Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...
... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P
Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...
Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I
Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.
Biancardi, Ana Luiza; Curi, Andre Luiz Land
To discuss the systemic and ocular manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of Bartonella infection. Review of the literature. Bartonella are facultative intracellular Gram-negative rods that infect the erythrocytes or endothelial cells and are related to cat scratch disease (CSD). Bartonella henselae infection has localized or systemic features; the ocular diseases related to Bartonella affect 5--10% of patients with CSD. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and laboratory tests. The indication of antibiotic therapy depends on the manifestation of the Bartonella infection, the host immunity and the patient's age. Physicians should look for Bartonella henselae in cases of follicular conjuntivitis and regional limphadenopathy, neuroretinitis or retinal infiltrates; currently, serological tests can confirm the clinical suspicion of this infection.
Bilavsky, Efraim; Amit, Sharon; Avidor, Boaz; Ephros, Moshe; Giladi, Michael
To describe the pregnancy outcome, including long-term follow-up of the offspring, of pregnant women with cat scratch disease. A surveillance study performed over 19 years identified eight pregnant women with cat scratch disease. A case of cat scratch disease was defined as a patient with a history of cat contact with regional lymphadenitis, other manifestations, or a combination of these consistent with the disease and one or more confirmatory laboratory tests. The clinical and laboratory manifestations and pregnancy outcome of all women diagnosed with cat scratch disease during pregnancy are described. Five of the eight pregnant women had typical disease with regional lymphadenitis; two had regional lymphadenitis with arthralgia, myalgia, and erythema nodosum; and one had neuroretinitis. Delayed diagnosis was common, although all women had a history of recent cat exposure. One woman who presented with clinical cat scratch disease during the first month of pregnancy had a spontaneous abortion. Another elected to terminate the pregnancy because of concerns related to radiation associated with abdominal computed tomography scan performed as part of an evaluation for suspected malignancy. The other six women gave birth to healthy newborns without congenital anomalies. No sequelae were recorded in mothers or children during a median follow-up of 4.5 years (range 0.5-9.5 years). With the exception of one early spontaneous abortion in which causality to cat scratch disease could not be established, neither deleterious effects of cat scratch disease on newborns nor reports of long-term sequelae were found. Physicians, especially family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists need to be more familiar with the clinical manifestations of cat scratch disease. Close monitoring of infected women during pregnancy is advisable until more data are available to determine the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M
To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine
Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.
Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P
An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre (>128) in three patients. Lymphadenopathy was present in all patients, erythema nodosum in one, osteomyelitis in one, hepatitis in one, transverse myelitis in one, and liver or spleen granulomata, or both, in three patients. Cat scratch disease developed in autumn or winter in 12 patients. All had a history of physical contact with a cat. Our study shows that our clinical suspicion was accurate in the diagnosis of cat scratch disease in a high percentage of patients presenting to a hospital and that indirect fluorescent antibody testing for B henselae is a useful diagnostic tool. PMID:9534680
Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.
Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905
Aziz, Hassan A; Plesec, Thomas P; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K; Singh, Arun D
To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Case report. A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma.
Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.
Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.
Cheung, Veronique Wan Fook; Moxham, J Paul
To present the first published case of Cat Scratch Disease presenting as acute mastoiditis and review the relevant literature to discuss the Otolaryngologic manifestations of this disease and its treatment. A case report and literature review of the Otolaryngologic manifestations of Cat Scratch Disease. A case report of a clinical scenario followed by a standard literature review. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database were used to find articles related to the Otolaryngologic manifestations of Cat Scratch Disease. A 6 year-old female presented to the Otolaryngologist with the typical appearance of acute mastoiditis. CT Scan confirmed breakdown of the osseous septae of the mastoid and mastoidectomy was undertaken. Granulation tissue and infected lymph nodes adjacent to the mastoid cortex were positive for Cat Scratch Disease. The patient was treated expectantly and recovered uneventfully. This is the first literature report of Cat Scratch Disease presenting as an acute mastoiditis.
Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit
Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.
Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael
Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hozáková, L; Rožnovský, L; Janout, V
Cat scratch disease is a relatively rare infection that is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. This disease occurs after cat scratch or bite. The course of the disease depends on the patients immunity status. In immunocompetent patients, the disease typically runs as a lymph node syndrome. Sometimes, mild general symptoms may appear, or the course can be atypical with a more serious clinical manifestation involving various organs. In immunocompromised patients, Bartonella henselae can cause bacillary angiomatosis or peliosis with a severe course.
Wong, T.Z.; Kruskal, J.; Kane, R.A.; Trey, G.
Cat-scratch disease is the most common cause of benign lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Rare cases of systemic involvement with deep adenopathy with or without hepatic and/or splenic involvement have been reported. We present an unusual case of cat-scratch disease with imaging findings indistinguishable from lymphoma. Cat-scratch disease should be considered as a possible benign etiology for adenopathy with hepatic or splenic nodules in a young patient, especially if the involved nodes are tender. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.
Pedersen, N C
There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.
Bartges, Joseph W
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs commonly in older dogs and cats. Advances in diagnostics, staging, and treatment are associated with increased quality and quantity of life. Dietary modification has been shown to increase survival and quality of life and involves more than protein restriction as diets modified for use with CKD are lower in phosphorous and sodium, potassium and B-vitamin replete, and alkalinizing, and they contain n3-fatty acids. Additionally, recognition and management of CKD-associated diseases such as systemic arterial hypertension, proteinuria, and anemia benefit patients. This article summarizes staging and management of CKD in dogs and cats.
Bandyopadhyay, Anuja; Burrage, Lindsay C; Gonzalez, Blanca E
We describe an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease and pulmonary nodules as part of her initial presentation. Although pulmonary manifestations have been reported with cat scratch disease, nodules are rare in the normal host.
Wimpole, Justin A; Adagra, Carl F M; Billson, Mark F; Pillai, Dilo N; Foster, Darren J
Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats. Plasma metanephrine levels are widely considered the diagnostic test of choice for phaeochromocytoma in people but have not been investigated in cats. In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma. Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group. Plasma metanephrine was not significantly different in any of the groups. This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease. These results provide rationale for further studies to establish the use of plasma normetanephrine levels as a potential diagnostic test for phaeochromocytoma in the cat. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dabrowska-Bień, Justyna; Pietniczka-Załeska, Mirosława; Rowicki, Tomasz
Cat scratch disease as a possible cause of neck limphadenopathy. We present a case of 40-years old men operated in our department on regional unilateral lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed by the histopathologic examination. Regional lymphadenopathy with history of contact with cats or other animals suggests the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. If we considered this disease in differential diagnosis it would mean less traumatic treatment for the patient. Cat scratch disease is diagnosed in Poland very rarely; we need to spread the knowledge about this infectious disease.
Moriello, Karen A
Although there are over 250 zoonotic diseases, only 30-40 of them involve dogs and cats. Transmission of zoonotic infections occurs via bites, scratches or touch; exposure to saliva, urine or feces; inhalation of particles or infectious aerosols; contact with a transport or intermediate host (e.g. ticks, fleas); or exposure to contaminated water, soil or vegetation. This paper summarizes the most important common zoonotic dermatological diseases of dogs and cats. The most common dermatological zoonoses are flea and tick infestations and the diseases they transmit; dermatophytosis; and mite infestations (Sarcoptes and Cheyletiella). Prevention of zoonotic infestations or infections can be accomplished easily by the use of routine flea and tick control, screening of new pets for dermatophytosis, and routine hand-washing.
Zangwill, Kenneth M
First described in 1931, cat scratch disease remains the most commonly identified clinical syndrome associated with Bartonella infection. Over the last 20 years, however, the discovery and use of modern diagnostic tests has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and treatment options for Bartonella infections of all types. Indeed, each varies substantially depending on the infecting species and the immune status of the host.
Quimby, Jessica M; Dowers, Kristy; Herndon, Andrea K; Randall, Elissa K
Objectives The objective was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) and determine if these were significantly different from cats with pyelonephritis (Pyelo) and ureteral obstruction (UO), to aid in clinical assessment during uremic crisis. Methods Sixty-six cats with stable CKD were prospectively enrolled, as well as normal control cats (n = 10), cats with a clinical diagnosis of Pyelo (n = 13) and cats with UO confirmed by surgical resolution (n = 11). Renal ultrasound was performed and routine still images and cine loops were obtained. Analysis included degree of pelvic dilation, and presence and degree of ureteral dilation. Measurements were compared between groups using non-parametric one-way ANOVA with Dunn's post-hoc analysis. Results In total, 66.6% of CKD cats had measurable renal pelvic dilation compared with 30.0% of normal cats, 84.6% of Pyelo cats and 100% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and normal cats, or CKD cats and Pyelo cats. On almost all measurement categories, UO cats had significantly greater renal pelvic widths compared with CKD cats and normal cats ( P <0.05) but not Pyelo cats. Six percent of stable CKD cats had measurable proximal ureteral dilation on one or both sides vs 46.2% of Pyelo cats and 81.8% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between normal and CKD cats, or between Pyelo and UO cats. There was a statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between CKD and Pyelo cats, CKD and UO cats, normal and UO cats, and normal and Pyelo cats. Conclusions and relevance No significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and Pyelo cats was seen. These data suggest CKD cats should have a baseline ultrasonography performed so that abnormalities documented during a uremic crisis can be better interpreted.
García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.
Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062
Paepe, D; Saunders, J H; Bavegems, V; Paes, G; Peelman, L J; Makay, C; Daminet, S
To assess the prevalence of renal abnormalities in ragdoll cats. Ragdoll breeders often warn clients to watch for future renal problems, mainly due to chronic interstitial nephritis and polycystic kidney disease. Therefore, ragdoll screening by abdominal ultrasonography, measurement of serum creatinine and urea concentrations and genetic testing is often performed without documented scientific evidence of increased risk of renal disease. Retrospective evaluation of ragdoll screening for renal disease at one institution over an eight-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 244 healthy ragdoll cats. Seven cats were positive for polycystic kidney disease, 21 were suspected to have chronic kidney disease, 8 had abnormalities of unknown significance and 2 cats had only one visible kidney. Cats suspected to have chronic kidney disease were significantly older and had significantly higher serum urea and creatinine concentrations than cats with normal renal ultrasonography. All 125 genetically tested cats were negative for polycystic kidney disease. However, only one of the seven ultrasonographically positive cats underwent genetic testing for polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonographic findings compatible with chronic kidney disease were observed in almost 10% of cats, and polycystic kidney disease occurred at a low prevalence (<3%) in this ragdoll population. Further studies are required to elucidate if ragdoll cats are predisposed to chronic kidney disease. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
White, Heidi L; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Tidwell, Amy S; Chan, Daniel L; Rush, John E
Two adult domestic shorthair cats were examined because of pneumothorax. Neither had a history of trauma, and spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to small airway disease was diagnosed. In both cats, treatment consisted of thoracocentesis for evacuation of air and administration of anti-inflammatory agents. One cat had multiple episodes of pneumothorax and eventually died; the other had only a single episode of pneumothorax. Small airway disease should be considered as a potential underlying cause in cats that develop spontaneous pneumothorax. Additionally, the potential for pneumothorax should be considered in cats with small airway disease, particularly when clinical signs suddenly become much worse.
Dorn, Elisabeth S; Tress, Barbara; Suchodolski, Jan S; Nisar, Tariq; Ravindran, Prajesh; Weber, Karin; Hartmann, Katrin; Schulz, Bianka S
Traditionally, changes in the microbial population of the nose have been assessed using conventional culture techniques. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the human nose is inhabited by a rich and diverse bacterial microbiome that cannot be detected using culture-based methods. The goal of this study was to describe the nasal microbiome of healthy cats, cats with nasal neoplasia, and cats with feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD). DNA was extracted from nasal swabs of healthy cats (n = 28), cats with nasal neoplasia (n = 16), and cats with FURTD (n = 15), and 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. High species richness was observed in all samples. Rarefaction analysis revealed that healthy cats living indoors had greater species richness (observed species p = 0.042) and Shannon diversity (p = 0.003) compared with healthy cats living outdoors. Higher species richness (observed species p = 0.001) and Shannon diversity (p<0.001) were found in middle-aged cats in comparison to healthy cats in different age groups. Principal coordinate analysis revealed separate clustering based on similarities in bacterial molecular phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA genes for indoor and outdoor cats. In all groups examined, the most abundant phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, 375 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. In healthy cats and cats with FURTD, Moraxella spp. was the most common genus, while it was unclassified Bradyrhizobiaceae in cats with nasal neoplasia. High individual variability was observed. This study demonstrates that the nose of cats is inhabited by much more variable and diverse microbial communities than previously shown. Future research in this field might help to develop new diagnostic tools to easily identify nasal microbial changes, relate them to certain disease processes, and help clinicians in the decision process of antibiotic selection for individual patients.
Tress, Barbara; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Nisar, Tariq; Ravindran, Prajesh; Weber, Karin; Hartmann, Katrin; Schulz, Bianka S.
Background Traditionally, changes in the microbial population of the nose have been assessed using conventional culture techniques. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the human nose is inhabited by a rich and diverse bacterial microbiome that cannot be detected using culture-based methods. The goal of this study was to describe the nasal microbiome of healthy cats, cats with nasal neoplasia, and cats with feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD). Methodology/Principal findings DNA was extracted from nasal swabs of healthy cats (n = 28), cats with nasal neoplasia (n = 16), and cats with FURTD (n = 15), and 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. High species richness was observed in all samples. Rarefaction analysis revealed that healthy cats living indoors had greater species richness (observed species p = 0.042) and Shannon diversity (p = 0.003) compared with healthy cats living outdoors. Higher species richness (observed species p = 0.001) and Shannon diversity (p<0.001) were found in middle-aged cats in comparison to healthy cats in different age groups. Principal coordinate analysis revealed separate clustering based on similarities in bacterial molecular phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA genes for indoor and outdoor cats. In all groups examined, the most abundant phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, 375 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. In healthy cats and cats with FURTD, Moraxella spp. was the most common genus, while it was unclassified Bradyrhizobiaceae in cats with nasal neoplasia. High individual variability was observed. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the nose of cats is inhabited by much more variable and diverse microbial communities than previously shown. Future research in this field might help to develop new diagnostic tools to easily identify nasal microbial changes, relate them to certain disease processes, and help clinicians in the decision process of
Jacobs, David Jonathan; Scott, Michele L; Slusher, M Madison
We report an atypical presentation of ocular cat scratch disease (CSD) in an 8-year-old Caucasian male who presented with localised retinal arterial vasculitis and associated retinal oedema. His history of headaches, frequent contact with a kitten and a high Bartonella henslelae titre confirmed the diagnosis of CSD. Over an 18-month follow-up period, his best corrected visual acuity in the affected eye improved from 20/30−2 to 20/25+3 without treatment; however, the affected retinal artery remained sheathed. PMID:21686569
Opavsky, Mary Anne
OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD), including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE search of the literature published from 1966 to 1995 using ‘cat scratch disease’, ‘Bartonella henselae’, ‘Rochalimaea henselae’ as key words and bibliographies of selected papers. DATA EXTRACTION: Selected studies reporting data on etiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of CSD were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: Evidence accumulated to date supports B henselae as the etiological agent of CSD. The most significant risk factors for CSD are being licked on the face, scratched or bitten by a kitten and owning a kitten with fleas. Available serological tests can confirm classic CSD and identify B henselae as the cause of more atypical presentations, such as fever of unknown origin, granulomatous hepatitis, encephalitis and osteomyelitis. Symptomatic management is appropriate for isolated lymphadenopathy caused by CSD in healthy individuals; however, antibiotic therapy may be indicated for patients with more severe manifestations of the disease and immunocompromised hosts. Further study of CSD, in particular the epidemiology and therapy, is warranted. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of B henselae infection will have important implications in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:22514476
Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo
The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P <0.0001). There was no significant effect on RI value in either kidney in terms of age or sex. RI could be considered a valuable diagnostic tool in cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Barson, William J; Honegger, J Robert; Texter, Karen
Cat scratch disease is generally characterized by a self-limited chronic regional lymphadenopathy, but numerous other clinical manifestations involving a variety of organ systems have been reported. Cardiac involvement is unusual and when reported, it has been associated with culture-negative endocarditis in adults. We present the case of an adolescent male with typical cat scratch disease and associated myopericarditis.
Wakeling, J; Moore, K; Elliott, J; Syme, H
In cats with concurrent hyperthyroidism and non-thyroidal illnesses such as chronic kidney disease, total thyroxine concentrations are often within the laboratory reference range (19 to 55 nmol/l). The objective of the study was to determine total thyroxine, free thyroxine and/or thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in cats with mild chronic kidney disease. Total thyroxine, free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in three groups. The hyperthyroidism-chronic kidney disease group (n=16) had chronic kidney disease and clinical signs compatible with hyperthyroidism but a plasma total thyroxine concentration within the reference range. These cats were subsequently confirmed to be hyperthyroid at a later date. The chronic kidney disease-only group (n=20) had chronic kidney disease but no signs of hyperthyroidism. The normal group (n=20) comprised clinically healthy senior (>8 years) cats. In 4 of 20 euthyroid chronic kidney disease cats, free thyroxine concentrations were borderline or high (> or =40 pmol/l). In the hyperthyroidism-chronic kidney disease group, free thyroxine was high in 15 of 16 cats, while thyroid-stimulating hormone was low in 16 of 16 cats. Most hyperthyroidism-chronic kidney disease cats (14 of 16) had total thyroxine greater than 30 nmol/l, whereas all the chronic kidney disease-only cats had total thyroxine less than 30 nmol/l. The combined measurement of free thyroxine with total thyroxine or thyroid-stimulating hormone may be of merit in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in cats with chronic kidney disease.
Barros, Sandra; De Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Cavalcanti, Cecilia; Nascimento, Heloisa
Describe a case series of ocular Cat-scratch-disease (CSD) with vision-threatening findings and poor outcomes, indicating severity of disease. Retrospective case series from the Uveitis Department of São Paulo Federal University from 2011 to 2015. In this period, six eyes of four patients had confirmed diagnosis of CSD. Two were male and two female. Mean age was 24.8 years old [7-45]. Two had bilateral disease. Visual acuity at presentation ranged from no light perception to 20/25. Three patients were treated with doxycycline and one with clarithromycin and prednisone. Visual outcome after treatment ranged from counting fingers to 20/20: 5/6 eyes had final visual acuity of less than 20/40 and 3/6 had final visual acuity equal or less than 20/400. Although usually described as a benign disease with spontaneous resolution, CSD can present with atypical manifestations such as vascular angiomatous lesions, serous retinal detachment, and vascular occlusion syndromes, carrying a severe course and guarded prognosis.
Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A
Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when
Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A
Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.
Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.
Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066
Easley, R B; Cooperstock, M S; Tobias, J D
Status epilepticus from cat-scratch encephalopathy is often recalcitrant to usual therapies, causing treatment to focus on critical care management of the patient that may require aggressive interventions, such as continuous pentobarbital administration. We describe two children whose initial clinical presentation of cat-scratch disease was status epilepticus with normal cerebrospinal fluid studies. A history of cat exposure (specifically, kitten and/or fleas), regional lymphadenopathy, and a papule or inoculation site should be sought, but are not essential for diagnosis. The presumptive diagnosis of cat-scratch disease can be made by serology alone even in the absence of classic diagnostic criteria. Our two cases and other reports in the literature show a favorable prognosis in most cases, despite the occurrence of status epilepticus. The diagnosis of cat-scratch disease should be strongly considered in all children with unexplained status epilepticus or encephalopathy and serologic testing for Bartonella henselae should be done.
Lovis, A; Clerc, O; Lazor, R; Jaton, K; Greub, G
We report a patient suffering from cat-scratch disease limited to mediastinal lymphadenitis. Although rare, cat-scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenitis, especially when patients were exposed to cats.
Buckley, Faith I; Mahony, Orla; Webster, Cynthia R L
Cats with cholestatic liver disease experience significant morbidity and mortality when they undergo invasive procedures under anesthesia. Although inadequate adrenal response might account for these outcomes, adrenal function in cats with cholestatic liver disease has not been documented, to our knowledge. The goal of our study was to describe adrenal function in these cats. Twenty-seven cats with a serum bilirubin >230 µmol/L (3 mg/dL) and serum alanine aminotransferase >2 times the upper limit of normal had pre- and 60-min post-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cortisol analysis after administration of 5 µg/kg cosyntropin intravenously. The change in cortisol concentrations (delta cortisol) was calculated. Pre- and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations were compared to reference values. Pre-ACTH, post-ACTH, and delta cortisol values were compared between cats surviving to discharge or for 30 d postdischarge. Mean pre-ACTH cortisol levels (205 ± 113 nmol/L [7.4 ± 4.2 µg/dL]) and post-ACTH cortisol levels (440 ± 113 nmol/L [15.9 ± 4.1 g/dL]) in cholestatic cats were significantly greater than reference values in clinically normal cats. There was no association of pre- or post-ACTH cortisol with survival. Cats with a delta cortisol <179 nmol/L (6.5 µg/dL) were more likely to be non-survivors at 30 d post-discharge ( p = 0.037) than cats with delta cortisol >179 nmol/L (6.5 µg/dL). Results indicate that cats with cholestasis have high basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol values. A delta cortisol <179 nmol/L (6.5 µg/dL) defines a population of cats that have decreased 30-d survival.
Hozáková, L; Rožnovský, L; Bílková Fránková, H
A retrospective evaluation of a group of patients which is focused on clinical picture, serological diagnosis, therapy and familial occurrence of the disease. Cat scratch disease (CSD) was considered within the scope of a differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy. Serological diagnosis was based on detection of antibodies against Bartonella henselae by indirect immunofluorescence, where the level of IgG antibodies of at least 1 : 256 or any positive level of IgM antibodies were considered positive for CSD. If a histological examination was conducted, the suspicion of CSD was supported by finding granulomatous inflammation. Macrolides were used for treatment in both children and adults. In addition to macrolides, doxycycline was used in adults. From 2004 to 2013, a total of 27 patients aged 7-73 years were diagnosed with CSD at the Clinic of Infectious Medicine, University Hospital in Ostrava. None of them suffered from immunodeficiency detected earlier. Diagnostic extirpation of a lymph node was performed in 5 patients diagnosed with granulomatous inflammation. Lymph node syndrome was observed in all patients, with cervical, inguinal and axillary nodes being most frequently affected. However, two patients had supraclavicular nodes affected and a 52-year-old woman had unusual swelling of lymphatic tissue in the scapular region with skin lesions. Lymph node syndrome accompanied by encephalopathy was observed in one 50-year-old patient. Positive IgM antibodies were detected in only 8 patients. There were two cases of familial occurrence affecting 2 and 3 family members. Antibiotic therapy with full resolution of clinical findings was successful in 24 patients, including the patient with encephalopathy. In spite of the antibiotic treatment, three patients developed lymph node colliquation requiring surgical intervention. Atypical lymph node localization in 3 patients, encephalopathy in 1 patient, positive levels of IgM antibodies in 8 only patients, delayed antibodies
Donoso, Gilda; Paulsen, Cesar; Riquelme, Paulina; Lobo, Gabriel; Gutierrez, Daniela; Perez, Andrés; Jiménez, César
The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree and incidence of bone involvement in patients with cat scratch disease. Patients admitted between 2004 and 2011 at the pediatric department for cat scratch disease and a positive serology for Bartonella henselae were identified. Only those having undergone a bone scintigraphy (BS) were included in this retrospective study. Sixteen girls and 8 boys with a mean age of 7 years were studied. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 6 (25%), but only 2 had bone pain. Axial involvement was present in all 6 patients, and appendicular lesions in 3 of them. Three patients had a BS control, with improvement or normalization after treatment with antibiotics. Bone involvement occurs infrequently in patients with cat scratch disease and is not always associated with specific signs. Cat scratch disease must be suspected in patients with fever of unknown origin presenting multifocal lesions on BS.
Taylor, Samantha S; Harvey, Andrea M; Barr, Frances J; Moore, Alasdair H; Day, Michael J
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the medical records of cats referred to the University of Bristol for investigation of laryngeal disease (n=35). Cases were categorised into one of four groups: cats with laryngeal paralysis (LP, n=14), laryngeal neoplasia (n=10), laryngeal inflammation (n=6), or miscellaneous laryngeal diseases (n=5). Laryngoscopy and echolaryngography were useful diagnostic techniques but histology was required for diagnosis of diseases other than LP. Two cats with lymphoma received chemotherapy achieving survival times of 60 and 1440 days. Four cats with LP were treated surgically, with a median survival time of 300 days (range 10-360 days) and six were treated conservatively with a median survival time of 780 days (range 300-2520 days). Three cats with inflammatory disease were treated medically and one by excision of the lesion. Two cats achieved survival times of 120 and 2800 days. Cats with LP, laryngeal lymphoma or laryngitis had excellent long-term survival following appropriate treatment.
Gan, Joanna J; Mandell, Alan M; Otis, James A; Holmuhamedova, Madina; Perloff, Michael D
Bartonella cat scratch disease is classically a febrile illness, in conjunction with lymphadenopathy and cat exposure. To report 2 atypical cases of cat scratch disease with only blurred vision and headache. Case reports. University hospital. Two young adults with unilateral blurred vision, retro-orbital headache, and a positive Bartonella henselae serologic result, without fever or lymphadenopathy. Funduscopic examination and B henselae serologic findings. Both patients had optic disc swelling and a macular star on funduscopic examination, suggestive of infection. Infection was confirmed by positive serologic results. Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with blurred vision and headache, even in the absence of fever, lymphadenopathy, or both.
King, Jonathan N; Tasker, Séverine; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Strehlau, Günther
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in cats. Some baseline variables are associated with shorter survival times in cats with CKD. Client-owned cats. Cats with CKD with initial plasma creatinine concentration > or =2.0 mg/dL and urine specific gravity (USG) < or = 1.025 were recruited into a prospective clinical trial that compared benazepril with a placebo. We describe baseline variables in 190 cats and their influence on renal survival time in the placebo group (95 cats), which was followed for up to 1,097 days. Renal survival time was defined as the time from initiation of therapy to the need for parenteral fluid therapy, euthanasia, or death related to renal failure. Of the 95 cats treated with a placebo, 58 were censored and 37 reached the renal survival end point (died, n = 0; euthanized, n = 17; parenteral fluids, n = 12; parenteral fluids followed by euthanasia, n = 8). Increased plasma creatinine concentration, increased urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC), and increased blood leukocyte count were significantly (P < .01) associated with a shorter renal survival time and were independent risk factors. Increased concentrations of plasma phosphate or urea, and lower blood hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit were significantly (P < .01) associated with a shorter renal survival time and were dependent risk factors, because they also were significantly (P < .01) correlated with plasma creatinine concentration at baseline. Several variables were significantly associated with a shorter renal survival time in cats with CKD.
Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael
Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.
Bodewes, R; Egberink, H F
In this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. In the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. A new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. Infection with West Nile virus is associated with progressive neurological disease and subclinical infections in dogs. Infection with equine influenza A (H3N8) or a highly related influenza virus can cause severe respiratory disease and mortality in greyhounds and other dogs. Infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) can cause disease and mortality in cats and is mostly subclinical in dogs. A number of outbreaks of highly virulent strains of the calicivirus in cats have been described.
Sanguinetti-Morelli, Diane; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Richet, Hervé; Davoust, Bernard; Rolain, Jean Marc; Raoult, Didier
Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999-2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September-April and peaked in December.
Nkaoui, Mustafa; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Lazrek, Omar; Ibo, Nasser; Zouaidia, Fouad; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Elouadghiri, Mohamed; Lamrani, Omar; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a common cause of chronic benign lymphadenopathy in the child and the young adult. Bartonella henselae is the agent responsible for this disease. Common symptoms include regional lymphadenopathy associated with fever. We report a clinically atypical and potentially misleading case of a 18-year old girl with CSD revealed by elbow abscess.
Sanguinetti-Morelli, Diane; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Richet, Hervé; Davoust, Bernard; Rolain, Jean Marc
Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999–2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September–April and peaked in December. PMID:21470466
Berguiga, M; Abouzeid, H; Bart, P-A; Guex-Crosier, Y
The purpose of this communication is to report a severe occlusive vasculitis as a complication of cat scratch. A 34-year-old Hispanic woman presented with a sudden visual loss of the right eye associated with shivers, high fever and arthritis which developed 2 months after a cat's bite. Fundus examination showed papillitis and a palor of the paramacular zone of the retina. Fluorescein angiography revealed multiple arterial and venous vasculitic occlusions. Auto-immune disease and endocarditis were ruled out by an extensive medical work-up. The diagnosis of Bartonella henselae was confirmed by a positive serology. A systemic antibiotherapy with azithromycin, doxycyclin, rifampicin and steroid therapy resulted in a good clinical response, including a rapid visual recovery with a visual acuity of 20/20 and no relapse of the disease at 6 months follow-up. Ocular complications associated with cat scratch disease may include vasculitis with both arterial and venous occlusions causing severe visual loss.
Rost Monahan S
Cat-scratch disease is usually a benign self-limited illness, characterized by regional lymphadenopathy lasting between 3 and 6 weeks. The causative organism is Bartonella henselae, a small gram-negative rod. Between 1 and 2% of patients who contract the illness experience blurred vision, metamorphopsia and scotomas as a result of neuroretinitis, an associated clinical syndrome. The classical clinical findings in cat-scratch neuroretinitis include disc edema and a stellate pattern of exudates in the macula. However, a myriad of other signs has been documented, suggesting a much wider spectrum of intra-ocular disease. The following case report presents a young patient with neuroretinitis, and a history of lymphadenopathy secondary to cat-scratch disease.
Macías, Antonio; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Garcés, Carlos; Echeverri, Valentina; Díaz, Alejandro
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is the most common zoonosis transmitted by household animals. There is limited data on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of this disease in Colombia. The typical presentation includes subacute or chronic lymph node infection following inoculation of Bartonella henselae bacilli through a cat scratch. Cats have a B. henselae seroprevalence as high as 90%. Here, we report the case of a preschool boy from a rural area of Antioquia, Colombia, who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy in the right axilla. Other important infectious etiologies were ruled out, and confirmation was made with the Warthin Starry stain of a lymph node biopsy. We also discuss the most important aspects of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease. PMID:25988023
Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech
The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064
Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech
The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery.
Naji, M; Cante, V; Camus, M; Monegier du Sorbier, C; Guillet, G
Herein we report a case of cat scratch disease on account of its atypical presentation. A 21-year-old woman presented erythema nodosum associated with painful bilateral inguinal adenopathy, odynophagia, joint pain and evening urticaria in a setting of impaired general condition. Initial serological testing for Bartonella henselae was negative. PCR for Bartonella henselae performed on an adenectomy fragment was positive. A favourable outcome was achieved with azithromycin. This case shows an atypical and severe presentation of cat scratch disease and raises the problem of sensitivity of serotyping. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The aim of this review of hereditary and congenital ocular disease in cats is to present an overview of the most common disorders seen in this species, the pathogenesis of the problems and wherever possible, how they are treated. Several defects are common in breeds such as the Persian, Himalayan and Burmese cats and affect the anterior segment of the eye. Examples are agenesis of the eyelids, dermoids, entropion and corneal sequestrum. Other problems such as cataracts, lens luxation and retinal dysplasia, cause problems of the intraocular structures, but are less common in cats compared to dogs. Finally, various parts of the retina and in some diseases other parts of the eye, are specifically affected by hereditary diseases. Examples of these are lysosomal storage disease, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and progressive rod cone degeneration and rod cone dysplasia. Research of the latter two hereditary diseases, both described in the Abyssinian breed of cat, have made affected individuals important animal models for research into comparable diseases of humans.
Hori, Y; Yamano, S; Iwanaga, K; Kano, T; Tanabe, M; Uechi, M; Kanai, K; Nakao, R; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S
The clinical implications of evaluating C-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration in cats are still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma C-terminal ANP concentration and left atrial pressure (LAP) in healthy cats with volume overload (study 1), and to compare plasma C-terminal ANP in normal cats and cats with cardiomyopathy (study 2). Five healthy adult cats were used in study 1, and clinically healthy cats (n=8) and cats with cardiomyopathy (n=14) were used in study 2. In study 1, cats were anesthetized and given acetated Ringer's solution (100 mL/kg/h for 60 minute) via the cephalic vein. Hemodynamic measurements and blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were performed at 10-min intervals. In study 2, blood samples from normal cats and cats with cardiomyopathy were collected from the cephalic vein. The plasma C-terminal ANP concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay for human alpha-ANP. In study 1, volume overload significantly increased the C-terminal ANP concentration and LAP from baseline. The C-terminal ANP concentration was strongly correlated with the mean LAP. In study 2, age, E wave velocity, and the ratios of the left atrium to aorta were significantly higher in the cats with cardiomyopathy compared with the normal cats. The C-terminal ANP concentration was significantly higher in the cats with cardiomyopathy compared with the normal cats. Our results suggest that the measurement of plasma C-terminal ANP in cats may provide additional information for the diagnosis of heart disease.
Kojić, Miroslav; Mikić, Dragan; Nozić, Darko; Zolotarevski, Lidija
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.
Deschasse, C; Bielefeld, P; Muselier, A; Bour, J B; Besancenot, J F; Garcher, C C; Bron, A M
Cat scratch disease is a pleiomorphic condition, sometimes with isolated ophthalmic involvement. We report the clinical observations of seven cases with ophthalmologic manifestations of cat scratch disease. There were seven patients, with a median age of 52 years, of whom five were women and three had unilateral involvement. Six exhibited Leber's stellate neuroretinitis, an incomplete syndrome in two cases, and one associated with chorioretinal foci. One patient had isolated retinal infiltrates. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed by Bartonella henselae serology, positive in all cases. All patients received treatment with doxycycline. Ocular complications (with optic atrophy and macular retinal pigment epithelial changes) were noted in five cases. Ocular bartonellosis is an atypical clinical form. It requires a directed ancillary work-up with serology or PCR, which has the peculiarity of being highly specific if not very sensitive. Treatment is above all preventive. Antibiotics may be initiated. Cat scratch disease must be excluded in the work-up of posterior uveitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nelson, C Thomas
It is now understood that wherever heartworm infection exists in the local canine population, it will also be found in the feline population. However, this does not mean that the parasite and resulting disease behave the same way in both species. For example, heartworms rarely reach the adult stage in cats, but they can cause respiratory sequelae nonetheless.
Rohr, Aaron; Saettele, Megan R; Patel, Suchit A; Lawrence, Charles A; Lowe, Lisa H
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is usually a self-limiting condition that may mimic more serious disorders due to its variable clinical and imaging presentations. Many cases are diagnosed throughout the United States annually, with the majority occurring in children and adolescents who have had contact with a cat, usually in the form of a scratch or bite. This manuscript will discuss the spectrum of radiologic manifestations of CSD emphasising key imaging findings of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenic lesions, osteomyelitis, discitis, encephalitis, neuroretinitis and cranial neuritis.
Florin, Todd A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Zaoutis, Lisa B
Bartonella henselae was discovered a quarter of a century ago as the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a clinical entity described in the literature for more than half a century. As diagnostic techniques improve, our knowledge of the spectrum of clinical disease resulting from infection with Bartonella is expanding. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the microbiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment of B. henselae infection.
Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site after cat scratch or bite. This paper reported a case of cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever, and discussed the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of CSD.
Oray, Merih; Önal, Sumru; Koç Akbay, Aylin; Tuğal Tutkun, İlknur
Objectives: To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Results: Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male) with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye), optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis), retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig) M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day) was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Conclusion: Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations. PMID:28182175
Oray, Merih; Önal, Sumru; Koç Akbay, Aylin; Tuğal Tutkun, İlknur
To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male) with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye), optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis), retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig) M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day) was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations.
Bertolani, Coralie; Hernandez, Juan; Gomes, Eymeric; Cauzinille, Laurent; Poujade, Agnès; Gabriel, Alexandra
Seven cats were presented for mild-to-moderate cough and/or dyspnoea after starting bromide (Br) therapy for neurological diseases. The thoracic auscultation was abnormal in three cats showing increased respiratory sounds and wheezes. Haematology revealed mild eosinophilia in one cat. The thoracic radiographs showed bronchial patterns with peribronchial cuffing in most of them. Bronchoalveolar lavage performed in two cats revealed neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation. Histopathology conducted in one cat showed endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP). All cats improved with steroid therapy after Br discontinuation. Five cats were completely weaned off steroids, with no recurrence of clinical signs. In one cat, the treatment was discontinued despite persistent clinical signs. The cat presenting with EnLP developed secondary pneumothorax and did not recover. Br-associated lower airway disease can appear in cats after months of treatment and clinical improvement occurs only after discontinuing Br therapy.
English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B
Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.
Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Smets, Pascale; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Croubels, Siska; Daminet, Sylvie
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. Diabetic cats had significantly (mean ± SD) lower sCreat (123 ± 38 vs 243 ± 80 µmol/l), sUrea (11 ± 3 vs 18 ± 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 ± 31 vs 173 ± 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 ± 0.012 vs 1.018 ± 0.006) and GFR (2.0 ± 0.7 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 ± 0.012 vs 1.046 ± 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC >0.4) was present in 39% of diabetic cats, in 30% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Dingman, Patricia; Levy, Julie K; Kramer, Laura H; Johnson, Calvin M; Lappin, Michael R; Greiner, Ellis C; Courtney, Charles H; Tucker, Sylvia J; Morchon, Rodrigo
Although the presence of adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary arteries and its associated arteritis and thromboembolic disease can explain some of the manifestations of canine and feline heartworm disease, the cause of other findings remains unclear. Cats with D. immitis antibodies but lacking adult parasites in the pulmonary arteries frequently develop histological lesions of the airways, resulting in a condition termed Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease. All D. immitis parasites harbor Wolbachia pipientis bacteria and D. immitis-infected animals can have circulating Wolbachia antibodies and pro-inflammatory Wolbachia antigens (WSP) deposited in tissues. Little is known about the role that Wolbachia plays in lung disease of animals naturally infected with D. immitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of Wolbachia to the pathogenesis of natural heartworm disease in cats and dogs. We hypothesized that animals having sufficient Wolbachia burden to be detected in lung tissue by immunohistochemistry and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) would have more severe pulmonary disease than those with bacteria below the limits of detection. We further hypothesized that animals that were immunoreactive to pro-inflammatory WSP would have more severe pulmonary lesions than those that were seronegative for WSP antibodies. Blood and lung tissue samples were collected from cats and dogs representing three different D. immitis infection statuses: heartworm-free, heartworm-exposed, heartworm-infected. There was a positive but weak correlation between the magnitude of D. immitis antibody titers and WSP titers in cats (r=0.57, p<0.001) and in dogs (r=0.39, p<0.001). Pulmonary lesions were more common in HW-infected animals than in HW-free animals. Pulmonary arteriolar occlusion was more common in HW-infected cats (57%; p=0.003) than in HW-infected dogs (17%). Although pulmonary lesions were most common in HW-infected animals, there was no clear
Rocha, J L; Pellegrino, L N; Riella, L V; Martins, L T
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious illness caused by a Gram-negative rod named Bartonella henselae. Typical CSD is characterized by a small skin lesion at the site of a scratch or a bite, followed by regional lymphadenopathy, one to two weeks later. Atypical forms may present as ocular manifestations, neurological manifestations, hepatosplenic involvement and vertebral osteomyelitis. Among neurological complications, encephalopathy is by far the most common. Other neurological manifestations are very rare. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy, with a posterior cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Cat scratch disease was diagnosed and treated after a positive "Whartin-Starry" stain on lymph node biopsy. Two weeks after treatment, the patient was readmitted presenting an acute episode of left hemiplegia. A brain MRI demonstrated a right subcortical fronto-parietal lesion with no contrast enhancement. Complete recovery was observed after corticosteroid treatment.
Nakamura, Reid K; Rishniw, Mark; King, Megan K; Sammarco, Carl D
The objective of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of echocardiographic evidence of heart disease in apparently healthy cats with heart murmurs. Thirty-two privately owned domestic cats were examined. All cats were considered healthy on the basis of history and physical examination, except for the finding of a heart murmur on auscultation. Cats on any medications (besides regular flea, tick and heartworm preventative) or that were pregnant or lactating were excluded from this study. The prevalence of echocardiographic evidence of heart disease in this population of cats was 53%. Therefore, identification of a heart murmur on routine physical examination in apparently healthy cats warrants further investigation.
Yalin, Serkan Feyyaz; Sahin, Serdar; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tuzuner, Nukhet; Altiparmak, Mehmet Riza; Seyahi, Nurhan
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a disorder characterized by self-limited regional lymphadenopathy and fever. We reported a case of CSD in a kidney transplant recipient who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated bacterial histiocytic lymphadenitis. The patient was diagnosed with CSD. Patient had good clinical improvement after treatment. Therefore, CSD should also be borne in mind for kidney recipients though CSD had been infrequently reported in this group. © 2016, NATCO.
Escarmelle, A; Delbrassine, N; De Potter, P
By presenting this case report describing Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, we review the medical literature on its most frequent etiology: catscratch disease, a self-limited, systemic illness caused by a Gram-negative bacillus, Bartonella henselae, principally affecting children under 15 years of age. Typical symptoms include regional lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, and fatigue, possibly with more severe complications such as splenomegaly, granulomatous hepatitis, and encephalopathy. Ocular manifestations may include follicular conjunctivitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, neuroretinitis, optic neuritis, and chorioretinitis. Diagnosis is based on serologic tests, and when necessary, antimicrobial treatment can be considered.
Bijsmans, E S; Jepson, R E; Syme, H M; Elliott, J; Niessen, S J M
Numerous validated psychometric tools are available to assess impact of disease on a human's quality of life (QoL). To date, no psychometrically validated general health-related QoL tool exists for cats. To develop and validate a tool for assessment of owner-perceived QoL in cats (CatQoL) and to use this tool to compare QoL between healthy cats and those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Total of 204 owners of young healthy cats (YH, n = 99; <9 years), older healthy cats (OH, n = 35), and cats diagnosed with CKD (CKD, n = 70) completed the CatQoL. Discussions with a focus group and 2 pilot surveys informed design of 16 QoL questions grouped into 4 domains. Each item scored according to frequency and importance, and item-weighted-impact-scores were calculated. The validity of the tool was assessed using principal components analysis and Cronbach's α. The average item-weighted-impact-score (AWIS) was compared among groups and domains. Sixteen-item CatQoL showed good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α, 0.77) and unidimensionality with significant loadings (0.2-0.7) and communalities (>0.3). Young healthy cats had significantly higher AWIS (median [IQR], 1.25 [0.63, 1.88]) than OH (0.56 [-0.06, 1.00]) and CKD cats (-0.06 [-0.81, 0.88]), P < .001). CKD cats had significantly lower AWIS for eating domain (YH: 2.00 [1.00, 3.00]; OH: 2.00 [0.67, 3.00]; CKD : 1.00 [0.00, 2.67]) when compared with the YH group and OH group, and all groups differed significantly in their management domain (YH: -0.50 [-1.00, 0.00]; OH: -1.00 [-1.88, -0.50]; CKD : -1.50 [-2.50, -1.00], P < .001). The CatQoL was validated for use in cats, and can be used as additional assessment parameter in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.
Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707
Curi, André L L; Machado, Danuza; Heringer, Gustavo; Campos, Wesley Ribeiro; Lamas, Cristiane; Rozental, Tatiana; Gutierres, Alexandro; Orefice, Fernando; Lemos, Elba
To describe the intra-ocular manifestations of cat-scratch disease (CSD) found at two uveitis reference centers in Brazil. Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with CSD in the Uveitis Department of São Geraldo Hospital and the Ophthalmology Department of the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-FIOCRUZ, from 2001 to 2008. In the 8-year period, 24 patients with the diagnosis of CSD were identified. Twelve patients were male and 12 female. The mean age was 27.04 years (range 7-56). Sixteen patients (66.6%) presented with a history of a cat scratch and all patients reported cat exposure. Visual acuity ranged from counting fingers to 1.0 in the affected eye. Thirteen patients presented with bilateral disease. Sixteen (66.6%) patients complained of systemic symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, liver and spleen enlargement and rash. All patients presented with serum antibodies (IgG) to Bartonella henselae. Thirty-seven eyes were affected. The most common findings were small areas of retinal infiltrates which occurred in 11 eyes (29.7%) and angiomatous lesions which occurred in nine eyes (24.3%). Neuroretinitis occurred in only six eyes (16.2%). The most common findings of CSD in our study were retinal infiltrates and angiomatous lesions. CSD patients may present with significant visual loss. Patients may benefit from systemic treatment with antibiotics.
This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation PMID:25756063
This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation.
Hanzlicek, Andrew S; Ganta, Chanran; Myers, Carl B; Grauer, Gregory F
Two 12-year-old cats were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on physical examination, clinicopathologic data and, in one case, abdominal ultrasound findings. Approximately 1 year after the initial diagnosis of CKD both cats developed renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)--bilateral in one cat. Based on post-mortem examination, one cat had no evidence of metastasis and the other had metastasis to the large intestine, heart and lungs. This is the first report of de novo bilateral renal TCC in a cat, as well as the first report of renal TCC developing in cats with previous history of confirmed CKD.
Kantas, Ilias; Katotomichelakis, Michael; Vafiadis, Marinos; Kaloutsa, Zografia V; Papadakis, Chariton E
Cat scratch disease is an infectious disease transmitted by young cats, in which the principal causative factor is Bartonella henselae. The typical course of cat scratch disease is usually benign and self-limited and requires only supportive therapy. However, cases lasting up to 2 years have been reported, and more serious complications may occur. Many manifestations of the disease have been reported by different medical disciplines. A case of cat scratch disease in a 71-year-old Greek woman with an unusual clinical course is presented here. Serous otitis media was combined with rotational vertigo due to labyrinthitis. The invaded ear was ipsilateral to the inoculation site. Cervicofacial lymphadenopathy has been demonstrated as the most common otolaryngologic manifestation of cat scratch disease. Manifestation in the middle and inner ear has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. Our report presents a patient with cat scratch disease with clinical signs and symptoms in the middle and inner ear.
The most commonly encountered nutritional bone disease is nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is primarily of importance in the dog but is occasionally seen in kittens, particularly of the Siamese breed, and is often associated with the feeding of owner compiled, meat-rich diets. Classic rickets is now a rare clinical entity. Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is regularly seen in the larger breeds of dog and the aetiology remains obscure. Hypervitaminosis A associated with liver-rich diets is often encountered in the cat. Hypovitaminosis A has been described but its true clinical significance is unknown.
Elliott, Denise A
Chronic renal disease is a leading cause of death in dogs and cats. Recent clinical studies show that nutrition plays a key role in improving quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Typical nutritional interventions include modifying the protein, phosphorus, and lipid concentrations. Nutritional therapy, however, does not simply mean changing the diet; consideration must also be given to ensuring adequate caloric intake and to the method of feeding. Monitoring the effects of the dietary therapy is also crucial to ensure that the patients are responding appropriately to the selected nutritional modifications. Nutritional management must be coordinated with medical management for long term successful treatment.
Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J
Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat.
Dunn, M W; Berkowitz, F E; Miller, J J; Snitzer, J A
There have been several recent reports that cat-scratch disease (CSD) causes a multiplicity of atypical clinical syndromes. We recently diagnosed hepatosplenic CSD in a child who was seen with fever and abdominal pain. We report this case and 10 other patients with hepatosplenic CSD and highlight the importance of abdominal pain in this clinical entity. This was a retrospective review of charts of patients with a diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at Egleston Children's Hospital between January, 1985, and June, 1996. From these cases patients with hepatosplenic CSD were selected for study. Seven children (64%) had significant abdominal pain, and in three children abdominal pain was their chief complaint. All children in the study had pathologic evidence of CSD or elevated titers of antibodies to Bartonella henselae. Ultrasound examination showed that all children had microabscesses in the spleen, and eight had abscesses in the liver. One of the most remarkable findings in this large series of cases of hepatosplenic CSD was that 64% of the patients complained of abdominal pain. All children in this study received antibiotics. It was our clinical impression that once antibiotics had been started, the patients appeared to improve very quickly. With an increased index of suspicion, the use of B. henselae serology and an abdominal ultrasound examination, the diagnosis of this underrecognized disease might be more readily made.
Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Labato, Mary A; Heinze, Cailin R
The objective of this study was to describe the dietary and medication patterns of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study, owners of cats with CKD were asked to complete a web-based survey. The study was advertised on CKD-, pet-, veterinary- and breed-associated websites and list serves. Owners of 1089 cats with CKD participated in the study. The mean reported age of the cats with CKD was 13.7 ± 4.2 years. Forty percent (430/1089) of cats had concurrent diseases, with hyperthyroidism, heart disease and inflammatory bowel disease being the most common. Veterinarian recommendation was the most common reason reported (684/1032; 66%) for diet selection, and 51% (556/1089) of owners fed a veterinary therapeutic diet formulated for kidney disease as some component of the diet. Many owners (466/1079; 43%) reported that their cats had an abnormal appetite; of these owners, 52% responded that their cats had a poor appetite or required coaxing to eat 5-7 days per week. Forty-seven percent and 51% of cats were receiving subcutaneous fluids and oral medications, respectively; however, most cats (811/1036; 78%) were not receiving phosphorus-binding medications. Fifty-six percent and 38% of cats received commercial cat treats and dietary supplements, respectively. Anorexia or hyporexia is a common problem in cats with CKD and may lead to cats being fed suboptimal diets for their disease. This information may be useful for treating or designing nutritional studies for cats with CKD.
Heiene, Reidun; Rumsby, Gill; Ziener, Martine; Dahl, Stein A; Tims, Christopher; Teige, Jon; Ottesen, Nina
Two unrelated Ragdoll cat mothers in Norway were found dead from renal disease. The histopathology was consistent with oxalate nephrosis with chronic or acute-on-chronic underlying kidney disease. Both cats had offspring and relatives with signs of urinary tract disease, including a kitten dead with urethral gravel. Eleven living Ragdoll cats, including nine relatives of the dead cats and the male father of a litter with similarly affected animals, were tested for primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type 1 and 2 by urine oxalate and liver enzyme analysis. Renal ultrasound revealed abnormalities in five living cats. One of these was azotaemic at the time of examination and developed terminal kidney disease 9 months later. A diagnosis of PH was excluded in 11 cats tested. The inheritance and aetiological background of the renal disease present in the breed remains unresolved at this point in time.
Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina
Purpose To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Results Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease. PMID:24019792
Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina
To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease.
Paepe, Dominique; Bavegems, Valérie; Combes, Anaïs; Saunders, Jimmy H; Daminet, Sylvie
Ragdoll breeder organisations often forewarn Ragdoll cat owners that renal problems may develop as a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), chronic interstitial nephritis, familial renal dysplasia or nephrocalcinosis. Healthy Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats were prospectively evaluated by measuring serum creatinine and urea concentrations, routine urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography. All Ragdoll cats also underwent genetic PKD testing. One hundred and thirty-three Ragdoll and 62 control cats were included. Ragdoll cats had significantly lower serum urea concentrations and higher urinary specific gravity. However, median creatinine concentration, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of cats with serum creatinine or urea concentration exceeding the reference interval did not differ. One or more renal ultrasonographical changes were detected in 66/133 (49.6%) Ragdoll and in 25/62 (40%) control cats. Ragdoll cats showed significantly more frequent segmental cortical lesions (7.5% versus 0%), abnormal renal capsule (19.5% versus 8%) and echogenic urine (51.9% versus 25.8%). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was ultrasonographically suspected in 7/133 (5.3%) Ragdoll and in none of the control cats, which approached significance. Laboratory parameters confirmed kidney dysfunction only in 1/7 of these Ragdoll cats. All Ragdoll cats were PKD negative. In conclusion, first, breed-specific serum creatinine reference intervals are not likely required for Ragdoll cats. Second, renal ultrasonographical abnormalities are common, both in Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats. Third, healthy young Ragdoll cats are uncommonly affected by PKD and CKD, but an increased susceptibility of Ragdoll cats to develop CKD cannot be excluded. Finally, Ragdoll cats are predisposed to segmental cortical lesions, which may indicate renal infarction or cortical scarring.
Spinella, Amelia; Lumetti, Federica; Sandri, Gilda; Cestelli, Valentina; Mascia, Maria Teresa
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae and it is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site of a cat scratch or bite. We report a patient with history of fever, swelling lymph nodes, vasculitic-like skin lesions, and positivity of Bartonella serology initially considered as expression of a disimmune disease. PMID:22924138
Mayer-Roenne, Bettina; Goldstein, Richard E; Erb, Hollis N
The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in cats with hyperthyroidism (n=90), diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=57) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=77) was evaluated retrospectively. It was found to be 12% in cats with hyperthyroidism and DM, respectively, and 22% in cats with CKD. Associations between UTIs and clinical signs, biochemical markers in serum and urinalyses were investigated. Many of the cats with UTIs had no clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease or changes in their laboratory values indicative of infection. Therefore, a urinalysis alone should not be used to exclude UTIs in these cats. UTIs are relatively common in cats with hyperthyroidism, DM and CKD, and urine cultures are recommended as part of the basic diagnostic plan for cats suspected of suffering from these conditions.
Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G
Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.
Nelson, C A; Moore, A R; Perea, A E; Mead, P S
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic infection caused primarily by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. An estimated 12,000 outpatients and 500 inpatients are diagnosed with CSD annually, yet little is known regarding clinician experience with and treatment of CSD in the United States. Questions assessing clinical burden, treatment and prevention of CSD were posed to 3,011 primary care providers (family practitioners, internists, paediatricians and nurse practitioners) during 2014-2015 as part of the annual nationwide DocStyles survey. Among the clinicians surveyed, 37.2% indicated that they had diagnosed at least one patient with CSD in the prior year. Clinicians in the Pacific and Southern regions were more likely to have diagnosed CSD, as were clinicians who saw paediatric patients, regardless of specialty. When presented with a question regarding treatment of uncomplicated CSD, only 12.5% of clinicians chose the recommended treatment option of analgesics and monitoring, while 71.4% selected antibiotics and 13.4% selected lymph node aspiration. In a scenario concerning CSD prevention in immunosuppressed patients, 80.6% of clinicians chose some form of precaution, but less than one-third chose the recommended option of counseling patients to treat their cats for fleas and avoid rough play with their cats. Results from this study indicate that a substantial proportion of U.S. clinicians have diagnosed CSD within the past year. Although published guidelines exist for treatment and prevention of CSD, these findings suggest that knowledge gaps remain. Therefore, targeted educational efforts about CSD may benefit primary care providers. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T
Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.
Serologic and skin-testing data on a group of patients having cat scratch disease are presented to demonstrate a possible relationship to the psitt...indicate that the incidence of positive serologic reactions with the psitt-LGV group antigen is consistently higher in patients with cat scratch disease...patients, 2 of 5 did not respond with positive skin reactions when tested with cat scratch antigen, and at least 2 of the remaining 3 responded in a manner difficult to interpret.
Zhou, Yi; Yin, Geng; Tan, Chunyu; Liu, Yi
Cat scratch disease may occur during etanercept therapy, but there has been no report on infliximab-associated cat scratch disease. We report a case of a 23-year-old woman who developed right inguinal lymph node enlargement following a cat scratch. The patient had received infliximab therapy for spondyloarthropathy. She was successfully managed by discontinuing infliximab and by treatment with moxifloxacin and amikacin.
... The latter two forms are potentially fatal. More Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma gondii ) Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease that can spread to ... 2010 Nov;40(6):1073-90. Preventing Congenital Toxoplasmosis . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports. ...
White, J D; Norris, J M; Baral, R M; Malik, R
To describe cases of naturally occurring feline chronic renal disease (CRD) in a defined population of Sydney. Prospective case series. The inclusion criteria were the presence of a serum creatinine concentration above the reference range with either inadequately concentrated urine (urine specific gravity < or = 1.035), necropsy findings consistent with CRD, renal proteinuria or persistent azotaemia despite rehydration. Cats were excluded if a specific aetiology was identified ante or post mortem. Patients were divided into two categories (renal insufficiency or renal failure) on the basis of history, physical findings and serum creatinine concentration. The gender and age of cats with CRD was compared to an estimated Australian urban pet cat population. The breeds of cats with CRD were compared to the breeds of cats visiting the respective veterinary hospital where possible. Breed and gender comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Age comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney U tests. The age at which cats were diagnosed with CRD was compared between veterinary hospitals using a Kruskal-Wallis test. One hundred and eighty-four (99 female; 85 male) cats fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Amongst cats with CRD, males (median 12 years) were significantly younger than females (median 15 years; p = 0.001). The overall proportion of male and female cats with CRD was similar to that of the reference urban cat population (p = 0.41), however, between the ages of 9 and 11 years, male cats with CRD were over-represented (p = 0.038). Patients diagnosed with renal insufficiency (123 cats; median age 15 years) were significantly older than patients diagnosed with renal failure (61 cats; median age 11 years; p = 0.0001). The age at diagnosis of cats with CRD differed significantly between veterinary hospitals (p = 0.002). Male cats with CRD were significantly younger than female cats with CRD. Younger cats were more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease
Nelson, Richard W; Reusch, Claudia E
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. The most common form of diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. A major risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insulin signaling genes and glucose transporters and are leptin resistant. Cats also form amyloid deposits within the islets of the pancreas and develop glucotoxicity when exposed to prolonged hyperglycemia. This review will briefly summarize our current knowledge about the etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats and illustrate the similarities among dogs, cats, and humans. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.
Hanzlicek, A S; Meinkoth, J H; Renschler, J S; Goad, C; Wheat, L J
Treatment monitoring is subjective and disease relapse is common in cats with histoplasmosis. The Histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is a noninvasive test used for determining disease remission and detecting disease relapse in humans with histoplasmosis. The utility of the antigen EIA for these purposes in cats remains unknown. Those Histoplasma antigen concentrations in urine and serum would decline with antifungal treatment and that antigen elimination would be an indicator of clinical remission in cats with histoplasmosis treated with antifungal treatment. Fifteen client-owned cats with histoplasmosis. Masked observational study. Cats were monitored monthly during antifungal treatment. Time of clinical remission and serum and urine antigen elimination were determined for each cat. Twelve of 15 cats achieved clinical remission. At the time of diagnosis, antigen was detectable in urine in 14/15 (93%) cats and in serum in 11/15 (73%) cats. Both serum (P < .0005) and urine (P < .0001) antigen concentrations significantly decreased over time with effective treatment. Antigen elimination was sensitive [urine, 90.0% (95% CI 72.3-97.4%); serum, 90.4% (68.2-98.3%)] but less specific [urine, 64.6% (51.7-75.8%); serum, 52.1% (37.4-66.5%)] for disease remission. Urine antigen was positive in both cats and serum antigen was positive in 1 cat at the time of disease relapse. Measurement of Histoplasma antigen in urine and serum might be useful tests for determining disease remission and relapse in cats with histoplasmosis. Further research is needed to investigate the importance of low-level antigenemia and antigenuria. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Giladi, Michael; Avidor, Boaz; Kletter, Yehudith; Abulafia, Suzy; Slater, Leonard N.; Welch, David F.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Whitney, Anne M.; Ephros, Moshe
Since its isolation in 1988, Afipia felis has been associated with cat scratch disease (CSD) in only one report and its role in CSD has been questioned. We have cultured A. felis from a lymph node of a patient with CSD. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA relatedness studies, fatty acid analysis, and PCR of the A. felis ferredoxin gene showed that the isolate is identical to the previously reported A. felis isolate. To determine the role of A. felis in CSD, PCR of the 16S rRNA gene followed by hybridizations with specific probes were performed with lymph node specimens from CSD patients. All 32 specimens tested positive for Bartonella henselae and negative for A. felis. We conclude that A. felis is a rare cause of CSD. Diagnostic tests not conducive to the identification of A. felis might cause the diagnosis of CSD due to A. felis to be missed. PMID:9705382
Roubaud-Baudron, C; Fortineau, N; Goujard, C; Le Bras, P; Lambotte, O
Cat scratch disease is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Most of the patients present with a lymphadenopathy associated with a local infection at the site of the cat scratch. Disseminated infection is uncommon. We report an immunocompetent 61-year-old woman who presented with a systemic cat scratch disease including a multifocal osteomyelitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on the adenopathy. A literature review identified 51 other cases of osteomyelitis associated with cat scratch disease, 14 of those confirmed by PCR. Bone involvement in cat scratch disease is rare, especially in adults. The diagnosis should be suspected on the basis of patient questioning. The antibiotherapy and the place of surgery are discussed.
Center, S A
Nutritional intake in the patient with hepatobiliary disease provides the cornerstone of balanced medical care. Optimal recommendations require consideration of general nutritional principles, special species requirements and contemporary needs uniquely related to the patient's medical problem. Although general recommendations follow well-established guidelines developed to meet metabolic requirements for normal health, there is little information regarding altered requirements in animals that are ill. Consequently, recommendations for animals have been derived empirically from studies completed in humans, most work having been done in patients with end stage cirrhosis or liver failure complicated by hepatic encephalopathy. This is problematic because most veterinary patients with liver disease are not in hepatic failure and do not suffer from hepatic encephalopathy. Iatrogenic malnutrition can develop in patients when protein-restricted diets are inappropriately recommended. Insufficient energy intake and negative nitrogen balance can complicate a patient's condition, impairing tissue regeneration and recovery from disease. This paper reviews strategies that can be used to individualize nutritional management in small companion animals with hepatobiliary disease. Consideration is given to both the known and controversial issues regarding energy requirements, dietary energy distribution, vitamin and micronutrient supplementation, the special requirements of the cat with hepatic lipidosis, as well as strategies effective for palliation of hepatic encephalopathy.
Glaus, T; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Greene, C; Glaus, B; Wolfensberger, C; Lutz, H
The prevalence of infection with Bartonella henselae was investigated in cats from different areas of Switzerland. Serum samples of 728 cats were examined for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and the results were analyzed with a view to a possible correlation between a positive titer and signalment, clinical signs, infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), or feline spumavirus (FeSFV), and the living environments of the cats. The seroprevalence in all cats was 8.3%. No significantly different prevalence was found in sick versus healthy cats (9.2 versus 7.2%); however, in sick cats seropositive for B. henselae, there was an increased frequency of stomatitis and a variety of diseases of the kidneys and the urinary tract. There was an increased prevalence of B. henselae in cats positive for FCoV (P = 0.0185) or FeSFV (P = 0.0235) and no statistically significant increased prevalence in cats infected with FeLV or FIV. There was no correlation between a positive titer and sex or breed. The same prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was found in cats with and without access to the outdoors and in cats from single- and multicat households. The seroprevalence was increased in cats living south of the Alps (12.1%); however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.0616).
Ottenjann, Mareike; Weingart, Christiane; Arndt, Gisela; Kohn, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to describe the anemia of inflammatory disease (AID) in cats with naturally-occurring inflammatory diseases, such as abscesses (n = 12), pyothorax (n = 6), and fat necrosis (n = 3). Exclusion criteria were positive FeLV/FIV tests, neoplasia, nephro-, hepato- or endocrinopathies, and blood loss anemia. CBC, clinical biochemistry, measurements of serum erythropoietin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, acute phase proteins, erythrocytic osmotic fragility (OF), and Coombs' tests were performed. A decrease in hematocrit of 1-28% (median, 10%) occurred within 3-16 days (median, 8 days). The anemia was mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 8), or severe (n = 2). In most cases it was normocytic normochromic, non-regenerative (n = 18), or mildly regenerative (n = 3). Sixteen cats had leukocytosis and 5 mild hyperbilirubinemia. The Coombs' test results were negative for 8 cats and positive for 1 cat. OF was increased in 2 out of 14 cats. Hypoalbuminemia (n = 18) and hyperglobulinemia (n = 16) resulted in a lowered albumin/globulin-ratio in 19 cats. Iron and TIBC were low in 2/19 and 6 /19 cats, respectively. The ferritin concentrations were normal in 7 cats and increased in 12 cats. The acute phase proteins alpha1-acid-glycoprotein and haptoglobin were increased in 14/14 and 13/14 cats, respectively. Erythropoietin was normal (n = 4), mildly increased (n = 7) or severely increased (1). Two cats were euthanized due to their underlying disease, 3 cats needed blood transfusions. AID in cats is usually mild to moderate, non-regenerative, and normocytic normochromic. It can be clinically relevant causing severe and transfusion-dependent anemia. AID seems to be multifactorial with evidence of iron sequestration, decreased RBC survival, and insufficient erythropoietin production and bone marrow response. Specific and supportive therapy, including transfusions, can reverse these processes.
Boiron, E; Soto, B; Zimmermann, B; Jullien, M
Cat scratch disease is caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Bartonella henselae. This disease is transmitted by cat scratches or bites. The typical form is a large and rough adenopathy, with no general signs. In a few cases, the symptoms are aspecific and various, which makes the diagnosis difficult. A 3-year-old child presented a prolonged fever with an aspecific skin eruption and hepatosplenic lesions seen 1 month after the beginning of the disease, which led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. An adapted antibiotic therapy completely cured the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fritsch, Dale A; Jewell, Dennis E; Leventhal, P S; Brejda, J; Ahle, N W; Schiefelbein, H M; Forrester, S D
Renal foods are used to manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats, but their effectiveness may be limited by the ability to transition animals to them. In a prospective study, pet cats with previously undiagnosed kidney disease (20 International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) 1, 61 IRIS 2, 14 IRIS 3/4, 33 at risk for CKD) were transitioned to a renal food. Markers of renal function were measured and owners answered questionnaires about their pet over one year. All but eight cats (120/128; 94 per cent) successfully transitioned to the renal food. Most of the time, cats moderately or extremely liked the food (89 per cent), ate at least half (73 per cent) and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating (68 per cent). Cats rarely disliked the food (2 per cent) or refused to eat it (1 per cent). Markers of renal function were unchanged in IRIS 1 and 2 cats and changed little in IRIS 3/4 cats. In all groups, owner-assessed quality of life improved initially and then remained stable. Mean bodyweight did not change in cats with CKD. Most cats with CKD successfully transitioned to the renal food. The results also support previous studies that the renal food can help stabilise cats with CKD.
Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G
The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Decker, Steven; Warner, Anne-Sophie; Volk, Holger A
Objectives The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and possible breed predilections for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in cats. Methods Medical records and imaging studies of cats diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD between January 2008 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with the general hospital population. The association between type of IVDD (ie, intervertebral disc extrusion [IVDE] or intervertebral disc protrusion [IVDP]) and breed, age, sex, and duration and severity of clinical signs was also evaluated. Results Of 12,900 cats presented during the study period, 31 (0.24%) were diagnosed with IVDD, including 17 purebred and 14 non-purebred cats. Of all presented purebred cats, 0.52% were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD. More specifically, 1.29% of all British Shorthairs and 1.83% of all presented Persians were diagnosed with IVDD. Compared with the general hospital population, purebred cats ( P = 0.0001), British Shorthairs ( P <0.0001) and Persians ( P = 0.0006) were significantly overrepresented with thoracolumbar IVDD. Affected purebred cats were younger than affected non-purebred cats ( P = 0.02). Of 31 cats with IVDD, 19 were diagnosed with IVDE and 12 with IVDP. Cats with IVDE had a significantly shorter duration of clinical signs ( P = 0.0002) and demonstrated more severe neurological deficits ( P = 0.04) than cats with IVDP. Conclusions and relevance Although thoracolumbar IVDD is an uncommon condition in cats, purebred cats, British Shorthairs and Persians, were overrepresented. It is currently unclear if this represents a true breed predisposition or a higher likelihood of owners of purebred cats seeking referral for advanced diagnostic imaging procedures.
Piyarungsri, Kakanang; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama
Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant disease in cats. Identifying risk and protective factors may help to prevent this significant disease. Methods An age-matched case-control study was performed to determine the risk factors in cats with naturally occurring CKD. Twenty-nine clinically normal cats aged ⩾5 years and 101 cats with naturally occurring CKD were studied. Risk factors were determined by interviewing cat owners from the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, and veterinary hospitals in the Bangkok Metropolitan area, through questionnaires completed between June 2004 and November 2014. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using two independent proportional test methods and logistic regression analysis with backward elimination. Results Male sex (odd ratios [OR] 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-8.87; P = 0.02), tap water (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.08-11.45; P = 0.03) and an outdoor lifestyle (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.03-17.99; P = 0.04) were associated with an increased risk for CKD. Commercial dry cat food (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.17; P = 0.00), filtered water (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.52; P = 0.01) and an indoor lifestyle (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.07-0.98; P = 0.02) were associated with a decreased risk. Logistic regression analysis using backward elimination demonstrated that cats fed commercial dry cat food (OR 0.042, 95% CI 0.01-0.17; P = 0.00) had a decreased risk for CKD compared with cats on other types of diet. Conclusions and relevance Multivariable analysis found only feeding commercial dry cat food to be significant, suggesting that commercial dry cat food may be a potential protective factor for CKD in cats.
White, Joanna D; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M; Malikides, Nicholas
To investigate the association between naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (CKD) and FIV infection status in cats in Australia. Case-control study. 73 cats with CKD and 69 cats without historical, physical, or clinicopathologic evidence of CKD. Cats were tested for serum antibodies against FIV glycoprotein 40 (gp40) by use of an immunomigration assay. Information regarding age, breed (purebred or domestic), and sex was obtained from medical records. Analysis was performed on data from cats stratified into 2 age categories (< 11 years old and >or= 11 years old). Univariable and then multivariable analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between CKD and the study variable (FIV infection), the latter analysis accounting for breed (purebred or domestic), sex, and veterinary hospital of origin. Results of multivariable analysis revealed that younger cats with CKD (< 11 years old) were significantly more likely to have positive test results for serum antibodies against FIV gp40 than were cats without CKD. No significant associations were found between CKD and FIV infection, breed, sex, or hospital of origin among older (>or= 11 years old) cats in the multivariable analysis. Among cats < 11 years of age, those with CKD were significantly more likely to have positive test results for serum antibodies against FIV gp40 than were cats without CKD. It cannot be definitively established from results of this study whether infection with FIV preceded the development of CKD, and the role, if any, of FIV in the establishment or progression of CKD remains to be determined.
Novellas, R; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Espada, Y
This study investigated the possible relationships between renal resistive index (RI) or pulsatility index (PI) and systolic blood pressure and biochemical and haematological parameters in dogs and cats with renal disease. The study included 50 dogs and 20 cats with renal disease. RI and PI were significantly higher in both dogs and cats with renal disease than in 27 healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. In dogs, a significant negative correlation was found between RI and red blood cell count, and a positive correlation was found between PI and serum creatinine. In cats, a positive correlation was found between RI and serum urea, between PI and serum creatinine, and between PI and serum urea. No relationship could be found between either RI or PI and systolic blood pressure.
Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Manaka; Kodama, Yuichi; Miyazono, Akinori; Seki, Shunji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Atypical clinical presentations of CSD include prolonged fever and multiple hepatosplenic lesions. Furthermore, multiple renal lesions are extremely rare in CSD. An 11-year-old Japanese girl presented at our hospital with a prolonged fever of unknown cause after being scratched and bitten by a kitten. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small, round hypodense lesions in both kidneys and the spleen. Based on her history and the CT results, her diagnosis was CSD. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological tests, which indicated antibodies against B. henselae. After treatment with azithromycin, her fever immediately improved. Careful history taking and imaging are essential for the diagnosis of atypical CSD. In CT images, not only hepatosplenic lesions but also renal lesions are important features indicative of a diagnosis of atypical CSD. Subsequently, a diagnosis of CSD can be confirmed by specific serological tests. This is the first reported Japanese case of multiple renal and splenic lesions in a patient with CSD. Although difficult to diagnose, an early diagnosis atypical CSD and appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications and the need for invasive examinations.
Angelakis, Emmanouil; Edouard, Sophie; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier
During the past 2 years, we identified live Bartonella henselae in the primary inoculation sites of 3 patients after a cat scratch. Although our data are preliminary, we report that a cutaneous swab of the skin lesion from a patient in the early stage of cat-scratch disease can be useful for diagnosis of the infection.
Angelakis, Emmanouil; Edouard, Sophie; La Scola, Bernard
During the past 2 years, we identified live Bartonella henselae in the primary inoculation sites of 3 patients after a cat scratch. Although our data are preliminary, we report that a cutaneous swab of the skin lesion from a patient in the early stage of cat-scratch disease can be useful for diagnosis of the infection. PMID:21122232
Quimby, J M; Gustafson, D L; Lunn, K F
Cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often experience inappetence, and may benefit from administration of mirtazapine, an appetite stimulant. The pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine in CKD cats is unknown. CKD delays the clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) of mirtazapine. Six CKD cats and 6 age-matched controls (AMC) were enrolled. Two CKD cats each from International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage II, III and IV were included. Blood samples were collected before and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after a single PO dose of 1.88 mg of mirtazapine. Mirtazapine concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling was performed. Mean age was 11 years (CKD cats) and 10.8 years (AMC cats). Mean serum creatinine concentration ± standard deviation (SD) was 3.8 ± 1.6 mg/dL (CKD) and 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL (AMC). Mean half-life ± SD was 15.2 ± 4.2 hours (CKD) and 12.1 ± 1.1 hours (AMC). Mean area under the curve (AUC) ± SD was 770.6 ± 225.5 ng/mL•hr (CKD) and 555.5 ± 175.4 ng/mL•hr (AMC). Mean CL/F ± SD was 0.6 ± 0.1 L/hr/kg (CKD) and 0.8 ± 0.16 L/hr/kg (AMC). A Mann-Whitney test indicated statistically significant differences in AUC (P = 0.01) and CL/F (P = 0.04) between groups. Calculated accumulation factor for 48-hour dosing in CKD cats was 1.15. CKD may delay the CL/F of mirtazapine. A single low dose of mirtazapine resulted in a half-life compatible with a 48-hour dosing interval in CKD cats. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Vargas-Hitos, J A; Sabio, J M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Arenas-Miras, M del M; Zamora-Pasadas, M; Jiménez-Alonso, J
Cat scratch disease is an infectious disorder transmitted by cats that typically affects children and young adults. Immunosuppression is a well-known risk factor for the development of severe and atypical forms of the disease; hence it is under-diagnosed in patients with compromised immunity. We are reporting the first case of cat scratch disease, which presented as fever and fatigue, in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus while receiving immunosuppressant therapy after a kidney transplant. © The Author(s) 2015.
This study was designed to investigate the 11 year old patient with cat scratch disease. The diagnoes of this infection was based on detailed history, physical examenination and para-clinical data analyses. In case of cat-scratch disease (because it is rare diagnosis), a different approach is required to every specific occaison. A series of investigations (most informative is intrinsic factor antibody - IFA) should be conducted to determain the cat-scratch disease from the various reasons of the lymphocytic leukaemoid reaction.
Gruen, Margaret E; Messenger, Kristen M; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily H; Aldrich, Lauren A; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, B Duncan X
Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain. Samples from a total of 186 cats were analyzed, with cats representing a range of severity on radiographic and orthopedic evaluations and categorized by degenerative joint disease scores and pain scores. Results showed that cats with higher radiographic degenerative joint disease scores have higher serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-8, while cats with higher orthopedic exam pain scores have higher concentrations of IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α; increased concentration of IL-8 in degenerative joint disease and pain may be confounded by the association with age. Discriminant analysis was unable to identify one or more cytokines that distinguish between groups of cats classified based on degenerative joint disease score category or pain score category. Finally, cluster analysis driven by analyte concentrations shows separation of groups of cats, but features defining the groups remain unknown. Further studies are warranted to investigate any changes in cytokine concentrations in response to analgesic therapies, and further evaluate the elevations in cytokine concentrations found here, particularly focused on studies of local cytokines present in synovial fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Minadakis, Georgios; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11%) cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56) were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05). Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002) and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity. PMID:24470912
Kook, P H; Lutz, S; Sewell, A C; Bigler, B; Reusch, C E
Medical records of 261 cats presenting with gastrointestinal disease that had a serum cobalamin concentration measured were reviewed. In addition, a reference range for cobalamin (305 - 1.967ng/L) was established using 22 healthy adult cats with undetectable levels of urinary methylmalonic acid. A total of 108 of 261 cats (41.4 %) had hypocobalaminemia; 69 cats (26.4 %) had cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (< 150ng/L, group A) and 39 (15 %) had concentrations between 150 - 304ng/L (group B). The remaining 153 (58.6 %) cats had normal cobalamin concentrations (group C). Diarrhea was the most common clinical sign in hypocobalaminemic cats and vomiting or anorexia was the most common sign in normocobalaminemic cats. Only cats with both, vomiting and diarrhea were more likely to have hypocobalaminemia than cats with other clinical signs (odds ratio, 2.879; 95 % CI, 1.313 - 6.310). Serum cobalamin concentration was negatively correlated with age of the patient and positively correlated with body condition score. Cats of group A had a significantly higher neutrophil count (p = 0.0009) and higher MCV (p = 0.0064) and significantly lower hematocrit (p = 0.0018) and albumin concentration (p = 0.0037) than cats in other groups. There was no difference between cats of groups B and C with respect to complete blood cell counts and metabolic profiles. Among the diagnoses made in 125 cats (A 69.6 %, B 59 %, C 35.3 %), lymphoma and inflammatory enteropathy were most common. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 31.2 % (A 53.8 %, B 15.4 %, C 30.8 %) and inflammatory enteropathy in 22.4 % (A 35.7 %, B 7.1 %, C 57.2 %) of cats. Hypocobalaminemia is a frequent problem in cats with gastrointestinal disease. Presenting clinical signs as well as laboratory results may already indicate its probability and severity. However, only values below the detection limit of the assay seem to affect routine bloodwork results. Cobalamin should be routinely measured in feline
King, Jonathan N; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Tasker, Séverine; Gleadhill, Allison; Strehlau, Günther
The objective of the study was to test the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 192 cats with CKD with an initial plasma creatinine concentration > or = 2 mg/dL (> or = 177 micromol/L) and urine specific gravity < or = 1.025 were recruited into a double-blind, parallel-group, prospective, randomized clinical trial. Cats received daily (q24h) PO placebo (n = 96) or benazepril x HCl at a dosage of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg (n = 96) for up to 1,119 days. Most cats were fed exclusively a diet containing low amounts of phosphate, protein, and sodium. Benazepril produced a significant reduction in proteinuria, assessed by the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC, P = .005). This effect of benazepril was present in all subgroups tested, including cats with UPC <0.2, although the effect was largest in cats with higher UPCs. Plasma protein was maintained at higher concentrations with benazepril as compared with placebo during treatment in cats with initial UPC <1 (P = .038 versus P = .079 for all cats). There was no difference in renal survival time between the 2 groups when all 192 cats were compared. Mean +/- SD renal survival times were 637 +/- 480 days with benazepril and 520 +/- 323 days with placebo (P = .47). Mean +/- SD renal survival times in the 13 cats with initial UPC > or = 1 were 402 +/- 202 days with benazepril and 149 +/- 90 days with placebo (P = .27). Cats with initial UPC > or = 1 treated with benazepril had better appetite (P = .017) as compared with those treated with placebo. Benazepril was well tolerated. In conclusion, benazepril decreased proteinuria in cats with CKD.
Tschuor, Flurin; Zini, Eric; Schellenberg, Stefan; Wenger, Monique; Boretti, Felicitas S; Reusch, Claudia E
To evaluate 4 methods used to measure plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 concentrations in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus or other diseases. 39 healthy cats, 7 cats with diabetes mellitus, and 33 cats with other diseases. 4 assays preceded by different sample preparation methods were evaluated, including acid chromatography followed by radioimmunoassay (AC-RIA), acid-ethanol extraction followed by immunoradiometry assay (AEE-IRMA), acidification followed by immunochemiluminescence assay (A-ICMA), and IGF-2 excess followed by RIA (IE-RIA). Validation of the methods included determination of precision, accuracy, and recovery. The concentration of IGF-1 was measured with all methods, and results were compared among cat groups. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was < 10% for AC-RIA, A-ICMA, and AEE-IRMA and 14% to 22% for IE-RIA. The linearity of dilution was close to 1 for each method. Recovery rates ranged from 69% to 119%. Five healthy cats had IGF-1 concentrations > 1,000 ng/mL with the AEE-IRMA, but < 1,000 ng/mL with the other methods. Compared with healthy cats, hyperthyroid cats had significantly higher concentrations of IGF-1 with the A-ICMA method, but lower concentrations with the IE-RIA method. Cats with lymphoma had lower IGF-1 concentrations than did healthy cats regardless of the method used. Differences in the methodologies of assays for IGF-1 may explain, at least in part, the conflicting results previously reported in diabetic cats. Disorders such as hyperthyroidism and lymphoma affected IGF-1 concentrations, making interpretation of results more difficult if these conditions are present in cats with diabetes mellitus.
Gonçalves, Rita; Platt, Simon R; Llabrés-Díaz, Francisco J; Rogers, Katherine H; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara A; Adams, Vicki J
Medical records of 92 cats presented with clinical signs of spinal cord disease, which had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were reviewed. The cats were grouped into seven categories based upon the diagnosis suggested by results of MRI, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and other diagnostic procedures: neoplastic (n=25), inflammatory or infectious (n=13), traumatic (n=8), vascular (n=6), degenerative (n=5), anomalous (n=3) and those with an unremarkable MRI (n=32). There were two independent predictors of abnormal MRI findings: severity of clinical signs and presence of spinal pain. Abnormal MRI findings and speed of onset of disease were significantly associated with survival. For the 32 cats with unremarkable MRI findings, only nine died due to spinal disease and, therefore, the median survival time (MST) was not reached (lower 95% confidence interval (CI)=970 days). For the 60 cats with abnormal MRI findings, 37 died due to their disease and the MST was 138 days (95% CI: 7-807).
Chu, Benjamin C Y; Tam, Victor T Y
Cat-scratch disease is a clinical syndrome that usually presents as a self-limiting illness featuring regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and small skin lesions in association with a cat scratch or bite. It is caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Bartonella henselae, which commonly affects children and young adults. Ocular bartonellosis is the most common atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. It can present with a wide spectrum of ocular diseases including neuroretinitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, and other forms of intra-ocular inflammation. This case report describes cat-scratch disease neuroretinitis in a 10-year-old girl who presented with typical signs, including optic disc swelling and a macular star, preceded by pyrexia of unknown origin and cervical lymphadenopathy.
Ross, Sheri J; Osborne, Carl A; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Koehler, Lori A; Polzin, David J
To determine whether nephrolithiasis was associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression in cats with naturally occurring stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease. Retrospective case-control study. 14 cats with stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease (7 with nephroliths and 7 without). All cats were evaluated every 3 months for up to 24 months. Possible associations between nephrolithiasis and clinicopathologic abnormalities, incidence of uremic crises, death secondary to renal causes, and death secondary to any cause were evaluated. There were no clinically important differences in biochemical, hematologic, or urinalysis variables between cats with and without nephroliths at baseline or after 12 and 24 months of monitoring. No associations were detected between nephrolithiasis and rate of disease progression, incidence of uremic crises, or death. Results suggested that in cats with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis was not associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression. Findings support recommendations that cats with severe kidney disease and nephrolithiasis be managed without surgery.
Introduction Cat scratch disease is an infectious disease transmitted by young cats, in which the principal causative factor is Bartonella henselae. The typical course of cat scratch disease is usually benign and self-limited and requires only supportive therapy. However, cases lasting up to 2 years have been reported, and more serious complications may occur. Many manifestations of the disease have been reported by different medical disciplines. Case presentation A case of cat scratch disease in a 71-year-old Greek woman with an unusual clinical course is presented here. Serous otitis media was combined with rotational vertigo due to labyrinthitis. The invaded ear was ipsilateral to the inoculation site. Conclusion Cervicofacial lymphadenopathy has been demonstrated as the most common otolaryngologic manifestation of cat scratch disease. Manifestation in the middle and inner ear has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. Our report presents a patient with cat scratch disease with clinical signs and symptoms in the middle and inner ear. PMID:20519021
Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H
Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length.
Bush, Jamie M; Speer, Brian; Opitz, Noel
A number of common misconceptions exist regarding the degree of transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats. Concern regarding bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic transmission is generally unfounded, because disease transmission between companion parrots and dogs and cats is not well-documented. Infections with Mycobacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Giardia spp, Chlamydophila psittaci, Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptosporidium spp, and avian influenza are often considered possible transmissible diseases, causing pet caregivers unwarranted concerns.
Arvand, Mardjan; Schäd, Susanne G.
