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2511501

  10. Effects on the rabbit carotid body of stimulation by almitrine, natural high altitude, and experimental normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Smith, P; Heath, D; Fitch, R; Hurst, G; Moore, D; Weitzenblum, E

    1986-06-01

    Rabbits were given intraperitoneal injections of almitrine in ascending doses for 5 weeks. They were compared with a control group and with a group of rabbits which had been exposed from birth to the natural hypobaric hypoxia found at Cerro de Pasco (433 m) in the Peruvian Andes. A further group of animals was placed in an experimental normobaric chamber for either 3 or 6 months to subject them to the same degree of hypoxia as that occurring in Cerro. The carotid bodies of the rabbits in all these groups were processed for light and electron microscopy, and examined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The carotid bodies in the group given almitrine showed no changes in their size or in the population of their glomic cells when compared with controls. In contrast, the carotid bodies of Peruvian rabbits were greatly enlarged with a disproportionate increase in the population of the light variant of chief cell. Rabbits from the hypoxic chamber also had enlarged carotid bodies but those killed after 3 months showed an increase in the dark variant of chief cell, whereas after 6 months this cell was reduced in number. There was also intense cytoplasmic vacuolation. Election microscopy confirmed these changes and revealed that dark cells had larger, more pleomorphic granules than the light variant. Vacuolation of the granules in light cells was most pronounced in Peruvian rabbits, but was uncommon in animals exposed to hypoxia for 3 months. We suggest that the dark cell responds to the early stages of hypoxia but later matures into the light variant of chief cell.

  11. The carotid body in the duck and the consequences of its denervation upon the cardiac responses to immersion

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D. R.; Purves, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    1. The anatomy of the carotid body and its afferent nerve supply was studied in the duck and a method of denervating the carotid body which ensures a satisfactory post-operative course is described. 2. The effect of denervating the carotid body upon the cardiac response to immersion of the head in water was studied in ten ducks which at the time of the test were unanaesthetized. 3. When the nerves were intact, immersion of the head caused a fall in heart rate after a latent period of between 1 and 9 sec to an average of 24% of the resting rate after 30 sec. Simultaneous measurement of arterial oxygen tension (Pa, O2) in the brachiocephalic artery showed a rapid initial fall during the initial 10 sec from control levels, 93-103 mm Hg, to between 42 and 47 mm Hg, followed by a gradual fall of 3-5 mm Hg for each subsequent 30 sec period of submergence. 4. Following carotid body denervation, the latent period before heart rate started to fall was no different from control but the average fall in heart rate was now to 90% of the resting rate and brachiocephalic Pa. O2 continued to fall steadily during submergence reaching levels of between 10 and 21 mm Hg by the end of the second minute. 5. Stimulation of the central end of branches of the IXth (glossopharyngeal) nerve supplying the glottis caused apnoea and bradycardia. 6. It is concluded that apnoea and bradycardia during submergence in the duck is initiated reflexly from receptors in the nares, pharynx and glottis but that the profound degree of bradycardia and mechanisms which maintain a relatively high Pa, O2 are regulated by peripheral chemoreceptor activity. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:5501002

  12. Management of dogs and cats with endotracheal tube tracheal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    Nutt, Laura K.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Prosser, Kirsten J.; Defarges, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Two cats and 3 dogs were treated for an endotracheal tube tracheal foreign body (ETFB) during recovery from general anesthesia. Bronchoscopy was used to remove the ETFB. Animals were clinically normal at discharge. While rare, ETFB can occur upon recovery from anesthesia. Bronchoscopy is an effective way to remove ETFB. PMID:24891640

  13. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2015-01-01

    The leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792), is one of the most widespread Asian cats, occurring in continental eastern and southeastern Asia. Since 1929, several studies have focused on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of leopard cats. Nevertheless, hitherto there has been no agreement on basic aspects of leopard cat biology, such as the presence or absence of sexual dimorphism, morphological skull and body differences between the eleven recognized subspecies, and the biogeography of the different morphotypes. Twenty measurements on 25 adult leopard cat skulls from different Asian localities were analyzed through univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Skull and external body measurements from studies over the last 77 years were assembled and organized in two categories: full data and summary data. Most of this database comprises small samples, which have never been statistically tested and compared with each other. Full data sets were tested with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses; summary data sets (i.e., means, SDs, and ranges) were analyzed through suitable univariate approaches. The independent analyses of the data from these works confirmed our original results and improved the overview of sexual dimorphism and geographical morphological variation among subspecies. Continental leopard cats have larger skulls and body dimensions. Skulls of Indochinese morphotypes have broader and higher features than those of continental morphotypes, while individuals from the Sunda Islands have skulls with comparatively narrow and low profiles. Cranial sexual dimorphism is present in different degrees among subspecies. Most display subtle sex-related variations in a few skull features. However, in some cases, sexual dimorphism in skull morphology is absent, such as in P. b. sumatranus and P. b. borneoensis. External body measurement comparisons also indicate the low degree of sexual dimorphism. Apart from the gonads, the longer hind

  14. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B.

    2015-01-01

    The leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792), is one of the most widespread Asian cats, occurring in continental eastern and southeastern Asia. Since 1929, several studies have focused on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of leopard cats. Nevertheless, hitherto there has been no agreement on basic aspects of leopard cat biology, such as the presence or absence of sexual dimorphism, morphological skull and body differences between the eleven recognized subspecies, and the biogeography of the different morphotypes. Twenty measurements on 25 adult leopard cat skulls from different Asian localities were analyzed through univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Skull and external body measurements from studies over the last 77 years were assembled and organized in two categories: full data and summary data. Most of this database comprises small samples, which have never been statistically tested and compared with each other. Full data sets were tested with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses; summary data sets (i.e., means, SDs, and ranges) were analyzed through suitable univariate approaches. The independent analyses of the data from these works confirmed our original results and improved the overview of sexual dimorphism and geographical morphological variation among subspecies. Continental leopard cats have larger skulls and body dimensions. Skulls of Indochinese morphotypes have broader and higher features than those of continental morphotypes, while individuals from the Sunda Islands have skulls with comparatively narrow and low profiles. Cranial sexual dimorphism is present in different degrees among subspecies. Most display subtle sex-related variations in a few skull features. However, in some cases, sexual dimorphism in skull morphology is absent, such as in P. b. sumatranus and P. b. borneoensis. External body measurement comparisons also indicate the low degree of sexual dimorphism. Apart from the gonads, the longer hind

  15. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2015-01-01

    The leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792), is one of the most widespread Asian cats, occurring in continental eastern and southeastern Asia. Since 1929, several studies have focused on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of leopard cats. Nevertheless, hitherto there has been no agreement on basic aspects of leopard cat biology, such as the presence or absence of sexual dimorphism, morphological skull and body differences between the eleven recognized subspecies, and the biogeography of the different morphotypes. Twenty measurements on 25 adult leopard cat skulls from different Asian localities were analyzed through univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Skull and external body measurements from studies over the last 77 years were assembled and organized in two categories: full data and summary data. Most of this database comprises small samples, which have never been statistically tested and compared with each other. Full data sets were tested with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses; summary data sets (i.e., means, SDs, and ranges) were analyzed through suitable univariate approaches. The independent analyses of the data from these works confirmed our original results and improved the overview of sexual dimorphism and geographical morphological variation among subspecies. Continental leopard cats have larger skulls and body dimensions. Skulls of Indochinese morphotypes have broader and higher features than those of continental morphotypes, while individuals from the Sunda Islands have skulls with comparatively narrow and low profiles. Cranial sexual dimorphism is present in different degrees among subspecies. Most display subtle sex-related variations in a few skull features. However, in some cases, sexual dimorphism in skull morphology is absent, such as in P. b. sumatranus and P. b. borneoensis. External body measurement comparisons also indicate the low degree of sexual dimorphism. Apart from the gonads, the longer hind

  16. Histochemical demonstration of tripeptidyl aminopeptidase I in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Tripeptidyl aminopeptidase I (TPP I) is a lysosomal exopeptidase that is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and internal organs in many mammalian species. The enzyme is involved in the breakdown of collagen and different peptides. The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral arterial chemoreceptor playing an important role in the control of breathing and the autonomic control of cardiovascular function. In response to hypoxia its neuron-like glomus cells release a variety of peptide transmitters that trigger an action potential through the afferent fibers, thus conveying the chemosensory information to the CNS. In the present study we investigated the histochemical localization of TPP I in the CB of rats. Enzyme histochemistry showed high activity of TPP I in CB glomeruli. In particular, the glomus cells contained many TPP I-positive granules, while the glial-like sustentacular cells displayed a slightly fainter reaction. The interglomerular connective tissue was also weakly stained. The results show that both the parenchymal cells of the rat CB express, albeit with different intensity, TPP I. Taken together with our previous enzyme histochemical investigations on the rat CB, it seems likely that the glomus cells possess enzymatic equipment necessary for the neuropeptide intracellular and collagen extracellular initial degradation. These findings also suggest that TPP I is involved in the general turnover of chemotransmitters between glomus cells and sensory nerve endings which emphasizes its importance for chemoreception under hypoxic conditions.

  17. Research Report: Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygen on GAP-43 in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhengwu; Fan, Juan; Liu, Ling; Kuang, Fang; Xue, Fen; Wang, Bairen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) including the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) have been studied in response to low, but not high, oxygen exposure. Expression of GAP-43 in the CB of rats under different atmospheric pressures and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) conditions was investigated. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH, 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks), intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (IHBO2, 0, 1, 5 and 10 days, sacrificed six hours or 24 hours after the last HBO2 exposure), and intermittent hyperbaric normoxia (IHN, same treatment pattern as IHBO2). GAP-43 was highly expressed (mainly in type I cells) in the CB of normal rats. IHH u-regulated GAP-43 expression in the CB with significant differences (immunohistochemical staining [IHC]: F(3,15)=40.64, P < 0.01; western blot [WB]: F(3,16) = 53.52, P < 0.01) across the subgroups. GAP-43 expression in the CB was inhibited by IHBO2 (controls vs. IHBO2 groups, IHC: F(6,30) = 15.85, P < 0.01; WB: F(6,29) = 15.95, P < 0.01). No detectable changes in GAP-43 expression were found for IHN. These findings indicated that different PO2 conditions, but not air pressures, played an important role in the plasticity of the CB, and that GAP-43 might be a viable factor for the plasticity of the CB. PMID:26742253

  18. Central role of carotid body chemoreceptors in disordered breathing and cardiorenal dysfunction in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J.; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory breathing (OB) patterns are observed in pre-term infants, patients with cardio-renal impairment, and in otherwise healthy humans exposed to high altitude. Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these abnormal patterns by destabilizing the respiratory control system. OB patterns in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients are associated with greater levels of tonic and chemoreflex-evoked sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which is associated with greater morbidity and poor prognosis. Enhanced chemoreflex drive may contribute to tonic elevations in SNA by strengthening the relationship between respiratory and sympathetic neural outflow. Elimination of CB afferents in experimental models of CHF has been shown to reduce OB, respiratory-sympathetic coupling, and renal SNA, and to improve autonomic balance in the heart. The CB chemoreceptors may play an important role in progression of CHF by contributing to respiratory instability and OB, which in turn further exacerbates tonic and chemoreflex-evoked increases in SNA to the heart and kidney. PMID:25505417

  19. Research Report: Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygen on GAP-43 in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhengwu; Fan, Juan; Liu, Ling; Kuang, Fang; Xue, Fen; Wang, Bairen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) including the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) have been studied in response to low, but not high, oxygen exposure. Expression of GAP-43 in the CB of rats under different atmospheric pressures and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) conditions was investigated. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH, 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks), intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (IHBO2, 0, 1, 5 and 10 days, sacrificed six hours or 24 hours after the last HBO2 exposure), and intermittent hyperbaric normoxia (IHN, same treatment pattern as IHBO2). GAP-43 was highly expressed (mainly in type I cells) in the CB of normal rats. IHH u-regulated GAP-43 expression in the CB with significant differences (immunohistochemical staining [IHC]: F(3,15)=40.64, P < 0.01; western blot [WB]: F(3,16) = 53.52, P < 0.01) across the subgroups. GAP-43 expression in the CB was inhibited by IHBO2 (controls vs. IHBO2 groups, IHC: F(6,30) = 15.85, P < 0.01; WB: F(6,29) = 15.95, P < 0.01). No detectable changes in GAP-43 expression were found for IHN. These findings indicated that different PO2 conditions, but not air pressures, played an important role in the plasticity of the CB, and that GAP-43 might be a viable factor for the plasticity of the CB.

  20. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  1. Carotid Body Ablation Abrogates Hypertension and Autonomic Alterations Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Lucero, Claudia; Arias, Paulina; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea, enhances carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to hypoxia and produces autonomic dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. We tested whether autonomic alterations, arrhythmogenesis, and the progression of hypertension induced by CIH depend on the enhanced CB chemosensory drive, by ablation of the CB chemoreceptors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to control (Sham) conditions for 7 days and then to CIH (5% O2, 12/h 8 h/d) for a total of 28 days. At 21 days of CIH exposure, rats underwent bilateral CB ablation and then exposed to CIH for 7 additional days. Arterial blood pressure and ventilatory chemoreflex response to hypoxia were measured in conscious rats. In addition, cardiac autonomic imbalance, cardiac baroreflex gain, and arrhythmia score were assessed during the length of the experiments. In separate experimental series, we measured extracellular matrix remodeling content in cardiac atrial tissue and systemic oxidative stress. CIH induced hypertension, enhanced ventilatory response to hypoxia, induced autonomic imbalance toward sympathetic preponderance, reduced baroreflex gain, and increased arrhythmias and atrial fibrosis. CB ablation normalized blood pressure, reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia, and restored cardiac autonomic and baroreflex function. In addition, CB ablation reduced the number of arrhythmias, but not extracellular matrix remodeling or systemic oxidative stress, suggesting that reductions in arrhythmia incidence during CIH were related to normalization of cardiac autonomic balance. Present results show that autonomic alterations induced by CIH are critically dependent on the CB and support a main role for the CB in the CIH-induced hypertension. PMID:27381902

  2. An evaluation on management of carotid body tumour (CBT). A twelve years experience*

    PubMed Central

    BOSCARINO, G.; PARENTE, E.; MINELLI, F.; FERRANTE, A.; SNIDER, F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Carotid Body Tumor (CBT) is a rare lesion of the neuroendocrine system but it is the most common form of head and neck paraganglioma (PGL). Our objective is to discuss the optimal management of these lesions to provide the best outcome of patients treated by surgical resection. Patients and Methods A retrospective evaluation was obtained by review of the records of 20 patients with 26 CBT treated at our institution between 2000 and 2012. Primary tumor characteristics, diagnostic protocols, surgical treatment, short and long-term outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 26 CBTs resections were performed on 20 patients; the age range was 21–89 years. There was a female prevalence (14 women-80% and 6 men-20%). Familial cases occurred in 6 patients (30%); of these, 3 patients had bilateral lesions and 1 patient multiple paragangliomas. In all cases no lymph node metastasis was found. All lesions were grouped into three groups according to the latero-lateral diameter: Group I < 3 cm; Group II 3<>5cm; Group III >5cm. All patients were managed by surgical resection of the CBT. There were no operative deaths. Overall we found transitory neurological impairment in 15,3% and permanent neurological deficit in 7,6% of cases. No complications occurred in all resections of Group I tumors. In Group II only 1 resection was followed by dysphonia by recurrent nerve palsy (after vagal nerve en-bloc resection). In Group III only 1 resection was followed by permanent vagus nerve palsy. Conclusions Surgical removal of the tumor is the only treatment that can ensure a complete eradication of the disease. Family screening is of great importance in patients with hereditary forms. Careful preoperative planning of surgical procedure by integrated diagnostic imaging and a full mastery of the surgical technique can minimize the risk of the most common postoperative complications. Lifelong follow-up is mandatory to make early diagnosis of recurrent disease

  3. Glucose sensing by carotid body glomus cells: potential implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lin; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; García-Fernández, María; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Caballero-Eraso, Candela; López-Barneo, José

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a key chemoreceptor organ in which glomus cells sense changes in blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. CB glomus cells have also been found to detect hypoglycemia in both non-primate mammals and humans. O2 and low-glucose responses share a common final pathway involving membrane depolarization, extracellular calcium influx, increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, and neurotransmitter secretion, which stimulates afferent sensory fibers to evoke sympathoadrenal activation. On the other hand, hypoxia and low glucose induce separate signal transduction pathways. Unlike O2 sensing, the response of the CB to low glucose is not altered by rotenone, with the low glucose-activated background cationic current unaffected by hypoxia. Responses of the CB to hypoglycemia and hypoxia can be potentiated by each other. The counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia by the CB is essential for the brain, an organ that is particularly sensitive to low glucose. CB glucose sensing could be altered in diabetic patients, particularly those under insulin treatment, as well as in other medical conditions such as sleep apnea or obstructive pulmonary diseases, where chronic hypoxemia presents with plastic modifications in CB structure and function. The current review will focus on the following main aspects: (1) the CB as a low glucose sensor in both in vitro and in vivo models; (2) molecular and ionic mechanisms of low glucose sensing by glomus cells, (3) the interplay between low glucose and O2 sensing in CB, and (4) the role of CB low glucose sensing in the pathophysiology of cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases, and how this may serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25360117

  4. Neurotrophic Properties, Chemosensory Responses and Neurogenic Niche of the Human Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Villadiego, Javier; Pardal, Ricardo; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemoreceptor that triggers the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia necessary for the maintenance of O(2) homeostasis essential for the survival of organs such as the brain or heart. Glomus cells, the sensory elements in the CB, are also sensitive to hypercapnia, acidosis and, although less generally accepted, hypoglycemia. Current knowledge on CB function is mainly based on studies performed on lower mammals, but the information on the human CB is scant. Here we describe the structure, neurotrophic properties, and cellular responses to hypoxia and hypoglycemia of CBs dissected from human cadavers. The adult CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. As reported for other mammalian species, glomus cells responded to hypoxia by external Ca(2+)-dependent increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and quantal catecholamine release. Human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycemia and together the two stimuli, hypoxia and hypoglycemia, can potentiate each other's effects. The chemo-sensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. Interestingly, a neurogenic niche similar to that recently described in rodents is also preserved in the adult human CB. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans.

  5. Glycogen metabolism protects against metabolic insult to preserve carotid body function during glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew P; Turner, Philip J; Carter, Paul; Leadbeater, Wendy; Ray, Clare J; Hauton, David; Buckler, Keith J; Kumar, Prem

    2014-10-15

    The view that the carotid body (CB) type I cells are direct physiological sensors of hypoglycaemia is challenged by the finding that the basal sensory neuronal outflow from the whole organ is unchanged in response to low glucose. The reason for this difference in viewpoint and how the whole CB maintains its metabolic integrity when exposed to low glucose is unknown. Here we show that, in the intact superfused rat CB, basal sensory neuronal activity was sustained during glucose deprivation for 29.1 ± 1.2 min, before irreversible failure following a brief period of excitation. Graded increases in the basal discharge induced by reducing the superfusate PO2 led to proportional decreases in the time to the pre-failure excitation during glucose deprivation which was dependent on a complete run-down in glycolysis and a fall in cellular energy status. A similar ability to withstand prolonged glucose deprivation was observed in isolated type I cells. Electron micrographs and immunofluorescence staining of rat CB sections revealed the presence of glycogen granules and the glycogen conversion enzymes glycogen synthase I and glycogen phosphorylase BB, dispersed throughout the type I cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, pharmacological attenuation of glycogenolysis and functional depletion of glycogen both significantly reduced the time to glycolytic run-down by ∼33 and 65%, respectively. These findings suggest that type I cell glycogen metabolism allows for the continuation of glycolysis and the maintenance of CB sensory neuronal output in periods of restricted glucose delivery and this may act as a key protective mechanism for the organ during hypoglycaemia. The ability, or otherwise, to preserve energetic status may thus account for variation in the reported capacity of the CB to sense physiological glucose concentrations and may even underlie its function during pathological states associated with augmented CB discharge.

  6. Comparative gene expression profile of mouse carotid body and adrenal medulla under physiological hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ganfornina, MD; Pérez-García, MT; Gutiérrez, G; Miguel-Velado, E; López-López, JR; Marín, A; Sánchez, D; González, C

    2005-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is an arterial chemoreceptor, bearing specialized type I cells that respond to hypoxia by closing specific K+ channels and releasing neurotransmitters to activate sensory axons. Despite having detailed information on the electrical and neurochemical changes triggered by hypoxia in CB, the knowledge of the molecular components involved in the signalling cascade of the hypoxic response is fragmentary. This study analyses the mouse CB transcriptional changes in response to low PO2 by hybridization to oligonucleotide microarrays. The transcripts were obtained from whole CBs after mice were exposed to either normoxia (21% O2), or physiological hypoxia (10% O2) for 24 h. The CB transcriptional profiles obtained under these environmental conditions were subtracted from the profile of control non-chemoreceptor adrenal medulla extracted from the same animals. Given the common developmental origin of these two organs, they share many properties but differ specifically in their response to O2. Our analysis revealed 751 probe sets regulated specifically in CB under hypoxia (388 up-regulated and 363 down-regulated). These results were corroborated by assessing the transcriptional changes of selected genes under physiological hypoxia with quantitative RT-PCR. Our microarray experiments revealed a number of CB-expressed genes (e.g. TH, ferritin and triosephosphate isomerase) that were known to change their expression under hypoxia. However, we also found novel genes that consistently changed their expression under physiological hypoxia. Among them, a group of ion channels show specific regulation in CB: the potassium channels Kir6.1 and Kcnn4 are up-regulated, while the modulatory subunit Kcnab1 is down-regulated by low PO2 levels. PMID:15890701

  7. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Carotid Body Chemosensory Potentiation and Hypertension Are Critically Dependent on Peroxynitrite Formation.

    PubMed

    Moya, Esteban A; Arias, Paulina; Varela, Carlos; Oyarce, María P; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of carotid body (CB) chemosensory potentiation and systemic hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea. We tested whether peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a highly reactive nitrogen species, is involved in the enhanced CB oxygen chemosensitivity and the hypertension during CIH. Accordingly, we studied effects of Ebselen, an ONOO(-) scavenger, on 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (3-NT-ir) in the CB, the CB chemosensory discharge, and arterial blood pressure (BP) in rats exposed to CIH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (5% O2, 12 times/h, 8 h/day) for 7 days. Ebselen (10 mg/kg/day) was administrated using osmotic minipumps and BP measured with radiotelemetry. Compared to the sham animals, CIH-treated rats showed increased 3-NT-ir within the CB, enhanced CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia, increased BP response to acute hypoxia, and hypertension. Rats treated with Ebselen and exposed to CIH displayed a significant reduction in 3-NT-ir levels (60.8 ± 14.9 versus 22.9 ± 4.2 a.u.), reduced CB chemosensory response to 5% O2 (266.5 ± 13.4 versus 168.6 ± 16.8 Hz), and decreased mean BP (116.9 ± 13.2 versus 82.1 ± 5.1 mmHg). Our results suggest that CIH-induced CB chemosensory potentiation and hypertension are critically dependent on ONOO(-) formation.

  8. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Carotid Body Chemosensory Potentiation and Hypertension Are Critically Dependent on Peroxynitrite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Esteban A.; Arias, Paulina; Varela, Carlos; Oyarce, María P.; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of carotid body (CB) chemosensory potentiation and systemic hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea. We tested whether peroxynitrite (ONOO−), a highly reactive nitrogen species, is involved in the enhanced CB oxygen chemosensitivity and the hypertension during CIH. Accordingly, we studied effects of Ebselen, an ONOO− scavenger, on 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (3-NT-ir) in the CB, the CB chemosensory discharge, and arterial blood pressure (BP) in rats exposed to CIH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (5% O2, 12 times/h, 8 h/day) for 7 days. Ebselen (10 mg/kg/day) was administrated using osmotic minipumps and BP measured with radiotelemetry. Compared to the sham animals, CIH-treated rats showed increased 3-NT-ir within the CB, enhanced CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia, increased BP response to acute hypoxia, and hypertension. Rats treated with Ebselen and exposed to CIH displayed a significant reduction in 3-NT-ir levels (60.8 ± 14.9 versus 22.9 ± 4.2 a.u.), reduced CB chemosensory response to 5% O2 (266.5 ± 13.4 versus 168.6 ± 16.8 Hz), and decreased mean BP (116.9 ± 13.2 versus 82.1 ± 5.1 mmHg). Our results suggest that CIH-induced CB chemosensory potentiation and hypertension are critically dependent on ONOO− formation. PMID:26798430

  9. Study of the effects of age and body mass index on the carotid wall vibration: extraction methodology and analysis.

    PubMed

    Yousefi Rizi, Fereshteh; Setarehdan, Seyed Kamaledin; Behnam, Hamid; Alizadeh Sani, Zahra

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to non-invasively extract the vibrations of the carotid wall and evaluate the changes in the carotid artery wall caused by age and obesity. Such evaluation can increase the possibility of detecting wall stiffness and atherosclerosis in its early stage. In this study, a novel method that uses a phase-tracking method based on the continuous wavelet transform calculates the carotid wall motion from the ultrasound radio frequency signals. To extract the high-frequency components of the wall motion, wall vibration, the empirical mode decomposition was then used. The posterior wall (intima-media) motion and vibration were extracted for 54 healthy volunteers (mean age: 33.87 ± 14.73 years), including 13 overweight subjects (body mass index > 25) and 14 female participants using their radio frequency signals. The results showed that the dominant frequency of the wall vibration correlates with age (r = -0.5887, p < 0.001) and body mass index (r = -0.4838, p < 0.001). The quantitative analysis further demonstrated that the dominant frequency of the vibration in the radial direction of the carotid wall decreases by age and is lower in overweight subjects. Besides, the peak-to-peak amplitude of the wall vibration showed significant correlations with age (r = -0.5456, p < 0.001) and body mass index (r = -0.5821, p < 0.001). The peak-to-peak amplitude also decreases by age and is lower in overweight subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between these features of the wall vibrations and systolic/diastolic blood pressure and sex. Our proposed measures were certified using the calculated arterial stiffness indices. The average power spectrum of the elderly subjects'wall motion in the frequency range of the wall vibration (>100 Hz) is decreased more in comparison with the young subjects. Our results revealed that the proposed method may be useful for detecting the stiffness and distortion in the carotid wall that occur prior to wall thickening

  10. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  11. Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO2 : role of carotid body CO2.

    PubMed

    Smith, Curtis A; Blain, Grégory M; Henderson, Kathleen S; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2015-09-15

    We asked if the type of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor stimulus influenced the ventilatory gain of the central chemoreceptors to CO2 . The effect of CB normoxic hypocapnia, normocapnia and hypercapnia (carotid body PCO2 ≈ 22, 41 and 68 mmHg, respectively) on the ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors was studied in seven awake dogs with vascularly-isolated and extracorporeally-perfused CBs. Chemosensitivity with one CB was similar to that in intact dogs. In four CB-denervated dogs, absence of hyper-/hypoventilatory responses to CB perfusion with PCO2 of 19-75 mmHg confirmed separation of the perfused CB circulation from the brain. The group mean central CO2 response slopes were increased 303% for minute ventilation (V̇I)(P ≤ 0.01) and 251% for mean inspiratory flow rate (VT /TI ) (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was hypercapnic vs. hypocapnic; central CO2 response slopes for tidal volume (VT ), breathing frequency (fb ) and rate of rise of the diaphragm EMG increased in 6 of 7 animals but the group mean changes did not reach statistical significance. Group mean central CO2 response slopes were also increased 237% for V̇I(P ≤ 0.01) and 249% for VT /TI (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was normocapnic vs. hypocapnic, but no significant differences in any of the central ventilatory response indices were found between CB normocapnia and hypercapnia. These hyperadditive effects of CB hyper-/hypocapnia agree with previous findings using CB hyper-/hypoxia.We propose that hyperaddition is the dominant form of chemoreceptor interaction in quiet wakefulness when the chemosensory control system is intact, response gains physiological, and carotid body chemoreceptors are driven by a wide range of O2 and/or CO2 .

  12. Lower body positive pressure application with an antigravity suit in acute carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Karine; Lukaszewicz, Anne Claire; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Payen, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The challenge in acute stroke is still to reperfuse as early as possible the ischemic territory. Since fibrinolytic therapies have a limited window with potential risk of bleeding, having a nonpharmacologic mean to recruit vessels in area surrounding necrosis might be useful. We propose here to use antigravity suit inflated at "venous" pressure levels to shift blood towards thoracic and brain territories. We report two cases of spectacular clinical recovery after acute carotid occlusion.

  13. Lean Body Mass May Explain Apparent Racial Differences in Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Henshaw, Melissa H.; Friedman, Brad; Saul, J. Philip; Shirali, Girish S.; Carter, Janet; Levitan, Bryana M.; Hulsey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Racial differences in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) have been suggested to be associated with the disproportionally high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in black adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cardiovascular risk factors on the racial differences seen in cIMT in obese children. Methods Obese subjects ages 4 to 21 were recruited prospectively. Height, weight, blood pressure, fasting insulin, glucose, lipid panel, high-sensitivity c-reactive protein, and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. B-Mode carotid imaging was analyzed by a single blinded physician. Results A total of 120 subjects (46 white and 74 black) were enrolled. Blacks exhibited greater cIMT (0.45 ± 0.03cm vs. 0.43 ± 0.02cm, p < 0.01) and higher lean body mass (LBM) index (19.3 ± 3.4kg/m2 vs. 17.3 ± 3.2kg/m2, p = 0.02) than whites. Simple linear regression revealed modest associations between mean cIMT and race (R = 0.52, p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (R = 0.47, p < 0.01), and LBM (R = 0.51, p < 0.01). Upon multiple variable regression, LBM remained the only measure to maintain a statistically significant relationship with mean cIMT (p < 0.01). Conclusions Black subjects demonstrated greater cIMTs than white subjects. The relationship between race and cIMT disappeared when lean body mass was accounted for. Future studies assessing the association of cardiovascular disease risk factors to cIMT in obese children should include lean body mass in the analysis. PMID:24513240

  14. A Short-Term Fasting in Neonates Induces Breathing Instability and Epigenetic Modification in the Carotid Body.

    PubMed

    Shirahata, Machiko; Tang, Wan-Yee; Kostuk, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory control system is not fully developed in newborn, and data suggest that adequate nutrition is important for the development of the respiratory control system. Infants need to be fed every 2-4 h to maintain appropriate energy levels, but a skip of feeding can occur due to social economical reasons or mild sickness of infants. Here, we asked questions if a short-term fasting (1) alters carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity and integrated function of the respiratory control system; (2) causes epigenetic modification within the respiratory control system. Mouse pups (carotid sinus nerve activity appeared to be depressed after fasting. Moreover, fasting increased global 5mC and 5-hmC content in DNA isolated from the CB but not DNA in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Methylation specific PCR (MSPCR) revealed that fasting increased methylation of leptin and socs3 genes. The results suggest fasting inhibits CB activity leading to hypoventilation, and low glucose does not compensate the low CB activity. Epigenetic effect on CB function/activity may be related to the prolonged effect of fasting on ventilation.

  15. Tetrodotoxin as a Tool to Elucidate Sensory Transduction Mechanisms: The Case for the Arterial Chemoreceptors of the Carotid Body

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Asuncion; Caceres, Ana Isabel; Obeso, Ana; Gonzalez, Constancio

    2011-01-01

    Carotid bodies (CBs) are secondary sensory receptors in which the sensing elements, chemoreceptor cells, are activated by decreases in arterial PO2 (hypoxic hypoxia). Upon activation, chemoreceptor cells (also known as Type I and glomus cells) increase their rate of release of neurotransmitters that drive the sensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) which ends in the brain stem where reflex responses are coordinated. When challenged with hypoxic hypoxia, the physiopathologically most relevant stimulus to the CBs, they are activated and initiate ventilatory and cardiocirculatory reflexes. Reflex increase in minute volume ventilation promotes CO2 removal from alveoli and a decrease in alveolar PCO2 ensues. Reduced alveolar PCO2 makes possible alveolar and arterial PO2 to increase minimizing the intensity of hypoxia. The ventilatory effect, in conjunction the cardiocirculatory components of the CB chemoreflex, tend to maintain an adequate supply of oxygen to the tissues. The CB has been the focus of attention since the discovery of its nature as a sensory organ by de Castro (1928) and the discovery of its function as the origin of ventilatory reflexes by Heymans group (1930). A great deal of effort has been focused on the study of the mechanisms involved in O2 detection. This review is devoted to this topic, mechanisms of oxygen sensing. Starting from a summary of the main theories evolving through the years, we will emphasize the nature and significance of the findings obtained with veratridine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the genesis of current models of O2-sensing. PMID:22363245

  16. Carotid labyrinth of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Tatsumi

    2002-11-01

    - and baroreceptor functions analogous to those of the mammalian carotid body and carotid sinus. The ultrastructural characteristics of the glomus cells during and after metamorphosis suggest that the glomus cells contribute to the chemoreception after metamorphosis. The three-dimensional fine structure of vascular corrosion casts suggests that the amphibian carotid labyrinth has the appropriate architecture for controlling vascular tone and the findings throughout metamorphosis reveal that the vascular regulatory function begins at an early stage of metamorphosis. In addition, immunohistochemical studies suggest that the vascular regulation in the carotid labyrinth is under peptidergic innervation. Thus, the multiple functions of the carotid labyrinth underline the importance of this relatively small organ for maintenance of homeostasis and appropriate blood supply to the cephalic region.

  17. Carotid Endarterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the carotid arteries. This limits or blocks the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your brain, which can lead to a stroke. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows ... normal carotid artery that has normal blood flow. Figure C show the inside of a carotid ...

  18. A computational model of the cat medial geniculate body ventral division

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    The medial geniculate body of the thalamus receives input from a variety of sources, both auditory and non-auditory. The ventral division (MGv), however, appears to be a purely auditory center, that is, it receives from lower (and higher) centers which are primarily involved in encoding auditory stimuli. It has some of the characteristics of auditory cortex, e.g., layering of neurons and EE/EI bands, but has a much simpler architecture. The MGv plays a central role in analyzing auditory stimuli. A wealth of data is available now on its anatomy, connectivity and responses. A detailed computational model of the ventral division of the cat medial geniculate body has been constructed. This model is being compared to physiological recordings for validation purposes, and should prove useful tool for testing theories of auditory sensory representation and functioning.

  19. A computational model of the cat medial geniculate body ventral division

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1992-08-01

    The medial geniculate body of the thalamus receives input from a variety of sources, both auditory and non-auditory. The ventral division (MGv), however, appears to be a purely auditory center, that is, it receives from lower (and higher) centers which are primarily involved in encoding auditory stimuli. It has some of the characteristics of auditory cortex, e.g., layering of neurons and EE/EI bands, but has a much simpler architecture. The MGv plays a central role in analyzing auditory stimuli. A wealth of data is available now on its anatomy, connectivity and responses. A detailed computational model of the ventral division of the cat medial geniculate body has been constructed. This model is being compared to physiological recordings for validation purposes, and should prove useful tool for testing theories of auditory sensory representation and functioning.

  20. Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO2: role of carotid body CO2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Curtis A; Blain, Grégory M; Henderson, Kathleen S; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked if the type of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor stimulus influenced the ventilatory gain of the central chemoreceptors to CO2. The effect of CB normoxic hypocapnia, normocapnia and hypercapnia (carotid body  ≈ 22, 41 and 68 mmHg, respectively) on the ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors was studied in seven awake dogs with vascularly-isolated and extracorporeally-perfused CBs. Chemosensitivity with one CB was similar to that in intact dogs. In four CB-denervated dogs, absence of hyper-/hypoventilatory responses to CB perfusion with of 19–75 mmHg confirmed separation of the perfused CB circulation from the brain. The group mean central CO2 response slopes were increased 303% for minute ventilation ()(P ≤ 0.01) and 251% for mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/TI) (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was hypercapnic vs. hypocapnic; central CO2 response slopes for tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fb) and rate of rise of the diaphragm EMG increased in 6 of 7 animals but the group mean changes did not reach statistical significance. Group mean central CO2 response slopes were also increased 237% for (P ≤ 0.01) and 249% for VT/TI(P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was normocapnic vs. hypocapnic, but no significant differences in any of the central ventilatory response indices were found between CB normocapnia and hypercapnia. These hyperadditive effects of CB hyper-/hypocapnia agree with previous findings using CB hyper-/hypoxia.We propose that hyperaddition is the dominant form of chemoreceptor interaction in quiet wakefulness when the chemosensory control system is intact, response gains physiological, and carotid body chemoreceptors are driven by a wide range of O2 and/or CO2. Key points The influence of specific carotid body (CB) normoxic hypocapnia, hypercapnia and normocapnia on the ventilatory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to systemic hypercapnia was assessed in seven awake dogs with extracorporeal perfusion of the

  1. Carotid body hyperplasia and enhanced ventilatory responses to hypoxia in mice with heterozygous deficiency of PHD2

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Tammie; Talbot, Nick P; Turner, Philip J; Nicholls, Lynn G; Pascual, Alberto; Hodson, Emma J; Douglas, Gillian; Fielding, James W; Smith, Thomas G; Demetriades, Marina; Schofield, Christopher J; Robbins, Peter A; Pugh, Christopher W; Buckler, Keith J; Ratcliffe, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by a set of closely related prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHD1, 2 and 3) regulates a range of transcriptional responses to hypoxia. This raises important questions about the role of these oxygen-sensing enzymes in integrative physiology. We investigated the effect of both genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition on the change in ventilation in response to acute hypoxic stimulation in mice. Mice exposed to chronic hypoxia for 7 days manifest an exaggerated hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) (10.8 ± 0.3 versus 4.1 ± 0.7 ml min−1 g−1 in controls; P < 0.01). HVR was similarly exaggerated in PHD2+/− animals compared to littermate controls (8.4 ± 0.7 versus 5.0 ± 0.8 ml min−1 g−1; P < 0.01). Carotid body volume increased (0.0025 ± 0.00017 in PHD2+/− animals versus 0.0015 ± 0.00019 mm3 in controls; P < 0.01). In contrast, HVR in PHD1−/− and PHD3−/− mice was similar to littermate controls. Acute exposure to a small molecule PHD inhibitor (PHI) (2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid) did not mimic the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Further, 7 day administration of the PHI induced only modest increases in HVR and carotid body cell proliferation, despite marked stimulation of erythropoiesis. This was in contrast with chronic hypoxia, which elicited both exaggerated HVR and cellular proliferation. The findings demonstrate that PHD enzymes modulate ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and identify PHD2 as the most important enzyme in this response. They also reveal differences between genetic inactivation of PHDs, responses to hypoxia and responses to a pharmacological inhibitor, demonstrating the need for caution in predicting the effects of therapeutic modulation of the HIF hydroxylase system on different physiological responses. PMID:23690557

  2. In the carotid body, galanin is a signal for neurogenesis in young, and for neurodegeneration in the old and in drug-addicted subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Marconi, Guya D.; Zara, Susi; Cataldi, Amelia; Porzionato, Andrea; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body is a highly specialized chemoreceptive structure for the detection of and reaction to hypoxia, through induction of an increase in hypoxia inducible factor. As tissue hypoxia increases with aging and can have dramatic effects in respiratory depression induced by drug addiction, we investigated the carotid body in young and old healthy subjects in comparison with drug-addicted subjects, including the expression of the neurotransmitter galanin. Galanin expression was recently reported for neuronal-like cells of the human carotid body, and it is implicated in several functions in neurons. In particular, this includes the regulation of differentiation of neural stem cells, and participation in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Using immunohistochemistry detection, we demonstrate that galanin expression in the human carotid body in healthy older subjects and drug-addicted subjects is significantly reduced in comparison with healthy young subjects. This demonstrates not only the effects of normal aging and senescence, but also in the drug-addicted subjects, this appears to be due to a disorganization of the chemo-sensory region. With both aging and drug addiction, this results in a physiological reduction in neuronal-like cells, coupled with interlobular and intralobular increases in connective tissue fibers. Consequently, in both aging and drug addiction, this reduction of neuronal-like cells and the regeneration suggest that the carotid body is losing its sensory capabilities, with the transmission of chemoreceptive signals dramatically and vitally reduced. The level of galanin expression would thus provide a signal for neurogenesis in young subjects, and for neurodegeneration in older and drug-addicted subjects. PMID:25400591

  3. The interaction of reflexes elicited by stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors and receptors in the nasal mucosa affecting respiration and pulse interval in the dog.

