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Sample records for cat diseases

  1. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  2. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  3. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  4. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  5. Cat-scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). ... disease: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after playing with your cat. Especially wash any ...

  6. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  7. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  8. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  9. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  10. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. PMID:24509255

  11. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B

    1996-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) was first described by Debré in 1950, yet the causative bacterial agent of CSD remained obscure until 1992, when Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae was implicated in CSD by serological and microbiological studies. B. henselae had initially been linked to bacillary angiomatosis (BA), a vascular proliferative disease most commonly associated with long-standing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other significant immunosuppression. B. henselae has also been associated with bacillary peliosis, relapsing bacteraemia and endocarditis in humans. Cats are healthy carriers of B. henselae, and can be bacteraemic for months or years. It has recently been demonstrated that B. henselae can be transmitted from cat to cat by the cat flea, but not by direct contact between animals. The author discusses the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

  13. Cat-scratch disease simulating lyphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.Z.; Kruskal, J.; Kane, R.A.; Trey, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is the most common cause of benign lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Rare cases of systemic involvement with deep adenopathy with or without hepatic and/or splenic involvement have been reported. We present an unusual case of cat-scratch disease with imaging findings indistinguishable from lymphoma. Cat-scratch disease should be considered as a possible benign etiology for adenopathy with hepatic or splenic nodules in a young patient, especially if the involved nodes are tender. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. PMID:19716738

  15. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  16. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  17. Pulmonary nodules in an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anuja; Burrage, Lindsay C; Gonzalez, Blanca E

    2013-12-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease and pulmonary nodules as part of her initial presentation. Although pulmonary manifestations have been reported with cat scratch disease, nodules are rare in the normal host.

  18. Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wimpole, Justin A; Adagra, Carl F M; Billson, Mark F; Pillai, Dilo N; Foster, Darren J

    2010-06-01

    Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats. Plasma metanephrine levels are widely considered the diagnostic test of choice for phaeochromocytoma in people but have not been investigated in cats. In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma. Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group. Plasma metanephrine was not significantly different in any of the groups. This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease. These results provide rationale for further studies to establish the use of plasma normetanephrine levels as a potential diagnostic test for phaeochromocytoma in the cat.

  19. [Clinical analysis of cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kusaba, Nobuhide; Sata, Michio

    2010-05-01

    We analyzed the clinical background of 63 patients with serologically confirmed cat scratch disease (CSD), Age range of the patients was 0 to 83 years old and mean age was 35.0 years old. Seasonal patterns of cases was observed. A number of patients with CSD was increased during the summer and fall. The peak incidence of CSD occurred in October. Infection followed direct cat or dog contact. Cat contact occurred in 61 cases (96.8%) and dog contact in 2 cases (3.2%). A specific contact with kittens occurred in 39 cases (61.9%). About 49.2% of patients had a cat scratch, 3.2% had a cat bite, 3.2% had a cat flea bite, 41.2% had no history of animal bite. The papule of inoculation site were seen in 27 cases (42.9%) of CSD. The upper extremities were the most likely locations for scratches. Sixty cases (95.2%) of CSD developed lymphadenopathy, 51.7% of the involved nodes were in the axillary, 31.7% were in the inguinal, 21.7% were in the cervical, 16.7% were in the elbow. The mean incubation period of patients with CSD was 18.9 days. The mean duration of lymphadenopathy after the treatment of antibiotics was 44.2 days. The mean value of white blood cell counts was 8130/microL. The mean value of C-reactive protein level was 2.83 mg/dL.

  20. Cat scratch disease and other Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Zangwill, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1931, cat scratch disease remains the most commonly identified clinical syndrome associated with Bartonella infection. Over the last 20 years, however, the discovery and use of modern diagnostic tests has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and treatment options for Bartonella infections of all types. Indeed, each varies substantially depending on the infecting species and the immune status of the host.

  1. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    PubMed

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  2. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  3. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kordick, D L; Wilson, K H; Sexton, D J; Hadfield, T L; Berkhoff, H A; Breitschwerdt, E B

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a causal relationship between Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae, cat-scratch disease (CSD), and bacillary angiomatosis. Cats appear to be the primary reservoir. Blood from 19 cats owned by 14 patients diagnosed with CSD was cultured. Blood samples from cats owned by veterinary students (n = 25) having no association with CSD or bacillary angiomatosis were cultured as controls. Eighty-nine percent (17 of 19) of cats associated with CSD patients and 28% (7 of 25) of controls were bacteremic with Bartonella species (chi-square = 16.47; P < 0.001). Twenty-three isolates were characterized as B. henselae, while one isolate from the cat of a CSD patient appeared to be a new Bartonella species. Thirteen cats remained culture positive during the ensuing 12-month period. Our results support the conclusion that B. henselae is the predominant species involved in CSD and is transmitted by cats. The incidence of Bartonella bacteremia in control cats suggests that B. henselae bacteremia is prevalent among the domestic cat population in the United States. PMID:8586710

  4. Toxoplasmosis in two cats with inflammatory intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J L; Willard, M D; Lees, G E; Lappin, M R; Dieringer, T; Floyd, E

    1991-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, was diagnosed in 2 cats. In 1 cat, recurrence of clinical signs after initiating treatment was attributed to relapse of the inflammatory intestinal disease, but was found to be attributable to relapsing toxoplasmosis secondary to immunosuppressive drug therapy. Treatment with clindamycin resolved the recurrent toxoplasmosis. In the second cat, clinical signs of toxoplasmosis did not develop, but serologic testing yielded evidence of active toxoplasmosis. Treatment with clindamycin caused the titers to decrease. Relapsing toxoplasmosis may be responsible for apparent resistance to treatment in cats for inflammatory intestinal disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  5. Acute myopericarditis associated with cat scratch disease in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Barson, William J; Honegger, J Robert; Texter, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is generally characterized by a self-limited chronic regional lymphadenopathy, but numerous other clinical manifestations involving a variety of organ systems have been reported. Cardiac involvement is unusual and when reported, it has been associated with culture-negative endocarditis in adults. We present the case of an adolescent male with typical cat scratch disease and associated myopericarditis.