We report the case of a girl with cervical lymphadenitis and a persistent primary lesion of cat scratch disease (CSD). Bartonella henselae DNA was isolated from plasma samples collected 3 and 4 months after the cat scratch, indicating that recurrent and long-term shedding of Bartonella DNA into peripheral blood may occur in typical CSD. PMID:16757642
Ferlizza, E; Campos, A; Neagu, A; Cuoghi, A; Bellei, E; Monari, E; Dondi, F; Almeida, A M; Isani, G
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of mortality in cats, but sensitive and specific biomarkers for early prediction and monitoring of CKD are currently lacking. The present study aimed to apply proteomic techniques to map the urine proteome of the healthy cat and compare it with the proteome of cats with CKD. Urine samples were collected by cystocentesis from 23 healthy young cats and 17 cats with CKD. One-dimensional sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-SDS-PAGE) was conducted on 4-12% gels. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) was applied to pooled urine samples from healthy cats (n = 4) and cats with CKD (n = 4), respectively. Sixteen protein bands and 36 spots were cut, trypsin-digested and identified by mass spectrometry. 1D-SDS-PAGE yielded an overall view of the protein profile and the separation of 32 ± 6 protein bands in the urine of healthy cats, while CKD cats showed significantly fewer bands (P < 0.01). 2-DE was essential in fractionation of the complex urine proteome, producing a reference map that included 20 proteins. Cauxin was the most abundant protein in urine of healthy cats. Several protease inhibitors and transport proteins that derive from plasma were also identified, including alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, transferrin, haemopexin and haptoglobin. There was differential expression of 27 spots between healthy and CKD samples (P < 0.05) and 13 proteins were unambiguously identified. In particular, increased expression of retinol-binding protein, cystatin M and apolipoprotein-H associated with decreased expression of uromodulin and cauxin confirmed tubular damage in CKD cats suggesting that these proteins are candidate biomarkers.
Chakrabarti, S; Syme, H M; Elliott, J
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in geriatric cats, but often appears to be stable for long periods of time. To describe CKD progression and identify risk factors for progression in newly diagnosed azotemic cats. A total of 213 cats with CKD (plasma creatinine concentration > 2 mg/dL, urine specific gravity < 1.035) were followed up until progression occurred or for at least 1 year; 132, 73, and 8 cats were in International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Progression was defined as a 25% increase in plasma creatinine concentration. Logistic regression was used to assess variables at diagnosis that were associated with progression within 1 year. Changes in IRIS stage during follow-up also were described. Cases that remained in stages 2 or 3, but did not have renal function assessed in the last 60 days of life, were excluded from analysis of the proportion reaching stage 4. Of the cats, 47% (101) progressed within 1 year of diagnosis. High plasma phosphate concentration and high urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) predicted progression in all cats. Low PCV and high UPC independently predicted progression in stage 2 cats, whereas higher plasma phosphate concentration predicted progression in stage 3 cats; 19% (18/94) of cats diagnosed in stage 2; and 63% (34/54) of cats diagnosed in stage 3 reached stage 4 before they died. Proteinuria, anemia, and hyperphosphatemia may reflect more progressive kidney disease. Alternatively, they may be markers for mechanisms of progression such as tubular protein overload, hypoxia, and nephrocalcinosis. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Galler, A; Shibly, S; Bilek, A; Hirt, R
In this retrospective study of 41 cats with chronic nasal disease diagnoses included nasal neoplasia (n = 19), idiopathic chronic rhinosinusitis (ICRS) (n = 12), nasopharyngeal polyps (n = 3), foreign bodies (n = 2), nasopharyngeal stenosis (n = 1) and nasal aspergillosis (n = 1). In 3 cats diagnosis could not be established despite thorough work-up. Gender, indoor or outdoor housing, quality or quantity of nasal discharge, bacteriological findings of nasal flushes, radiology and CT findings did not differ significantly between cats with neoplasia and cats with ICRS. Cats with neoplasia were older (3 - 15, median 11 years) and showed clinical signs for a shorter period of time (1 - 8, median 2 months) than cats with ICRS (age 1 - 13, median 7.5 years; signs: 1 - 36, median 5 months). In all cats with neoplasia a mass was detected rhinoscopically, while this was only seen in 30 % of cats with ICRS. The exact diagnosis has to be established by examination of biopsy samples. A combination of physical examination, imaging studies and rhinoscopy with cytological and histopathological examination of samples enhances the likelihood for a correct diagnosis.
Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identified by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most effective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound.
Ross, Sheri J; Osborne, Carl A; Kirk, Claudia A; Lowry, Stephen R; Koehler, Lori A; Polzin, David J
Objective-To determine whether a renal diet modified in protein, phosphorus, sodium, and lipid content was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and mortality rate in cats with stage 2 or 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design-Double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Animals-45 client-owned cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD. Procedures-Cats were randomly assigned to an adult maintenance diet (n = 23 cats) or a renal diet (22) and evaluated trimonthly for up to 24 months. Efficacy of the renal diet, compared with the maintenance diet, in minimizing uremia, renal-related deaths, and all causes of death was evaluated. Results-Serum urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly lower and blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in the renal diet group at baseline and during the 12- and 24-month intervals. Significant differences were not detected in body weight; Hct; urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; and serum creatinine, potassium, calcium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations. A significantly greater percentage of cats fed the maintenance diet had uremic episodes (26%), compared with cats fed the renal diet (0%). A significant reduction in renal-related deaths but not all causes of death was detected in cats fed the renal diet. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The renal diet evaluated in this study was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and renalrelated deaths in cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.
Cléroux, Andréanne; Alexander, Kate; Beauchamp, Guy; Dunn, Marilyn
OBJECTIVE To determine whether urolithiasis is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 126 cats (59 and 67 with and without urolithiasis, respectively). PROCEDURES Medical records from June 2006 to July 2013 were searched to identify cats that underwent abdominal or focal urinary tract ultrasonography and for which serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity data were obtained ≤ 14 days before or after the examination. In cats with (urolithiasis group) and without (control group) urolithiasis, the presence of CKD was determined according to International Renal Interest Society guidelines. Information recorded included signalment, body weight, serum creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity; when present, the location and number of uroliths were noted. Differences between groups and associations between group and categorical variables were analyzed statistically. RESULTS Age, weight, sex, and breed did not differ between groups. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in cats with urolithiasis than in the control group. Among cats with urolithiasis, there was a negative association between CKD and presence of cystoliths. There was no association between urolithiasis and the stage of CKD or between presence of CKD and location of nephroliths in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results confirmed a positive association between urolithiasis and CKD in the feline population studied and suggested that cats with urolithiasis should be evaluated for CKD. Further research is warranted to assess the nature of the relationship between CKD and urolithiasis in cats.
Dusser, P; Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Koné-Paut, I
Cat scratch disease is the most common zoonosis in humans and its typical expression is a persistent benign regional adenopathy. In some rare cases, mono- or multifocal osteomyelitis is described. In this paper, we report the case of bone lesions in a 13-year-old girl infected with cat scratch disease. We have also undertaken a literature review and analyzed 60 other such cases. The manifestation of a bone lesion associated with cat scratch disease was characterized by a mono- or multifocal infectious osteomyelitis, fever, and a general alteration of the patient's health. The most frequent location of osteomyelitis was in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging appeared the most sensitive test to highlight the bone lesions. Serological findings help reinforce the diagnosis of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae infection. Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease is rare but not exceptional. Therefore, it is essential to think about this hypothesis in case of osteomyelitis associated with a general alteration of the patient's health, especially if the lesions are multifocal and if there is a known history of cat contact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Jackson, L A; Perkins, B A; Wenger, J D
OBJECTIVES. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of cat scratch disease is based primarily on information from case series. We used three national databases to obtain more representative data to determine the incidence and demographics of cat scratch disease. METHODS. Records coded with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease from two hospital discharge databases and an ambulatory care database were analyzed. Costs of diagnostic tests and hospitalization were obtained from a sample of providers and published data. RESULTS. The incidence of patients discharged from hospitals with a diagnosis of cat scratch disease was between 0.77 and 0.86 per 100,000 population per year. Fifty-five percent of the case patients were 18 years of age or younger. Males accounted for 60% of cases. Incidence varied by season; approximately 60% of case patients were discharged in the months September through January. The estimated incidence of disease in ambulatory patients was 9.3 per 100,000 population per year. On the basis of these rates, we estimated the annual health care cost of the disease to be more than $12 million. CONCLUSIONS. The rates and seasonality of cat scratch disease found in this study were consistent with previous reports. Adults represented a higher percentage of the total than reported in previous case series, suggesting that the disease may affect more adults than previously recognized. PMID:8259799
Boyd, L M; Langston, C; Thompson, K; Zivin, K; Imanishi, M
Duration of survival of cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly characterized. Stage of kidney disease based on serum creatinine concentration (SCr) at the time of diagnosis and after correction of prerenal azotemia is strongly associated with duration of survival in cats. Two hundred and eleven client-owned cats with naturally occurring CKD evaluated between April 2000 and January 2002. Retrospective case review of 733 cats with SCr > 2.3 mg/dL. Examination of the medical records identified 211 cats that met all other inclusion and exclusion criteria for this study. Clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and survival times were extracted from the medical record. Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted by phone to obtain follow-up if it was not documented in the record. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed to determine survival times for International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage both at diagnosis and at baseline (ie, after correction of prerenal azotemia). Median survival for cats in IRIS stage IIb at the time of diagnosis was 1,151 days (range 2-3,107), and was longer than survival in stage III (median 778, range 22-2,100) or stage IV (median 103, range 1-1,920) (P-value< .0001). P-value for effect of stage at diagnosis was < .0001. IRIS stage of CKD based on serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis is strongly predictive of survival in cats with naturally occurring CKD.
Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P
Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.
Lafenetre, M; Herbigneaux, R M; Michoud, M; Descours, G; Debillon, T
Cat scratch disease is an infection caused by Bartonella henselae. The main clinical form is a lymphadenopathy with fever. However, uncommon bone involvement has been described. In this paper, we report a case of osteomyelitis in a 13-year-old teenager infected with B. henselae. The diagnosis was made based on PCR only because the serology was negative. A literature review reports 65 cases of osteomyelitis due to cat scratch disease. For each case, serology and PCR were notified. Osteomyelitis caused by B. henselae is a rare clinical manifestation. The diagnosis can be difficult, but the medical history must be accurate to search for contact with a cat and a cat scratch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu
Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.
Pereira, N J; Novo Matos, J; Baron Toaldo, M; Bartoszuk, U; Summerfield, N; Riederer, A; Reusch, C; Glaus, T M
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure characterized by diastolic dysfunction with or without the presence of systolic dysfunction in people and laboratory animals. The objective of this prospective study was to determine if cats with newly diagnosed DM had myocardial dysfunction and, if present, whether it would progress if appropriate antidiabetic therapy was commenced. Thirty-two diabetic cats were enrolled and received baseline echocardiographic examination; of these, 15 cats were re-examined after 6 months. Ten healthy age- and weight-matched cats served as controls. Diabetic cats at diagnosis showed decreased diastolic, but not systolic function, when compared to healthy controls, with lower mitral inflow E wave (E) and E/E' than controls. After 6 months, E and E/IVRT' decreased further in diabetic cats compared to the baseline evaluation. After excluding cats whose DM was in remission at 6 months, insulin-dependent diabetic cats had lower E, E/A and E' than controls. When classifying diastolic function according to E/A and E'/A', there was shift towards impaired relaxation patterns at 6 months. All insulin-dependent diabetic cats at 6 months had abnormal diastolic function. These results indicate that DM has similar effects on diastolic function in feline and human diabetics. The dysfunction seemed to progress rather than to normalize after 6 months, despite antidiabetic therapy. In cats with pre-existing heart disease, the development of DM could represent an important additional health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats that, depending on the geographic region and practice caseload, may be encountered uncommonly through to commonly. This is a self-curing disease in an immunocompetent cat. Dermatophytosis is prevalent worldwide and is one of a number of zoonotic skin diseases that cat owners are at risk of contracting. Dermatophytosis causes non-specific signs of hair loss, erythema and scaling, making it a differential diagnosis for many skin diseases of cats. The fact that this disease is infectious and contagious, and does not have any one classic clinical presentation, makes knowledge of diagnostic tools important in detection. The veterinarian's role is in early disease recognition and institution of appropriate therapy to hasten resolution of the disease. The focus of this article is to provide an update and review of the most pertinent aspects that may be helpful in the management of dermatophytosis in any single or multiple cat situation. Where appropriate, evidence from the literature is used to supplement a summary of the author's clinical experience and research in feline dermatophytosis.
Mosbacher, Mark; Elliott, Sean P; Shehab, Ziad; Pinnas, Jacob L; Klotz, John H; Klotz, Stephen A
Cat scratch disease is a common infection, particularly in children, and clinicians need to be aware of its potential transmission to humans by arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks in addition to animal bites and scratches. The absence of a vertebrate bite or scratch does not preclude infection with Bartonella henselae. Literature regarding arthropod transmission of B. henselae was reviewed. B. henselae and related bacterial species are transmitted among cats and dogs by arthropod vectors. In the absence of these vectors, disease does not spread amongst the animals. On the other hand, disease can be spread to humans by bite and scratch as well as by arthropod vectors. Animals commonly infected with B. henselae and arthropod vectors are discussed. Clinicians should be aware that a common illness, cat scratch disease, can be transmitted by arthropod vectors and a history of an animal scratch or bite is not necessary for disease transmission.
Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles
The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.
Gruen, M E; Dorman, D C; Lascelles, B D X
A literature review identified six placebo-controlled studies of analgesics in client-owned cats with degenerative joint disease-associated pain. Five studies with 96 cats had available data. Caregiver responses on a clinical metrology instrument, Client-Specific Outcome Measure (CSOM), were compared to measured activity. Cats were categorised as 'successes' or 'failures' based on change in CSOM score and activity counts from baseline. Effect sizes based on CSOM score were calculated; factors that were associated with success/failure were analysed using logistic regression. Effect sizes ranged from 0.97 to 1.93. The caregiver placebo effect was high, with 54-74 per cent of placebo-treated cats classified as CSOM successes compared with 10-63 per cent of cats classified as successes based on objectively measured activity. 36 per cent of CSOM successes were also activity successes, while 19 per cent of CSOM failures were activity successes. No significant effects of cat age, weight, baseline activity, radiographic score, orthopaedic pain score or study type on CSOM success in the placebo groups were found. The caregiver placebo effect across these clinical trials was remarkably high, making demonstration of efficacy for an analgesic above a placebo difficult. Further work is needed to determine whether a potential placebo-by-proxy effect could benefit cats in clinical settings.
Ayllón, Tania; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel
The role of various vector-borne pathogens as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. The current study evaluated risk factors, clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp., Leishmania spp., and Bartonella spp. infection or exposure in 680 client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain. Our results indicate that a large portion (35.1%) of the cat population of Madrid, Spain, is exposed to at least one of the five vector-borne pathogens tested. We found seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae in 23.8%, to Ehrlichia canis in 9.9%, to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 8.4%, to Leishmania infantum in 3.7%, and to Neorickettsia risticii in 1% of the feline study population. About 9.9% of cats had antibody reactivity to more than one agent. L. infantum DNA was amplified from four cats (0.6%), B. henselae DNA from one cat (0.15%), and B. clarridgeiae DNA from another cat (0.15%).
Shanaman, Miriam; Seiler, Gabriela; Holt, David E
Three hundred and ten cats that had CT imaging of the head between January 2000 and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. Data that were recorded included signalment, presenting complaint, clinical signs, presence of upper respiratory tract disease, and CT findings. One hundred and one cats had evidence of middle ear disease on CT. Thirty-four of the 101 cats (34%) did not have a primary complaint of ear-related disease, clinical signs or physical findings consistent with ear disease, suggesting that the middle ear disease was subclinical. Twenty-seven of the 34 cats (79%) had concurrent nasal disease. Middle ear lesions were chronic in appearance. With the exception of tympanic bulla lysis, CT findings were similar in cats presenting with primary aural disease versus cats with presumptive subclinical middle ear disease. The majority of the cats did not return for treatment of the identified middle ear abnormalities. Subclinical middle ear disease is relatively frequent in cats undergoing CT imaging of the head. Few cats required subsequent treatment for ear disease although follow up was limited. Identification of subclinical middle ear abnormalities on CT should prompt acquisition of a detailed patient history and bilateral otoscopic examination.
Williams, T L; Dillon, H; Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Archer, J
Currently, no test can accurately predict the development of azotemia after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Serum cystatin C concentrations (sCysC) might be less influenced by changes in body muscle mass and so better indicate the presence of concurrent chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hyperthyroidism. sCysC will be higher in hyperthyroid cats that develop azotemia compared with hyperthyroid cats that remain nonazotemic after treatment; sCysC will be higher in nonhyperthyroid cats with azotemic CKD than healthy older cats and, sCysC will decrease after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Ninety-one cats treated in first opinion practice. Case-control study. sCysC were compared between hyperthyroid cats which developed azotemia within 4 months of successful treatment of hyperthyroidism (pre-azotemic group) and hyperthyroid cats which remained nonazotemic after treatment (nonazotemic group), and between nonhyperthyroid cats with azotemic CKD and healthy older cats. sCysC were also compared between hyperthyroid cats before treatment and at time of establishment of euthyroidism. Data are presented as median [25th, 75th percentile]. Baseline sCysC were not different between the pre-azotemic and nonazotemic groups (1.9 [1.4, 2.3] mg/L versus 1.5 [1.1, 2.2] mg/L, respectively; P = .22). sCysC in nonhyperthyroid cats with azotemic CKD and healthy older cats were not significantly different (1.5 [1.0, 1.9] mg/L versus 1.2 [0.8, 1.4] mg/L, respectively; P = .16). sCysC did not change significantly after treatment of hyperthyroidism (pretreatment 1.8 [1.2, 2.3] mg/L, after treatment 1.6 [1.1, 2.4] mg/L; P = .82). sCysC do not appear to be a reliable marker of renal function in hyperthyroid cats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bhanot, Nitin; Sokos, George G.; Benza, Raymond L.; Murali, Srinivas
Cat scratch disease has been reported very rarely in cardiac transplant recipients. In a review of 1073 episodes of infection in 620 heart transplant patients over a 16 year period, only one case of infection secondary to Bartonella henselae was documented. Another case of hepatosplenic bacillary angiomatosis from B. henselae was reported 2 decades ago in a heart transplant recipient who had presented with fevers of unknown origin. Although the typical clinical manifestation is that of a skin lesion accompanied with lymphadenopathy, cat scratch disease may present with persistent fevers without a clinically overt infective focus in immunosuppressed individuals. Moreover, more than one disease process may coexist in immunocompromised hosts. While the lymphadenopathy in our patient was secondary to Cat scratch disease, interestingly, the adjacent skin lesion that was thought to represent unhealed site of inoculation of Bartonella was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24470916
Youssef, Dima; Shams, Wael E; El Abbassi, Adel; Moorman, Jonathan P; Al-Abbadi, Mousa A
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited zoonotic disease that presents most commonly as a regional lymphadenopathy. We are reporting a case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with fever and large right inguinal lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed based on the characteristic cytopathological features on aspirate smears from the lymph node and the serological titers for Bartonella henselae. This case report emphasizes the importance of combining Bartonella serology, and cytopathology in the diagnostic work-up of febrile lymphadenopathy and suspected CSD since the culture of this organism is arduous. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bhatti, Zahida; Berenson, Charles S
Background We describe the first case of systemic cat scratch disease in a patient receiving peginterferon α-2a and ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C. Cases of adult systemic CSD are extremely infrequent and immunomodulatory treatment for hepatitis C has been associated with aberrant host responses to common pathogens. Case presentation A 52 year old man being treated for hepatitis C presented with diffuse lymphadenopathy, weight loss, fevers and splenic lesions. Symptoms were initially confused with adverse effects of his regimen, delaying recognition of his infection. Diagnostic investigation, including histopathology, microbiology and serologic parameters, confirmed that his illness was due to disseminated cat scratch disease with Bartonella henselae. Conclusion Disseminated CSD is exceptionally rare in adults. We describe the first case of disseminated cat scratch disease associated with peginterferon α and ribavirin to alert clinicians of the need to be aware of unusual manifestations of common infections in this population. PMID:17319959
Segura, Ferran; Pons, Immaculada; Miret, Jaime; Pla, Júlia; Ortuño, Anna; Nogueras, María-Mercedes
Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF), whose etiological agent is R. conorii, is one of the oldest described vector-borne infectious diseases. Although it is endemic in the Mediterranean area, clinical cases have also been reported in other regions. R. massiliae-Bar29 is related to MSF cases. This strain is distributed worldwide. R. conorii and R. massiliae-Bar29 are transmitted by ticks. Dogs are considered the sentinel of R. conorii infection. Cats could also be involved in their transmission. Rickettsia felis, etiological agent of Flea-borne spotted fever, is mainly transmitted by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. Up to now, the role of cats in its transmission is not entirely elucidated. The aim of the study is to analyze the infection in cats by these microorganisms. The study was undertaken in Northeastern Spain. Twenty municipalities of seven regions participated in the study. 212 cats (pets and stray cats) were analyzed. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, source, living place, outdoor activities, health status, type of disease, contact with other animals, and ectoparasite infestation. Sera were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA). Molecular detection (real-time PCR and sequencing) and cultures were performed on blood samples. There were 59 (27.8%) cats seroreactive to one or more microorganisms. Considering cross-reactions, the seroprevalences were 15.6%-19.5% (R. massiliae-Bar29), 1.9%-6.2% (R. conorii), and 5.2%-7.5% (R. felis). A weak association was observed between SFG seropositivity and tick infestation. Ticks found on seropositive cats were Rhipicephalus pusillus, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 23 cats. 21 of them could be sequenced. Sequences obtained were identical to those sequences of SFG rickettsiae similar to R. conorii and R. massiliae. No amplification of R. felis was obtained. Cats can be infected by SFG rickettsiae and produce antibodies against
Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the
Bevins, S.N.; Carver, S.; Boydston, E.E.; Lyren, L.M.; Alldredge, M.; Logan, K.A.; Riley, S.P.D.; Fisher, R.N.; Vickers, T.W.; Boyce, W.; Salman, M.; Lappin, M.R.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the
Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the
Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases – vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii – varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better
Duarte, Ana; Castro, Isabel; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel M; Almeida, Virgilio; Madeira de Carvalho, Luis M; Meireles, José; Fazendeiro, Maria I; Tavares, Luis; Vaz, Yolanda
A survey of infectious and parasitic diseases of stray cats was carried out using biological samples collected from animals captured during a catch-neuter-release programme in four counties of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The main objective was to investigate the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health. Samples of blood, stool, hair and auricular swabs were collected from 231 cats in 27 colonies. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in 47/194 samples (24.2%); anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in 1/180 cats (0.6%); intestinal parasites in 23/74 samples (Toxocara cati, Isospora felis, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dipylidium caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina) and Otodectes cynotis in 4/182 cats (2.2%); dermatophyte fungi were isolated in 40/136 samples (29.4%); feline immunodeficiency virus antibodies were detected in 23/226 samples (10.2%); feline leukaemia virus antigen in 14/198 samples (7.1%); and feline coronavirus RNA in 9/127 samples (7.1%). Our results revealed that zoonotic agents, namely dermatophyte fungi and Toxocara cati were present in stray cat colonies in the investigated counties. Overall the low frequency of major pathogens suggests a balanced relationship between host and agents.
Yabuki, A; Mitani, S; Fujiki, M; Misumi, K; Endo, Y; Miyoshi, N; Yamato, O
We investigated the kidneys of dogs and cats to clarify whether renal myofibroblasts induction is associated with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Immunohistochemical expression of myofibroblast markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin, were evaluated quantitatively. The degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis were also evaluated quantitatively. The plasma creatinine (pCre) concentrations correlated with glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, and only with fibrosis in cats. The alpha-SMA expression correlated with pCre, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, and with pCre and fibrosis in cats. Tubular vimentin expression correlated with fibrosis in cats, but not in dogs. Interstitial vimentin expression correlated with pCre, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, but only with pCre in cats. In conclusion, it was suggested that the severity of CKD in dogs and cats was mediated by different pathways associated with myofibroblasts expression. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scott, M. A.; McCurley, T. L.; Vnencak-Jones, C. L.; Hager, C.; McCoy, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Collins, R. D.; Edwards, K. M.
Serological and epidemiological studies suggest that Bartonella henselae is the etiological agent of cat scratch disease. We designed a study to detect B. henselae in archival biopsies by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by Southern blot hybridization. Forty-two histologically defined cat scratch disease biopsies and eighteen controls were selected for blinded analysis. After testing, charts were reviewed for clinical, immunological, and microbial evidence of infection. Results were correlated with duration of illness and antimicrobial therapy. B. henselae DNA was identified in 27 of 42 (64%) histologically defined patients and 23 of 34 (68%) patients defined both clinically and histologically. There were no false positives (0 of 18). A small subset (n = 14) had cat scratch disease serological tests performed. B. henselae was identified in 8 of 10 serologically positive patients. Polymerase chain reaction detected 50% of our DNA-positive cases (most of these early in the clinical course). Southern blotting of amplicons both doubled sensitivity (detecting patients > 4 weeks into illness) and confirmed B. henselae as the causative species. Our study strongly associates B. henselae with cat scratch disease, suggesting that it may be the most likely etiological agent in the majority of patients with cat scratch disease. PMID:8952548
Bonza, Sarah; McDougle, Leon; McConaghy, John R
Persistent, painful cervical lymphadenopathy associated with malaise that does not respond to oral antibiotics may be cat-scratch disease. This condition is challenging to treat and may require surgical intervention. We present a case report of an immunocompetent 47-year-old African-American woman who was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease and hospitalized after multiple outpatient evaluations for progressive, painful lymphadenopathy. This case report outlines the patient's treatment in the author's urban outpatient clinic followed by an inpatient hospital stay with surgical intervention. Although the reported incidence of cat-scratch disease is higher in whites, primary care physicians should include cat-scratch disease in their differential diagnosis for African-American patients with regional lymphadenopathy, which is a hallmark of the disease. In addition, primary care physicians should be familiar with the atypical presentations of cat-scratch disease and the broad differential diagnosis for regional lymphadenopathy, including sarcoidosis, which is more common in African Americans.
Ghazi, Nicola G; Sams, Waler A
We report a case of cat-scratch disease with unusual posterior segment manifestations. A 12-year-old healthy male presented with three weeks history of decreased visual acuity in the right eye. A significant history of cat exposure and elevated Bartonella titers were present. A large white-gray vascularized mass extending off the optic disk, an early stellate maculopathy, a plaque of choroiditis, an inferior serous retinal detachment involving the macula were present in the right eye. Sector papillitis and a focal area of chorioretinitis along the superotemporal arcade with associated retinal artery to vein anastomosis were present in the left eye. Bilateral optic nerve head involvement including peripapillary angiomatosis, retinal-retinal anastomosis and plaque choroiditis as ocular complications of cat-scratch disease have not been previously described to our knowledge and make this case noteworthy.
Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L
A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient.
Ghazi, Nicola G.; Sams, Waler A.
We report a case of cat-scratch disease with unusual posterior segment manifestations. A 12-year-old healthy male presented with three weeks history of decreased visual acuity in the right eye. A significant history of cat exposure and elevated Bartonella titers were present. A large white-gray vascularized mass extending off the optic disk, an early stellate maculopathy, a plaque of choroiditis, an inferior serous retinal detachment involving the macula were present in the right eye. Sector papillitis and a focal area of chorioretinitis along the superotemporal arcade with associated retinal artery to vein anastomosis were present in the left eye. Bilateral optic nerve head involvement including peripapillary angiomatosis, retinal–retinal anastomosis and plaque choroiditis as ocular complications of cat-scratch disease have not been previously described to our knowledge and make this case noteworthy. PMID:22623868
Abstract Cat scratch disease, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae, usually benign and self-limited. However, various clinical manifestations and no pathognomonic histopathologic features can lead to misinterpretations and diagnostic disputes. We report a case of cat scratch disease in a 39-yr-old male patient with fever and left axillary lymphadenitis. He had a history of cat bite on the left hand dorsum. On excision, the lymph node showed follicular hyperplasia, stellate microabscesses with a rim of granulomatous inflammation. Warthin-Starry silver staining showed many clumps of silver-stained bacilli within the necrotic foci. Serological tests were negative. Diagnosis was established by PCR analysis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1877499238123059 PMID:24641870
Shin, Ok Ran; Kim, Yang Ree; Ban, Tae-hyun; Lim, Taeseok; Han, Tae Hee; Kim, Su Yeon; Seo, Kyung Jin
Cat scratch disease, necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae, usually benign and self-limited. However, various clinical manifestations and no pathognomonic histopathologic features can lead to misinterpretations and diagnostic disputes. We report a case of cat scratch disease in a 39-yr-old male patient with fever and left axillary lymphadenitis. He had a history of cat bite on the left hand dorsum. On excision, the lymph node showed follicular hyperplasia, stellate microabscesses with a rim of granulomatous inflammation. Warthin-Starry silver staining showed many clumps of silver-stained bacilli within the necrotic foci. Serological tests were negative. Diagnosis was established by PCR analysis. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1877499238123059.
Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga
Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient.
King, Katherine Y; Hicks, M John; Mazziotti, Mark V; Eldin, Karen W; Starke, Jeffrey R; Michael, Mini
We present the case of a 13-year-old immunosuppressed patient with unrelenting cat scratch disease despite 9 months of antibiotic therapy. The patient was being treated with mycophenolate and prednisone for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (type 1) diagnosed 13 months before the onset of cat scratch disease. Cat scratch disease was suspected due to epitrochlear lymphadenitis and an inoculation papule on the ipsilateral thumb, and the diagnosis was confirmed by the use of acute and convalescent titers positive for Bartonella henselae. The patient experienced prolonged lymphadenitis despite azithromycin and rifampin therapy, and she developed a draining sinus tract ∼4 months after initial inoculation while receiving antibiotics. Acute exacerbation of the primary supratrochlear node prompted incision and drainage of the area, with no improvement in the disease course. Ultimately, excision of all affected nodes and the sinus tract 9 months after the initial diagnosis was required to achieve resolution. Bartonella was detected at a high level according to a polymerase chain reaction assay in the excised nodes. Persistent treatment with oral antibiotics may have prevented disseminated infection in this immunosuppressed patient. Surgical excision of affected nodes should be considered in patients with cat scratch disease that persists beyond 16 weeks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J
Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P <0.01) than those of non-azotaemic animals (median [IQR] 20.4 (9.5) mg/L vs. 7.2 (8.8) mg/L for dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P <0.01) than those with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) (median [IQR] 57.7 (40.8) mg/L vs. 17.7 (25.1) mg/L). When CKD was graded using the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system, IS levels were correlated with CKD severity in both dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chalhoub, S; Langston, C E; Farrelly, J
Anemia is present in 30-65% in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and few long-term treatment options exist. Darbepoetin is effective in treating anemia of kidney disease in humans and may be used in cats. To evaluate the use of darbepoetin, a recombinant analog of human erythropoietin, to stimulate erythropoiesis, and to effectively treat anemia of kidney disease in cats. Twenty-five of 66 cats that received ≥ 2 doses of darbepoetin at the Animal Medical Center between January 2005 and December 2009 were included in this study. Cats were included in the study if they received darbepoetin and follow-up data were available for at least 56 days and had CKD as a primary clinical diagnosis. Cats were excluded if they were treated with darbepoetin but did not have kidney disease. Response to treatment was defined as reaching or exceeding a target packed red blood cell volume or hematocrit of 25%. Fourteen of 25 cats responded. Thirteen of those 14 cats received a dosage of 1 μg/kg/wk or higher. Presumptive adverse effects included vomiting, hypertension, seizures, and fever. Darbepoetin is effective for treatment of anemia of kidney disease in cats. Pure red cell aplasia appears to be less common with darbepoetin than with epoetin usage. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
McLeland, S M; Lunn, K F; Duncan, C G; Refsal, K R; Quimby, J M
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is associated with gastrointestinal signs commonly attributed to uremic gastropathy. Consequently, patients often are treated with antacids and gastrointestinal protectants. This therapeutic regimen is based on documented gastric lesions in uremic humans and dogs, but the nature and incidence of uremic gastropathy in cats are unknown. Evaluate uremic gastropathy in CKD cats to facilitate refinement of medical management for gastrointestinal signs. Thirty-seven CKD cats; 12 nonazotemic cats Stomachs were evaluated for the presence of classic uremic gastropathy lesions. Histopathologic lesions were compared with serum creatinine concentrations, calcium-phosphorus product (CPP), and serum gastrin concentrations. Gastric ulceration, edema, and vascular fibrinoid change were not observed. The most important gastric lesions in CKD cats were fibrosis and mineralization. Sixteen CKD cats (43%) had evidence of gastric fibrosis of varying severity and 14 CKD cats (38%) had gastric mineralization. CKD cats were more likely to have gastric fibrosis and mineralization than nonazotemic controls (P = .005 and P = .021, respectively). Only cats with moderate and severe azotemia had gastric mineralization. CPP was correlated with disease severity; severely azotemic CKD cats had significantly higher CPP when compared with nonazotemic controls, and to mildly and moderately azotemic cats (P < .05). Gastrin concentrations were significantly higher in CKD cats when compared with nonazotemic controls (P = .003), but increased concentrations were not associated with gastric ulceration. Uremic gastropathy in CKD cats differs from that described in other species and this difference should be considered when devising medical management. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Chikazawa, S; Dunning, M D
Anaemia of inflammatory disease is a common cause of anaemia in routine veterinary practice. It is most often mild to moderate, normocytic, normochromic and non-regenerative. Shortened red cell life span, inhibition of iron metabolism and impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin all contribute to its development. Although anaemia of inflammatory disease is a well-known cause of anaemia in dogs and cats, there is a lack of epidemiological information because specific diagnostic criteria have not been established in veterinary species. Anaemia of inflammatory disease is associated with a poor outcome in various disease states in human medicine; however, its clinical significance and treatment in veterinary medicine are not well understood. This review article describes anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats and considers its potential significance.
Hahn, Harriet; Pey, Pascaline; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loic; Le Poder, Sophie; Château-Joubert, Sophie; Laloy, Eve; Freiche, Valerie
Objectives This study aimed to describe the ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological characteristics of the caecum and ileocaecocolic junction in cats suffering from chronic clinical signs compatible with caecocolic disease. Methods Cats presenting with clinical signs suggestive of a caecocolic disease were prospectively recruited. All cats underwent an ultrasonographic examination of the caecum, ileum, colon, ileocolic lymph nodes and local mesenteric fat, in addition to comprehensive abdominal ultrasonography. This was followed by a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the caecocolic mucosa; caecocolic tissue samples were systematically collected for histologic analysis. Results Eighteen cats were included. Eleven of 18 cats had ultrasonographic abnormalities adjacent to the ileocaecocolic junction (lymphadenopathy, local steatitis) and 13/18 cats had abnormalities directly related to the junction (wall thickening, loss of wall layering). Seventeen of 18 cats had at least one ultrasonographic abnormality. Endoscopically, hyperaemia, oedema, discoloration and/or erosions were found in all cats. Each cat was classified as having mild or moderate-to-severe lesions according to endoscopic results; no classification could be established statistically for ultrasonographic results. The accentuation of the dimpled pattern tended to be inversely related to the severity of endoscopic lesion scoring. Histologically, a large proportion of cats showed typhlitis (13/16), one had lymphoma and two were normal. All cats with typhlitis also had colitis. There was only slight agreement between endoscopic and histological caecal results regarding the severity of lesions. Loss of caecal wall layering on ultrasound was found in 7/18 cats and, surprisingly, did not appear as a reliable predictor of the severity of inflammation or of malignancy; neither did local steatitis nor lymph node size. Conclusions and relevance Ultrasonography and endoscopy should not be used as the
Kimura, Sasagu; Hasegawa, Shunji; Yanagihara, Masashi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi
We present the case of a 6-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD), who developed severe pleuritis without lymphadenitis. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood. This is the first report of CSD diagnosed on real-time PCR using whole blood.
Pérez G, Jorge; Munita S, José M; Araos B, Rafael; López G, Juan P; Stevenson A, Ricardo; González A, Patricia; Pérez C, Daniel; Noriega R, Luis M
Cat scratch disease is the main clinical presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. However, ocular manifestations of bartonellosis occur in about 5 to 10% of the patients, mainly presenting as neuroretinitis, choroiditis or oculoglandular syndrome of Parinaud. We describe two patients with documented B. henselae infection and typical ocular compromise. Both patients were treated and had a favorable visual outcome.
Barkai, Galia; Gutman, Gabriel; Sherr-Lurie, Nir; Hoffmann, Chen; Schpirer, Zvi
Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, a bacterium transmitted to humans from cats through a scratch or by fleas. In 90% of cases, the clinical presentation is that of classical cat scratch disease where an adjacent lymph node is infected. Atypical manifestations include prolonged fever, liver and spleen abscesses, infective endocarditis, central nervous system involvement etc. We present a 6 years old girl who suffered from L2 vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess, initially presenting as colic left waist pain, with no back pain or high fevers. During the process of diagnosis, she recovered without surgical intervention or antibiotic treatment. A review of the literature indicates that among the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of cat scratch disease, skeletal involvement is rare. However, in cases of osteomyelitis, vertebrae are a common site as well as formation of a contiguous phlegmon. Although no studies have investigated the efficacy of different treatment regimens, all patients presented were treated with antimicrobial combinations and recovery rates were high. In view of the patient presented here, it is questioned whether the high recovery rates are a result of efficient antibiotic treatment or due to a benign natural course of the disease.
Koga, Takeharu; Taguchi, Jun; Suzuki, Minoru; Higa, Yoshiteru; Kamimura, Tomoko; Nishimura, Munetsugu; Arakawa, Masahiro
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is usually diagnosed in patients presenting with regional lymphadenopathy and pyrexia that follow contacts with animals. We describe here a young adult male patient who presented with marked pyrexia and a retroperitoneal abscess without relevant medical histories, illustrating that CSD can be a diagnostic challenge on selected occasions.
Phan, Amanda; Castagnini, Luis A
Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease (CSD) may cause prolonged fever. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with confirmed hepatosplenic CSD with fever lasting 3 months despite use of multiple different antimicrobial agents. The patient became afebrile soon after corticosteroid therapy was started. Our case indicates corticosteroids may be useful in patients with hepatosplenic CSD and prolonged fever.
Oksi, Jarmo; Rantala, Sari; Kilpinen, Sanna; Silvennoinen, Raija; Vornanen, Martine; Veikkolainen, Ville; Eerola, Erkki; Pulliainen, Arto Tapio
Bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Here, the first human B. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. The route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a Bartonella henselae infection.
Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Bove-Guri, Marta
Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment. PMID:20628521
Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis. PMID:21851670
Tzannes, Sophia; Batchelor, Daniel J; Graham, Peter A; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Wastling, Jonathan; German, Alexander J
This study reports the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Isospora species in cats showing signs of gastrointestinal disease. Records from a United Kingdom commercial diagnostic laboratory between December 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Of 1355 cats, Cryptosporidium species oocysts were found in 13 cats (1%), Giardia species trophozoites in 74 (6%), and Isospora felis oocysts in 46 (3%). In a second group of 48 cats, prevalence of Giardia species was 15% using an immunoassay for detection of antigen compared to 4% detected with microscopy. Prevalence of Giardia (9%) and Isospora (9%) species was higher in cats less than 6 months old. Gender and breed did not affect prevalence. There was a trend for Cryptosporidium and Isospora species infections to be detected in late autumn and early winter. Regional differences in prevalence were not detected. None of these organisms show a characteristic pattern of clinical signs. This study demonstrates that enteric protozoal infection is common in domestic cats showing signs of alimentary disease.
Hugonnard, Marine; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Dernis, Jérémy; Pouzot-Nevoret, Céline; Barthélémy, Anthony; Vialard, Jacquemine; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle
The incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in cats catheterised for an obstructive lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) has not previously been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of significant bacteriuria in cats with obstructive LUTD managed for 48 h with a closed urine collection system. Eighteen male cats admitted for a non-infectious obstructive LUTD were evaluated. This was a prospective study. A standard protocol was used for aseptic catheter placement and maintenance. Three urine samples were collected from each animal through the catheter immediately after placement, 24 h after placement and just before removal. All samples underwent complete urinalysis, including bacterial culture. Catheter tips were tested by bacterial culture. Six cats (33.3%) developed significant bacteriuria during catheterisation. The causative bacteria were common feline uropathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus species) in five cases, and Streptococcus bovis in one. One cat developed a fungal infection. The presence of bacteria in urinary sediment was correlated strongly with positive urine culture results. The catheter tips from 10/18 cats (55.5%) were positive for culture. The positive predictive value of a positive culture from the urinary catheter tip was 87.5%. The specificity was 53.8%. The same infectious agents were cultured from both urine and catheter tip in six cases. In summary, one-third of cats developed significant bacteriuria during catheterisation. Silent bacteriuria could not be clearly differentiated from true urinary tract infection. The presence of bacteria in the urinary sediment was strongly indicative of bacteriuria. The specificity of urinary catheter tip culture was low.
Gouriet, Frédérique; Lepidi, Hubert; Habib, Gilbert; Collart, Frédéric; Raoult, Didier
Background Most patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) due to Bartonella henselae have a history of exposure to cats and pre-existing heart valve lesions. To date, none of the reported patients have had a history of typical cat scratch disease (CSD) which is also a manifestation of infection with B. henselae. Case presentation Here we report the case of a patient who had CSD and six months later developed IE of the mitral valve caused by B. henselae. Conclusion Based on this unique case, we speculate that CSD represents the primary-infection of B. henselae and that IE follows in patients with heart valve lesions. PMID:17442105
Wang, Chih-Wei; Chang, Wei-Chou; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Liu, Chia-Chen; Huang, Guo-Shu
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection that typically causes swelling of the lymph nodes. The patients usually have a history of being scratched, bitten, or licked by cats and often by kittens. Understanding the characteristic radiological and clinical features may lead to a noninvasive diagnosis and prevent unnecessary invasive procedures. We report two cases of CSD with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showing nodules or masses of lymphadenopathy with subcutaneous edema and fat infiltration in the lymphatic drainage area. The imaging features and clinical manifestations are described, and the differential diagnosis of CSD is discussed.