    PubMed

    Angell-James, J E; Daly, M de B

    1973-02-01

    1. The effects on respiration and pulse interval of stimulation of the carotid body chemoreceptors before, during and after stimulation of receptors in the nose have been studied in the anaesthetized dog.2. Stimulation of a carotid body by infusion of cyanide into the ipsi-lateral common carotid artery causes hyperpnoea and either an increase, decrease or no change in pulse interval.3. Excitation of receptors in the nasal mucosa leads to reflex apnoea or a reduction in breathing, and an increase in pulse interval.4. When the carotid bodies are excited by the same dose of cyanide during stimulation of the nasal mucosa, the chemoreceptor-respiratory response is abolished or reduced in size compared with the control effect. On the other hand, the chemoreceptor-cardio-inhibitory response is considerably enhanced.5. The potentiated cardio-inhibitory response of combined chemoreceptor and nasal stimulation could not be accounted for by the change in pulmonary ventilation, arterial P(O2) or P(CO2), or mean arterial blood pressure.6. These results indicate that excitation of the nasal reflex inhibits the chemoreceptor-respiratory reflex response but facilitates the chemoreceptor-cardio-inhibitory reflex response. The possible sites of these interactions between the nasal and chemoreceptor reflexes are discussed.

  4. Discrepancy between use of lean body mass or nitrogen balance to determine protein requirements for adult cats.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dorothy P; Hannah, Steven S

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to contrast the minimum protein intake needed to maintain nitrogen balance or lean body mass (LBM) in adult cats using a prospective evaluation of 24 adult, neutered male cats fed one to three different diets. Following a 1-month baseline period during which all cats consumed a 34% protein diet, cats were fed a 20% (LO), 26% (MOD) or 34% (HI) protein diet for 2 months. During the baseline period and following the 2-month feeding period, nitrogen balance was assessed using a 96-h complete collection of urine and feces, and LBM was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight loss increased in a linear manner with decreasing protein intake (P <0.01), despite no significant difference in calorie intake. Linear regression of the data indicated that approximately 1.5 g protein/kg (2.1 g/kg(0.75)) body weight is needed to maintain nitrogen balance, while 5.2 g protein/kg (7.8 g/kg(0.75)) body weight is needed to maintain LBM. This study provides evidence that nitrogen balance studies are inadequate for determining optimum protein requirements. Animals, including cats, can adapt to low protein intake and maintain nitrogen balance while depleting LBM. Loss of LBM and an associated reduction in protein turnover can result in compromised immune function and increased morbidity. Current Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and National Research Council (NRC) standards for protein adequacy may not provide adequate protein to support LBM. The minimum daily protein requirement for adult cats appears to be at least 5.2 g/kg (7.8 g/kg(0.75)) body weight, well in excess of current AAFCO and NRC recommendations. Further research is needed to determine the effect, if any, of body condition, age and gender on protein requirements. PMID:23362342

  5. Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma induced by a foreign body (steel staple) in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Rommel Max; Singh, Kuldeep; Sandman, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented with a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. A radiograph showed that the center of the mass contained what appeared to be steel sutures, presumed to be from an ovariohysterectomy performed 7 years earlier. The excised mass was irregular and contained numerous pockets filled with friable necrotic material and hemorrhages that were dissected by fibrous connective tissue bands. Multiple tangled and fragmented pieces of steel staples were deeply embedded within the mass. Histologically, the mass was non-encapsulated, densely cellular, and infiltrative. Neoplastic cells lined caverns and channels and were factor VIII-positive by immunohistochemistry. The neoplastic cells were oval to round with granular cytoplasm and vesicular nucleus and exhibited moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. A diagnosis of subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was made. To our knowledge, this is the first report of foreign body associated hemangiosarcoma and the first case of steel staple associated neoplasm in domestic animals. PMID:24082166

  6. Differential modulation by extracellular ATP of carotid chemosensory responses.

    PubMed

    Spergel, D; Lahiri, S

    1993-06-01

    The possibility that the carotid body has ATP surface receptors that mediate O2 chemoreception was tested. To distinguish between the event(s) initiating chemoreception and those at the neurotransmitter level, we also tested the chemosensory response to nicotine before and after ATP administration. Carotid bodies from cats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium were perfused and superfused in vitro with modified Tyrode solution (PCO2 < 1 Torr, pH 7.4, 36 degrees C) equilibrated at PO2 > 400 or approximately 150 Torr while chemosensory discharge was recorded extracellularly. ATP and adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate stimulated discharge with similar dose dependence, whereas adenosine had little effect. ATP infusion for > or = 2 min evoked an initial stimulation of discharge followed by a decline to baseline (desensitization). Desensitization did not affect the response to hypoxia (perfusate flow interruption) but inhibited the response to nicotine (4-nmol pulse). Therefore, 1) the carotid body has surface ATP receptors that may mediate the chemosensory response to nicotine but not to hypoxia and 2) nicotinic receptors are not required for carotid body O2 chemoreception. PMID:8366007

  7. Tonic activity of carotid body chemoreceptors contributes to the increased sympathetic drive in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Siński, Maciej; Lewandowski, Jacek; Przybylski, Jacek; Bidiuk, Joanna; Abramczyk, Piotr; Ciarka, Agnieszka; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2012-05-01

    Carotid chemoreceptors provoke an increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activation (MSNA) in response to hypoxia; they are also tonically active during normoxic breathing. The contribution of peripheral chemoreceptors to sympathetic activation in hypertension is incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of chemoreceptor deactivation on sympathetic activity in untreated patients with hypertension. A total of 12 untreated hypertensive males and 11 male controls participated in this randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study. MSNA, systolic blood pressure(BP), diastolic BP, heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sat%) and respiratory movements were measured during repeated 10-min periods of respiration with 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen in a blinded fashion. Compared with controls, hypertensives had higher resting MSNA (38 ± 10 vs. 29 ± 0.9 burst per min, P<0.05), systolic BP (150 ± 12 vs. 124 ± 10 mm Hg, P< 0.001) and diastolic BP (92 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 9 mm Hg, P<0.005). Breathing 100% oxygen caused significant decrease in MSNA in hypertensive patients (38 ± 10 vs. 26 ± 8 burst per min and 100 ± 0 vs. 90 ± 10 arbitrary units, P<0.05) and no change in controls (29 ± 9 vs. 27 ± 7 burst per min and 100 ± 0 vs. 96 ± 11 arbitrary units). BP, respiratory frequency and end tidal CO(2) did not change during chemoreceptor deactivation with hyperoxia. HR decreased and Sat% increased in both the study groups. These results confirm the role of tonic chemoreceptor drive in the development of sympathetic overactivity in hypertension.

  8. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  9. Carotid chemoreceptor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Shirahata, Machiko; Kostuk, Eric W; Pichard, Luis E

    2013-01-01

    Mice are the most suitable species for understanding genetic aspects of postnatal developments of the carotid body due to the availability of many inbred strains and knockout mice. Our study has shown that the carotid body grows differentially in different mouse strains, indicating the involvement of genes. However, the small size hampers investigating functional development of the carotid body. Hypoxic and/or hyperoxic ventilatory responses have been investigated in newborn mice, but these responses are indirect assessment of the carotid body function. Therefore, we need to develop techniques of measuring carotid chemoreceptor neural activity from young mice. Many studies have taken advantage of the knockout mice to understand chemoreceptor function of the carotid body, but they are not always suitable for addressing postnatal development of the carotid body due to lethality during perinatal periods. Various inbred strains with well-designed experiments will provide useful information regarding genetic mechanisms of the postnatal carotid chemoreceptor development. Also, targeted gene deletion is a critical approach.

  10. Changes in carotid body and nTS neuronal excitability following neonatal sustained and chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C A; Wilson, C G; MacFarlane, P M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether pre-treatment with neonatal sustained hypoxia (SH) prior to chronic intermittent hypoxia (SH+CIH) would modify in vitro carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity and the excitability of neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). Sustained hypoxia followed by CIH exposure simulates an oxygen paradigm experienced by extremely premature infants who developed persistent apnea. Rat pups were treated with 5 days of SH (11% O2) from postnatal age 1 (P1) followed by 10 days of subsequent chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, 5% O2/5 min, 8 h/day, between P6 and P15) as described previously (Mayer et al., Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 187(2): 167-75, 2013). At the end of SH+CIH exposure (P16), basal firing frequency was enhanced, and the hypoxic sensory response of single unit CB chemoafferents was attenuated. Further, basal firing frequency and the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (ESPC's) of nTS neurons was augmented compared to age-matched rats raised in normoxia. These effects were unique to SH+CIH exposure as neither SH or CIH alone elicited any comparable effect on chemoafferent activity or nTS function. These data indicated that pre-treatment with neonatal SH prior to CIH exposure uniquely modified mechanisms of peripheral (CB) and central (nTS) neural function in a way that would be expected to disturb the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia.

  11. Activation of nicotinic ACh receptors with α4 subunits induces adenosine release at the rat carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Sílvia V; Monteiro, Emília C

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ACh on the release of adenosine was studied in rat whole carotid bodies, and the nicotinic ACh receptors involved in the stimulation of this release were characterized. ACh and nicotinic ACh receptor agonists, cytisine, DMPP and nicotine, caused a concentration-dependent increase in adenosine production during normoxia, with nicotine being more potent and efficient in stimulating adenosine release from rat CB than cytisine and DMPP. D-Tubocurarine, mecamylamine, DHβE and α-bungarotoxin, nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists, caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the release of adenosine evoked by hypoxia. The rank order of potency for nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists that inhibit adenosine release was DHβE>mecamylamine>D-tubocurarine>α-bungarotoxin. The effect of the endogenous agonist, ACh, which was mimicked by nicotine, was antagonized by DHβE, a selective nicotinic receptor antagonist. The ecto-5′-nucleotidase inhibitor AOPCP produces a 72% inhibition in the release of adenosine from CB evoked by nicotine. Taken together, these data indicate that ACh induced the production of adenosine, mainly from extracellular ATP catabolism at the CB through a mechanism that involves the activation of nicotinic receptors with α4 and β2 receptor subunits. PMID:16444287

  12. Effects of low glucose on carotid body chemoreceptor cell activity studied in cultures of intact organs and in dissociated cells.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Martin, Teresa; Fernandez-Martinez, Silvia; Rigual, Ricardo; Obeso, Ana; Gonzalez, Constancio

    2012-04-15

    The participation of the carotid body (CB) in glucose homeostasis and evidence obtained in simplified cultured CB slices or dissociated cells have led to the proposal that CB chemoreceptor cells are glucoreceptors. However, data generated in intact, freshly excised organs deny CB chemoreceptor cells' glucosensing properties. The physiological significance of the contention has prompted the present study, performed in a newly developed preparation of the intact CB organ in culture that maintains chemoreceptor cells' microenvironment. Chemoreceptor cells of intact CBs in culture retained their capacity to store, synthesize, and secrete catecholamine in response to hypoxia for at least 6 days. Aglycemia did not elicit neurosecretion in dissociated chemoreceptor cells or in intact CB in culture, but potentiated hypoxia-elicited neurosecretion, exclusively, in 1-day-old intact CB cultures and dissociated chemoreceptor cells cultured for 24 h. In fura 2-loaded cells, aglycemia (but not 1 mM) caused a slow Ca(2+)-dependent and nifedipine-insensitive increase in fluorescence at 340- to 380-nm wavelength emission ratio and augmented the fluorescent signal elicited by hypoxia. Association of nifedipine and KBR7943 (a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor) completely abolished the aglycemic Ca(2+) response. We conclude that chemoreceptor cells are not sensitive to hypoglycemia. We hypothesize that cultured chemoreceptor cells become transiently more dependent on glycolysis. Consequently, aglycemia would partially inhibit the Na(+)/K(+) pump, causing an increase in intracellular Na(+) concentration, and a reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. This would slowly increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and cause the potentiation of the hypoxic responses. We discuss the nature of the signals detected by chemoreceptor cells for the CB to achieve its glycemic homeostatic role.

  13. Down regulation of Kv3.4 channels by chronic hypoxia increases acute oxygen sensitivity in rabbit carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Kääb, Stefan; Miguel-Velado, Eduardo; López-López, José Ramón; Pérez-García, M Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors participate in the ventilatory responses to acute and chronic hypoxia (CH). Arterial hypoxaemia increases breathing within seconds, and CB chemoreceptors are the principal contributors to this reflex hyperventilatory response. Acute hypoxia induces depolarization of CB chemoreceptors by inhibiting certain K+ channels, but the role of these channels in CH, as in high-altitude acclimatization, is less known. Here we explored the effects of prolonged (24–48 h) hypoxic exposure of rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in primary cultures on the voltage-dependent K+ currents and on their response to acute hypoxia. We found that CH induces a decrease in the amplitude of outward K+ currents due to a reduction in a fast-inactivating BDS- and highly TEA-sensitive component of the current. In spite of this effect, acute hypoxic inhibition of K+ currents is increased in CH cultures, as well as hypoxia-induced depolarization. These data suggest that downregulation of this component (that does not contribute to the oxygen-sensitive K+ current (IKO2)) participates in the hypoxic sensitization. Pharmacological, immunocytochemical and quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments demonstrate that CH-induced decrease in outward K+ currents is due to a downregulation of the expression of Kv3.4 channels. Taken together, our results suggest that CH sensitization in rabbit CB could be achieved by an increase in the relative contribution of IKO2 to the outward K+ current as a consequence of the decreased expression of the oxygen-insensitive component of the current. We conclude that acute and chronic hypoxia can exert their effects acting on different molecular targets. PMID:15890707

  14. Effects of frontal eye field stimulation upon activities of the lateral geniculate body of the cat.

    PubMed

    Tsumoto, T; Suzuki, D A

    1976-06-18

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the frontal eye field (FEF) upon activites of the lateral geniculate body (LG) were studied in encephale isole cats. In some experiments the effects were examined by recording field responses of the dorsal nucleus of LG (LGd) and the visual cortex (VC) to electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm (OX). Conditioning repetitive stimulation of FEF exerted no significant effects on the r1 wave of LGd responses but had a facilitatory effect on the r2 wave. FEF-induced facilitation of VC responses was prominent in the late postsynaptic components. These effects had latencies of 50-100 msec and durations of 200-500 msec. Transection of the midbrain showed that most of the FEF-effect was not mediated via the brainstem reticular formation. Extracellular unitary recordings were made from 125 neurons, of which 91 were LGd neurons, 23 neurons of the caudal part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRc) and 11 neurons of the ventral nucleus of LG (LGv). In 30 to 87 LGd relay neurons FEF stimuli increased response probabilities to OX stimuli and their spontaneous discharges. These FEF-facilitated LGd neurons were distinguished from the non-affected ones in that the former had longer OX-latencies than the latter. The FEF-facilitated neurons probably correspond to "X" neurons of LGd. In 17 TRc neurons the effects were inhibitory. Their time courses were similar to those of the facilitation in the LGd relay neurons. Seven LGv neurons recieved facilitaroy effects from FEF. Among them 5 neurons showed short-latency (6.7-17 msec) responses to FEF single shocks. The FEF sites inducing conjugate lateral eye movements exerted stronger facilitatory effects than those inducing upward or centering eye movements did. It is suggested that the effects may subserve to cancel the inhibitory convergence onto X-cells just after saccadic eye movements so as to improve visual information transmission through LGd during the eye fixation.

  15. Carotid Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque narrows the carotid arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain. If the plaque ruptures, a blood clot can form on its surface. A clot can mostly or completely block blood flow through a carotid artery, which can cause a ...

  16. A VIRUS DISEASE OF CATS, PRINCIPALLY CHARACTERIZED BY ALEUCOCYTOSIS, ENTERIC LESIONS AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRANUCLEAR INCLUSION BODIES

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, William D.; Enders, John F.

    1939-01-01

    An acute, highly fatal epizootic disease of cats is described, which can be recognized by a fulminating and extreme leucopenia involving all types of white blood cells, aplasia of the bone marrow, including both the granulocytic and the erythrocytic series and occasionally the megakaryocytes, aplasia of lymphoid tissue, and characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells of the intestinal mucosa and in certain cells of the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. The infection has been induced in healthy cats by means of bacteria-free filtrates of emulsions of the spleen of infected animals. Collateral evidence supports the conclusion that the disease is due to a virus. The pathogenicity of the infectious agent has proved thus far to be strictly limited to the natural host. PMID:19870850

  17. Neurons sensitive to narrow ranges of repetitive acoustic transients in the medial geniculate body of the cat.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, E; de Ribaupierre, F

    1982-01-01

    Neuronal activity was recorded in the medial geniculate body (MGB) of nitrous oxide anaesthetized, paralysed cats in response to click trains. For most cells responding to these stimuli the spike discharges are precisely time locked to individual clicks within the train. The present study has revealed that, apart from the normal "locker" response being characterized by a monotonic decrease in the entrainment as the frequency of the clicks within the train increases, there is a small population of "lockers" which show a non-monotonic response to increasing click frequency. 41% of these non-monotonic cells were not at all entrained by the lowest click rates and had time-locked responses for very restricted frequency ranges. These particular non-monotonic "lockers" were more commonly-found in the posterior part of the pars lateralis and in the suprageniculate nucleus. These cells might be involved in the temporal coding of natural sounds such as animal vocalizations and the cat's purr.

  18. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels mediate the augmented calcium influx in carotid body glomus cells by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Ahmmed, Gias U; Peng, Ying-Jie; Khan, Shakil A; Nanduri, Jayasri; Kumar, Ganesh K; Fox, Aaron P; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of sleep apnea. A heightened carotid body activity and the resulting chemosensory reflex mediate increased sympathetic nerve activity by CIH. However, the mechanisms underlying heightened carotid body activity by CIH are not known. An elevation of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in glomus cells, the primary oxygen-sensing cells, is an essential step for carotid body activation by hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of CIH on the glomus cell [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia and assessed the underlying mechanisms. Glomus cells were harvested from adult rats or wild-type mice treated with 10 days of either room air (control) or CIH (alternating cycles of 15 s of hypoxia and 5 min of room air; 9 episodes/h; 8 h/day). CIH-treated glomus cells exhibited an enhanced [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia, and this effect was absent in the presence of 2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-[5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)oxo]-pyridin-2-yl]ethyl)acetamide (TTA-A2), a specific inhibitor of T-type Ca(2+) channels, and in voltage-gated calcium channel, type 3.2 (CaV3.2), null glomus cells. CaV3.2 knockout mice exhibited an absence of CIH-induced hypersensitivity of the carotid body. CIH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in glomus cells. A ROS scavenger prevented the exaggerated TTA-A2-sensitive [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia. CIH had no effect on CaV3.2 mRNA levels. CIH augmented Ca(2+) currents and increased CaV3.2 protein in plasma membrane fractions of human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing CaV3.2, and either a ROS scavenger or brefeldin-A, an inhibitor of protein trafficking, prevented these effects. These findings suggest that CIH leads to an augmented Ca(2+) influx via ROS-dependent facilitation of CaV3.2 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  19. Bilateral carotid artery injury response in side impact using a vessel model integrated with a human body model.

    PubMed

    Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Yu, Mao M; Martin, R Shayn; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2009-10-01

    In a far-side crash configuration, the occupant can experience severe excursion from the seat space. Given this challenge, there are research efforts focused on alternate restraints, such as four-point belts. A potential implication of this geometry would be interaction of the belt with the occupant's neck. This study examines the response of the carotid arteries using a Finite Element Model (FEM) in a far-side crash configuration with a reversed three-point restraint. A FEM of the carotid artery and neck fascia was developed and integrated with the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) version 1.44. This model was subjected to four test conditions simulating far-side crashes. Load conditions included a low velocity impact of approximately 4 m/s and a higher velocity impact of approximately 10 m/s. For each velocity, the model was restrained with a belt placed low on the neck and a belt placed higher on the neck. Strain data in each element of the carotid arteries was analyzed. The overall response of the vessel was examined to determine locations of high strain values. Low belt placement resulted in more head excursion, stretching the carotid on the non-struck side. High belt placement resulted in compression of the artery on the struck side due to direct loading of the vessel from the belt. Strain values in the carotid artery elements increased with increasing speed of impact. The lower and higher speed tests with a low belt configuration resulted in a maximum principal strains, at maximal belt engagement, of 0.223 and 0.459, respectively. Corresponding values for the high belt configuration were 0.222 and 0.563. In both belt configurations, the non-struck side vessel stretched more than the struck side vessel; however, the non-struck side vessel experienced higher compressive forces. Strain values measured during the simulations can be compared to a value of 0.31 to intimal failure in previous experimental tests. These results quantitatively illustrate the two

  20. Bilateral Carotid Artery Injury Response in Side Impact Using a Vessel Model Integrated with a Human Body Model

    PubMed Central

    Danelson, Kerry A.; Gayzik, F. Scott; Yu, Mao M.; Martin, R. Shayn; Duma, Stefan M.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    In a far-side crash configuration, the occupant can experience severe excursion from the seat space. Given this challenge, there are research efforts focused on alternate restraints, such as four-point belts. A potential implication of this geometry would be interaction of the belt with the occupant’s neck. This study examines the response of the carotid arteries using a Finite Element Model (FEM) in a far-side crash configuration with a reversed three-point restraint. A FEM of the carotid artery and neck fascia was developed and integrated with the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) version 1.44. This model was subjected to four test conditions simulating far-side crashes. Load conditions included a low velocity impact of approximately 4 m/s and a higher velocity impact of approximately 10 m/s. For each velocity, the model was restrained with a belt placed low on the neck and a belt placed higher on the neck. Strain data in each element of the carotid arteries was analyzed. The overall response of the vessel was examined to determine locations of high strain values. Low belt placement resulted in more head excursion, stretching the carotid on the non-struck side. High belt placement resulted in compression of the artery on the struck side due to direct loading of the vessel from the belt. Strain values in the carotid artery elements increased with increasing speed of impact. The lower and higher speed tests with a low belt configuration resulted in a maximum principal strains, at maximal belt engagement, of 0.223 and 0.459, respectively. Corresponding values for the high belt configuration were 0.222 and 0.563. In both belt configurations, the non-struck side vessel stretched more than the struck side vessel; however, the non-struck side vessel experienced higher compressive forces. Strain values measured during the simulations can be compared to a value of 0.31 to intimal failure in previous experimental tests. These results quantitatively illustrate the two

  1. Hypothyroidism Stimulates D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing in Response to Acute Hypoxia and alters D2 Receptors Levels in Carotid Bodies & Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Schultz, Harold D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism can depress breathing and alter dopamine D2 receptor expression and function. We hypothesized that relative to euthyroid hamsters (EH), hypothyroid hamsters (HH) contain increased D2 receptors in brain regions associated with breathing and carotid bodies (CB), and that stimulation of D2 receptors would decease ventilation more in the HH compared to the EH. Hamsters were treated with vehicle, carmoxirile (peripherally acting D2 receptor agonist), or bromocriptine (central and peripherally acting D2 receptor agonist) and breathing was evaluated during exposure to air, hypoxia, and then air. HH exhibited increased D2 receptor protein levels in the striatum and CB’s, but decreased levels in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Relative to vehicle, carmoxirole and bromocriptine stimulated ventilation in the HH during and following exposure to hypoxia. Only bromocriptine depressed ventilation in the EH during and after exposure to hypoxia. Thus,, hypothyroidism impacts the expression of D2 receptors in the carotid body, PVN and striatum, and D2 stimulation affects ventilation remarkably differently than in EH. PMID:22051191

  2. Hypothyroidism Attenuates SCH 23390-mediated Depression of Breathing and Decreases D1 Receptor Expression in Carotid Bodies, PVN and Striatum of Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Schultz, Harold D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism can lead to depressed breathing. We determined if propylthiouracil (PTU)–induced hypothyroidism in hamsters (HH) altered dopamine D1 receptor expression, D1 receptor-modulated ventilation, and ventilatory chemoreflex activation by hypoxia or hypercapnia. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering 0.04% PTU in drinking water for three months. Ventilation was evaluated following saline or 0.25 mg/kg SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, while awake hamsters breathed normoxic (21% O2 in N2), hypoxic (10% O2 in N2) and hypercapnic (5% CO2 in O2) air. Relative to euthyroid hamsters (EH), HH exhibited decreased D1 receptor protein levels in carotid bodies, striatum, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, but not in the nucleus tractus solitarius. Relative to EH, HH exhibited lower ventilation during exposure to normoxia, hypoxia, or hypercapnia, but comparable ventilatory responsiveness to chemoreflex activation. SCH 23390 decreased ventilation of EH hamsters exposed to normoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. In HH SCH 23390 increased ventilation during baseline normoxia and did not affect ventilation during exposure to hypoxia and hypercapnia, resulting in reduced ventilatory responsivess to chemoreflex activation by hypoxia and hypercapnia. Furthermore, in HH D1 receptor protein levels are decreased in several brain regions and within the carotid bodies. Moreover, D1 receptor-modulation of breathing at rest and during gas exposures were depressed in EH but not HH. PMID:21669406

  3. Association between adjunctive metformin therapy in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat and reduction of carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Paweł; Zawada, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Jolanta; Marcinkaniec, Justyna; Wysocki, Henryk; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Rzeźniczak, Janusz; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota; Naskręt, Dariusz

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and cholesteryl ester lipase (CEL) may oxidize low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of metformin on the metabolism of atherogenic lipid fractions in relation to Lp-PLA2 and CEL levels, as well as assess consequent improvement in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat. PATIENTS AND METHODS    It was an open-label randomized clinical trial that lasted 6 months. It included a total of 84 people with metabolic decompensation (glycated hemoglobin >7.5%, >58.5 mmol/mol) of diabetes. Adjunctive metformin therapy (in addition to insulin) was administered in 42 patients, and the remaining 42 patients received insulin alone. Glycated low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, and CEL were assessed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cartoid IMT was measured using the Carotid Analyser for Research tool. Biochemical analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. RESULTS    The reduction of mean carotid IMT was observed in young type 1 diabetic adults treated additionally with metformin (0.6 ±0.1 cm vs 0.53 ±0.1 cm; P = 0.002). This effect was probably due to weight reduction (90 ±16 kg vs 87 ±15 kg, P = 0.054) and the decrease in atherogenic glycated LDL levels (1.5 ±0.5 mg/dl vs 1.6 ±1.046 mg/dl, P = 0.006). No such correlations were observed in patients treated with insulin alone. Additionally, in patients receiving metformin, glycated LDL levels were inversely correlated with Lp-PLA2 levels (r = -0.31, P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    Additional use of metformin in young type 1 diabetic patients with excess body fat leads to a significant reduction of mean IMT in the common carotid artery. Concentrations of CEL and Lp-PLA2 were significantly increased in both study arms despite improved glucose metabolism

  4. Intracellular pH and its regulation in isolated type I carotid body cells of the neonatal rat.

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, K J; Vaughan-Jones, R D; Peers, C; Nye, P C

    1991-01-01

    1. The dual-emission pH-sensitive fluoroprobe carboxy-SNARF-1 (carboxy-seminaptharhodofluor) was used to measure pHi in type I cells enzymically dispersed from the neonatal rat carotid body. 2. Steady-state pHi in cells bathed in a HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution (pH 7.4) was found to be remarkably alkaline (pHi = 7.77) whereas cells bathed in a CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered Tyrode solution (pH 7.4) had a more 'normal' pHi (pHi = 7.28). These observations were further substantiated by using an independent nullpoint test method to determine pHi. 3. Intracellular intrinsic buffering (beta, determined by acidifying the cell using an NH4Cl pre-pulse) was in the range 7-20 mM per pH unit and appeared to be dependent upon pHi with beta increasing as pHi decreased. 4. In cells bathed in a HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution, pHi recovery from an induced intracellular acid load (10 mM-NH4Cl pre-pulse) was inhibited by the Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor ethyl isopropyl amiloride (EIPA; 150 microM) or substitution of Nao+ with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG). Both EIPA and Nao+ removal also caused a rapid intracellular acidification, which in the case of Nao+ removal, was readily reversible. The rate of this acidification was similar for both Nao+ removal and EIPA addition. 5. Transferring cells from a HEPES-buffered Tyrode solution to one buffered with 5% CO2-HCO3- resulted in an intracellular acidification which was partially, or wholly, sustained. The rate of acidification upon transfer to CO2-HCO3- was considerably slowed by the membrane permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, thus indicating the presence of the enzyme in these cells. 6. In CO2-HCO3(-)-buffered Tyrode solution, pHi recovery from an intracellular acidosis (NH4+ pre-pulse) was only partially inhibited by EIPA or amiloride whereas Nao+ removal completely inhibited the recovery. The stilbene DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbenedisulphonic acid, 200 microM) also partially inhibited pHi recovery following an induced

  5. Tasting arterial blood: what do the carotid chemoreceptors sense?

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakhar, Nanduri R.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The carotid bodies are sensory organs that detect the chemical composition of the arterial blood. The carotid body sensory activity increases in response to arterial hypoxemia and the ensuing chemoreflex regulates vital homeostatic functions. Recent studies suggest that the carotid bodies might also sense arterial blood glucose and circulating insulin levels. This review focuses on how the carotid bodies sense O2, glucose, and insulin and some potential implications of these sensory functions on physiological regulation and in pathophysiological conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that carbon monoxide (CO)-regulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), stemming from hypoxia, depolarizes type I cells by inhibiting certain K+ channels, facilitates voltage-gated Ca2+ influx leading to sensory excitation of the carotid body. Elevated CO and decreased H2S renders the carotid bodies insensitive to hypoxia resulting in attenuated ventilatory adaptations to high altitude hypoxia, whereas reduced CO and high H2S result in hypersensitivity of the carotid bodies to hypoxia and hypertension. Acute hypoglycemia augments the carotid body responses to hypoxia but that a prolonged lack of glucose in the carotid bodies can lead to a failure to sense hypoxia. Emerging evidence also indicates that carotid bodies might sense insulin directly independent of its effect on glucose, linking the carotid bodies to the pathophysiological consequences of the metabolic syndrome. How glucose and insulin interact with the CO-H2S signaling is an area of ongoing study. PMID:25642193

  6. Tasting arterial blood: what do the carotid chemoreceptors sense?

    PubMed

    Prabhakhar, Nanduri R; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The carotid bodies are sensory organs that detect the chemical composition of the arterial blood. The carotid body sensory activity increases in response to arterial hypoxemia and the ensuing chemoreflex regulates vital homeostatic functions. Recent studies suggest that the carotid bodies might also sense arterial blood glucose and circulating insulin levels. This review focuses on how the carotid bodies sense O2, glucose, and insulin and some potential implications of these sensory functions on physiological regulation and in pathophysiological conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that carbon monoxide (CO)-regulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), stemming from hypoxia, depolarizes type I cells by inhibiting certain K(+) channels, facilitates voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx leading to sensory excitation of the carotid body. Elevated CO and decreased H2S renders the carotid bodies insensitive to hypoxia resulting in attenuated ventilatory adaptations to high altitude hypoxia, whereas reduced CO and high H2S result in hypersensitivity of the carotid bodies to hypoxia and hypertension. Acute hypoglycemia augments the carotid body responses to hypoxia but that a prolonged lack of glucose in the carotid bodies can lead to a failure to sense hypoxia. Emerging evidence also indicates that carotid bodies might sense insulin directly independent of its effect on glucose, linking the carotid bodies to the pathophysiological consequences of the metabolic syndrome. How glucose and insulin interact with the CO-H2S signaling is an area of ongoing study. PMID:25642193

  7. Body composition and amino acid concentrations of select birds and mammals consumed by cats in northern and central California.

    PubMed

    Kremen, N A; Calvert, C C; Larsen, J A; Baldwin, R A; Hahn, T P; Fascetti, A J

    2013-03-01

    The diet of the feral domestic cat consists of primarily birds and small mammals, but the nutritional composition is relatively unknown. Because of the increasing popularity of natural diets for cats and other wild captive carnivores, the purpose of this study was to describe the body composition and AA concentrations of select birds and small mammals in northern and central California: wild-caught mice (n = 7), Norway rats (n = 2), roof rats (n = 2), voles (n = 4), moles (n = 2), gophers (n = 3), and birds (n = 4). Body water, crude fat (CFa), CP, ash, and AA composition for each specimen were determined. Results are reported as mean ± SD. All results are reported on a DM basis except body water (as-is basis) and AA (g/16 g N). Combined, carcasses had this mean composition: 67.35 ± 3.19% water, 11.72 ± 6.17% CFa, 62.19 ± 7.28% CP, and 14.83 ± 2.66% ash. Concentrations of Arg, Tau, Cys, and Met were 5.63 ± 0.46, 0.92 ± 0.33, 1.91 ± 0.89, and 1.82 ± 0.19 g/16 g N, respectively. Using NRC physiologic fuel values for CP, CFa, and carbohydrate by difference, the combined average energy content of the carcasses was 3,929 kcal/kg DM, but the fiber content was not determined. With the exception of mice and rats, little historical data exist regarding the body and AA composition of many of the species analyzed in this study. Wild-caught mice and rats were composed of less fat but more ash compared with previously reported data in their purpose-bred counterparts. The CP content of mice in this study was similar to previous reports in purpose-bred mice. The CP content of rats was similar or slightly greater compared with historical findings in purpose-bred rats. The N content of rats and AA concentrations on a per-N basis for both rats and mice were similar to previously published data on purpose-bred rodents. The discrepancies in nutrient composition, especially fat concentration, indicate that using purpose-bred animals to represent the diet of the feral domestic

  8. Field potentials evoked in the brain stem of the cat by stimulation of the carotid sinus, glossopharyngeal, aortic and superior laryngeal nerves

    PubMed Central

    Biscoe, T. J.; Sampson, S. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. In a primarily topographical study, the field potentials evoked in the brain stem of the cat by stimulation of the sinus, glossopharyngeal (IX), aortic and superior laryngeal (SLN) nerves have been recorded with glass micro-electrodes. 2. Extracellular negative potentials were evoked in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and in the lateral reticular formation (LRF) by electrical stimulation of all four nerves. There were differences in the form of these potentials amongst the nerves, particularly between sinus-IX and aortic-SLN. The potentials were identified as post-synaptic with early and late components and were sometimes preceded by an afferent volley. 3. Extracellular positive potentials were evoked in the subnucleus reticularis medialis medullae oblongatae and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis. Intracellularly recorded hyperpolarizations recorded from six cells had the same time course as the extracellular positivity. Spontaneously active cells encountered in these regions were sometimes depressed for the duration of the positivity. 4. Each of the above field potentials was maximal in the region of Horsley—Clarke A. P. co-ordinates -10 to -13 mm. 5. At A.P. co-ordinates of -15 to -17 mm negativity showing post-tetanic potentiation was evoked, at latencies similar to the negativity in the LRF, in the commissural nucleus of Cajal, the dorsolateral reticular formation and the medial reticulo-spinal tract. 6. Negative potentials were evoked in the contralateral LRF. PMID:5499531

  9. Mean circulatory filling pressure during splanchnic nerve stimulation and whole-body hypoxia in the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed

    Bower, E A; O'Donnell, C P

    1991-01-01

    1. Mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) was measured in cats under chloralose anaesthesia by obstruction of blood flow in the pulmonary artery. Pressures in the aorta, hepatic portal vein and right atrium were recorded, and MCFP was estimated from the value at which all three pressures became equal when blood was pumped from aorta to vena cava during circulatory arrest. Simultaneous equality was not attained at MCFP values below 5 mmHg. 2. In cats ventilated by positive pressure after administration of gallamine, MCFP was 9.7 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 14). The values of MCFP measured in six cats before and after administration of gallamine did not differ significantly. Change of blood volume altered MCFP linearly over the range 5-21 mmHg. Noradrenaline (7.5 micrograms kg-1 min-1) increased MCFP from 9.3 +/- 0.9 to 16.5 +/- 0.6 mmHg (n = 4), and phentolamine (2 mg kg-1) reduced it to 5.6 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 5). 3. Changes in MCFP were evoked at different circulating blood volumes by stimulation of the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and by whole-body hypoxia. Ablation of all splanchnic nerves reduced MCFP from 9.4 +/- 0.5 to 7.1 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 5) and stimulation of their distal ends at 10 Hz increased it by 4.1 +/- 0.4 mmHg (n = 4); similar increments were obtained at different blood volumes and initial values of MCFP. 4. Hypoxia increased MCFP by 0.23 mmHg per 1 mmHg fall in arterial oxygen tension below Pa,O2 56 mmHg (r = -0.86; n = 24). Similar increments were obtained at different blood volumes and initial values of MCFP. Ablation of all splanchnic nerves reduced the increments by 60%, and administration of phentolamine abolished them.

  10. Procedures and modifications for reliable use of the unidirectional microflow respirator in the investigation of the carotid body of Gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    de Wet, P D; Dreyer, M V; Coetzer, J D

    1981-08-01

    An artificial respirator was used to ensure successful and precise artificial respiration in short and long term experiments during radical exposure of the caudal cervical region and thoracic cavity to investigate cytological changes in the carotid body of mature chickens (Gallus domesticus). Modification of the respirator to stabilize gas flow, temperature and humidity consisted of replacing the ball check valve in the heating and humidifying cylinder with a fine regulating stopcock in the water outlet of the cylinder and inserting eight glass rods in a circle inside the cylinder. Accumulation of water condensate in the trachea and lungs during long term experiments was prevented by inserting a cotton filter moisture trap in the tracheal cannula.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide and hypoxia-induced changes in TASK (K2P3/9) activity and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat carotid body glomus cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghee; Kim, Insook; Wang, Jiaju; White, Carl; Carroll, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Acute hypoxia depolarizes carotid body chemoreceptor (glomus) cells and elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Recent studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may serve as an oxygen sensor/signal in the carotid body during acute hypoxia. To further test such a role for H2S, we studied the effects of H2S on the activity of TASK channel and [Ca2+]i, which are considered important for mediating the glomus cell response to hypoxia. Like hypoxia, NaHS (a H2S donor) inhibited TASK activity and elevated [Ca2+]i. To inhibit the production of H2S, glomus cells were incubated (3 hr) with inhibitors of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase (DL-propargylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, β-cyano-L-alanine; 0.3 mM). SF7 fluorescence was used to assess the level of H2S production. The inhibitors blocked L-cysteine- and hypoxia-induced elevation of SF7 fluorescence intensity. In cells treated with the inhibitors, hypoxia produced an inhibition of TASK activity and a rise in [Ca2+]i, similar in magnitude to those observed in control cells. L-cysteine produced no effect on TASK activity or [Ca2+]i and did not affect hypoxia-induced inhibition of TASK and elevation of [Ca2+]i. These findings suggest that under normal conditions, H2S is not a major signal in hypoxia-induced modulation of TASK channels and [Ca2+]i in isolated glomus cells. PMID:25956223

  12. Hydrogen sulfide and hypoxia-induced changes in TASK (K2P3/9) activity and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in rat carotid body glomus cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Kim, Insook; Wang, Jiaju; White, Carl; Carroll, John L

    2015-08-15

    Acute hypoxia depolarizes carotid body chemoreceptor (glomus) cells and elevates intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Recent studies suggest that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may serve as an oxygen sensor/signal in the carotid body during acute hypoxia. To further test such a role for H2S, we studied the effects of H2S on the activity of TASK channel and [Ca(2+)]i, which are considered important for mediating the glomus cell response to hypoxia. Like hypoxia, NaHS (a H2S donor) inhibited TASK activity and elevated [Ca(2+)]i. To inhibit the production of H2S, glomus cells were incubated (3h) with inhibitors of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase (DL-propargylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, β-cyano-L-alanine; 0.3 mM). SF7 fluorescence was used to assess the level of H2S production. The inhibitors blocked L-cysteine- and hypoxia-induced elevation of SF7 fluorescence intensity. In cells treated with the inhibitors, hypoxia produced an inhibition of TASK activity and a rise in [Ca(2+)]i, similar in magnitude to those observed in control cells. L-cysteine produced no effect on TASK activity or [Ca(2+)]i and did not affect hypoxia-induced inhibition of TASK and elevation of [Ca(2+)]i. These findings suggest that under normal conditions, H2S is not a major signal in hypoxia-induced modulation of TASK channels and [Ca(2+)]i in isolated glomus cells.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling Supports the Neural Crest Origin of Adult Rodent Carotid Body Stem Cells and Identifies CD10 as a Marker for Mesectoderm-Committed Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guerrero, Elena; Platero-Luengo, Aida; Linares-Clemente, Pedro; Cases, Ildefonso; López-Barneo, José; Pardal, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are promising tools for understanding nervous system plasticity and repair, but their use is hampered by the lack of markers suitable for their prospective isolation and characterization. The carotid body (CB) contains a population of peripheral NSCs, which support organ growth during acclimatization to hypoxia. We have set up CB neurosphere (NS) cultures enriched in differentiated neuronal (glomus) cells versus undifferentiated progenitors to investigate molecular hallmarks of cell classes within the CB stem cell (CBSC) niche. Microarray gene expression analysis in NS is compatible with CBSCs being neural crest derived-multipotent progenitor cells able to sustain CB growth upon exposure to hypoxia. Moreover, we have identified CD10 as a marker suitable for isolation of a population of CB mesectoderm-committed progenitor cells. CD10 + cells are resting in normoxia, and during hypoxia they are activated to proliferate and to eventually complete maturation into mesectodermal cells, thus participating in the angiogenesis necessary for CB growth. Our results shed light into the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in CBSC fate choice, favoring a potential use of these cells for cell therapy. Stem Cells 2016;34:1637-1650.