  6. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  7. Isolated mediastinal necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenopathy due to cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Lovis, A; Clerc, O; Lazor, R; Jaton, K; Greub, G

    2014-02-01

    We report a patient suffering from cat-scratch disease limited to mediastinal lymphadenitis. Although rare, cat-scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenitis, especially when patients were exposed to cats.

  8. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  9. [An update on viral diseases of the dog and cat].

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; Egberink, H F

    2009-04-15

    In this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. In the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. A new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. Infection with West Nile virus is associated with progressive neurological disease and subclinical infections in dogs. Infection with equine influenza A (H3N8) or a highly related influenza virus can cause severe respiratory disease and mortality in greyhounds and other dogs. Infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) can cause disease and mortality in cats and is mostly subclinical in dogs. A number of outbreaks of highly virulent strains of the calicivirus in cats have been described.

  10. Nutritional Considerations for Dogs and Cats with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Rebecca D; Lenox, Catherine E; Manino, Paul; Vulgamott, James C

    2016-01-01

    The goals of nutritional management of liver disease in the dog and cat are directed at treating the clinical manifestations as opposed to treating the underlying cause. Specifically, the clinician strives to avoid overwhelming the remaining metabolic capacities of the damaged liver while providing sufficient nutrients for regeneration. A brief overview of liver diseases and associated clinical signs encountered in the dog and cat and a review of specific nutrients are discussed as well as amounts and sources of nutrients recommended to meet nutritional goals in the diseased liver.

  11. Nutritional Considerations for Dogs and Cats with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Rebecca D; Lenox, Catherine E; Manino, Paul; Vulgamott, James C

    2016-01-01

    The goals of nutritional management of liver disease in the dog and cat are directed at treating the clinical manifestations as opposed to treating the underlying cause. Specifically, the clinician strives to avoid overwhelming the remaining metabolic capacities of the damaged liver while providing sufficient nutrients for regeneration. A brief overview of liver diseases and associated clinical signs encountered in the dog and cat and a review of specific nutrients are discussed as well as amounts and sources of nutrients recommended to meet nutritional goals in the diseased liver. PMID:26606205

  12. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  13. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery.

  14. Evaluation of fecal α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations in cats with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and cats with gastrointestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kathrin F; Broussard, John D; Ruaux, Craig G; Suchodolski, Jan S; Williams, David A; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gastrointestinal lymphoma are common disorders in cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate fecal α(1)-PI concentrations, a marker of gastrointestinal protein loss, in cats with histopathological evidence of gastrointestinal inflammation or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Fecal and serum samples were obtained from 20 cats with chronic gastrointestinal disease in which endoscopic biopsies were performed. Two groups of cats were assembled based on histopathology: Group A (n = 8), mild to moderate IBD; Group B (n = 12), severe IBD or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Fecal α(1)-PI concentrations and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, cobalamin, folate, pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were determined. Nineteen of the 20 diseased cats had elevated fecal α(1)-PI concentrations, ranging from 1.9 to 233.6 μg/g compared to 20 healthy control cats (normal range: ≤1.6 μg/g). Fecal α(1)-PI concentrations were statistically significantly different between healthy cats and cats of Group A (median: 3.9 μg/g, range: 1.3-9.2 μg/g, P < 0.001) or cats of Group B (median: 20.6 μg/g, 4.3-233.6 μg/g; P < 0.001), and between cats of Groups A and B (P < 0.01). Hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, and hypocobalaminemia were detected in 88%, 83%, and 56% of the diseased cats, respectively. This study suggests that increased fecal α(1)-PI concentrations in association with low serum albumin and total protein concentrations may be a common finding in cats with IBD or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Furthermore, fecal α(1)-PI concentrations appear to be higher in cats with severe IBD or confirmed gastrointestinal neoplasia when compared to cats with mild to moderate IBD. PMID:23231864

  15. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  16. [Cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site after cat scratch or bite. This paper reported a case of cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever, and discussed the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of CSD.

  17. Vestibular disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular system is the major sensory (special proprioceptive) system that, along with the general proprioceptive and visual systems, maintains balance. Clinical signs of vestibular disease include asymmetric ataxia, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. Neuroanatomic localization of observed vestibular signs to either the peripheral or central components of the vestibular system is paramount to the management of the patient with vestibular dysfunction, as the etiology, diagnostic approaches, and prognoses are dependent on the neuroanatomic diagnosis. This article reviews functional vestibular neuroanatomy as well as the diagnosis and treatment of common causes of small animal vestibular disease. PMID:19942058

  18. Primary hyperaldosteronism, a mediator of progressive renal disease in cats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, S; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Kooistra, H S; van Dongen, A M; Voorhout, G; van Sluijs, F J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Boer, W H; Rijnberk, A