Lapointe, C; Bélanger, M-C; Dunn, M; Moreau, M; Bédard, C
Hyperthyroid cats are at risk of developing azotemic chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diagnostic tools currently used to screen for CKD in hyperthyroid cats are either unreliable or impractical. Urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase index (NAG(i)) is a good biomarker for azotemic CKD in hyperthyroid cats. Twenty-four newly diagnosed nonazotemic hyperthyroid cats and 10 healthy cats. All cats were evaluated for hyperthyroidism at baseline. Hyperthyroid cats were treated with methimazole and reevaluated once euthyroid. At the end of the study, cats were divided into 3 groups: healthy cats, nonazotemic, and azotemic euthyroid cats. Baseline group characteristics were compared to predict azotemic CKD. The influence of treatment on NAG(i) was evaluated. Baseline NAG(i) was significantly different among groups (P= .004). Azotemic cats had a higher median value (13.12 U/g) when compared with healthy cats (1.38 U/g). With NAG(i) >2.76 U/g, negative and positive predictive values for development of azotemia were 77.7 and 50%, whereas the combination of a urine specific gravity (USG)
Wong, W T; Kelman, M; Ward, M P
Reported cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) - presumptively diagnosed as feline herpesvirus (FHV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) - throughout Australia (2010-2012) were obtained from Disease WatchDog, a companion animal disease surveillance system. This surveillance system is based on voluntary reporting of cases by veterinarians, using a web-based program. Animal factors, location and vaccination information are also reported. Cases reported were mapped and seasonal patterns were described. A total of 131 FHV cases and 120 FCV cases were reported. Excluding euthanasia, case fatality rates were 1.12% and 1.28%, respectively. The largest proportion of cases was reported in winter. Young cats (≤ 2 years), intact cats, unvaccinated cats and (for FHV) male cats appeared to be over-represented in the cases reported. The distributions of cases reported in this surveillance system provide information to aid the diagnosis of infectious feline URTD and to develop client educational programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru
Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients’ health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives. PMID:27731392
Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru
Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients' health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives.
Background When increased serum cobalamin concentrations are encountered clinically they are usually attributed to parenteral supplementation, dietary factors, or otherwise ignored. However, recently, hypercobalaminaemia has been associated with numerous diseases in humans, most notably neoplastic and hepatic disorders. The aim of this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was to determine the significance of increased cobalamin in cats. Results In total, 237 records were retrieved and 174 cats, of various ages and sexes met the inclusion criteria. A total of 42 cats had increased serum cobalamin concentration, and had not received prior supplementation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum cobalamin concentration was positively related to pedigree breed (pedigree breeds more likely to have increased cobalamin concentration, odds ratio [OR] 4.24, 95% CI 1.78-10.15, P = 0.001), to having liver disease (OR 9.91, 95% CI 3.54-27.68), and to having a solid neoplasm (OR 8.54, 95% CI 1.10-66.45). Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that increased serum cobalamin concentrations should not be ignored in cats with no history of supplementation, and investigation for underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease is warranted. PMID:25103858
Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P
The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.
Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101
Jugan, Maria C; August, John R
Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate ultrasonographic changes in the small intestine of cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and low or low-normal serum cobalamin concentrations. Methods Records for client-owned cats presenting to the small animal hospital with signs of gastrointestinal disease and in which serum cobalamin concentrations were measured from 2000-2013 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were cobalamin concentrations <500 ng/l, abdominal ultrasound within 1 month of cobalamin testing and definitive diagnosis. Results Of 751 serum cobalamin measurements, hypocobalaminemia or low-normal cobalamin was identified in 270 cats, abdominal ultrasound was performed in 207 of those cats and a diagnosis was available for 75 of them. Small intestinal ultrasound changes were detected in 49/75 (65%) cats. Abnormalities included thickening, loss of wall layer definition, echogenicity alterations and discrete masses. Serum cobalamin concentrations <500 ng/l were observed with diagnoses of inflammatory disease, neoplasia, infectious disease and normal histopathology. Cobalamin concentration was significantly lower in cats with lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease compared with other gastrointestinal neoplasia ( P = 0.031). No difference was found between cobalamin concentration and the presence of ultrasound abnormalities, specific ultrasound changes or albumin concentration. Conclusions and relevance One-third of symptomatic cats with hypocobalaminemia or low-normal cobalamin concentrations may have an ultrasonographically normal small intestine. For the majority of cats in this study, histopathologic abnormalities were observed in the small intestine, regardless of ultrasound changes. These findings suggest gastrointestinal disease should not be excluded based on low-normal cobalamin concentrations, even with a concurrent normal ultrasound examination. Additional studies are needed in cats with low-normal serum cobalamin concentrations, as
Gourkow, Nadine; Hamon, Sara C; Phillips, Clive J C
Emotional, behavioural, and health benefits of gentle stroking and vocalizations, otherwise known as gentling, have been documented for several species, but little is known about the effect of gentling on cats in stressful situations. In this study, 139 cats rated as anxious upon admission to an animal shelter were allocated to either a Gentled or Control group. Cats were gentled four times daily for 10 min over a period of 10 days, with the aid of a tool for cats that were too aggressive to handle. The cats' mood, or persistent emotional state, was rated daily for 10 d as Anxious, Frustrated or Content. Gentled cats were less likely to have negatively valenced moods (Anxious or Frustrated) than Control cats (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.61 CI 0.42-0.88, P=0.007). Total secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was quantified from faeces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gentled cats had increased S-IgA (6.9 ± 0.7 logeμg/g) compared to Control cats (5.9 ± 0.5 logeμg/g) (P<0.0001). Within the Gentled group of cats, S-IgA values were higher for cats that responded positively to gentling (7.03 ± 0.6, logeμg/g), compared with those that responded negatively (6.14 ± 0.8, logeμg/g). Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. There was a significant increase in shedding over time in Control cats (23%, 35%, 52% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively), but not in gentled cats (32%, 26%, 30% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively) (P=0.001). Onset of upper respiratory disease was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, in particular ocular and/or nasal discharge. Control cats were 2.4 (CI: 1.35-4.15) times more likely to develop upper respiratory disease over time than gentled cats (P<0.0001). It is concluded that gentling anxious cats in animal
Chambers, James K; Tokuda, Takahiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Ryotaro; Tatebe, Harutsugu; Takahashi, Erika; Tomiyama, Takami; Une, Yumi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most dominant neurodegenerative disorder that causes dementia, and no effective treatments are available. To study its pathogenesis and develop therapeutics, animal models representing its pathologies are needed. Although many animal species develop senile plaques (SP) composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins that are identical to those found in humans, none of them exhibit neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and subsequent neurodegeneration, which are integral parts of the pathology of AD. The present study shows that Aβ accumulation, NFT formation, and significant neuronal loss all emerge naturally in the hippocampi of aged domestic cats. The NFT that form in the cat brain are identical to those seen in human AD in terms of their spatial distribution, the cells they affect, and the tau isoforms that comprise them. Interestingly, aged cats do not develop mature argyrophilic SP, but instead accumulate intraneuronal Aβ oligomers in their hippocampal pyramidal cells, which might be due to the amino acid sequence of felid Aβ. These results suggest that Aβ oligomers are more important than SP for NFT formation and the subsequent neurodegeneration. The domestic cat is a unique animal species that naturally replicates various AD pathologies, especially Aβ oligomer accumulation, NFT formation, and neuronal loss.
Tromblee, Tonya C; Jones, Jeryl C; Etue, Ashley E; Forrester, S Dru
The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the association between clinical characteristics, computed tomography (CT) characteristics, and histologic diagnosis in 43 cats with sinonasal disease. All cats were evaluated with CT and nasopharyngeal endoscopic examination, with histologic diagnosis based on nasal biopsy. Fifteen cats were diagnosed with sinonasal neoplasia and 28 cats were diagnosed with rhinitis. Clinical characteristics determined to be significantly associated with neoplasia were unilateral ocular discharge (odds ratio [OR] 9.6) and the presence of a nasopharyngeal mass during endoscopic examination (OR 18.9). CT characteristics found to be significantly associated with neoplasia included: unilateral lysis of ethmoturbinates (OR 11.0), unilateral lysis of the dorsal (OR 8.3) and lateral maxilla (OR 6.9), lysis of the vomer bone (OR 6.7) and ventral maxilla (OR 28.8), and bilateral lysis of the orbital lamina (OR 4.1); unilateral abnormal soft tissue/fluid within the sphenoid sinus (OR 15.3), frontal sinus (OR 10.4), and/or and retrobulbar space (OR 12.2). Lysis of the maxillary turbinates, nasal septum, nasal bone, palatine bone, and cribriform plate were not significantly associated with sinonasal neoplasia.
Sykes, Jane E; Westropp, Joellen L; Kasten, Rick W; Chomel, Bruno B
This study's objective was to determine whether a relationship exists between infection or seropositivity to Bartonella species and clinical illness in cats. Blood samples were obtained for Bartonella species isolation and immunofluorescent antibody serology from 298 cats presenting to a tertiary referral hospital. Medical records were searched and the history, physical examination findings and the results of diagnostic testing relating to the visit at which Bartonella species testing was performed were recorded. Fifty-two (17%) samples were seropositive for Bartonella henselae, four (1%) for Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 57 (19%) for both organisms. Nineteen (6.4%) samples were culture positive, 17 for B henselae and two for B clarridgeiae. Gingivostomatitis was associated with Bartonella species isolation (P=0.001), but not seropositivity. There was no association with uveitis, neurologic signs, or chronic kidney disease, and a weak association between seropositivity and idiopathic lower urinary tract disease (feline interstitial cystitis) (P=0.05).
Ogawa, Mizue; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Isobe, Kyoko; Saito, Miyoko; Harada, Tomoyuki; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki
A male Japanese domestic cat developed progressive limb paralysis from 4 months of age. The cat showed visual disorder, trismus and cognitive impairment and died at 9 months of age. At necropsy, significant discoloration of the white matter was observed throughout the brain and spinal cord. Histologically, severe myelin loss and gliosis were observed, especially in the internal capsule and cerebellum.In the lesions, severe infiltration of macrophages with broad cytoplasm filled with PAS-positive and nonmetachromatic granules (globoid cells) was evident. On the basis of these findings, the case was diagnosed as feline globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe’s disease). Immunohistochemical observation indicated the involvement of oxidative stress and small HSP in the disease.
Zamprogno, Helia; Hansen, Bernie D; Bondell, Howard D; Sumrell, Andrea Thomson; Simpson, Wendy; Robertson, Ian D; Brown, James; Pease, Anthony P; Roe, Simon C; Hardie, Elizabeth M; Wheeler, Simon J; Lascelles, B Duncan X
To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners. 100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old. Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs. 22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats. Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.
Veir, Julia K; Lappin, Michael R
With the advent of more accessible polymerase chain reaction panels, the use of molecular techniques for the detection of infectious organisms has become more routine in veterinary medicine. The use of molecular diagnostics is best reserved for the detection of organisms that are difficult to detect or identify expediently. In this article, the fundamentals of molecular techniques are reviewed along with an examination of specific feline infectious diseases in which diagnosis via molecular techniques is advantageous.
Watson, T D
Dietary factors have a major role in the maintenance of healthy coat and skin, and are significant in the etiology and therapy of certain skin diseases. Nutritional deficiencies are now uncommon as a result of the widespread feeding of complete and balanced pet foods. Deficiencies of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc and vitamins, however, do arise in certain animal- or product-related instances. Supraphysiologic doses of vitamin A have been used in the management of vitamin A-responsive dermatosis in Cocker spaniels; other keratinization defects and seborrheic conditions may respond to retinoid therapy. Much interest has been paid to the therapeutic value of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements in the management of dermatologic conditions associated with hypersensitivity reactions or keratinization defects. These studies have generally yielded disappointing results, which may reflect shortcomings in the design of some trials. Nevertheless, a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study has demonstrated a clear benefit of high dose (n-3) fatty acids in the management of pruritic skin disease. There is also preliminary experimental evidence that specific dietary (n-6):(n-3) fatty ratios are useful in the dietary management of inflammatory diseases. Although results of controlled clinical trials are awaited, the argument exists that it is the absolute amount of (n-3) fatty acid intake rather than ratio that is responsible for potential health benefits.
On August 14, 1994, the Broward County Public Health Unit of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services was notified of three children from Pompano Beach who were hospitalized with encephalitis attributed to cat scratch disease (CSD). All three children (aged 5, 6, and 11 years) were previously healthy and had no histories of seizure disorders or diagnoses of CSD. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases.
Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis
Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.
Dornbos, David; Morin, Jocelyn; Watson, Joshua R; Pindrik, Jonathan
Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease. A 5-year-old girl, who initially presented with vague constitutional symptoms, was diagnosed with cat scratch disease following biopsy of an inguinal lymph node. Despite appropriate antibiotics, she presented several weeks later with recurrent symptoms and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 2 foci of osteomyelitis at T-8 and T-11 with an associated anterior epidural abscess from T-9 to T-12. Percutaneous image-guided vertebral biopsy revealed B. henselae by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and she was treated conservatively with doxycycline and rifampin with favorable clinical outcome.
Munson, Patrick D; Boyce, Thomas G; Salomao, Diva R; Orvidas, Laura J
To identify the presentation of pediatric patients with head and neck manifestations of cat-scratch disease, one of the most common causes of subacute or chronic lymphadenitis in children, and to determine surgical indications and outcomes. Case series. All pediatric patients from infancy to age 19 years who presented with clinical symptoms of cat-scratch disease and had an IgG serological test result of more than 1:128 for Bartonella henselae. Nine patients had cat-scratch disease of the head and neck. Median age at presentation was 4 years; median time from symptom onset to presentation was 20 days. Six (67%) children underwent surgical procedures, and median time from presentation to surgical procedure was 43 days. Despite conservative treatment, a minority of pediatric patients with cat-scratch disease may require surgical drainage of abscess and removal of lymph nodes. Surgical treatment provides tissue for diagnosis, is generally well tolerated, affords improved recovery, and has minimal complications.
Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Papadomichelakis, Alexandros; Petrakis, Georgios; Bobolakis, Emmanouil
Cat-scratch disease is a common zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is generally characterized by regional lymphadenopathy following exposure to an infected cat. Organ systemic manifestations occur rarely in atypical forms of the disease. Abscess of the spleen represents a rare, life-threatening clinical entity. Here we report an unusual case of cat scratch disease presenting as an isolated splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult. Comprehensive social history revealed retrospectively close contact with cats. Diagnosis of B. henselae infection was confirmed on the basis of positive serology, skin lesion and imaging findings. Initial efforts at spleen preserving management failed to improve clinical symptoms and classical splenectomy was finally performed. Splenic bartonellosis may become potentially fatal if not recognized. Since diagnosis is challenging, a high index of clinical suspicion is required.
McElroy, Kristina M; Blagburn, Byron L; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Mead, Paul S; McQuiston, Jennifer H
Cat-scratch disease, flea-borne typhus, and plague are three flea-associated zoonoses of cats of concern in the USA. Although flea concentrations may be heaviest in coastal and temperate climates, fleas and flea-borne disease agents can occur almost anywhere in the USA. Understanding flea-borne pathogens, and the associated risks for owners and veterinarians, is important to reduce the likelihood of zoonotic infection.
Hazuchova, Katarina; Held, Susanne; Neiger, Reto
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. Methods Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory. Cats without FIP were further subdivided into three subgroups: cardiac disease, neoplasia and other diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in serum and effusion, using assays previously validated in cats. Results Serum and effusion samples were available for the measurement of APPs from 88 and 67 cats, respectively. Concentrations of the APPs in serum and effusion were significantly different in cats with and without FIP ( P <0.001 for all three APPs). The best APP to distinguish between cats with and without FIP was AGP in the effusion; a cut-off value of 1550 µg/ml had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% each for diagnosing FIP. Conclusions and relevance AGP, particularly if measured in effusion, was found to be useful in differentiating between FIP and other diseases, while SAA and Hp were not. The concentration of all three APPs in some diseases (eg, septic processes, disseminated neoplasia) was as high as in cats with FIP; therefore, none of these can be recommended as a single diagnostic test for FIP.
Love, D N; Johnson, J L; Jones, R F; Bailey, M
A total of 11 strains of Bacteroides zoogleoformans were isolated from 11 of 106 different cat subcutaneous "fight wound" abscesses and were among a total of 143 Bacteroides species isolated from these samples. They constituted 3.4% (11 of 325) of all anaerobic isolates. The cat strains and strains of B. zoogleoformans isolated from humans with periodontal disease were similar phenotypically as determined by biochemical reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins, and guanine plus cytosine ratios of DNA. Eight cat strains and five human strains tested had 45 to 54% DNA homology with the type strain of B. zoogleoformans. The eight cat strains and five human strains (excluding the type strain) were related by DNA homology at 70 to 77%. There was 85 to 90% intragroup DNA homology among the cat strains and 86 to 89% intragroup homology among the five human strains. The implications for epidemiology and human and animal ecology are discussed. Images PMID:3965393
Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L
A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG−. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient. PMID:24334464
Stathopoulou, Thaleia-Rengina; Kouki, Maria; Pypendop, Bruno H; Johnston, Atholl; Papadimitriou, Serafeim; Pelligand, Ludovic
Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect and absorption of buprenorphine after buccal administration in cats with oral disease. Methods Six adult client-owned cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (weighing 5.1 ± 1.1 kg) were recruited for a randomised, prospective, blinded, saline-controlled, crossover study. Pain scores, dental examination, stomatitis score and buccal pH measurement were conducted on day 1 under sedation in all cats. On day 2, animals were randomised into two groups and administered one of the two treatments buccally (group A received buprenorphine 0.02 mg/kg and group B received 0.9% saline) and vice versa on day 3. Pain scores and food consumption were measured at 30, 90 and 360 mins after the administration of buprenorphine. Blood samples were taken at the same time and plasma buprenorphine concentration was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were statistically analysed as non-parametric and the level of significance was set as P <0.05. Results There were no major side effects after buprenorphine administration. Buccal pH values ranged between 8.5 and 9.1 and the stomatitis disease activity index between 10 and 22 (17.8 ± 4.5) with the scale ranging from 0-30. The maximum buprenorphine plasma concentration (14.8 ng/ml) was observed 30 mins after administration and there was low inter-individual variability. There was a significant difference between baseline pain scores compared with pain scores after buprenorphine ( P <0.05 ) and between the saline and buprenorphine group at 30 mins ( P = 0.04) and 90 mins ( P = 0.04). There was also a significant effect of the stomatitis index on the pain score. Regarding the pharmacokinetic parameters, cats with stomatitis showed lower bioavailability and shorter absorption half-life after buccal administration of buprenorphine compared with normal cats in previous studies. Conclusions and relevance Buccal administration of buprenorphine in cats with
McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin
A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.
Atıcı, Serkan; Kadayıfcı, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ayşe; Toper, Muhammed Hasan; Celikel, Cigdem Ataizi; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakır, Mustafa
Typical cat-scratch disease (CSD) is characterized by local lymphadenopathy following the scratch or bite from a cat or kitten. An atypical presentation which includes liver and/or spleen lesions is rarely reported in an immunocompetent child. Systemic CSD may mimic more serious disorders like malignancy or tuberculosis. Although a diagnosis is difficult to establish in systemic CSD, an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications. Bartonella henselae is difficult to culture, and culture is not routinely recommended. Clinical, serological, radiological, and pathological findings are used for the diagnosis of CSD. Herein we present a case of systemic CSD presenting with hepatic mass in an immunocompetent child. The differential diagnosis is made by serological and pathological evidence. He was successfully treated with gentamicin (7.5 mg/kg) and rifampin (15 mg/kg) for six weeks. PMID:25610689
García, Juan C; Núñez, Manuel J; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M; López, Asunción; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%-20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin.
Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige
Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige
Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided. PMID:25804947
Vaden, Shelly L; Elliott, Jonathan
Proteinuria is a negative prognostic indicator for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease. A normal dog or cat should excrete very little protein and have a urine protein:creatinine ratio that is less than 0.4 or less than 0.2, respectively; persistent proteinuria above this magnitude warrants attention. Administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, blood pressure control and nutritional modification are considered a standard of care for renal proteinuria. Renal biopsy and administration of immunosuppressive agents should be considered in animals with glomerular proteinuria that have not responded to standard therapy. Targeted patient monitoring is essential when instituting management of proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Makki, Ahmad; Murra, May; Sommer, Thorbjørn
at Scratch Disease is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae and presents in patients exposed to a scratch/bite from cats. We present a case with a 12-year-old boy with an enlarged inguinal lymph node, initially suspected to be a femoral hernia by ultrasonography. Histologic examination of an inguinal lymph node showed necrosis and B. henselae infection. It is important with a thorough anamnesis including any history of animal bites/scratch and it should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in patients with swelling in the groin, despite the rare diagnosis of this disease.
Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C
Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study.
Gourkow, Nadine; Lawson, James H.; Hamon, Sara C.; Phillips, Clive J.C.
We examined 250 cats at an animal shelter in the coastal temperate region of Canada to determine whether age, source, gender, and sterilization status influenced risk of shedding at intake, transmission of infection, and development of clinical upper respiratory disease (URD). On admission, 28% of the cats were positive for 1 or more infectious agent related to URD; 21% were carriers of Mycoplasma felis and < 3% were carriers of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) or Bordetella bronchiseptica. Chlamydophila felis and H1N1 influenza virus were not detected. Carrier status was not affected by source, gender, sterilization status, or age (P > 0.05). Viral and bacterial shedding increased by 9% and 11%, respectively, over 3 sampling times (days 1, 4, and 10). Over 40 days after admission, the cumulative probability of developing URD was 2.2 times greater for stray than owner-surrendered cats (P = 0.02) and 0.5 times as great for neutered cats as for intact cats (P = 0.03). Cats that were shedding at intake were 2.6 times more likely to develop URD than were non-carriers (P < 0.002). Cats with FHV-1 and B. bronchiseptica infections were most at risk compared with non-shedding cats (P < 0.01). PMID:23904635
Squires, R A
Viruses commonly cause gastrointestinal illnesses in dogs and cats that range in severity from mild diarrhoea to malignant neoplasia. Perpetual evolution of viruses is reflected in changing disease patterns, so that familiar viruses are sometimes discovered to cause new or unexpected diseases. For example, canine parvovirus (CPV) has regained the ability to infect felids and cause a panleucopenia-like illness. Feline panleucopenia virus (FPV) has been shown to cause fading in young kittens and has recently been implicated as a possible cause of feline idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Molecular scrutiny of viral diseases sometimes permits deeper understanding of pathogenesis and epizootiology. Feline gastrointestinal lymphomas have not, in the past, been strongly associated with retroviral infections, yet some of these tumours harbour retroviral proviruses. Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) may play a role in lymphomagenesis, even in cats diagnosed as uninfected using conventional criteria. There is strong evidence that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) can also be oncogenic. The variant feline coronaviruses that cause invariably-fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) arise by sporadic mutation of an ubiquitous and only mildly pathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV); a finding that has substantial management implications for cat breeders and veterinarians. Conversely, canine enteric coronavirus (CECV) shows considerable genetic and antigenic diversity but causes only mild, self-limiting diarrhoea in puppies. Routine vaccination against this virus is not recommended. Although parvoviruses, coronaviruses and retroviruses are the most important known viral causes of canine and feline gastrointestinal disease, other viruses play a role. Feline and canine rotaviruses have combined with human rotaviruses to produce new, reassortant, zoonotic viruses. Some companion animal rotaviruses can infect humans directly. Undoubtedly, further viral causes of canine and feline
Swanson, Christine M; Smedley, Rebecca C; Saavedra, Paulo Vilar; Kiupel, Matti; Kitchell, Barbara E
Immunolabeling for the critical lymphocyte survival factor, Bcl-2, of intestinal biopsies from cats with histologic evidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma was evaluated to determine if expression differed significantly between these two disease processes. Immunolabeling for Bcl-2 was performed on small intestinal endoscopic or full thickness biopsy sections from 55 cats. Diagnosis of IBD, T-cell lymphoma or B-cell lymphoma was established previously. The percentage of infiltrating lymphocytes that were positively labeled for Bcl-2 was subjectively determined for each case. Eight cats were diagnosed with IBD and 47 cats with lymphoma. A significantly higher percentage of cells were positively immunolabeled for Bcl-2 in cats with GI lymphoma [median (range); 90 (5-95)%] compared with cats with IBD [60 (15-95)%] (P = 0.029). However, the overall degree of positive immunolabeling in both groups tended to be high. This over-expression of Bcl-2 may prove useful as a therapeutic target for IBD and GI lymphoma in cats.
Biegańska, Małgorzata; Dardzińska, Weronika; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena
The aim of the presented mini-review is to review the literature data referring to opportunistic mycoses in pet dogs and cats suffering from other concurrent diseases, comparable to human medical disorders with high risk of secondary mycoses. This review also presents the preliminary results of a project aimed at understanding the fungal colonization and occurrence of secondary mycoses in pets suffering from metabolic disorders, neoplasms and viral infections. The incidence of opportunistic mycoses is higher in such individuals, mostly because of their impaired immunity. The main risk factors are primary and secondary types of immunodeficiency connected with anti-cancer treatment or neoplastic disease itself. Moreover, literature data and the results of our investigations show that Candida yeasts are prevalent among diabetic animals and indicate that these fungi are the main etiological agents of secondary infections of the oral cavity, GI and urogenital tracts. Other important conditions possibly favoring the development of mycoses are concurrent infections of cats with FeLV and FIV viruses. Thus, in all cases of the mentioned underlying diseases, animals should be carefully monitored by repeated mycological examination, together with inspection of other parameters. Also, the prophylaxis of opportunistic mycoses should be carefully considered alike other factors influencing the prognosis and the outcome of primary diseases.
Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125
Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís
Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the
Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria
Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that is commonly part of the microbiota of humans and animals. It is considered a common enteric pathogen, but the pathogenesis and the predisposing factors of the disease commonly differ between host species. Thus, specific research is necessary to understand the role of this pathogen, how to diagnose it, and which control measures are applicable. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of C. perfringens infections in dogs, cats and wild animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kruse, L P; Engbaek, K
The first Danish case of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, a manifestation of cat-scratch disease, is reported in a 35-year-old man presenting with an enlarged preauricular lymph node and an ipsilateral conjunctival granuloma. Surgical removal of the granulomatous lesion was followed by rapid healing. The diagnosis was verified by demonstrating a high antibody tire against Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae. On subsequent questioning the man gave a history of acquiring a kitten six weeks before his illness. The importance of eye examination in patients presenting with preauricular lymphadenopathy is emphasized.
Dubreuil, Julien; Dony, Arthur; Salles, Gilles; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Giammarile, Francesco; Skanjeti, Andrea
FDG-PET/CT is a standard of care in staging and response assessment of Hodgkin lymphoma. Hence, it is important to recognize pitfalls owing to the potential therapeutic impact. We report a case of a 29-year-old woman affected by stage III bulky Hodgkin lymphoma. The interim FDG-PET/CT showed a complete metabolic response. After three new cycles of chemotherapy, the patient showed fever and lymphadenopathy at clinic examination, PET/CT revealed several FDG uptakes at lymph nodes in inguinal and iliac region. Pathologic analyses, after biopsy and serologic examinations, led to the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.
Gai, M; d'Onofrio, G; di Vico, M C; Ranghino, A; Nappo, A; Diena, D; Novero, D; Limerutti, G; Messina, M; Biancone, L
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by self-limited fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. In some cases signs of a visceral, neurologic, and ocular involvement can also be encountered. In this report we describe the development of CSD in a kidney transplant patient. Immunocompromised hosts are more susceptible to infection from Bartonella compared with the standard population. Infection of Bartonella should be considered as a differential diagnosis in kidney transplant patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Razaq, Mohammad; Godkar, Darshan; Mankan, Nagander; Sridhar, Sundara; Hussain, Shafkat; Ohri, Anju
Richter's Syndrome is a highly refractory and usually fatal condition. It occurs as a result of transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or low grade lymphoma into highly aggressive lymphoma. Patients usually present with rapidly enlarging lymph nodes and systemic symptoms like night sweats, fever and weight loss. We are reporting a case of CLL presenting with similar symptoms. Initial suspicion of Richter's Syndrome proved wrong when lymph node biopsy did not reveal evidence of high grade lymphoma. Instead it showed findings consistent with cat scratch disease (CSD), later confirmed by serology. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of CSD in a patient with CLL.
Dzelalija, B; Avsic-Zupanc, T
In this article we reported typical clinical, primary skin lesion and regional lymphadenitis, and atypical, protracted fever and algic syndrome, characteristics of cat scratch disease (CSD) in a 21-year-old man (a student) from Zadar, Croatia. Laboratory parameters were in normal range. The histopathologic findings of affected lymph nodes included stellate caseating granulomas. By using IFA method a seroconversion of specific IgG antibodies (neg/1:512) and rise of IgM antibodies (1:160/ > 1:320) to B. henselae were detected in paired sera, and these serologic findings indicate on conclusion that B. henselae is probably etiologic agent of CSD in our patient.
Knafl, D.; Lötsch, F.; Burgmann, H.; Goliasch, G.; Poeppl, W.; Ramharter, M.; Thalhammer, F.; Schuster, C.
We present an 18-year-old, immunocompetent Austrian military conscript with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, back-pain, and persistent inflammation markers despite two weeks of antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin/sulbactam. All specific laboratory investigations for identification of a specific etiology, including blood cultures and autoantibodies, were inconspicuous. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatosplenic lesions and osteomyelitis of the thoracic and lumbar spine with base plate fracture. Based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, and radiological findings, serology for cat scratch disease (CSD) was performed and high B. henselae specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected. Due to its variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of CSD is challenging, especially in the absence of a history of specific exposure. This case report shall remind the physician that cat scratch disease is a common disease, mainly presenting with fever and lymphadenopathy in young patients. Nevertheless CSD has many different and rare forms of presentations, including hepatosplenic lesions and bone involvement as shown in this case. PMID:26576306
Background Intestinal phosphate binders, uremic toxin binders and some other types of supplements are an integral part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in various species, including cats. This pathology in domestic carnivores requires life-long nutritional and medical management. In this context, the compliance of owners and patients cannot be achieved without an adequate level of palatability for oral medication or supplementation. Knowing that hyporexia and anorexia are among the most commonly seen clinical signs in cats suffering from CKD this is already, in itself, a serious obstacle to acceptable compliance in sick animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the palatability of four commercially available products designed for cats suffering from CKD: Ipakitine® (Vetoquinol, France), Azodyl® (Vetoquinol, USA), Renalzin® (Bayer, France), Rubenal® (Vetoquinol, France) and an additional recently developed product: Pronefra® (Virbac, France). The study was performed with a group of previously-characterised cats, all living in an enriched and well-being securing environment of an independent centre housing panels of pets expert in palatability measurement. In total 172 monadic testings were performed. The palatability of each product was assessed by measuring their rates of prehension and consumption, and the consumption proportions were also analysed. Results The most palatable presentation (based on useful consumption) was Pronefra®, which was significantly higher than Azodyl® (p = 0.046), Ipakitine® (p < 0.0001), Renalzin® (p < 0.0001) and Rubenal® (p < 0.0001). The product with the highest rate of prehension was also Pronefra®, which was significantly higher than Azodyl® (p = 0.0019), Ipakitine® (p = 0.0023), Renalzin® (p = 0.0008) and Rubenal® (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Pronefra® was the most palatable presentation tested, meaning it may be useful for improving ease of supplementation
Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering
Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.
Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering
Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.
Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk
A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection. PMID:27382381
Whitehouse, W; Quimby, J; Wan, S; Monaghan, K; Robbins, R; Trepanier, L A
F2 -isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidant injury, increase with advancing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. In cats, the relationship between CKD and oxidative stress is poorly understood. To determine whether cats with advancing CKD have increasing urinary F2 -isoprostanes. Control cats without evidence of CKD (≥6 years old; n = 11), and cats with IRIS stage 1 (n = 8), 2 (n = 38), 3 (n = 21), and 4 (n = 10) CKD. This was a prospective observational study. Urinary F2 -isoprostanes (specifically free 15-F2t -isoprostanes) normalized to urine creatinine (IsoPs) were compared among groups and tested for correlations with blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity. The IsoPs also were compared between cats with and without hypertension or proteinuria, and in cats fed predominantly standard versus renal diets. Urinary IsoPs were increased, but not significantly, in cats with stage 1 CKD (median 263 pg/mg creatinine; range, 211-380) compared to controls (182 pg/mg; range, 80-348) and decreased significantly from stage 1 through advancing CKD (stage 2, 144 pg/mg; range, 49-608; stage 3, 102 pg/mg; range, 25-158; stage 4, 67 pg/mg; range, 26-117; P < .01). Urinary IsoPs were inversely correlated with serum creatinine (r = -0.66, P < .0001). Urinary IsoPs are significantly higher in early CKD (stage 1) compared to cats with more advanced CKD. Additional studies are warranted to characterize oxidative stress in cats with stage 1 CKD and determine whether early antioxidant treatments have a protective effect on CKD progression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Tynes, Valarie V; Hart, Benjamin L; Pryor, Patricia A; Bain, Melissa J; Messam, Locksley L McV
To determine whether findings of urinalyses could be used to reliably distinguish gonadectomized cats with urine-marking behavior from those with no problem urination. Case control study. 58 gonadectomized cats (47 males and 11 females) with urine-marking behavior (ie, marking of vertical surfaces) and 39 (26 males and 13 females) without problem urination or urinary tract-associated conditions. Urine was collected by cystocentesis from all cats. Findings of urinalyses of cats with urine-marking behavior were analyzed statistically for sex-related differences and differences between cats that marked vertical surfaces only and those that marked both vertical and horizontal surfaces; findings of urinalyses of control cats were compared between sexes. Subsequently, results of urinalyses of cats with urine-marking behavior were compared with those of control cats. With regard to variables measured via urinalysis, there were no differences between male and female cats within either group. Among cats with urine-marking behavior, there were no differences between those that only marked vertically and those that marked vertically and horizontally. Analyses of data from all cats with urine-marking behavior and control cats revealed no differences that could be associated with urine marking. These data suggest that urine-marking behavior by gonadectomized cats is an aspect of normal behavior. Clinicians are advised to focus on behavioral history of house-soiling cats to differentiate between urine-marking behavior and inappropriate urination; for the latter, urinalysis is appropriate to rule out lower urinary tract disorders.
Mitani, Sawane; Yabuki, Akira; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu
The association of renin and angiotensin II, which are potent components of the renin-angiotensin system, with the severity of chronic renal disease was investigated immunohistochemically in dogs and cats. Immunoreactivities of renin and angiotensin II were evaluated quantitatively, and their correlations with the degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were statistically analyzed. Immunoreactivities for renin were detected in afferent arteries in both dogs and cats. The score of renin-positive signals showed no correlation with plasma creatinine concentration or any of the histopathological parameters, except for the diameter of glomeruli in dogs. Immunoreactivities for angiotensin II were detected in tubules (primarily proximal tubules) and interstitial mononuclear cells in both dogs and cats. The score of tubular angiotensin II correlated with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats but not in dogs. The score of interstitial angiotensin II correlated with plasma creatinine concentration, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration and fibrosis in dogs and with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that intrarenal renin-angiotensin system is correlated with the severity of kidney disease, with the underlying mechanism differing between dogs and cats.
Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A
Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Nelson, Christina A; Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005-2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5-9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50-64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children.
Baptista, Mariana Andrade; Lo, Denise Swei; Hein, Noely; Hirose, Maki; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito
Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO), this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT) are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD), although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.
Baptista, Mariana Andrade; Lo, Denise Swei; Hein, Noely; Hirose, Maki; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO), this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT) are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD), although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses. PMID:28580326
Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S.
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005–2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5–9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50–64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children. PMID:27648778
Orden, Alberto O; Nardi, Norma N; Vilaseca, Alicia B; Colombini, Ana C; Barrios, Nora G; Vijnovich Barón, Anahí
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Immunosuppression is a risk factor for the development of atypical forms of the disease. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with fever and bilateral inguinal lymph node enlargement. She did not have apparent contact with animals. The patient was receiving etanercept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated granulomatous lymphadenitis. She was successfully managed by discontinuing etanercept and by treatment with minocycline. She developed clinical remission and typical seroconversion. Infection with Bartonella should be considered in the differential diagnosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Rohr, Aaron; Ash, Ryan; Vadaparampil, John; Hill, Jacqueline; Wetzel, Louis
A 51-year-old man with history of undiagnosed pulmonary nodules 4 years prior, presented with right-sided chest pain. Acute cardiac workup was negative, and a chest computed tomography examination demonstrated marked improvement in bilateral pulmonary nodules. A concordant abdominal computed tomography examination showed new subcentimeter hypodense lesions throughout the liver and spleen, mild progressive abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy, and new small lytic lesions of T11 and L4 vertebrae. A positron emission tomography examination demonstrated hypermetabolic activity of these abdominopelvic lesions suggesting metastatic disease. Extensive laboratory workup was negative, aside from IgA deficiency. Eventually, biopsy of a hepatic lesion was performed and compatible with Bartonella species. An elevated Bartonella IgG titer was noted, consistent with Bartonella Hensalae infection, or "cat-scratch disease." Radiographic findings showed marked improvement after clinically appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Rolain, Jean-Marc; Lepidi, Hubert; Zanaret, Michel; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Michel, Gérard; Thomas, Pascal-Alexandre; Texereau, Michèle; Stein, Andreas; Romaru, Anette; Eb, François
We report microbiologic analysis of 786 lymph node biopsy specimens from patients with suspected cat-scratch disease (CSD). The specimens were examined by standard, cell culture, and molecular methods. Infectious agents were found in samples from 391 (49.7%) of 786 patients. The most commonly identified infectious agent was Bartonella henselae (245 patients, 31.2%), the agent of CSD. Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 54 patients (6.9%) by culture and retrospectively confirmed by using a specific real-time PCR assay. Neoplasm was diagnosed in 181 specimens suitable for histologic analysis (26.0%) from 47 patients. Moreover, 13 patients with confirmed Bartonella infections had concurrent mycobacteriosis (10 cases) or neoplasm (3 cases). A diagnosis of CSD does not eliminate a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis or neoplasm. Histologic analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens should be routinely performed because some patients might have a concurrent malignant disease or mycobacteriosis. PMID:17073081
Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi.
Abraham, Jill L; Morris, Daniel O; Griffeth, Gregory C; Shofer, Frances S; Rankin, Shelley C
In this study, bacterial cultures were collected from five sites on each of 50 healthy cats and 48 cats with inflammatory skin disease (ISD), to determine prevalence of carriage and relative frequency of methicillin resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi. Latex agglutination testing for penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on all methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the mecA gene was performed on MR S. intermedius and S. schleiferi isolates. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) typing was performed on all MR S. aureus isolates. Coagulase-positive staphylococci and S. schleiferi ssp. schleiferi were isolated from 24 of 48 cats with ISD: Staphylococcus aureus (14 of 24, 58%), Staphylococcus intermedius (11 of 24, 46%), Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi (1 of 24, 4%), and Staphylococcus hyicus (1 of 24, 4%). Prevalence of MR was 7% for S. aureus, 0% for S. intermedius, 100% for S. schleiferi ssp. schleiferi, and 0% for S. hyicus. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 17 of 50 healthy cats: S. aureus (10 of 17, 59%), S. intermedius (11 of 17, 65%), and S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans (1 of 17, 6%). Prevalence of MR was 20% for S. aureus, 18% for S. intermedius, and 0% for S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans. All MR isolates were positive for PBP2a via latex agglutination. Methicillin-resistant S. intermedius and S. schleiferi ssp. schleiferi isolates were also positive for the mecA gene via PCR. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were identified as SCCmec type II. Results of PFGE indicated heterogeneity among isolates. There was no significant difference in staphylococcal isolation or methicillin resistance between study groups. While present, MR coagulase-positive staphylococci are significantly less common in these study populations.
Petrušková, D; Pochop, P; Kodetová, M; Obermannová, B; Dotřelová, D
1. To highlight a less-known clinical entity neuroretinitis and the need for differentiation of this entity from the other retinal disease that can mimic. 2. To be familiar with ocular finding in Cat scratch disease. Authors describe a clinical course of bilateral neuroretinitis in a 9-year-old boy who was referred to our clinic with painless decreased corrected visual aquity in the right eye (6/18) and in the left eye (6/9). Fundus examination disclosed bilateral stellate maculopathy. Patient had a history of close contact with a cat. Serologic tests for infective disease confirmed the presence of IgG antibody against Bartonella henselae (1:64). Specific antibiotic treatment with bacteriostatical activity against Bartonella henselae restored functional and anatomical changes in both of eyes within two month. Noninfective etiology of bilateral neuroretinitis was essential to exclude in differential diagnosis. Diagnosis of Cat scratch disease was based on positive epidemiological diagnosis, bilateral manifestation of neuroretinitis, high IgG antibody titre against Bartonella henselae and successful treatment of this disease after specific antibiotic therapy. Neuroretinitis is the most common ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease. Familiarity with differential diagnosis of neuroretinitis is essential for prompt causal treatment initialisation.
Love, D N; Johnson, J L; Moore, L V
One hundred and sixty-seven strains of Bacteroides were isolated from 71 subcutaneous fight-wound abscesses of cats, 21 cases of feline pyothorax, normal gingival margins from 10 cats and 6 cases of feline gingivitis. Bacteroides species constituted (as a proportion of all anaerobic isolates examined) 44.5% from subcutaneous abscesses, 33.7% from pyothoraxes, 37.5% from normal gingiva and 27.7% from diseased gingiva. Bacteroides tectum comprised 43.7% or 73 of 167 strains, followed by the black- or brown-pigmented asaccharolytic feline species of B. gingivalis, B. salivosus and Group B, comprising 32.3% or 54 of 167 strains. B. heparinolyticus (some 10% or 17 of 167 strains) was the next most common species described. The remainder consisted of two strains of B. fragilis and 21 unspeciated strains. Bacteroides tectum was frequently isolated from subcutaneous abscesses (43.7%) and pyothoraxes (46.6%), and it constituted some 33% of anaerobic isolated from normal gingiva. Bacteroides heparinolyticus was more commonly encountered in purulent lesions (abscesses and pyothoraxes) than in the oral cavity.