  14. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of whole body heating on human baroreflex function are relatively unknown. The purpose of this project was to identify whether whole body heating reduces the maximal slope of the carotid baroreflex. In 12 subjects, carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness were assessed in normothermia and during whole body heating. Whole body heating increased sublingual temperature (from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P < 0.01) and increased heart rate (from 59 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 3 beats/min, P < 0. 01), whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was slightly decreased (from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac responsiveness were assessed by identifying the maximal gain of MAP and heart rate to R wave-triggered changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure. Whole body heating significantly decreased the responsiveness of the carotid-vasomotor baroreflex (from -0.20 +/- 0.02 to -0.13 +/- 0.02 mmHg/mmHg, P < 0.01) without altering the responsiveness of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex (from -0.40 +/- 0.05 to -0.36 +/- 0.02 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), P = 0.21). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex curves were shifted downward and upward, respectively, to accommodate the decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate that accompanied the heat stress. Moreover, the operating point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex was shifted closer to threshold (P = 0.02) by the heat stress. Reduced carotid-vasomotor baroreflex responsiveness, coupled with a reduction in the functional reserve for the carotid baroreflex to increase heart rate during a hypotensive challenge, may contribute to increased susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance during a heat stress.

  15. The contribution of the arterial chemoreceptors to the stimulation of respiration by adrenaline and noradrenaline in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Joels, N.; White, H.

    1968-01-01

    1. Intravenous infusions of adrenaline and noradrenaline in doses averaging 0·8 μg/kg.min increased the respiratory minute volume of anaesthetized cats breathing room air. The mean increase in respiratory minute volume was 14% during adrenaline infusion and 8% during noradrenaline infusion. 2. In a small group of decerebrate cats infusions of adrenaline and noradrenaline increased ventilation by 19 and 27% respectively. 3. Intravenous catecholamine infusions also increased the respiratory responses of anaesthetized animals to the inhalation of 5% or 10% O2 in N2 and to the inhalation of 5% CO2 in air. 4. Adrenaline and noradrenaline infusions had no significant effect on the ventilation of animals breathing 100% O2, nor did they significantly alter the respiratory response to the inhalation of 5% CO2 in O2. 5. After section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves, a blood-pressure compensator being used to minimize changes in arterial pressure, catecholamines had no effect on the respiration of cats breathing air. 6. An increase in carotid body chemoreceptor discharge accompanied the increase in ventilation during catecholamine infusion. 7. Intravenous catecholamine infusions still produced an increase in ventilation and carotid body chemoreceptor discharge after both aortic nerves and both cervical sympathetic nerves had been cut. 8. Intra-arterial infusions into one carotid artery of 0·2 μg/kg.min of adrenaline or 0·1 μg/kg.min of noradrenaline led to mean increases in respiratory minute volume of 9·9 and 11·5% respectively. No increase occurred after section of the corresponding carotid sinus nerve. Such infusions also evoked an increase in carotid body chemoreceptor discharge. 9. It is concluded that the hyperpnoea produced by adrenaline and noradrenaline infusions in the cat is predominantly reflex in origin and is mediated by the arterial chemoreceptors. 10. The increase in ventilation produced by adrenaline appears to have a component additional to

  16. P2Y2 receptor activation opens pannexin-1 channels in rat carotid body type II cells: potential role in amplifying the neurotransmitter ATP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Piskuric, Nikol A; Vollmer, Cathy; Nurse, Colin A

    2012-09-01

    Signal processing in the carotid body (CB) is initiated at receptor glomus (or type I) cells which depolarize and release the excitatory neurotransmitter ATP during chemoexcitation by hypoxia and acid hypercapnia. Glomus cell clusters (GCs) occur in intimate association with glia-like type II cells which express purinergic P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) but their function is unclear. Here we immunolocalize the gap junction-like protein channel pannexin-1 (Panx-1) in type II cells and show Panx-1 mRNA expression in the rat CB. As expected, type II cell activation within or near isolated GCs by P2Y2R agonists, ATP and UTP (100 μm), induced a rise in intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Moreover in perforated-patch whole cell recordings from type II cells, these agonists caused a prolonged depolarization and a concentration-dependent, delayed opening of non-selective ion channels that was prevented by Panx-1 blockers, carbenoxolone (5 μm) and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS; 10 μm). Because Panx-1 channels serve as conduits for ATP release, we hypothesized that paracrine, type II cell P2Y2R activation leads to ATP-induced ATP release. In proof-of-principle experiments we used co-cultured chemoafferent petrosal neurones (PNs), which express P2X2/3 purinoceptors, as sensitive biosensors of ATP released from type II cells. In several cases, UTP activation of type II cells within or near GCs led to depolarization or increased firing in nearby PNs, and the effect was reversibly abolished by the selective P2X2/3 receptor blocker, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS; 10 μm). We propose that CB type II cells may function as ATP amplifiers during chemotransduction via paracrine activation of P2Y2Rs and Panx-1 channels.

  17. Increase in cytosolic Ca2+ produced by hypoxia and other depolarizing stimuli activates a non-selective cation channel in chemoreceptor cells of rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dawon; Wang, Jiaju; Hogan, James O; Vennekens, Rudi; Freichel, Marc; White, Carl; Kim, Donghee

    2014-05-01

    The current model of O2 sensing by carotid body chemoreceptor (glomus) cells is that hypoxia inhibits the outward K(+) current and causes cell depolarization, Ca(2+) influx via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and a rise in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i). Here we show that hypoxia (<5% O2), in addition to inhibiting the two-pore domain K(+) channels TASK-1/3 (TASK), indirectly activates an ∼20 pS channel in isolated glomus cells. The 20 pS channel was permeable to K(+), Na(+) and Cs(+) but not to Cl(-) or Ca(2+). The 20 pS channel was not sensitive to voltage. Inhibition of TASK by external acid, depolarization of glomus cells with high external KCl (20 mm) or opening of the Ca(2+) channel with FPL64176 activated the 20 pS channel when 1 mm Ca(2+) was present in the external solution. Ca(2+) (10 μm) applied to the cytosolic side of inside-out patches activated the 20 pS channel. The threshold [Ca(2+)]i for activation of the 20 pS channel in cell-attached patches was ∼200 nm. The reversal potential of the 20 pS channel was estimated to be -28 mV. Our results reveal a sequential mechanism in which hypoxia (<5% O2) first inhibits the K(+) conductance and then activates a Na(+)-permeable, non-selective cation channel via depolarization-induced rise in [Ca(2+)]i. Our results suggest that inhibition of K(+) efflux and stimulation of Na(+) influx both contribute to the depolarization of glomus cells during moderate to severe hypoxia.

  18. Co-transplantation of carotid body and ventral mesencephalic cells as an alternative approach towards functional restoration in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Agrawal, A K; Chaturvedi, R K; Seth, K; Srivastava, N; Sinha, C; Shukla, Y; Khanna, V K; Seth, P K

    2004-10-01

    Exogenous administration of various neurotrophic factors has been shown to protect neurons in animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several attempts are being made to search a tissue source simultaneously expressing many of these neurotrophic factors. Carotid body (CB) contains oxygen-sensitive glomus cells rich in dopamine (DA) and expresses glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. We have attempted to study the functional restoration following co-transplantation of CB cells and ventral mesencephalic cells (VMC) in a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of PD. A significant recovery (p < 0.001) in d-amphetamine-induced circling behavior (80%) and spontaneous locomotor activity (85%) was evident in co-transplanted animals at 12 weeks post-transplantation as compared to lesioned animals. Similarly, a significant (p < 0.001) restoration was observed in DA-D(2) receptor binding (77%), striatal DA (87%) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (85%) levels and nigral DA (75%) and DOPAC (74%) levels. Functional recovery was accompanied by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and quantification of TH-positive cells by image analysis revealed a significant restoration in TH-immunoreactive (IR) fiber density in striatum, as well as TH-IR neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta in co-transplanted animals over VMC-transplanted animals. The result suggests that co-transplantation of CB cells along with VMC provides better and long-term functional restoration in the rat model of PD, possibly by supporting the survival of newly grafted cells as well as remaining host DA neurons. PMID:15447661

  19. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n = 149) and a general practice (n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P < 0.001) and education (P < 0.001) compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P < 0.001) and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P = 0.083), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P = 0.046), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:27722198

  20. Can a closed carotid artery be reopened?

    PubMed

    Issawi, Ahmad; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    Carotid occlusion is a disease that presents a difficult decision for the treating provider. Traditionally, many providers would opt for expectant management with risk factor reduction and supportive therapy. There is a growing body of literature however pointing to possible improved outcomes of more aggressive treatments, including reopening of the occluded carotid. In this review, we discuss the difficulties involved in diagnosing a patient presenting with symptomatic carotid occlusion, the natural history of the disease, and the emerging treatment options and paradigms of different institutions based on recent literature. PMID:26277365

  1. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  2. Carotid chemoreceptor "resetting" revisited.

    PubMed

    Carroll, John L; Kim, Insook

    2013-01-01

    Carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors transduce low arterial O(2) tension into increased action potential activity on the carotid sinus nerves, which contributes to resting ventilatory drive, increased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia, arousal responses to hypoxia during sleep, upper airway muscle activity, blood pressure control and sympathetic tone. Their sensitivity to O(2) is low in the newborn and increases during the days or weeks after birth to reach adult levels. This postnatal functional maturation of the CB O(2) response has been termed "resetting" and it occurs in every mammalian species studied to date. The O(2) environment appears to play a key role; the fetus develops in a low O(2) environment throughout gestation and initiation of CB "resetting" after birth is modulated by the large increase in arterial oxygen tension occurring at birth. Although numerous studies have reported age-related changes in various components of the O(2) transduction cascade, how the O(2) environment shapes normal CB prenatal development and postnatal "resetting" remains unknown. Viewing CB "resetting" as environment-driven (developmental) phenotypic plasticity raises important mechanistic questions that have received little attention. This review examines what is known (and not known) about mechanisms of CB functional maturation, with a focus on the role of the O(2) environment.

  3. Molecular identification of Kvα subunits that contribute to the oxygen-sensitive K+ current of chemoreceptor cells of the rabbit carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Diego; López-López, Jose R; Pérez-García, M Teresa; Sanz-Alfayate, Gloria; Obeso, Ana; Ganfornina, Maria D; Gonzalez, Constancio

    2002-01-01

    Rabbit carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells possess a fast-inactivating K+ current that is specifically inhibited by hypoxia. We have studied the expression of Kvα subunits, which might be responsible for this current. RT-PCR experiments identified the expression of Kv1.4, Kv3.4, Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs in the rabbit CB. There was no expression of Kv3.3 or Kv4.2 transcripts. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (anti-TH) and to specific Kv subunits revealed the expression of Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 in chemoreceptor cells, while Kv1.4 was only found in nerve fibres. Kv4.1 mRNA was also found in chemoreceptor cells following in situ hybridization combined with anti-TH antibody labelling. Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 appeared to be present in all chemoreceptor cells, but Kv3.4 was only expressed in a population of them. Electrophysiological experiments applying specific toxins or antibodies demonstrated that both Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 participate in the oxygen-sensitive K+ current of chemoreceptor cells. However, toxin application experiments confirmed a larger contribution of members of the Kv4 subfamily. [Ca2+]i measurements under hypoxic conditions and immunocytochemistry experiments in dispersed CB cells demonstrated the expression of Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 in oxygen-sensitive cells; the presence of Kv3.4 in the chemoreceptor cell membrane was not required for the response to low PO2. In summary, three Kv subunits (Kv3.4, Kv4.1 and Kv4.3) may be involved in the fast-inactivating outward K+ current of rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. The homogeneous distribution of the Kv4 subunits in chemoreceptor cells, along with their electrophysiological properties, suggest that Kv4.1, Kv4.3, or their heteromultimers, are the molecular correlate of the oxygen-sensitive K+ channel. PMID:12122138

  4. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats.

    PubMed

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens J; Cronin, Anna M; Nielsen, Dorte H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats. PMID:27136422

  5. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    PubMed Central

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Holst, Jens J.; Cronin, Anna M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats. PMID:27136422

  6. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  7. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  8. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. PMID:25084314

  9. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  10. A moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet reduces gain in body condition score when fed as part of a post neutering weight-control regimen in growing pet cats.

    PubMed

    Spofford, Nathaniel; Mougeot, Isabelle; Elliott, Denise A; Addleman, Ashlee; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Feugier, Alexandre; Biourge, Vincent; Lund, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Neutering of cats has been associated with significant weight gain in the weeks following surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet in reducing weight gain in growing pet cats when fed as part of a weight-control regimen over the 6 months post-neutering. Cats in participating primary care veterinary hospitals were enrolled at neutering and assigned to receive one of the two dietary treatments based on the hospital of origin. Owners of cats in the treatment group were instructed to feed the trial diet at maintenance (324·7 kJ/kg BW(0·711) per d). Instructions for the control group were to feed the cat's regular diet according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Body weight and condition were evaluated by veterinarians at enrolment, 2-weeks, and 1-4 and 6 months after surgery. Body condition score (five-point scale) was compared between enrolment and each subsequent visit, controlling for enrolment age and sex. Percentage change in body weight was evaluated via multivariate mixed modelling to account for repeated measures. A total of 187 cats (eighty-seven females and 100 males) with a mean age of 5·2 (sd 0·8) months and mean weight of 2·8 (sd 0·6) kg from fifty-one hospitals completed the trial. The odds of being scored as overweight were 4·1 times as great for cats in the control v. treatment groups (95 % CI 2·1, 8·2). Percentage change in body weight differed significantly with enrolment age (P = 0·007) and approached significance between diet groups (P = 0·08). Cats fed the trial diet had a significantly reduced incidence of overweight in the 6 months following neutering. PMID:26101609

  11. In vitro activation of cyclo-oxygenase in the rabbit carotid body: effect of its blockade on [3H]catecholamine release.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Niño, A; Almaraz, L; González, C

    1994-01-01

    The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from rabbit carotid bodies (CBs) incubated in basal conditions (PO2 approximately 132 mmHg; PCO2 approximately 33 mmHg; pH = 7.42) amounts to 94.4 +/- 10.1 pg (mg protein)-1 (10 min)-1 (mean +/- S.E.M.). Incubation of the CB in a hypoxic solution (PO2 approximately 46 mmHg) produced a significant 40% increase (P < 0.05) in the release of PGE2. Indomethacin (2 microM) prevented the hypoxia-induced release of PGE2. Sensory plus sympathetic denervation of the CB 4 days prior to the experiments did not modify either basal or low PO2-induced PGE2 release, indicating that intraglomic nerve endings are not significant sources for the PGE2 released. Incubation of the CB in an acidic-hypercapnic solution (PO2 approximately 132 mmHg; PCO2 approximately 132 mmHg; pH = 6.60) or in a high K(+)-containing solution (35 mM) was also effective in promoting an increase in the outflow of PGE2 from the organs. The release of [3H]catecholamines ([3H]CA) from the CB elicited by incubating the organs in low PO2 solutions (PO2 ranged between 66 and 13 mmHg) was potentiated by two inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 microM) and indomethacin (2 microM). The effect persisted after chronic denervation of the organ. The secretory response elicited by acidic stimuli was also augmented by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. Thus, [3H]CA release elicited by incubating the CBs in the acidic-hypercapnic solution increased by 300% in the presence of indomethacin (2 microM), and ASA (100 microM) more than doubled the release induced by dinitrophenol (100 microM), a protonophore that mimics an acidic stimulus. Indomethacin, but not ASA, moderately increased the high K(+)-evoked [3H]CA release. The effect of indomethacin on the release of [3H]CA elicited by acidic and hypoxic stimuli was reversed by PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner (0.3-300 nM). These results show that low PO2 and high PCO2-low pH, the natural stimuli to the CB, as well as high

  12. Durability of carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Baker, W H; Hayes, A C; Mahler, D; Littooy, F N

    1983-07-01

    Carotid endarterectomy is the preferred treatment for patients with transient ischemic attacks and carotid stenosis. Although clinically these patients do well, the long-term fate of the operated carotid artery has not been well documented. To address this question, repeated noninvasive testing has been employed to follow our carotid endarterectomy patients since 1976. Supraorbital Doppler examination, oculoplethysmography-Kartchner, carotid phonoangiography and, later in this series, spectral analysis of the carotid Doppler velocities were performed after 193 endarterectomies. One hundred fifty-eight patients were initially tested within 3 months of operation, and 35 were initially tested 3 or more months after operation. Twenty-four arteries, four of which were symptomatic, had an initial abnormal test and are excluded from this study of carotid artery durability. Of the 169 patients with normal carotid tests, 36 had no further evaluation. Among the 133 patients who returned for serial testing from 1 to 60 months (mean 20 months), 115 carotid arteries continued to test normal at late follow-up but 18 subsequently developed test abnormalities. Ten had more than 75% stenosis, eight had 50% to 75% stenosis. Eight of these patients had contrast studies: three had normal findings; the five that had abnormal findings underwent reoperation. Interestingly, only two patients presented with symptoms appropriate to the abnormal test. The findings suggest that carotid endarterectomy is a reasonably durable operation. Recurrent stenosis was presumed or proven in 10% of 133 serially tested carotid arteries. This threat of restenosis makes long-term follow-up of these patients mandatory.

  13. Stimulation of raphe (obscurus) nucleus causes long-term potentiation of phrenic nerve activity in cat.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E

    1986-12-01

    1. The respiratory response, measured as integrated phrenic nerve activity, during and for up to an hour following 10 min of continuous electrical stimulation of raphe obscurus was quantitated in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated cats whose carotid sinus nerves and vagus nerves had been cut. End-tidal PCO2 and body temperature were kept constant with servocontrollers. 2. Stimulation of raphe obscurus caused a significant increase in both phrenic tidal activity and respiratory frequency that persisted following cessation of the stimulus. This persistent facilitation is referred to as 'long-term potentiation' of respiration. 3. Control stimulations in the parenchyma of the medulla oblongata failed to stimulate respiration and cause the long-term potentiation. 4. Both the direct facilitatory effects of raphe obscurus stimulation on phrenic nerve activity and the long-term potentiation of respiration following the stimulus were prevented by pre-treating cats with methysergide, a serotonin receptor antagonist. 5. The results are discussed in terms of the raphe obscurus being the potential source of the long-term potentiation of respiration that occurs following stimulation of carotid body afferents (Millhorn, Eldridge & Waldrop, 1980a, b). PMID:3114470

  14. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  15. Carotid stenting and endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Yip, Hon-Kan; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2016-07-01

    Stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, remains the second commonest cause of death worldwide in the last decade. Etiologies for ischemic stroke (IS) vary widely. Atherothrombotic occlusion is an essential cause to which carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is a major contributor. Administration of anti-platelet agent to patients with CAS has been shown to reduce incidence of long-term IS. In additional, in patients with symptomatic CAS, clinical trials have demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is superior to medical therapy for prevention of future CAS-related IS. However, CEA is not suitable for CAS post-radiotherapy or those located at higher level of the internal carotid artery; and major complications of this procedure including cranial nerve injuries have stimulated the interest of using percutaneous transfemoral carotid stenting as an alternative approach. Although transfemoral arterial approach of carotid stenting is not inferior to CEA in improving clinical outcomes, it has been reported to be associated with vascular complication and has its limitations in patients with athero-occlusive disease of abdominal aorta or bilateral iliac arteries, level II or III aortic arch, or bovine type carotid arterial anatomy. Therefore, transradial/transbrachial arterial approach has emerged as a novel method for carotid stenting. This article provides a critical review on interventional approaches for the treatment of CAS.

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of carotid artery atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruizinga, Pieter; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; de Jong, Nico; Springeling, Geert; Robertus, Jan Lukas; van der Lugt, Aad; van Soest, Gijs

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a method for photoacoustic imaging of the carotid artery, tailored toward detection of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions. A common human carotid artery was obtained at autopsy, embedded in a neck mimicking phantom and imaged with a multimodality imaging system using interstitial illumination. Light was delivered through a 1.25-mm-diameter optical probe that can be placed in the pharynx, allowing the carotid artery to be illuminated from within the body. Ultrasound imaging and photoacoustic signal detection is achieved by an external 8-MHz linear array coupled to an ultrasound imaging system. Spectroscopic analysis of photoacoustic images obtained in the wavelength range from 1130 to 1250 nm revealed plaque-specific lipid accumulation in the collagen structure of the artery wall. These spectroscopic findings were confirmed by histology.

  17. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  18. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting; CAS; Angioplasty - carotid artery; Carotid artery stenosis - angioplasty; ... Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is done using a small surgical cut. Your surgeon will make a surgical cut ...

  19. [Evaluation of carotid stenosis by using carotid ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Seike, Nahoko; Ito, Michiko; Yasaka, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    Carotid stenosis is observed in several diseases such as atherosclerosis, moyamoya disease, and aortitis. Carotid stenosis can be assessed using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), ultrasonography, or cerebral angiography. Carotid ultrasonography is superior to other modalities because it is a noninvasive, repeatable, and easy method that does not involve much cost. The intima-media complex thickness (IMT) can be easily measured using carotid ultrasonography. The incidence of cerebral and cardiovascular events increases with increase in the thickness of the IMT. The percentage of stenosis was expressed using the NASCET, ECST, or area methods. The NASCET criterion of 70% stenosis for performing carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis corresponded to 85% ECST stenosis, 90% area stenosis, and 200 cm/sec of peak systolic velocity. Carotid ultrasonography provides information on not only carotid stenosis but also unstable plaques such as ulcer, hypoechoic plaque, thin fibrous cap, and mobile plaque. In patients with moyamoya disease, carotid ultrasonography often reveals that the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is greatly reduced at the proximal portion above the bulbus (resembling a champagne bottle neck) and is less than 50% that of the common carotid artery (champagne bottle neck sign); the diameter of the ICA is smaller than that of the external carotid artery (diameter reversal sign). In patients with aortitis, IMT thickness is frequently observed at the common carotid artery (Macaroni sign) but not at the ICA. PMID:21139180

  20. P2 purinergic receptor activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase in the dorsal facial area of the medulla increases blood flow in the common carotid arteries of cats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Y-W; Leung, Y-M; Lin, N-N; Lee, T J-F; Kuo, J-S; Tung, K-C; Gong, C-L

    2015-02-12

    In the dorsal facial area (DFA) of the medulla, an activation of either P2 purinergic receptor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in the release of glutamate, leading to an increase in blood flow of the common carotid artery (CCA). It is not known whether activation of the P2 receptor by ATP may mediate activation of NOS/guanylyl cyclase to cause glutamate release and/or whether L-Arg (nitric oxide (NO) precursor) may also cause ATP release from any other neuron, to cause an increase in CCA flow. We demonstrated that microinjections of P2 receptor agonists (ATP, α,β-methylene ATP) or NO precursor (L-arginine) into the DFA increased CCA blood flow. The P2-induced CCA blood flow increase was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a relatively selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by that with D-NAME (an isomer of L-NAME) or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO, a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor). Involvement of glutamate release in these responses were substantiated by microdialysis studies, in which perfusions of ATP into the DFA increased the glutamate concentration in dialysates, but co-perfusion of ATP with L-NAME or 7-NI did not. Nevertheless, the arginine-induced CCA blood flow increase was abolished by combined pretreatment of L-NAME and MB, but not affected by pretreatment with a selective P2 receptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). In conclusion, ATP activation of the P2 receptor in the DFA induced activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which causes glutamate release leading to an increase in CCA blood flow. However, arginine activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which also caused glutamate release and CCA blood flow increase, did not induce activation of P2 receptors. These findings provide important information for drug design and

  1. P2 purinergic receptor activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase in the dorsal facial area of the medulla increases blood flow in the common carotid arteries of cats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Y-W; Leung, Y-M; Lin, N-N; Lee, T J-F; Kuo, J-S; Tung, K-C; Gong, C-L

    2015-02-12

    In the dorsal facial area (DFA) of the medulla, an activation of either P2 purinergic receptor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) results in the release of glutamate, leading to an increase in blood flow of the common carotid artery (CCA). It is not known whether activation of the P2 receptor by ATP may mediate activation of NOS/guanylyl cyclase to cause glutamate release and/or whether L-Arg (nitric oxide (NO) precursor) may also cause ATP release from any other neuron, to cause an increase in CCA flow. We demonstrated that microinjections of P2 receptor agonists (ATP, α,β-methylene ATP) or NO precursor (L-arginine) into the DFA increased CCA blood flow. The P2-induced CCA blood flow increase was dose-dependently reduced by pretreatment with NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, a relatively selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) or methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by that with D-NAME (an isomer of L-NAME) or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO, a potent endothelial NOS inhibitor). Involvement of glutamate release in these responses were substantiated by microdialysis studies, in which perfusions of ATP into the DFA increased the glutamate concentration in dialysates, but co-perfusion of ATP with L-NAME or 7-NI did not. Nevertheless, the arginine-induced CCA blood flow increase was abolished by combined pretreatment of L-NAME and MB, but not affected by pretreatment with a selective P2 receptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS). In conclusion, ATP activation of the P2 receptor in the DFA induced activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which causes glutamate release leading to an increase in CCA blood flow. However, arginine activation of neuronal NOS/guanylyl cyclase, which also caused glutamate release and CCA blood flow increase, did not induce activation of P2 receptors. These findings provide important information for drug design and

  2. Glomus tissue in the vicinity of the human carotid sinus.

    PubMed Central

    Garfia, A

    1980-01-01

    Three of 60 cadavers have shown, in the adventitia or in the adipose tissue from the human carotid sinus region, small islands of tissue richly and typically vascularized and with nerve endings contacting cells like the tissue of the principal carotid body. In two of the cases such 'miniglomera' were single but in the third there were several all on the same side. A modified en bloc silver nitrate reduction stain was used to demonstrate the microvascular arrangements and the nerve endings by light microscopy of serial tangential sections of the carotid bifurcation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7364653

  3. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  4. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  5. Phenazopyridine toxicosis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J W; Kornick, H P

    1976-08-01

    Severe illness developed after the oral administration of several drugs, including large doses of phenazopyridine (100 mg TID for 4 days) to a cat with dysuria and hematuria. Hemolysis and icterus were evident in blood serum and plasma after day 4 of drug administration, and many hemolyzed red blood cell "ghosts" containing Heinz bodies were observed on a stained blood smear. The cat became anemic and died within 48 hours after the last dose was administered. In an attempt to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between drug administration and disease, 100 mg of phenazopyridine was given TID (65 mg/kg/day) for 3 days to a clinically normal cat. Nearly 50% of the hemoglobin was oxidized to methemoglobin during the course of phenazopyridine administration. Lower dosages of phenazopyridine (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) for longer periods of administration to 2 other clinically normal cats did not result in illness or anemia; however, the number and size of Heinz bodies and blood methemoglobin content were increased. Evidence of hepatic injury was observed in the clinically affected cat and in 2 of the experimental cats. The relationship between hepatic injury and toxic signs was not determined. Combination products recommeneded for treatment of cystitis in man often contain phenazopyridine. Such products should be avoided in cats unless a safe, effective dosage for phenazopyridine can be established.

  6. Role of Chemoreceptor Activation in Hemodynamic Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Carotid Sinus in Conscious Rats.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Pedro L; Castania, Jaci A; Dias, Daniel P M; Patel, Kaushik P; Fazan, Rubens; Salgado, Helio C

    2015-09-01

    Electric carotid baroreflex activation has been used to treat patients with resistant hypertension. It is hypothesized that, in conscious rats, combined activation of carotid baro- and chemoreceptors afferences attenuates the reflex hypotension. Rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control group, with unilateral denervation of the right carotid chemoreceptors; (2) chemoreceptor denervation group, with bilateral ligation of the carotid body artery; (3) baroreceptor denervation group, with unilateral denervation of the left carotid baroreceptors and right carotid chemoreceptors; and (4) carotid bifurcation denervation group, with denervation of the left carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors, plus denervation of the right carotid chemoreceptors. Animals were subjected to 4 rounds of electric stimulation (5 V, 1 ms), with 15, 30, 60, and 90 Hz applied randomly for 20 s. Electric stimulation caused greater hypotensive responses in the chemoreceptor denervation group than in the control group, at 60 Hz (-37 versus -19 mm Hg) and 90 Hz (-33 versus -19 mm Hg). The baroreceptor denervation group showed hypertensive responses at all frequencies of stimulation. In contrast, the carotid sinus denervation group showed no hemodynamic responses. The control group presented no changes in heart rate, whereas the chemoreceptor denervation group and the baroreceptor denervation group showed bradycardic responses. These data demonstrate that carotid chemoreceptor activation attenuates the reflex hypotension caused by combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. These findings may provide useful insight for clinical studies using baroreflex activation therapy in resistant hypertension and heart failure.

  7. Life expectancy and late stroke following carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, E F; Humber, P B; Collins, G M; Dilley, R B; Devin, J B; Stuart, S H

    1983-01-01

    A review of the UCSD experience with 456 consecutive carotid endarterectomy procedures confirms the acceptably low operative mortality and morbidity associated with this operation. Immediate complications were not different when routine or selective shunting was performed, but the patients with a low internal carotid artery back pressure had higher operative complication rates. The coexistence of atherosclerosis in other parts of the body severe-enough to warrant surgery for them was not associated with either higher early or late carotid surgery complication rates. Following both coronary bypass and carotid procedures, the late mortality was decreased, and the late incidence of stroke was particularly low in comparison to the remainder of the patient group. Late follow-up emphasized the high continuing attrition rate from all causes in these patients. Late strokes continued to occur, particularly in patients with prior strokes and severe preoperative bilateral carotid disease. The late course of patients with posterior circulation transient ischemic attacks treated by carotid endarterectomy was quite similar to that of patients treated for anterior circulation transient ischemia attacks (TIAs). Newer postoperative screening procedures may decrease the incidence of late postoperative stroke by identifying recurrent carotid stenosis while it is still in the asymptomatic stage. PMID:6602597

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  9. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the sound beam from a different location to better see an area of concern. Doppler sonography and Carotid IMT US are performed using the ...

  10. Common Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Correlate with Local but Not Global Atheroma Burden: A Cross Sectional Study Using Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A.; Adamson, Carly L.; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J.; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Background Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). Methods 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50–70%, 3 = 70–99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. Results The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β −0.39, p = 0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β −0.45 p = 0.005). Conclusion ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral

  11. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  12. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex influence on forearm vascular resistance during low level LBNP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David

    1990-01-01

    Twelve healthy males were tested at low levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with and without artificial stimulation of the carotid-cardiac baroreceptors. The carotid-cardiac baroreceptors were stimulated by applying a pressure of 10 mmHg to the carotid artery via a pressurized neck chamber. During the procedure, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) were measured using a Whitney mercury silastic strain gauge technique. FBF decreased while FVR increased with increased intensity of LBNP. Both FBF and FVR were unaffected by carotid-cardiac baroreceptor stimulation.

  13. Management of Carotid Artery Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Gordin, Eli; Stroman, David

    2014-01-01

    With increased awareness and liberal screening of trauma patients with identified risk factors, recent case series demonstrate improved early diagnosis of carotid artery trauma before they become problematio. There remains a need for unified screening criteria for both intracranial and extracranial carotid trauma. In the absence of contraindications, antithrombotic agents should be considered in blunt carotid artery injuries, as there is a significant risk of progression of vessel injury with observation alone. Despite CTA being used as a common screening modality, it appears to lack sufficient sensitivity. DSA remains to be the gold standard in screening. Endovascular techniques are becoming more widely accepted as the primary surgical modality in the treatment of blunt extracranial carotid injuries and penetrating/blunt intracranial carotid lessions. Nonetheless, open surgical approaches are still needed for the treatment of penetrating extracranial carotid injuries and in patients with unfavorable lesions for endovascular intervention. PMID:25136406

  14. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C; Højlund, K; Hatunic, M; Balkau, B; Nilsson, P M; Ferrannini, E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions characterized by body size-dependent increase in stroke volume (SV) and blood pressure (BP). Subjects/Methods: Common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter (LD), IMT and CWS were measured in three different populations in order to study: (A) cross-sectional associations between SV, BP, anthropometric parameters and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24–159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). Results: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile was significantly higher (28±3 μm) as compared with those in the lower quartiles (8±3, 16±4 and 16±3 μm, P=0.001, P<0.05 and P=0.01, respectively). In addition, CCA CWS decreased during the observational period in the highest LD quartile (from 54.2±8.6 to 51.6±7.4 kPa, P<0.0001). As compared with gender- and age-matched lean individuals, obese subjects had highly increased CCA LD and BP (P<0.0001 for both), but only slightly higher CWS (P=0.05) due to a significant increase in IMT (P=0.005 after adjustment for confounders). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in obese subjects, the CCA wall thickens to compensate the luminal enlargement caused by body size-induced increase in SV, and therefore, to normalize the wall stress. CCA diameter in obesity could

  15. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  16. CT -- Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special x-ray ... Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  17. Carotid Artery Stenting versus Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gahremanpour, Amir; Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    For about 2 decades, investigators have been comparing carotid endarterectomy with carotid artery stenting in regard to their effectiveness and safety in treating carotid artery stenosis. We conducted a systematic review to summarize and appraise the available evidence provided by randomized trials, meta-analyses, and registries comparing the clinical outcomes of the 2 procedures. We searched the MEDLINE, SciVerse Scopus, and Cochrane databases and the bibliographies of pertinent textbooks and articles to identify these studies. The results of clinical trials and, consequently, the meta-analyses of those trials produced conflicting results regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. These conflicting results arose because of differences in patient population, trial design, outcome measures, and variability among centers in the endovascular devices used and in operator skills. Careful appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses, particularly the most recent and largest National Institutes of Healthsponsored trial (the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stenting Trial [CREST]), showed that carotid stenting and endarterectomy were associated with similar rates of death and disabling stroke. Within the 30-day periprocedural period, carotid stenting was associated with higher risks of stroke, especially for patients aged >70 years, whereas carotid endarterectomy was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction. The slightly higher cost of stenting compared with endarterectomy was within an acceptable range by cost-effectiveness standards. We conclude that carotid artery stenting is an equivalent alternative to carotid endarterectomy when patient age and anatomy, surgical risk, and operator experience are considered in the choice of treatment approach. PMID:22949763

  18. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  19. Characterization of the carotid and adjacent anatomy using non-contrast CT for biomechanical model development.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Callie C; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

    2007-01-01

    The path of the carotid artery and its branches through the neck is characterized through an analysis of non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scans. The distance from the vessel wall of the carotid arteries to the skin and vertebral bodies are recorded from the level of the 2nd cervical vertebrae (C2) to the 6th cervical vertebrae (C6). A total of seven individuals were included in the study. The common carotid artery exhibited the closest average distance to the skin (23.5 +/- 6.9 mm) whereas the internal carotid artery exhibited the closest average distance to the vertebral body (7.36 +/- 3.8 mm, measured to the transverse process). This study provides morphological validation data towards the development of a regional-level finite element model of the neck and may also be used for the design of biomechanical experiments for the study of carotid artery injury.

  20. The anterior loop of the carotid siphon.

    PubMed

    Alencastro, L C

    1991-01-01

    The extracavernous-presubarachnoid segment of the carotid artery (EPCA), medial to the clinoid process, was studied in 48 sphenoid bones. Ten specimens were submitted to microdissection; the remainders were cut in 1 mm thick slices after electrolytic decalcification. The studies showed that the EPCA has a mean length of 3.09 mm (0.5 to 6.5 mm). It has a shorter length than the whole medioclinoid (paraclinoid) segment of the artery because the subarachnoid space may enter between the artery and the clinoid process, as well as the venous space of the cavernous sinus. Venous channels of extremely small diameter were found between the EPCA and the clinoid process in 30.3% of the cases and between the EPCA and the sphenoid body in 48.6%. The distal limit of the intracavernous cartoid artery is the projection of the caudal surface of the clinoid process, which is coincident with the vertex of the anterior loop of the carotid siphon in 91.7% of the cases. The origin of the ophthalmic artery was verified to be from the EPCA in 9.7%, at the transition to the subarachnoid space in 6.5%, and intracavernous in 3.2%. Immediately proximal to the EPCA, the anterior horizontal segment of the carotid artery may be reached without entering the venous space of the cavernous sinus through the superior wall in 27.8% and through the lateral wall in 66.6%.

  1. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Marlene; Chandra, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment paradigms are based on identifying the magnitude of perioperative risk in patient subsets and on using predictive factors to stratify patients with high-risk asymptomatic stenosis. PMID

  2. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  3. Carotid Disease Management: Surgery, Stenting, or Medication.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Chaturvedi, Seemant

    2015-09-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis accounts for about 7-10 % of ischemic strokes. Conventional risk factors such as aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking increase the risk for carotid atherosclerosis. All patients with carotid stenosis should receive aggressive medical therapy. Carotid revascularization with either endarterectomy or stenting can benefit select patients with severe stenosis. New clinical trials will examine the contemporary role of carotid revascularization relative to optimal medical therapy.

  4. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  5. Carotid intimal-medial thickness and stiffness are not affected by hypercholesterolemia in uncomplicated essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Saba, P S; Roman, M J; Longhini, C; Scorzoni, D; Pini, R; Devereux, R B; Ganau, A

    1999-11-01

    The combined effects of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia on carotid anatomy and stiffness were studied in 62 normotensives, 141 uncomplicated essential hypertensives with a total cholesterol level <240 mg/dL, and 60 essential hypertensives with a total cholesterol level >/=240 mg/dL. Carotid ultrasonography was performed to evaluate intimal-medial thickness (IMT), relative wall thickness, and the presence of plaque. Carotid pressure waveforms were recorded by applanation tonometry to measure carotid stiffness (beta) and pressure wave reflection (ie, augmentation index). After adjusting for age, body mass index, and smoking habit by analysis of covariance, no significant differences were found between normocholesterolemic hypertensives and hypercholesterolemic hypertensives in terms of IMT (0.79+/-0.19 versus 0.81+/-0.19 mm), relative wall thickness (0.27+/-0.07 versus 0.28+/-0.07), carotid stiffness (6.1+/-3.2 versus 5.6+/-2.7), augmentation index (18. 7+/-12.9% versus 17.3+/-12.8%), and prevalence of plaque (30.8% versus 30.7%). In the whole population, carotid IMT was significantly related to age (r=0.43), systolic (r=0.35) and diastolic (r=0.35) blood pressures, body surface area (r=0.22), and cholesterol levels (r=0.22) (all P<0.05). Carotid stiffness was significantly related to age, blood pressure, body mass index, and body surface area but not to cholesterol levels. In multivariate analyses, age, body surface area, and systolic blood pressure, but not cholesterol, smoking habit, or sex, were independent correlates of IMT (multiple R=0.54, P<0.0001), whereas carotid stiffness was independently associated with age, body surface area, and sex (R=0. 38, P<0.0001). In conclusion, hypertension is a potent stimulus of vascular hypertrophy. The superimposition of hypercholesterolemia does not substantially augment these changes or further increase arterial stiffness in uncomplicated hypertensive subjects.