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in primary hyperaldosteronism, particularly because of its possible role in the progression of kidney disease. While most studies have concerned humans and experimental animal models, we here report on the occurrence of a spontaneous form of (non-tumorous) primary hyperaldosteronism in cats. At presentation, the main physical features of 11 elderly cats were hypokalemic paroxysmal flaccid paresis and loss of vision due to retinal detachment with hemorrhages. Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed on the basis of plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA), and the calculation of the PAC:PRA ratio. In all animals, PACs were at the upper end or higher than the reference range. The PRAs were at the lower end of the reference range, and the PAC:PRA ratios exceeded the reference range. Diagnostic imaging by ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no or only very minor changes in the adrenals compatible with nodular hyperplasia. Adrenal gland histopathology revealed extensive micronodular hyperplasia extending from zona glomerulosa into the zona fasciculata and reticularis. In three cats, plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were normal when hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed but thereafter increased to above the upper limit of the respective reference range. In the other eight cats, urea and creatinine concentrations were raised at first examination and gradually further increased. Even in end-stage renal insufficiency, there was a tendency to hypophosphatemia rather than to hyperphosphatemia. The histopathological changes in the kidneys mimicked those of humans with hyperaldosteronism: hyaline arteriolar sclerosis, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The non-tumorous form of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats has many similarities with "idiopathic" primary hyperaldosteronism in humans. The condition is associated with progressive renal disease

  19. Cat Scratch Disease in a Renal Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Yalin, Serkan Feyyaz; Sahin, Serdar; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tuzuner, Nukhet; Altiparmak, Mehmet Riza; Seyahi, Nurhan

    2016-09-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a disorder characterized by self-limited regional lymphadenopathy and fever. We reported a case of CSD in a kidney transplant recipient who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated bacterial histiocytic lymphadenitis. The patient was diagnosed with CSD. Patient had good clinical improvement after treatment. Therefore, CSD should also be borne in mind for kidney recipients though CSD had been infrequently reported in this group.

  20. A review of histiocytic diseases of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Moore, P F

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic proliferative disorders are commonly observed in dogs and less often cats. Histiocytic disorders occur in most of the dendritic cell (DC) lineages. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma originates from Langerhans cells (LCs) indicated by expression of CD1a, CD11c/CD18, and E-cadherin. When histiocytomas occur as multiple lesions in skin with optional metastasis to lymph nodes and internal organs, the disease resembles cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis of humans. Langerhans cell disorders do not occur in feline skin. Feline pulmonary LCH has been recognized as a cause of respiratory failure due to diffuse pulmonary infiltration by histiocytes, which express CD18 and E-cadherin and contain Birbeck's granules. In dogs and cats, histiocytic sarcomas (HS) arise from interstitial DCs that occur in most tissues of the body. Histiocytic sarcomas begin as localized lesions, which rapidly disseminate to many organs. Primary sites include spleen, lung, skin, brain (meninges), lymph node, bone marrow, and synovial tissues of limbs. An indolent form of localized HS, progressive histiocytosis, originates in the skin of cats. Hemophagocytic HS originates in splenic red pulp and bone marrow macrophages in dogs and cats. In dogs, histiocytes in hemophagocytic HS express CD11d/CD18, which is a leuko-integrin highly expressed by macrophages in splenic red pulp and bone marrow. Canine reactive histiocytic diseases, systemic histiocytosis (SH) and cutaneous histiocytosis, are complex inflammatory diseases with underlying immune dysregulation. The lesions are dominated by activated interstitial DCs and lymphocytes, which invade vessel walls and extend as vasocentric infiltrates in skin, lymph nodes, and internal organs (SH).

  1. Cat-scratch disease in Northern Italy: atypical clinical manifestations in humans and prevalence of Bartonella infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, E; Fabbi, M; Ferraioli, G; Prati, P; Filice, C; Sassera, D; Dalla Valle, C; Bandi, C; Vicari, N; Marone, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report an investigation on cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Northern Italy. Seventy-four cases of CSD were diagnosed at the San Matteo hospital, Pavia, during the period 2005-2010. Of these 74 patients, 18 (24.3 %) reported atypical clinical manifestations such as ocular papillitis, maculopapular eruptions, vertebral infection, pulmonary infiltrates, and granulomatous hepatitis. Contact with cats was documented for 61 patients (82.4 %), while cat-related trauma was reported for 49 patients (66.2 %). We subsequently investigated the presence of Bartonella infection in cats belonging to the above patients and in other domestic and stray cats from three provinces of Northern Italy. Among the 27 domestic cats tested, nine of the 11 belonging to the CSD patients and two of the remaining 16 were infected by B. henselae (81.8 % vs. 12.5 %). Out of over 1,300 stray cats examined, 23.1 % were seropositive for B. henselae; after culturing and genotyping, 17 % were found to be infected by B. henselae (15.5 %) or B. clarridgeiae (1.5 %).

  2. Persistent haematuria and proteinuria due to glomerular disease in related Abyssinian cats.

    PubMed

    White, Joanna D; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Fleay, R; Lauer, Chris; Malik, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Eight cases of glomerular disease in young, related Abyssinian cats are described. Haematuria was the most consistent feature. Six cats developed the nephrotic syndrome. The short-term prognosis was good for cats with haematuria and fair for cats with the nephrotic syndrome as oedema resolved in three of the six cats. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsies from three cats was considered normal or revealed only mild abnormalities. In the three cases subjected to necropsy, histological abnormalities included mild mesangial hypercellularity and adhesions between the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule consistent with a focal proliferative glomerulopathy. Further investigation into this glomerulopathy will require ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies to characterise the glomerular abnormality and genetic analyses to investigate its potential to be an inherited disease. Glomerular disease, potentially a familial one, should be considered in the investigation of persistent haematuria or proteinuria in Abyssinian and related cats. PMID:18455462

  3. Cat scratch disease in an immunosuppressed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hitos, J A; Sabio, J M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Arenas-Miras, M del M; Zamora-Pasadas, M; Jiménez-Alonso, J

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious disorder transmitted by cats that typically affects children and young adults. Immunosuppression is a well-known risk factor for the development of severe and atypical forms of the disease; hence it is under-diagnosed in patients with compromised immunity. We are reporting the first case of cat scratch disease, which presented as fever and fatigue, in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus while receiving immunosuppressant therapy after a kidney transplant.