Berg, J N; Fales, W H; Scanlan, C M
A survey for anaerobic bacteria was conducted in 314 clinical specimens from dogs and cats. A total of 187 anaerobic isolates in pure and mixed culture were isolated from 111 of the specimens that contained anaerobic bacteria. Common isolated included Actinomyces (9.1%), Clostridium perfringens (19.3%), other Clostridium spp (11.2%), Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (7.5%), Bacteroides melaninogenicus (13.4%), other Bacteroides spp (17.6%), and Fusobacterium necrophorum (5.3%). Anaerobic bacteria were involved in serious lesions that often were life threatening to the animals. Antibiotic susceptibility data indicated that the lincomycin family, the penicillin family, chloramphenicol, and cephaloridine are preferred drugs for treatment of anaerobic infections. Data from the survey were used in formulation of a table to aid practitioners in clinical diagnosis of disease caused by anaerobes. Clostridium perfringens was isolated in large numbers from five of six dogs with a clinical diagnosis of canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and from one cat with hemorrhagic diarrhea. Experimental infections were induced in rats, using caine feces as inoculum. Induced lesions contained aerobic and anaerobic bacteria similar to those bacteria isolated in the clinical survey, indicating that feces may serve as a major source of these bacteria in clinical infections of the dog.
Reed, Nicki; Simpson, Kerry; Ayling, Roger; Nicholas, Robin; Gunn-Moore, Danielle
There is some evidence that Mycoplasma species may be associated with lower airway disease in cats. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out on a total population of 76 cats but failed to identify any cases of Mycoplasma species infection by bacterial culture alone. The overall prevalence of bacterial infection (15.8%) was also lower than that identified in previous studies. When a molecular detection technique, the PCR-DGGE, was employed the prevalence of Mycoplasma species detected was 15.4%, with M felis, M gateae and M feliminutum species identified, although the significance of these Mycoplasma species in feline lower airway disease remains in question. However, the PCR-DGGE technique allowed species identification and indicated the presence of M feliminutum, a species not previously isolated from the lower airways of cats.
Lund, Heidi Sjetne; Skogtun, Gaute; Sørum, Henning; Eggertsdóttir, Anna Vigdís
A diagnosis of bacterial cystitis commonly relies on a positive microbiological culture demonstrating the presence of a significant number of colony-forming units/ml urine, as urine within the upper urinary tract, bladder and proximal urethra generally is considered sterile. Recent studies from human and veterinary medicine indicate the presence of non-culturable bacteria in culture-negative urine samples. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine samples from cats with signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and healthy control cats by 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and subsequent sequencing. The study sample included 38 culture-negative urine samples from cats with FLUTD and 43 culture-negative samples from control cats. Eight culture-positive urine samples from cats with FLUTD were included as external positive controls in addition to negative reaction controls. Of possible methodological limitations, degradation of DNA due to storage, the use of non-sedimented urine for DNA isolation and lack of internal positive reaction controls should be mentioned. The positive controls were recognised, but occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with or without signs of lower urinary tract disease was not demonstrated. However, considering the possible methodological limitations, the presence of bacterial DNA in the urine of culture-negative FLUTD cats cannot be excluded based on the present results alone. Therefore, a prospective study reducing the possibility of degradation of DNA due to storage, in combination with modifications enhancing the chance of detecting even lower levels of bacterial DNA in culture-negative samples, seems warranted. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M
The distribution and numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin(+) plasma cells and calprotectin (L1)(+) macrophages was analyzed in full-thickness, formalin-fixed biopsy samples from the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and from the colon from nine cats with clinical signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All animals had lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or lymphoplasmacytic enterocolitis. Equivalent samples from the same intestinal regions from 12 healthy pet cats served as controls. Labelled cells in the lamina propria were counted by computer-aided morphometry. The different cell types were similarly distributed in both groups, but there were differences in their numbers. There were more CD3(+) T cells in the duodenum and jejunum of cats with IBD; however, the difference was only significant for the duodenum. There were significantly more IgA(+) cells in the duodenal crypt region. There were significantly more IgG(+) cells in the lower jejunal crypt region. Plasma cells expressing IgM were decreased in cats with IBD, but the difference was not significant. L1(+) macrophages were significantly decreased in the lower crypt area of the colon in cats with IBD and there was a trend to decreased L1(+) cells in the upper crypt area of the duodenum and jejunum. Comparison of the results of this study with previous findings on endoscopically-obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats with IBD revealed some differences. These discrepancies might relate to differences between control cat populations, types of biopsy samples, methodological factors such as different counting techniques and the activity of the disease at the time of sampling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging velocities in normal geriatric cats and geriatric cats with primary or systemic diseases linked to specific cardiomyopathies in humans, and the influence of age and heart rate upon these velocities.
Simpson, Kerry E; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; Shaw, Darren J; French, Anne T; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Moran, Carmel M; Corcoran, Brendan M
Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging (pw-DTI) techniques allow the non-invasive assessment of myocardial dynamics. pw-DTI has demonstrated regional and global diastolic impairment in various forms of human and feline cardiomyopathy. We hypothesise that in geriatric cats with systemic diseases that have been linked to specific cardiomyopathies in human beings, the myocardial velocity profile will be altered when compared to either normal or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cats; and that both age and heart rate have a significant affect upon pw-DTI velocities. The aims of this study were to determine whether the feline M-mode or myocardial velocity profile is altered in geriatric cats with disease states that have been linked to specific cardiomyopathies in humans when compared to normal geriatric cats or geriatric cats with HCM and to determine whether age or heart rate has a significant effect upon pw-DTI velocities within these groups of cats. Sixty-six cats aged 8 years or above were included in the study, and were divided as follows: Unaffected (n=8), basilar septal bulge (BSB) (17), HCM (14), hyperthyroid (HiT(4)) (12) and chronic renal failure (CRF) (15). Systolic blood pressure was normal in all the cats. pw-DTI systolic (S'), early (E') and late diastolic (A') velocities were assessed from standardised sites within the myocardium, and the relationships between these and disease group, age and heart rate were then assessed. In cats with HCM, the E' velocity was decreased at various sites. Conversely, the HiT(4) cats demonstrated increased S' velocities. The only site at which the age of the cat was significantly related to myocardial velocities was the S' velocity from the apical mid-septum. There were also significant positive relationships between heart rate and the magnitude of myocardial S', E' and A' velocities of radial motion and S' and A' velocities of longitudinal motion. pw-DTI detected diastolic dysfunction in untreated cats with HCM and increased
Silver, B E; Bean, C S
Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.
Schuster, Angel Lorrine; Honeycutt, Travis C B; Hamrick, Harvey James
Despite the publication of a number of case reports since the 1950s, physician awareness of the unique relationship between cat scratch disease (CSD) and acute encephalopathy remains limited. This report alerts emergency medicine physicians to include CSD encephalopathy (CSDE) in the differential diagnosis when a previously healthy child presents with status epilepticus. Prompt recognition of this relationship impacts the selection of initial diagnostic studies and antibiotic choices and permits reliable insight into prognosis. The 2 cases are from different eras and demonstrate the significant diagnostic advances in the past 3 decades for Bartonella henselae infection. Both children were treated with antibiotics, and both had resolution of all neurological symptoms. However, the role of antibiotics in the treatment and outcome of CSDE remains speculative. Lastly, the report suggests potential areas of investigation to address immune-mediated mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CSDE.
Delbeke, D.; Sandler, M.P.; Shaff, M.I.; Miller, S.F.
The usual presentation of cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a subacute regional lymphadenitis following cutaneous inoculation. We present the case of a 10-yr-old white female with a 4-wk history of abdominal pain and fever, without associated lymphadenopathy. A /sup 67/Ga scintigram showed inhomogenous uptake by the liver. An abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed multiple low density lesions in the liver and the spleen, that were confirmed at laparotomy. Stellate microabscesses were seen on a wedge biopsy of the liver and a CSD antigen skin test was positive. CSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions, even in the absence of lymphadenopathy. This case emphasizes the importance of inhomogeneous /sup 67/Ga uptake by the liver.
Iannace, Carlo; Lo Conte, Domenico; Di Libero, Lorenzo; Varricchio, Antonio; Vigorito, Raffaella; Gagliardi, Giuliano; Lepore, Maria; Caracciolo, Francesco
Benign lymphoreticulosis (cat scratch disease, CSD) may have a clinical course that varies from the most common lymphadenitis localized in the site of inoculation, preceded by the typical “primary lesion,” to a context of severe systemic involvement. Among these uncommon clinical aspects, there is mammarian granulomatous lymphadenitis which may appear as a mastitis or a solitary intraparenchymal mass, giving the impression of a breast tumor. In these cases, intensive clinical, instrumental, and laboratory investigations are necessary to exclude malignancy. Because of its rarity, in equivocal cases, it is reasonable to use surgical excision for accurate histological examination. We report a case of CSD of the breast in a 59-year-old woman, analyzing the clinical, histopathological, and instrumental appearance and also performing a literature review. PMID:23573436
Watson, A D; Church, D B
Responses (473) were collated from a questionnaire sent to 5054 veterinarians in Australia enquiring about drug preferences for treating cardiac disease in dogs and cats. When treating a small breed dog with endocardiosis and mild left congestive heart failure, 74% of 472 respondents used a diuretic, 67% a theophylline derivative, 27% a vasodilator and 20% a positive inotrope. Frusemide was the preferred diuretic and digoxin the preferred inotrope, but vasodilator use varied. Low sodium diets were "often recommended" by 71% of respondents. Propranolol was preferred to diltiazem for treating feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Digoxin was clearly preferred for treating supraventricular dysrhythmias, while lignocaine and digoxin were preferred equally for ventricular dysrhythmias. Respondents appeared more willing than US veterinarians to use theophylline derivatives and prasozin, and less inclined to employ nitrates, hydralazine, inotropes other than digoxin, and low sodium diets.
Matz, M E; Guilford, W G
An increasing number of laboratory tests are available for diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases in dogs and cats. Use of these tests can lead to more accurate and rapid diagnoses. This review discusses laboratory tests, both new and old, and the role they currently play in the evaluation of animals presented with gastrointestinal problems. A minimum database helps assess the severity of the disorder, detect extra-gastrointestinal causes of problems and assists in formulating diagnostic and therapeutic plans. Faecal examination remains one of the most important diagnostic procedures in the investigation of gastrointestinal problems. Zinc sulphate faecal flotation is an excellent routine screening technique for helminth and protozoal infections, including giardiasis. Rectal cytology can assist in the diagnosis of large bowel disorders. Interpretation of faecal immunodiagnostic tests is hampered by insufficient knowledge of test sensitivities and specificities. Routine faecal cultures are not warranted and faecal occult blood tests are rarely indicated. Serum tests for gastric inflammation are now under development. The serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity test remains the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Breath hydrogen tests can be helpful in assessing the functional relevance of mild abnormalities in small-bowel biopsy specimens. Subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin appear to be more specific indicators of gastrointestinal disease in cats than in dogs. Tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth remain controversial and assessment of gastrointestinal permeability has yet to prove its value in the diagnostic assessment of companion animals with gastrointestinal problems. Faecal alpha1-protease inhibitor shows promise for the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy.
von Krosigk, F; Steinmetz, A; Ellenberger, C; Oechtering, G
This two-part study describes the clinical usefulness and value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs and cats with ocular (n=30) and orbital diseases (n=31). MRI and ultrasonography characteristics are described in single cases with ocular and orbital disease. Ultrasonography and MRI were performed in 15 dogs and 15 cats with intraocular neoplasia or intraocular inflammatory disease. In all patients with intraocular neoplasia, sonography revealed masses with increased echogenicity and fairly uniform echotexture, thus allowing the tentative diagnosis of an intraocular tumour. In these cases, MRI often proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool in showing the complete extent of intraocular lesion. An additional benefit of MRI was seen in the tissue characterization of tumours based on MRI signal characteristics and pattern of contrast enhancement. Discreet intraocular inflammatory alterations, in particular to the anterior and posterior segment of the eyeball, were more clearly shown by ultrasound than by MRI. Neoplasia could be excluded and inflammatory disease was successfully diagnosed using MRI due to the different image sequences with or without contrast medium administration. Traumatic ruptures of the lens capsule and the globe after trauma were depicted more clearly with MRI. When opacity of the anterior eye segment is present, various intraocular changes can be quickly diagnosed by ultrasound with high accuracy, without requiring anaesthesia of the patient. MRI of the globe allows differentiation of diverse pathologies, gives detailed information of infiltration in orbital structures and the exact degree of ocular lesions after trauma. This additional evidence often makes it easier to predict the correct prognosis and choose the best therapy.
Cobrin, A R; Blois, S L; Kruth, S A; Abrams-Ogg, A C G; Dewey, C
In both human and veterinary medicine, diagnosing and staging renal disease can be difficult. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate is considered the gold standard for assessing renal function but methods for its assessment can be technically challenging and impractical. The main parameters used to diagnose acute and chronic kidney disease include circulating creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine-specific gravity. However, these parameters can be insensitive. Therefore, there is a need for better methods to diagnose and monitor patients with renal disease. The use of renal biomarkers is increasing in human and veterinary medicine for the diagnosis and monitoring of acute and chronic kidney diseases. An ideal biomarker would identify site and severity of injury, and correlate with renal function, among other qualities. This article will review the advantages and limitations of renal biomarkers that have been used in dogs and cats, as well as some markers used in humans that may be adapted for veterinary use. In the future, measuring a combination of biomarkers will likely be a useful approach in the diagnosis of kidney disorders.
Kayemba-Kay's, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed
We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets.
Nakamura, Chizuko; Inaba, Yuji; Tsukahara, Keiko; Mochizuki, Mie; Sawanobori, Emi; Nakazawa, Yozo; Aoyama, Kouki
Cat scratch disease is a common infectious disorder caused by Bartonella henselae that is transmitted primarily by kittens. It typically exhibits a benign and self-limiting course of subacute regional lymphadenopathy and fever lasting two to eight weeks. The most severe complication of cat scratch disease is involvement of the nervous system, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and polyneuritis. Peripheral facial nerve palsy associated with Bartonella infection is rare; few reported pediatric and adult cases exist and the precise pathogenesis is unknown. A previously healthy 7-year-old boy presented with fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and peripheral facial nerve palsy associated with serologically confirmed cat scratch disease. The stapedius muscle reflex was absent on the left side and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion at the left internal auditory meatus. The patient's symptoms and imaging findings were gradually resolved after the antibiotics and corticosteroids treatment. The suspected granulomatous lesion was considered to have resulted from the host's immune reaction to Bartonella infection and impaired the facial nerve. This is the first case report providing direct evidence of peripheral facial nerve palsy caused by a suspected granulomatous lesion associated with cat scratch disease and its treatment course. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Vasilevska, Kristin; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan
COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an 8-items questionnaire for assessment of health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To evaluate the course of CAT scores during bacterial exacerbations of COPD treated in outpatient setting. We performed an observational, prospective study including 81 outpatients (57 males and 24 females, aged 43 to 74 years) with bacterial exacerbation of COPD. All participants completed CAT at initial visit (i.e. at the time of diagnosis of exacerbation and beginning of its treatment), 10 and 30 days after initial visit. Mean scores of each item, as well as the overall mean score, at these time points were compared. The mean scores for each CAT question at initial visit varied from 2.6 to 3.5, whereas the mean scores for each CAT question 10 days after initial visit varied from 1.7 to 2.6. We registered significant reduction of the mean overall CAT score 10 days after initial visit as compared to its value at initial visit of 6.9 ± 2.7 points (16.8 vs 23.7; P < 0.001). The mean scores for each CAT question 30 days after initial visit varied from 1.3 to 2.4. We registered reduction of mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit as compared to its score 10 days after initial visit of 2.9 ± 1.2 points (13.9 vs 16.8; P < 0.005). The mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit was reduced for 9.8 ± 4.5 points as compared to its value at initial visit (13.9 vs 23.7; P < 0.001). We found significant improvement in the patient's health status during recovery from exacerbation as compared to their health status at the time of exacerbation confirming the CAT as an effective tool to measure health status in patients with COPD.
Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n = 29) or three (n = 4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431
Ballin, Anne C; Schulz, Bianka; Helps, Christopher; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Mueller, Ralf S; Hartmann, Katrin
Despite a lack of controlled studies confirming its efficacy, recombinant feline interferon-omega (rfeIFN-ω) is used in the treatment of feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), which is usually caused by feline calicivirus (FCV) or feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1). The aims of the present study were to investigate whether administration of rfeIFN-ω improves clinical signs in cats with acute FURTD and whether this treatment reduces shedding of FCV. Thirty-seven cats affected with acute FURTD were recruited into a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The presence of FCV and/or FHV-1 was determined by performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs. Cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups, receiving either placebo or rfeIFN-ω (2.5 MU/kg) subcutaneously, followed by 0.5 MU topically at 8-h intervals via the conjunctiva, intranasally, and orally for 21 days. All cats received additional treatment with antibiotics, expectorants, and inhalation of nebulised physiological saline with camomile. Clinical signs and FCV shedding were evaluated over 42 days. All cats demonstrated improvement in clinical signs during the course of the study, with no significant difference in any of the assessed variables when comparing the two groups. FCV copy numbers decreased more rapidly in cats receiving rfeIFN-ω. Treatment with rfeIFN-ω was not effective in ameliorating clinical signs of acute viral FURTD compared to placebo, but might accelerate a reduction in FCV load in infected cats.
Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163
Quimby, Jessica M; Webb, Tracy L; Gibbons, Debra S; Dow, Steven W
The feasibility of autologous intrarenal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was investigated. Six cats (two healthy, four with CKD) received a single unilateral intrarenal injection of autologous bone marrow-derived or adipose tissue-derived MSC (bmMSC or aMSC) via ultrasound guidance. Minimum database and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via nuclear scintigraphy were determined pre-injection, at 7 days and at 30 days post-injection. Intrarenal injection did not induce immediate or long-term adverse effects. Two cats with CKD that received aMSC experienced modest improvement in GFR and a mild decrease in serum creatinine concentration. Despite the possible benefits of intrarenal MSC injections for CKD cats, the number of sedations and interventions required to implement this approach would likely preclude widespread clinical application. We concluded that MSC could be transferred safely by ultrasound-guided intrarenal injection in cats, but that alternative sources and routes of MSC therapy should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rishniw, Mark; Wynn, Susan G
The effect of probiotic therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is poorly defined, but gaining in popularity. However, cat owners often prefer to administer probiotics by combining them with food, rather than administering capsules intact, as is prescribed by the manufacturer. The efficacy of such non-recommended administration is unknown. In this double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 10 cats with naturally-occurring CKD were randomized to receive either a probiotic-prebiotic combination (synbiotic) or psyllium husk (prebiotic only) for 2 months. Medications were sprinkled and mixed into food or given as a slurry. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured twice prior to administration of medication, and then monthly for 2 months during the medication administration. Owners and clinicians were masked as to treatment. The maximal percentage change in BUN and creatinine was calculated for each cat. No differences in percentage change were detected between groups (P=0.8 for both BUN and creatinine). The synbiotic supplement used in this study, when applied to food or administered as a slurry fails to reduce azotemia in cats with CKD. Therefore, owners should not administer this synbiotic in this manner. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tolou, C; Mahieu, L; Martin-Blondel, G; Ollé, P; Matonti, F; Hamid, S; Benouaich, X; Debard, A; Cassagne, M; Soler, V
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a systemic infectious disease. The most well-known posterior segment presentation is neuroretinitis with a macular star. In this study, we present a case series emphasising the heterogeneity of the disease and the various posterior segment manifestations. A retrospective case series of consecutive patients presenting with posterior segment CSD, over a 5-year period (2010 to 2015), at two ophthalmological centres in Midi-Pyrénées. Twelve patients (17 eyes) were included, of whom 11 (92%) presented with rapidly decreasing visual acuity, with 6 of these (50%) extremely abrupt. CSD was bilateral in 5 (42% of all patients). Posterior manifestations were: 12 instances of optic nerve edema (100%), 8 of focal chorioretinitis (67%) and only 6 of the classic macular edema with macular star (25% at first examination, but 50% later). Other ophthalmological complications developed in three patients; one developed acute anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, one a retrohyaloid hemorrhage and one a branch retinal artery occlusion, all secondary to occlusive focal vasculitis adjacent to focal chorioretinitis. Classical neuroretinitis with macular star is not the only clinical presentation of CSD. Practitioners should screen for Bartonella henselae in all patients with papillitis or focal chorioretinitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bost, Phillip C; Strynar, Mark J; Reiner, Jessica L; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Secoura, Patricia L; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Dye, Janice A
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from
Schober, Karsten E; Maerz, Imke
The hypotheses of this prospective study were that (1) left atrial appendage (LAA) blood flow velocities can be recorded in cats with myocardial disease by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, (2) LA enlargement, LA mechanical dysfunction, and left ventricular (LV) diastolic abnormalities are associated with decreased LAA flow velocities, and (3) low LAA flow velocities predict the appearance of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in cats with cardiomyopathy. Transthoracic 2-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed in 89 cats with hypertrophic, restrictive, dilated, or unclassified cardiomyopathy or with hyperthyroid heart disease. Maximal LAA flow velocity (LAAmax) was decreased (P < .001) in cats with cardiomyopathy (median, 0.28 m/s; range, 0.08-1.35) compared to normal cats. Associated with decreased LAA flow velocities were increased LA size, decreased LA function, increased severity of LV diastolic dysfunction, and the presence of congestive heart failure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis detected an LAAmax <0.20 m/s as the only independent variable to predict LA spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (odds ratio, 30.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 222.3; P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis performed to predict spontaneous echocardiographic contrast indicated an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.95; P < .001) with sensitivities of 100 and 74% and specificities of 69 and 83% for LAAmax <0.25 and <0.20 m/s, respectively. Thus, low LAA flow velocities identified a subgroup of patients at increased risk of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast and possible thromboembolism. These findings may have important clinical implications for anticoagulation therapy and prognostication in cats with cardiomyopathy.
Larsen, Jennifer A; Parks, Elizabeth M; Heinze, Cailin R; Fascetti, Andrea J
To evaluate recipes of diets recommended for animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), compare nutritional profiles for those recipes to requirements for adult dogs and cats, and assess their appropriateness for the management of CKD. Evaluation study. Recipes of 67 home-prepared diets promoted for use in dogs (n = 39 recipes) and cats (28) with CKD. Recipes were analyzed with computer software to determine calories, macronutrient calorie distribution, and micronutrient concentrations and were assessed for appropriateness for the management of CKD. Assumptions were required for the analysis of every recipe, and no recipe met all National Research Council nutrient recommended allowances (RA) for adult animals. Compared with RAs, concentrations of crude protein or at least 1 amino acid were low in 30 of 39 (76.9%) canine recipes and 12 of 28 (42.9%) feline recipes. Choline was most commonly below the RA in both canine (37/39 [94.9%]) and feline (23/28 [82.1%]) recipes; selenium (34/39 [87.2%] canine and 9/28 [32.1 %] feline recipes), zinc (24/39 [61.5%] canine and 19/28 [67.9%] feline recipes), and calcium (22/39 [56.4%] canine and 7/28 [25.0%] feline recipes) concentrations were also frequently below recommendations. The median phosphorus concentration in canine and feline recipes was 0.58 and 0.69 g/1,000 kcal, respectively. Many problems with nutritional adequacy were detected, and use of the recipes could result in highly variable and often inappropriate diets. Many recipes would not meet nutritional and clinical needs of individual patients and should be used cautiously for long-term feeding.
Pantchev, Nikola; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Pluta, Silvia; Straubinger, Reinhard K
There are only few reports on Lyme borreliosis (LB) in cats. The reasons might be a different tick infestation in cats compared to dogs, a low susceptibility for tick-borne infections or a low awareness of veterinarians for tick-borne diseases in feline patients. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) in feline sera, to compare the significance of feline versus canine LB, as well as to evaluate possible implications on disease occurrence. Specific antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl in cats were detected by a rapid test based on enzyme immunoassay technique. The serum samples were sent to a diagnostic laboratory by veterinarians from Germany and other European countries with request for Borrelia serology in the years 2009-2011. Veterinarians were asked for information regarding the cats' location, age, gender, clinical signs, treatment and follow-up. In six of 271 (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.8-4.8%) cat sera, antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl were detected. Proportion of Borrelia antibody-positive cat sera was significantly lower than the one determined for dogs during the same time period. All positive cats lived in countries endemic for LB (Germany, Sweden and Belgium), and all C6-antibody positive cats with the exception of one cat showed clinical signs. Possible implications on disease occurrence are discussed. Data presented here demonstrate a lower prevalence of Borrelia specific C6-antibodies in European cats when compared to dogs residing in the same regions. The absence of antibodies against Bbsl in 97.8% (95% CI: 95.2-99.2%) of the submitted samples indicate that diagnosis "feline LB"is rare in cats. Nevertheless, LB should be considered in cats with compatible clinical signs (e.g. shifting leg lameness, to less extent neurological signs) when other differential diagnoses are ruled out.
Weese, J Scott; Blondeau, Joseph M; Boothe, Dawn; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Guardabassi, Luca; Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H; Papich, Mark G; Rankin, Shelley C; Turnidge, John D; Sykes, Jane E
Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse) of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.
Seelig, D M; Nalls, A V; Flasik, M; Frank, V; Eaton, S; Mathiason, C K; Hoover, E A
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted, fatal, and progressive prion disease of cervids with an as yet to be fully clarified host range. While outbred domestic cats (Felis catus) have recently been shown to be susceptible to experimental CWD infection, the neuropathologic features of the infection are lacking. Such information is vital to provide diagnostic power in the event of natural interspecies transmission and insights into host and strain interactions in interspecies prion infection. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we detail the topographic pattern of neural spongiosis (the "lesion profile") and the distribution of misfolded prion protein in the primary and secondary passage of feline CWD (Fel(CWD)). We also evaluated cellular and subcellular associations between misfolded prion protein (PrP(D)) and central nervous system neurons and glial cell populations. From these studies, we (1) describe the novel neuropathologic profile of Fel(CWD), which is distinct from either cervid CWD or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), and (2) provide evidence of serial passage-associated interspecies prion adaptation. In addition, we demonstrate through confocal analysis the successful co-localization of PrP(D) with neurons, astrocytes, microglia, lysosomes, and synaptophysin, which, in part, implicates each of these in the neuropathology of Fel(CWD). In conclusion, this work illustrates the simultaneous role of both host and strain in the development of a unique Fel(CWD) neuropathologic profile and that such a profile can be used to discriminate between Fel(CWD) and FSE.
Benito, Javier; Gruen, Margaret E; Thomson, Andrea; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B Duncan X
This study evaluated the types of items owners consider important to their cats' quality of life (QoL). We hypothesized that items contributing to QoL in cats are predominantly items requiring mobility. The objectives of the study were to describe the types of items considered important by owners for their cats' QoL; to describe the proportion of these items that involve mobility; to evaluate what patient factors, including severity of degenerative joint disease (DJD), affect this distribution; and to evaluate whether the proportion of QoL items involving mobility chosen by owners is different in cats presenting for a DJD study compared with a randomly selected population. A total of 830 client-generated items were evaluated. Regardless of DJD status, 40% of items listed by owners involved mobility, while 60% were 'inactive' items, rejecting our hypothesis. This highlights the need to assess non-active items that owners consider to constitute QoL to fully assess the impact of diseases like DJD and, therefore, the success of therapeutic interventions.
Han, Tae Hee; Kim, Baek Nam; Yoo, Young Sam; Lim, Seong Jig
We report a case of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae in Korea. A 25-yr-old woman developed left cervical lymphadenopathy with history of contact with a dog. The cervical lymphadenopathy persisted for 1 month and resolved gradually and spontaneously. Serologic test was not done during the acute stage of the disease. Immunofluorescent antibody test performed during the convalescent stage was positive for B. henselae. To confirm B. henselae infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using aspirates of cervical lymph node was performed and the presence of B. henselae DNA was demonstrated. This is the first reported case of cat scratch disease in Korea confirmed by PCR for B. henselae DNA . PMID:16224169
Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and prognostic significance of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in relation to cardiac disease and congestive heart failure in cats: 725 cases (2006-2011).
Peck, Courtney M; Nielsen, Lindsey K; Quinn, Rebecca L; Laste, Nancy J; Price, Lori Lyn
To determine whether the presence of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in cats with cardiomyopathy is associated with increased mortality. To establish whether specific types of cardiomyopathy are more often associated with SEC in an attempt to provide a risk-stratification scheme for cats with increased risk of thromboembolic events. Retrospective study 2006-2011. Tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Seven hundred twenty-five client-owned cats undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. Patient characteristics, including age, breed, clinical signs, type of cardiovascular disease, presence of SEC, and survival time were recorded. Thyroxine, HCT, and blood pressure were recorded when available. Among cats diagnosed with cardiac abnormalities based on echocardiographic findings, those with SEC were at significantly increased risk of death as compared to those without SEC. Cats with dilated cardiomyopathy, unclassified cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were significantly more likely to have SEC compared to cats with other types of cardiac disease. Cats with cardiomyopathy and SEC have an increased risk of death compared to cats without SEC, although other previously identified factors such as the presence of congestive heart failure and increased left atrium to aorta ratio remain important determinants of mortality. Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unclassified cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy may benefit from anticoagulant therapy due to the increased risk of SEC in these subpopulations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.
Gould, Emily; Klos, Jacob; Price, Josh; Harris, Tonya; Vaden, Shelly; Tolbert, M Katherine
Objectives To retrospectively evaluate the effects of acid-suppressant therapy in a population of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study objectives were to evaluate the effects of acid-suppressant therapy on clinicopathologic variables and progression of CKD over time. Methods The databases of two institutions were searched over an 11 year time span for cats fitting inclusion criteria for CKD. A total of 89 cats met the criteria for inclusion and were grouped according to either early (ie, stages 1-2) or advanced (ie, stages 3-4) CKD. Variables were statistically analyzed before and after treatment with either: (1) proton pump inhibitors (PPIs; n = 17), (2) histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs; n = 30), (3) combined acid-suppressant therapy (PPI + H2RA; n = 6) or (4) no acid-suppressant therapy (n = 36). Shapiro-Wilk testing and Q-Q plots were used to assess normality and variance, respectively. A complete randomized design with a mixed-effects repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate for differences in stage, treatment and time, as well as the interaction between these effects. Results A significant increase in blood creatinine concentration was found over time independent of severity of CKD and treatment group ( P = 0.0087). A significant increase in blood sodium concentration (change of 3.12 mmol/l) was found independent of stage in cats receiving PPI therapy ( P = 0.0109). A significant decrease in total blood magnesium (change of 0.15 mmol/l) was detected in two cats with early CKD receiving combined acid suppressants ( P = 0.0025). Conclusions and relevance Results of this retrospective study suggest that cats with CKD receiving PPI therapy may develop alterations in blood sodium concentrations but do not experience more rapid progression of CKD.
Prather, Andrew B; Berry, Clifford R; Thrall, Donald E
Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed in 28 dogs and five cats and findings were compared with previous thoracic radiographs. The sample population included all animals that had thoracic radiographs and a CT study within 5 days of each other, where the complete imaging studies were available for review. Thoracic radiographs were considered indeterminate in 31 patients and CT examinations were done to acquire additional information. The presence of additional information from CT relating to presence of pathology, location of pathology, extent of pathology, and involvement of mediastinal structures was recorded. Whether there was a change in diagnosis based on the CT findings was also recorded. In only 4/33 animals (all dogs) did CT fail to provide any new information for the parameters evaluated when compared with survey thoracic radiographs. Additional information about the pathology that was present was gained by CT in 5/5 cats and 21/ 28 dogs. New information on compartmental location of pathology was seen in 4/5 cats and 19/28 dogs. New information on pathology extent was noted in 5/5 cats and 20/28 dogs. Additional information regarding involvement of mediastinal structures was obtained in 2/5 cats and 10/28 dogs. A change in diagnosis was made in 3/5 cats and 13/28 dogs. In conclusion, CT is a valuable tool for evaluating intrathoracic disease. CT provides additional cross-sectional anatomic information that can aid in anatomic localization and evaluation of the extent of the pathology in question.
Awaysheh, Abdullah; Wilcke, Jeffrey; Elvinger, François; Rees, Loren; Fan, Weiguo; Zimmerman, Kurt L
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and alimentary lymphoma (ALA) are common gastrointestinal diseases in cats. The very similar clinical signs and histopathologic features of these diseases make the distinction between them diagnostically challenging. We tested the use of supervised machine-learning algorithms to differentiate between the 2 diseases using data generated from noninvasive diagnostic tests. Three prediction models were developed using 3 machine-learning algorithms: naive Bayes, decision trees, and artificial neural networks. The models were trained and tested on data from complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry (SC) results for the following 3 groups of client-owned cats: normal, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or alimentary lymphoma (ALA). Naive Bayes and artificial neural networks achieved higher classification accuracy (sensitivities of 70.8% and 69.2%, respectively) than the decision tree algorithm (63%, p < 0.0001). The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for classifying cases into the 3 categories was 83% by naive Bayes, 79% by decision tree, and 82% by artificial neural networks. Prediction models using machine learning provided a method for distinguishing between ALA-IBD, ALA-normal, and IBD-normal. The naive Bayes and artificial neural networks classifiers used 10 and 4 of the CBC and SC variables, respectively, to outperform the C4.5 decision tree, which used 5 CBC and SC variables in classifying cats into the 3 classes. These models can provide another noninvasive diagnostic tool to assist clinicians with differentiating between IBD and ALA, and between diseased and nondiseased cats. © 2016 The Author(s).
Finch, N C; Geddes, R F; Syme, H M; Elliott, J
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-23) has an important role in phosphate regulation. Its clinical relevance in cats with CKD has not been explored previously. The study objectives were (1) to determine whether FGF-23 concentrations are increased in nonazotemic cats, cats which developed azotemia within 12 months of screening compared with cats that remained non-azotemic, and (2) to evaluate the relationships between FGF-23 and PTH and FGF-23 and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sixty-two healthy client-owned geriatric cats, 14 of which developed azotemia during the 12-month follow-up period. Healthy nonazotemic cats were recruited prospectively into the study and followed for 12 months. At the study end-point, cats were categorized into 3 groups according to plasma creatinine concentration. PTH, FGF-23, and additional biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. GFR was measured by a corrected slope-intercept iohexol clearance method. FGF-23 concentrations at baseline were found to be significantly increased in cats that developed azotemia (P = .001) compared with cats that did not develop azotemia. A significant positive relationship was identified between FGF-23 and PTH, whereas the relationship between FGF-23 and GFR was negative. FGF-23 concentrations predicted development of azotemia in geriatric cats. Positive relationships between FGF-23 and PTH suggest an association between FGF-23 and renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Quimby, Jessica M; Webb, Tracy L; Randall, Elissa; Marolf, Angela; Valdes-Martinez, Alex; Dow, Steve W
Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, and inflammation contributes to the progression of renal fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in rodent CKD models. However, few randomized trials evaluating the effectiveness of MSC therapy for diseases in companion animals have been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of allogeneic MSCs for the treatment of feline CKD using a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. MSCs were isolated from the cryopreserved adipose tissues of specific pathogen-free research cats and culture expanded. CKD cats were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded one-way crossover clinical study. Four CKD cats were randomized to receive 2 × 10(6) MSCs/kg intravenously at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Four CKD cats were randomized to receive placebo, with two cats crossing over to the MSC treatment group and one cat failing to complete the trial. Complete blood counts, chemistry and urinalysis were performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via nuclear scintigraphy and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) were determined at weeks 0 and 8. Six cats received three doses of allogeneic MSC culture expanded from cryopreserved adipose without adverse effects. No significant change in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, GFR by nuclear scintigraphy, UPC or packed cell volume was seen in cats treated with MSCs. Individual changes in GFR were 12%, 8%, 8%, 2%, -13% and -67% in treated cats compared with 16%, 36% and 0% in placebo-treated cats. While administration of MSC culture expanded from cryopreserved adipose was not associated with adverse effects, significant improvement in renal function was not observed immediately after administration. Long-term follow-up is necessary to determine whether MSC administration affects disease progression in cats with CKD
Weinspach, S; Tenenbaum, T; Schönberger, S; Schaper, J; Engers, R; Rueggeberg, J; Mackenzie, C R; Wolf, A; Mayatepek, E; Schroten, H
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is common in children, however the wide spectrum of the clinical presentation of CSD may lead to delayed diagnosis. An atypical presentation of CSD includes in its differential diagnosis diseases such as tuberculosis, other mycobacterioses, Epstein-Barr-Virus infection (EBV) or malignant disease. Since, in a small number of cases, these diseases may be present concurrently with an active CSD, it is important to consider CSD early in the differential diagnosis and order the appropriate tests. These tests include serology and, where possible, histology including molecular diagnostic methods on tissue specimens. We performed a case series of five patients treated in our hospital with a clinical diagnosis of cat-scratch disease, confirmed by serology. An analysis of the history and clinical symptoms associated specifically with an atypical presentation of CSD was performed. The clinical presentation of CSD no longer encompasses the original typical description from 1950, but rather presents with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, including the absence of a documented cat scratch, fever, primary lesions or peripheral lymphadenopathy. Low density lesions in spleen, liver and lymph nodes are typical findings in ultrasound, MRI, or CT. Ignoring CSD as a possibility in investigating possible malignancy or tuberculosis could lead to unnecessary hospitalisation and delay in the proper treatment. CSD should also be considered in differential diagnosis of any patient with intraabdominal lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain and fever of unknown origin. A careful history is important, however, often patients with CSD have no history of contact with cats. Therefore in atypical cases of CSD the finding of other clinical symptoms and performance of specific diagnostic tests is important. Our experience suggests that early serological testing for Bartonella henselae should be performed and may avoid invasive diagnostic procedures. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D
The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role.
Fouchet, David; Leblanc, Guillaume; Sauvage, Frank; Guiserix, Micheline; Poulet, Hervé; Pontier, Dominique
Background In natural cat populations, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is transmitted through bites between individuals. Factors such as the density of cats within the population or the sex-ratio can have potentially strong effects on the frequency of fight between individuals and hence appear as important population risk factors for FIV. Methodology/Principal Findings To study such population risk factors, we present data on FIV prevalence in 15 cat populations in northeastern France. We investigate five key social factors of cat populations; the density of cats, the sex-ratio, the number of males and the mean age of males and females within the population. We overcome the problem of dependence in the infective status data using sexually-structured dynamic stochastic models. Only the age of males and females had an effect (p = 0.043 and p = 0.02, respectively) on the male-to-female transmission rate. Due to multiple tests, it is even likely that these effects are, in reality, not significant. Finally we show that, in our study area, the data can be explained by a very simple model that does not invoke any risk factor. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, in host-parasite systems in general, fluctuations due to stochasticity in the transmission process are naturally very large and may alone explain a larger part of the variability in observed disease prevalence between populations than previously expected. Finally, we determined confidence intervals for the simple model parameters that can be used to further aid in management of the disease. PMID:19888418
Introduction Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to improve renal function in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), in part by reducing intrarenal inflammation and suppressing fibrosis. CKD in cats is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and thus treatment with MSCs might improve renal function and urinary markers of inflammation in this disease. Therefore, a series of pilot studies was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of allogeneic adipose-derived MSCs (aMSCs) in cats with naturally occurring CKD. Methods Cats enrolled in these studies received an intravenous infusion of allogeneic aMSCs every 2 weeks collected from healthy, young, specific pathogen-free cats. Cats in pilot study 1 (six cats) received 2 × 106 cryopreserved aMSCs per infusion, cats in pilot study 2 (five cats) received 4 × 106 cryopreserved aMSCs per infusion, and cats in pilot study 3 (five cats) received 4 × 106 aMSCs cultured from cryopreserved adipose. Serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urinalysis, urine protein, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary cytokine concentrations were monitored during the treatment period. Changes in clinical parameters were compared statistically by means of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni’s correction. Results Cats in pilot study 1 had few adverse effects from the aMSC infusions and there was a statistically significant decrease in serum creatinine concentrations during the study period, however the degree of decrease seems unlikely to be clinically relevant. Adverse effects of the aMSC infusion in cats in pilot study 2 included vomiting (2/5 cats) during infusion and increased respiratory rate and effort (4/5 cats). Cats in pilot study 3 did not experience any adverse side effects. Serum creatinine concentrations and glomerular filtration rates did not change significantly in cats in pilot studies 2 and 3
Prudent, E; Lepidi, H; Audoly, G; La Scola, B; Fournier, P-E; Edouard, S; Angelakis, E; Raoult, D
Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), appears to be a common organism responsible for lymphadenitis in both adults and children. There is a very low isolation rate for B. henselae from lymph nodes of patients with CSD. Our objective was to evaluate B. henselae viability in a large series of lymph nodes from patients with CSD. From January to November 2016, we analyzed lymph node biopsy samples from patients diagnosed with CSD. We used reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect B. henselae RNA, as well as cultures, histological analyses, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We tested 87 lymph nodes positive for B. henselae DNA but only 8 (9%) presented with B. henselae RNA. We did not find a significant difference for the pap threshold cycle (CT) values between RNA-positive and RNA-negative lymph nodes (p = 0.5). Cultures, histological analyses, and FISH were negative for all the tested samples. We provide evidence that B. henselae are not or are rarely viable in most cases in the lymph nodes of patients with CSD.
Garnier, Camille; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Debuisson, Cécile; Dubois, Damien; Debard, Alexa; Cuzin, Lise; Massip, Patrice; Delobel, Pierre; Marchou, Bruno
Cat scratch disease (CSD)'s lymphadenitis may have a protracted course with painful suppuration necessitating several needle aspirations or surgical drainage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefit of an intra-nodal injection of gentamicin add-on oral azithromycin treatment on the outcome of suppurated CSD's lymphadenitis. We performed a retrospective monocentric study including 51 consecutive patients diagnosed between Jan 2009 and Mar 2014 with suppurated CSD who had a positive PCR for Bartonella henselae DNA in pus collected from lymph node by needle aspiration, and who were treated with azithromycin. Among them, 26/51 patients (51%) received oral azithromycin only, of whom 8 patients (31%) were cured and 18 patients (69%) had complications, while 25/51 patients (49%) received an intra-nodal injection of gentamicin add-on oral azithromycin, of whom 16 patients (64 %) were cured and 9 patients (36%) had complications. In univariate analysis, the combined treatment was the only variable related to cure without complications (64 versus 31%, p = 0.01), but this difference did not remain statistically significant in multivariate analysis (OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 0.95-15.56, p = 0.06). Intra-nodal injection of gentamicin add-on oral azithromycin treatment might improve the outcome of patients with suppurated CSD's lymphadenitis, deserving further randomized studies.