  6. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  7. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  8. pH regulation in adult rat carotid body glomus cells. Importance of extracellular pH, sodium, and potassium [published erratum appears in J Gen Physiol 1993 Jan;101(1):following 144

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The course of intracellular pH (pHi) was followed in superfused (36 degrees C) single glomus (type I) cells of the freshly dissociated adult rat carotid body. The cells had been loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and -6)-carboxyfluorescein. The high K(+)-nigericin method was used for calibration. The pHi of the glomus cell at pHo 7.40, without CO2, was 7.23 +/- 0.02 (n = 70); in 5% CO2/25 mM HCO3-, pHi was 7.18 +/- 0.08 (n = 9). The pHi was very sensitive to changes in pHo. Without CO2, delta pHi/delta pHo was 0.85 (pHo 6.20-8.00; 32 cells), while in CO2/HCO3- this ratio was 0.82 irrespective of whether pHo (6.80-7.40; 14 cells) was changed at constant PCO2 or at constant [HCO3-]o. The great pHi sensitivity of the glomus cell to pHo is matched only by that of the human red cell. An active Na+/H+ exchanger (apparent Km = 58 +/- 6 mM) is present in glomus cells: Na+ removal or addition of the amiloride derivative 5- (N,N-hexamethylene)-amiloride induced pHi to fall by as much as 0.9. The membrane of these cells also contains a K+/H+ exchanger. Raising [K+]o from 4.7 to 25, 50, or 140 mM reversibly raised pHi by 0.2, 0.3, and 0.6, respectively. Rb+ had no effect, but in corresponding concentrations of Tl+ alkalinization was much faster than in K+. Reducing [K+]o to 1.5 mM lowered pHi by 0.1. These pHi changes were shown not to be due to changes in membrane voltage, and were even more striking in the absence of Na+. Intrinsic buffering power (amount of strong base required to produce, in the nominal absence of CO2, a small pHi rise) increased from 3 to approximately 21 mM as pHi was lowered, but remained nearly unchanged below pHi 6.60. The fitted expression assumed the presence of one "equivalent" intracellular buffer (pK 6.41, 41 mM). The exceptional pHi sensitivity to pHo suggests that the pHi of the glomus cell is a link in the chemoreceptor's response to external acidity. PMID:1294152

  9. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  10. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  11. Chronic Interactions Between Carotid Baroreceptors and Chemoreceptors in Obesity Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lohmeier, Thomas E; Iliescu, Radu; Tudorancea, Ionut; Cazan, Radu; Cates, Adam W; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Irwin, Eric D

    2016-07-01

    Carotid bodies play a critical role in protecting against hypoxemia, and their activation increases sympathetic activity, arterial pressure, and ventilation, responses opposed by acute stimulation of the baroreflex. Although chemoreceptor hypersensitivity is associated with sympathetically mediated hypertension, the mechanisms involved and their significance in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unclear. We investigated the chronic interactions of these reflexes in dogs with sympathetically mediated, obesity-induced hypertension based on the hypothesis that hypoxemia and tonic activation of carotid chemoreceptors may be associated with obesity. After 5 weeks on a high-fat diet, the animals experienced a 35% to 40% weight gain and increases in arterial pressure from 106±3 to 123±3 mm Hg and respiratory rate from 8±1 to 12±1 breaths/min along with hypoxemia (arterial partial pressure of oxygen=81±3 mm Hg) but eucapnia. During 7 days of carotid baroreflex activation by electric stimulation of the carotid sinus, tachypnea was attenuated, and hypertension was abolished before these variables returned to prestimulation values during a recovery period. After subsequent denervation of the carotid sinus region, respiratory rate decreased transiently in association with further sustained reductions in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (to 65±2 mm Hg) and substantial hypercapnia. Moreover, the severity of hypertension was attenuated from 125±2 to 116±3 mm Hg (45%-50% reduction). These findings suggest that hypoxemia may account for sustained stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors in obesity and that this activation leads to compensatory increases in ventilation and central sympathetic outflow that contributes to neurogenically mediated hypertension. Furthermore, the excitatory effects of chemoreceptor hyperactivity are abolished by chronic activation of the carotid baroreflex. PMID:27160198

  12. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Ultrasound Stents Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... outward against the wall of the artery. A stent (a small mesh tube) is then put in ...

  13. Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

  14. Multimodality Imaging of Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Adla, Theodor; Adlova, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Four diagnostic modalities are used to image the following internal carotid artery: digital subtraction angiography (DSA), duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The aim of this article is to describe the potentials of these techniques and to discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Invasive DSA is still considered the gold standard and is an indivisible part of the carotid stenting procedure. DUS is an inexpensive but operator-dependent tool with limited visibility of the carotid artery course. Conversely, CTA and MRA allow assessment of the carotid artery from the aortic arch to intracranial parts. The disadvantages of CTA are radiation and iodine contrast medium administration. MRA is without radiation but contrast-enhanced MRA is more accurate than noncontrast MRA. The choice of methods depends on the clinical indications and the availability of methods in individual centers. However, the general approach to patient with suspected carotid artery stenosis is to first perform DUS and then other noninvasive methods such as CTA, MRA, or transcranial Doppler US. PMID:26417185

  15. Carotid bruits as predictor for carotid stenoses detected by ultrasonography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elias P; Wester, Per

    2008-01-01

    Background Carotid surgery in asymptomatic subjects with carotid stenosis is effective to prevent ischemic stroke. There is, however, uncertainty how to find such persons at risk, because mass screening with carotid artery ultrasonography (US) is not cost-effective. Signs of carotid bruits corresponding to the carotid arteries may serve as a tool to select subjects for further investigation. This study is thus aimed at determining the usefulness of carotid bruits in the screening of carotid stenoses. Methods 1555 consecutive carotid ultrasonography investigations from 1486 cases done between January 2004 and March 2006 at Norrlands University Hospital, Sweden, were examined. 356 subjects, medium age 69 (27–88) years, had a significant (≥ 50%) US-verified carotid stenosis uni- or bilaterally, 291 had been examined for signs of carotid bruits. The likelihood ratios for carotid bruits to predict US-verified carotid stenoses were calculated and expressed as likelihood percentages. Results Thirty-one out of 100 persons (31%) with carotid bruit as an indication to perform carotid US had a significant (≥ 50%) carotid stenosis. 281 of the 356 (79%) cases with significant carotid stenoses were found among patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). 145 of 226 (64%) CVD patients with a significant carotid stenosis had a carotid bruit. In patients with 50–99% carotid stenoses carotid bruits had an accuracy of 75% (436/582), a sensitivity of 71% (236/334), a specificity of 81% (200/248), a positive likelihood ratio at 3.65 and a negative likelihood at 0.36. Patients with 70–99% stenoses had the highest sensitivity at 77% (183/238). In patients with 100% carotid stenoses, carotid bruits had a sensitivity of 26% (15/57) and a specificity of 49% (256/525). Conclusion Although carotid bruits are not accurate to confirm or to exclude significant carotid stenoses, these signs are appropriate for directed screening for further investigation with carotid US if the patient

  16. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  17. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity: Impact of Different Arterial Path Length Measurements.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Jun; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yokoi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2010-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the most established index of arterial stiffness. Yet there is no consensus on the methodology in regard to the arterial path length measurements conducted on the body surface. Currently, it is not known to what extent the differences in the arterial path length measurements affect absolute PWV values. METHODS: Two hundred fifty apparently healthy adults (127 men and 123 women, 19-79 years) were studied. Carotid-femoral PWV was calculated using (1) the straight distance between carotid and femoral sites (PWV(car-fem)), (2) the straight distance between suprasternal notch and femoral site minus carotid arterial length (PWV((ssn-fem)-(ssn-car))), (3) the straight distance between carotid and femoral sites minus carotid arterial length (PWV((car-fem)-(ssn-car))), and (4) the combined distance from carotid site to the umbilicus and from the umbilicus to femoral site minus carotid arterial length (PWV((ssn-umb-fem)-(ssn-car))). RESULTS: All the calculated PWV were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.966-0.995). PWV accounting for carotid arterial length were 16-31% lower than PWV(car-fem). PWV(car-fem) value of 12 m/sec corresponded to 8.3 m/sec for PWV((ssn-fem)-(ssn-car)), 10.0 m/sec for PWV((car-fem)-(ssn-car)), and 8.9 m/sec for PWV((ssn-umb-fem)-(ssn-car)). CONCLUSION: Different body surface measurements used to estimate arterial path length would produce substantial variations in absolute PWV values.

  18. The effect of (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide and other drugs on the carotid sinus reflex.

    PubMed

    GINZEL, K H

    1958-09-01

    In cats, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) selectively blocked the reflex blood pressure rise following carotid chemoreceptor stimulation. It also reduced or abolished the chemoreceptor component of the pressor response to occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It did not inhibit the respiratory reflexes arising from the carotid chemoreceptors, unless spontaneous respiration was interfered with as a whole. The site of action was central, probably below the intercollicular level, regardless of whether the drug was administered by the intravenous route or into the lateral ventricle of the brain.LSD did not block the baroreceptor depressor reflex elicited by stimulation of one carotid sinus nerve. LSD frequently caused the systemic pressure to fall, even after vagotomy and atropine, and this effect might account for the occasional reduction of the baroreceptor component of the carotid occlusion response. On the other hand, no relationship was found between the action of LSD on vasomotor tone and its blocking effect on the chemoreceptor pressor reflex.Some derivatives of LSD produced effects similar to those described for LSD, whether or not they possessed a psychotropic action in man, and independently of their efficiency as antagonists to 5-hydroxytryptamine. Of a series of compounds chemically unrelated to LSD, chlorpromazine was found to block the chemoreceptor pressor rise after intracerebroventricular injection.

  19. [Radiological study of the internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Meder, J F; Brugières, P; Leguen, O

    1993-12-01

    Three radiologic methods are used to investigate the internal carotid artery. The main indication of CT scan is the assessment of brain ischaemic complications of carotid disease. Magnetic resonance imaging allows in addition to detect dissecting hematomas and carotid flow abnormalities. Cerebral angiography, which owes much to the advent of digital techniques, remains the standard examination of internal carotid artery. Complications of angiography although rare and usually benign explain the recent development of less invasive explorations such as dynamic CT scan and magnetic resonance angiography. This latter method is still under evaluation for diagnosis of carotid stenosis and small size aneurysms.

  20. Dopamine inhibits ATP-induced responses in the cat petrosal ganglion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alcayaga, Julio; Retamal, Mauricio; Cerpa, Verónica; Arroyo, Jorge; Zapata, Patricio

    2003-03-21

    The petrosal ganglion (PG) provides sensory innervation to the carotid sinus and carotid body through the carotid (sinus) nerve (CN). Application of either acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to the PG superfused in vitro activates CN fibers. Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of ACh. We have previously shown that DA when applied to the PG modulates the effects of ACh on carotid sinus nerve fibers. We currently report the effects of DA on the ATP-induced responses in the isolated PG in vitro. While DA had no effect on the basal activity recorded from the CN, it reduced ATP-induced responses in a dose-dependent manner, when preceding ATP applications by 30 s. Our results suggest that DA-a transmitter present in a group of PG neurons and in carotid body cells-may act as an inhibitory modulator of ATP-evoked responses in PG neurons.

  1. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  2. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  3. The prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability and its association with metabolic syndrome in China: The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anxin; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Luo, Yanxia; Chen, Shuohua; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Feng; Cao, Yibin; Zhao, Xingquan; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability in Chinese. As is well known, carotid atherosclerosis is tightly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, the data about the association between the presence of carotid plaque with different stability and MetS was limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability and its potential association with MetS in general Chinese population.The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study is a community-based study to investigate the epidemiology of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in Chinese adults. A total of 5393 participants were finally eligible and included in this study. The carotid plaque and its stability were assessed using ultrasonography. The MetS was defined using the criteria from US National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression models.Of the 5393 subjects, 1397 (25.9%) participants had stable carotid plaque, 1518 (28.1%) had unstable carotid plaque in participants, and 1456 (27.0%) had a MetS. MetS was, respectively, significantly associated with the prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 1.47), stable carotid plaque (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02,1.48), and unstable carotid plaque (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03,1.56) after adjusting for age, gender, level of education, income, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. With the number of MetS components, the prevalence of carotid plaque, stable carotid plaque, and unstable carotid plaque significantly increased (P for trend <0.0001), respectively.In summary, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 54.1%, stable carotid plaque was 25.9%, and unstable carotid plaque was 28.1%. Our study revealed that the prevalence of carotid plaque, stable carotid plaque

  4. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  5. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  6. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  7. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  8. Increased Vessel Depiction of the Carotid Bifurcation with a Specialized 16-Channel Phased Array Coil at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Quinn; Kim, Seong-Eun; Treiman, Gerald; Parker, Dennis L.; Hadley, J. Rock

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to design and construct a multi-channel receive-only RF coil for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the human carotid artery and bifurcation with optimized signal to noise ratio in the carotid vessels along the full extent of the neck. A neck phantom designed to match the anatomy of a subject with a neck representing the body habitus often seen in subjects with carotid arterial disease, was constructed. Sixteen circular coil elements were arranged on a semi-rigid fiberglass former that closely fit the shape of the phantom, resulting in a 16-channel bilateral phased array coil. Comparisons were made between this coil and a typical 4-channel carotid coil in a study of 10 carotid vessels in 5 healthy volunteers. The 16-channel carotid coil showed a 73% average improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) at the carotid bifurcation. This coil also maintained an SNR greater than the peak SNR of the 4-channel coil over a vessel length of 10 cm. The resulting increase in SNR improved vessel depiction of the carotid arteries over an extended field of view, and demonstrated better image quality for higher parallel imaging reduction factors compared to the 4-channel coil. PMID:22777692

  9. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  10. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  11. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. PMID:24509255

  12. Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Khimenko, L P; Esham, H R; Ahmed, W

    2000-10-01

    Once considered uncommon, spontaneous dissection of the carotid artery is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke, headache, cranial nerve palsy, or ophthalmologic events, especially in young adults. Even in the presence of existing signs and symptoms, the diagnosis can be missed by experienced physicians of all specialties. We report a case of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection in a 38-year-old woman with a cortical stroke and visual disturbances as initial symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography and by angiography. Prompt anticoagulation was instituted, and the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Cervicocephalic arterial dissection should be included in the differential diagnosis of the causes of cerebrovascular events.

  13. Carotid artery stenting: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Morr, Simon; Lin, Ning; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting technologies are rapidly evolving. Options for endovascular surgeons and interventionists who treat occlusive carotid disease continue to expand. We here present an update and overview of carotid stenting devices. Evidence supporting carotid stenting includes randomized controlled trials that compare endovascular stenting to open surgical endarterectomy. Carotid technologies addressed include the carotid stents themselves as well as adjunct neuroprotective devices. Aspects of stent technology include bare-metal versus covered stents, stent tapering, and free-cell area. Drug-eluting and cutting balloon indications are described. Embolization protection options and new direct carotid access strategies are reviewed. Adjunct technologies, such as intravascular ultrasound imaging and risk stratification algorithms, are discussed. Bare-metal and covered stents provide unique advantages and disadvantages. Stent tapering may allow for a more fitted contour to the caliber decrement between the common carotid and internal carotid arteries but also introduces new technical challenges. Studies regarding free-cell area are conflicting with respect to benefits and associated risk; clinical relevance of associated adverse effects associated with either type is unclear. Embolization protection strategies include distal filter protection and flow reversal. Though flow reversal was initially met with some skepticism, it has gained wider acceptance and may provide the advantage of not crossing the carotid lesion before protection is established. New direct carotid access techniques address difficult anatomy and incorporate sophisticated flow-reversal embolization protection techniques. Carotid stenting is a new and exciting field with rapidly advancing technologies. Embolization protection, low-risk deployment, and lesion assessment and stratification are active areas of research. Ample room remains for further innovations and developments. PMID:25349483

  14. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques. PMID:21082576

  15. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques.

  16. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Endovascular Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayan, Raghuram; Scott, Paul M.; Robinson, Graham J.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2011-02-15

    Carotid stump syndrome is one of the recognised causes of recurrent ipsilateral cerebrovascular events after occlusion of the internal carotid artery. It is believed that microemboli arising from the stump of the occluded internal carotid artery or the ipsilateral external carotid artery can pass into the middle cerebral artery circulation as a result of patent external carotid-internal carotid anastomotic channels. Different pathophysiologic causes of this syndrome and endovascular options for treatment are discussed.

  17. Quantification of carotid vessel atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Egger, Micaela; Spence, J. D.; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the development of plaques in the arterial wall, which ultimately leads to heart attacks and stroke. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to screen patients' carotid arteries. Plaque measurements obtained from these images may aid in the management and monitoring of patients, and in evaluating the effect of new treatment options. Different types of measures for ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been proposed. Here, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze changes in carotid plaque morphology from 3D US images obtained at two different time points. We evaluated our technique using manual segmentations of the wall and lumen of the carotid artery from images acquired in two US scanning sessions. To incorporate the effect of intraobserver variability in our evaluation, manual segmentation was performed five times each for the arterial wall and lumen. From this set of five segmentations, the mean wall and lumen surfaces were reconstructed, with the standard deviation at each point mapped onto the surfaces. A correspondence map between the mean wall and lumen surfaces was then established, and the thickness of the atherosclerotic plaque at each point in the vessel was estimated to be the distance between each correspondence pairs. The two-sample Student's t-test was used to judge whether the difference between the thickness values at each pair corresponding points of the arteries in the two 3D US images was statistically significant.

  18. [Diarrhea in cats].

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C

    1992-11-15

    Diarrhoea is regarded as the characteristic symptom of intestinal disturbances. However, cats with intestinal disturbances can also show other symptoms such as vomiting, increased or decreased appetite and loss of weight. Cats with diarrhoea are usually only referred to the clinic if they have a chronic problem. Acute diarrhoea reacts well to symptomatic treatment, but chronic diarrhoea requires a specific diagnosis for a directed therapy and prognosis. It is essential to examine faeces and blood when evaluating a cat with diarrhoea. In contrast to the situation for dogs, there are no good specific digestion and absorption tests available for cats to evaluate pancreatic and intestinal function. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency rarely occurs in cats. A preliminary diagnosis of small intestine disorders can be made on the basis of the faeces staining positive for fat, an oral fat absorption test and the response to therapy. The definitive diagnosis must usually await the results of histological examination of intestinal biopsy samples. Cats with acute diarrhoea often recover spontaneously, and symptomatic treatment is only necessary for severe cases. A specific diagnosis is needed for cats with chronic diarrhoea, to enable directed treatment. Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of chronic enteritis because of their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. Antibiotics are only indicated for specific bacterial infections (such as Salmonella and Campylobacter), bloody diarrhoea, or rampant bacterial growth. Specially formulated diets play a major role in the treatment of both acute and chronic diarrhoea.

  19. Cat-scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). ... disease: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after playing with your cat. Especially wash any ...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carotid artery clamp. 882.5175 Section 882.5175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5175 Carotid artery clamp. (a) Identification. A carotid artery clamp is a device that is surgically placed around a patient's carotid...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carotid artery clamp. 882.5175 Section 882.5175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5175 Carotid artery clamp. (a) Identification. A carotid artery clamp is a device that is surgically placed around a patient's carotid...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carotid artery clamp. 882.5175 Section 882.5175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5175 Carotid artery clamp. (a) Identification. A carotid artery clamp is a device that is surgically placed around a patient's carotid...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carotid artery clamp. 882.5175 Section 882.5175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5175 Carotid artery clamp. (a) Identification. A carotid artery clamp is a device that is surgically placed around a patient's carotid...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5175 - Carotid artery clamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carotid artery clamp. 882.5175 Section 882.5175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5175 Carotid artery clamp. (a) Identification. A carotid artery clamp is a device that is surgically placed around a patient's carotid...

  5. Distal protection for treatment of complete cervical internal carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, John P; Chaudry, Imran; Turner, Raymond; Turk, Aquilla S

    2012-01-01

    Distal protection devices (DPD) have been advocated for carotid artery stenting to reduce the risk of distal embolization. These devices were designed for deployment in the straight cervical segment of the internal carotid artery. We present a case of total cervical carotid occlusion recanalized with the aid of a distal protection device deployed 'distally' in the intracranial internal carotid artery.

  6. Future Management of Carotid Stenosis: Role of Urgent Carotid Interventions in the Acutely Symptomatic Carotid Patient and Best Medical Therapy for Asymptomatic Carotid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Hernan A.; Smith, Taylor A.; Donovan, Melissa J.; Sternbergh, W. Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, leading to devastating disability. Most strokes are ischemic, and nearly one-third of these are caused by carotid disease. The primary mechanism of carotid-related stroke is an atheroembolic event from an unstable atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In the 1990s, randomized trials demonstrated the benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in reducing the risk of stroke in both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid disease. Methods We review best medical therapy (BMT) for asymptomatic carotid disease and recent randomized trials comparing CEA and carotid angioplasty stenting (CAS), and we discuss the role of urgent carotid interventions in patients with acute neurologic symptoms. Results In 2010, 2 large trials demonstrated the efficacy of CAS in select patients, although CAS was associated with an increased procedural stroke risk compared to CEA. An age effect was observed; patients >75 years do worse with CAS compared to CEA. As BMT has evolved in the past decade, a future trial (CREST-2) will address whether BMT is equal to intervention (CEA or CAS) in asymptomatic carotid disease. In a subgroup of patients with asymptomatic carotid disease, CEA plus BMT will likely remain the mainstay therapy for carotid disease compared to BMT alone. CEA and CAS will continue to play complementary roles in the future, as CAS will be done in select patients in whom CEA cannot be undertaken because of high-risk anatomical or medical conditions. Finally, a role for urgent carotid interventions in a select group of patients who present with acute neurologic symptoms is developing as a way to prevent recurrent stroke after an initial carotid plaque rupture event. Conclusion CAS has an increasingly higher risk of stroke with advancing age. Patients treated with CAS have a 1.76-fold increased risk of stroke (95% CI, 1.35-2.31) with each 10-year increase in age. No such age effect is seen in patients treated with CEA

  7. Carotid Baroreflex Function During Prolonged Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative

  8. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  9. Pancreatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids.

  10. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  11. Management of Bilateral Carotid Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Ashutosh P.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Jankowitz, Brian T.; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic bilateral internal carotid occlusive disease is a rare but potentially devastating entity. Medical therapy alone is associated with high rates of mortality and recurrent stroke. The optimal management of this disease remains poorly understood. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted for patients who presented with an acute stroke in the setting of bilateral carotid occlusive disease between May and October 2013. Results We identified 3 patients. The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ranged from 4 to 7. All patients had small- to moderate-sized infarcts in the anterior circulation on presentation. Angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid occlusions with collateral filling via the posterior communicating artery and retrograde filling via external carotid artery supply to the ophthalmic artery. All patients were initially managed with permissive hypertension and anticoagulation followed by carotid angioplasty and stenting. At 1-year follow-up, all patients demonstrated a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1. Conclusions Carotid stenting may be a safe and effective therapy for patients presenting with symptomatic bilateral carotid occlusions. PMID:27051405

  12. [A Case of Carotid Free-Floating Thrombus Treated by Carotid Ultrasonography-Guided Endovascular Approach].

    PubMed

    Otawa, Masato; Kinkori, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Ando, Ryo; Tambara, Masao; Arima, Toru

    2016-06-01

    We experienced a case of carotid free-floating thrombus treated by carotid ultrasonography-guided endovascular approach. A 63-year-old man was brought to our hospital with the chief complaint of sudden onset left hemiplegia. MRI revealed acute infarction of the right MCA territory due to the right M1 occlusion. Carotid ultrasonography showed a pedunculated, polypoid mobile plaque floating with the cardiac beat. We attempted ultrasonography-guided endovascular treatment. Under proximal balloon protection, the floating plaque was successfully aspirated into the Penumbra aspiration catheter. Carotid stent was also placed to stabilize the residual pedicle of the plaque. Aspirated plaque was identified as fresh thrombus by pathological examination. Carotid ultrasonography-guided endovascular approach was effective for getting the picture of real-time dynamics of the carotid FFT. PMID:27270147

  13. Hemodynamic changes and baroreflex sensitivity associated with carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qinqin; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Gelin

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic carotid lesion is a major cause of stroke which accounts for up to 20% of ischemic stroke. Aggressive treatment of carotid stenosis may prevent stroke. Currently, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are the first-line treatments for severe carotid stenosis. CEA is superior to medical therapy in preventing stroke and cardiovascular death. CAS has emerged as an alternative to CEA in recent years due to its less invasive nature. However, both CEA and CAS may be associated with adverse hemodynamic changes as well as a variation of carotid baroreflex sensitivity. There is no consensus on which of these two methods is more advantageous concerning the procedure-related hemodynamic changes. This article reviews the hemodynamic changes and baroreflex sensitivity after CEA and CAS. PMID:25999987

  14. [Declawing in cats?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, I

    1983-02-15

    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons. PMID:6836550

  15. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    PubMed

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-06-19

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats.

  16. Skin Temperature Over the Carotid Artery, an Accurate Non-invasive Estimation of Near Core Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farsad; Karimi Rouzbahani, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Mehrdad; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: During anesthesia, continuous body temperature monitoring is essential, especially in children. Anesthesia can increase the risk of loss of body temperature by three to four times. Hypothermia in children results in increased morbidity and mortality. Since the measurement points of the core body temperature are not easily accessible, near core sites, like rectum, are used. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure skin temperature over the carotid artery and compare it with the rectum temperature, in order to propose a model for accurate estimation of near core body temperature. Patients and Methods: Totally, 124 patients within the age range of 2 - 6 years, undergoing elective surgery, were selected. Temperature of rectum and skin over the carotid artery was measured. Then, the patients were randomly divided into two groups (each including 62 subjects), namely modeling (MG) and validation groups (VG). First, in the modeling group, the average temperature of the rectum and skin over the carotid artery were measured separately. The appropriate model was determined, according to the significance of the model’s coefficients. The obtained model was used to predict the rectum temperature in the second group (VG group). Correlation of the predicted values with the real values (the measured rectum temperature) in the second group was investigated. Also, the difference in the average values of these two groups was examined in terms of significance. Results: In the modeling group, the average rectum and carotid temperatures were 36.47 ± 0.54°C and 35.45 ± 0.62°C, respectively. The final model was obtained, as follows: Carotid temperature × 0.561 + 16.583 = Rectum temperature. The predicted value was calculated based on the regression model and then compared with the measured rectum value, which showed no significant difference (P = 0.361). Conclusions: The present study was the first research, in which rectum temperature was compared with that

  17. Progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients: a cohort prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bosevski, Marijan; Stojanovska, Lily

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic cohort (n=207 patients), the dynamic change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the occurrence of plaques were followed for a period of 31.35±10.59 months. The mean CIMT at the beginning of the study was 0.9178±0.1447 mm, with a maximal value of 1.1210±0.2366 mm. The maximal value of CIMT changed by 0.07 mm/year. Progression of CIMT was noted in 86.8% and its regression in 7.8% of patients. The occurrence of carotid plaques was detected in 41.8% of patients. Multiple regression analysis revealed the maximal value of CIMT to be associated with diastolic blood pressure, despite mean CIMT being predicted by body mass index. The presence of peripheral arterial disease and hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia were found to be predictors for the occurrence of carotid plaques. Our data have clinical implications in predicting risk factors for the progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients for their appropriate management. PMID:26527880

  18. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents: The European Youth Hearts Study.

    PubMed

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, L; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B; Møller, N C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may be beneficial to carotid arterial health among boys.

  19. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents: The European Youth Hearts Study.

    PubMed

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, L; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B; Møller, N C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may be beneficial to carotid arterial health among boys. PMID:25156494

  20. Progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients: a cohort prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bosevski, Marijan; Stojanovska, Lily

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic cohort (n=207 patients), the dynamic change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the occurrence of plaques were followed for a period of 31.35±10.59 months. The mean CIMT at the beginning of the study was 0.9178±0.1447 mm, with a maximal value of 1.1210±0.2366 mm. The maximal value of CIMT changed by 0.07 mm/year. Progression of CIMT was noted in 86.8% and its regression in 7.8% of patients. The occurrence of carotid plaques was detected in 41.8% of patients. Multiple regression analysis revealed the maximal value of CIMT to be associated with diastolic blood pressure, despite mean CIMT being predicted by body mass index. The presence of peripheral arterial disease and hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia were found to be predictors for the occurrence of carotid plaques. Our data have clinical implications in predicting risk factors for the progression of carotid-artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients for their appropriate management. PMID:26527880

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Ionized Hypocalcemia and Acute Kidney Injury in Carotid Chemo/Baro-Denervated Rats.

    PubMed

    Fernández, R; Cortés, P; Del Rio, R; Acuña-Castillo, C; Reyes, E P

    2015-01-01

    The acute kidney injury (AKI) observed during sepsis is due to an uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators. Septic patients develop electrolytic disturbances and one of the most important is ionized hypocalcemia. AKI adversely affects the function of other organs and hypocalcemia is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunctions. Since carotid body chemoreceptors modulate the systemic inflammatory response during sepsis syndromes, we used pentobarbitone-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats in control condition (SHAM surgery) and after bilateral carotid neurotomy (carotid chemo/baro-denervated, BCN). We evaluate serum creatinine (CRE), serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline (NGAL), ionized calcium (iCa) and cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) 90 min after the IP administration of 15 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. In the SHAM group, LPS failed to induce significant changes CRE, NGAL, or iCa, and increased cTnI. Conversely, in the BCN group LPS increased CRE and NGAL, decreased iCa, and enhanced the increase of cTnI. Our results suggest that carotid chemo/baro-receptors might contribute to the regulation of both renal function and calcemia during sepsis. In addition, results imply that the carotid chemo-baroreceptors serve as an immunosensory organ.

  2. Quantum self-controlling free-falling cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Hernández-Coronado, H.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2015-06-01

    In the separation of rotations from internal motions in the n-body problem, there appear some gauge fields which physically represent Coriolis effects. These fields are also present in the “falling cat” problem: at the kinematical level they map changes in the cat's shape to changes in its orientation whereas at the dynamical level they show up as gauge potentials in the Hamiltonian. Classically, the vanishing angular momentum condition allows for the orientation degrees of freedom to decouple from the internal ones and the cat's re-orientation can be accounted for at the kinematical level, partially. In the quantum case the cat's reorientation description requires to be done on dynamical grounds. In this paper we explore the quantum version of the falling cat modelled as a three body problem.

  3. Evaluation of Carotid Plaque Using Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traditional risk factors for predicting of cardiovascular disease are not always effective predictors for development of cardiovascular events. This review summarizes several newly developed noninvasive imaging techniques for evaluating carotid plaques and their role in cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27358696

  4. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  5. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  6. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  7. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  8. The molecular cat.

    PubMed

    Pedio, Maddalena; Chergui, Majed

    2009-02-23

    A manifestation of electronic entanglement in core-level spectroscopic measurements of diatomic molecules, reported recently by Schöffler and co-workers, is discussed. The results are reminiscent of Schrödinger's famous Gedanken experiment with the cat (see picture).

  9. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  10. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  11. Complications of cerebral angiography for patients with mild carotid territory ischaemia being considered for carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, G J; Warlow, C P; Molyneux, A J

    1990-01-01

    It is essential to image the carotid bifurcation adequately in patients with symptomatic carotid territory ischaemia if they are being considered for carotid endarterectomy. Optimal resolution is achieved by selective intraarterial contrast angiography which is an invasive procedure carrying some risk. The overall risk-benefit of carotid endarterectomy is currently being investigated in several large randomised trials in Europe and North America. Because cerebral angiography is a prerequisite for carotid endarterectomy, the risks of cerebral angiography will need to be added to those of surgery when considering whether carotid endarterectomy is effective in the management of these patients. This study evaluated prospectively 382 patients with symptomatically mild carotid ischaemia who had cerebral angiography to visualise a potentially resectable lesion at the carotid bifurcation. Complications followed 14 cerebral angiograms in 13 patients (3.4%); two complications were local (0.5%), two systemic (0.5%) and 10 were neurological (2.6%). The neurological complications were transient (TIA 1, generalised seizure 1) in two patients (0.5%), reversible (stroke) in three (0.8%) and permanent (stroke) in five patients (1.3%). There were no deaths. The significant risk factors for post angiographic stroke were (1) stroke before angiography compared with transient ischaemic attacks of the eye or brain and (2) the presence of greater than or equal to 50% diameter stenosis of the symptomatic internal carotid artery; unfortunately it may be the latter patients who are most at risk of stroke as part of the natural history of their disease and therefore most in need of prophylactic carotid endarterectomy (which requires cerebral angiography). The absolute risk of post-angiographic stroke of patients for cerebral angiography using clinical evaluation and Duplex carotid ultrasound screening. PMID:2118171

  12. Blood volume of nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats before and after acute hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Breznock, E.M.; Strack, D.

    1982-10-01

    Blood volume (BV) was determined in awake, nonsplenectomized (NSPX) and splenectomized (SPX) cats before and after hemorrhage (6 ml/kg). Each NSPX cat had a determined BV at least 10 ml/kg greater than the same cat after splenectomy. The mean BV of SPX cats was 43.4 +/- 8.94. ml kg (4.3% of body weight). The calculated RBC masses of NSPX and SPX cats were 17.0 +/- 4.07 and 12.2 +/- 1.12 ml/kg, respectively. Each NSPX cat had apparent RBC masses of 5 ml/kg greater than that of the same cat after splenectomy was done. At 1 hour after a hemorrhage, the BV and RBC masses determined in SPX cats were 46.7 +/- 12.1 and 9.7 +/- 1.90 ml/kg, respectively. Extravascular-to-intravascular fluid flux (calculated from RBC masses and plasma protein dilution) was approximately 0.80% of body weight. The indirect method with /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC for BV determination was accurate and precise in awake, SPX cats; in awake, NSPX cats, the /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC dilution method was precise, but not accurate. The spleen in the cat resulted in marked overestimations of BV and RBC masses.

  13. The physiologically relevant information regarding systemic blood pressure encoded in the carotid sinus baroreceptor discharge pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, J O; Morgenstern, J; Samodelov, L

    1977-01-01

    1. The objective was to find out what kind of informatioon regarding systemic blood pressure is transduced by baroreceptors in vivo and how this information is coded in the receptor discharge. 2. Carotid sinus pressure, e.c.g., and receptor action potentials were recorded for fifty-two single fibre carotid sinus receptors found in twenty decerebrated unanaesthetized cats. 3. The inflation and gradual deflation of an intraaortic catheter tip balloon manipulated the blood pressure in the carotid sinus in a way as to define the full in vivo stimulus-response curve for each receptor. 4. Correlation coefficients were computed between stimulus and response variables for several points on the response curve of each receptor and for every possible combination of stimulus and response variables defined. 5. Stimulus variables were (a) systolic, (b) diastolic,, (c) mean, (d) pulse pressures and (e) peak positive dP/dt. Response variables were (a) average discharge rat, (b) peak instantaneous frequency, and (c) average burst frequency. 6. For every fibre in the sample only the correlations between systolic, diastolic and mean pressures vs. average discharge rate were consistently high and positive. All other correlations were numerically low and/or negative. 7. It was concluded that in vivo baroreceptors signal mainly pressure level (systolic, diastolic or mean) as opposed to pulse pressure or dP/dt, and that the average discharge rate is their best index of information content. PMID:881647

  14. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  15. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  16. Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberg, M.R.; Eskridge, J.; Winn, H.R.; Eskridge, J. ); Wilson, S.E. ); Yatsu, F. ); Weiss, D.G. ); Messina, L. ); Hershey, L.A. ); Colling, C. ); Deykin, D. )

    1991-12-18

    The objective of this study was to determine whether carotid endarterectomy provides protection against subsequent cerebral ischemia in men with ischemic symptoms in the distribution of significant ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. The study group was comprised of men who presented within 120 days of onset of symptoms that were consistent with transient ischemic attacks, transient monocular blindness, or recent small completed strokes between July 1988 and February 1991. Among 5,000 patients screened, 189 individuals were randomized with angiographic internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 50% ipsilateral to the presenting symptoms. Forty-eight eligible patients who refused entry were followed up outside of the trial. For a selected cohort of men with symptoms of cerebral or retinal ischemia in the distribution of a high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis, carotid endarterectomy can effectively reduce the risk of subsequent ipsilateral cerebral ischemia. The risk of cerebral ischemia in this subgroup of patients is considerably higher than previously estimated.

  17. Oculoplethysmography and carotid phonoangiography for the noninvasive detection of extracranial carotid occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    McRae, L P; Cadwallader, J A; Kartchner, M M

    1979-01-01

    Clinical applications of imaging techniques and noninvasive physiological vascular evaluations provide useful assistance in the detection and management of stroke-prone patients by minimizing unnecessary carotid arteriography and surgery. Two such evaluation techniques are oculoplethysmography (OPG) and carotid phonoangiography (CPA). Developed, used, and proved highly reliable at the Tucson (Arizona) Medical Center, the techniques have been documented in 12,000 tests on approximately 8500 patients. OPG simultaneously records the bilateral ocular pulses concomitantly with external carotid pulses. Delays in timing of these pulses reflect reduction of flow in the internal and/or external carotid arteries, respectively. CPA consists of electronic stethoscopic auscultation, direct visualization, and photographic recording of carotid bruits or blood flow sounds.

  18. Ecology Driving Genetic Variation: A Comparative Phylogeography of Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) and Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shomita; Krishnan, Anand; Tamma, Krishnapriya; Home, Chandrima; R, Navya; Joseph, Sonia; Das, Arundhati; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative phylogeography links historical population processes to current/ecological processes through congruent/incongruent patterns of genetic variation among species/lineages. Despite high biodiversity, India lacks a phylogeographic paradigm due to limited comparative studies. We compared the phylogenetic patterns of Indian populations of jungle cat (Felis chaus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). Given similarities in their distribution within India, evolutionary histories, body size and habits, congruent patterns of genetic variation were expected. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected scats from various biogeographic zones in India and analyzed mtDNA from 55 jungle cats (460 bp NADH5, 141 bp cytochrome b) and 40 leopard cats (362 bp NADH5, 202 bp cytochrome b). Jungle cats revealed high genetic variation, relatively low population structure and demographic expansion around the mid-Pleistocene. In contrast, leopard cats revealed lower genetic variation and high population structure with a FST of 0.86 between North and South Indian populations. Niche-model analyses using two approaches (BIOCLIM and MaxEnt) support absence of leopard cats from Central India, indicating a climate associated barrier. We hypothesize that high summer temperatures limit leopard cat distribution and that a rise in temperature in the peninsular region of India during the LGM caused the split in leopard cat population in India. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that ecological variables describing a species range can predict genetic patterns. Our study has also resolved the confusion over the distribution of the leopard cat in India. The reciprocally monophyletic island population in the South mandates conservation attention. PMID:21060831

  19. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    SciTech Connect

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man`ko, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}, C{sub 3v} Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states.