  4. Survey of dietary and medication practices of owners of cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Jessica E; Freeman, Lisa M; Labato, Mary A; Heinze, Cailin R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the dietary and medication patterns of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study, owners of cats with CKD were asked to complete a web-based survey. The study was advertised on CKD-, pet-, veterinary- and breed-associated websites and list serves. Owners of 1089 cats with CKD participated in the study. The mean reported age of the cats with CKD was 13.7 ± 4.2 years. Forty percent (430/1089) of cats had concurrent diseases, with hyperthyroidism, heart disease and inflammatory bowel disease being the most common. Veterinarian recommendation was the most common reason reported (684/1032; 66%) for diet selection, and 51% (556/1089) of owners fed a veterinary therapeutic diet formulated for kidney disease as some component of the diet. Many owners (466/1079; 43%) reported that their cats had an abnormal appetite; of these owners, 52% responded that their cats had a poor appetite or required coaxing to eat 5-7 days per week. Forty-seven percent and 51% of cats were receiving subcutaneous fluids and oral medications, respectively; however, most cats (811/1036; 78%) were not receiving phosphorus-binding medications. Fifty-six percent and 38% of cats received commercial cat treats and dietary supplements, respectively. Anorexia or hyporexia is a common problem in cats with CKD and may lead to cats being fed suboptimal diets for their disease. This information may be useful for treating or designing nutritional studies for cats with CKD.

  5. Diagnosis of rickettsial diseases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robin W; Little, Susan E

    2013-06-01

    Rickettsial agents, including those in the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Rickettsia, are important and common vector-borne pathogens of dogs and cats. Disease induced by these organisms ranges from clinically inapparent to severe and potentially fatal. However, laboratory confirmation of a rickettsial etiology can be complicated by a number of factors, including the wide spectrum of disease induced by these organisms, an often low and widely fluctuating level of organism present in infected animals, cross-reactions on serologic and molecular assays, and the presence of co-infections. Correct diagnosis is most likely to be reached when multiple diagnostic strategies, including careful microscopic examination of stained blood films or tissues, both specific and broad serologic tests, and a suite of molecular detection assays, are used in concert. Accurate interpretation of diagnostic tests requires awareness of the likelihood for multiple agents, including novel organisms, to be responsible for the results seen in a given patient. This review provides an overview of current strategies used to diagnose rickettsial infections in dogs and cats.

  6. Prospective evaluation of healthy Ragdoll cats for chronic kidney disease by routine laboratory parameters and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Paepe, Dominique; Bavegems, Valérie; Combes, Anaïs; Saunders, Jimmy H; Daminet, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    Ragdoll breeder organisations often forewarn Ragdoll cat owners that renal problems may develop as a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), chronic interstitial nephritis, familial renal dysplasia or nephrocalcinosis. Healthy Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats were prospectively evaluated by measuring serum creatinine and urea concentrations, routine urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography. All Ragdoll cats also underwent genetic PKD testing. One hundred and thirty-three Ragdoll and 62 control cats were included. Ragdoll cats had significantly lower serum urea concentrations and higher urinary specific gravity. However, median creatinine concentration, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of cats with serum creatinine or urea concentration exceeding the reference interval did not differ. One or more renal ultrasonographical changes were detected in 66/133 (49.6%) Ragdoll and in 25/62 (40%) control cats. Ragdoll cats showed significantly more frequent segmental cortical lesions (7.5% versus 0%), abnormal renal capsule (19.5% versus 8%) and echogenic urine (51.9% versus 25.8%). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was ultrasonographically suspected in 7/133 (5.3%) Ragdoll and in none of the control cats, which approached significance. Laboratory parameters confirmed kidney dysfunction only in 1/7 of these Ragdoll cats. All Ragdoll cats were PKD negative. In conclusion, first, breed-specific serum creatinine reference intervals are not likely required for Ragdoll cats. Second, renal ultrasonographical abnormalities are common, both in Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats. Third, healthy young Ragdoll cats are uncommonly affected by PKD and CKD, but an increased susceptibility of Ragdoll cats to develop CKD cannot be excluded. Finally, Ragdoll cats are predisposed to segmental cortical lesions, which may indicate renal infarction or cortical scarring.

  7. Cat-scratch disease--Connecticut, 1992-1993.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D H; Zangwill, K M; Hadler, J L; Cartter, M L

    1995-08-01

    A prospective population-based surveillance system was established to characterize the epidemiology of cat-scratch disease (CSD) among residents of Connecticut who were reported to the state health department with a diagnosis of suspected CSD. During 1992 and 1993, 246 persons met the case definition, for an average statewide annual incidence of 3.7/100,000 persons. The median age of patients with CSD was 14 years (range, 1-64), and 52% were female. The age-specific attack rate was highest among persons < 10 years of age (9.3/100,000) and decreased with increasing age. Symptoms in addition to adenopathy were noted by 74% of case-patients. Eleven percent of all case-patients were hospitalized. There were no deaths. Most patients with clinically diagnosed CSD developed an immunologic response to Bartonella species. Our data suggest that although CSD is primarily a disease of younger persons, the age spectrum is wider than was commonly appreciated.

  8. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25677715

  9. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    PubMed

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.