Greenblatt, Daniel; Krupp, Lauren B; Belman, Anita L
Parainfectious disorders of the nervous system encompass those meningo-encephalo-radiculomyelitic conditions that are temporally associated with a systemic infection, antigenic stimuli, or toxin exposure, in the absence of evidence of direct neuronal infection or invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). Pathogenetic mechanisms can be due to immune-mediated processes (such as bystander activation, molecular mimicy) or the inciting insult can be due to toxic factors, as in the case of botulism. A myriad of clinical manifestations can occur including headache, seizures, and mental status changes, ranging from mood and behavioral disturbances to varying levels of alteration in consciousness. Focal neurological deficits can include aphasia, hemiparesis, or paraparesis. The PNS can also be affected leading to cranial nerve involvement, focal or multifocal neuropathies, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Diagnosis is based not only on the history, examination, laboratory, and neuroimaging data but also on epidemiological factors. The parainfectious disorders covered in this review are cat scratch disease, Lyme borreliosis, legionellosis, brucellosis, botulism, pertussis, and mycoplasma. Each is associated with a distinct organism, has both systemic and neurological manifestations, and has a different epidemiological profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Endoh, Hiroki; Yokoi, Masahiko; Kase, Manabu
A 29-year-old fisherman exhibited optic disc oedema and peripapillary retinal detachment in the right eye, whereas in the left eye, optic atrophy and intraretinal exudates were already observed on first examination. About 6 months earlier, he noticed blurred vision of the left eye but took no medication. Visual acuity was 0.4 OD and 0.01 OS. Perimetry showed a large lower-half field defect with sparing 10° central field in the right eye and a large central scotoma in the left eye. Fluorescein angiography showed existence of arteriole or capillary nonperfusion and hyperpermeability of surrounding capillaries. Since serological examinations showed positive Bartonella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and other causes of neuroretinitis (NR) were excluded, NR in the present case was caused by cat scratch disease (CSD). Optic atrophy appeared 2 weeks after onset. Optical coherence tomography 13 weeks after onset revealed severe loss of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) superior and nasal to the optic disc in both eyes and temporal in the left eye. Visual acuity of the right eye improved to 1.2 by the treatment, whereas visual field defects were persistent. CSD-NR in the present case developed abrupt appearance of optic atrophy with severe RNFL loss in the right eye, which was elicited by exudative, obliterative vasculitis in the superficial layer of the optic disc.
Habot-Wilner, Z; Zur, D; Goldstein, M; Goldenberg, D; Shulman, S; Kesler, A; Giladi, M; Neudorfer, M
Purpose To describe the macular findings on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD) neuroretinitis. Methods Medical records of all patients diagnosed with CSD neuroretinitis at the Tel Aviv Medical Center between April 2006 and May 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent Stratus OCT macular examination. Results Eight eyes of seven patients with confirmed CSD neuroretinitis, (mean age 33±9.9 years, range 6–48 years) were included in the study. All patients presented clinically with optic nerve swelling and macular edema or macular exudates. OCT demonstrated flattening of the foveal contour, thickening of the neurosensory retina, and accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF) in all studied eyes. Retinal exudates appeared as multiple hyper-reflective foci in the outer plexiform layer. The average central macular thickness was 460 μm (range 170–906 μm) and the average maximal retinal thickness was 613 μm (range 387–1103 μm), at presentation. The macula appeared normal on repeated exams during follow-up. Conclusion Similar OCT findings were demonstrated in patients with CSD neuroretinitis. SRF was found in all eyes, although was not visible on clinical examination or fluorescein angiography. OCT may be used as an adjunct imaging tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CSD neuroretinitis. PMID:21660065
Le Boedec, Kevin
OBJECTIVE To critically assess available data from controlled observational studies on the pathogenic role of Mycoplasma spp in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and lower respiratory tract (LRT) of cats. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. SAMPLE 12 studies. PROCEDURES Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant publications. Risk of bias was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses, stratified by URT versus LRT disease, were performed to estimate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between Mycoplasma isolation and URT or LRT disease. Subanalyses by diagnostic method, sampling site, and environment (shelter vs nonshelter) were planned for studies on URT disease. RESULTS A significant association was found between isolation of mycoplasmal organisms and URT disease (pooled OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.40) but not LRT disease (pooled OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.51 to 4.76). The association with URT disease was only significant when conjunctival or pharyngeal samples from nonshelter cats were analyzed with a Mycoplasma felis-specific PCR assay. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that M felis may be a primary pathogen in cats with URT disease, warranting treatment in infected cats. The environment was important to consider when interpreting a mycoplasma-positive sample because of aclinical carriage, especially in shelter cats. Further investigations are needed to determine the role, if any, of mycoplasmal organisms in LRT disease of cats.
Gruen, Margaret E.; Alfaro-Córdoba, Marcela; Thomson, Andrea E.; Worth, Alicia C.; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
Introduction and objectives Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results and conclusions Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across
Gruen, Margaret E; Alfaro-Córdoba, Marcela; Thomson, Andrea E; Worth, Alicia C; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lascelles, B Duncan X
Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across the day.
Almqvist, Catarina; Garden, Frances; Kemp, Andrew S; Li, Qiang; Crisafulli, Daniel; Tovey, Euan R; Xuan, Wei; Marks, Guy B
Variation in the observed association between pet ownership and allergic disease may be attributable to selection bias and confounding. The aim of this study was to suggest a method to assess disease-related modification of exposure and second to examine how cat acquisition or dog ownership in early life affects atopy and asthma at 5 years. Information on sociodemographic factors and cat and dog ownership was collected longitudinally in an initially cat-free Australian birth cohort based on children with a family history of asthma. At age 5 years, 516 children were assessed for wheezing, and 488 for sensitisation. Data showed that by age 5 years, 82 children had acquired a cat. Early manifestations of allergic disease did not foreshadow a reduced rate of subsequent acquisition of a cat. Independent risk factors for acquiring a cat were exposure to tobacco smoke at home odds ratio (OR) 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 3.26], maternal education < or =12 years OR 1.95 [1.08, 3.51] and dog ownership OR 2.23 [1.23, 4.05]. Cat or dog exposure in the first 5 years was associated with a decreased risk of any allergen sensitisation, OR 0.50 [0.28, 0.88] but no association with wheeze OR 0.96 [0.57, 1.61]. This risk was not affected by age at which the cat was acquired or whether the pet was kept in- or outdoors. In conclusion, cat or dog ownership reduced the risk of subsequent atopy in this high-risk birth cohort. This cannot be explained by disease-related modification of exposure. Public health recommendations on the effect of cat and dog ownership should be based on birth cohort studies where possible selection bias has been taken into account.
Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Roger, Isabelle; Akemi, Amanda K; Pessoa, Adonai A; Varon, Andrea G; Gomes, Raphael; Godoy, Daniela T; Pereira, Sandro; Lemos, Elba R S
Bartonella henselae is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including cat scratch disease, endocarditis and meningoencephalitis, in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report the first molecularly confirmed case of B. henselae infection in an AIDS patient in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although DNA sequence of B. henselae has been detected by polymerase chain reaction in a lymph node biopsy, acute and convalescent sera were nonreactive.
Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed
Key Clinical Message We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets. PMID:26273467
Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R
of all pulmonary arteries and a random pattern of parenchymal disease with severe lesions immediately adjacent to normal areas. Analysis of CT 3D reconstruction and Hounsfield units demonstrated lung disease consistent with restrictive pulmonary fibrosis with an interstitial infiltrate, absence of air trapping, and decrease in total lung volume in Group IU as compared to Groups UU and PreS I. The clinical implications of this study are that cats pretreated with selamectin 1 month before D. immitis L3 infection did not become serologically positive and did not develop pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and myofibrosis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Zajac, Anne M; Witonsky, Sharon G; Lindsay, David S
Kidney disease is a common and serious condition in domestic cats. There are numerous causes of kidney disease including parasitic infection. Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite that develops in the kidneys of rabbits and causes chronic renal disease. Little has been reported concerning E. cuniculi in cats and no serological studies on this parasite in cats have been conducted in the United States to date. The present study explored the possibility that E. cuniculi is an unrecognized contributor to the high prevalence of kidney disease observed in cats. A serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies to spores of E. cuniculi in cats with and without a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Likewise, samples were examined for IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, a common well studied protozoan of cats. Plasma and sera were obtained from 232 feline patients at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine teaching hospital. With the investigators blinded to the renal status of test subjects, samples were screened via indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). Thirty-six of the 232 cats met the IRIS staging system criteria for CKD. Antibodies to E. cuniculi were found in 15 of the 232 samples, which included 4 of the 36 cats with CKD. Sera from cats serologically positive to E. cuniculi did not react to spores of E. intestinalis or E. hellem when examined in the IFA. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 63 of the 232 samples, which included 10 of the 36 cats with CKD. The prevalence of antibodies in cats with CKD to either protozoan was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the cats without CKD in the study. Collectively the results do not support the hypothesis that either E. cuniculi or T. gondii play a significant etiologic role in the occurrence or progression of CKD in cats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B
Murphy, Colleen P; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J Scott; Prescott, John F; Janecko, Nicol; McEwen, Scott A
This study investigated oral and parenteral antimicrobial use in dogs and cats, and evaluated antimicrobial use in feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), and canine infectious tracheobronchitis. Study journals (n = 1807) were submitted by 84 veterinarians. Sixty-five percent of the antimicrobials prescribed in dogs and 67% in cats were β-lactams. Most frequently prescribed in dogs were cephalexin (33%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), and in cats, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%) and cefovecin (17%); 7% of the prescriptions in dogs and 12% in cats were for fluoroquinolones. Sixty-seven percent of the disease events associated with canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and 70% and 74% associated with FURTD and FLUTD, respectively, were treated with antimicrobials. These results suggest that cefovecin and fluoroquinolones may be over-used and antimicrobial use for the treatment of FURTD, FLUTD, and canine infectious tracheobronchitis could probably be reduced to lessen resistance selection pressure without compromising patient health.
van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje
A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744
Lappin, M R; Blondeau, J; Boothe, D; Breitschwerdt, E B; Guardabassi, L; Lloyd, D H; Papich, M G; Rankin, S C; Sykes, J E; Turnidge, J; Weese, J S
Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases convened a Working Group of clinical microbiologists, pharmacologists, and internists to share experiences, examine scientific data, review clinical trials, and develop these guidelines to assist veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein.
Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Samman, Ayman; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sydler, Titus; Cattori, Valentino; Graf, Felix; Diserens, Kevin A; Padrutt, Isabelle; Nesina, Stefanie; Berger, Alice; Ruetten, Maja; Riond, Barbara; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
Feline calicivirus (FCV) infections are associated with oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis and a limping syndrome. Epizootic outbreaks of virulent systemic disease (VSD) have been reported in the USA and Europe. Here, the molecular characterization and neutralization patterns of FCV isolates from cases of severe, non-epizootic infection associated with skin ulceration and edema are presented. Samples from eleven symptomatic cats, four in-contact cats and 27 cats with no contact with symptomatic cats were collected and tested for FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Phylogenetic analyses based on the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV and virus neutralization with antisera raised against four FCV vaccine strains were performed. Nine kittens and two adult cats in two shelters and two veterinary clinics in four geographically distinct locations in Switzerland and Liechtenstein were affected. The cats showed fever, tongue and skin ulceration, head and paw edema, and occasionally jaundice, generalized edema and dyspnea. All symptomatic cats tested FCV-positive but were negative for FHV-1, FeLV and FIV, with the exception of one FIV-positive kitten. All kittens of one litter and both adult cats died. The disease did not spread to cats in the environment. Cats in the environment displayed phylogenetically distinct, but related, FCV strains. Virus neutralization patterns suggested that some cases might have been potentially prevented by vaccination with the optimal vaccine strain. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hardefeldt, L Y; Holloway, S; Trott, D J; Shipstone, M; Barrs, V R; Malik, R; Burrows, M; Armstrong, S; Browning, G F; Stevenson, M
Investigations of antimicrobial use in companion animals are limited. With the growing recognition of the need for improved antimicrobial stewardship, there is urgent need for more detailed understanding of the patterns of antimicrobial use in this sector. To investigate antimicrobial use for medical and surgical conditions in dogs and cats by Australian veterinarians. A cross-sectional study was performed over 4 months in 2011. Respondents were asked about their choices of antimicrobials for empirical therapy of diseases in dogs and cats, duration of therapy, and selection based on culture and susceptibility testing, for common conditions framed as case scenarios: 11 medical, 2 surgical, and 8 dermatological. A total of 892 of the 1,029 members of the Australian veterinary profession that completed the survey satisfied the selection criteria. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was more common for acute conditions (76%) than chronic conditions (24%). Overall, the most common antimicrobial classes were potentiated aminopenicillins (36%), fluoroquinolones (15%), first- and second-generation cephalosporins (14%), and tetracyclines (11%). Third-generation cephalosporins were more frequently used in cats (16%) compared to dogs (2%). Agreement with Australasian Infectious Disease Advisory Panel (AIDAP) guidelines (generated subsequently) was variable ranging from 0 to 69% between conditions. Choice of antimicrobials by Australian veterinary practitioners was generally appropriate, with relatively low use of drugs of high importance, except for the empirical use of fluoroquinolones in dogs, particularly for otitis externa and 3rd-generation cephalosporins in cats. Future surveys will determine whether introduction of the 2013 AIDAP therapeutic guidelines has influenced prescribing habits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Stojanovic, Vladimir; Foley, Peter
Ninety-six feral cats from Prince Edward Island were used to determine the prevalence of selected infectious agents. The prevalence rates were 5.2% for feline immunodeficiency virus, 3.1% for feline leukemia virus, 3.1% for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8.4% for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 2.1% for Bartonella spp. and 29.8% for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Oocysts of T. gondii were detected in 1.3% of the fecal samples that were collected. Gender and retroviral status of the cats were significantly correlated with hemoplasma infections. Use of a flea comb showed that 9.6% of the cats had fleas; however, flea infestation was not associated with any of the infectious agents. PMID:22379197
Stojanovic, Vladimir; Foley, Peter
Ninety-six feral cats from Prince Edward Island were used to determine the prevalence of selected infectious agents. The prevalence rates were 5.2% for feline immunodeficiency virus, 3.1% for feline leukemia virus, 3.1% for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8.4% for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 2.1% for Bartonella spp. and 29.8% for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Oocysts of T. gondii were detected in 1.3% of the fecal samples that were collected. Gender and retroviral status of the cats were significantly correlated with hemoplasma infections. Use of a flea comb showed that 9.6% of the cats had fleas; however, flea infestation was not associated with any of the infectious agents.
Schäfer, Torsten; Stieger, Björn; Polzius, Rainer; Krauspe, Anja
The role of cat keeping on the promotion of allergies is discussed controversially. We investigated the associations between cat keeping, allergen exposure, allergic sensitization and atopic diseases in pre-school children. A total of 606 children (5- to 6-yr old) were studied in the course of the mandatory school entrance examination. Information on doctor diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis, pet keeping and confounders was obtained by questionnaire. The prevalence of atopic eczema was determined by dermatological examination, allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick test, and the allergen exposure to cat allergen Fel d 1 was measured by a commercial wipe test. Cats were present in 16% of the households and results of the exposure categories (0-III) on cat allergen were 47.2%, 25.5%, 24.3% and 3.0% respectively. The prevalence of cat keeping increased significantly with exposure categories from 0.5% to 61.5% (p(trend) < 0.001). Children (6.3%) were sensitized to cat allergen and sensitization rates increased also significantly with exposure categories from 3.0% to 15.4% (p(trend) < 0.001). Children (9.3%) were diagnosed with atopic eczema and a positive history of asthma/rhinitis was given in 3.6% and 3.9% respectively. Sensitization to cat was associated with atopic eczema (23.3% vs. 7.4%; OR(adj.)= 3.8, CI: 1.4-10.8), asthma (12.5% vs. 3.7%; OR(adj.)= 4.9, CI: 1.1-21.2), allergic rhinitis (6.9% vs. 2.7%; OR(adj.)= 3.1, CI: 0.7-15.2) and any atopic disease (43.5% vs. 16.3%; OR(adj.)= 3.8, CI: 1.5-9.5). The data suggest a promoting effect of cat keeping for atopic diseases.
Menotti-Raymond, M; David, V A; Pflueger, S; Roelke, M E; Kehler, J; O'Brien, S J; Narfström, K
The recent discovery of a mutational variant in the CEP290 gene (CEP290: IVS50+9T>G), conferring recessive retinal degeneration in Abyssinian and Somali (long-haired Abyssinian) cats (rdAc) prompted a survey among 41 cat breeds (846 individuals) to assess the incidence, frequency and clinical consequence of rdAc. The rdAc allele displayed widespread distribution, observed in 16/43 (37%) breeds, exhibiting a high allele frequency (∼33%) in North American and European Siamese populations. Clinical evaluations demonstrated high concordance between rdAc pathology and the CEP290 (IVS50+9T>G) homozygous genotype (P=1.1E-6), with clinical disease similar to affected Abyssinians/Somalis. This retinal degeneration has not been reported in breeds other than the Abyssinian/Somali and poses a significant health risk particularly in the Siamese breed group. Alertness of the veterinary community and the present availability of commercial diagnostic testing could synergistically enable breeders to reduce the incidence of rdAc blindness in pure-bred cat populations.
Nesina, Stefanie; Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Grest, Paula; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent viremia, immunodeficiency, tumors, anemia and death. A significant number of cats mount a protective immune response that suppresses viremia; these cats develop a regressive infection characterized by the absence of viral replication and the presence of low levels of proviral DNA. The biological importance of these latter provirus carriers is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ten cats that received a transfusion of blood from aviremic provirus carriers developed active FeLV infections, some with a progressive outcome and the development of fatal FeLV-associated disease. The infection outcome, disease spectrum and evolution into FeLV-C in one cat mirrored those of natural infection. Two cats developed persistent antigenemia; six cats were transiently antigenemic. Reactivation of infection occurred in some cats. One recipient developed non-regenerative anemia associated with FeLV-C, and four others developed a T-cell lymphoma, one with secondary lymphoblastic leukemia. Five of the ten recipient cats received provirus-positive aviremic blood, whereas the other five received provirus- and viral RNA-positive but aviremic blood. Notably, the cats that received blood containing only proviral DNA exhibited a later onset but graver outcome of FeLV infection than the cats that were transfused with blood containing proviral DNA and viral RNA. Leukocyte counts and cytokine analyses indicated that the immune system of the latter cats reacted quicker and more efficiently. Our results underline the biological and epidemiological relevance of FeLV provirus carriers and the risk of inadvertent FeLV transmission via blood transfusion and demonstrate the replication capacity of proviral DNA if uncontrolled by the immune system. Our results have implications not only for
Sent, U; Gössl, R; Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Zimmering, T
The efficacy and benefits of telmisartan in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not previously been reported. Long-term treatment of cats with CKD using telmisartan decreases urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) similar to benazepril. Two-hundred and twenty-four client-owned adult cats with CKD. Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized, parallel group, blinded clinical trial with noninferiority design. Cats were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either telmisartan (1 mg/kg; n = 112) or benazepril (0.5-1.0 mg/kg; n = 112) PO q24 h. The primary endpoint was prospectively defined as the change in proteinuria (benazepril:telmisartan) based on a log transformed weighted average of UP/C change from baseline (AUC 0→t/t) as a percentage compared using a confidence interval (CI) approach. Changes of UP/C from baseline were assessed on all study days and corrected for multiple comparisons. Telmisartan proved noninferior to benazepril in controlling proteinuria (CI, -0.035 to 0.268). At Day 180, UP/C compared to baseline in the telmisartan group was significantly lower (-0.05 ± 0.31; P = .016), whereas in the benazepril group the change (-0.02 ± 0.48) was not statistically significant (P = .136). Similar results were obtained at all assessment points with significant decrease in UP/C occurring with telmisartan but not benazepril. Both telmisartan and benazepril were well tolerated and safe. Telmisartan proved to be noninferior to benazepril and significantly decreased proteinuria relative to baseline at all assessment points whereas benazepril did not. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Forster-van Hijfte, Myra A; Groth, Anna M; Emmerson, Terrance D
A 7-year-old, entire female, domestic shorthair cat presented with recurrent upper respiratory tract problems. Infectious otitis media caused expansion of the middle ear which ultimately resulted in complete obstruction of the nasopharynx. A ventral bulla osteotomy was successful in relieving the clinical signs. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Juan; Dai, Lin; Lei, Song; Liao, Dian-ying; Wang, Xiao-qing; Luo, Tian-you; Chen, Yu; Hang, Zhen-biao; Li, Gan-di; Dong, Dan-dan; Xu, Gang; Gu, Zheng-ce; Hao, Ji-ling; Hua, Ping; He, Lei; Duan, Fang-lei
To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Warthin-Starry silver stain, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy in the detection of human Bartonella henselae infection and pathologic diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD). The paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues of 77 histologically-defined cases of cat scratch disease collected during the period from January, 1998 to December, 2008 were retrieved and studied using Warthin-Starry silver stain (WS stain) and mouse monoclonal antibody against Bartonella henselae (BhmAB stain). Five cases rich in bacteria were selected for transmission electron microscopy. Under electron microscope, the organisms Bartonella henselae appeared polymorphic, round, elliptical, short rod or bacilliform shapes, ranged from 0.489 to 1.110 microm by 0.333 to 0.534 microm and often clustered together. Black short rod-shaped bacilli arranged in chains or clumps were demonstrated in 61.0% (47/77) of CSD by WS stain. The organisms were located outside the cells and lie mainly in the necrotic debris, especially near the nodal capsule. In 72.7% (56/77) of the cases, dot-like, granular as well as few linear positive signals were observed using BhmAB immunostain and showed similar localization. Positive results for both stains were identified in 59.7% (46/77) of the cases. When applying both stains together, Bartonella henselae was observed in 74.0% (57/77) of the case. The difference between the results obtained by WS stain and BhmAB immunostain was of statistical significance (P < 0.05). Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease. WS stain, BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.
Pashmakova, Medora B; Piccione, Julie; Bishop, Micah A; Nelson, Whitney R; Lawhon, Sara D
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value. RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.
Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C
Sustained positive affect may decrease vulnerability to upper respiratory infections in cats admitted to a shelter. Incidence of upper respiratory infections was examined in cats rated as Content upon admission to an animal shelter when provided with or without treatment to sustain contentment. Ninety-six cats rated as Content upon admission were provided with either human interaction, including petting, playing, and grooming, in four 10min sessions/d for 10 days or were exposed to a control treatment of a human standing in front of the cage with eyes averted for the same period. Changes in emotional state and mucosal immune responses were measured daily in treated and control groups. Infectious status was determined upon admission and on days 4 and 10 using combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by quantitative real-time PCR for feline herpes virus type 1, feline calicivirus, Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The onset of upper respiratory disease (URD) was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, including ocular or nasal discharge. Treated cats were more likely to remain Content (Incident Rate Ratio [IRR]:1.13, Confidence Interval: 0.98-1.30, P <0.0001) and less likely to be rated as Anxious or Frustrated than Control cats over a 10 day period (IRR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88, P =0.007). Feline secretory IgA (S-IgA) quantified in faeces by ELISA techniques, was greater for Treated than Control cats (1451 Vs 846μg/g). Within the Treatment group, S-IgA was greater for cats that sustained Contentment throughout the study period compared to cats that became Anxious or Frustrated (1846 Vs 1394μg/g). An increasing proportion of Control than Treated cats shed pathogens over time (Control 22%, 36%, 61%; Treated 35%, 26%, 32% on d 1, 4 and 10, respectively; P =0.006). Control cats were more likely to develop URD than Treated cats (HR 2.9, CI: 1.30-6.67, P =0.01). Cats that responded positively to
Smith, Katherine F; Quinn, Rebecca L; Rahilly, Louisa J
To review the current veterinary and relevant human literature regarding biomarkers of respiratory diseases leading to dyspnea and to summarize the availability, feasibility, and practicality of using respiratory biomarkers in the veterinary setting. Veterinary and human medical literature: original research articles, scientific reviews, consensus statements, and recent textbooks. Numerous biomarkers have been evaluated in people for discriminating respiratory disease processes with varying degrees of success. Although biomarkers should not dictate clinical decisions in lieu of gold standard diagnostics, their use may be useful in directing care in the stabilization process. Serum immunoglobulins have shown promise as an indicator of asthma in cats. A group of biomarkers has also been evaluated in exhaled breath. Of these, hydrogen peroxide has shown the most potential as a marker of inflammation in asthma and potentially aspiration pneumonia, but methods for measurement are not standardized. D-dimers may be useful in screening for thromboembolic disease in dogs. There are a variety of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which are being evaluated for their ability to assess the severity and type of underlying disease process. Of these, amino terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide may be the most useful in determining if antibiotic therapy is warranted. Although critically evaluated for their use in respiratory disorders, many of the biomarkers which have been evaluated have been found to be affected by more than one type of respiratory or systemic disease. At this time, there are point-of-care biomarkers that have been shown to reliably differentiate between causes of dyspnea in dogs and cats. Future clinical research is warranted to understand of how various diseases affect the biomarkers and more bedside tests for their utilization. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
Litster, Annette L; Wu, Ching Ching; Constable, Peter D
To compare efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, and doxycycline in shelter-housed cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Randomized prospective clinical trial. Animals-48 cats with URTD. Conjunctival and nasal swab specimens were obtained for culture and susceptibility testing, and cats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (16 cats/group) on day 1: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (12.5 mg/kg [5.68 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h, for 14 days), cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg [3.64 mg/lb], SC, once), or doxycycline (10.0 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, for 14 days). Oculonasal discharge, sneezing, coughing, dyspnea, demeanor, and food intake were scored twice daily for 14 days (scale, 0 [subjectively normal] to 3 [markedly abnormal]). The most common bacterial isolates were Mycoplasma spp (n = 22) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (9). Cats treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline had significantly increased body weight by day 14. Cats that received doxycycline had significantly lower overall oculonasal discharge scores than those treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or cefovecin. Cats treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline had significantly lower overall sneezing scores than those that received cefovecin. Cats that received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had significantly decreased demeanor and food intake scores on day 2, whereas this was detected later in other groups (demeanor score on days 5 and 7 and food intake score on days 10 and 11 in the cefovecin and doxycycline groups, respectively). Oral administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or doxycycline appeared to be more effective than a single SC injection of cefovecin in treating cats with clinical signs of URTD.
Steele, Jennifer L; Henik, Rosemary A; Stepien, Rebecca L
Hypertension is commonly associated with chronic renal disease in cats, and inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may contribute to the hypertensive state. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are commonly administered when hypertension is present to decrease plasma concentrations of angiotensin II and aldosterone, which cause vasoconstriction and sodium and water retention, respectively. The study reported here was conducted over a 6-month period to assess the effects of two commonly prescribed ACE inhibitors, enalapril and benazepril, on the activity of the RAAS and blood pressure in 16 spontaneously hypertensive cats with chronic renal disease. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity were not significantly affected by ACE inhibitors in hypertensive cats, and systolic blood pressure did not decrease below 170 mm Hg with ACE inhibitor monotherapy in 14 of 16 cats. These results suggest that continued activation of the RAAS is present in hypertensive cats despite treatment with an ACE inhibitor, and ACE inhibitors should not be used as first-line antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive cats.
Palm, Carrie A; Feldman, Edward C
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in cats. Similar to people, cats with diabetes mellitus often have type 2 disease. Oral hypoglycemic drugs can be a potential treatment option for affected cats, especially when cats or owners do not tolerate administration of injectable insulin. Several classes of oral hypoglycemic drugs have been evaluated in cats but these drugs have not been commonly used for treatment of diabetic cats. With the advent of newer oral hypoglycemic drugs, and a better understanding of diabetes mellitus in cats, further investigation may allow for better diabetic control for feline patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn
Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.
Guiyedi, Vincent; Haddad, Hanna; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Gire, Fabien; Ongali, Brice; Lore, Philippes; Gameiro, Luis
We report a 19-year-old patient with a Cat-scratch disease presenting three months continuous alteration of the general condition, including prolonged-fever, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss associated with adenitis and multiple thoracic-abdominal adenopathies, leukocytosis with neutrophil polynuclear predominance, and increased of C-reactive protein. The serologies of toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis and the tuberculosis research by tuberculin reaction test and Ziehl acid-alcohol resistant bacilli direct examination were negatives. The cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus serologies were positives only for immunoglobulin-G. The Bartonella henselae diagnosis was made with the analysis of histopathological specimens. The clinical and biological symptoms regressed following eight weeks of azithromycin's treatment. According to this observation, the cat-scratch disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting prolonged-fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss. The azithromycin would be an alternative therapeutic issue for this pathology in case of confirmed efficacy by studies in a large patient population. PMID:24403980
Latanza, L; Viscogliosi, F; Solimeo, A; Calabrò, F; De Angelis, V; De Rosa, P
To report the first case of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that appeared during the primary Bartonella henselae infection in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl was referred to our clinic complaining of a central scotoma in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral disc oedema and in the right eye neuroretinitis with macular star and CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The optical coherence tomography revealed the presence of macular serous retinal detachment. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgM and IgG titres for B. henselae. Cat-scratch disease was diagnosed, and an 8-week treatment with azithromycin was initiated. In addition, an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed in the right eye to treat the CNV. A month later, we decided to administer a systemic antibiotic again for an additional 5 months, due to the persistence of papillitis. Cat-scratch disease should be considered among the different causes of inflammatory CNV secondary to infectious uveitis. Our case was the first described in the literature in which a CNV appeared during the primary infection and not as a later complication. The combination of systemic antibiotic treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy was a successful choice because it allowed us to obtain the complete resolution of neuroretinitis, associated with the scarring of the choroidal neovascular membrane, with a final visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes.
Guiyedi, Vincent; Haddad, Hanna; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Gire, Fabien; Ongali, Brice; Lore, Philippes; Gameiro, Luis
We report a 19-year-old patient with a Cat-scratch disease presenting three months continuous alteration of the general condition, including prolonged-fever, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss associated with adenitis and multiple thoracic-abdominal adenopathies, leukocytosis with neutrophil polynuclear predominance, and increased of C-reactive protein. The serologies of toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis and the tuberculosis research by tuberculin reaction test and Ziehl acid-alcohol resistant bacilli direct examination were negatives. The cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus serologies were positives only for immunoglobulin-G. The Bartonella henselae diagnosis was made with the analysis of histopathological specimens. The clinical and biological symptoms regressed following eight weeks of azithromycin's treatment. According to this observation, the cat-scratch disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting prolonged-fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss. The azithromycin would be an alternative therapeutic issue for this pathology in case of confirmed efficacy by studies in a large patient population.
Schrope, Donald P
Assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a large population of mixed-breed dogs and cats. 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats. Retrospective review of records and examinations based on specified diagnostic criteria. Among mixed-breed dogs, the prevalence of CHD was 0.13% (51.4% female) and of innocent murmurs was 0.10% (53.0% male). Pulmonic stenosis was the most common defect followed by patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Among mixed-breed cats, prevalence of CHD was 0.14% (55.2% male) and of innocent murmurs was 0.16% (54.4% male). When the 25 cats with dynamic left or right ventricular outflow obstruction were counted with cases of innocent murmurs, the overall prevalence was 0.2%. Ventricular septal defects were the most common feline CHD followed closely by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. There was no overall sex predilection for CHD in mixed-breed cats or dogs, and no significant difference in CHD prevalence between cats or dogs. Among dogs, subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia had a male predisposition while patent ductus arteriosus had a female predisposition. Among cats, valvular pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular and valvular aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects had a male predisposition while pulmonary artery stenosis had a female predisposition. The prevalence of CHD in a mixed-breed dogs and cats is lower than for prior studies, perhaps due to the lack of purebreds in the study population or actual changes in disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje
A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Chellapandian, Deepakbabu; Schneider, Adele
We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES) associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis.
Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J
Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.
Rand, Jacquie S; Marshall, Rhett D
Feline diabetes is a multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental factors, including diet, excess body weight, and physical inactivity, involved in its pathogenesis. Although type 2 diabetes is most common in cats, most cats are insulin-dependent at the time of diagnosis. If good glycemic control can be achieved early after diagnosis, a substantial proportion of diabetic cats go into clinical remission. Diabetic remission may be facilitated by using a low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet combined with a long-acting insulin, such as glargine, administered twice daily. Rather than just controlling clinical signs, these new treatment modalities make curing feline diabetes a realistic goal for practitioners.
Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Banlunara, Wijit; Niyomthum, Waree; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama
A 5-year-old, female neutered Persian cat was admitted to the Small Animal Hospital (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand) with clinical signs of dysuria, haematuria and partial urethral obstruction that had manifested over several months. The animal also had hyperkalaemia and severe azotaemia at the time of presentation. Urinalysis showed haematuria, pyuria and the presence of several transitional cells. In addition, ultrasonography demonstrated an extraluminal mass between the neck of urinary bladder and the colon. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass revealed a fungal form with branching and septate hyphae. Consequently, itraconazole treatment was prescribed and clinical signs of improvement were seen after 7 days. However, 1 month later, the cat died of acute anaemia. Necropsy revealed the presence of extraluminal multifocal fungal granuloma at the neck of the urinary bladder, and contracted kidneys. Histopathological analysis of the fungal granuloma was found to be composed of branching, septate hyphal fungi together with inflammatory cells. Subsequent fungal culture and identification revealed this to be a species of Penicillium.
Cat scratch disease (CSD), the most common cause of chronic lymphadenopathy among children and adolescents, typically features regional lymphadenitis associated with inoculation site due to a cat scratch or bite. The aim of this study was to systematically review the articles related to CSD which were reported from Turkey in national and international journals in the last 18 years with a pooled-analysis method. The articles related to CSD were retrieved by search of four national (Ulakbim Turkish Medical Literature Databases) and three international databases (Pub-Med, Science Citation Index (SCI) and Google scholar). Between the years 1996-2013, CSD cases have been published in a total of 16 articles (4 international, 12 national). These articles which were presented as a case report included a total of 18 CSD cases (38.8% women, 61.2% men; median age 16 years). The most common clinicopathologic subtypes of CSD are regional lymphadenitis (n=9), hepatosplenic (n=3) and neuroretinitis (n=2). The most common complaints of patients were swelling (94.4%), fever (61.2%) and weakness (50%) at admission. On exam, the most common signs were lymphadenopathy (94.4%), fever (61.2%), splenomegaly (16.6%), and skin eruption (16.6%). This pooled analysis which enabled the evaluation of a large number of CSD cases, indicated that careful evaluation of clinical findings and histopathological investigation will provide valuable support for diagnosis and treatment of CSD. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
Prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis DNA and associated risk factors in cats in Spain with upper respiratory tract disease, conjunctivitis and/or gingivostomatitis.
Fernandez, Mireia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Lloret, Albert; León, Marta; Thibault, Jean-Christophe
Objectives Our objective was to perform the first multicentric study in Spain to evaluate the prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma felis in cats with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), conjunctivitis and/or gingivostomatitis (GS) compared with control cats; and to evaluate risk factors for these clinical conditions. Methods Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and a questionnaire regarding signalment, lifestyle, vaccination history and clinical signs was obtained for each cat. Swabs were tested for each pathogen by real-time PCR. Results The study population consisted of 358 cats, including 98 control cats. Among the 260 diseased cats, 127 cats presented with URTD, 149 cats had conjunctivitis, 154 cats were suffering GS; many cats presented more than one clinical condition. The prevalence observed of FHV-1, FCV, C felis and M felis was, respectively, 28.3%, 48.0%, 20.5% and 46.5% in cats with URTD; 24.2%, 43.6%, 19.5% and 38.3% in cats with conjunctivitis; and 15.6%, 58.4%, 9.1% and 37.7% in cats with GS. Prevalences in the control group were 6.1%, 15.3%, 2.0% and 20.4%, respectively. Coinfections were common among all groups of cats. Risk factors were identified for all groups. FHV-1, FCV and C felis were associated with URTD and conjunctivitis. FCV was strongly associated with GS. M felis was present in a high percentage of the population in all groups, but its role in these clinical conditions remains uncertain. Vaccination was protective for URTD and GS but not for conjunctivitis. Conclusions and relevance This epidemiological study describes, for the first time, prevalence for FHV-1, FCV, C felis and M felis in Spain. In general, the prevalences found are similar to those reported in other countries. Factors associated with disease expression were also identified, which are relevant for practitioners.
Narfström, Kristina; Holland Deckman, Koren; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn
Large mammals, including canids and felids, are affected by spontaneously occurring hereditary retinal diseases with similarities to those of humans. The large mammal models may be used for thorough clinical characterization of disease processes, understanding the effects of specific mutations, elucidation of disease mechanisms, and for development of therapeutic intervention. Two well-characterized feline models are addressed in this paper. The first model is the autosomal recessive, slowly progressive, late-onset, rod-cone degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the CEP290 gene. The second model addressed in this paper is the autosomal dominant early onset rod cone dysplasia, putatively caused by the mutation found in the CRX gene. Therapeutic trials have been performed mainly in the former type including stem cell therapy, retinal transplantation, and development of ocular prosthetics. Domestic cats, having large human-like eyes with comparable spontaneous retinal diseases, are also considered useful for gene replacement therapy, thus functioning as effective model systems for further research. PMID:21584261
Fyfe, John C; Kurzhals, Rebeccah L; Hawkins, Michelle G; Wang, Ping; Yuhki, Naoya; Giger, Urs; Van Winkle, Thomas J; Haskins, Mark E; Patterson, Donald F; Henthorn, Paula S
Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) activity causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), an autosomal recessive error of metabolism. Abnormal glycogen accumulates in myocytes, hepatocytes, and neurons, causing variably progressive, benign to lethal organ dysfunctions. A naturally occurring orthologue of human GSD IV was described previously in Norwegian forest cats (NFC). Here, we report that while most affected kittens die at or soon after birth, presumably due to hypoglycemia, survivors of the perinatal period appear clinically normal until onset of progressive neuromuscular degeneration at 5 months of age. Molecular investigation of affected cats revealed abnormally spliced GBE1 mRNA products and lack of GBE cross-reactive material in liver and muscle. Affected cats are homozygous for a complex rearrangement of genomic DNA in GBE1, constituted by a 334 bp insertion at the site of a 6.2 kb deletion that extends from intron 11 to intron 12 (g. IVS11+1552_IVS12-1339 del6.2kb ins334 bp), removing exon 12. An allele-specific, PCR-based test demonstrates that the rearrangement segregates with the disease in the GSD IV kindred and is not found in unrelated normal cats. Screening of 402 privately owned NFC revealed 58 carriers and 4 affected cats. The molecular characterization of feline GSD IV will enhance further studies of GSD IV pathophysiology and development of novel therapies in this unique animal model.
Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob
Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.
Bernard, Stephanie A; Walker, Eric A; Carroll, John F; Klassen-Fischer, Mary; Murphey, Mark D
Evaluate anatomic and imaging features of epitrochlear regional adenopathy secondary to cat scratch disease (CSD) to assist differentiation of CSD from other soft tissue masses at the elbow. Retrospective review of 24 confirmed cases of CSD. Patient demographics, clinical presentation and radiographic (R; n = 10), CT (n = 3), ultrasound (US; n = 5), and MR (n = 21) images were reviewed. Lesion location, size, number of masses, and intrinsic characteristics on R/CT/US/MR and presence of soft tissue inflammatory changes or adjacent bone or joint involvement were established through the consensus interpretation by four musculoskeletal radiologists. The average patient age was 18.6 years. Mass location was anterior and superficial to the medial intermuscular septum (100 %) with the masses posterior or posteromedial to the basilic vein (92 %). Three or fewer lymph nodes were involved in 92 %. Masses were noncalcified with adjacent inflammatory change (R = 90 %, CT = 100 %). US showed hypoechoic soft tissue echogenicity masses with defined to minimally irregular margins (80 %) and preserved central hilar hypervascularity on Doppler (100 % of cases). On MR, masses were T1 isointense (62 %), T2 isointense (54 %), intermediate signal on T2 images with fat suppression (55 %), and had perilesional inflammatory changes (95 %), perilesional fluid collections (38 %), adjacent muscle edema (81 %), hyperintense cental hilar vascular enhancement (65 %) and occasional preserved central hilar fat (14 %). Cat scratch disease is suggested by the characteristic location of a medial epitrochlear mass superficial to the brachial fascia and posterior to the basilic vein with surrounding inflammatory changes and preservation of hilar vascular architecture, hilar enhancement and occasional hilar fat.
Passantino, Annamaria; Masucci, Marisa
Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition), history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies), and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc.) can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired). Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases.
Taniguchi, Natsuko; Konno, Satoshi; Isada, Akira; Hattori, Takeshi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Kaoruko; Maeda, Yukiko; Makita, Hironi; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Masaharu
Catalase (CAT) is a part of the active antioxidant defense system and has been studied with regard to its association with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which are heterogeneous obstructive pulmonary diseases characterized by chronic airway inflammation. We hypothesized that the CAT gene might be involved in the common pathogenesis underlying asthma and COPD. To evaluate the association of CAT polymorphisms with specific phenotypes of asthma and COPD to identify the common underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of these 2 diseases. The -262C>T and -21A>T polymorphisms in the CAT gene were genotyped in 493 individuals with asthma, 265 with COPD, and 1,076 healthy controls. Asthmatic patients were categorized according to smoking status (smokers and nonsmokers) and age at onset (early onset and adult onset) as part of a case-control study. In patients with COPD, visual scoring (computed tomographic score) was assessed to determine emphysema severity, which was used to evaluate associations with CAT gene polymorphisms. Overall, the -262C>T and -21A>T polymorphisms were not associated with asthma. However, the -262CT+TT genotype was significantly associated with adult-onset asthma in smokers (P = .005), and a significant interaction between smoking status and the effect of -262C>T genotype on asthma were observed (P = .01). In patients with COPD, this genotype was significantly associated with a low computed tomographic score (P = .03), which indicates a nonemphysematous type of COPD. The present study indicates that the CAT gene is involved in the common pathogenesis underlying adult-onset asthma in smokers and the nonemphysematous type of COPD. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jepson, R E; Syme, H M; Vallance, C; Elliott, J
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension have been associated with decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dysfunction. Increased concentrations of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are implicated. Plasma ADMA concentration is increased in cats with CKD and systemic hypertension corresponding to a decrease in total plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) availability. Decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and proteinuria during treatment of hypertension with amlodipine besylate may be associated with increased NOx availability. Sixty-nine client-owned normotensive and hypertensive cats with variable azotemia. Plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and l-arginine were measured simultaneously by hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in cats from 6 groups: normotensive nonazotemic (n = 10), normotensive mildly azotemic (n = 10), hypertensive mildly azotemic with hypertensive retinopathy (n = 20), hypertensive mildly azotemic without hypertensive retinopathy (n = 10), normotensive moderately azotemic cats (n = 10), and hypertensive nonazotemic cats (n = 9). Plasma NOx concentrations were measured. A moderate correlation between plasma creatinine and ADMA (n = 69, r= .608, P < .001), SDMA (n = 69, r= .741, P < .001), and NOx concentrations (n = 69, r= .589, P < .001) was observed. There was no association among plasma ADMA, SDMA, and NOx concentrations and SBP. Plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations are increased in cats with CKD and correlate with plasma creatinine concentration. This may imply the presence of endothelial dysfunction in cats with CKD. Plasma ADMA concentrations were not associated with systemic hypertension. Treatment of systemic hypertension with amlodipine besylate did not affect plasma ADMA or NOx concentrations.