  20. Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for increased carotid intima- media thickness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Hacihamdioğlu, Bülent; Okutan, Vedat; Yozgat, Yilmaz; Yildirim, Düzgün; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Lenk, Mustafa Koray; Ozcan, Okan

    2011-01-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children and evaluate the relationship of IMT to various cardiovascular risk factors. One-hundred four obese children (9.3 +/- 2.5 years) and 30 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. All children were assessed for fasting levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, skinfold thickness (SFT), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP). Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Carotid IMT measurements and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were diagnosed with ultrasonographic findings. IMT was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (0.49 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.40 +/- 0.02 mm, p < 0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between increased carotid IMT and body fat percentage (BFP), body mass index (BMI), age, height, systolic BP, WC, SFT, triglyceride and insulin levels, and insulin resistance index. In a linear logistic regression analysis, the only parameter affecting the increase in carotid IMT was WC (beta: 0.589, p < 0.001). Furthermore, IMT was increased significantly in obese children with NAFLD when compared to obese children without NAFLD (0.54 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.05 mm, p < 0.001). Children with abdominal obesity are at increased risk for atherosclerosis, and WC can be used to determine the atherosclerosis risk in obese children.

  1. Relationship of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism with carotid artery atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, M; Thandi, I; Brown, S; Gotto, A; Patsch, W; Boerwinkle, E

    1995-01-01

    From the cohort taking part in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a multicenter investigation of atherosclerosis and its sequelae in women and men ages 45-64 years, a sample of 145 subjects with significant carotid artery atherosclerosis but without clinically recognized coronary heart disease was identified along with 224 group-matched control subjects. The aim of this paper is to measure the association of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism with the prevalence of significant carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD) after considering the contribution of established risk factor variables. The first model used a stepwise selection procedure to define a group of significant physical and lifestyle characteristics and a group of significant plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein variables that were predictive of CAAD status in this sample. Those variables selected included age (years), body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), consumption of cigarettes (CigYears; number of cigarettes/d x the number of smoking years), hypertension status, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (mg/dl), total cholesterol (mg/dl), and Lp[a] (micrograms/ml). The second model was built by forcing into the equation an a priori set of demographic, anthropometric, and lipoprotein variables, which were age, BMI, CigYears, hypertensive status, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. In both models, the apo E genotype epsilon 2/3 was related to CAAD status. For both models, the estimated odds ratio of being a CAAD case associated with the apo E genotype epsilon 2/3 was > 2:1. The mechanism of the observed association between the epsilon 2/3 genotype and carotid atherosclerosis is unknown, but it is likely due to the known effects of the E2 isoform in causing delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. PMID:7762561

  2. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat’s locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

  3. An immunocytochemical mapping of somatostatin in the cat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Martín, F; Coveñas, R; Narváez, J A; Tramu, G

    2003-10-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the localization of somatostatin-28 (1-12)-like immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies in the auditory cortex of the cat (anterior, primary, secondary, temporal, ventral, ventroposterior, posterior and dorsoposterior auditory fields) was studied. In general, the distribution of SOM-ir structures is widespread in the auditory cortex of the feline. A high density of immunoreactive fibers as well as a low density of cell bodies containing somatostatin were observed in all the layers of the eight above-mentioned auditory fields. These data indicate that somatostatin-28 (1-12) could act as a neurotransmitter and/or a neuromodulator in the auditory cortex of the cat. The origin of the SOM-ir fibers in the auditory cortex of the cat, as well as the issue of whether the cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) are local or projecting neurons is discussed.

  4. Interaction of central venous pressure, intramuscular pressure, and carotid baroreflex function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Foresman, B. H.; Raven, P. B.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Seven healthy volunteer men participated in an experiment involving lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 30 Torr and acute volume expansions of 5-6% (VE-I) and 9-10% (VE-II) of their total blood volume (TBV) to differentiate the effect of increased intramuscular pressure and central venous pressure (CVP) on the maximal gain (Gmax) of the carotid baroreflex. During each experimental condition, the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP; intraradial artery or Finapres), and CVP (at the 3rd-4th intercostal space) were monitored continuously. Gmax was derived from the logistic modeling of the HR and MAP responses to ramped changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure using a protocol of pulsatile changes in neck chamber pressure from +40 to -65 Torr. The increase in CVP during +30-Torr LBPP was 1.5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and was similar to that observed during VE-I (1.7 mmHg, P > 0.05). The Gmax of the carotid baroreflex of HR and MAP was significantly decreased during LBPP by -0.145 +/- 0.039 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1) (38%) and -0.071 +/- 0.013 mmHg/mmHg (25%), respectively; however, VE-I did not affect Gmax. During VE-II, CVP was significantly greater than that elicited by LBPP, and the Gmax of the carotid baroreflex of the HR and MAP responses was significantly reduced. We conclude that carotid baroreflex responsiveness was selectively inhibited by increasing intramuscular pressure, possibly resulting in an activation of the intramuscular mechanoreceptors during LBPP. Furthermore, it would appear that the inhibition of the carotid baroreflex, via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor loading (increased CVP), occurred when a threshold pressure (CVP) was achieved.

  5. Pulsatility index in carotid arteries is increased in levothyroxine-treated Hashimoto disease.

    PubMed

    Owecki, M; Sawicka-Gutaj, N; Owecki, M K; Ambrosius, W; Dorszewska, J; Oczkowska, A; Michalak, M; Fischbach, J; Kozubski, W; Ruchała, M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate carotid hemodynamic variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The study group consisted of 31 females with HT on levothyroxine (L-T4) and 26 euthyroid women with HT without L-T4 matched for age and body mass index (BMI) as controls. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid extra-media thickness (CEMT), and pulsatility indexes in common carotid artery (PI CCA) and in internal carotid artery (PI ICA) were measured. BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin levels, and parameters of thyroid function [TSH, free thyroxine (FT4) and antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAbs)] were assessed. The study and the control groups did not differ in age, BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results are expressed as median (IQR). Treated HT group had higher FT4 levels than nontreated [17.13 (5.11) pmol/l vs. 14.7 (2.27) pmol/l; p=0.0011] and similar TSH [1.64 (2.08) IU/ml vs. 2.07 (3.14) IU/ml; p=0.5915]. PI CCA and PI ICA were higher in the study group than in controls (p=0.0224 and p=0.0477, respectively). The difference remained statistically significant for PI ICA and PI CCA after adjustment for other variables (coefficient=0.09487; standard error=0.04438; p=0.037 and coefficient=0.1786; standard error=0.0870; p=0.0449, respectively). CIMT and CEMT were similar in both groups (p=0.8746 and p=0.0712, respectively). Women with HT on L-T4 replacement therapy have increased PI in common and internal carotid arteries than nontreated euthyroid HT patients. Therefore, it seems that hypothyroidism, but not autoimmune thyroiditis per se, influences arterial stiffness.

  6. Measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate in cats with nonketotic diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Christiane; Lotz, Fabian; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The standard method of detection of ketone bodies is the dipstick method, which detects semiquantitatively acetoacetate, but not β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB). The objectives of the current study were to assess the diagnostic utility of β-HB to diagnose diabetic ketosis (DK) and DKA in cats and to establish a cut-off value for the diagnosis of DKA. Sixty-two cats were included in the study. Eleven cats were healthy (group 1); in the remainder of cats (51), a diagnosis of DM was based on hyperglycemia, glucosuria, and increased fructosamine concentrations. Nineteen of 51 cats suffered from nonketotic diabetes mellitus (group 2). In 11 cats, plasma ketone bodies were detected with the dipstick method (diabetic ketosis, group 3). In 21 cats, plasma ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis were present (DKA, group 4). Plasma β-HB was measured in all cats by an enzymatic method (spectrophotometry). A cut-off value for the diagnosis of DKA was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. In healthy cats, the β-HB concentration ranged from 0 to 0.1 mmol/l; in cats of group 2, from 0 to 0.9 mmol/l (median: 0.1 mmol/l); in cats of group 3, from 0.6 to 6.8 mmol/l (median: 1.7 mmol/l); and in cats of group 4, from 3.8 to 12.2 mmol/l (median: 7.9 mmol/l). A cut-off value of 2.4 mmol/l revealed 100% sensitivity and 87% specificity to diagnose DKA. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of diabetic ketosis and DKA in cats.

  7. Who Is at Risk for Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Ultrasound Stents Stroke Send a ... who don’t have diabetes. Family history of atherosclerosis . People who have a family history of atherosclerosis ...

  8. MIGRAINE, CAROTID STIFFNESS AND GENETIC POLYMORPHISM.

    PubMed

    Kes, Vanja Basić; Jurasić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Corić, Lejla; Rotim, Kresimir

    2015-12-01

    Recently migraine has been associated with increased arterial stiffness, procoagulant state, increased incidence of cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and stroke. Our aim was to compare the characteristics of migraineurs to headache free controls regarding their functional carotid ultrasound parameters. Sixty patients (45 women) with migraine (mean age 40.42 ± 10.61 years) were compared with 45 controls (30 women) with no prior history of repeating headache (mean age 38.94 ± 5.46 years) using E-tracking software on Alpha 10 ultrasound platform. Student's t-test was used on statistical analysis with alpha < 0.05. All tested carotid vascular parameters were worse in patients with migraine including increased intima-media thickness, greater carotid diameter and carotid diameter change, as well as several arterial stiffness indices. Additionally, patients with migraine had greater incidence of homozygous mutations for procoagulant genes (MTHFR (C677T), PAI-1 and ACE I/D) than expected. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed WML in 11 patients, four of them migraine with aura patients. Since we established increased carotid stiffness and higher frequency of procoagulant gene mutations in migraineurs, we propose prospective ultrasound monitoring in such patients, especially those with detected WML, in order to timely commence more active and specific preventive stroke management strategies.

  9. Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Elerding, S C; Fernandez, R N; Grotta, J C; Lindberg, R D; Causay, L C; McMurtrey, M J

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p = 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult. PMID:7294930

  10. Carotid intraplaque neovascularization quantification software (CINQS).

    PubMed

    Akkus, Zeynettin; van Burken, Gerard; van den Oord, Stijn C H; Schinkel, Arend F L; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Bosch, Johan G

    2015-01-01

    Intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) is an important biomarker of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. As IPN can be detected by contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), imaging-biomarkers derived from CEUS may allow early prediction of plaque vulnerability. To select the best quantitative imaging-biomarkers for prediction of plaque vulnerability, a systematic analysis of IPN with existing and new analysis algorithms is necessary. Currently available commercial contrast quantification tools are not applicable for quantitative analysis of carotid IPN due to substantial motion of the carotid artery, artifacts, and intermittent perfusion of plaques. We therefore developed a specialized software package called Carotid intraplaque neovascularization quantification software (CINQS). It was designed for effective and systematic comparison of sets of quantitative imaging biomarkers. CINQS includes several analysis algorithms for carotid IPN quantification and overcomes the limitations of current contrast quantification tools and existing carotid IPN quantification approaches. CINQS has a modular design which allows integrating new analysis tools. Wizard-like analysis tools and its graphical-user-interface facilitate its usage. In this paper, we describe the concept, analysis tools, and performance of CINQS and present analysis results of 45 plaques of 23 patients. The results in 45 plaques showed excellent agreement with visual IPN scores for two quantitative imaging-biomarkers (The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 and 0.93). PMID:25561454

  11. Complications of cerebral angiography in patients with symptomatic carotid territory ischaemia screened by carotid ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, K N; Humphrey, P R

    1993-01-01

    After nearly 40 years, carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be of benefit to patients with symptomatic carotid territory ischaemia and greater than 70% stenosis of the relevant internal carotid artery. Cerebral angiography is performed before surgery and is not without risk. These risks must be added to those of surgery before recommending the procedure to patients. The study evaluated the local, systemic and neurological complications following digital subtraction angiography with selective catheterisation of the carotid arteries in 200 patients presenting to a cerebrovascular clinic for assessment of cerebral ischaemia. All patients had carotid ultrasound screening before angiography to screen out those with normal arteries or mild disease (less than 30% stenosis of symptomatic internal carotid artery). Complications occurred in 28 patients. There were six (3%) local, two (1%) systemic and 20 (10%) neurological complications. Seventeen neurological complications occurred within 24 hours and there were three late complications (24-72 hours). Neurological complications occurred more frequently when angiography was performed by a trainee rather than a consultant neuroradiologist (p < 0.01). The neurological complications were transient (resolved within 24 hours) in 10/200 (5%), reversible (resolved within seven days) in two (1%) and permanent in 8/200 (4%). Two patients died after a stroke and two other patients suffered a disabling stroke. At 24 hours post angiography the permanent (persisting beyond seven days) neurological complication rate was 2.5%. The incidence of total neurological complications and post angiographic strokes was higher in patients with greater than 90% stenosis of the symptomatic internal carotid artery (p < 0.001). The increased use of non-invasive Doppler duplex screening will reduced the absolute number of patients put at risk of angiography, yet the rate of post angiographic complications is likely to increase as patients with severe

  12. Safety Outcomes Using a Proximal Protection Device in Carotid Stenting of Long Carotid Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Khandelwal, Priyank; Ambekar, Sudheer; Ramdas, Kevin; Guada, Luis; Yavagal, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Background Embolic protection devices can prevent atherosclerotic emboli during carotid stenting. Newer proximal protection devices reverse flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA), leading to reduction in perioperative microemboli. The risk of stroke is high for carotid stenting of ICA lesions with a length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign. Objective We aimed to evaluate the safety outcomes of proximal embolic protection device usage in this high-risk group. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid stenting procedures with proximal embolic protection devices at a tertiary care center. High-risk features for adverse events with carotid stenting were identified. Peri- and postprocedural outcomes were recorded. We further compared outcomes in patients with a carotid stenosis length >10 mm to those with shorter stenosis. Results From January 2011 to December 2014, we included 27 patients; 96.3% were symptomatic and 3.7% were asymptomatic. There was a stent placement technical success rate of 100%. No major stroke or coronary events were recorded. One minor stroke event developed in one patient. A carotid lesion length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign was noted in 21/27 patients, with an average lesion length of 14.4 mm. One patient (4.8%) in this group developed a minor stroke event. Neither a coronary nor a major stroke event was recorded in this group. There was no significant difference in the complication rate between the long lesion and the control group. Conclusion In our patient cohort, it was found that a proximal embolic protection device is safe for patients with carotid stenosis, including those with a carotid lesion length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign.

  13. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    PubMed Central

    Sicuto de Oliveira, Adriana; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Captive domestic cats frequently suffer from the lack of physical space and opportunities to perform species-typical behaviors, such as climbing or hiding. Environmental enrichment is a technique that helps transform the space available to animals into a more appropriate habitat. In this study, we tested horizontal and vertical refuge boxes as environmental enrichment for cats living communally in a cat rescue shelter. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. Abstract The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Colliard, Laurence; Paragon, Bernard-Marie; Lemuet, Béatrice; Bénet, Jean-Jacques; Blanchard, Géraldine

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of overweight in cats has been reported in various studies to range between 6 and 52% depending on such factors as gender, neutering, age, being cross-bred, living in a single or two-cat household, no dog living in the household, inactivity, feeding fresh meat or fish, eating a premium or therapeutic food, distribution of food on a free choice basis and owner underestimation of their cat's body weight or body condition (BC). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and to determine the risk factors associated with excess body weight, including owners' perception of their cat's BC in the studied population. Between March and June 2006, all owners presenting healthy cats for vaccination at the National Veterinary School of Alfort were questioned by a veterinarian using a standardised and validated questionnaire. Owners and veterinarians gave an oral evaluation of the cat's BC first verbally and then by comparison with a legend free visual scale. Univariate analysis was performed for all variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to variables strongly associated with overweight or regarded as major risk factors. On a total population of 385 cats, 19.0% were found to be overweight and 7.8% to be obese. The evaluation of overweight cats' BC by their owner was better with the visual scale than with the verbal description. This study confirmed earlier reports identifying being male, neutering, and underestimation of the cat's BC by the owner, as risk factors for being overweight.

  15. Current status of carotid ultrasound in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) primarily caused by atherosclerosis is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries. Sonographic carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is widely studied as a surrogate marker for detecting subclinical atherosclerosis for risk prediction and disease progress to guide medical intervention. However, there is no standardized CIMT measurement methodology in clinical studies resulting in inconsistent findings, thereby undermining the clinical value of CIMT. Increasing evidences show that CIMT alone has weak predictive value for CVD while CIMT including plaque presence consistently improves the predictive power. Quantification of plaque burden further enhances the predictive power beyond plaque presence. Sonographic carotid plaque characteristics have been found to be predictive of cerebral ischaemic events. With advances in ultrasound technology, enhanced assessment of carotid plaques is feasible to detect high-risk/vulnerable plaques, and provide risk assessment for ischemic stroke beyond measurement of luminal stenosis. PMID:27429912

  16. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  17. Current management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Serrano-Rodríguez, L

    2015-05-01

    Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a common problem in daily clinical practice, and its management is still the subject of controversy. In contrast to symptomatic carotid disease, the main studies on surgical treatment of patients with ACS have shown only a modest benefit in the primary prevention of stroke. In addition, current medical treatment has drastically decreased the risk of stroke in patients with ACS. Selecting patients amenable to endovascular treatment and determining how and when to conduct the ultrasound follow-up of these patients are issues that still need resolving. This article analyzes two new studies underway that provide evidence for better management of ACS in daily clinical practice.

  18. Occipital infarction with hemianopsia from carotid occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Pessin, M S; Kwan, E S; Scott, R M; Hedges, T R

    1989-03-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery occlusive disease usually produces stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory or the border zone between the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. It is unusual for occipital infarction in the posterior cerebral artery territory to be caused by internal carotid artery disease despite the fact that the posterior cerebral artery may arise directly from the internal carotid artery as an anatomic variation. We describe a patient with a fetal posterior cerebral artery originating from the internal carotid artery, and the initial manifestation of his extracranial internal carotid artery occlusive disease was hemianopsia from occipital infarction.

  19. Acute carotid artery dissection treated with stenting and hematoma aspiration guided by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Geng, Liming; Zha, Changsong; Liu, Hao; Xu, Jianjun; Xiang, Yuexia; Zou, Zhongmin

    2013-10-01

    We report the successful treatment of dissection with stenosis of the carotid artery by stenting and aspiration of hematoma. A male patient, presenting with acute blurred vision and weakness and numbness of the right side of his body, was diagnosed with common carotid artery (CCA) dissection and severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery and CCA by digital subtraction arteriography and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU). Two stents were separately implanted into the left internal carotid artery and CCA to restore blood flow and seal the opening of the dissection. The hematoma inside the CCA dissection was transcutaneously aspirated under CDU guidance after thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator. Three days after the operation, the dissection was still sealed. The patient was discharged 1 week later without any signs or symptoms. Follow-up examination at 70 days confirmed complete healing of the CCA dissection. Transcutaneous intradissection hematoma aspiration with CDU guidance may be applicable in treating arterial dissection, especially when conservative treatments cannot be expected to improve severe flow disturbances. PMID:22941665

  20. An Integrated Backscatter Ultrasound Technique for the Detection of Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerotic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The instability of carotid and coronary plaques has been reported to be associated with acute coronary syndrome, strokes and other cerebrovascular events. Therefore, recognition of the tissue characteristics of carotid and coronary plaques is important to understand and prevent coronary and cerebral artery disease. Recently, an ultrasound integrated backscatter (IB) technique has been developed. The ultrasound IB power ratio is a function of the difference in acoustic characteristic impedance between the medium and target tissue, and the acoustic characteristic impedance is determined by the density of tissue multiplied by the speed of sound. This concept allows for tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques for risk stratification of patients with coronary and cerebral artery disease. Two- and three-dimensional IB color-coded maps for the evaluation of tissue components consist of four major components: fibrous, dense fibrosis, lipid pool and calcification. Although several ultrasound techniques using special mathematical algorithms have been reported, a growing body of literature has shown the reliability and usefulness of the IB technique for the tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques. This review summarizes concepts, experimental procedures, image reliability and the application of the IB technique. Furthermore, the IB technique is compared with other techniques. PMID:25574937

  1. Evidence-based surgical treatment of carotid stenosis. Literature review.

    PubMed

    Andaluz, N; Zuccarello, M

    2004-03-01

    Carotid stenosis is an important cause of transient ischemic attacks and stroke. The cause of carotid stenosis is most often atherosclerosis, which accounts for 10% to 20% of brain infarction cases. Despite the introduction of tissue-plasminogen activator and other promising experimental therapies for select patients with acute ischemic stroke prevention remains the best approach to reduce its impact. Stroke-prone patients can be identified and targeted for specific interventions. At this juncture, treatment of carotid stenosis is a well-established therapeutic target and a pillar of stroke prevention. Two main strategies exist for the treatment of carotid stenosis. The 1st is stabilization or halting the progression of the carotid plaque formation with medications and modifications of risk factors (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol). The 2nd approach is the elimination or reduction of carotid stenosis by carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty and stenting. Carotid endarterectomy is the mainstay of therapy for symptomatic, severe carotid stenosis. Although its role for asymptomatic patients appears more limited, it is distinct for severe stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting are techniques in maturation with the attractiveness of being less invasive that face the challenge of at least replicating the results of surgery. In this article, we will discuss the surgical management of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis based on the evidence provided by the literature. PMID:15257259

  2. Best evidence for medical therapy for carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Jason; Jayia, Parveen; Hamilton, George

    2013-10-01

    Carotid atheromatous disease is an important cause of stroke and represents a key target in stroke prevention. Randomized trials have shown the efficacy of carotid endarterectomy in secondary stroke prevention. Carotid stenting presents a less invasive alternative to surgical intervention. Advances in medical management, if compliance can be ensured, are leading to improvement in outcomes when implemented as sole therapy in the treatment of atherosclerotic carotid stenosis. This includes lifestyle modification, blood pressure control, and antiplatelet and statin therapy. Over the last 20 years, the annual rate of ipsilateral stroke associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis has decreased from 2% to 4% to less than 1%. This is largely due to improvements in medical therapy. However, despite numerous trials and years of clinical research, the optimal management of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid disease remains controversial. This article presents and summarizes the evidence supporting best medical treatment for carotid artery stenosis.

  3. Clinical investigation of doxorubicin, daunomycin, and 6-thioguanine in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Henness, A M; Theilen, G H; Lewis, J P

    1977-04-01

    Cats frequently develop a variety of spontaneous hemolymphatic noeplasias. Long-term remissions in the nonlymphatic leukemic cat are difficult to obtain; therefore, more successful chemotherapeutic agents are sought for disease control. The purpose in the present study is to describe the clinical investigation of 3 antineoplastic drugs given to 23 normal cats. The cats tolerated doxorubican given at the dose level of 30 mg/m2 of body surface area once every 3 weeks; daunomycin, 15 to 30 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks; and 6-thioguanine, 25 mg/m2 for 5 days every 20 to 30 days.

  4. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  5. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  6. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  7. Malignant histiocytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Court, E A; Earnest-Koons, K A; Barr, S C; Gould, W J

    1993-11-01

    A 13-year-old male domestic shorthair cat was found to have normocytic hypochromic regenerative anemia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Transfusions of packed RBC failed to maintain the PCV above 13% for > 8 hours. The cat was euthanatized. At necropsy, the spleen liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow were infiltrated with malignant histiocytes undergoing erythrophagocytosis.

  8. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaque and Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Su, Ta-Chen; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Hu, Frank B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as carotid plaque and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in Chinese, among whom data are limited. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based cohort study composed of 2190 participants free of cardiovascular disease at baseline in one community. During a median 10.5-year follow up, we documented 68 new cases of coronary heart disease and 94 cases of stroke. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) associated with a change of 1 standard deviation of maximal common carotid IMT were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.70) for CHD and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.28–1.69) for stroke. The corresponding RRs with internal carotid IMT were 1.47 (95% CI, 1.21–1.79) for CHD and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.31–1.76) for stroke. Carotid plaque measured by the degree of diameter stenosis was also significantly associated with increased risk of CHD (p for trend<0.0001) and stroke (p for trend<0.0001). However, these associations were largely attenuated when adjusting for IMT measurements. Conclusions This prospective study indicates a significant association between carotid IMT and incidence of CHD and stroke in Chinese adults. These measurements may be useful for cardiovascular risk assessment and stratification in Chinese. PMID:18927612

  9. Common Carotid Artery Stump Syndrome Due to Mobile Thrombus Detected by Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Shusaku; Hasegawa, Yuki; Sakai, Kenichiro; Matsuno, Hiromasa; Arai, Ayumi; Terasawa, Yuka; Mitsumura, Hidetaka; Iguchi, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Carotid stump syndrome is a cause of recurrent embolic stroke following occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The present report describes a case of recurrent cerebral embolism ipsilateral to a chronically occluded left common carotid artery (CCA), i.e., "CCA stump syndrome." Doppler color flow imaging showed anterograde flow in the left internal and external carotid arteries, which were supplied by collateral flow from the superior thyroid artery inflowing just proximal to the left carotid bifurcation. According to carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU), a low-echoic mobile thrombus was noted at the distal stump of the occluded CCA, which presumably caused distal embolism. The low-echoic mobile thrombus dramatically changed to a homogenously high-echoic thrombus, and there was no recurrence of stroke after antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. This is the first report to demonstrate a CDU-verified temporal change in the thrombus at the stump in CCA stump syndrome. CDU is a noninvasive and useful technique to characterize hemodynamics, thrombus morphology, and the response to therapy. PMID:27567297

  10. Association of Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinases with Carotid Artery Characteristics: The ARIC Carotid MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaubatz, John W.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wasserman, Bruce A.; He, Max; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hoogeveen, Ron C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) with carotid artery characteristics measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a cross-sectional investigation among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study participants. Methods and Results A stratified random sample was recruited based on intima-media thickness (IMT) from a previous ultrasound examination. A high-resolution gadolinium-enhanced MRI exam of the carotid artery was performed in 2004–2005 on 1,901 ARIC cohort participants. Multiple carotid wall characteristics including wall thickness, lumen area, calcium area, lipid core and fibrous cap measures were evaluated for associations with plasma MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. Plasma MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-7 were significantly higher among participants in the high IMT group compared to those in the low IMT group. Normalized wall index was independently associated with MMP-3, MMP-7, and TIMP-1. MMP-7 was positively associated with carotid calcification. Mean fibrous cap thickness was significantly higher in individuals with elevated TIMP-1 levels. In addition, TIMP-1 was positively associated with measures of lipid core. Conclusions Circulating levels of specific MMPs and TIMP-1 were associated with carotid wall remodeling and structural changes related to plaque burden in the elderly. PMID:20167662

  11. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  12. Carotid Doppler evaluation in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    D'Alton, J. G.; Norris, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Doppler technique has proven to be a useful noninvasive technique for evaluating the patency of the carotid artery in patients at risk of stroke. The data obtained from 246 carotid Doppler examinations were compared with the angiographic findings in the same patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were high when the degree of stenosis was greater than 50%, but occlusions were less reliably detected, with 8 (33%) of the 24 being misdiagnosed as high-grade stenoses. Carotid Doppler evaluation guides and accelerates decisions regarding further investigations, such as cerebral angiography. It helps one decide whether a neck bruit is of arterial origin and aids assessment following cerebrovascular surgery. It is not a substitute for cerebral angiography because it poorly visualizes both the posterior and the intracranial circulations and cannot accurately detect low-grade (less than 50%) stenoses or ulcerated arterial plaques. Detection of stenosis in a carotid artery in an otherwise uncertain case is an indication for cerebral angiography, so the Doppler technique will probably increase the number of angiograms performed. However, this technique is also useful in follow-up, being without hazard, and should, therefore, reduce the likelihood of unnecessary angiographic examinations. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3A FIG. 3B FIG. 5 PMID:6640454

  13. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriana Sicuto; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-04-24

    The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats' welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes.

  14. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriana Sicuto; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats' welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes. PMID:26479233

  15. Rare case of bilateral traumatic internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Joanne May; Norton, Joel; Hampton, Timothy; Weeks, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was working in a trench when the wall collapsed in on him, pinning him to the wall. On arrival in the emergency department the patient began reporting of right-sided headache. Neurological examination revealed left-sided reduced sensation with weakness. Whole-body CT scan showed right-sided flail chest and bilateral haemothorax as well as loss of flow and thinning of the distal right internal carotid artery (ICA) and loss of grey white matter differentiation in keeping with traumatic ICA dissection with a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct. He was started on aspirin 300 mg once daily. 3 days postadmission the patient experienced worsening of vision and expressive dysphasia. CT angiogram showed bilateral ICA dissections extending from C2 to the skull base. The patient was managed conservatively in the stroke unit for infarction and was discharged home for follow-up in stroke clinic. PMID:27651410

  16. Automated carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburger, Kristen M.; Molinari, Filippo; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Saba, Luca; Rodrigues, Paulo; Liboni, William; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the carotid artery wall is essential for the assessment of a patient's cardiovascular risk or for the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies. This paper presents a new, completely user-independent algorithm called carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (CAILRS, a class of AtheroEdge™ systems), which automatically segments the intima layer of the far wall of the carotid ultrasound artery based on mean shift classification applied to the far wall. Further, the system extracts the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders in the far wall of the carotid artery. Our new system is characterized and validated by comparing CAILRS borders with the manual tracings carried out by experts. The new technique is also benchmarked with a semi-automatic technique based on a first-order absolute moment edge operator (FOAM) and compared to our previous edge-based automated methods such as CALEX (Molinari et al 2010 J. Ultrasound Med. 29 399-418, 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CULEX (Delsanto et al 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1265-74, Molinari et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CALSFOAM (Molinari et al Int. Angiol. (at press)), and CAUDLES-EF (Molinari et al J. Digit. Imaging (at press)). Our multi-institutional database consisted of 300 longitudinal B-mode carotid images. In comparison to semi-automated FOAM, CAILRS showed the IMT bias of -0.035 ± 0.186 mm while FOAM showed -0.016 ± 0.258 mm. Our IMT was slightly underestimated with respect to the ground truth IMT, but showed uniform behavior over the entire database. CAILRS outperformed all the four previous automated methods. The system's figure of merit was 95.6%, which was lower than that of the semi-automated method (98%), but higher than that of the other automated techniques.

  17. [Carotid body paraganglioma in a teenager. Case report].

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, María Elisa; Llamas-Macías, Francisco Javier; Nuño-Escobar, César; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello son tumores neuroendocrinos de baja incidencia (0.6%), en su mayor parte benignos, en cuyo origen se han involucrado múltiples factores. Los seres humanos y otras especies que viven a grandes alturas (por arriba de 2000 metros sobre el nivel del mar) son propensos a sufrir hipoxia crónica relativa, hiperplasia del cuerpo carotídeo y, eventualmente, paragangliomas. Este padecimiento aparece en la quinta década de la vida y en la tercera, en caso de presentación familiar. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una adolescente de 16 años de edad que un año antes tuvo faringitis aguda con tumor localizado en la cara lateral izquierda del cuello, de crecimiento gradual, sin ningún síntoma. El ultrasonido Doppler dúplex de cuello mostró una lesión nodular sólida sobre el trayecto de la bifurcación carotídea izquierda. Fue intervenida quirúrgicamente mediante cervicotomía lateral izquierda, en la cual se encontró una tumoración de aproximadamente 4 × 3 × 3 cm, sumamente vascularizada, que afectaba la carótida común desde su tercio medio, la carótida interna hasta la base del cráneo y la carótida externa hasta el tercio superior, con íntima relación con la tráquea, el esófago y la columna cervical. La tumoración se resecó en su totalidad, el estudio histopatológico corroboró los paragangliomas. Conclusiones: la edad de presentación es poco común, por lo que se considera relevante y de interés clínico comunicar este caso, toda vez que debe considerarse como posibilidad diagnóstica.

  18. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  19. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  20. Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, E; Guy, N; Cribb, A

    1999-04-01

    A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine.

  1. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  2. Evolution of Skull and Mandible Shape in Cats (Carnivora: Felidae)

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-01-01

    The felid family consists of two major subgroups, the sabretoothed and the feline cats, to which all extant species belong, and are the most anatomically derived of all carnivores for predation on large prey with a precision killing bite. There has been much controversy and uncertainty about why the skulls and mandibles of sabretoothed and feline cats evolved to become so anatomically divergent, but previous models have focused on single characters and no unifying hypothesis of evolutionary shape changes has been formulated. Here I show that the shape of the skull and mandible in derived sabrecats occupy entirely different positions within overall morphospace from feline cats, and that the evolution of skull and mandible shape has followed very different paths in the two subgroups. When normalised for body-size differences, evolution of bite forces differ markedly in the two groups, and are much lower in derived sabrecats, and they show a significant relationship with size and cranial shape, whereas no such relationship is present in feline cats. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in modern cats has been governed by the need for uniform powerful biting irrespective of body size, whereas in sabrecats, shape evolution was governed by selective pressures for efficient predation with hypertrophied upper canines at high gape angles, and bite forces were secondary and became progressively weaker during sabrecat evolution. The current study emphasises combinations of new techniques for morphological shape analysis and biomechanical studies to formulate evolutionary hypotheses for difficult groups. PMID:18665225

  3. The biological significance of PGO spikes in the sleeping cat.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A R; Bowker, R M

    1975-01-01

    Large-amplitude waves recorded in the pontine tegmentum, lateral geniculate body and visual cortex herald the onset and continue throughout paradoxical sleep. The role of these ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, or spikes, has puzzled researchers since their discovery. This paper reports experiments in cats which have demonstrated that PGO spikes are essentially an epiphenomenon, an electrical sign of the activation of a "startle network" by the neural turmoil of paradoxical sleep. Internal stimulation provided by the bursts of neural activity which characterize paradoxical sleep produces PGO spikes in the lateral geniculate body which are identical in appearance to those elicited during synchronized and paradoxical sleep by 1.55 Hz tone bursts or taps on the cage in normal cats. Cerebellar lesions result in behavioral responses to the intrinsic startles during synchronized sleep in the form of extensor or flexor jerks of the forelimbs. The jerks occur in conjunction with each PGO spike. Identical movements can be induced in the same cats in wakefulness by such startling stimuli as dropping the cat or hissing with an aerosol can. Lesions involving the auditory-visual area permit cats to be stimulated by sound in synchronized sleep without arousal, but anterior lobe lesions produce an easily aroused animal. We postulate that the phenomena observed following cerebellar lesions are the result of alteration in the control of serotonergic neurons of the pontine raphe nuclei. PMID:174395

  4. Differential effect of central command on aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptor-heart rate reflexes at the onset of spontaneous, fictive motor activity.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Kadowaki, Akito; Liang, Nan; Ishida, Tomoko

    2012-08-15

    Our laboratory has reported that central command blunts the sensitivity of the aortic baroreceptor-heart rate (HR) reflex at the onset of voluntary static exercise in conscious cats and spontaneous contraction in decerebrate cats. The purpose of this study was to examine whether central command attenuates the sensitivity of the carotid sinus baroreceptor-HR reflex at the onset of spontaneous, fictive motor activity in paralyzed, decerebrate cats. We confirmed that aortic nerve (AN)-stimulation-induced bradycardia was markedly blunted to 26 ± 4.4% of the control (21 ± 1.3 beats/min) at the onset of spontaneous motor activity. Although the baroreflex bradycardia by electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) was suppressed (P < 0.05) to 86 ± 5.6% of the control (38 ± 1.2 beats/min), the inhibitory effect of spontaneous motor activity was much weaker (P < 0.05) with CSN stimulation than with AN stimulation. The baroreflex bradycardia elicited by brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta was blunted to 36% of the control (36 ± 1.6 beats/min) during spontaneous motor activity, suggesting that central command is able to inhibit the cardiomotor sensitivity of arterial baroreflexes as the net effect. Mechanical stretch of the triceps surae muscle never affected the baroreflex bradycardia elicited by AN or CSN stimulation and by aortic occlusion, suggesting that muscle mechanoreflex did not modify the cardiomotor sensitivity of aortic and carotid sinus baroreflex. Since the inhibitory effect of central command on the carotid baroreflex pathway, associated with spontaneous motor activity, was much weaker compared with the aortic baroreflex pathway, it is concluded that central command does not force a generalized modulation on the whole pathways of arterial baroreflexes but provides selective inhibition for the cardiomotor component of the aortic baroreflex.

  5. Carotid subclinical atherosclerosis is associated with disease activity but not vitamin D in Korean systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jung, J-Y; Koh, B-R; Bae, C-B; Kim, H-A; Suh, C-H

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerosis develops early in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and is an important cause of mortality. Vitamin D deficiency is found to be associated with cardiovascular disease and autoimmunity. We evaluated the extent of carotid subclinical atherosclerosis and analyzed its correlation with vitamin D in SLE. One hundred and two female patients with SLE and 52 normal controls (NCs) were recruited. The mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of SLE patients was 0.41 ± 0.08 mm, which was higher than that of NCs (0.32 ± 0.08 mm, p = 0.012). In addition, carotid plaques were more frequent and the plaque index was higher in SLE patients than in NCs (0.68 ± 1.39 vs. 0.26 ± 0.87, p = 0.026). Carotid IMT was correlated with age, body mass index, SLE disease activity index, and aspirin use in SLE patients. The plaque index was correlated with renal involvement. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 level was not correlated with carotid IMT, plaque index or disease activity markers. In SLE, the risk of cardiovascular disease is higher than that in NCs, which may be derived from systemic inflammation. It may be not suitable to assess vitamin D as a marker of disease activity or subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients.

  6. Anatomical Considerations on Surgical Anatomy of the Carotid Bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Michalinos, Adamantios; Chatzimarkos, Markos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Safioleas, Michail

    2016-01-01

    Surgical anatomy of carotid bifurcation is of unique importance for numerous medical specialties. Despite extensive research, many aspects such as precise height of carotid bifurcation, micrometric values of carotid arteries and their branches as their diameter, length, and degree of tortuosity, and variations of proximal external carotid artery branches are undetermined. Furthermore carotid bifurcation is involved in many pathologic processes, atheromatous disease being the commonest. Carotid atheromatous disease is a major predisposing factor for disabling and possibly fatal strokes with geometry of carotid bifurcation playing an important role in its natural history. Consequently detailed knowledge of various anatomic parameters is of paramount importance not only for understanding of the disease but also for design of surgical treatment, especially selection between carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Carotid bifurcation paragangliomas constitute unique tumors with diagnostic accuracy, treatment design, and success of operative intervention dependent on precise knowledge of anatomy. Considering those, it becomes clear that selection and application of proper surgical therapy should consider anatomical details. Further research might ameliorate available treatment options or even lead to innovative ones. PMID:27047690

  7. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in cat brain using intracarotid 2H2O and 2H NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Detre, J.A.; Subramanian, V.H.; Mitchell, M.D.; Smith, D.S.; Kobayashi, A.; Zaman, A.; Leigh, J.S. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in cat brain in vivo at 2.7 T using 2H NMR to monitor the washout of deuterated saline injected into both carotid arteries via the lingual arteries. In anesthetized cats, global CBF varied directly with PaCO{sub 2} over a range of 20-50 mm Hg, and the corresponding global CBF values ranged from 25 to 125 ml.100 g-1.min-1. Regional CBF was measured in a 1-cm axial section of cat brain using intracarotid deuterated saline and gradient-echo 2H NMR imaging. Blood flow images with a maximum pixel resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.0 cm were generated from the deuterium signal washout at each pixel. Image derived values for CBF agreed well with other determinations, and decreased significantly with hypocapnia.