  10. Cat or Dog Ownership and Seroprevalence of Ehrlichiosis, Q Fever, and Cat-Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Martina; Daxboeck, Florian; Krause, Robert; Haberl, Renate; Stuenzner, Doris

    2003-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the role of domestic cats or dogs in the acquisition of zoonoses, in particular in pregnant women or immune-suppressed persons. We report that cat or dog ownership is not associated with an increased seroprevalence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagozytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella henselae in symptom-free persons in Styria, Austria. PMID:14609477

  11. Cat scratch disease during infliximab therapy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Yin, Geng; Tan, Chunyu; Liu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Cat scratch disease may occur during etanercept therapy, but there has been no report on infliximab-associated cat scratch disease. We report a case of a 23-year-old woman who developed right inguinal lymph node enlargement following a cat scratch. The patient had received infliximab therapy for spondyloarthropathy. She was successfully managed by discontinuing infliximab and by treatment with moxifloxacin and amikacin.

  12. A comparison of biochemical and histopathologic staging in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McLeland, S M; Cianciolo, R E; Duncan, C G; Quimby, J M

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in elderly cats. Frequently, a diagnosis is made in later stages of disease, by which time many renal lesions are irreversible. As such, little headway has been made in identifying an etiology and preventing this common disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and severity of both reversible and irreversible histopathologic changes in the kidneys of cats at each stage of CKD and, in addition, to determine if lesion prevalence and character were different between stages. A total of 46 cats with CKD were classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) as stage I (3 cats), stage II (16 cats), stage III (14 cats), and stage IV (13 cats). Eleven young, nonazotemic and 10 geriatric, nonazotemic cats were included as controls. The severity of tubular degeneration, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis was significantly greater in later stages of CKD compared with early stages of disease. Proteinuria was associated with increased severity of tubular degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, tubular epithelial single-cell necrosis, and decreased normal parenchyma. Presence of hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, fibrointimal hyperplasia, or other vascular lesions were not found to be significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive cats. The greater prevalence and severity of irreversible lesions in stage III and IV CKD implies that therapeutic interventions should be targeted at earlier stages of disease. PMID:25516066

  13. Animal models of disease: classification and etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Richard W; Reusch, Claudia E

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. The most common form of diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. A major risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insulin signaling genes and glucose transporters and are leptin resistant. Cats also form amyloid deposits within the islets of the pancreas and develop glucotoxicity when exposed to prolonged hyperglycemia. This review will briefly summarize our current knowledge about the etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats and illustrate the similarities among dogs, cats, and humans.

  14. [Atypical presentation of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Boiron, E; Soto, B; Zimmermann, B; Jullien, M

    2012-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Bartonella henselae. This disease is transmitted by cat scratches or bites. The typical form is a large and rough adenopathy, with no general signs. In a few cases, the symptoms are aspecific and various, which makes the diagnosis difficult. A 3-year-old child presented a prolonged fever with an aspecific skin eruption and hepatosplenic lesions seen 1 month after the beginning of the disease, which led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. An adapted antibiotic therapy completely cured the disease.

  15. Acceptance and effects of a therapeutic renal food in pet cats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Dale A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal foods are used to manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats, but their effectiveness may be limited by the ability to transition animals to them. Material and Methods In a prospective study, pet cats with previously undiagnosed kidney disease (20 International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) 1, 61 IRIS 2, 14 IRIS 3/4, 33 at risk for CKD) were transitioned to a renal food. Markers of renal function were measured and owners answered questionnaires about their pet over one year. Results All but eight cats (120/128; 94 per cent) successfully transitioned to the renal food. Most of the time, cats moderately or extremely liked the food (89 per cent), ate at least half (73 per cent) and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating (68 per cent). Cats rarely disliked the food (2 per cent) or refused to eat it (1 per cent). Markers of renal function were unchanged in IRIS 1 and 2 cats and changed little in IRIS 3/4 cats. In all groups, owner-assessed quality of life improved initially and then remained stable. Mean bodyweight did not change in cats with CKD. Conclusions Most cats with CKD successfully transitioned to the renal food. The results also support previous studies that the renal food can help stabilise cats with CKD. PMID:26587240

  16. Multiple Renal and Splenic Lesions in Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Manaka; Kodama, Yuichi; Miyazono, Akinori; Seki, Shunji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-09-21

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Atypical clinical presentations of CSD include prolonged fever and multiple hepatosplenic lesions. Furthermore, multiple renal lesions are extremely rare in CSD. An 11-year-old Japanese girl presented at our hospital with a prolonged fever of unknown cause after being scratched and bitten by a kitten. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small, round hypodense lesions in both kidneys and the spleen. Based on her history and the CT results, her diagnosis was CSD. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological tests, which indicated antibodies against B. henselae. After treatment with azithromycin, her fever immediately improved. Careful history taking and imaging are essential for the diagnosis of atypical CSD. In CT images, not only hepatosplenic lesions but also renal lesions are important features indicative of a diagnosis of atypical CSD. Subsequently, a diagnosis of CSD can be confirmed by specific serological tests. This is the first reported Japanese case of multiple renal and splenic lesions in a patient with CSD. Although difficult to diagnose, an early diagnosis atypical CSD and appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications and the need for invasive examinations.

  17. Assessment of renal vascular resistance and blood pressure in dogs and cats with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Novellas, R; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Espada, Y

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the possible relationships between renal resistive index (RI) or pulsatility index (PI) and systolic blood pressure and biochemical and haematological parameters in dogs and cats with renal disease. The study included 50 dogs and 20 cats with renal disease. RI and PI were significantly higher in both dogs and cats with renal disease than in 27 healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. In dogs, a significant negative correlation was found between RI and red blood cell count, and a positive correlation was found between PI and serum creatinine. In cats, a positive correlation was found between RI and serum urea, between PI and serum creatinine, and between PI and serum urea. No relationship could be found between either RI or PI and systolic blood pressure.