Schulz, Catharina; Hartmann, Katrin; Mueller, Ralf S; Helps, Chris; Schulz, Bianka S
Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV) and Chlamydia felis are involved in feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD). Clinical signs caused by these agents can overlap, and the involvement of certain pathogens is often unpredictable. The objectives of this study were to compare detection rates of FHV-1, FCV and C felis at different sampling sites, and to investigate the correlation between positive test results and clinical signs in cats with FURTD. Swabs were taken from the nose, pharynx, tongue and conjunctiva of 104 cats with signs of FURTD. Real-time PCR was performed on all samples for the detection of FHV-1, FCV and C felis. Infectious agents were identified in 93 (89.4%) cats. Of these, 55.8% were positive for FHV-1, 50.0% for FCV and 35.6% for C felis. FCV was found more frequently in the oropharynx (92.3% of FCV-positive cats) and on the tongue (90.4%) than the conjunctiva (38.5%) (P <0.001). There was no significant difference between the four sampling sites for the detection of FHV-1 and C felis. If nasal samples had also been taken, 94.9% of FHV-1-positive cats, 96.2% of FCV-positive cats and 81.1% of C felis-positive cats would have been detected. The oropharynx can be recommended as the preferred single sampling site for the detection of FCV, FHV-1 and C felis if only one sample can be taken; however, taking samples at different sites significantly increases the detection rate for all pathogens studied. Interestingly, sampling from a site with FURTD-associated lesions did not increase the likelihood of detecting the infectious agents. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.
The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.
Buban, Marcia H.
Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)
Buban, Marcia H.
Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)
Murphy, Colleen P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J. Scott; Prescott, John F.; Janecko, Nicol; McEwen, Scott A.
This study investigated oral and parenteral antimicrobial use in dogs and cats, and evaluated antimicrobial use in feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD), and canine infectious tracheobronchitis. Study journals (n = 1807) were submitted by 84 veterinarians. Sixty-five percent of the antimicrobials prescribed in dogs and 67% in cats were β-lactams. Most frequently prescribed in dogs were cephalexin (33%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (16%), and in cats, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%) and cefovecin (17%); 7% of the prescriptions in dogs and 12% in cats were for fluoroquinolones. Sixty-seven percent of the disease events associated with canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and 70% and 74% associated with FURTD and FLUTD, respectively, were treated with antimicrobials. These results suggest that cefovecin and fluoroquinolones may be over-used and antimicrobial use for the treatment of FURTD, FLUTD, and canine infectious tracheobronchitis could probably be reduced to lessen resistance selection pressure without compromising patient health. PMID:22942447
Grauer, Gregory F
Renal damage and disease can be caused by acute or chronic insults to the kidney. Acute renal damage often results from ischemic or toxic insults and usually affects the tubular portion of the nephron. In contrast, chronic renal disease can be caused by diseases and/or disorders that affect any portion of the nephron, including its blood supply and supporting interstitium. Early detection of acute renal disease facilitates appropriate intervention that can arrest or at least attenuate tubular cell damage and the development of established acute renal failure. Similarly,early detection of chronic renal disease, before the onset of renal azotemia and chronic renal failure, should facilitate appropriate intervention that stabilizes renal function or at least slows its progressive decline.
Rahman, Mohammad M; Shoubudani, Tomoaki; Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Hossain, Mohammad A; Yabuki, Akira; Mitani, Sawane; Higo, Takashi; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays combined with microchip electrophoresis were developed and evaluated for diagnosis and genotyping of GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease) in Japanese domestic cats. A preliminary genotyping survey was carried out in the population of Japanese domestic cats (1,015 cats in total) in southern Japan. Three kinds of assays including PCR primer-induced restriction analysis (PIRA) and mutagenically separated (MS)-PCR were carried out using blood-stained Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) as templates. The PCR products were analyzed by both agarose gel and microchip electrophoreses. All assays were sufficient to determine the genotypes of this disease, but MS-PCR offered the most rapid and simplest test, as it does not need the restriction enzyme step required in PCR-PIRA. The use of microchip electrophoresis in combination with FTA cards for sampling could shorten the time required for genotyping and simplify the procedure as well. The genotyping survey in the current study did not find any cats that possessed the mutant allele, suggesting that the prevalence of this allele is low (<0.1%) in southern Japan.
Hanzlicek, A S; Roof, C J; Sanderson, M W; Grauer, G F
Renal fibrosis is common in progressive kidney disease. Transforming growth factors β (TGF-β) are important mediators of all types of fibrosis, including renal fibrosis. Chinese rhubarb has been shown to have antifibrotic properties in part because of inhibition of TGF-β and has slowed the progression of kidney disease in rodent models. That administration of a Chinese rhubarb supplement will slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats and the concurrent administration of Chinese rhubarb and benazepril will be more effective than either alone. Twenty-nine client-owned cats with naturally occurring IRIS Stage 2 or early Stage 3 CKD and without comorbidity such as cancer, urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infection, poorly controlled hyperthyroidism, or systemic hypertension were enrolled in the study. A randomized, positive-controlled, prospective study was performed. Cats received Chinese rhubarb, benazepril, or both in addition to standard treatment for CKD. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in serum creatinine concentration, body weight, hematocrit, urine protein: urine creatinine ratio (UPC), and systemic arterial blood pressure over time between and within treatment groups over an average of 22 months. No significant differences were detected in serum creatinine concentration, body weight, hematocrit, UPC, and systemic arterial pressure over time between or within treatment groups. This study failed to detect a significant difference in the progression of CKD in cats treated with Chinese rhubarb, benazepril, or both. Further study in specific subsets of cats with CKD is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Passantino, Annamaria; Masucci, Marisa
Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition), history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies), and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc.) can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired). Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases. PMID:27284217
Benito, J; Depuy, V; Hardie, E; Zamprogno, H; Thomson, A; Simpson, W; Roe, S; Hansen, B; Lascelles, B D X
The objective of this study was to test the readability, reliability, repeatability and discriminatory ability of an owner-completed instrument to assess feline degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated pain (feline musculoskeletal pain index, FMPI). Readability was explored using four different formulas (Flesch, Fry, SMOG and FOG) and the final FMPI instrument was produced. To assess the instrument, client-owned cats that were defined as normal (normal group) or as having DJD-associated pain and mobility impairment (pain-DJD group) were recruited. A total of 32 client-owned cats were enrolled in the study (normal, n=13; pain-DJD, n=19). Owners completed the FMPI on two occasions, 14days apart. Internal consistency (reliability) and repeatability (test-retest) were explored using Cronbach's α and weighted κ statistic, respectively. Data from the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance (controlling for age) to evaluate discriminatory ability. The FMPI was constructed with 21 questions covering activity, pain intensity and overall quality of life. It had a 6th grade readability score. Reliability of the FMPI was excellent (Cronbach's α>0.8 for all groupings of questions in normal and pain-DJD cats) and repeatability was good (weighted κ statistic >0.74) for normal and pain-DJD cats. All components of the FMPI were able to distinguish between normal cats and cats with DJD (P<0.001 for all components). This initial evaluation of the FMPI suggests that this instrument is worthy of continued investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris
The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.
Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S
Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food.
Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tanimoto, Ayano; Tokuda, Nobuko; Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Nojima, Junzo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi
Bartonella henselae strains genetically differ among nations. The utility of Japanese-specific YH-01 strain was investigated in developing indirect fluorescence antibody assay (IFA) for IgM in comparison with conventional IFA employing Houston-1 strain by testing 100 Japanese patients suspected of cat scratch disease. The country-specific IFA greatly improved the accuracy of diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Levy, Steven A; O'Connor, Thomas P; Hanscom, Jancy L; Shields, Paulette
The efficacy of a commercially available in-office kit (SNAP 3Dx, IDEXX Laboratories) for detection of antibodies directed against an invariable region (IR6) of the B. burgdorferi surface protein VlsE (Vmp-like sequence, Expressed), a surface antigen of the spirochete recognized during active infection has been evaluated in dogs. The present study was conducted to determine whether this in-office test could be useful for detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in cats. Cats owned by clients of a veterinary hospital located in an area hyperendemic for Lyme disease were included in the study. When possible, cats with an outdoor lifestyle, bite wounds, or current tick infestation were recruited for the study to help ensure that animals with a likelihood of exposure to natural infection by B. burgdorferi would be included in the test group. Of the 24 cats tested, 17 samples were positive for antibodies to B. burgdorferi by the C6 ELISA kit. For all 17 of these samples, a duplicate sample tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) was in agreement with the ELISA. Five samples were negative by both assays. Two samples that were negative by the C6 ELISA test had low IFA titers (1:100). One of these two discrepant samples was negative and one was positive for antibodies to B. burgdorferi by the Western blot test. It was concluded that the C6 ELISA test performed with good agreement with the IFA and Western blot tests for detection of antibody to B. burgdorferi in the majority of cats tested. The test offers the advantages of producing a result rapidly (approximately 8 minutes), and it requires only two drops of serum, plasma, or whole blood.
Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion
In this study subtypes, distribution and number of mast cells were investigated within mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract of 24 cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in comparison to 11 control cats. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed transmural gastrointestinal biopsies from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were examined. Mast cells were phenotyped and quantified based on their chymase and tryptase content, by applying a combined enzyme-histochemical and immunohistochemical double-labeling technique and on their heparin content by a metachromatic staining method (kresylecht-violet, MC(KEV)). Mast cells containing both chymase and tryptase were not found in any of the samples examined. Furthermore, in the stomach neither chymase (MC(C)) nor tryptase (MC(T)) bearing mast cells were detected. In cats with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or enterocolitis elevated numbers of MC(T) or MC(C) were identified in comparison to controls mainly located in the inflamed segments. The highest quantity of MC(C) was found in cats with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis or enterocolitis in comparison to other IBD forms, but only minor numbers of MC(T) were detected in these cases. In cats with fibrosing enteropathy (FE) a decrease of MC(C) and mast cells containing heparin was detected in affected segments, while increased numbers of MC(T) were detected in all locations. The elevation in the number of MC(T) was higher in unaffected areas than in fibrotic regions. Regarding all IBD cases higher counts of MC(C) were found especially in the inflamed locations, whereas in unaffected segments increased numbers of MC(T) were detected. The clear predominance of MC(C) and MC(T) within the mucosa and of MC(KEV) within the submucosa of all cats examined possibly represents differences of the cytokine milieu within the intestinal layers. In FE, mast cells are possibly pivotal for the containment of the inflammatory process because of their antiinflammatory
Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Kley, S; Tschuor, F; Zini, E; Ohlerth, S; Boretti, F S; Reusch, C E
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been considered a key clinical feature of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans although. An increasing number of cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in people with type-2 DM. Cats initially diagnosed with DKA can achieve remission from diabetes. Cats with DKA and diabetic remission are more likely to have been administered glucocorticoids before diagnosis. Twelve cats with DKA and 7 cats with uncomplicated DM. Retrospective case review. Medical records of cats presenting with DKA or DM were evaluated. Diabetic remission was defined as being clinically unremarkable for at least 1 month after insulin withdrawal. The cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) cats with DKA and diabetic remission; (2) cats with DKA without diabetic remission; and (3) cats with DM and diabetic remission. Seven cats with DKA had remission from diabetes. These cats had significantly higher concentrations of leukocytes and segmented neutrophils, and significantly lower concentrations of eosinophils in blood and had pancreatic disease more often than did cats with uncomplicated DM and diabetic remission. With regard to pretreatment, 3/7 cats in group 1, 1/5 cats in group 2, and 1/7 cats in group 3 had been treated with glucocorticoids. Remission of DM in cats presenting with DKA is possible. Cats with DKA and remission have more components of a stress leucogram, pancreatic disease, and seemed to be treated more often with glucocorticoids than cats with uncomplicated DM and diabetic remission.
Mexas, Angela M; Hess, Rebecka S; Hawkins, Eleanor C; Martin, Linda D
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy of cats and humans. Although few studies have examined the effects of DM on the pulmonary system, changes in pulmonary function and immunology in humans with type I and II diabetes, and pulmonary lesions in a murine diabetic model have been documented. Our objective was to determine whether pulmonary lesions occurred in cats with DM. Medical records and necropsy evaluations of 42 cats with DM were compared with those of 45 age-matched, nondiabetic cats for the presence of clinical evidence of respiratory disease and pulmonary histopathological findings at the time of necropsy. No statistical difference was noted in the presence of clinical evidence of respiratory disease between cats with diabetes and control cats. Nevertheless, there was a significant association between the presence of abnormal pulmonary histopathology and DM (P = .018, odds ratio = 3 inclusive of all cats; P = .005, odds ratio = 5 when non-DM cats with overt clinical evidence of respiratory disease were excluded). Pulmonary abnormalities detected by histopathological examination in cats with diabetes included congestion and edema, histiocytosis, pneumonia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mineralization, neoplasia, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. The observed association between DM and pulmonary lesions in cats, independent of clinical evidence of respiratory disease, emphasizes the need for careful assessment of the respiratory tract in sick cats with diabetes.
Arther, R G; Charles, S; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Settje, T S
Sixteen controlled laboratory studies, involving 420 kittens and cats, were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied formulations of imidacloprid and moxidectin for the prevention of feline heartworm disease, treatment of flea infestations and treatment and control of intestinal nematodes. Unit-dose applicators and the dosing schedule used in these studies were designed to provide a minimum of 10mg imidacloprid and 1mg moxidectin/kg. Treatments were applied topically by parting the hair at the base of the skull and applying the solution on the skin. Imidacloprid treatment alone did not display activity against Dirofilaria immitis or intestinal nematodes and moxidectin treatment alone provided little or no activity against adult Ctenocephalides felis infestations. The formulation containing 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin was 100% efficacious against the development of adult D. immitis infections when cats were treated 30 days after inoculation with third-stage larvae. A single treatment with this formulation also provided 88.4-100% control of adult C. felis for 35 days. Imidacloprid/moxidectin was 100% efficacious against adult Toxocara cati and 91.0-98.3% efficacious against immature adults and fourth-stage T. cati larvae. The formulation provided 98.8-100% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma and immature adults and third-stage A. tubaeforme larvae. Monthly topical application with 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin is convenient, efficacious and safe for the prevention of feline heartworm disease, treatment of flea infestation and for the treatment and control of intestinal nematode infections of cats.
Hansmann, Yves; DeMartino, Sylvie; Piémont, Yves; Meyer, Nicolas; Mariet, Philippe; Heller, Rémy; Christmann, Daniel; Jaulhac, Benoît
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy alongside the classical criteria. Over a 7-year period, lymph node biopsy specimens or cytopunctures from 70 patients were systematically tested by PCR for the presence of B. henselae DNA (htrA gene) in the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg. Serological testing by an immunofluorescence assay for B. henselae antibodies was also performed for each patient, and clinical, epidemiological, and histological data were collected. The patients were then divided into two groups according to the number of positive diagnostic criteria for CSD: 29 patients with definite CSD (two or more classical criteria) and 15 patients with possible CSD (less than two classical criteria). The remaining 26 patients for whom another diagnosis was retained were used as a control group. Among all criteria, PCR analysis had the best specificity (100%). The PCR assay for B. henselae was positive for 22 (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 56.5 to 89.7%) of the 29 definite CSD patients and 3 (20%; CI95, 4.3 to 48.1%) of the 15 possible CSD patients. We then studied combinations of diagnostic criteria, including B. henselae PCR analysis. The best diagnostic performance was observed if at least two criteria were present among serologic, epidemiologic, histological, and molecular criteria.
Hansmann, Yves; DeMartino, Sylvie; Piémont, Yves; Meyer, Nicolas; Mariet, Philippe; Heller, Rémy; Christmann, Daniel; Jaulhac, Benoît
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy alongside the classical criteria. Over a 7-year period, lymph node biopsy specimens or cytopunctures from 70 patients were systematically tested by PCR for the presence of B. henselae DNA (htrA gene) in the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg. Serological testing by an immunofluorescence assay for B. henselae antibodies was also performed for each patient, and clinical, epidemiological, and histological data were collected. The patients were then divided into two groups according to the number of positive diagnostic criteria for CSD: 29 patients with definite CSD (two or more classical criteria) and 15 patients with possible CSD (less than two classical criteria). The remaining 26 patients for whom another diagnosis was retained were used as a control group. Among all criteria, PCR analysis had the best specificity (100%). The PCR assay for B. henselae was positive for 22 (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 56.5 to 89.7%) of the 29 definite CSD patients and 3 (20%; CI95, 4.3 to 48.1%) of the 15 possible CSD patients. We then studied combinations of diagnostic criteria, including B. henselae PCR analysis. The best diagnostic performance was observed if at least two criteria were present among serologic, epidemiologic, histological, and molecular criteria. PMID:16081914
Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J
Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease.
Del Sole, María J; Sande, Pablo H; Bernades, José M; Aba, Marcelo A; Rosenstein, Ruth E
To evaluate the rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy domestic cats with no evidence of ocular disease and to analyze the influence of photoperiod, age, gender and ocular diseases on diurnal-nocturnal variations of cat IOP. All animals were Domestic Short-haired cats; 30 were without systemic or ocular diseases, classified as follows: 12 male intact adult cats, five intact adult female, five adult spayed female, and eight male cats; the latter were less than 1 year of age. In addition, five adult cats with uveitis and three adult cats with secondary glaucoma were included. IOP was assessed with a Tono-Pen XL at 3-h intervals over a 24-h period in 12 healthy adult male cats kept under a photoperiod of 12-h light/12-h darkness for 2 weeks. Eight animals from the same group were then kept under constant darkness for 48 h, and IOP was measured at 3-h intervals for the following 24 h. In addition, IOP was assessed at 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. in five intact females, five spayed females, and in eight young cats, as well as in five adult cats with uveitis and three glaucomatous cats. Consistent, daily variations in IOP were observed in animals exposed to a light-dark cycle, with maximal values during the night. In cats exposed to constant darkness, maximal values of IOP were observed at subjective night. Differences of IOP values between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. (diurnal-nocturnal variations) persisted in intact females, spayed females, and young animals, as well as in uveitic and glaucomatous eyes. The present results indicate a daily rhythm of cat IOP, which appears to persist in constant darkness, suggesting some level of endogenous circadian control. In addition, daily variations of cat IOP seem to be independent of gender, age, or ocular diseases (particularly uveitis and glaucoma).
Litster, Annette; Moss, Susan M; Honnery, Mary; Rees, Bob; Trott, Darren J
This study investigated the prevalence of bacterial pathogens of the urinary tract in Australian cats. Urine was collected by cystocentesis and subjected to urinalysis, bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. A total of 126 isolates were obtained from 107 culture-positive cats. Escherichia coli was most commonly isolated (37.3% of isolates) with the majority of isolates showing susceptibility to the 14 antimicrobials tested. Just over a quarter of isolates (27.0%) were Enterococcus faecalis, which showed resistance to cephalosporins and clindamycin. Staphylococcus felis, a previously unreported feline urinary tract pathogen which was susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, comprised 19.8% of the isolates. S. felis was significantly associated with urine that had a higher specific gravity (p=0.011) and pH (p=0.006) and was more likely to contain crystals (p=0.002) than urine from which other bacterial species were isolated. This is the first published study that associates the isolation of S. felis with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease in cats.
Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.
... Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ... Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...
Keyserling, Christine L; Buriko, Yekaterina; Lyons, Bridget M; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Fischetti, Anthony J
Thoracic radiographs are used as a screening tool for dogs and cats with a variety of disorders that have no clinical signs associated with thoracic structures. However, this practice has never been supported by an evidence-based study. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to determine if certain canine and feline populations have a higher proportion of radiographic abnormalities, and whether any of these abnormalities are associated with patient hospitalization and outcome. Patients were excluded if current or previous examinations revealed evidence of primary respiratory or cardiac disease, malignant neoplasia, or an abnormal breathing pattern consistent with pulmonary pathology. Any notable thoracic change in the radiology report was considered important and evaluated in this study. One hundred and sixty-six of these included patients were dogs and 65 were cats. Of the 166 dog radiographs evaluated, 120 (72.3%) had normal thoracic radiographs, while 46 (27.7%) had radiographic abnormalities. Of the sixty-five cats included, 36 (55.4%) had normal radiographs, while 29 (44.6%) had abnormal radiographs. Canine patients with abnormal radiographs had a significantly higher lactate level (P-value 0.0348) and feline patients with abnormal radiographs had a significantly lower packed cell volume (P-value 0.012). A large proportion of patients that had screening thoracic radiographs (32.5%) had documented abnormalities, but a relatively low percentage (6.5%) of our total population had their clinical plan changed as a consequence of detection of these abnormalities. Findings indicated that abnormal screening thoracic radiographs are more likely in dogs with an elevated lactate and cats with anemia, or a low normal hematocrit. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
A dual-strain feline calicivirus vaccine stimulates broader cross-neutralization antibodies than a single-strain vaccine and lessens clinical signs in vaccinated cats when challenged with a homologous feline calicivirus strain associated with virulent systemic disease.
Huang, Chengjin; Hess, Jennifer; Gill, Michael; Hustead, David
Feline calicivirus (FCV) causes an array of clinical disease in cats. Traditionally this disease has been associated with respiratory disease, limping, or chronic stomatitis. Within the last 10 years, virulent systemic feline calicivirus (VS-FCV) has been recognized which causes additional clinical signs and has a higher fatality rate. A dual-strain FCV vaccine containing a strain of FCV associated with traditional respiratory disease and a VS-FCV strain stimulates serum cross-neutralization antibodies when tested against field strains from Europe and VS-FCV strains from USA. Following challenge with a homologous VS-FCV strain, vaccinated cats had significantly reduced clinical signs.
Bennett, David; Morton, Carolyn
This study describes the use of a simple questionnaire-based tool to identify behavioural/lifestyle changes that are associated with chronic pain in the cat. These changes were grouped into four behavioural domains (mobility, activity, grooming and temperament). Twenty-three cats with chronic musculoskeletal pain as determined by clinical examination were included. The owners of these cats were asked to complete a questionnaire before and 28 days after the start of analgesic treatment (meloxicam). This included a global assessment of changes in behaviour and assessment of the degree of behavioural change observed within each of the defined domains. The attending veterinary surgeon was independently asked to provide a global score before and after treatment. Both owners and veterinary surgeons reported significant changes in behaviour/lifestyle after analgesic therapy. There was no difference between the owners and veterinary surgeons global assessments at baseline but there was at day 28 (P=0.02). The owners' scores decreased from a median of 5 at baseline to 3 at 28 days (P=0.0004) while the median veterinary surgeon scores decreased from 5 to 2 at 28 days (P<0.0001). There was a statistically significant reduction in the owners' scores for each of the four domains with the greatest reduction occurring in the activity category (P=0.0001). This study shows that owner assessment of changes in their cat's behaviour/lifestyle is an important method of identifying chronic pain in their pets.
Lommer, M J; Verstraete, F J M
Oral mucosal salivary samples were collected from 25 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 24 cats with periodontal disease. Viral culture and isolation of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus 1 were performed. Eighty-eight per cent of cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were shedding both viruses, compared to 21% of cats without chronic oral inflammatory disease. Cats with chronic gingivostomatitis are significantly more likely to concurrently shed both feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus 1 than are cats with classical periodontal disease.
Felumlee, Amy E; Marolf, Angela J; Randall, Elissa K; Bachand, Annette M; Quimby, Jessica M
Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via gamma camera uptake of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid is a standard method for quantifying renal function. Aims of this retrospective, observer agreement study were to determine intra- and interobserver variation in GFR values for cats with chronic kidney disease and to determine whether renal insufficiency classification changed between observers. Guideline cut-points were established for the difference in repeated GFRs to differentiate changes caused by therapeutic effect vs. inherent variation. Included cats had a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and had undergone GFR examinations between the years of 2010 and 2013. Twenty-nine GFR studies were sampled. Each study was read twice, 6 months apart, by two veterinary radiologists and one radiology resident. Modified Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate differences between readings 1 and 2 by observer and between pairs of observers by reading. Reliability of clinical classification was assessed through comparisons between readings and observers. Measurements were not systematically different between readings for the experienced observers but were higher in reading 1 than reading 2 for the inexperienced observer. Measurements were not systematically different between the experienced observers in reading 1 or between any two observers in reading 2. Reliability for GFR measurements was high among experienced observers; variations in GFR measurements rarely led to differences in clinical classification. Results suggested that, for experienced observers, changes in GFR values following treatment in cats with chronic kidney disease between -0.4 and 0.4 mL/min/kg may be due to inherent variability rather than treatment effect. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E
Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.
Streubel, Ronny; Bilzer, Thomas; Grest, Paula; Damur, Daniel; Montavon, Pierre M
To describe the clinical signs and histologic changes in cats clinically affected with medial humeral epicondylitis (MHE) and evaluate long-term outcome after either conservative or surgical treatment. Prospective cohort study. Client-owned cats (n = 17) with MHE. Cats diagnosed with MHE, based on clinical signs, radiographs and computed tomography (CT), were prospectively recruited. Cats were treated conservatively for an initial 4 weeks, followed by either surgery or continued conservative treatment. Followup examinations were performed at 6 and 12 weeks and at 6-49 months. Cats had a mean age of 10.3 years and presented for chronic lameness. Examination revealed pain on palpation caudodistal to the medial epicondyle and by exerting antebrachial supination/pronation with elbow and carpal flexion. Lameness was restricted to 1 limb although CT revealed bilateral disease in 11/17 cats. Free mineralized joint bodies were identified in 9/17 cats. Nine cats were treated surgically and 8 cats were treated conservatively. Intraoperative findings included new bone formation at the origin of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle with displacement and adhesions of the ulnar nerve. Microscopic examination revealed neurogenic myopathy in 4/9 cats treated surgically. Seven of 9 cats treated surgically were free from lameness by 12 weeks. Seven of 8 cats treated conservatively were chronically lame throughout the study. Cats with forelimb lameness should be evaluated for MHE. This condition is associated with free joint bodies and neurogenic myopathy. Surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcome in the majority of cats. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Munday, John S; Thomson, Neroli A; Luff, Jennifer A
Papillomaviruses (PVs) cause disease in both dogs and cats. In dogs, PVs are thought to cause oral papillomatosis, cutaneous papillomas and canine viral pigmented plaques, whereas PVs have been rarely associated with the development of oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in this species. In cats, PVs are currently thought to cause oral papillomas, feline viral plaques, Bowenoid in situ carcinomas and feline sarcoids. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that PVs may also be a cause of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas in cats. These diseases are discussed in this review. Additionally, there is a brief overview of PV biology, including how these viruses cause disease. Diagnostic techniques and possible methods to prevent PV infection are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laluha, P; Gerber, B; Laluhová, D; Boretti, F S; Reusch, C E
Between January 1997 and December 2000 blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2278 sick cats at the time of their initial presentation at the hospital. In 827 cats (36%) hyperglycemia (blood glucose >8 mmol/l) was documented, 1388 cats (61%) had normal blood glucose levels, 63 cats (3%) were hypoglycemic. In 674 of 827 cats (81.5%) no further investigations were performed and the veterinarian judged the hyperglycemia to be stress related. In 153 of the 827 cats (18.5%) blood glucose measurements were repeated and/or serum fructosamine concentrations evaluated. In 106 cats (69%) stress hyperglycemia and in 47 (31%) diabetes mellitus was then diagnosed. Blood glucose concentrations in cats with stress hyperglycemia were between 8.1 and 60.4 mmol/l (Median 10.3), in cats with diabetes mellitus between 8.5 and 70.0 (Median 27.7). Blood glucose concentrations in cats with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than in cats with stress hyperglycemia. Cats with stress hyperglycemia suffered from a variety of different diseases, the most frequently encountered were surgical problems, neoplasia, heart diseases, upper and lower urinary tract diseases. Blood glucose concentrations in cats with heart diseases and in cats with neoplasia was higher than in cats with other disorders, however, the difference was not significant. Cats with diabetes mellitus were significantly more frequent male castrated than cats with stress hyperglycemia. Cats with stress hyperglycemia were significantly older than cats with normoglycemia.
Langenstein, J; Bauer, N; Moritz, A
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the aetiology and prognostic factors of extreme neutrophilia in cats. Patient data over a 5-year period (January 2008 - December 2013) were reviewed. Cats with a neutrophil count > 40 x 10⁹/l were included. They were further assigned to four groups: "inflammation", "neoplasia", "immune-mediated diseases", "unknown aetiology". Clinical signs, rectal temperature, hospitalisation, duration of hospitalisation, survival, left-shift and toxicity of neutrophils were evaluated. In total, 28/5185 cats (0.5%) displayed extreme neutrophilia with a mean neutrophil count of 48.5 x 10⁹/l (40.0-76.0 x 10⁹/l). The most common aetiology was a severe inflammation, as seen in 16/28 cats (57%), whereby peritonitis (5/15 cats, 31%) predominated. In cats with neoplastic diseases (9/28 cats, 32%), intestinal neoplasia with subsequent peritonitis was the most common diagnosis (4/9 cats, 44%). Diseases of unknown aetiology (2/28 cats, 7%) and immune-mediated diseases (1/28, 3.6%) were rare. The most common clinical indications included lethargy, anorexia, fever, and gastrointestinal signs. Rectal temperature ranged between 33.9 °C and 40.2 °C, whereby in 2/24 cats (8%) hyperthermia (> 39.3°C) and in 5/24 cats (21%) hypothermia (< 38.0°C) was observed. Hospitalisation occurred in 21/28 cats (75%) with a median duration of 5.5 days (1-30 days). In 24/28 cats, a manual differential count was performed. A left-shift and toxicity of neutrophils were seen in 23/24 cats (96%) and 21/24 cats (88%), respectively. The overall median survival rate was 50%, whereby the survival rate was significantly lower in cats with neoplasia than in those with inflammatory diseases (22% vs. 56%, p < 0.0001). An extreme neutrophilia is rare. It is commonly caused by peritonitis due to foreign bodies or ruptured intestinal tumours (in particular, intestinal lymphomas) and is characterised by a high mortality.
Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta
Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Andrews, Simon R; Gruen, Jeffrey R
We identified CAT 53 by cDNA hybridization selection as an expressed sequence tag (EST), located in the vicinity of HLA-C and designated as CAT (for HLA-C associated transcript) 53. CAT 53 encodes a protein described by others and commonly known as phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS). PNUTS is a potent inhibitor of nuclear serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). We present the genomic organization of CAT 53, localize specific sites of mRNA transcription in thin sections of mouse brain by in-situ hybridization, and perform a structural analysis of the peptide domains. We also characterize the protein expression pattern for PNUTS by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry with PNUTS antibody in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and age-matched control brains. In-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analysis of human and mouse brain show high CAT 53 expression in the olfactory cortex, piriform cortex, and hippocampus. Very high expression of CAT 53 was found mainly in the hippocampus, frontal, and entorhinal cortex of control brains and in the neurofibrillary tangles of AD brain. In the hippocampus, CAT 53 is expressed in CA1 and CA3 cell layers and in the dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is known to play a fundamental role in learning and episodic memories and has been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that PNUTS, encoded by CAT 53 on 6p21.3, may have a role in the progression of AD.
Development of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect feline herpesvirus-1 latency-associated transcripts in the trigeminal ganglia and corneas of cats that did not have clinical signs of ocular disease.
Townsend, Wendy M; Stiles, Jean; Guptill-Yoran, Lynn; Krohne, Sheryl G
To develop a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) latency-associated transcripts (LATs) in the corneas and trigeminal ganglia of cats that did not have clinical signs of ocular disease. Corneas and trigeminal ganglia obtained from 21 cats necropsied at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 25 cats euthanatized at a humane shelter; none of the cats had a recent history of respiratory tract or ocular disease, and all had normal results for ophthalmic examinations. Both corneas and both trigeminal ganglia were harvested from each cat. An initial PCR assay detected FHV-1 DNA in the corneas and trigeminal ganglia. The RNA was then isolated from samples positive for FHV-1 DNA, and an RT-PCR assay was used to detect LATs. FHV-1 DNA was detected in 45 of 92 (48.9%) corneas and 38 of 92 (41.3%) trigeminal ganglia. In many samples, the RNA had degraded and RT-PCR assay was not possible. Of the samples subjected to RT-PCR assay, none of the 39 corneas but 4 of 16 trigeminal ganglia had positive results when tested for LATs. Analysis of the results indicated that a high percentage of cats that did not have clinical signs of ocular disease had detectable FHV-1 DNA in their corneas and trigeminal ganglia. This study documents that the RT-PCR assay can successfully identify LATs and may serve as a tool to better understand the biologic characteristics of FHV-1 and its relationship to clinical disease.
Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bauer, Bianca S; Wen, Xin; Bienzle, Dorothee
This study assessed the value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for making a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) infection, and for differentiating this from Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma spp. infection in a clinical setting in Canada. We compared the frequency of positive FHV-1 PCR test results from 48 clinical cases of ocular disease in cats suspected to be due to FHV-1 between 1 research and 2 commercial laboratories in Canada. We also compared PCR results for Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma spp. between the 2 commercial laboratories. The prevalence of FHV-1 infection in the cats ranged from 4% to 21%. The prevalence of Chlamydophila felis was 2% and 17% and the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. was 11% and 27%. Agreement between FHV-1 culture and PCR results at the research laboratory was substantial (kappa = 0.76). There was slight agreement (kappa < 0.20) between the 3 laboratories for FHV-1 PCR and between the 2 commercial laboratories for both Chlamydophila felis (kappa = 0.2) and Mycoplasma spp. (kappa = 0.07) PCR.
Robertson, Sheilah A
Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.
Nelson, C Thomas
Imaging and laboratory studies can help with the diagnosis of heartworm disease in cats, but no test is definitive. Furthermore, even when the diagnosis can be reliably established, therapy directed at the heartworms does little to help the cat. Rather, management is directed at alleviating clinical signs, with an emphasis on prevention for all.
Ticehurst, Kim; Zaki, Sanaa; Maddern, Kieren; Lingard, Amy; Barrs, Vanessa; Malik, Richard
A 14-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat was presented to the University Veterinary Centre Sydney for evaluation and treatment of dental disease. This cat developed an unusual bradyarrhythmia under anaesthesia. The possible causes and treatment of the dysrythmia are discussed.
Worthing, Kate A; Wigney, Denise I; Dhand, Navneet K; Fawcett, Anne; McDonagh, Phillip; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M
The objective of this study was to determine whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia. A retrospective comparison of the signalment between cats with confirmed FIP and the general cat population was designed. The patient signalment of 382 FIP confirmed cases were compared with the Companion Animal Register of NSW and the general cat population of Sydney. Younger cats were significantly over-represented among FIP cases. Domestic crossbred, Persian and Himalayan cats were significantly under-represented in the FIP cohort, while several breeds were over-represented, including British Shorthair, Devon Rex and Abyssinian. A significantly higher proportion of male cats had FIP compared with female cats. This study provides further evidence that FIP is a disease primarily of young cats and that significant breed and sex predilections exist in Australia. This opens further avenues to investigate the role of genetic factors in FIP.
Zampieri, Stefania; Bianchi, Ezio; Cantile, Carlo; Saleri, Roberta; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea
Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids within the lysosomes due to mutation in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. A feline model of NPC carrying a mutation in NPC1 gene has been previously described. We have identified two kittens affected by NPC disease due to a mutation in NPC2 gene. They manifested with tremors at the age of 3 months, which progressed to dystonia and severe ataxia. At 6 months of age cat 2 was unable to stand without assistance and had bilaterally reduced menace response. It died at the age of 10 months. Post-mortem histological analysis of the brain showed the presence of neurons with cytoplasmic swelling and vacuoles, gliosis of the substantia nigra and degeneration of the white matter. Spheroids with accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates were prominent in the cerebellar cortex. Purkinje cells were markedly reduced in number and they showed prominent intracytoplasmic storage. Scattered perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes and microglial cells proliferation were present in the thalamus and midbrain. Proliferation of Bergmann glia was also observed. In the liver, hepatocytes were swollen because of accumulation of small vacuoles and foamy Kupffer cells were also detected. Foamy macrophages were observed within the pulmonary interstitium and alveoli as well. At 9 months cat 1 was unable to walk, developed seizures and it was euthanized at 21 months. Filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts showed massive storage of unesterified cholesterol. Molecular analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes showed the presence of a homozygous intronic mutation (c.82+5G>A) in the NPC2 gene. The subsequent analysis of the mRNA showed that the mutation causes the retention of 105 bp in the mature mRNA, which leads to the in frame insertion of 35 amino acids between residues 28 and 29 of NPC2 protein (p.G28_S29ins35). PMID:25396745
Viezens, Juliane; Berghoff, Julia
We analyzed the genetic relatedness of blood culture isolates of Bartonella henselae from 2 cats of patients with cat-scratch disease at admission and after 12 months. Isolates from each cat at different times were clonally unrelated, which suggested reinfection by a second strain. PMID:18258096
Ballauf, B; Linckh, S; Lechner, J
For the first time, a poxvirus infection was diagnosed as an etiologic agent of dermal disease in a living domestic cat in Germany. A literature survey, the clinical symptoms of the infection and the diagnostic procedures are described. Poxvirus infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis in feline dermatologic problems.
Influenza has been long absent from the list of infectious diseases considered as possibilities in dogs and cats. With the discovery that avian influenza H5N1 can infect cats and dogs, and the appearance of canine influenza H3N8, small animal veterinarians have an important role to play in detection of influenza virus strains that may become zoonotic. Small animal veterinarians must educate staff and clients about influenza to improve understanding as to when and where influenza infection is possible, and to avert unreasonable fears.
Kleinschmidt, Sven; Nolte, Ingo; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion
Immunohistochemical examinations of the enteric nervous system (ENS) were performed on biopsies of healthy cats and compared to findings in cats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease or intestinal lymphoma. In lymphocytic-plasmacytic enterocolitis all affected samples had significant reductions in glial fibrillary acidic protein and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and mostly of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) possibly reflecting alterations in enteric glial cells and neurons. In cases with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis significantly reduced phosphorylated neurofilament (PN) expression was present suggesting a disturbance in neuronal cytoskeleton, whereas cats with fibrosing enteropathy had reduced expression of NSE, non-phosphorylated neurofilaments (NPN), PN and VIP, possibly reflecting neuronal disturbances. In cases with intestinal lymphoma only the reduction in PN and the increase in NPN were obvious suggesting direct damage or interference of neoplastic cells with enteric neurons. In conclusion, structural and functional alterations of the ENS may contribute to clinically evident signs of vomiting and/or diarrhea.
Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D
Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.
Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D
A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.
Adagra, Carl; Foster, Darren J
Hyperammonaemia is well reported in animals with advanced hepatic disease and portosystemic shunts, but is unreported in cats with renal disease. This case series describes four cats with severe renal azotaemia in which elevated ammonia levels were detected during the course of treatment. In two cases hyperammonaemia was detected at a time when neurological signs consistent with encephalopathy had developed. This raises the possibility that hyperammonaemia may play a role in the development of encephalopathy in cats with renal azotaemia. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C
Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.
Willi, B; Kook, P H; Quante, S; Boretti, F; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Grest, P; Scherrer, O; Riond, B; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Nussberger, J; Reusch, C E
Primary hyperaldosteronism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an elevated aldosterone secretion by the adrenals. The present case series describes 7 cats with primary hyperaldosteronism, which were presented between 2002 and 2011. Common clinical symptoms were weakness, anorexia, cervical ventroflexion and blindness. All cats showed hypokalemia. In 6 cats, blood pressure was determined: 5 cats showed hypertension, of which 4 animals exhibited retinal detachment and blindness. In the ultrasonographic examination, unilateral adrenomegaly was present in 6 cats whereas one animal showed normal adrenals. In 4 cats, the serum aldosterone concentration was above the reference range. Five cats underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, which was accomplished uneventfully and returned the electrolytes back to normal. Histopathological examination of the adrenals revealed 2 carcinomas and 4 adenomas; one cat with ultrasonographic normal adrenals exhibited bilateral nodular hyperplasia.
Mooney, Erin T; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; King, Ryan G P; Sharp, Claire R
Thirty-five cases of spontaneous pneumothorax were reviewed. In contrast to dogs, cats with an established etiology all had spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung disease. Underlying diseases identified in affected cats included inflammatory airway disease, neoplasia, heartworm infection, pulmonary abscess and lungworm infection. Many cats were managed successfully with observation alone or needle thoracocentesis and specific therapy for their primary lung disease. Cats who present with spontaneous pneumothorax may be treated successfully with non-surgical therapies and appear to have a better prognosis than previously extrapolated from canine studies.
Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S
Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.
Austgen, Laura E; Bowen, Richard A; Bunning, Michel L; Davis, Brent S; Mitchell, Carl J; Chang, Gwong-Jen J
Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 10(3.0) to 10(4.0) PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV orally, through ingestion of infected mice. Two cats consumed an infected mouse on three consecutive days, and two cats ate a single infected mouse. Viremia developed in all of these cats with a magnitude and duration similar to that seen in cats infected by mosquito bite, but none of the four showed clinical signs. These results suggest that dogs and cats are readily infected by WNV. The high efficiency of oral transmission observed with cats suggests that infected prey animals may serve as an important source of infection to carnivores. Neither species is likely to function as an epidemiologically important amplifying host, although the peak viremia observed in cats may be high enough to infect mosquitoes at low efficiency.