  8. Differential alteration by hypercapnia and hypoxia of the apneustic respiratory pattern in decerebrate cats

    PubMed Central

    John, Walter M. St

    1979-01-01

    1. A combination of bilateral lesions within the nucleus parabrachialis medialis complex (n.p.b.m.) and bilateral vagotomy typically resulted in an apneustic respiratory pattern in decerebrate and paralysed cats. Integrated efferent phrenic nerve activity was recorded as an index of the respiratory rhythm. 2. Changes in components of this apneustic breathing cycle were evaluated in response to steady-state hypercapnia and hypoxia. The components evaluated were (a) the period of phrenic discharge (inspiratory time, TI), (b) the period of no detectable phrenic activity (expiratory time, TE), (c) the total duration of the apneustic respiratory cycle (TTOT, the sum of TI and TE), and (d) the average height of the integrated phrenic nerve activity (apneustic depth). 3. Elevations of PA, CO2 from values below 45 torr to 50-60 torr, under both hyperoxic and normoxic conditions, resulted in significant elevations of TI, TE, TTOT and depth. Further PA, CO2 elevations to approximately 70 torr caused no change, or frequently, a decrease in TI, TE and TTOT; the apneustic depth increased in most animals. 4. Diminutions in PA, O2 from normoxic to hypoxic levels at isocapnia typically caused an increase in apneustic depth and, concomitantly, significant decreases in TI, TE and TTOT. 5. Pharmacological stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors by intracarotid administration of 1·0-20 μg NaCN produced a premature onset of phrenic nerve activity if delivered during the expiratory period. Such NaCN administrations, delivered during the inspiratory phase, resulted in an augmentation of the integrated phrenic discharge and a premature termination of phrenic activity. Carotid sinus nerve section eliminated the response to NaCN administration. 6. In experimental animals having bilateral carotid sinus nerve section, normoxic hypercapnia caused similar changes in the apneustic breathing pattern to those recorded in cats having intact carotid chemoreceptors. However, isocapnic hypoxia

  9. Estimation of Stiffness Parameter on the Common Carotid Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao; Matsui, Kiyoaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. Up to the present, several methods to measure stiffness parameter of the carotid artery have been proposed. However, they have analyzed at the only one point of common carotid artery. In this paper, we propose the method of analysis extended over a wide area of common carotid artery. In order to measure stiffness parameter of common carotid artery from echocardiogram, it is required to detect two border curves which are boundaries between vessel wall and blood. The method is composed of two steps. The first step is the detection of border curves, and the second step is the calculation of stiffness parameter using diameter of common carotid artery. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  10. Junctional Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: The Schrödinger's Cat of Vascular Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Andrew P.; Loveren, Harry R. van; Youssef, A. Samy; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite advances in neuroimaging, it is not always definitive whether a paraclinoid aneurysm is intradural or entirely extradural. We illustrate the potential use of surgical exploration in these aneurysms that we refer to as “junctional” aneurysms. Methods Retrospective review of eight patients with unruptured aneurysms who underwent a planned surgical exploration of a junctional aneurysm. Results Of the eight patients, three underwent exploration of the aneurysm during surgery for a different aneurysm. All three of these were found to be extradural. Five patients underwent a craniotomy for the exclusive purpose of clarifying the location of the aneurysm. Two of these cases were found to be intradural and were clipped. Two cases were found to be extradural. In one patient, the initially extradural aneurysm was converted into an intradural aneurysm during removal of the anterior clinoid process, necessitating surgical clipping. One transient third nerve palsy was observed. Discussion Until further progress in neuroimaging allows clinicians to determine unequivocally the exact anatomical location of a paraclinoid aneurysm, we advocate the use of the term junctional aneurysm to reflect the clinical uncertainty inherent in management decisions made regarding these aneurysms. We have illustrated a strategy of surgical exploration in select patients. PMID:25844299

  11. Junctional Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: The Schrödinger's Cat of Vascular Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrew P; Loveren, Harry R van; Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero

    2015-03-01

    Objectives Despite advances in neuroimaging, it is not always definitive whether a paraclinoid aneurysm is intradural or entirely extradural. We illustrate the potential use of surgical exploration in these aneurysms that we refer to as "junctional" aneurysms. Methods Retrospective review of eight patients with unruptured aneurysms who underwent a planned surgical exploration of a junctional aneurysm. Results Of the eight patients, three underwent exploration of the aneurysm during surgery for a different aneurysm. All three of these were found to be extradural. Five patients underwent a craniotomy for the exclusive purpose of clarifying the location of the aneurysm. Two of these cases were found to be intradural and were clipped. Two cases were found to be extradural. In one patient, the initially extradural aneurysm was converted into an intradural aneurysm during removal of the anterior clinoid process, necessitating surgical clipping. One transient third nerve palsy was observed. Discussion Until further progress in neuroimaging allows clinicians to determine unequivocally the exact anatomical location of a paraclinoid aneurysm, we advocate the use of the term junctional aneurysm to reflect the clinical uncertainty inherent in management decisions made regarding these aneurysms. We have illustrated a strategy of surgical exploration in select patients.

  12. Dynamic sound localization in cats

    PubMed Central

    Ruhland, Janet L.; Jones, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  13. Dynamic sound localization in cats.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Janet L; Jones, Amy E; Yin, Tom C T

    2015-08-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  14. The Development of Carotid Stent Material

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongsheng; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular angioplasty with stenting is a promising option for treating carotid artery stenosis. There exist a rapidly increasing number of different stent types with different materials. The bare-metal stent is the most commonly used stent with acceptable results, but it leaves us with the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. The drug-eluting stent is a breakthrough as it has the ability to reduce the restenosis rate, but the problem of late thrombosis still has to be addressed. The biodegradable stent disappears after having served its function. However, restenosis and degradation rates remain to be studied. In this article, we review every stent material with its characteristics, clinical results and complications and point out the standards of an ideal carotid stent. PMID:26019710

  15. Endovascular Treatment of Extracranial Internal Carotid Aneurysms Using Endografts

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Sebastian Rostagno, Roman D.; Zander, Tobias; Llorens, Rafael; Schonholz, Claudio; Maynar, Manuel

    2008-03-15

    Aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) are infrequent. They are difficult to treat with conventional surgery because of their distal extension into the skull base. We report three cases of EICA aneurysms in two symptomatic patients successfully treated with polytetrafluoroethylene self-expanding endografts using an endovascular approach. The aneurysms were located distal to the carotid bifurcation and extended to the subpetrous portion of the internal carotid artery.

  16. Comparative Review of the Treatment Methodologies of Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Coney; Szuchmacher, Mauricio; Chang, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of carotid stenosis entails three methodologies, namely, medical management, carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), as well as carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) and European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) have shown that symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% is best treated with CEA. In asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis greater than 60%, CEA was more beneficial than treatment with aspirin alone according to the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis (ACAS) and Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial (ACST) trials. When CAS is compared with CEA, the CREST resulted in similar rates of ipsilateral stroke and death rates regardless of symptoms. However, CAS not only increased adverse effects in women, it also amplified stroke rates and death in elderly patients compared with CEA. CAS can maximize its utility in treating focal restenosis after CEA and patients with overwhelming cardiac risk or prior neck irradiation. When performing CEA, using a patch was equated to a more durable result than primary closure, whereas eversion technique is a new methodology deserving a spotlight. Comparing the three major treatment strategies of carotid stenosis has intrinsic drawbacks, as most trials are outdated and they vary in their premises, definitions, and study designs. With the newly codified best medical management including antiplatelet therapies with aspirin and clopidogrel, statin, antihypertensive agents, strict diabetes control, smoking cessation, and life style change, the current trials may demonstrate that asymptomatic carotid stenosis is best treated with best medical therapy. The ongoing trials will illuminate and reshape the treatment paradigm for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. PMID:26417191

  17. Carotid artery access for transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Robert A; Block, Peter C; Thourani, Vinod H; Lerakis, Stamatios; Babaliaros, Vasilis

    2013-10-01

    We report three patients who had successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) via carotid artery access. None were candidates for thoracotomy (including minimal access incisions) and had no other vascular access sites that would accommodate the transcatheter valve sheath. Antegrade carotid perfusion and retrograde insertion of the delivery sheath maintained cerebral blood flow without sequelae. Carotid access for TAVR is an option for unusual patients without other access.

  18. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  19. Are Carotid Stent Fractures Clinically Significant?

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Rodriguez, Heron E.; Naughton, Peter A.; Keeling, Aiofee; Phade, Sachin V.; Morasch, Mark D.; Kibbe, Melina R.; Eskandari, Mark K.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Late stent fatigue is a known complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS) for cervical carotid occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of carotid stent fractures. Materials and Methods: A single-center retrospective review of 253 carotid bifurcation lesions treated with CAS and mechanical embolic protection from April 2001 to December 2009 was performed. Stent integrity was analyzed by two independent observers using multiplanar cervical plain radiographs with fractures classified into the following types: type I = single strut fracture; type II = multiple strut fractures; type III = transverse fracture; and type IV = transverse fracture with dislocation. Mean follow-up was 32 months. Results: Follow-up imaging was completed on 106 self-expanding nitinol stents (26 closed-cell and 80 open-cell stents). Eight fractures (7.5%) were detected (type I n = 1, type II n = 6, and type III n = 1). Seven fractures were found in open-cell stents (Precise n = 3, ViVEXX n = 2, and Acculink n = 2), and 1 fracture was found in a closed-cell stent (Xact n = 1) (p = 0.67). Only a previous history of external beam neck irradiation was associated with fractures (p = 0.048). No associated clinical sequelae were observed among the patients with fractures, and only 1 patient had an associated significant restenosis ({>=}80%) requiring reintervention. Conclusions: Late stent fatigue after CAS is an uncommon event and rarely clinically relevant. Although cell design does not appear to influence the occurrence of fractures, lesion characteristics may be associated risk factors.

  20. Aterofisiol® in carotid plaque evolution

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Maurizio; Gallelli, Luca; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with carotid stenosis, the risk of plaque rupture is related to the composition of the atherosclerotic plaque rather than to its magnitude. In this regard, we evaluated the effects of a supplement, Aterofisiol,® containing omega-3 (EPA [eicosapen acid] DHA [docosahexaenoic acid]), vitamin K2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol on the composition of atherosclerotic plaque and on neurological symptoms in patients with carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Methods The study was randomized, prospective, and double-blinded. Eligible patients were of both sexes, with carotid stenosis >70% who underwent endarterectomy. Enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive either one tablet of acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg (Cardioaspirin®) + one tablet of Aterofisiol every 24 hours or one tablet of Cardioaspirin + one tablet of placebo every 24 hours. Each treatment was started 30 days before the surgery and was stopped 5 days before the surgery. The plaques were removed “en bloc” using standard surgical technique. Results During the study period, 214 patients (135 men and 79 women) were enrolled for intent-to-treat and randomized in two groups: Group A: 107 patients (68 men and 39 women) were treated with Cardioaspirin + Aterofisiol. Group B: 107 patients (67 men and 40 women) were treated with Cardioaspirin + placebo. At the end of the study, 202 patients participated fully (103 patients in Group A and 99 patients in Group B), making up the protocol evaluation population (94.4%). The mean lipid content of removed plaques was significantly lower (P<0.05) in Group A. We recorded a significantly lower incidence of neurological symptoms in Group A in comparison with Group B (P<0.05). Conclusion In the study, Aterofisiol showed to be effective in reducing the amounts of cholesterol and lipids in the plaques and in reducing adverse neurological events in the study group with respect to controls

  1. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  2. The prognosis of carotid siphon stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, L R; Kistler, J P; Davis, K R; Kaminski, M J

    1986-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical course and angiograms of 15 patients with carotid siphon stenosis of 50% or greater. Fourteen had less than 50% stenosis at the origin of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery, and one had a greater degree of stenosis but underwent endarterectomy after an initial angiogram. Angiograms were examined for evidence of hemodynamic abnormalities in addition to residual lumen diameter. Seven patients initially had TIAs, 5 had strokes, and 3 were asymptomatic. In an average followup of 51 months (range 4-123 months) subsequent cerebral ischemic events occurred in 6 (40%), but only 1 had a stroke with a persisting neurological deficit that could be directly attributed to the siphon stenosis. Stenoses were hemodynamically significant by angiography in 5 of 7 TIA patients, and only 1 of 5 stroke patients. The incidence of subsequent ischemic events in this study was similar to 2 previous studies of siphon stenosis, however in this study most of the events ipsilateral to the siphon stenosis were TIAs or minor strokes. The association of hemodynamic angiographic abnormalities and initial TIAs but not strokes suggests that the mechanism producing ischemic symptoms may differ in patients with TIA and stroke who have carotid siphon stenosis.

  3. Carotid artery rupture and cervicofacial actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Anne; Lhermitte, Benoît; Ödman, Micaela; Grabherr, Silke; Mangin, Patrice; Palmiere, Cristian

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon, progressive infection caused by bacilli of the Actinomyces genus. Actinomyces are common commensal saprophytes in the oral cavity which may have medical importance as facultative pathogens. Subsequent to local injuries to the oral mucosa, they may penetrate the deep tissues and be responsible for suppurative or granulomatous infections. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a tonsillar carcinoma. An ulcerous lesion in the base of the tongue developed and spread to the carotid artery wall. The man died of a massive hemorrhage due to left carotid artery rupture. Postmortem computed tomography angiography performed prior to autopsy allowed the precise localization of the source of bleeding to be detected. Postmortem biochemical investigations confirmed the presence of inflammation associated with local bacterial infection. Histological investigations revealed the rupture of the left carotid artery surrounded by numerous colonies of Actinomyces. Acute and chronic inflammation with tissue necrosis as well as post-actinic, fibrotic changes were also found in the tissues surrounding the ruptured artery wall. PMID:22819527

  4. Noninvasive evaluation and management of the "asymptomatic" carotid bruit.

    PubMed

    Kartchner, M M; McRae, L P

    1977-12-01

    Cervical bruits in patients who are asymptomatic or who have nonhemispheric neurological symptoms present a universal challenge. Of 4,000 patients evaluated noninvasively for carotid occlusive disease, 1,287 presented with "asymptomatic" bruits (697 had nonhemispheric neurological symptoms and 590 were clinically asymptomatic). Carotid phonoangiography (CPA), the visual analysis of carotid bruits, identifies bruits indicative of significant stenosis, documents progression, and differentiates bruits of carotid bifurcation and sub-bifurcation origin. Sub-bifurication bruits were diagnosed in 619, insignificant bifurcation bruits in 426, and significant carotid bruits in 242 patients by CPA. Oculoplethysmography (OPG) evaluates the hemodynamic significance of carotid bruits by comparative timing of simultaneously recorded ocular and ear lobe pulses. OPG detected 273 asymptomatic bruit patients with significant internal carotid flow reduction and indicated 5% of the bifurcation bruits were of external carotid origin. An accuracy of 89% in determining greater than 40% stenosis by OPG/CPA in 295 patients having arteriography increases to 97% when both OPG and CPA are positive. Six-month to 70-month clinical follow-up of the 1,287 patients documented 154 carotid endarterectomies and 38 strokes. Analysis of the strokes favors arteriography and operation only for those patients with appropriately positive or progressive OPG/CPA or with focal transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

  5. [An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Wu, Huihui; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongwei; Liang, Huageng; Cai, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengjie; Wang, Yujie

    2013-07-01

    An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery was proposed. 3D ultrasound image was sliced into transverse, coronal and sagittal 2D images on the carotid bifurcation point. Then, the three images were processed respectively, and the carotid artery contours and thickness were obtained finally. This paper tries to overcome the disadvantages of current computer aided diagnosis method, such as high computational complexity, easily introduced subjective errors et al. The proposed method could get the carotid artery overall information rapidly, accurately and completely. It could be transplanted into clinical usage for atherosclerosis diagnosis and prevention. PMID:24195385

  6. Bone marrow hypoplasia in a cat treated with griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Rottman, J B; English, R V; Breitschwerdt, E B; Duncan, D E

    1991-02-01

    Three weeks after initiation of griseofulvin treatment for dermatophytosis (40 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h), an 8-yr-old domestic shorthair cat developed depression, vomiting, and pyrexia. Abnormalities found during physical examination included bilateral mydriasis, visual impairment, grade-II/V systolic murmur and multiple areas of alopecia. The cat was pancytopenic; serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia, and urinalysis revealed proteinuria, glycosuria, and bilirubinuria. Examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed profound hypoplasia of all precursors. Griseofulvin toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of the temporal relationship of drug administration with onset of clinical, hematologic, and biochemical abnormalities and failure to identify an infective or neoplastic cause for the bone marrow hypoplasia. The condition was refractory to treatment and the cat was euthanatized. Pathologic changes in the bone marrow were consistent with severe hypoplasia of all bone marrow precursors.

  7. "Photonic" Cat States from Strongly Interacting Matter Waves.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe R; Kang, Myung-Kyun

    2015-12-31

    We consider ultracold quantum gases of scalar bosons residing in a coupling strength-density regime in which they constitute a twofold fragmented condensate trapped in a single well. It is shown that the corresponding quantum states are, in the appropriate Fock space basis, identical to the photon cat states familiar in quantum optics, which correspond to superpositions of coherent states of the light field with a phase difference of π. In marked distinction to photon cat states, however, the very existence of matter-wave cat states crucially depends on the many-body correlations of the constituent bosons. We consequently establish that the quadratures of the effective "photons," expressing the highly nonclassical nature of the macroscopic matter-wave superposition state, can be experimentally accessed by measuring the density-density correlations of the interacting quantum gas. PMID:26764977

  8. "Photonic" Cat States from Strongly Interacting Matter Waves.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe R; Kang, Myung-Kyun

    2015-12-31

    We consider ultracold quantum gases of scalar bosons residing in a coupling strength-density regime in which they constitute a twofold fragmented condensate trapped in a single well. It is shown that the corresponding quantum states are, in the appropriate Fock space basis, identical to the photon cat states familiar in quantum optics, which correspond to superpositions of coherent states of the light field with a phase difference of π. In marked distinction to photon cat states, however, the very existence of matter-wave cat states crucially depends on the many-body correlations of the constituent bosons. We consequently establish that the quadratures of the effective "photons," expressing the highly nonclassical nature of the macroscopic matter-wave superposition state, can be experimentally accessed by measuring the density-density correlations of the interacting quantum gas.

  9. Stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Taugner, F M

    2001-01-01

    Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of the ventricular myocardium, which may cause sudden death in cats, but neither the aetiology nor the effect on the circulation are well understood. Fourteen cats of either sex with naturally occurring HCM were studied post mortem. Their ages ranged from 9 months to 10 years with an average age of 4.9 years. Heart weights and heart weight expressed as a percentage of body weight were elevated (27.9 g and 0.65%, respectively) as compared with normal values obtained in previous studies. Myocardial disarray was evident in nine of the 14 cats and moderate to severe fibrosis was present in six animals. To evaluate the renal renin-angiotensin system, semiquantitative morphometric data were obtained by means of renin immunohistochemistry and compared with results from an earlier study of 10 healthy cats by the author. The juxtaglomerular index was 36.8% in the cats with HCM as compared with 30.6% in healthy cats. The renin-positive portion of the afferent arteriole was increased in cats affected by HCM to 86.0 microm as compared with 49.9 microm in normal cats. The increase in kidney renin values in cats with HCM may have been due to decreased blood pressure and reduced renal perfusion resulting from impaired cardiac output. PMID:11578127

  10. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T J; Sirota, M G; Guttentag, A I; Ogorodnikov, D A; Shah, N A; Beloozerova, I N

    2014-09-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required for successful walking, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5-m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body's speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats' gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62-84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior "gaze stepping". Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75-80cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7-1.2s and 1.1-1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5-21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface.

  11. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T J; Sirota, M G; Guttentag, A I; Ogorodnikov, D A; Shah, N A; Beloozerova, I N

    2014-09-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required for successful walking, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5-m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body's speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats' gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62-84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior "gaze stepping". Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75-80cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7-1.2s and 1.1-1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5-21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  12. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and LBNP tolerance following resistance training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lower body resistance training on cardiovascular control mechanisms and blood pressure maintenance during an orthostatic challenge. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tolerance, carotid-cardiac baroreflex function (using neck chamber pressure), and calf compliance were measured in eight healthy males before and after 19 wk of knee extension and leg press training. Resistance training sessions consisted of four or five sets of 6-12 repetitions of each exercise, performed two times per week. Training increased strength 25 +/- 3 (SE) percent (P = 0.0003) and 31 +/- 6 percent (P = 0.0004), respectively, for the leg press and knee extension exercises. Average fiber size in biopsy samples of m. vastus lateralis increased 21 +/- 5 percent (P = 0.0014). Resistance training had no significant effect on LBNP tolerance. However, calf compliance decreased in five of the seven subjects measured, with the group average changing from 4.4 +/- 0.6 ml.mm Hg-1 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml.mm Hg-1 (P = 0.3826). The stimulus-response relationship of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response shifted to the left on the carotid pressure axis as indicated by a reduction of 6 mm Hg in baseline systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0471). In addition, maximum slope increased from 5.4 +/- 1.3 ms.mm Hg-1 before training to 6.6 +/- 1.6 ms.mm Hg-1 after training (P = 0.0141). Our results suggest the possibility that high resistance, lower extremity exercise training can cause a chronic increase in sensitivity and resetting of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  13. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and LBNP tolerance following resistance training.

    PubMed

    Tatro, D L; Dudley, G A; Convertino, V A

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lower body resistance training on cardiovascular control mechanisms and blood pressure maintenance during an orthostatic challenge. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tolerance, carotid-cardiac baroreflex function (using neck chamber pressure), and calf compliance were measured in eight healthy males before and after 19 wk of knee extension and leg press training. Resistance training sessions consisted of four or five sets of 6-12 repetitions of each exercise, performed two times per week. Training increased strength 25 +/- 3 (SE)% (P = 0.0003) and 31 +/- 6% (P = 0.0004), respectively, for the leg press and knee extension exercises. Average fiber size in biopsy samples of m. vastus lateralis increased 21 +/- 5% (P = 0.0014). Resistance training had no significant effect on LBNP tolerance. However, calf compliance decreased in five of the seven subjects measured, with the group average changing from 4.4 +/- 0.6 ml.mm Hg-1 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml.mm Hg-1 (P = 0.3826). The stimulus-response relationship of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response shifted to the left on the carotid pressure axis as indicated by a reduction of 6 mm Hg in baseline systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0471). In addition, maximum slope increased from 5.4 +/- 1.3 ms.mm Hg-1 before training to 6.6 +/- 1.6 ms.mm Hg-1 after training (P = 0.0141). Our results suggest the possibility that high resistance, lower extremity exercise training can cause a chronic increase in sensitivity and resetting of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Interaction of semicircular canal stimulation with carotid baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    The carotid-cardiac baroreflex contributes to the prediction of orthostatic tolerance; experimental attenuation of the reflex response leads to orthostatic hypotension in humans and animals. Anecdotal observations indicate that rotational head movements about the vertical axis of the body can also induce orthostatic bradycardia and hypotension through increased parasympathetic activity. We therefore measured the chronotropic response to carotid baroreceptor stimulation in 12 men during varying conditions of vestibulo-oculomotor stimulation to test the hypothesis that stimulation of the semicircular canals associated with head movements in the yaw plane inhibits cardioacceleration through a vagally mediated baroreflex. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was assessed by plotting R-R intervals (ms) at each of 8 neck pressure steps with their respective carotid distending pressures (mmHg). Calculated baroreflex gain (maximal slope of the stimulus-response relationship) was measured under 4 experimental conditions: 1) sinusoidal whole-body yaw rotation of the subject in the dark without visual fixation (combined vestibular-oculomotor stimulation); 2) yaw oscillation of the subject while tracking a small head-fixed light moving with the subject (vestibular stimulation without eye movements); 3) subject stationary while fixating on a small light oscillating in yaw at the same frequency, peak acceleration, and velocity as the chair (eye movements without vestibular stimulation); and 4) subject stationary in the dark (no eye or head motion). Head motion alone and with eye movement reduced baseline baroreflex responsiveness to the same stimulus by 30%. Inhibition of cardioacceleration during rotational head movements may have significant impact on functional performance in aerospace environments, particularly in high-performance aircraft pilots during high angular acceleration in aerial combat maneuvers or in astronauts upon return from spaceflight who already have

  15. Kinematic analysis of locomotion in unilateral vestibular neurectomized cats.

    PubMed

    Lacour, M; Sun, J; Harlay, F

    1997-01-01

    The vestibular syndrome following unilateral lesion of the vestibular system and the subsequent behavioral compensation over time have been well documented in many species. However, the locomotor pattern changes and the behavioral strategies used to preserve balance have still not been described. This study was aimed at quantitatively describing posturolocomotor behavior in cats tested before and after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) by the rotating beam test, which provides locomotor tasks of various difficulty. The position of head, neck, and trunk and the trajectory of the forelimbs and hindlimbs were recorded in 5 cats by 3D motion analysis. Step length and frequency walking velocity, and body height were computed. Results showed that normal cats adapted their locomotor patterns to the speed of beam rotation by increasing step length and/or frequency, that is, by increasing walking velocity, but without drastically changing their body posture. By contrast, UVN cats typically lowered their body centers of gravity and modified their locomotor patterns according to the locomotor task. Mean walking velocity was decreased in the low range of beam rotation as a result of smaller step length and lower frequency, and it was increased in the high range by opposite effects on these step cycle parameters. Modifications of the locomotor parameters were a function of the direction of beam rotation, showing significant reduction of step length, frequency, and velocity in the low range of counterclockwise compared to clockwise beam rotation, that is, during rotations toward the lesioned side. Phase plane plots of foot linear velocity with respect to foot linear displacement along the horizontal longitudinal axis displayed two different limit cycles, adapted to easy (low range of beam rotation) and more difficult (high range of rotation) walking conditions, in the normal cat. These dynamic profiles of the trajectories of the limbs during the step cycle were not greatly

  16. Efficacy of Broadline against Capillaria aerophila lungworm infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    Capillaria aerophila is a globally distributed parasite of the respiratory system of carnivores and can be considered the second most common lungworm after Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in domestic cats in the northern hemisphere. To evaluate the efficacy of Broadline (Merial), a combination of fipronil 8.3% w/v, (S)-methoprene 10% w/v, eprinomectin 0.4% w/v and praziquantel 8.3% w/v against C. aerophila, a controlled study with 20 naturally infected cats was conducted. Following blocking by body weight, cats were allocated randomly to two groups of ten animals each: control (untreated) or treated once with Broadline according to the label instructions. For evaluation of efficacy, faeces were examined for capillarid egg shedding prior to and weekly for 3 weeks after treatment, when the cats were necropsied for C. aerophila recovery. Following single topical administration of Broadline, faecal capillarid egg counts were significantly reduced by 93.5 to 99.1% (p < 0.01) compared to the controls. Cats treated harboured significantly fewer C. aerophila lungworms compared to the untreated controls (efficacy 82.4%, p = 0.016). Results of this study demonstrate that Capillaria lungworm burdens can be markedly reduced and that faecal egg shedding can be substantially lowered or eliminated following a single treatment with Broadline. PMID:25681144

  17. Lipids and lipoprotein ratios: The contribution to carotid intima media thickness in adolescents and young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amy S; Urbina, Elaine M; Khoury, Philip R; Kimball, Thomas R; Dolan, Lawrence M

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is common among adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective To assess whether the lipoprotein ratios LDL/HDL or TG/HDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol/ high density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides/HDL) or non-HDL cholesterol are more useful than the traditional lipid panel to predict increased arterial thickness in adolescents and young adults T2D. . Methods We evaluated 244 T2D adolescents and young adults in a cross sectional study (mean age 18 years, 56% African American, 65% female). Demographics, anthropometrics, and laboratory data were collected. Arterial thickness was assessed using carotid intima media thickness (IMT). Bivariate correlations and general linear models were used to determine the independent contributions of the various lipid parameters to carotid IMT. Results Bivariate correlations revealed LDL/HDL ratio was the strongest predictor carotid IMT (p<0.02). After adjustment for potential covariates LDL/HDL was no longer significant. HDL cholesterol was the only lipid to independently (negatively) contribute to carotid IMT. Other risk factors that were independently associated with carotid IMT included age, race, sex and body mass index z score and hemoglobin A1C. Together these cardiovascular risk factors explained less than 20% of the variance in carotid IMT. Conclusions HDL cholesterol is the only lipid to independently associate with carotid IMT. Lipoprotein ratios and non-HDL did not provide additional information. The low variance in carotid IMT explained by traditional risk factors suggests nontraditional risk factors may be important to assess to better understand the contributors to early stage atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults with T2D. PMID:24079285

  18. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  19. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  20. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  1. Carotid artery intima–media thickness and HIV infection: traditional risk factors overshadow impact of protease inhibitor exposure

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Judith S.; Kendall, Michelle A.; Zackin, Robert; Henry, W. Keith; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Torriani, Francesca J.; Schouten, Jeff; Mickelberg, Keith; Li, Yanjie; Hodis, Howard N.

    2005-01-01

    Context The impact of HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy on the development of subclinical atherosclerosis is incompletely understood. Objective To compare intima–media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens and subjects not receiving these regimens and to compare differences in the IMT of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects and HIV-uninfected subjects. Methods A prospective matched cohort study in university-based outpatient clinics. Groups of three individuals (triads) matched on the following characteristics were enrolled: age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, blood pressure and menopausal status. Group 1, HIV-infected subjects with continuous use of protease inhibitor (PI) therapy for ≥ 2 years; group 2, HIV-infected subjects without prior PI use; and group 3: HIV-uninfected. Ultrasonographers at six sites sent standardized ultrasound images to a central reading site for carotid IMT measurements. Carotid IMT was compared within the HIV-infected groups (1 and 2) and between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups in a matched analysis. Results One hundred and thirty-four individuals were enrolled in 45 triads. The median IMT in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0.690, 0.712 and 0.698 mm, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in IMT between groups 1 and 2, or in the combined HIV groups compared with the HIV uninfected group. Significant predictors of carotid IMT in a multivariate model included high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the interaction of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, age and body mass index. Conclusions We found no association between PI inhibitor exposure or HIV infection and carotid IMT. PMID:15905673

  2. Carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gahremanpour, Amir; Perin, Emerson C; Silva, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    For about 2 decades, investigators have been comparing carotid endarterectomy with carotid artery stenting in regard to their effectiveness and safety in treating carotid artery stenosis. We conducted a systematic review to summarize and appraise the available evidence provided by randomized trials, meta-analyses, and registries comparing the clinical outcomes of the 2 procedures. We searched the MEDLINE, SciVerse Scopus, and Cochrane databases and the bibliographies of pertinent textbooks and articles to identify these studies. The results of clinical trials and, consequently, the meta-analyses of those trials produced conflicting results regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. These conflicting results arose because of differences in patient population, trial design, outcome measures, and variability among centers in the endovascular devices used and in operator skills. Careful appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses, particularly the most recent and largest National Institutes of Health-sponsored trial (the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stenting Trial [CREST]), showed that carotid stenting and endarterectomy were associated with similar rates of death and disabling stroke. Within the 30-day periprocedural period, carotid stenting was associated with higher risks of stroke, especially for patients aged >70 years, whereas carotid endarterectomy was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction. The slightly higher cost of stenting compared with endarterectomy was within an acceptable range by cost-effectiveness standards. We conclude that carotid artery stenting is an equivalent alternative to carotid endarterectomy when patient age and anatomy, surgical risk, and operator experience are considered in the choice of treatment approach. PMID:22949763

  3. The effects of stimulating carotid chemoreceptors on renal haemodynamics and function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, F; Poucher, S M; Summerill, R A

    1987-01-01

    1. Dogs were anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated. The carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated by changing the perfusion of vascularly isolated carotid sinus regions from arterial to venous blood. The mean carotid sinus pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure were held constant at 124 +/- 3 and 122 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. Both vagosympathetic trunks were sectioned in the neck and propranolol (17 micrograms kg-1 min-1 I.V.) and gallamine triethiodide (0.2-2.0 mg kg-1 30 min-1 I.V.) were infused. Renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flow probe, glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance, sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In sixteen tests in thirteen dogs perfusion of the carotid sinus regions with venous blood resulted in significant decreases in renal blood flow from 271 +/- 24 to 198 +/- 21 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass; glomerular filtration rate from 41.0 +/- 4.8 to 22.1 +/- 3.1 ml min-1 100 g-1; filtration fraction from 0.25 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.02; urine flow from 0.48 +/- 1.0 to 0.21 +/- 0.03 ml min-1 100 g-1; sodium excretion from 18.1 +/- 4.1 to 12.9 +/- 4.2 mumol min-1 100 g-1; and osmolar excretion 327 +/- 42 to 171 +/- 26 mu osmol min-1 100 g-1. The right atrial pressure did not change significantly from 4.6 +/- 1.2 cmH2O. 3. In seven dogs, tying renal sympathetic nerves abolished all the responses except that of sodium excretion which was now reversed; sodium excretion increased from 68 +/- 19 to 116 +/- 38 mumol min-1 100 g-1 without significant change in right atrial pressure from 7.4 +/- 1.9 cmH2O. Crushing the carotid bodies, however, abolished all the responses. 4. The results show that carotid chemoreceptor stimulation can cause significant reflex effects on renal haemodynamics and function which are mediated via renal sympathetic nerves. They also show that the chemoreceptor stimulation can cause natriuresis in the absence of haemodynamic changes, in the

  4. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  5. Numerical simulation of blood flow and plaque progression in carotid-carotid bypass patient specific case.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Milosevic, Zarko; Kovacevic, Pavle; Velicki, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    This study describes computer simulation of blood flow and plaque progression pattern in a patient who underwent surgical treatment for infected carotid prosthetic tube graft using carotid-carotid cross-over bypass. The 3D blood flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modelled by the convection-diffusion equation. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport in lumen of the vessel is described by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is solved using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Calculation based on a computer simulation showed that flow distribution in the left carotid artery (CA) was around 40-50% of the total flow in the right common CA. Also, the left CA had higher pressure gradient after surgical intervention. Plaque progression simulation predicted development of the atherosclerotic plaque in the position of the right common CA and the left internal CA. A novel way of atherosclerotic plaque progression modelling using computer simulation shows a potential clinical benefit with significant impact on the treatment strategy optimization. PMID:26291584

  6. Carotid and vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks: clinical and angiographic correlation.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Toole, J F; McHenry, L C

    1979-08-01

    Carotid and vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) were clinically and angiographically correlated in 85 patients who had four-vessel angiography within 2 weeks after a TIA. The patients were divided into carotid and vertebrobasilar groups by clinical criteria. In the correlations of symptoms with arteriography, lesions of the contralateral internal carotid artery were observed in 54 percent of the patients. Of 39 patients with vertebrobasilar symptoms, 34 percent also had one carotid lesion and six patients had combinations of symptoms of both carotid and vertebrobasilar disease. In correlation with carotid bruits of the 85 patients, bruits were heard over one carotid artery in 42 percent. Subclavian bruits were heard in 47 percent of the patients with vertebrobasilar symptomatology. TIAs owing to arteriosclerosis of the cervical arteries occurred in 85 percent of the patients, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of atherosclerosis-induced TIA in the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. For accurate population surveys of the prevalence of TIAs, and for clinical decisions, proper categorization of patients is necessary.

  7. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carotid sinus nerve stimulator. 870.3850 Section 870.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3850 Carotid...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carotid sinus nerve stimulator. 870.3850 Section 870.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3850 Carotid...

  9. Stroke. Geometry is destiny for carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of carotid arteries, both normal and narrowed, produces flow characteristics that predict the location of atherosclerosis and the site of plaque rupture. A recent study has shown that the upstream carotid plaque undergoes profound biochemical and apoptotic changes that are closely linked to the development of stroke symptoms.

  10. Internal carotid artery dissection associated with scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E E

    1995-01-01

    A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency department with dysphasia and a headache after scuba diving. He was treated initially for decompression sickness. Subsequent workup revealed bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. The risk factors, presenting symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of internal carotid artery dissection are reviewed. The importance of considering unusual causes of neurologic deficits after scuba diving is emphasized.

  11. Traumatic internal carotid artery dissections caused by blunt softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; Atkinson, J L; Bartleson, J D; Whisnant, J P

    1998-03-01

    This report describes recently treated patients with carotid artery dissection caused by blunt softball injuries, as well as the results of a study of carotid artery trauma in a community. Data obtained through the medical records linkage system used for epidemiologic studies in Olmsted County, MN were used to identify all cases of traumatic internal carotid artery dissection diagnosed from 1987 through 1994. Four patients with traumatic internal carotid artery dissections were identified during the 8-year period under study. In two patients (50%) the carotid dissection was a result of the direct impact of a softball. A 39-year-old-man, who developed transient cerebral ischemic symptoms, and a 35-year-old woman, who developed a painful Horner's syndrome, were struck by a softball on the anterolateral aspect of the neck. Both patients had a low carotid bifurcation. These data suggest that internal carotid artery dissections may be underrecognized sequelae of direct softball injuries to the anterolateral neck. A low carotid bifurcation may be a risk factor for such injuries.

  12. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure. PMID:27582681

  13. [Ophthalmological complications associated with clinically significant carotid stenosis].

    PubMed

    Rozegnał-Madej, Agnieszka; Bielecka, Emilia; Swiech-Zubilewicz, Anna; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Karakuła, Wacław; Zubilewicz, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show ocular manifestations in carotid artery occlusive disease, with pathogenesis, diagnostic and therapeutic abilities of this changes. Carotid arteries are the main route by which the blood is supplied to the cerebrum and eyes. Clinical significant carotid artery stenosis is mainly caused by atherosclerosis. Most frequent neurological symptoms are transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and temporary visual loss (amaurosos fugax) are most common ocular symptoms. Other ocular pathologies in fundus examination are retinal embolies, retinal vein occlusion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, ocular ischemic syndrome or glaucoma. Most dangerous complications are stroke, blindness, or even patients death. Besides clinical examination the diagnosis is usually confirmed by carotid artery color Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography and retinal fluorescein angiography. It is important to refer a patient with suspected or confirmed significant carotid artery stenosis for appropriate evaluation and treatment to a endovascular surgeon. PMID:22783748

  14. Everted cervical vein for carotid patch angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Yu, A; Dardik, H; Wolodiger, F; Raccuia, J; Kapadia, I; Sussman, B; Kahn, M; Pecoraro, J P; Ibrahim, I M

    1990-11-01

    Because of the theoretic benefits of autologous vein we undertook an investigation to evaluate cervical veins (facial, external jugular) as patch material after carotid endarterectomy. A device that stimulated both circumferential fixation by sutures and radial tension exerted on in vivo patches was constructed to measure burst strength of tissue. Mean bursting pressure for groin saphenous vein (n = 10) was 94.5 +/- 15.1 pounds per square inch (psi), 75.5 +/- 8.9 psi for ankle saphenous vein (n = 10), 83.3 +/- 14.5 psi for everted (double layer) cervical vein (n = 5) and 10 +/- 3.3 psi for single layer cervical vein (n = 5). No significant differences between saphenous vein at any level and everted (double layer) cervical vein, but all were significantly different from single layer cervical vein (p less than 0.05). From June 1987 through November 1989, 19 patients underwent 21 carotid endarterectomies complemented with adjunctive everted cervical vein patch angioplasty. Indications for surgery were asymptomatic stenosis (53%), transient ischemic attack (29%), and cerebrovascular accident with recovery (18%). All patients were studied after surgery with duplex scanning. Asymptomatic recurrent stenosis was observed in one patient. Transient hypoglossal nerve dysfunction occurred in one other patient. One postoperative death occurred as a result of massive aspiration. These results indicate that everted cervical vein is comparable to the saphenous vein in resistance to bursting and can yield similar results as patch material after carotid endarterectomy. Accordingly, saphenous vein can be spared and lower extremity incisions avoided.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Increased carotid intima media thickness is associated with prolactin levels in subjects with untreated prolactinoma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Cui-Ling; He, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Dong-Hong; Fan, Xiang; Hu, Bin; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherogenic risk factors, but carotid intima media thickness (IMT) has not been studied in hyperprolactinemic patients. To determine whether untreated hyperprolactinemia contributes to increased carotid IMT. Thirty-one prolactinoma patients and 60 healthy controls were respectively studied. Participants underwent hormone evaluation. Anthropometric parameters (body mass index and blood pressure), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), serum glucose, insulin, lipid and apolipoprotein profiles were also determined. Endothelial function measured as the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of a brachial artery and carotid IMT were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasonography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to identify independent determinants of FMD and carotid IMT. Triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA-I ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen were significantly higher, while apoA-I was significantly lower in patients with prolactinomas than in the controls. Meanwhile, decreased FMD and increased carotid IMT were observed in hyperprolactinemic group. Serum prolactin was positively correlated with triglycerides, apoB/apoA-I ratio, hypogonadal, hsCRP and fibrinogen (P < 0.05), but inversely associated with apoA-I and HDL-C (P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, prolactin was found negatively correlated with FMD (r = -0.576, P < 0.0001), and positively correlated with mean carotid IMT (r = 0.652, P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that prolactin determined, independent of traditional risk factors, FMD (B = -0.589, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.525 to -0.804, P = 0.001) and mean carotid IMT (B = 0.527, 95% CI 0.027-0.069, P < 0.0001). Hyperprolactinemia may be involved in the preclinical increase in carotid IMT, directly or by promoting atherogenic factors, including

  16. Carotid Stent Fracture from Stylocarotid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jeffrey D; Joyner, David A; Farley, Edward P; Khan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is a rare condition resulting from elongation of the temporal styloid process or calcification of its associated stylohyoid ligaments. Although usually presenting with pain or odynophagia, Eagle syndrome has been reported to cause a multitude of neurologic symptoms or vascular complications, some of which can be life-threatening. We present a case in which an endovascularly placed internal carotid artery stent in close proximity to a calcified stylohyoid ligament resulted in stent fracture with subsequent stent and vessel occlusion. We review and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, etiology, complications and treatment options of the syndrome. PMID:27761179

  17. Congenital Absence of the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Florio, Francesco; Balzano, Silverio; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Mario; Bozzini, Vincenzo; Catapano, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    1999-01-15

    We report three cases of congenital absence of an internal carotid artery (ICA), diagnosed incidentally by digital subtraction angiography. The analysis of the cases is based on the classification of segmental ICA agenesis proposed by Lasjaunias and Berenstein. Usually the patients with this rare vascular anomaly are asymptomatic; some may have symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, compression by enlarged intracranial collateral vessels, or complications associated with cerebral aneurysms. Diagnosis of congenital absence of ICA is made by skull base computed tomography (CT) scan, CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional or digital subtraction angiography.