  18. [Bartonella henselae infection-cat-scratch disease in children (case report)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 11 year old patient with cat scratch disease. The diagnoes of this infection was based on detailed history, physical examenination and para-clinical data analyses. In case of cat-scratch disease (because it is rare diagnosis), a different approach is required to every specific occaison. A series of investigations (most informative is intrinsic factor antibody - IFA) should be conducted to determain the cat-scratch disease from the various reasons of the lymphocytic leukaemoid reaction.

  19. Cat-scratch disease in Crete: an update

    PubMed Central

    Minadakis, Georgios; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2011-01-01

    There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11%) cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56) were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05). Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002) and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity. PMID:24470912

  20. Diseases of the adrenal cortex of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J

    1984-06-01

    Of cases of hyperadrenocorticism in small animals 80-85% are the result of adrenocortical hyperplasia. Middle-aged or older Poodles, Dachshunds, Boston Terriers and Boxers are most commonly affected, and cats rarely. Clinical signs include polydipsia, polyuria, alopecia, abdominal distension, lethargy, weakness, hepatomegaly, calcinosis cutis, testicular atrophy and anestrus. Hematologic and biochemical changes may include neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, eosinopenia, increased blood levels of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT, cholesterol, Na and glucose, and decreased K and T4 levels. The high-dosage dexamethasone suppression test helps differentiate pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism from that caused by adrenal tumors. The low-dosage dexamethasone suppression test, determination of plasma ACTH levels, and ACTH response test are additional diagnostic aids in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Medical treatment involves oral use of mitotane (o,p'-DDD) at 50 mg/kg/day for 7 days and prednisone or prednisolone at 0.05 mg/kg/day. Hypophysectomy has been used with only 5% mortality in cases of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Adrenalectomy is indicated in cases of adrenal neoplasia.

  1. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    PubMed

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  2. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    PubMed

    Day, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation. PMID:27646278

  3. Disease transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats: what is the real risk?

    PubMed

    Bush, Jamie M; Speer, Brian; Opitz, Noel

    2011-11-01

    A number of common misconceptions exist regarding the degree of transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats. Concern regarding bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic transmission is generally unfounded, because disease transmission between companion parrots and dogs and cats is not well-documented. Infections with Mycobacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Giardia spp, Chlamydophila psittaci, Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptosporidium spp, and avian influenza are often considered possible transmissible diseases, causing pet caregivers unwarranted concerns.

  4. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length.

  5. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length. PMID:19748114

  6. [Causes, diagnostics and course of disease in 194 cats with anemia].

    PubMed

    Merten, Nina; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common hematological alteration in cats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of different types of anemia and the course of disease in cats with a hematocrit (hct) < 0.26 l/l. In a period of 18 months 194 cats were included and assigned to different anemia groups based on history, physical examination and laboratory parameters. Most cats had acute blood loss anemia (BA; 75/194; 38.7%). Frequent causes were trauma (39/75), hematuria (13/75) and hemostatic disorders (9/75). Anemia of inflammatory and neoplastic disease (AID) occurred in 22.2% (43/194) and hemolytic anemia (HA) in 18% (35/194). Half of those were presumptively immune-mediated (IHA). Four cats were diagnosed with hemotropic mycoplasma infection. Rare causes of anemia included anemia of renal disease (ARD; 18/194; 9.3%) and intramedullary non-regenerative anemia (INR; 13/194; 6.7%). The latter either had retroviral infection (6/13) or neoplasia (6/13). In cats with HA and INR anemia was often severe and very severe (Hct < 0.14 l/l) and in cats with AID and ARD usually mild (Hct 0.20-0.25 l/l). Cats with BA had significantly lower total protein concentrations than those with INR (p = 0,001), HA, AID and CNE (p < 0,001) and those with HA most often had hyperbilirubinemia (21/27). Blood transfusions were primarily given to cats with BA (37/75) and HA (19/35), especially those with IHA (13/17). 69% of the patients survived the first 14 days after the anemia was detected for the first time. Cats with HA had the highest survival rate.

  7. Surveillance of upper respiratory tract disease in owned cats in Australia, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wong, W T; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2013-10-01

    Reported cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) - presumptively diagnosed as feline herpesvirus (FHV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) - throughout Australia (2010-2012) were obtained from Disease WatchDog, a companion animal disease surveillance system. This surveillance system is based on voluntary reporting of cases by veterinarians, using a web-based program. Animal factors, location and vaccination information are also reported. Cases reported were mapped and seasonal patterns were described. A total of 131 FHV cases and 120 FCV cases were reported. Excluding euthanasia, case fatality rates were 1.12% and 1.28%, respectively. The largest proportion of cases was reported in winter. Young cats (≤ 2 years), intact cats, unvaccinated cats and (for FHV) male cats appeared to be over-represented in the cases reported. The distributions of cases reported in this surveillance system provide information to aid the diagnosis of infectious feline URTD and to develop client educational programs. PMID:23910025