Noli, Chiara; Colombo, Silvia; Abramo, Francesca; Scarampella, Fabia
A maculopapular eruption with clinical and histological features similar to those previously described in Sphinx cats under the name of urticaria pigmentosa is reported in five unrelated Devon Rex cats. Physical examination revealed erythematous, occasionally crusted papules, with a bilaterally symmetrical linear distribution on the latero-ventral trunk in two cases and a diffuse distribution on the ventral thorax in the other three cats. One cat also had a greasy seborrhoea on the head and dorsum. Pruritus and pigmented macules were present only in cats affected by secondary bacterial infection. Histological examination of papules in all cats and of the lesional skin of the cat affected by greasy seborrhoea revealed the presence of a perivascular to diffuse mastocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate in the dermis. The mean numbers of nondegranulated and degranulated mast cells per mm(2) were 303.2 and 451.6, respectively. The condition waxed and waned in all cats, and exacerbations were controlled with prednisolone or essential fatty acids.
CATS Featured Articles A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...
Lourenço, Bianca N; Randall, Elissa; Seiler, Gabriela; Lunn, Katharine F
Acromegaly is increasingly recognized as a cause of insulin resistance in cats with diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonographic changes in selected abdominal organs of acromegalic cats could be used to raise the index of suspicion for this condition. In this retrospective case-control study, medical records of cats presenting to North Carolina State University or Colorado State University from January 2002 to October 2012 were reviewed. Cats were included in the acromegaly group if they had insulin-resistant DM with increased serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) concentrations and had an abdominal ultrasound examination performed with report available. A control group included age-matched cats that had abdominal ultrasound examination performed for investigation of disease unlikely to involve the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas or liver. Twenty-four cats were included in each group. IGF-1 concentrations in the acromegaly group ranged from >148 to 638 nmol/l. When compared with age-matched controls, cats with acromegaly demonstrated significantly increased median left and right kidney length, significantly increased median left and right adrenal gland thickness, and significantly increased median pancreatic thickness. Hepatomegaly and bilateral adrenomegaly were reported in 63% and 53% of acromegalic cats, respectively, and in none of the controls. Pancreatic abnormalities were described in 88% of the acromegalic cats and 8% of the controls. These findings indicate that compared with non-acromegalic cats, age-matched acromegalic patients have measurably larger kidneys, adrenal glands and pancreas. Diagnostic testing for acromegaly should be considered in poorly regulated diabetic cats exhibiting organomegaly on abdominal ultrasound examination. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Ishida, T; Washizu, T; Toriyabe, K; Motoyoshi, S; Tomoda, I; Pedersen, N C
A seroepidemiologic survey for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Between June and December 1987, individual sera (n = 3,323) were submitted by veterinary practitioners from many parts of the country. Specimens were from 1,739 cats with clinical signs suggestive of FIV infection and from 1,584 healthy-appearing cats seen by the same practitioners. The overall FIV infection rate among cats in Japan was 960/3,323 cats (28.9%). The infection rate was more than 3 times higher in the clinically ill cats, compared with that in the healthy cats of the same cohort (43.9 vs 12.4%). Male cats were 1.5 times as likely to be infected as were females. Almost all FIV-infected cats were domestic cats (as opposed to purebred cats). Complete clinical history was available for 700 of 960 FIV-infected cats. Of these 700 FIV-infected cats, 626 (89.4%) were clinically ill, and the remainder did not have clinical signs of disease. The mean age at the time of FIV diagnosis for the 700 cats was 5.2 years, with younger mean age for males (4.9 years) than for females (5.8 years). Most of the infected cats (94.7%) were either allowed to run outdoors or had lived outdoors before being brought into homes. The mortality for FIV-infected cats during the 6 months after diagnosis was 14.7%, and the mean age at the time of death was 5.7 years. Concurrent FeLV infection was seen in 12.4% of the FIV-infected cats, but this was not much different from the historical incidence of FeLV infection in similar groups of cats not infected with FIV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.
In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289
Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E
In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas' disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia.
Oohashi, Eiji; Yamada, Kazutaka; Oohashi, Mirai; Ueda, Junji
Feline chronic progressive polyarthritis is a rare immune-mediated disease that has only previously been reported in male cats. A one-year-old female cat was presented with anorexia, lassitude and lameness. The tarsal, carpal and elbow joints revealed swelling, pain, stiffness, crepitus and regional lymphadenopathy, and fever was present. The cat was clinically diagnosed with chronic progressive polyarthritis based on the fever, swelling of joints, imaging of erosive proliferative periosteal polyarthritis, positivity for antinuclear antibody, synovial fluid analyses and urinalyses. Both feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody were positive. Using hair root DNA, polymerase chain reaction amplification targeting the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome gene amplified the fragment of DNA from a normal male cat, but not amplified from a normal female cat or the present cat. Accordingly, the present cat was classified as genetically female. Cyclosporine treatment was started, and the general condition and movement quickly improved and continued for 8 months post-diagnosis. This is the first report of chronic progressive polyarthritis in a female cat.
Smith, J W; Scott-Moncrieff, J C; Rivers, B J
Dirofilariasis was diagnosed in 2 cats with spontaneous pneumothorax. One cat had a 3-week history of a cough, and the other had an 11-month history of vomiting and tachypnea. Pneumothorax was managed in cats by thoracocentesis and supportive care. Diagnosis of dirofilariasis was made on the basis of heartworm antigen and antibody test results and radiographic findings. Clinical signs of heartworm infection improved after treatment with corticosteroids. Cats had good extended outcomes. Heartworm disease should be one of the differential diagnoses considered in cats with spontaneous pneumothorax.
Case, Joseph Brad; Chomel, Bruno; Nicholson, William; Foley, Janet E
Although cats and their arthropod parasites can sometimes be important sources of zoonotic diseases in humans, the extent of exposure among various cat populations to many potential zoonotic agents remains incompletely described. In this study, 170 domestic cats living in private homes, feral cat colonies, and animal shelters from California and Wisconsin were evaluated by serology to determine the levels of exposure to a group of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. Serological positive test results were observed in 17.2% of cats for Rickettsia rickettsii, 14.9% for R akari, 4.9% for R typhi, 11.1% for R felis, and 14.7% for Bartonella henselae. Although vector-borne disease exposure has been documented previously in cats, the evaluation of multiple pathogens and diverse cat populations simultaneously performed here contributes to our understanding of feline exposure to these zoonotic pathogens.
Gürtler, R E; Cécere, M C; Petersen, R M; Rubel, D N; Schweigmann, N J
The association between Trypanosoma cruzi parasitaemia in dogs and cats and Tryp. cruzi infection rates in domestic Triatoma infestans was studied in a cross-sectional survey of 31 houses (89%) in the rural villages of Trinidad and Mercedes, north-west Argentina, where no spraying of insecticides had ever been done. Similar prevalence rates of parasitaemia, determined by xenodiagnosis, were recorded among 68 dogs (41.2%) and 28 cats (39.3%). Bug infection rates were significantly associated with the presence of infected cats (those with positive xenodiagnosis) stratified by the number of infected dogs (relative risk = RR = 1.90; 95% confidence interval = CI = 1.51-2.38), and with the number of infected dogs stratified by the presence of infected cats (RR = 2.71; CI = 1.81-4.07). The percentage of infected bugs in houses with and without children stratified by the presence of infected dogs or cats was not significantly different (RR = 0.69; CI = 0.45-1.05). The combined effect of infected dogs and infected cats on bug infection rates fitted closely with an additive transmission model. Bug infection rates were significantly higher when infected dogs shared the sleeping areas of people than when they did not (RR = 1.79; CI = 1.1-2.91). Our study showed that infected dogs and infected cats increase the risk of domestic transmission of Tryp. cruzi to T. infestans.
Kramer, J W; Davis, W C; Prieur, D J
Initial clinical, genetic, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies have characterized the Chediak-Higashi syndrome in cats. Three cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome were found in a single line of 27 Persian cats, and three additional affected cats were produced from two prospective breedings of the original line. The disorder was characterized genetically as an autosomal recessive condition. All cats in the line with the combination of yellow eye color and "blue smoke" hair color exhibited the disorder. Four of the five cats examined had bilateral nuclear cataracts as early in life as 3 months of age. No increased susceptibility to infectious disease was observed. A bleeding tendency was noted. Abnormally large eosinophilic, sudanophilic, peroxidase-containing granules were observed in the neutrophils of the granulocytic series of blood and bone marrow by electron and light microscopy. Granules of eosinophils and basophils were also enlarged. Light microscopic studies of hair and skin revealed enlarged melanin granules. These manifestations were similar to those in man, mink, cattle, mice, and the killer whale with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Cats are the sixth species in which this genetic disease has been reported.
Goldstein, R E; Marks, S L; Kass, P H; Cowgill, L D
To determine the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure (CRF) and the correlation between gastrin concentration in plasma and severity of CRF. Cohort study. 30 cats with naturally developing CRF and 12 clinically normal control cats. Gastrin concentrations in plasma were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from cats after food was withheld 8 hours. Concentrations were compared, using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. 18 cats with CRF had high gastrin concentrations (median, 45 pg/ml; range, < 18 to > 1,333 pg/ml), compared with those for control cats (< 18 pg/ml). Prevalence of hypergastrinemia increased with severity of renal insufficiency. Three of 9 cats with mild CRF, 6 of 11 cats with moderate CRF, and 9 of 10 cats with severe CRF had high gastrin concentrations. Gastrin concentrations were significantly different between control cats and cats with CRF, regardless of disease severity. The potential role of high concentrations of gastrin on gastric hyperacidity, uremic gastritis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and associated clinical signs of hypergastrinemia (e.g., anorexia and vomiting) may justify use of histamine2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors to suppress gastric acid secretion in cats with CRF that have these clinical signs.
Karnik, Ketaki; Reichle, Jean K; Fischetti, Anthony J; Goggin, Justin M
The computed tomographic (CT) findings of fungal rhinitis/sinusitis in cats were characterized. The CT images of 10 cats ranging in age from 7 to 13 years were examined. The mean age was 10.8 years and all were neutered males. Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in five cats, cryptococcosis in three cats, hyalohyphomycosis in one cat, and trichosporonosis in one cat. Bilateral disease was present in eight cats, seven had abnormal soft tissue attenuation in two-thirds of the nasal cavity, and six had turbinate lysis. Seven cats had also lysis of the hard palate, nasal septum, or frontal bone. One cat had lysis of the cribriform plate. Five of the nine cats whose lymph nodes were imaged had lymph node enlargement. There was contrast medium enhancement in the nasal cavity in all cats, with either a primarily peripheral rim or heterogeneous pattern. There appears to be an overlap of clinical signs, age, and CT features of cats with nasal neoplasia and those with fungal rhinitis/ sinusitis.
Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T.; Shin, KwangOk; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.
Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to cat scratch disease skin test antigen. Thirteen cats were euthanatized at the end of the study. Despite persistent infection, clinical signs were minimal and gross necropsy results were unremarkable. Histopathology revealed peripheral lymph node hyperplasia (in all of the 13 cats), splenic follicular hyperplasia (in 9 cats), lymphocytic cholangitis/pericholangitis (in 9 cats), lymphocytic hepatitis (in 6 cats), lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis (in 8 cats), and interstitial lymphocytic nephritis (in 4 cats). Structures suggestive of Bartonella were visualized in some Warthin-Starry stained sections, and Bartonella DNA was amplified from the lymph node (from 6 of the 13 cats), liver (from 11 cats) heart (from 8 cats), kidney (from 9 cats), lung (from 2 cats), and brain (from 9 cats). This study indicates that B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae can induce chronic infection following blood transfusion in specific-pathogen-free cats and that Bartonella DNA can be detected in blood, brain, lymph node, myocardium, liver, and kidney tissues of both blood culture-positive cats and blood culture-negative cats. Detection of histologic changes in these cats supports a potential etiologic role for Bartonella species in several idiopathic disease processes in cats. PMID:10203518
Laswell, Emily M; Chambers, Kasandra D; Whitsel, Danielle R; Poudel, Kiran
New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is defined as a sudden onset of refractory status epilepticus in patients who do not have a history of epilepsy. It is a neurologic emergency, and determining the underlying etiology is an important factor for effectively managing and predicting the prognosis of NORSE. We describe the case of a 28-year-old woman who was hospitalized with NORSE secondary to an unknown etiology. She did not respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy, including benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin, propofol, and levetiracetam. The patient was placed on continuous electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and was treated further with multiple antiepileptics, which were titrated aggressively based on EEG readings and therapeutic drug levels; despite this treatment, EEG monitoring revealed continued seizures. Thus, high-dose corticosteroids were started for seizure control. Her workup included computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head, a lumbar puncture, toxicology screening, and extensive testing for multiple infectious and inflammatory etiologies. The patient's history revealed recent exposure to a new cat. Serologic results were positive for Bartonella henselae, and she was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease (CSD). She did not have the typical presentation of symptoms of lymphadenopathy, however, which is common in CSD. Doxycycline 100 mg and rifampin 300 mg twice daily were added to the patient's anticonvulsant and corticosteroid therapy. She was hospitalized for a total of 26 days and discharged with only minor neurologic impairment (short-term memory deficits and minor cognitive problems). The patient was discharged receiving antiepileptics, antibiotics, and a corticosteroid taper. To our knowledge, this is the first clinically known case of NORSE secondary to CSD without typical CSD symptoms in the adult population. The patient failed to respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy alone. With the addition of high
Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall.
Lalor, Stephanie M; Clarke, Stephen; Pink, Jonathan; Parry, Andrew; Scurrell, Emma; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Watson, Fraje; O’Halloran, Conor; Gunn-Moore, Danielle
Case series summary This paper describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging findings and outcome in four cats with confirmed joint-associated tuberculosis. The cats were 2–6 years of age, and immune competent. Three cases had tuberculosis affecting only one joint, whereas one case had at least three joints affected. Two cases were caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and the other two were caused by Mycobacterium microti. Radiological findings included osteolysis, periosteal reaction and associated soft tissue swelling. Two cases were euthanased and two cases responded well to amputation and follow-on antibiotic therapy. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first publication of a series of cats with joint-associated tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis is not common, a high degree of suspicion is needed to avoid delayed diagnosis. This case series highlights the importance of considering mycobacterial disease as a differential for joint disease in cats. PMID:28804639
EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CATS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM: COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT THYROIDAL UPTAKE OF PERTECHNETATE TO THYROID-TO-SALIVARY RATIO AND THYROID-TO-BACKGROUND RATIOS.
Peterson, Mark E; Guterl, Jade N; Rishniw, Mark; Broome, Michael R
Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used for evaluation of cats with hyperthyroidism, with the thyroid-to-salivary ratio (T/S) being the most common method to quantify the degree of thyroid activity and disease. Calculation of thyroid-to-background ratios (T/B) or percent thyroidal uptake of (99m) TcO(-) 4 (TcTU) has only been reported in a few studies. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to evaluate a number of quantitative scintigraphic indices as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, including the T/S, three different T/B, TcTU, and estimated thyroid volume. Of 524 cats referred to our clinic for evaluation of suspected hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis was confirmed (n = 504) or excluded (n = 20) based on results of a serum thyroid panel consisting of thyroxine (T4 ), triiodothyronine (T3 ), free T4 (fT4 ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In the hyperthyroid cats, median values for TcTU, T/S, and three T/B ratios were all significantly higher (P < 0.001) than values in euthyroid suspect cats or clinically normal cats. All scintigraphic parameters were relatively sensitive and specific as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, but the T/S ratio had the highest test accuracy. The T/S ratio correlated strongly with the TcTU (r = 0.85). However, the TcTU had a higher and more significant correlation (P < 0.01) with serum T4 (r = 0.76 vs. 0.64), T3 (r = 0.77 vs. 0.64), and estimated thyroid volume (r = 0.62 vs. 0.38). Overall, calculation of TcTU is an accurate diagnostic test, but also appears to be the best parameter to predict the functional volume and metabolic activity of the feline adenomatous thyroid gland. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Abstract A 6.5-year-old spayed female Balinese cat was diagnosed with a large and locally invasive primary orbital melanoma, without ocular involvement or detectable metastatic disease. Advanced imaging and immunohistochemical studies helped in obtaining the diagnosis. Because of advanced unresectable disease and ensuing poor quality of life, the cat was euthanized. PMID:16604977
Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent
Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687
Manning, M M; Brunson, D B
A 3.5-year-old domestic long-hair cat was admitted to the veterinary hospital for routine procedures, including dental prophylaxis. The cat appeared clinically normal. General anesthesia was induced, and 30 minutes later, the pop-off valve was inadvertently left in a closed position. The cat developed pneumothorax, which was treated via thoracentesis and administration of oxygen. The condition resolved and the cat was released from the hospital to its owner. Barotrauma resulted because of high pressure in the anesthetic circuit. Barotrauma is a life-threatening complication of general anesthesia.
Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E
A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.
Peterson, Mark E; Broome, Michael R
Thyroid scintigraphy is currently the reference standard for diagnosing and staging cats with hyperthyroidism, but few studies describing the scintigraphic characteristics in a large number of cats have been reported. The objective of this study was to better characterize thyroid scintigraphy findings by evaluating 2096 consecutive cats with hyperthyroidism that were referred over a 3.5-year period. Of these cats, 2068 (98.7%) had a high thyroid-to-salivary ratio (>1.5), whereas 2014 (96.1%) were found to have a high thyroid-to-background ratio (>6.1). When the patterns of the cats' thyroid disease were recorded, 665 (31.7%) had unilateral disease, 1060 (50.6%) had bilateral-asymmetric disease (two thyroid lobes unequal in size), 257 (12.3%) had bilateral-symmetric disease (both lobes similar in size), and 81 (3.9%) had multifocal disease (≥3 areas of increased radionuclide uptake). The number of areas of (99m) TcO(-) 4 uptake in the 2096 cats ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 2), located in the cervical area in 2057 (98.1%), thoracic inlet in 282 (13.5%), and in the thoracic cavity in 115 (5.5%). Ectopic thyroid tissue (e.g. lingual or mediastinal) was diagnosed in 81 (3.9%) cats, whereas thyroid carcinoma was suspected in 35 (1.7%) of the cats. The results of this study support conclusions that most hyperthyroid cats have unilateral or bilateral thyroid nodules, but that multifocal disease will develop in a few cats that have ectopic thyroid disease or thyroid carcinoma. Both ectopic thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma are relatively uncommon in hyperthyroid cats, with a respective prevalence of ∼4% and ∼2% in this study.
Kristensen, S; Krogh, H V
The microflora of the skin was studied in 10 dogs with chronic eczema without clinical signs of secondary infection (Table I). The skin surface was swabbed at 7 different sites, making a total of 70 swabs, 25 of which were taken from visibly inflamed areas and 45 from apparently unaffected skin (Table II). Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, micrococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and Acinetobacter spp. were found consistently. Ten different Gram-negative bacteria, 3 different Gram-positive bacteria, and 2 yeasts were found to occur sporadically (Table III). Compared to a group of 10 healthy dogs a more prolific growth of aerobic microorganisms, a greater number of sites carrying Staph. aureus, and a higher recovery of Gram-negative transients were found in dogs with eczema (Table IV--VII). Within the group of dogs with eczema the growth of Staph. aureus was significantly heavier from eczematous skin areas than from clinically normal skin (Table VIII). In dogs with non-infective dermatitides the colonization of the skin by potentially pathogenic microorganisms may have to be considered in the clinical handling of these diseases.
Manchi, George; Jarolmasjed, Seyedhosein; Brunnberg, Mathias; Shahid, Muhammad; Rehbein, Sina; Stein, Silke; Gruber, Achim D; Brunnberg, Leo
Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a non-traumatic accumulation of air in the pleural cavity. This case report describes a cat with SP as a result of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A second cat was diagnosed with primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma and asthma. A thoracostomy tube was inserted in the first cat while in the second cat a thoracostomy tube was placed and lobectomy of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was performed. Both cats died following treatment. The current literature reviewed here covers the comparative etiologies of SP as well as clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, therapy and prognosis in cats. A total of 64 cases of cats with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax reported in nine articles are discussed. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description in the literature regarding primary SP in cats. Based on prior case reports, surgery was performed in 16% (10 cats) of SP cases. The current review demonstrates that depending on the underlying lung disease, cats with SP have a careful short-term prognosis because 39 of 64 cats (60%) were discharged.
Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A
Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.
Yin, Xi Jun; Lee, Hyo Sang; Yu, Xian Feng; Choi, Eugene; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Lee, Young S; Cho, Su Jin; Jin, Guang Zhen; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Nam Hyung; Kong, Il Keun
A method for engineering and producing genetically modified cats is important for generating biomedical models of human diseases. Here we describe the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce cloned transgenic cats that systemically express red fluorescent protein. Immature oocytes were collected from superovulating cat ovaries. Donor fibroblasts were obtained from an ear skin biopsy of a white male Turkish Angora cat, cultured for one to two passages, and subjected to transduction with a retrovirus vector designed to transfer and express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene. A total of 176 RFP cloned embryos were transferred into 11 surrogate mothers (mean = 16 +/- 7.5 per recipient). Three surrogate mothers were successfully impregnated (27.3%) and delivered two liveborn and one stillborn kitten at 65 to 66 days of gestation. Analysis of nine feline-specific microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned cats were genetically identical to the donor cat. Presence of the RFP gene in the transgenic cat genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Whole-body red fluorescence was detected 60 days after birth in the liveborn transgenic (TG) cat but not in the surrogate mother cat. Red fluorescence was detected in tissue samples, including hair, muscle, brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, bronchus, lung, stomach, intestine, tongue, and even excrement of the stillborn TG cat. These results suggest that this nuclear transfer procedure using genetically modified somatic cells could be useful for the efficient production of transgenic cats.
Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.
Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269
Payne, Jessie Rose; Brodbelt, David Charles; Luis Fuentes, Virginia
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) appears to be common in cats and, based on pilot data, a prevalence of 15% has been hypothesized. The objectives were to screen a large population of apparently healthy adult cats for cardiac disease, and identify factors associated with a diagnosis of HCM. A total of 1007 apparently healthy cats ≥ 6 months of age. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, the inclusion criteria were: apparently healthy cats, aged ≥ 6 months, available for rehoming over a 17-month period from two rehoming centres. Hypertensive or hyperthyroid cats were excluded. Body weight, body condition score, auscultation, systolic blood pressure and two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography were evaluated. Cats with left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness ≥ 6 mm on 2-D echocardiography were considered to have HCM. Complete data were obtained in 780 cats. Heart murmur prevalence was 40.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.3-44.3%), 70.4% of which were considered functional. The prevalence of HCM was 14.7% (95% CI 12.3-17.4%), congenital disease 0.5% (95% CI 0.1-1.3%), and other cardiomyopathies 0.1% (95% CI 0.0-0.7%). The HCM prevalence increased with age. The positive predictive value of a heart murmur for indicating HCM was 17.9-42.6% (higher in old cats), and the negative predictive value was 90.2-100% (higher in young cats). The factors associated with a diagnosis of HCM in binary logistic regression models were male sex, increased age, increased body condition score and a heart murmur (particularly grade III/VI or louder). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is common in apparently healthy cats, in contrast with other cardiomyopathies. Heart murmurs are also common, and are often functional. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Woestyn, Sophie; Olivé, Nathalie; Bigaignon, Geoffroy; Avesani, Véronique; Delmée, Michel
Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which usually presents as a self-limiting lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, the bacteria will spread and be responsible for tissue and visceral involvement. Two B. henselae genotypes (genotypes I and II) have been described to be responsible for uncomplicated CSD on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. A type IV secretion system (T4SS) similar to the virulence-associated VirB system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was recently identified in the B. henselae Houston-1 genotype I strain. We studied the correlations of the B. henselae genotypes with the clinical presentations and with the presence of T4SS. Isolates originated from CSD patients whose lymph nodes were prospectively analyzed. B. henselae genotype I was identified in 13 of 42 patients (30%). Among these, two teenage twins presented with hepatosplenic CSD and one immunocompetent adult presented with osteomyelitis. Genotype II was detected in 28 of 42 patients (67%), all of whom presented with uncomplicated CSD. The last patient was infected with both genotypes. T4SS was studied by PCR amplification of the virB4 gene. Amplification of virB4 codons 146 to 256, 273 to 357, and 480 to 537 enabled us to detect 66, 90, and 100% of the B. henselae isolates, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed sequence variations that correlated with genotype distribution. Our studies suggest that B. henselae genotype I strains harbor virB4 genes that are different from those harbored by genotype II strains and that genotype I strains might be more pathogenic. PMID:15070983
Farrelly, John; Denman, David L; Hohenhaus, Ann E; Patnaik, Amiya K; Bergman, Philip J
Five cats with melanoma involving the oral cavity were treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Cobalt photons were used to administer three fractions of 8.0 Gray (Gy) for a total dose of 24 Gy. Four cats received radiation on days 0, 7, and 21 and one cat received radiation on days 0, 7, and 13. One of the cats received additional irradiation following the initial treatment course. Two cats received chemotherapy. Their age ranged from 11 to 15 years with a median age of 12 years. Three cats had a response to radiation, including one complete response and two partial responses. All five cats were euthanized due to progression of disease, with one cat having evidence of metastatic disease at the time of euthanasia. The median survival time for the five cats was 146 days (range 66-224 days) from the start of RT. The results of this study suggest that oral melanoma in cats may be responsive to hypofractionated RT, but response does not seem to be durable.
Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert
Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats.
Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy
Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582
... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Is My Dog or Cat a Healthy Weight? Important Questions to ... an estimated 58% of cats and 54% of dogs in the United States are overweight. “The diseases ...
Leishmaniasis is a disease common to humans as well as wild and domestic animals. When it affects pets, it primarily involves dogs, which constitute a parasitic reservoir. This disease is observed in Africa, Asia, and America and around the entire Mediterranean coast. We report an ocular form of leishmaniasis in a cat from the Var region.
Wise, Steven L.
The perspective of the examinee during the administration of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) is discussed, focusing on issues of test development. Item review is the first issue discussed. Virtually no CATs provide the opportunity for the examinee to go back and review, and possibly change, answers. There are arguments on either side of the…
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…
Kier, A B; Wagner, J E; Morehouse, L G
Freshly collected blood and/or spleen homogenate from an experimentally infected Florida bobcat (Lynx rufus floridanus), which had died of feline cytauxzoonosis, was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats had clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis and died within 2 weeks after they were inoculated. Similar material collected from an eastern bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus) carrying an experimentally infected Cytauxzoon felis parasitemia was inoculated into domestic cats. All inoculated cats developed a parasitemia, but none developed clinical signs of disease and none died of the disease. Cats subinoculated with parasitemic cat blood also developed parasitemias and they too did not develop clinical signs of infection nor died. After carrying the blood phase of Cytauxzoon felis for various periods, the domestic cats were then challenge exposed with proven lethal Cytauxzoon inoculum of domestic cat origin. All cats died of cytauxzoonosis.
Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E
Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Roebling, Allison D.; Johnson, Dana; Blanton, Jesse D.; Levin, Michael; Slate, Dennis; Fenwick, George; Rupprecht, Charles E.
Summary Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans’ lives, but effective control of the 60–100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although Trap-Neuter-Vaccinate-Return (TNVR) programs are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies postexposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance, and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programs are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets, and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. PMID:23859607
Crawley, A C; Muntz, F H; Haskins, M E; Jones, B R; Hopwood, J J
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease, is one of the more prevalent inherited diseases in cats and is commonly found in cats with Siamese ancestry. The prevalence of 2 known MPS VI mutations in cats was investigated in 101 clinically normal Siamese cats, in 2 cats with clinical signs of MPS VI, and in 202 cats from 4 research colonies. The mutation L476P which causes a severe clinical phenotype, was present on both alleles in the known MPS VI cats from Italy and North America and was present in all research colonies that originated from North America. However, LA76P was not detected in the Siamese population screened. In contrast, the mutation D520N, which causes a mild clinical phenotype, was identified in 23 of 202 (11.4%) alleles tested in Siamese cats from 3 continents, 2 of which were homozygous for D520N. Thus, the D520N mutation was widespread, and it is likely that cats inheriting both mutations (LA76P/D520N compound heterozygotes) would be in the general Siamese population, particularly in North America. Practitioners should note the high incidence of degenerative joint disease in these animals.
... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... the groin will be affected. They range in size from about ½ inch to 2 inches in ...
Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin
Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.
Tablin, F; Schumacher, T; Pombo, M; Marion, C T; Huang, K; Norris, J W; Jandrey, K E; Kittleson, M D
Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are at risk for development of systemic thromboembolic disease. However, the relationship between platelet activation state and cardiovascular parameters associated with HCM is not well described. To characterize platelet activation by flow cytometric evaluation of platelet P-selectin and semiquantitative Western blot analysis of soluble platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (sPECAM-1). Eight normal healthy cats (controls) owned by staff and students of the School of Veterinary Medicine and 36 cats from the UC Davis Feline HCM Research Laboratory were studied. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was used for all flow cytometry studies. Platelet surface CD41 and P-selectin expression were evaluated before and after ADP stimulation. sPECAM-1 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis of platelet-poor plasma that had been stabilized with aprotinin. Standard echocardiographic studies were performed. Resting platelets from cats with severe HCM had increased P-selectin expression compared to controls, and expressed higher surface density of P-selectin reflected by their increased mean fluorescence intensities (MFI). Stimulation with ADP also resulted in significantly increased P-selectin MFI of platelets from cats with severe HCM. Increased P-selectin expression and MFI correlated with the presence of a heart murmur and end-systolic cavity obliteration (ESCO). sPECAM-1 expression from cats with moderate and severe HCM was significantly increased above those of control cats. P-selectin and sPECAM expression may be useful biomarkers indicating increased platelet activation in cats with HCM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bertazzolo, W; Toscani, L; Calcaterra, S; Crippa, L; Caniatti, M; Bonfanti, U
This retrospective study describes the clinicopathological findings in five cats with soft tissue mineralisation of interdigital spaces and footpads. Paw disease was the reason for veterinary consultation in three out of five cats. All cats had laboratory findings suggestive of renal failure and high solubility product [calciumxphosphorus]. In all cases, cytological examination of paw lesions was suggestive of calcinosis. The results of our study agree with two previous case reports of paw calcification in the cat, suggesting a metastatic pathogenesis and a correlation between paw mineralisation and renal failure.
Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi
A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.
Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi
A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361
AL-TR-1 993-0025 AD-A264 069 CATS EYES ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES A R M Joseph C. Antonio DTIC S ELECTET University of Dayton Research Institute MAY 13...Final November 1992 - January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS C F33615-90-C-0005 CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures PE - 62205F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...the loss of NVG performance resulting from improper goggle adjustments. This report describes correct adjustment procedures for the CATS EYES NVG system
Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of
Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda
The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.
A retrospective analysis of all adverse experience reports received by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority's Adverse Experience Reporting Program for veterinary medicines since 1995, showed that permethrin toxicity in cats usually occurred after the owner applied a canine permethrin-containing product, typically a spot-on. Cats are also at risk from grooming or being in direct contact with recently treated dogs. This paper reviews permethrin toxicosis and its treatment in cats, incorporating information from the Australian and selected overseas veterinary pharmacovigilance programs.
Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B
Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.
Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.
Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480
Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Ohno, Koichi
A retrospective study of intrahepatic cholelithiasis (IC) in 9 dogs and 2 cats was conducted. Only 1 dog showed clinical signs related to hepatobiliary disease before referral and during the follow-up period. Intrahepatic cholelithiasis might be a subclinical finding in both dogs and cats.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...
Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W
The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals was compared with those in humans in earlier studies, but no studies are available on the comparison of the oral microflora from pets and their respective owners. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these bacteria in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, since animal to human transmission, or vice versa, of oral pathogens could have public health implications. This study investigated the prevalence of Porphyromonas gulae, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All Porphyromonas isolates from cats (n=64) were catalase positive, whereas the Porphyromonas isolates from owners (n=7) were catalase negative, suggesting that the isolates from cats were P. gulae whereas those from the owners were P. gingivalis. T. forsythia was recovered from both cats (n=63) and owners (n=31); the proportion of T. forsythia relative to the total CFU was higher in cats with periodontitis than in cats without periodontal disease. Genotyping of T. forsythia isolates (n=54) in six cat/owner couples showed that in one cat/owner couple the T. forsythia isolates (n=6) were identical. These T. forsythia isolates were all catalase positive, which led us to hypothesize that transmission from cats to owners had occurred and that cats may be a reservoir of T. forsythia.
Bell, Erin T.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Mansfield, Caroline S.
Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as
Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S
Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as
Fischetti, Anthony J; Gisselman, Kelly; Peterson, Mark E
Feline acromegaly is predominantly caused by an adenoma of the pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) secretion. In advanced cases, cats will display prominent facial features and upper airway congestion secondary to bony and soft tissue proliferation. The purpose of this study was to describe CT and MRI characteristics of soft tissues and skull bones in six cats with presumed acromegaly and to compare findings with those observed in 12 unaffected cats. In the five acromegalic cats with CT or MRI evidence of a pituitary tumor, frontal bone thickness was greater than age-matched controls with and without a history of upper airway disease. These five cats also had evidence of soft tissue accumulation in the nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx. One cat with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, elevated IGF-1, and a normal pituitary size did not have evidence of frontal bone thickening or upper airway congestion.
Bright, high altitude clouds, like those imaged here, often appear more filamentary or streak-like than clouds imaged at slightly deeper levels in Saturn atmosphere. This view also shows one of the many cat eye vortices.
Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David
A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.
Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G
Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.
On Jan. 22, 2015, robotic flight controllers successfully installed NASA’s Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. CATS will collect data about clouds, volcanic ash plumes and tiny airborne particles that can help improve our understanding of aerosol and cloud interactions, and improve the accuracy of climate change models. CATS had been mounted inside the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft’s unpressurized trunk since it docked at the station on Jan. 12. Ground controllers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, used one of the space station’s robotic arms, called the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator, to extract the instrument from the capsule. The NASA-controlled arm passed the instrument to a second robotic arm— like passing a baton in a relay race. This second arm, called the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System, is controlled by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. The Japanese-controlled arm installed the instrument to the Space Station’s Japanese Experiment Module, making CATS the first NASA-developed payload to fly on the Japanese module. CATS is a lidar remote-sensing instrument designed to last from six months to three years. It is specifically intended to demonstrate a low-cost, streamlined approach to developing science payloads on the space station. CATS launched aboard the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft on Jan. 10 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. To learn more about the impact of CATS data, visit: www.nasa.gov/cats/ NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Caney, Sarah M A
Pancreatitis is an important potential cause and complicating factor in cases of diabetes mellitus. Pancreatitis can lead to development of diabetes mellitus, which may be transient (diabetic remission) or permanent through destruction and loss of β cells. Pancreatitis can also be a complicating factor in management of diabetic cats by exacerbating or inducing peripheral insulin resistance, particularly at times of intensified pancreatitic inflammation. Pancreatitis is commonly associated with other inflammatory conditions-especially inflammatory bowel disease and cholangiohepatitis-and its presence makes management of diabetes mellitus more challenging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Songserm, Thaweesak; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Jam-on, Rungroj; Sae-Heng, Namdee; Meemak, Noppadol; Pariyothorn, Nuananong; Payungporn, Sunchai; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong
We report H5N1 virus infection in a domestic cat infected by eating a pigeon carcass. The virus isolated from the pigeon and the cat showed the same cluster as the viruses obtained during the outbreak in Thailand. Since cats are common house pets, concern regarding disease transmission to humans exists.
Adams, Christine; Streeter, Elizabeth M; King, Ryan; Rozanski, Elizabeth
To characterize the clinical features and population differences among cats sustaining traumatic and nontraumatic rib fractures. Retrospective clinical study. University small animal hospital. Thirty-three cats with radiographic evidence of rib fractures. None. Cats with rib fractures were identified by performing a computer search of the radiology database. Thirty-three cats that sustained rib fractures were identified between January 2000 and September 2009. Seventeen cats had fractures due to trauma and 16 were deemed to occur from nontraumatic causes. A Mann-Whitney rank-sum test revealed statistically significant differences in the median ages between the 2 groups. Older cats were more likely to sustain rib fractures as a result of a presumed nontraumatic causes. A Chi-square analysis showed that nontraumatic fractures occurred significantly more often in the midbody region and involved the 9th-13th ribs. The majority of cats with presumed nontraumatic rib fracture had respiratory disease; the remaining cats had chronic renal disease or neoplasia. Cats with traumatic rib fractures had external signs of trauma. Rib fractures in cats may be clearly associated with trauma, or may be an incidental finding in cats with comorbidities. Cats with diseases that cause prolonged respiratory effort or coughing, metabolic diseases, or certain neoplasms, are at increased risk of spontaneous nontraumatic rib fractures.
Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C
Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake.
Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin
Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.
Introduction COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on lung function, decrease quality of life (QoL) and increase the risk of death. The objective of this study was to assess the course of health status after an outpatient or inpatient exacerbation in patients with COPD. Methods This is an epidemiological, prospective, multicentre study that was conducted in 79 hospitals and primary care centres in Spain. Four hundred seventy-six COPD patients completed COPD assessment test (CAT) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) questionnaires during the 24 hours after presenting at hospital or primary care centres with symptoms of an exacerbation, and also at weeks 4–6. The scores from the CAT and CCQ were evaluated and compared at baseline and after recovery from the exacerbation. Results A total of 164 outpatients (33.7%) and 322 inpatients (66.3%) were included in the study. The majority were men (88.2%), the mean age was 69.4 years (SD = 9.5) and the mean FEV1 (%) was 47.7% (17.4%). During the exacerbation, patients presented high scores in the CAT: [mean: 22.0 (SD = 7.0)] and the CCQ: [mean: 4.4 (SD = 1.2)]. After recovery there was a significant reduction in the scores of both questionnaires [CAT: mean: -9.9 (SD = 5.1) and CCQ: mean: -3.1 (SD = 1.1)]. Both questionnaires showed a strong correlation during and after the exacerbation and the best predictor of the magnitude of improvement in the scores was the severity of each score at onset. Conclusions Due to their good correlation, CAT and CCQ can be useful tools to measure health status during an exacerbation and to evaluate recovery. However, new studies are necessary in order to identify which factors are influencing the course of the recovery of health status after a COPD exacerbation. PMID:23987232
Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)
Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)
Ibarrola, Patricia; German, Alexander J; Stell, Anneliese J; Fox, Richard; Summerfield, Nuala J; Blackwood, Laura
A 13-year-old neutered male Persian cat and an 11-year-old neutered female Persian cat were examined because of an acute onset of lameness. In both cats, conscious proprioception and reflexes were diminished in the affected limb. In 1 cat, no blood flow was detected in the left brachial artery with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, whereas blood flow in the right brachial artery was easily documented. In the other cat, the right femoral pulse was not palpable. Neither cat had any echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. In both cats, treatment was primarily supportive. One cat died, and the other was euthanatized. At necropsy, lung lobe consolidation was seen. Microscopically, there was multifocal infiltration of the lung parenchyma with cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells. Neoplastic epithelial cells of similar morphology were identified in nodular masses in sections of muscle, and intravascular tumor emboli were identified obliterating small and large arterioles. Immunohistochemical staining of pulmonary and muscular tissue for pan-cytokeratin antigen revealed intense cytoplasmic staining of neoplastic cells. Staining for factor VIII-related antigen confirmed that clusters of neoplastic cells represented intravascular emboli. Clinical signs in the cats were attributed to arterial occlusion by tumor emboli.
Thomas, Emily K; Syring, Rebecca S
To characterize the incidence, etiology, presenting complaint, clinical course, and outcome of cats with pneumomediastinum. Retrospective study from the period of January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2010. University teaching hospital. Forty-five cats with a radiographic diagnosis of pneumomediastinum. None. Medical and radiographic records were reviewed to identify cats with a radiographic diagnosis of pneumomediastinum. Clinical data were retrieved, including signalment, history, presenting clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, complications, and survival to discharge. In 31 of 45 (69%) cats the pneumomediastinum was secondary to an obvious inciting cause. General anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation was the most common cause in 17 of 45 (38%) cases. This was followed by trauma in 12 of 45 (27%) cats, and tracheal foreign bodies in 2 of 45 (4%) cats. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (unknown underlying cause) was diagnosed in 14 of 45 (31%) of cases. Onset of clinical signs and diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum was preceded by emesis in 6 of 14 cats. Common presenting signs were tachypnea seen in 27 of 45 (60%) cats, increased respiratory effort in 26 of 45 (58%) cats, and subcutaneous emphysema in 30 of 45 (66%) cats. Concurrent pneumothorax was identified in 21 of 45 (47%) cats, pleural effusion in 10 of 45 (22%), and pneumoretroperitoneum in 21 of 45 (47%). The mainstay of treatment was supportive care and treatment of the underlying disease process. The prognosis for recovery was good, with 87% survival until hospital discharge. Pneumomediastinum in cats is an infrequently diagnosed condition. It is often secondary to an event such as general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation but less frequently may occur spontaneously. The prognosis is good with appropriate supportive care. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.
Wood, Casey; Almes, Kelli; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Debey, Brad; Andrews, Gordon; Nietfeld, Jerome; Wilkerson, Melinda
Sézary syndrome is an uncommon leukemic variant of cutaneous lymphoma in cats. This cat had recurrent dermatitis with erythematous, pruritic plaques. Multiple skin imprints and biopsy samples were obtained over a 6-month period, and histopathological findings were consistent initially with eosinophilic miliary dermatitis and later with erythema multiforme. One week before death, Sézary cells were identified in the peripheral blood that expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD8 antigens. Massive infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes was noted in the skin and multiple internal tissues by histopathological examination. This case demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosing cutaneous lymphoma early in the disease course.
Drolet, R.; Bernard, J.
Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422486
Walker, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Syme, Harriet M
Hypertension is a common problem in older cats, particularly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 predisposes to hypertension in human patients by allowing excessive stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by cortisol. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that reduced conversion of cortisol to cortisone contributes to the development of systemic hypertension in some cats with CKD and idiopathic hypertension (iHT). The study included 60 client-owned cats: 21 clinically normal, 16 normotensive cats with CKD (NTCKD), 14 hypertensive cats with CKD (HTCKD) and nine iHTs. Urine cortisol and cortisone were extracted into dichloromethane and chloroform, respectively, prior to analysis by radioimmunoassay. Data are reported as median and range. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare cortisol:cortisone ratios between groups with post-hoc testing using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to compare results before and after treatment of hypertensive cats with amlodipine. The urinary cortisol:cortisone ratio was significantly higher in clinically normal cats (0.87; 0.46-1.39) when compar