  18. Concomitant Carotid and Coronary Artery Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Craver, Joseph M.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Jones, Ellis L.; Curling, Patrick E.; Bone, David K.; Smith, Robert B.; Perdue, Garland D.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Kandrach, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on 68 patients who underwent concomitant carotid endarterectomy (CE) and coronary artery bypass surgery (CAB) at Emory University Hospital from January 1974 to February 1981. This group is then compared with a randomly selected, matched population without known carotid disease who underwent CAB alone. Asymptomatic bruit was the reason for investigation in 40 patients (59%); another 23 patients (34%) experienced transient cerebral ischemic attacks (TIAs); and five patients (7%) had TIA and prior stroke. Carotid stenoses (>75% luminal narrowing) were demonstrated as follows: isolated left, 24 patients; isolated right, 27 patients; and bilateral lesions, 16 patients. One patient had innominate artery stenosis. Associated total occlusion of one or both vertebral arteries was demonstrated in six patients. Ninety-seven per cent of patients had disabling angina pectoris prior to operation; the angina was unstable in 57%, 15% had congestive heart failure, and 54% had had at least one prior myocardial infarction (MI). Single-vessel coronary disease was present in 12.5% of patients, double in 37.5%, triple in 41.1%, and left main stenosis in 9%; 43% of patients had abnormal ventricular contractility. CE was performed on 67 patients (36 left and 31 right); aortocarotid bypass was performed on one. The CE procedures were performed immediately prior to the sternotomy for CAB under the same anesthesia. CAB consisted of single bypass in eight patients (11.8%); double in 16 patients (23.5%); triple in 22 patients (32.4%); and quadruple or more in 22 patients (32.4%) (mean = 2.9 grafts per patient). There was no hospital mortality. Perioperative MI occurred in 2.0% and stroke with residual deficit in 1.3%. Cumulative survival is 98.5% at two years. Sixty-three patients (92%) reported improvement or elimination of anginal symptoms after operation. Rehospitalization for stroke was necessary in 3.7% patients. Postoperative activity levels are; self-care only, 3

  19. Clinical Carotid Measurements: Present and Future State

    PubMed Central

    Strandness, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The most satisfactory methods of evaluating the carotid artery have included Doppler imaging and ultrasonic duplex scanning. It is now recognized that these techniques are most accurate when used in combination with spectral analysis to more objectively determine the flow patterns present across this important bifurcation. In the centers where there is the most experience in their use, the sensitivity of the methods approach 90% and are most accurate for detecting high-grade stenoses (greater than 50% diameter reduction). The most promising future applications include the use of computerized pattern recognition techniques to quantitatively separate patients with varying degrees of disease. PMID:15226956

  20. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  1. Management of Extracranial Carotid Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Yinn Cher

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed nations. Up to 88% of strokes are ischemic in nature. Extracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is the third leading cause of ischemic stroke in the general population and the second most common non-traumatic cause among adults <45 years of age. The aim of this paper is to provide comprehensive, evidence-based recommendations for the management of extracranial atherosclerotic disease, including imaging for screening and diagnosis, medical management and interventional management. PMID:25439328

  2. Air humidity and carotid rete function in thermoregulation of the goat.

    PubMed

    Jessen, C; Pongratz, H

    1979-07-01

    1. The effects of air humidity on respiratory rate have been studied in conscious goats exposed to an air temperature of + 33 degrees C. Before the experiments the animals had been chronically implanted with hypothalamic thermodes and intravascular heat exchangers to manipulate hypothalamic and general body core temperatures.2. Raising air humidity from 37 to 96% at constant air temperature resulted in a rise of respiratory rate, an immediate increase in hypothalamic temperature and a delayed smaller increase in general body core temperature.3. The rise of respiratory rate was smaller when general body core temperature was clamped at its control level and was absent when hypothalamic and general body core temperatures were clamped at their control levels during the humid air phase.4. It is concluded that the effect of high air humidity on respiratory rate in goats is predominantly the result of a rise in hypothalamic temperature acting on local thermosensitive structures. The carotid rete heat exchanger is thought to provide the thermal link between the evaporating surfaces of the upper respiratory tract and the hypothalamus.5. This function of the carotid rete heat exchanger is restricted to heat stressed animals. In animals subject to central cooling no local effects on hypothalamic temperature could be observed when the temperature of the inspired air was altered from + 33 to - 17 degrees C. PMID:490377

  3. Association between the Gensini Score and Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fidan, Serdar; Tabakçı, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Alizade, Elnur; Acar, Emrah; Bayam, Emrah; Tellice, Muhammet; Naser, Abdurrahman; Kargın, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the extent of coronary artery disease assessed by the Gensini score and/or the SYNTAX score and the significant carotid stenosis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Subjects and Methods A total of 225 patients who had carotid doppler ultrasonography prior to CABG were included retrospectively. Significant coronary artery disease was assumed as a lumen diameter stenosis of ≥50% in any of the major epicardial coronary arteries. The severity of carotid stenosis was determined by B-mode and duplex ultrasonography. Clinically significant carotid stenosis was defined as peak systolic velocity greater than 125 cm/s. Results The mean value of SYNTAX score and Gensini score was highest in patients allocated to significant carotid stenosis (22.98±7.32, p<0.001 and 77.40±32.35, p<0.001, respectively). The other risk factors for significant carotid stenosis were found to be male gender (p=0.029), carotid bruit (p<0.001), diabetes (p=0.021), left main disease (p=0.002), 3-vessel disease (p=0.008), chronic total coronary occlusion (p=0.001), and coronary artery calcification (p=0.001) in univariate analysis. However, only the Gensini score (odds ratio[OR]=1.030, p=0.004), carotid bruit (OR=0.068, p<0.001), and male gender (OR=0.190, p=0.003) were the independent predictors. The Gensini score cut off value predicting significant carotid stenosis was 50.5 with 77% sensitivity (p<0.001). Conclusion The Gensini score may be used to identify patients at high risk for significant carotid stenosis prior to CABG. PMID:27721854

  4. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  5. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  6. Impairment of carotid-cardiac vagal baroreflex in wheelchair-dependent quadriplegics.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Adams, W C; Shea, J D; Thompson, C A; Hoffler, G W

    1991-03-01

    The incidence of orthostatic hypotension can increase after prolonged exposure to chair rest and bedrest and is associated with post-bed rest impairment of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response. We therefore hypothesized that the hypotension observed in humans confined to wheelchairs may be manifested by a reduced baroreflex sensitivity. We compared baroreflex responses of 16 wheelchair-dependent (WCD) quadriplegics with those of 15 able-bodied subjects (ABS) matched for age, height, and weight. Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during application of graded pressures from 40 to -65 mmHg using a neck chamber for noninvasive stimulation of the carotid baroreceptors. Changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid distending pressures. The maximum slope of the stimulus-response relationship was greater (P less than 0.0001) in ABS (6.1 +/- 0.6 ms/mmHg) than in WCD (2.6 +/- 0.4 ms/mmHg). The range of the R-R interval response, i.e., the capacity to buffer blood pressure changes, was only 138 +/- 19 ms in WCD compared with 253 +/- 19 ms in ABS (P less than 0.001). Mean sitting systolic-to-diastolic blood pressures in WCD (92/60 mmHg) were less (P less than 0.0001) than in ABS (120/77 mmHg), although there were no significant differences between groups in supine resting blood pressures. Chronic loss of stimulation to carotid baroreceptors by routine standing posture is associated with attenuated sensitivity and reduced buffer capacity of the arterial baroreflex and hypotension during sitting in WCD patients.

  7. CAROTID CHEMORECEPTOR ABLATION IMPROVES SURVIVAL IN HEART FAILURE: RESCUING AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Marcus, Noah J.; Schultz, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether selective ablation of the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors improves cardiorespiratory control and survival during heart failure. Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a recognized health problem worldwide, and novel treatments are needed to better improve life quality and decrease mortality. Enhanced carotid chemoreflex drive from the CB is thought to contribute significantly to autonomic dysfunction, abnormal breathing patterns, and increased mortality in heart failure. Methods CHF was induced by coronary ligation in rats. Selective CB denervation (CBD) was performed to remove carotid chemoreflex drive in the CHF state (16 weeks post MI). Indices of autonomic and respiratory function were assessed in CB intact and CBD animals. CBD at 2 weeks post-MI was performed to evaluate whether early targeted CB ablation decreases the progression of left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac remodeling and arrhythmic episodes and improves survival. Results CHF rats developed increased CB chemoreflex drive and chronic central pre-sympathetic neuronal activation, increased indices of elevated sympathetic outflow, increased breathing variability and apnea incidence, and desensitization of the baroreflex. Selective CB ablation reduced the central pre-sympathetic neuronal activation by 40%, normalized indices of sympathetic outflow and baroreflex sensitivity, and reduced the incidence of apneas in CHF animals from 16.8 ± 1.8 events/h to 8.0 ± 1.4 events/h. Remarkably, when CB ablation was performed early, cardiac remodeling, deterioration of left ventricle ejection fraction, and cardiac arrhythmias were reduced. Most importantly, the rats that underwent early CB ablation exhibited an 85% survival rate compared to 45% survival in CHF rats without the intervention. Conclusion Carotid chemoreceptors play a seminal role in the pathogenesis of heart failure and their targeted ablation might be of therapeutic value to reduce cardiorespiratory

  8. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood. PMID:22005400

  9. Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Left Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Failed Surgery of a Right Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Ucar, Ibrahim; Ozsoy, Fatma; Arat, Anil; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Boeke, Erkmen

    2005-04-15

    Aneurysm of the common carotid artery is a rare and serious disease requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid neurologic complications. A 39-year-old man presented with voice impairment and a pulsatile mass at the right side of his neck and was found by color Doppler examination to have bilateral common carotid artery aneurysms of unknown origin. The right-sided large aneurysm was treated with placement of an 8 mm interposition Gore-Tex graft between the right common and internal carotid arteries. The surgical graft thrombosed 7 days after the surgery but the left-sided aneurysm was successfully treated by a Jostent peripheral stent-graft. Color Doppler examination showed a patent stent and no filling of the aneurysm on his first and sixth-month follow-up. Bilateral common carotid artery aneurysm is an exceptionally unusual condition and endovascular treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents may become an effective treatment alternative for these lesions.

  10. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  11. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  12. Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Carotid Plaques: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    NEOGI, TUHINA; ELLISON, R. CURTIS; HUNT, STEVEN; TERKELTAUB, ROBERT; FELSON, DAVID T.; ZHANG, YUQING

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of serum uric acid (SUA) with a marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), carotid atherosclerotic plaques (PLQ), where early evidence of risk may be evident, focusing on individuals without CV risk factors. Methods The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study is a multicenter study designed to assess risk factors for heart disease. PLQ were assessed with carotid ultrasound. We conducted sex-specific logistic regression to assess the association of SUA with presence of PLQ, including analyses among persons without risk factors related to both CVD and hyperuricemia. Results In total, 4866 participants had both SUA and carotid ultrasound assessed (54% women, mean age 52 yrs, mean body mass index 27.6). The association of SUA with PLQ increased with increasing SUA levels, demonstrating a dose-response relation for men [OR 1.0, 1.29, 1.61, 1.75, for SUA categories < 5 (reference), 5 to < 6, 6 to < 6.8, ≥ 6.8 mg/dl, respectively; p = 0.002]. Similar associations were found in men without CV risk factors. We found no relation of SUA with PLQ in women. Conclusion In this large study, SUA was associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaques in men. Results were similar in the absence of CV risk factors. These results suggest that SUA may have a pathophysiologic role in atherosclerosis in men. (J Rheumatol First Release Nov 15 2008; doi:10.3899/jrheum.080646) PMID:19012359

  13. Glaucoma Management in Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Calafiore, Silvia; Perdicchi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca; Contestabile, Maria Teresa; Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF) are vascular communications between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Ophthalmologists are called to diagnose and manage the condition in cases that present with ocular features. A 73-year-old female was referred to our glaucoma center clinic. Eight years before, she had started receiving medication for glaucoma and had undergone laser iridotomy, but a satisfactory management of intraocular pressure (IOP) had not been achieved. The patient was complaining of intermittent diplopia, bilateral proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis over the past 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right (OD) and left eye (OS) was 9/10 and 10/10, respectively. Visual field testing showed slight paracentral field defects mostly in OS. IOP was 20 mm Hg in OD and 34 mm Hg in OS. We referred the patient to neuroradiology, and MRI angiography revealed a CCF with angiographic classification of Cognard grade 2. Closure of the CCF by transarterial embolization was performed in the neuroradiology department. One week following the procedure, the clinical signs of diplopia, proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis had greatly improved, and IOP was reduced to 12 mm Hg OD and 19 mm Hg in OS. Glaucoma treatment was maintained with topical brimatoprost, brinzolamide, and timolol. Owing to the risk of vision loss associated with vascular stasis, retinal ischemia, and high IOP, ophthalmologists must be aware of the clinical features of CCF and should request appropriate imaging studies such as MRI angiography in order to confirm the diagnosis and plan multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:27462258

  14. Stenting of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Koshimae, N.; Morimoto, T.; Nagata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to evaluate our cases of cervical internal carotid artery stenosis for safty stenting. We investigate the preoperative internal carotid artery stenosis using by integrated backscatter (IBS) method of ultra sonography, comparing with the thirty five surgical specimens as to their nature, histological structure, thickness of fibrous cap. We choose the protection method according to plaque structure, and placed Easy-Wall stent or Smart stent after prePTA. We added post PTA according to the extent of expansion and IVUS findings. Calibrated IBS = IBS value (ROI) /intinal IBS value of ‘bleeding’, ‘lipiď, ‘thrombus’, fiber, ‘hyalinization’ were -27.5, -22.5, -15.2, -11.1, +2.1. That of the thin fibrous cap were -10.9*, that of thic fibrous cap were -2.4 (*p < 0.001). There was a good coleration between the extent of expansion and expected histological findings. All conplications were two cases of small cerebral infarction and a case of bleeding from the complicated lung cancer. The protection at prePTA lead to no complications in case of acute cerebral infarctions. It is very important to check the histological specimen carefully for safty stenting. PMID:20591243

  15. Glaucoma Management in Carotid Cavernous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Calafiore, Silvia; Perdicchi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca; Contestabile, Maria Teresa; Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF) are vascular communications between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Ophthalmologists are called to diagnose and manage the condition in cases that present with ocular features. A 73-year-old female was referred to our glaucoma center clinic. Eight years before, she had started receiving medication for glaucoma and had undergone laser iridotomy, but a satisfactory management of intraocular pressure (IOP) had not been achieved. The patient was complaining of intermittent diplopia, bilateral proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis over the past 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right (OD) and left eye (OS) was 9/10 and 10/10, respectively. Visual field testing showed slight paracentral field defects mostly in OS. IOP was 20 mm Hg in OD and 34 mm Hg in OS. We referred the patient to neuroradiology, and MRI angiography revealed a CCF with angiographic classification of Cognard grade 2. Closure of the CCF by transarterial embolization was performed in the neuroradiology department. One week following the procedure, the clinical signs of diplopia, proptosis, and conjunctival chemosis had greatly improved, and IOP was reduced to 12 mm Hg OD and 19 mm Hg in OS. Glaucoma treatment was maintained with topical brimatoprost, brinzolamide, and timolol. Owing to the risk of vision loss associated with vascular stasis, retinal ischemia, and high IOP, ophthalmologists must be aware of the clinical features of CCF and should request appropriate imaging studies such as MRI angiography in order to confirm the diagnosis and plan multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:27462258

  16. Hypothermia during Carotid Endarterectomy: A Safety Study

    PubMed Central

    Candela, Serena; Dito, Raffaele; Casolla, Barbara; Silvestri, Emanuele; Sette, Giuliano; Filippi, Federico; Taurino, Maurizio; Brancadoro, Domitilla; Orzi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background CEA is associated with peri-operative risk of brain ischemia, due both to emboli production caused by manipulation of the plaque and to potentially noxious reduction of cerebral blood flow by carotid clamping. Mild hypothermia (34–35°C) is probably the most effective approach to protect brain from ischemic insult. It is therefore a substantial hypothesis that hypothermia lowers the risk of ischemic brain damage potentially associated with CEA. Purpose of the study is to test whether systemic endovascular cooling to a target of 34.5–35°C, initiated before and maintained during CEA, is feasible and safe. Methods The study was carried out in 7 consecutive patients referred to the Vascular Surgery Unit and judged eligible for CEA. Cooling was initiated 60–90 min before CEA, by endovascular approach (Zoll system). The target temperature was maintained during CEA, followed by passive, controlled rewarming (0.4°C/h). The whole procedure was carried out under anesthesia. Results All the patients enrolled had no adverse events. Two patients exhibited a transient bradycardia (heart rate 30 beats/min). There were no significant differences in the clinical status, laboratory and physiological data measured before and after CEA. Conclusions Systemic cooling to 34.5–35.0°C, initiated before and maintained during carotid clamping, is feasible and safe. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02629653 PMID:27058874

  17. Noninvasive Assessment of Carotid Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandyk, Dennis F.; Thiele, Brain L.

    1983-01-01

    Noninvasive methods of detecting carotid disease were developed to avoid the morbidity and occasional mortality associated with cerebral angiography. The tests developed are of the following two types: direct, which uses imaging or the detection of flow disturbances to identify disease at the bifurcation, and indirect, which infers the presence of bifurcation disease by detecting changes at a remote site. The initial goal of only detecting disease has now been broadened, with this technology being used to address important clinical and epidemiologic questions such as the natural history of carotid bifurcation disease. The recognition of these important contributions has been compounded, however, by the large number of tests that are available, producing the problem of deciding which test or tests should be used for a particular patient. The use of multiple tests avoids the deficiencies of single tests but compounds medical costs. For a cost-effective single form of testing for all circumstances, duplex scanning methods offer the greatest possibility of detecting all degrees of disease. Images PMID:6649597

  18. Medical treatment in carotid artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Kolkert, J L; Meerwaldt, R; Lefrandt, J D; Geelkerken, R H; Zeebregts, C J

    2011-12-01

    Medical treatment has a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with occlusive carotid artery disease. Large trials have provided the justification for operative treatment besides medical treatment in patients with recent significant carotid artery stenosis two decades ago. Since then, medical therapy has evolved tremendously. Next to aspirin, antiplatelet regimens acting on a different level in the modulation of platelet aggregation have made their entry. Moreover, statin therapy has been introduced. These changes among others in secondary stroke prevention, along with better understanding in life-style adjustments and perioperative medical management, have led to a decrease in stroke recurrence. Secondary prevention is therefore now the most important pillar of medical therapy. It consists of antiplatelet therapy, statins and blood pressure lowering agents in all patients. Small adjustments are recommended for those patients referred for invasive treatment. Moreover, long-term medical treatment is imperative. In this article, we summarize current evidence in literature regarding medical management in patients with previous stroke or TIA. PMID:22051989

  19. Medical treatment in carotid artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Kolkert, J L; Meerwaldt, R; Lefrandt, J D; Geelkerken, R H; Zeebregts, C J

    2011-12-01

    Medical treatment has a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with occlusive carotid artery disease. Large trials have provided the justification for operative treatment besides medical treatment in patients with recent significant carotid artery stenosis two decades ago. Since then, medical therapy has evolved tremendously. Next to aspirin, antiplatelet regimens acting on a different level in the modulation of platelet aggregation have made their entry. Moreover, statin therapy has been introduced. These changes among others in secondary stroke prevention, along with better understanding in life-style adjustments and perioperative medical management, have led to a decrease in stroke recurrence. Secondary prevention is therefore now the most important pillar of medical therapy. It consists of antiplatelet therapy, statins and blood pressure lowering agents in all patients. Small adjustments are recommended for those patients referred for invasive treatment. Moreover, long-term medical treatment is imperative. In this article, we summarize current evidence in literature regarding medical management in patients with previous stroke or TIA.

  20. Relationship between eye movements and oneiric behavior in cats.

    PubMed

    Soh, K; Morita, Y; Sei, H

    1992-09-01

    The relation between oneiric behavior and rapid eye movements (REMs) in paradoxical sleep (PS) without muscle atonia was analyzed in cats. Most isolated REMs were related to orienting behavior, whereas most REM bursts were related to generalized body movements (jumping, attacking, etc.). Only isolated, high amplitude REMs had any possibility of corresponding to visual images in dreams. From these findings we propose the existence of both dream-related and nondream-related REMs even in animals.

  1. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  2. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  3. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  4. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  5. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  6. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  7. Vocalization in the cat and kitten.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Buchwald, J S; Johnson, J R; Mikolich, D J

    1978-11-01

    Vocal responses of kittens and mature cats were recorded in a variety of standard behavioral situations. Sonographic analysis of these responses showed similarities of responses obtained repeatedly from different cats within each recording situation. Marked differences in response patterns were noted in different recording situations. The kitten and cat vocal repertoires thus include a variety of specific responses to particular motivational or behavioral circumstances.

  8. Should patients with asymptomatic significant carotid stenosis undergo simultaneous carotid and cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Ogutu, Peter; Werner, Raphael; Oertel, Frank; Beyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiovascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether patients with severe asymptomatic carotid and coronary artery diseases should undergo simultaneous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 624 papers were found using the reported search, of which 20 represent the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study results of these papers are tabulated. Previous cohort studies showed mixed results, while advocating for the necessity of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). A recent RCT showed that patients undergoing prophylactic or simultaneous CEA + CABG had lower rates of stroke (0%) compared with delayed CEA 1–3 months after CABG (7.7%), without significant perioperative mortality difference. This study included patients with unilateral severe (>70%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis requiring CABG. An earlier partly randomized trial also showed better outcomes for patients undergoing simultaneous procedures (P = 0.045). Interestingly, systematic reviews previously failed to show compelling evidence supporting prophylactic CEA. This could be partly due to the fact that these reviews collectively analyse different cohort qualities. Neurological studies have, however, shown reduced cognitive and phonetic quality and function in patients with unilateral and bilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Twenty-one RCTs comparing lone carotid artery stenting (CAS) and CEA informed the American Heart Association guidelines, which declared CAS comparable with CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (CS). However, the risk of death/stroke for CAS alone is double that for CEA alone in the acute phase following onset of symptoms, while CEA alone is associated with a doubled risk of myocardial infarction. There is

  9. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms.

  10. Carotid Stenting vs Endarterectomy: New Results in Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, William J.; Lanzino, Guiseppe; Brott, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke, and treatments for this condition to decrease the risk of stroke include medical therapy, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and, more recently, carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of CEA vs medical therapy showed a clear benefit for CEA in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis of greater than 70% and a lesser benefit in patients with 50% to 69% stenosis. Treatments have evolved in the ensuing 20 years, and a new method, CAS, has emerged as a possible alternative to CEA. In early results, CAS proved feasible but did not compare favorably with CEA. Later and larger-scale studies comparing CAS to CEA failed to reach conclusions regarding a clear neurologic outcome advantage of one method over the other. This subject was of sufficient interest that 2 larger-scale randomized controlled trials comparing CAS and CEA, the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stenting Trial and the International Carotid Stenting Study, were undertaken to further explore this issue. This brief review places the new data arising from these studies in the context of prior efforts to address the problem of carotid artery stenosis and explores further opportunities for improvement and patient recommendations in light of these new findings. PMID:21123637

  11. [A Novel, Less Invasive Protection Method for Carotid Artery Stenting].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Tomotaka; Goto, Shunsaku; Yamamoto, Taiki; Imai, Tasuku; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Kato, Kyozo

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: We present a novel, less invasive protection method for carotid artery stenting. Case presentation: A 67-year-old man presented with symptomatic severe left carotid artery stenosis. A transfemoral approach was dangerous because of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. A 6Fr Axcelguide Simmonds catheter was inserted into the right brachial artery, and advanced into the left common carotid artery. Next, a 6Fr Optimo 100-cm catheter was coaxially navigated into the left common carotid artery. A PercuSurge GuardWire 300-cm was coaxially navigated into the left external carotid artery. Under flow reversal with the 2 balloons, another PercuSurge GuardWire 300-cm was navigated into the distal left internal carotid artery through the lesion. After both PercuSurge GuardWire balloons were inflated, the 6Fr Optimo was deflated and retrieved using a catheter exchange technique. Then, under distal double-balloon protection, routine stenting was performed. Conclusions: This technique is safer and less invasive than previous methods, especially in cases with difficult femoral access and vulnerable carotid plaque. PMID:27384116

  12. Lily toxicity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2010-11-01

    Lilies are commonly kept flowering ornamental plants that are used in holiday celebrations, weddings, and funerals, and in various floral arrangements. Lilies of genera Lilium and Hemerocallis (day lilies) have been shown to cause nephrotoxicity in cats. Confusion arises because so many different plants are called lilies. Members of the genus Convallaria (lily of the valley), while sparing on the kidneys, elicit toxic effects because they possess potent cardiac glycosides similar to digitalis. Even more confusing as to which lilies are toxic is the fact that many hybrids exist. The majority of the public do not know that lilies can be dangerous to cats and, in fact, cannot correctly identify the plants in their own homes. Cats have been shown to be extremely sensitive to the toxic effects of lilies. As little as 2 leaves or part of a single flower have resulted in deaths. It should be pointed out that the whole plant-petals, stamen, leaves, and pollen are toxic. The exact toxic dose and the precise toxins responsible for renal damage are currently unknown. The quick onset of clinical signs suggests a rapid absorption rate of the toxin. The renal tubular epithelium appears to be the target of the toxin. Studies indicate that it is the water-soluble fraction of the lily that is nephrotoxic. In cats, clinical signs of lily intoxication include salivation, vomiting, anorexia, and depression. Polyuric renal failure leads to dehydration and anuric renal failure and death results. No analytic verification of lily ingestion is currently available. Successful treatment includes initiation of fluid diuresis before the onset of anuric renal failure. Once anuria develops, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is the only potential treatment. Differential diagnoses of lily poisoning include any potential cause of acute renal failure in a cat. Prognosis is excellent if fluid diuresis is started before anuric renal failure has developed. The public must be made aware of potentially

  13. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  14. An absent ophthalmic artery or carotid siphon signal on transcranial Doppler confirms the presence of severe ipsilateral internal carotid artery disease.

    PubMed

    Wilterdink, J L; Feldmann, E; Bragoni, M; Brooks, J M; Benavides, J G

    1994-10-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound provides a useful adjunct to extracranial ultrasound in the diagnosis of carotid bifurcation disease. Previous studies have shown that collateral flow patterns and diminished flow velocities in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery correlate with hemodynamically significant carotid disease. In a series of 7,054 carotid duplex and transcranial Doppler examinations, 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.7, 16.4) of 287 ophthalmic arteries ipsilateral to an apparent carotid occlusion had no detectable flow signal, compared with 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3, 0.7) of 6,767 ophthalmic arteries ipsilateral to a non-occluded carotid artery (p < 0.001). Carotid siphon signals were not detectable in 24.4% (95% CI: 19.4, 29.4) of arteries ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion, versus 1.0% (95% CI: 0.8, 1.3) ipsilateral to nonoccluded carotid arteries (p < 0.001). A significant number of absent ophthalmic artery and carotid siphon signals (5.7 and 8.7%, respectively) were also found in patients with 80 to 99% extracranial carotid stenosis. A subset of 216 studies with angiographic correlation confirmed the high association of these transcranial Doppler findings with severe stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Primary ophthalmological disease or siphon occlusion did not explain these findings. An absent ophthalmic artery or carotid siphon signal on transcranial Doppler examination is believed to represent a failure to detect slow flow distal to severe carotid bifurcation lesions. As a sign of ipsilateral carotid occlusion, the sensitivities of absent ophthalmic artery and carotid siphon signals are quite low (12.5 and 24.4%, respectively). The high specificities of 99.5 and 99.0%, however, make these findings useful in confirming the diagnosis of presumptive carotid occlusion by carotid duplex ultrasound.

  15. Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wimpole, Justin A; Adagra, Carl F M; Billson, Mark F; Pillai, Dilo N; Foster, Darren J

    2010-06-01

    Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats. Plasma metanephrine levels are widely considered the diagnostic test of choice for phaeochromocytoma in people but have not been investigated in cats. In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma. Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group. Plasma metanephrine was not significantly different in any of the groups. This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease. These results provide rationale for further studies to establish the use of plasma normetanephrine levels as a potential diagnostic test for phaeochromocytoma in the cat.

  16. Heavy Snoring as a Cause of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sharon A.; Amis, Terence C.; Byth, Karen; Larcos, George; Kairaitis, Kristina; Robinson, Tracey D.; Wheatley, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have suggested that snoring and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome may be important risk factors for the development of carotid atherosclerosis and stroke. However, it is not clear if snoring per se is independently related to the risk of developing carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Volunteer sample examined in a sleep laboratory. Participants: One hundred ten volunteers (snorers and nonsnorers with only mild, nonhypoxic obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome) underwent polysomnography with quantification of snoring, bilateral carotid and femoral artery ultrasound with quantification of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular risk factor assessment. Subjects were categorized into 3 snoring groups: mild (0%–25% night snoring), moderate (> 25%–50% night snoring), and heavy (> 50% night snoring). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was 20% with mild snoring, 32% with moderate snoring, and 64% with heavy snoring (P < 0.04, Χ2). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of snoring on the prevalence of carotid and femoral atherosclerosis. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking history, and hypertension, heavy snoring was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio 10.5; 95% confidence interval 2.1–51.8; P = 0.004) but not with femoral atherosclerosis. Conclusions: Heavy snoring significantly increases the risk of carotid atherosclerosis, and the increase is independent of other risk factors, including measures of nocturnal hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Considering the high prevalence of snoring in the community, these findings have substantial public health implications for the management of carotid atherosclerosis and the prevention of stroke. Citation: Lee SA; Amis TC; Byth K; Larcos G; Kairaitis K; RobinsonTD; Wheatley JR. Heavy snoring as a cause of carotid

  17. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Sthefano Atique; Antonangelo, Leila; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Beteli, Camila Baumann; de Camargo Júnior, Otacílio; de Aquino, José Luis Braga; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone. Methods The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic) who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy) and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured. Results Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045) and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014) at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003). There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042) and MMP-9 (P=0.019) between symptomatic patients in the control group. Conclusion Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:26313719

  18. Experimental determination of circumferential properties of fresh carotid artery plaques.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael G; O'Donnell, Michael R; O'Connell, Barry M; Walsh, Michael T

    2011-06-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is currently accepted as the gold standard for interventional revascularisation of diseased arteries belonging to the carotid bifurcation. Despite the proven efficacy of CEA, great interest has been generated in carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) as an alternative to open surgical therapy. CAS is less invasive compared with CEA, and has the potential to successfully treat lesions close to the aortic arch or distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Following promising results from two recent trials (CREST; Carotid revascularisation endarterectomy versus stenting trial, and ICSS; International carotid stenting study) it is envisaged that there will be a greater uptake in carotid stenting, especially amongst the group who do not qualify for open surgical repair, thus creating pressure to develop computational models that describe a multitude of plaque models in the carotid arteries and their reaction to the deployment of such interventional devices. Pertinent analyses will require fresh human atherosclerotic plaque material characteristics for different disease types. This study analysed atherosclerotic plaque characteristics from 18 patients tested on site, post-surgical revascularisation through endarterectomy, with 4 tissue samples being excluded from tensile testing based on large width-length ratios. According to their mechanical behaviour, atherosclerotic plaques were separated into 3 grades of stiffness. Individual and group material coefficients were then generated analytically using the Yeoh strain energy function. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of each sample was also recorded, showing large variation across the 14 atherosclerotic samples tested. Experimental Green strains at rupture varied from 0.299 to 0.588 and the Cauchy stress observed in the experiments was between 0.131 and 0.779 MPa. It is expected that this data may be used in future design optimisation of next generation interventional medical devices for the

  19. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  20. Pathophysiology and management of reperfusion injury and hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad U; Goshgarian, Christopher; Min, Jiangyong; Gorelick, Philip B

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion is a relatively rare syndrome with significant and potentially preventable clinical consequences. The pathophysiology of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may involve dysregulation of the cerebral vascular system and hypertension, in the setting of increase in cerebral blood flow. The early recognition of CHS is important to prevent complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage. This review will focus on CHS following carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting. We will discuss the typical clinical features of CHS, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnostic modalities for detection, identification of patients at risk, and prevention and treatment. Although currently there are no specific guidelines for the management of CHS, identification of patients at risk for CHS and aggressive treatment of hypertension are recommended. PMID:27602202

  1. Nitrogen metabolism of four raw meat diets in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine R; Beloshapka, Alison N; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-10-01

    Little nutritional information has been collected from domestic cats fed raw meat diets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in N metabolism of domestic cats fed raw beef-based diet (66 % crude protein (CP) and 20 % fat), bison-based diet (49 % CP and 39 % fat), elk-based diet (79 % CP and 6 % fat) and horse-based diet (60 % CP and 26 % fat). A total of eight intact adult female cats were fed to maintain body weight in a cross-over design. Daily food intake, faecal and urinary outputs, and N metabolism were measured. Dietary N was highly digestible (96.8 (SEM 0.7)) for all treatments. Urinary N accounted for a majority of total N excretion, and differences in total N excretion reflect differences in urinary N. Differences in N intake and N absorption were due to differences in CP levels among diets. N retention was similar to values reported in the literature for domestic cats fed purified and traditional extruded diets. Despite differences in protein concentrations and N intake, all raw meats tested maintained N metabolism.

  2. [Non-invasive explorations of the carotid arteries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Persson, A V; Dyer, V E

    1981-01-01

    For the non-invasive evaluation of patients suspected of having extracranial carotid artery disease, the non-invasive vascular laboratory at the Lahey Clinic, Boston, Massachusetts uses three tests. Carotid phonoangiography (C.P.A.) by itself is 60% accurate, the Kartchner-McRae Oculoplethysmograph (O.P.G.) by itself 80% accurate, and the Echoflow doppler arterial imager, by itself 90% accurate. These examinations are used for surveillance of high-risk patients and to determine the need for carotid arteriography. In a series of 94 patients, the combination of these non-invasive methods yielded one false negative and 2 false positive studies, for an overall accuracy of 95%.

  3. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  4. Controversies in Veterinary Nephrology: Renal Diets Are Indicated for Cats with International Renal Interest Society Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2 to 4: The Con View.

    PubMed

    Scherk, Margie A; Laflamme, Dottie P

    2016-11-01

    Renal diets typically incorporate protein and phosphorus restriction, supplement with potassium and Omega-3 fatty acids, and address metabolic acidosis. Compared to "maintenance" diets, these modifications appear to benefit cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is limited data in cats justifying the specific amounts of the nutrients used in these diets, and there is little evidence supporting protein restriction in cats with CKD. Energy intake, maintenance of body weight, and muscle and body condition need to be addressed, and may take precedence over special diets. Further research is needed to better define optimum diets for cats with CKD. PMID:27593575

  5. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner’s assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  6. Perioperative morbidity and outcome of esophageal surgery in dogs and cats: 72 cases (1993-2013).

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jessie S; Culp, William T N; Scotti, Katherine; Seibert, Rachel L; Lux, Cassie N; Singh, Ameet; Wormser, Chloe; Runge, Jeffrey J; Schmiedt, Chad W; Corrie, Jessica; Phillips, Heidi; Selmic, Laura E; Nucci, Daniel J; Mayhew, Philipp D; Kass, Philip H

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate perioperative morbidity and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing esophageal surgery. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent esophageal surgery were reviewed for information on signalment, history, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, condition treated, details of surgery, intraoperative complications, and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via veterinarian and client telephone conversations. The relationship between complications and survival to hospital discharge was evaluated by means of regression analysis. RESULTS The most common indication for surgical intervention was an esophageal foreign body in dogs (50/63 [79%]) and esophageal stricture in cats (3/9). Complications were documented in 54% (34/63) of dogs and 3 of 9 cats. The most common immediate postoperative complications were respiratory in nature (9 dogs, 1 cat). Partial esophagectomy and resection with anastomosis were significantly associated with the development of immediate postoperative complications in dogs. The most common delayed postoperative complications were persistent regurgitation (7 dogs) and esophageal stricture formation (3 dogs, 1 cat). For dogs, a mass lesion and increasing lesion size were significantly associated with the development of delayed postoperative complications. Six dogs (10%) and 1 cat died or were euthanized prior to discharge, and pneumomediastinum and leukopenia were negative prognostic factors for dogs being discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that the short-term prognosis for dogs and cats that survive surgery for treatment of esophageal lesions is favorable, with 90% of patients discharged from the hospital (57/63 dogs; 8/9 cats). However, dogs treated for more extensive esophageal lesions as well as those undergoing esophagectomy or

  7. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs. PMID:27574987

  8. Flat Feline Faces: Is Brachycephaly Associated with Respiratory Abnormalities in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)?

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Chen, Ruoning; Packer, Rowena M A; Caney, Sarah M A; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research into brachycephalism and associated disorders in cats. A questionnaire aimed at cat owners was used to determine the relationship between feline facial conformation and owner-reported cat management requirements and respiratory abnormalities. Owner-submitted photographs of cats were used to develop novel measures of skull conformation. One thousand valid questionnaires were received. Within these there were 373 valid photographs that allowed measurement of muzzle ratio (M%) and 494 that allowed nose position ratio (NP%). The data included 239 cats for which both measurements were available. Owners reported lifestyle factors (e.g. feeding type, grooming routine, activity level), physical characteristics (e.g. hair length) and other health characteristics of their cat (e.g. tear staining, body condition score). A composite respiratory score (RS) was calculated for each cat using their owner's assessment of respiratory noise whilst their cat was asleep and then breathing difficulty following activity. Multivariate analyses were carried out using linear models to explore the relationship between RS and facial conformation, and lifestyle risk factors. The results showed that reductions in NP% and M% were significantly associated with RS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.026, respectively) and that the relationship was significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.56, P < 0.001 for both). Respiratory score was also significantly associated with increased presence of tear staining (P < 0.001) and a sedentary lifestyle (P = 0.01). This study improves current knowledge concerning cats with breeding-related alterations in skull confirmation and indicates that brachycephalism may have negative respiratory implications for cat health and welfare, as has been previously shown in dogs.