  8. Subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) in cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K W; Fyfe, J; Cornetta, A; Sachs, A; Strauss-Ayali, D; Lamb, S V; Reimers, T J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the spectrum of diseases associated with subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin in cats undergoing investigation of suspected gastrointestinal problems. The solid-phase boil radioassay (RA) for cobalamin employed in the present study was immunologically specific, precise, and accurate, with a sensitivity of 15 pg/mL. The RA yielded results that strongly correlated with those obtained by bioassay (Spearmann rho = .805; P < .0001), although the absolute values were lower for the RA. Forty-nine of 80 serum samples submitted during the period of January 1996-January 1998 had cobalamin concentrations below the reference range for healthy cats (range 900-2,800 pg/mL; mean +/- SD, 1,775 +/- 535 pg/mL; n = 33). Cats with subnormal cobalamin concentrations (mean +/- SD; 384 +/- 272 pg/mL, range 3-883 pg/mL) were middle-aged or older and were presented for weight loss. diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and thickened intestines. Definitive diagnoses in 22 cats included inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal lymphoma, cholangiohepatitis or cholangits, and pancreatic inflammation. Serum concentrations of cobalamin were particularly low in cats with intestinal lymphoma, three-fifths of whom also had subnormal serum concentrations of folate (< 9 ng/mL). The simultaneous presence of disease in the intestines, pancreas, or hepatobiliary system in many cats made it difficult to determine the cause of subnormal cobalamin concentrations. The circulating half-life of parenteral cyanocobalamin was shorter in 2 cats with IBD (5 days) than in 4 healthy cats (12.75 days). The presence of subnormal serum concentrations of cobalamin in 49 of 80 cats evaluated suggests that the measurement of serum cobalamin may be a useful indirect indicator of enteric or pancreatic disease in cats. The rapid depletion of circulating cobalamin in cats suggests that cats may be highly susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, the relationship of subnormal serum

  9. The effect of chronic kidney disease on the urine proteome in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Ferlizza, E; Campos, A; Neagu, A; Cuoghi, A; Bellei, E; Monari, E; Dondi, F; Almeida, A M; Isani, G

    2015-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of mortality in cats, but sensitive and specific biomarkers for early prediction and monitoring of CKD are currently lacking. The present study aimed to apply proteomic techniques to map the urine proteome of the healthy cat and compare it with the proteome of cats with CKD. Urine samples were collected by cystocentesis from 23 healthy young cats and 17 cats with CKD. One-dimensional sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-SDS-PAGE) was conducted on 4-12% gels. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) was applied to pooled urine samples from healthy cats (n = 4) and cats with CKD (n = 4), respectively. Sixteen protein bands and 36 spots were cut, trypsin-digested and identified by mass spectrometry. 1D-SDS-PAGE yielded an overall view of the protein profile and the separation of 32 ± 6 protein bands in the urine of healthy cats, while CKD cats showed significantly fewer bands (P < 0.01). 2-DE was essential in fractionation of the complex urine proteome, producing a reference map that included 20 proteins. Cauxin was the most abundant protein in urine of healthy cats. Several protease inhibitors and transport proteins that derive from plasma were also identified, including alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, transferrin, haemopexin and haptoglobin. There was differential expression of 27 spots between healthy and CKD samples (P < 0.05) and 13 proteins were unambiguously identified. In particular, increased expression of retinol-binding protein, cystatin M and apolipoprotein-H associated with decreased expression of uromodulin and cauxin confirmed tubular damage in CKD cats suggesting that these proteins are candidate biomarkers.

  10. [Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Dusser, P; Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Koné-Paut, I

    2013-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is the most common zoonosis in humans and its typical expression is a persistent benign regional adenopathy. In some rare cases, mono- or multifocal osteomyelitis is described. In this paper, we report the case of bone lesions in a 13-year-old girl infected with cat scratch disease. We have also undertaken a literature review and analyzed 60 other such cases. The manifestation of a bone lesion associated with cat scratch disease was characterized by a mono- or multifocal infectious osteomyelitis, fever, and a general alteration of the patient's health. The most frequent location of osteomyelitis was in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging appeared the most sensitive test to highlight the bone lesions. Serological findings help reinforce the diagnosis of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae infection. Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease is rare but not exceptional. Therefore, it is essential to think about this hypothesis in case of osteomyelitis associated with a general alteration of the patient's health, especially if the lesions are multifocal and if there is a known history of cat contact.

  11. Cat scratch disease in the United States: an analysis of three national databases.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L A; Perkins, B A; Wenger, J D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of cat scratch disease is based primarily on information from case series. We used three national databases to obtain more representative data to determine the incidence and demographics of cat scratch disease. METHODS. Records coded with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease from two hospital discharge databases and an ambulatory care database were analyzed. Costs of diagnostic tests and hospitalization were obtained from a sample of providers and published data. RESULTS. The incidence of patients discharged from hospitals with a diagnosis of cat scratch disease was between 0.77 and 0.86 per 100,000 population per year. Fifty-five percent of the case patients were 18 years of age or younger. Males accounted for 60% of cases. Incidence varied by season; approximately 60% of case patients were discharged in the months September through January. The estimated incidence of disease in ambulatory patients was 9.3 per 100,000 population per year. On the basis of these rates, we estimated the annual health care cost of the disease to be more than $12 million. CONCLUSIONS. The rates and seasonality of cat scratch disease found in this study were consistent with previous reports. Adults represented a higher percentage of the total than reported in previous case series, suggesting that the disease may affect more adults than previously recognized. PMID:8259799

  12. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    PubMed

    Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu

    2014-01-01

    Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.

  13. Vector-borne diseases in client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Tania; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

    2012-02-01

    The role of various vector-borne pathogens as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. The current study evaluated risk factors, clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp., Leishmania spp., and Bartonella spp. infection or exposure in 680 client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain. Our results indicate that a large portion (35.1%) of the cat population of Madrid, Spain, is exposed to at least one of the five vector-borne pathogens tested. We found seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae in 23.8%, to Ehrlichia canis in 9.9%, to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 8.4%, to Leishmania infantum in 3.7%, and to Neorickettsia risticii in 1% of the feline study population. About 9.9% of cats had antibody reactivity to more than one agent. L. infantum DNA was amplified from four cats (0.6%), B. henselae DNA from one cat (0.15%), and B. clarridgeiae DNA from another cat (0.15%).