  9. Carotid siphon geometry and variants of the circle of Willis in the origin of carotid aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Ângelo Raimundo; Câmara, Ródio Luis Brandão; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated anatomical variants in the carotid siphon and of the circle of Willis in patients with aneurysms. We performed a retrospective analysis of cerebral angiographies. The Control Group was composed of patients without aneurysms. Posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms were more common in women (p<0.05), and the anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysms in men (p<0.1). The incidence of fetal-type PcomA was higher in cases with co-occurring PcomA aneurysm (24 versus 8%, p<0.05). Patients with AcomA aneurysm had higher incidence of A1 hypoplasia (p<0.0001, OR=32.13, 95%CI 12.95-79.71) and lower frequency of fetal-type PcomA compared to their control counterparts (p=0.0125). The angle of carotid siphon was narrower in patients with PcomA aneurysm (27.3±19.1 versus 34.8±22.6, p=0.028). In conclusion, a narrower carotid siphon or the presence of fetal-type PcomA or A1 hypoplasia may cause hemodynamic stress, thereby promoting the formation of aneurysms in susceptible individuals.

  10. Comparison of Neurocognitive Outcomes after Carotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Artery Stenting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jerry J; Schwartz, Samuel; Wen, Johnny; deVirgilio, Christian; Lobue, Abeline; Walot, Irwin; Koopmann, Matthew; Donayre, Carlos; White, Rodney A

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive and emotional outcomes after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting with embolic protection device (CAS + EPD) are not clear. Patients were entered prospectively into a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved single-center physician-sponsored investigational device exemption between 2004 and 2010 and received either CEA or CAS + EPD. Patients underwent cognitive testing preprocedure and at 6, 12, and 60 months postprocedure. Cognitive domains assessed included attention, memory, executive, motor function, visual spatial functioning, language, and processing speed. Beck Depression and anxiety scales were also compared. There were a total of 38 patients that met conventional indications for carotid surgery (symptomatic with ≥50% stenosis or asymptomatic with ≥70% stenosis)-12 patients underwent CEA, whereas 26 patients underwent CAS + EPD. Both CEA and CAS + EPD patients showed postprocedure improvement in memory and executive function. No differences were seen at follow-up in regards to emotional dysfunction (depression and anxiety), attention, visual spatial functioning, language, motor function, and processing speed. Only two patients underwent neuropsychiatric testing at 60 months-these CAS + EPD patients showed sustained improvement in memory, visual spatial, and executive functions. In conclusion, cognitive and emotional outcomes were similar between CEA and CAS + EPD patients. PMID:26463299

  11. Ovulation without cervical stimulation in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Johnston, S D; Hegstad, R L; Keltner, D G; Owens, S F

    1993-01-01

    Progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay of serum collected at monthly intervals for 9 months (April-December) in 24 adult female American short-hair cats (age 2.5-11 years, mean 7.4 years); 20 cats were intact, and four were ovariohysterectomized controls. One of the 20 intact queens was ovariohysterectomized after 7 months, when pyometra was diagnosed. Cats could see and hear one another, and could see and hear male cats housed individually in the same room. Direct contact with other cats was prevented. Tactile stimulation of the cats' hindquarters and perineal regions by handlers was avoided. Serum progesterone concentration > or = 4.8 nmol l-1 was defined as evidence of ovulation. This concentration was exceeded in seven of 20 intact queens (35%) at one or more occurrences of non-coital ovulation; there were 13 such occurrences in all (1-3 per queen). Serum progesterone concentration ranged from 0.2 to 103.4 (mean 14.09 +/- 2.0) nmol l-1 in these seven cats, and was significantly greater than concentrations in the other intact and neutered cats. In the remaining 13 intact and four ovariohysterectomized cats, serum progesterone concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 (mean 1.24 +/- 1.46) nmol l-1. These data suggest that, at least as far as cats housed in proximity to one another are concerned, intact female cats do not always require cervical stimulation to induce ovulation. PMID:8229985

  12. The relationship between preoperative serum cortisol level and the stability of plaque in carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Sun, Yudong; Hu, Wenping; Wei, Xiaolong; Li, Zhenjiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Stability of plaque has been implicated as risk factor for stroke. Serum cortisol regulates lipoprotein metabolism and immune response, contributing to plaque stability in atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between serum cortisol and stability of carotid plaque has not been well characterized. We conducted a serology analysis to identify the relationship between serum cortisol and carotid plaque stability. Methods Between May 2013 to October 2015, 73 patients with carotid stenosis patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were enrolled in our study. Serum cortisol was analyzed at 8:00 AM in the morning before surgery via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. According to the classification made by the American Heart Association, hematoxylin-and-eosin staining was performed to divide these patients into either a stable or unstable group, according to the morphology of fibrous cap, lipid core and intima layer. A curve fitting method was used to identify the relationship between preoperative serum cortisol and stability of carotid plaque. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify carotid plaque stability-associated serum cortisol. Results Curve fitting’s result represents a U-shape characteristic. A total of 314.92 and 395.23 nmol/L were considered as the cut point for preoperative serum cortisol when trisected the patients. When adjusted for degree of stenosis, hyperlipemia, smoking and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis’ results demonstrated that preoperative serum cortisol can significantly affect carotid plaque stability. The odds ratio values in multivariate logistic regression analysis for C reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and preoperative serum cortisol level were 7.67 and 20.86 respectively. Conclusions Preoperative serum cortisol was associated with stability of carotid plaque in patients

  13. [Organization of the Dutch Cat Fancy].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O

    1998-11-01

    The present study of the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy' describes the organization and structure of the Dutch Cat Fancy, and is subdivided into three parts. The first part presents a survey of the number of cat clubs, date of their establishment, number of members, associated breed clubs and participation in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The second part describes the basic organization of Dutch cat clubs, including their membership, cattery registration, breed registration, exhibitions and judges, cat magazines, health care and welfare, and breed clubs. The third part focuses attention on other organizational forms such as clubs for a particular breed, seen within the Dutch Cat Fancy.

  14. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  15. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

    2005-01-01

    Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD. PMID:15937204

  16. Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Tulis, David Anthony

    2010-01-01

    i. Summary Numerous and diverse experimental animal models have been used over the years to examine reactions to various forms of blood vessel disease and/or injury across species and in multiple vascular beds in a cumulative effort to relate these findings to the human condition. In this context, the rat carotid artery balloon injury model is highly characterized and commonly used for investigating gross morphological, cellular, biochemical, and molecular components of the response to experimentally-induced arterial injury. The mechanical damage caused by the balloon catheter completely removes the intimal endothelial lining and creates a distending mural injury in the operated vessel. This elicits a reproducible remodeling response characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) mitogenesis and migration (via phenotypic switching), SMC apoptosis, partial vascular endothelial cell regeneration, enhanced matrix synthesis, and establishment of an invasive neointima in time-dependent fashion. This multi-factorial process allows for investigation of these many important pathophysiological processes and can serve as a valuable “proof-of-concept” tool to verify and substantiate in vitro results; however, inherent anatomical and adaptive constraints of this in vivo model ration comparison to the diseased human system (see Note 1). In this chapter, brief overview of the materials needed and the methodologies commonly employed for successful routine performance of this important experimental animal model will be provided. Individual sub-sections will cover animal care and handling, pre- and post-operative procedures, and the surgery proper. Protocols for histopathology and morphometry and procedures for data management and interpretation pertinent to the rat carotid artery balloon injury model will be discussed in Chapter __ of this series. Notes will conclude with important caveats, limitations, and considerations for practical use of this technique. PMID:18287662

  17. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  18. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  19. Assessment of Carotid Artery Stenosis and the Use of Statins

    PubMed Central

    Whayne, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    General thinking has previously centered on managing carotid artery stenosis (CAS) by carotid endarterectomy and subsequently, stenting for higher risk patients. However for CAS and other forms of vascular disease, especially when asymptomatic, there is new emphasis on defining underlying mechanisms. Knowledge of these mechanisms can lead to medical treatments that result in possible atherosclerotic plaque stabilization, and even plaque regression, including in the patient with CAS. For now, the key medication class for a medical approach are the statins. Their use is supported by good cardiovascular clinical trial evidence including some directed carotid artery studies, especially with a demonstrated decrease in carotid intima-media thickness. Procedural controversy still exists but the current era in medicine offers significant support for medical management of asymptomatic CAS while techniques to recognize the vulnerable plaque evolve. If CAS converts to a symptomatic status, early referral for endarterectomy or stenting is indicated. PMID:26417184

  20. Branch retinal artery occlusion following carotid stenting: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ran; Peng, Xiao-Yan; You, Qi-Sheng; Jiao, Li-Qun; Liu, Da-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A 70 year old male was diagnosed with carotid stenosis and underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS). Severe postoperative complications arose subsequent to the procedure, including decreased visual acuity and symptoms of a visual field defect, and the patient was eventually diagnosed with retinal artery embolism. CAS reduces carotid plaque; however, the subsequent shedding of carotid plaque may cause retinal artery embolism, resulting in the serious loss of visual function in patients. This complication is of paramount importance and requires great consideration from the neurologist and the patients undergoing CAS. Ophthalmic evaluation is paramount following CAS due to the possibility of embolic occlusion of the retinal artery. It is imperative that patients be informed of the risk of permanent vision loss as a result of CAS.

  1. Data on TREM-1 activation destabilizing carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Rai, Vikrant; Stoupa, Samantha; Subramanian, Saravanan; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-09-01

    The data described herein are related to the article entitled "Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1-dependent matrix metalloproteinases in the carotid plaques of symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis" (Rao et al., 2016) [1]. Additional data are provided on the dose-response effect of TNF-α, TREM-1 antibody and recombinant rTREM-1/Fc fusion chimera (TREM-1/FC) on the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from human carotid endarterectomy tissues. Data are also presented on the distribution of CD86+ M1- and CD206+ M2-macrophages and their co-localization with TREM-1 in symptomatic carotid plaques as visualized by dual immunofluorescence. The interpretation of this data and further extensive insights can be found in Rao et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27331093

  2. Common carotid artery dissection caused by radiotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayan; Yue, Dandan; Chen, Xin; Wei, Zhenyu; Lu, Wenmei; Wu, Danhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a case of acute cerebral infarction with radiation-induced carotid artery dissection is reported. Carotid artery dissection is generally asymptomatic at the early stages. Due to the non-specific clinical manifestations of carotid artery dissection, a detailed inquiry of the past history of a patient has a critical role in making a diagnosis of radiation-induced common carotid artery dissection. Onset of acute ischemic stroke is the predominant manifestation, and for patients with a history of head-and-neck radiotherapy, dissection should be considered. The condition may progress rapidly, and result in a poor prognosis. Therefore, a correct early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy may lead to rapid recovery, and influence the overall prognosis.

  3. Ultrasonic imaging and oculoplethysmography in diagnosis of carotid occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D H; Hobson, R W; Lynch, T G; Berry, S M; Jamil, Z

    1983-10-01

    Pulsed Doppler ultrasonic imaging (UI) of the cervical carotid artery provides flow-dependent anatomic detail of the carotid bifurcation, while oculoplethysmography (Kartchner) (OPG-K) and ocular pneumoplethysmography (Gee) (OPG-G) reflect changes in flow and pressure resulting from hemodynamically significant lesions. We examined 66 patients prospectively with UI, OPG-K, and OPG-G to compare the relative accuracy of these techniques with contrast arteriography. Both UI and OPG-G were significantly more accurate than OPG-K. While the accuracies of UI and OPG-G were not significantly different, their combined use resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity compared with that of Doppler imaging alone. In addition, UI correctly identified 22 (85%) of 26 occlusions of the internal carotid artery. The use of UI and OPG-G together provided accurate anatomic and hemodynamic information useful in the evaluation of carotid occlusive disease.

  4. Common carotid artery dissection caused by radiotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayan; Yue, Dandan; Chen, Xin; Wei, Zhenyu; Lu, Wenmei; Wu, Danhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a case of acute cerebral infarction with radiation-induced carotid artery dissection is reported. Carotid artery dissection is generally asymptomatic at the early stages. Due to the non-specific clinical manifestations of carotid artery dissection, a detailed inquiry of the past history of a patient has a critical role in making a diagnosis of radiation-induced common carotid artery dissection. Onset of acute ischemic stroke is the predominant manifestation, and for patients with a history of head-and-neck radiotherapy, dissection should be considered. The condition may progress rapidly, and result in a poor prognosis. Therefore, a correct early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy may lead to rapid recovery, and influence the overall prognosis. PMID:27699045

  5. Aneurysm of the internal carotid artery after minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Laissaoui, Younès; Noureddine El Alami, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of posttraumatic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. The aneurysm was surgically removed, followed by a simple postoperative course. Such lesions should be highly suspected in cases of penetration into the retroangulomandibular neck region.

  6. Hairless cats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hendy-Ibbs, P M

    1984-01-01

    Ten hairless kittens are known to have been born in Britain since 1978. Pedigree study supports the hypothesis of a monogenic, recessive mode of inheritance proposed in previous reports. A review of the literature suggests the possibility of at least two mutations giving rise to hairless cats, one of which has normal whiskers and the other attenuated whiskers. For these, the gene symbols hi, and hr, respectively, have been proposed.

  7. Pharmacodynamics of warfarin in cats.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Kraft, S L; Lewis, D C; Melethil, S; Freeman, L C

    2000-12-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamic response to warfarin in cats. The specific aim was to determine if a log-linear indirect response model (Nagashima et al., 1969) used to describe the in vivo effect of warfarin in humans could be applied to cats. The pharmacokinetics of racemic warfarin were described using a non-compartmental approach. The relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and normalized prothrombin time (PTR) was defined for feline plasma under our experimental conditions, and determined to be: %PCA=12.38+648 e-PTR/0.492. These data were then integrated and used to predict the warfarin dose associated with therapeutic anti-coagulation defined as an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The maximum prothrombinopenic response to warfarin in cats after a single intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg occurred at 24-48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling suggested that each cat had a narrow therapeutic range of the steady-state concentration of total warfarin required to appropriately block prothrombin complex synthesis (median: 265.2-358.7 ng/mL). The median daily dose range predicted to yield therapeutic concentrations of warfarin was 0.061-0.088 mg/kg per day. Wide inter-individual variations in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic response suggest that a more optimal dosing of warfarin may be possible with the development of individual pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic algorithms, analogous to those currently employed in human patients. PMID:11168910

  8. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  9. Carotid and Aortic Stiffness in Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Meshkov, Alexey N.; Rozhkova, Tatyana A.; Kalinina, Maria V.; Deev, Alexander D.; Rogoza, Anatoliy N.; Balakhonova, Tatyana V.; Boytsov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of plasma cholesterol in impairing arterial function and elasticity remains unclear. We evaluated arterial stiffness, measured locally in the common carotid artery by high-resolution echo-tracking, and aortic stiffness, using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) (the “gold-standard” measurement of arterial stiffness), in treatment-naive patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Methods The study included 66 patients with FH (10–66 years old) and 57 first-degree relatives without FH (11–61 years old). Carotid-femoral PWV was determined by SphygmoCor (AtCor, Australia). The parameters of carotid stiffness β-index, Peterson elastic modulus and local PWV were assessed with regard to the common carotid artery at a distance of 1cm from the bifurcation (AlokaProsound Alpha7, Japan). Results FH patients showed significantly higher β-index (6.3(4.8–8.2) vs. 5.2(4.2–6.4), p = 0.005), Ep (78(53–111) kPa vs. 62(48–79) kPa, p = 0.006), local PWV (5.4(4.5–6.4) m/c vs. 4.7(4.2–5.4) m/c, p = 0.005), but comparable values of carotid-femoral PWV (6.76(7.0–7.92) m/c vs. 6.48(6.16–7.12) m/c, p = 0.138). Carotid arteries and the aorta stiffened with age in patients with FH, but after 30 years, carotid arteries stiffened more significantly than the aorta. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that treatment-naive patients with FH had stiffer carotid arteries than their relatives, but showed no difference in aortic stiffness. We also found out that the rate of reduction of elasticity of the aorta and carotid arteries in FH patients varies: it is observed earlier in carotid arteries than in the aorta. PMID:27434535

  10. Cavernous Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following a Radical Cavernous Sinus Resection

    PubMed Central

    Katzir, Miki; Gil, Ziv; Cohen, José Enrique; Sviri, Gill Efraim

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysms are a special group among other intracranial aneurysms. They can occur during the dissection phase of the surgery if the tumor encases a vessel. Complications of their rupture as hemorrhage or stroke are life threatening. Early recognition and treatment is mandatory to avoid catastrophic sequelae. We present the successful diagnosis and endovascular treatment of a postoperative cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysm following radical cavernous sinus resection. PMID:27330923

  11. Cavernous Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following a Radical Cavernous Sinus Resection.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Miki; Gil, Ziv; Cohen, José Enrique; Sviri, Gill Efraim

    2016-06-01

    Iatrogenic cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysms are a special group among other intracranial aneurysms. They can occur during the dissection phase of the surgery if the tumor encases a vessel. Complications of their rupture as hemorrhage or stroke are life threatening. Early recognition and treatment is mandatory to avoid catastrophic sequelae. We present the successful diagnosis and endovascular treatment of a postoperative cavernous carotid pseudoaneurysm following radical cavernous sinus resection. PMID:27330923

  12. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  13. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication. PMID:26956354

  14. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  15. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  16. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  17. ESVS guidelines. Invasive treatment for carotid stenosis: indications, techniques.

    PubMed

    Liapis, C D; Bell, P R F; Mikhailidis, D; Sivenius, J; Nicolaides, A; Fernandes e Fernandes, J; Biasi, G; Norgren, L

    2009-04-01

    The European Society for Vascular Surgery brought together a group of experts in the field of carotid artery disease to produce updated guidelines for the invasive treatment of carotid disease. The recommendations were rated according to the level of evidence. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is recommended in symptomatic patients with >50% stenosis if the perioperative stroke/death rate is <6% [A], preferably within 2 weeks of the patient's last symptoms [A]. CEA is also recommended in asymptomatic men <75 years old with 70-99% stenosis if the perioperative stroke/death risk is <3% [A]. The benefit from CEA in asymptomatic women is significantly less than in men [A]. CEA should therefore be considered only in younger, fit women [A]. Carotid patch angioplasty is preferable to primary closure [A]. Aspirin at a dose of 75-325 mg daily and statins should be given before, during and following CEA. [A] Carotid artery stenting (CAS) should be performed only in high-risk for CEA patients, in high-volume centres with documented low peri-operative stroke and death rates or inside a randomized controlled trial [C]. CAS should be performed under dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel [A]. Carotid protection devices are probably of benefit [C].

  18. Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, Luca; Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2010-08-15

    In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

  19. Intravascular Ultrasound for Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Stent Placement

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ahmad S

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can provide valuable information regarding endoluminal morphology. We present the first description of IVUS-guided intracranial and extracranial carotid artery stent placement for arterial dissection. A 41-year-old female with a sudden-onset headache and blurred vision underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram imaging that revealed bilateral carotid artery dissections (BCAD) and a left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Endovascular treatment (EVT) of a long segment right carotid artery dissection (CAD) was performed employing two Carotid WALLSTENT™ Monorails™ (8 x 36 mm, 10 x 31 mm) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). With the help of the IVUS, the distal stent was placed up to the petrous carotid artery, followed by the placement of the second stent in the immediate proximal location with some overlap that extended down to the carotid artery bulb. Intraoperative angiography and post-stenting IVUS revealed excellent stent placement with good resolution of the dissection and good luminal patency with pseudolumen obliteration. Stent use for intracranial circulation dissections will continue to be a favorable option given the decreased morbidity of endovascular therapy in this location. As endovascular surgeons become more facile with the use of IVUS, using it as a guide for stent placement and post-stenting confirmation will help them to ensure proper positioning and improved patency rates. PMID:27672529

  20. Intravascular Ultrasound for Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Stent Placement

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ahmad S

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can provide valuable information regarding endoluminal morphology. We present the first description of IVUS-guided intracranial and extracranial carotid artery stent placement for arterial dissection. A 41-year-old female with a sudden-onset headache and blurred vision underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram imaging that revealed bilateral carotid artery dissections (BCAD) and a left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Endovascular treatment (EVT) of a long segment right carotid artery dissection (CAD) was performed employing two Carotid WALLSTENT™ Monorails™ (8 x 36 mm, 10 x 31 mm) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). With the help of the IVUS, the distal stent was placed up to the petrous carotid artery, followed by the placement of the second stent in the immediate proximal location with some overlap that extended down to the carotid artery bulb. Intraoperative angiography and post-stenting IVUS revealed excellent stent placement with good resolution of the dissection and good luminal patency with pseudolumen obliteration. Stent use for intracranial circulation dissections will continue to be a favorable option given the decreased morbidity of endovascular therapy in this location. As endovascular surgeons become more facile with the use of IVUS, using it as a guide for stent placement and post-stenting confirmation will help them to ensure proper positioning and improved patency rates.

  1. Intravascular Ultrasound for Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Stent Placement.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ahmad S; Hussain, Namath S

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can provide valuable information regarding endoluminal morphology. We present the first description of IVUS-guided intracranial and extracranial carotid artery stent placement for arterial dissection. A 41-year-old female with a sudden-onset headache and blurred vision underwent a computed tomography (CT) angiogram imaging that revealed bilateral carotid artery dissections (BCAD) and a left vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Endovascular treatment (EVT) of a long segment right carotid artery dissection (CAD) was performed employing two Carotid WALLSTENT™ Monorails™ (8 x 36 mm, 10 x 31 mm) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA). With the help of the IVUS, the distal stent was placed up to the petrous carotid artery, followed by the placement of the second stent in the immediate proximal location with some overlap that extended down to the carotid artery bulb. Intraoperative angiography and post-stenting IVUS revealed excellent stent placement with good resolution of the dissection and good luminal patency with pseudolumen obliteration. Stent use for intracranial circulation dissections will continue to be a favorable option given the decreased morbidity of endovascular therapy in this location. As endovascular surgeons become more facile with the use of IVUS, using it as a guide for stent placement and post-stenting confirmation will help them to ensure proper positioning and improved patency rates. PMID:27672529

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Iatrogenic and Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Stefan; Donas, Konstantinos P. Pitoulias, Georgios A.; Horsch, Svante

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports on the early and midterm results of endovascular treatment of acute carotid artery dissections, its specific problems, and its limitations. We encountered seven patients with symptomatic extracranial carotid artery dissection, three cases of which occurred after carotid endarterectomy, two after carotid angioplasty and stenting, and two after trauma. Balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents were placed using a transfemoral approach. Success in restoring the carotid lumen was achieved in all patients. No procedure-related complications occurred. All patients experienced significant clinical improvement while in the hospital and achieved complete long-term recovery. At follow-up (mean, 22.4 months), good luminal patency of the stented segments was observed. In conclusion, in this small series, primary stent-supported angioplasty seems to be a safe and effective strategy in the treatment of selected patients having acute traumatic extracranial carotid artery dissection, with excellent early and midterm results. Larger series and longer-term follow-up are required before definitive recommendations can be made.

  3. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats. PMID:19073369

  4. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  5. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1-10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1-25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40-180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40-100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53-128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59-154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93-180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41-84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  6. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1–10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1–25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40–180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40–100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53–128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59–154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93–180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41–84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  7. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  8. Carotid Artery IMT, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    CROMWELL, CHRISTINA M.; AICHELE, KRISTIN R.; OAKMAN, JOYANN E.; NEAL, MICHAEL P.; LENZO, JESSICA M.; PEREZ, AVERY N.; BYE, NAOMI L.; SANTANIELLO, ERICA L.; HILL, JESSICA A.; EVANS, RACHEL C.; THIELE, KARLA A.; CHAVIS, LAUREN N.; GETTY, ALLYSON K.; WISDO, TIA R.; FEAIRHELLER, DEBORAH L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and blood pressure and found a direct correlation between the two. It is known that adult females have better cardiovascular health than males until a certain stage of life, yet limited research has examined gender differences in vascular function. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate vascular structure and function, blood pressure, and blood glucose/cholesterol levels in relation to gender differences in young healthy adults. On three separate days, 44 adults (26.30 ± 11.9yrs; 24M, 20F) completed a carotid IMT ultrasound, a flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a fasted glucose and cholesterol test, a 24hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, a VO2max test, and a body composition measurement. Females had lower systolic blood pressure, lower diastolic blood pressure, lower LDL/HDL ratios, lower body mass index, a higher HDL count, and lower plasma glucose levels than males (p < 0.05 for all), all of which suggest better cardiovascular health. However, we found no gender differences in vascular health measures, IMT and FMD. Our results suggest that while young adult females have better cardiovascular health than males, endothelial function may not yet be affected in the young adult years. PMID:27766134

  9. A Lumped Parameter Method to Calculate the Effect of Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion on Anterior Cerebral Artery Pressure Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, M.; Navidbakhsh, M.; Razmkon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Numerical modeling of biological structures would be very helpful tool to analyze hundreds of human body phenomena and also diseases diagnosis. One physiologic phenomenon is blood circulatory system and heart hemodynamic performance that can be simulated by utilizing lumped method. In this study, we can predict hemodynamic behavior of one artery of circulatory system (anterior cerebral artery) when disease such as internal carotid artery occlusion is occurred. Method Pressure-flow simulation is one the leading common approaches for modeling of circulatory system behavior and forecasts of hemodynamic in numerous physiological conditions. In this paper, by using lumped model (electrical analogy), CV system is simulated in MATLAB software (SIMULINK environment). Results The performance of healthy blood circulation and heart is modeled and the obtained results used for further analyses. The stenosis of internal carotid artery at different rates was, then, induced in the circuit and the effects are studied. In stenosis cases, the effects of internal carotid artery occlusion on  left anterior cerebral artery pressure waveform are investigated. Conclusion The findings of this study may have implications not only for understanding the behavior of human biological system at healthy condition but also for diagnosis of diseases in circulatory and cardiovascular system of human body. PMID:27026953

  10. Association of SERPINA9 gene variants with carotid artery atherosclerosis: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weihong; Morrison, Alanna; Wasserman, Bruce A; Folsom, Aaron R; Sun, Wei; Campbell, Stephen; Kao, W H Linda; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The SNP rs11628722 in the SERPINA9 gene was previously associated with incident ischemic stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Centerin, the protein encoded by SERPINA9, is involved in maturation and maintenance of naïve B cells, which play a role in atherogenesis. We investigated whether 21 tag SNPs in the SERPINA9 gene are associated with features of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Carotid MRI data were obtained from 1,282 European Americans and 341 African Americans of the ARIC Carotid MRI study, which recruited participants from ARIC by a stratified sampling plan that over-sampled participants with carotid intima-media thickening. Five MRI measures, focused on carotid wall volume, wall thickness, and lipid core, were analyzed. Genetic associations between the MRI measurements and each of the 21 SNPs were analyzed in linear regression models with adjustment for sample weights and traditional risk factors. Rs11628722 was tested a priori. In African Americans, rs11628722 was significantly associated with carotid wall volume (p < 0.05). Among the other 20 SNPs, adjusted for multiple testing, rs4905204, which encodes an Ala to Val amino acid change, was significantly associated with maximum wall thickness (p < 0.000625) and suggestively associated with total wall volume (p < 0.0026) in European Americans. In conclusion, SNPs in the SERPINA9 gene showed race-specific associations with characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Replications in other populations are needed to validate findings of this study and to establish the SERPINA9 gene as a candidate in the etiology of carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:24319541

  11. Gastrointestinal granuloma due to Candida albicans in an immunocompetent cat

    PubMed Central

    Duchaussoy, Anne-Claire; Rose, Annie; Talbot, Jessica J.; Barrs, Vanessa R.

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5 year-old cat was admitted to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Teaching Hospital for chronic vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a focal, circumferential thickening of the wall of the duodenum extending from the pylorus aborally for 3 cm, and an enlarged gastric lymph node. Cytology of fine-needle aspirates of the intestinal mass and lymph node revealed an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and numerous extracellular septate acute angle branching fungal-type hyphae. Occasional hyphae had globose terminal ends, as well as round to oval blastospores and germ tubes. Candida albicans was cultured from a surgical biopsy of the duodenal mass. No underlying host immunodeficiencies were identified. Passage of an abrasive intestinal foreign body was suspected to have caused intestinal mucosal damage resulting in focal intestinal candidiasis. The cat was treated with a short course of oral itraconazole and all clinical signs resolved. PMID:26862475

  12. Food selection by the domestic cat, an obligate carnivore.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, J W; Goodwin, D; Legrand-Defrétin, V; Nott, H M

    1996-07-01

    The domestic cat Felis silvestris catus is the most accessible member of the family Felidae for the study of the relationship between food selection and nutrition. In contrast to pack-living animals such as the dog, and opportunistic omnivores such as the rat, the cat is generally able to maintain its normal body weight even when allowed ad libitum access to palatable food by taking small meals and adjusting intake according to the energy density of the food(s) available. The most extreme adaptations to carnivory discovered to date lie in the taste buds of the facial nerve, which are highly responsive to amino acids and unresponsive to many mono- and disaccharides. Preferences for particular foods can be modified by their relative abundance, their novelty, and by aversive consequences such as emesis: the mechanisms whereby these are brought about appear to be similar to those used by omnivorous mammals.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS. PMID:26120382

  14. Carotid occlusive disease as a risk factor in major cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Kartchner, M M; McRae, L P

    1982-08-01

    Carotid occlusive disease in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery raises the question of the perioperative risk factor of stroke. We evaluated 234 cardiovascular patients preoperatively by oculoplethysmography (OPG) to detect hemodynamically severe carotid occlusive disease. The perioperative stroke risk without flow-reducing carotid occlusive disease was 1%, in contrast to a 17% incidence of stroke when OPG studies indicated internal carotid artery stenosis of more than 60%. Oculoplethysmography is a reliable indicator of hemodynamically severe carotid occlusive disease with an associated high risk of stroke that warrants prophylactic carotid endarterectomy before major cardiovascular surgery.

  15. Carotid Artery Stenting: Review of Technique and Update of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sun Ho; Prince, Ethan A.; Dubel, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the number one cause of long-term disability in the United States. Carotid stenosis is an important cause of ischemic strokes, accounting for 20 to 25%. Previous studies have established carotid endarterectomy as standard of care of symptomatic patients with > 50% stenosis and asymptomatic patients with > 60% stenosis; recently, carotid artery stenting has emerged as an alternative treatment for carotid stenosis. Several studies have been published comparing carotid artery stenting with endarterectomy with mixed results. In this article, the authors discuss carotid artery stenting technique, the results from the most recent trials, and future directions. PMID:24436551

  16. Automated calculation of bifurcation carotid angle for analyzing the risk of carotis plaques by using carotid CT angiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, N.; Demir, S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is calculation of bifurcation carotid angle by detection of vessel boundaries to assist the medical doctors if this angle is a risk factor about formation of carotid plaques.Carotid ct angiography images are clustered automatically by ISODATA unsupervised classification algorithm. Since the spectral digital numbers (DN) of vessel pixels are bigger than the other part of the images, the cluster which has the biggest median value of DN among all other classes gives the vessel class. The cluster image in raster format is converted into the vector format which allows working on the vessel geometry. The converted vector vessel cluster dataset has been simplified using Douglas-Peucker algorithm to eliminate the zigzag effects of pixel data which are remained on the vector form dataset. Then the cluster polygon is converted to lines and the vertices which will be used for the calculation of bifurcation carotid angle. For sorting the vertex points to calculate the angle on each vertex, alpha-shapes algorithm is applied along the boundary. Then all the angles on each vertex point along the boundary of vessels are calculated. It is also visually clear that the angle which has the minimum value among all the calculated angles, gives the bifurcation carotid angle for one projected plane. The final carotid angle has calculated and 18 sample datasets are used to test the method.

  17. Cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B

    1996-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) was first described by Debré in 1950, yet the causative bacterial agent of CSD remained obscure until 1992, when Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae was implicated in CSD by serological and microbiological studies. B. henselae had initially been linked to bacillary angiomatosis (BA), a vascular proliferative disease most commonly associated with long-standing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other significant immunosuppression. B. henselae has also been associated with bacillary peliosis, relapsing bacteraemia and endocarditis in humans. Cats are healthy carriers of B. henselae, and can be bacteraemic for months or years. It has recently been demonstrated that B. henselae can be transmitted from cat to cat by the cat flea, but not by direct contact between animals. The author discusses the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

  18. The Prognostic Significance of Asymptomatic Carotid Bruits in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shorr, Ronald I; Johnson, Karen C; Wan, Jim Y; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Pahor, Marco; Bailey, James E; Applegate, William B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association between asymptomatic carotid bruits and the development of subsequent stroke in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING The Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP), a 5-year randomized trial testing the efficacy of treating systolic hypertension in noninstitutionalized persons aged 60 years or older. From the original 4,736 SHEP participants, we identified a cohort of 4,442 persons who had no prior history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction at randomization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The end point for this ancillary study was the development of a stroke. The average follow-up was 4.2 years. Carotid bruits were found in 284 (6.4%) of the participants at baseline. Strokes developed in 21 (7.4%) of those with carotid bruits and in 210 (5.0%) of those without carotid bruits. The unadjusted risk of stroke among persons with carotid bruits was 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98, 2.40). Adjusting for age, gender, race, blood pressure, smoking, lipid levels, self-reported aspirin use, and treatment group assignment, the relative risk of stroke among persons with asymptomatic carotid bruits was 1.29 (95% CI 0.80, 2.06). Among SHEP enrollees aged 60 to 69 years, there was a trend (p=.08) toward increased risk (relative risk [RR] 2.05; 95% CI 0.92, 4.68) of subsequent stroke in persons with, compared to those without, carotid bruits. However, among enrollees aged 70 years or over, there was no relation between carotid bruit and subsequent stroke (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.55, 1.76). In no other subgroup of SHEP enrollees did the presence of carotid bruit independently predict stroke. CONCLUSIONS Although we cannot rule out a small increased risk of stroke associated with bruits in asymptomatic SHEP enrollees aged 60 to 69 years, the utility of carotid bruits as a marker for increased risk of stroke among asymptomatic elderly with isolated

  19. Preliminary Validation and Reliability Testing of the Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians, in a Colony of Laboratory Cats

    PubMed Central

    Klinck, Mary P.; Rialland, Pascale; Guillot, Martin; Moreau, Maxim; Frank, Diane; Troncy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Feline osteoarthritis (OA) is challenging to diagnose. A pain scale was developed for use by veterinarians, in association with their physical examination, and tested for reliability and validity. The scale items were: Interaction with the examiner, Exploration of the room, Body Posture, Gait, Body Condition, condition of Coat and Claws, and abnormal Findings or Cat Reaction upon joint Palpation. Expert review supported the scale content. Two studies using laboratory-housed cats found the most promising results for Gait and Body Posture, in terms of distinguishing between OA and non-OA cats, repeatability of results, and correlations with objectively measured kinetics (weight-bearing). Abstract Subtle signs and conflicting physical and radiographic findings make feline osteoarthritis (OA) challenging to diagnose. A physical examination-based assessment was developed, consisting of eight items: Interaction, Exploration, Posture, Gait, Body Condition, Coat and Claws, (joint) Palpation–Findings, and Palpation–Cat Reaction. Content (experts) and face (veterinary students) validity were excellent. Construct validity, internal consistency, and intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed via a pilot and main study, using laboratory-housed cats with and without OA. Gait distinguished OA status in the pilot (p = 0.05) study. In the main study, no scale item achieved statistically significant OA detection. Forelimb peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF) correlated inversely with Gait (Rhos = −0.38 (p = 0.03) to −0.41 (p = 0.02)). Body Posture correlated with Gait, and inversely with forelimb PVF at two of three time points (Rhos = −0.38 (p = 0.03) to −0.43 (p = 0.01)). Palpation (Findings, Cat Reaction) did not distinguish OA from non-OA cats. Palpation—Cat Reaction (Forelimbs) correlated inversely with forelimb PVF at two time points (Rhos = −0.41 (p = 0.02) to −0.41 (p = 0.01)), but scores were highly variable, and poorly reliable

  20. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  1. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  2. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  3. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  4. Studies on poxvirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Baxby, D; Kelly, D F

    1989-01-01

    The development of clinical disease and the pathogenesis of cowpox were studied in domestic cats inoculated by a variety of routes. Intradermal titration in two cats demonstrated that as little as five pfu of cowpox virus caused a primary skin lesion. Intradermal inoculation of greater than or equal to 10(5) pfu cowpox virus resulted in severe systemic disease. Large amounts of virus (greater than or equal to 10(3) pfu/g) were isolated from skin lesions and the turbinates of cats killed at eight and 11 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lesser amounts of virus (congruent to 10(2) pfu/g) were isolated from lymphoid tissues and the lung, and small amounts of virus were isolated from various other tissues. A white cell-associated viraemia was detected from 5 dpi onwards. Skin scarification with 10(3) or 50 pfu cowpox virus enabled reproduction of the naturally-acquired disease. Cat-to-cat transmission was demonstrated from cats inoculated by skin scarification, but caused only subclinical infection in sentinel cats. Oronasal inoculation resulted in transient coryza and milder generalized disease than skin inoculation, and no transmission to sentinel cats. Preliminary investigations showed vaccinia virus (Lister strain) to be of low infectivity in cats while inoculation of ectromelia virus (Mill Hill strain) did not cause any clinical signs.

  5. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  6. Conditioning laboratory cats to handling and transport.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Thomson, Andrea E; Clary, Gillian P; Hamilton, Alexandra K; Hudson, Lola C; Meeker, Rick B; Sherman, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    As research subjects, cats have contributed substantially to our understanding of biological systems, from the development of mammalian visual pathways to the pathophysiology of feline immunodeficiency virus as a model for human immunodeficiency virus. Few studies have evaluated humane methods for managing cats in laboratory animal facilities, however, in order to reduce fear responses and improve their welfare. The authors describe a behavioral protocol used in their laboratory to condition cats to handling and transport. Such behavioral conditioning benefits the welfare of the cats, the safety of animal technicians and the quality of feline research data.

  7. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  8. LPS-induced c-Fos activation in NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol increases in septic rats are suppressed by bilateral carotid chemodenervation.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Abarzúa, Sebastián; Martin, Aldo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Cortés, Paula P; Fernández, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered I.P. increases significantly the activation of c-Fos in neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which in turn activates hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The vagus nerve appears to play a role in conveying cytokines signals to the central nervous system (CNS), since -in rodent models of sepsis- bilateral vagotomy abolishes increases in plasmatic glucocorticoid levels, but does not suppress c-Fos NTS activation. Considering that NTS also receives sensory inputs from carotid body chemoreceptors, we evaluated c-Fos activation and plasmatic cortisol levels 90 min after I.P. administration of 15 mg/kg LPS. Experiments were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, in control conditions and after bilateral carotid neurotomy (BCN). LPS administration significantly increases the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol levels in animals with intact carotid/sinus nerves. When LPS was injected after BCN, the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons, and plasmatic cortisol levels were not significantly modified. Our data suggest that carotid body chemoreceptors might mediate CNS activation during sepsis.

  9. Cat Heart Muscle in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Page, Ernest; Solomon, A. K.

    1960-01-01

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of total water, inulin space, and K and Na content in muscles of 0.5 to 10 mg. wet weight. These methods have been used to define steady state conditions with respect to intracellular K concentration in papillary muscles from cat hearts perfused and contracting isometrically at 27–28°C. and at 37–38°C. Cell volumes and intracellular ionic concentrations have been followed as a function of the external K concentration and compared with values predicted on the basis of electroneutrality and osmotic equilibrium. PMID:13732016

  10. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  11. The reserpine-treated cat

    PubMed Central

    Withrington, P.; Zaimis, Eleanor

    1961-01-01

    In cats, 24 hr after the administration of 1 mg/kg of reserpine, it was found that (a) the heart is in failure; (b) the sensitivity of the peripheral vessels to adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline, administered intravenously or close-arterially, is decreased; (c) any blood pressure changes are, as a rule, secondary to changes in heart contraction; and (d) the peripheral blood flow passively follows the blood pressure changes. Furthermore, any improvement of the circulation at this stage was found to be almost exclusively the result of an amelioration in the force of cardiac contraction. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig 8 PMID:14007730

  12. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due