  14. Combining cytomorphology and serology for the diagnosis of cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Dima; Shams, Wael E; El Abbassi, Adel; Moorman, Jonathan P; Al-Abbadi, Mousa A

    2011-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited zoonotic disease that presents most commonly as a regional lymphadenopathy. We are reporting a case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with fever and large right inguinal lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed based on the characteristic cytopathological features on aspirate smears from the lymph node and the serological titers for Bartonella henselae. This case report emphasizes the importance of combining Bartonella serology, and cytopathology in the diagnostic work-up of febrile lymphadenopathy and suspected CSD since the culture of this organism is arduous.

  15. Prevalence of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian related cats in France.

    PubMed

    Barthez, P Y; Rivier, P; Begon, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been estimated in the USA, Australia, UK, and Germany, but no data are available to date in France. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of PKD in Persian and Persian related breeds of cats in France. Medical records of all healthy cats presented for ultrasonographic screening of PKD between December 2000 and April 2002 were analysed from two centres (ENVL and ENVA). Cats were classified as positive when at least one anechoic cavity was found in at least one kidney. Prevalence of PKD was compared between the two screening centres, between different breeds evaluated, and between male and female using Chi-square test. A total of 310 cats were examined, including 92 at ENVL (57 Persians, 22 Exotic Shorthairs, 7 Chartreux, 4 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 2 Abyssins) and 218 at ENVA (163 Persians, 42 Exotic Shorthairs, 4 Chartreux, 4 British Shorthairs, 2 American Whirehairs, 2 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 1 American Shorthair). Prevalence of PKD was 41.8% in Persian cats and 39.1% in Exotic Shorthair. No PKD was detected in cats from other breeds. There was no significant difference between prevalence of PKD found in ENVL and ENVA, between prevalence of PKD in Persians and in Exotic Shorthairs, and prevalence of PKD in male and in female. Prevalence of PKD in Persians and Exotic Shorthair cats in France is currently high but is similar to prevalence in other parts of the world. Selection based on ultrasonographic detection of cysts should decrease prevalence of PKD in the future. PMID:14623204

  16. Immune cell populations in the duodenal mucosa of cats with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Waly, Nashwa E; Stokes, Christopher R; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Day, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype of leukocytes infiltrating the duodenal mucosa of cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using immunohistochemistry and computer-aided morphometry to assess whether immunologic markers would aid in characterization of IBD. Frozen and formalin-fixed duodenal biopsies were collected from cats referred for investigation of chronic vomiting, diarrhea, or both (n = 34). Reference ranges were previously established by using duodenal samples from healthy cats (n = 16). No significant difference was found in the number of immunoglobulin G+ (IgG+) or IgA+ in either the villous lamina propria or the crypt lamina propria between cats with IBD and control cats. T cells (CD3+) increased in number from crypt to the tip of the villi in biopsies from both diseased (mean +/- SD for each group was 18.8 +/- 6.6 and 17.7 +/- 4.2 cells/ 10,000 m2 in cryptal areas to 25.2 +/- 9.5 and 29.1 +/- 13.3 cells/10,000m2 in villous areas) and healthy animals (17.9 +/- 3.9 cells/10,000 microm2 in cryptal areas to 24.1 +/- 9.3 cells/10,000 microm2 in villous areas) and no significant difference was found between diseased and control cats. By contrast, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression by leukocytes with dendritic cell or macrophage morphology in the lamina propria was significantly greater in cats with IBD (13.3 +/- 4.2 cells/10,000 microm2 in cryptal area; P = .016) than in healthy cats (11.9 +/- 3.0 cells/10,000 microm2) and MHC class II expression by enterocytes also was more pronounced in these cats showing an overall intensity of expression of 7.1 +/- 4.0 cells/10,000 microm2 in cats with IBD as opposed to 0.0 +/- 0.0 cells/10,000 microm2 to 0.3 +/- 0.7 cells/10,000 microm2 in healthy cats. These findings suggest that a subtle immunologic dysregulation occurs in spontaneously arising feline IBD.

  17. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  18. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infections disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vectorborne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  19. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infectious disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevins, S.N.; Carver, S.; Boydston, E.E.; Lyren, L.M.; Alldredge, M.; Logan, K.A.; Riley, S.P.D.; Fisher, R.N.; Vickers, T.W.; Boyce, W.; Salman, M.; Lappin, M.R.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  20. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

    1987-05-01

    The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

  1. Comparative study of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats: induction of myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, A; Mitani, S; Fujiki, M; Misumi, K; Endo, Y; Miyoshi, N; Yamato, O

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the kidneys of dogs and cats to clarify whether renal myofibroblasts induction is associated with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Immunohistochemical expression of myofibroblast markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin, were evaluated quantitatively. The degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis were also evaluated quantitatively. The plasma creatinine (pCre) concentrations correlated with glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, and only with fibrosis in cats. The alpha-SMA expression correlated with pCre, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, and with pCre and fibrosis in cats. Tubular vimentin expression correlated with fibrosis in cats, but not in dogs. Interstitial vimentin expression correlated with pCre, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, but only with pCre in cats. In conclusion, it was suggested that the severity of CKD in dogs and cats was mediated by different pathways associated with myofibroblasts expression. PMID:19822338

  2. Progressive lymphadenopathy and intractable pain in an immunocompetent African-American adult with cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Sarah; McDougle, Leon; McConaghy, John R

    2008-10-01

    Persistent, painful cervical lymphadenopathy associated with malaise that does not respond to oral antibiotics may be cat-scratch disease. This condition is challenging to treat and may require surgical intervention. We present a case report of an immunocompetent 47-year-old African-American woman who was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease and hospitalized after multiple outpatient evaluations for progressive, painful lymphadenopathy. This case report outlines the patient's treatment in the author's urban outpatient clinic followed by an inpatient hospital stay with surgical intervention. Although the reported incidence of cat-scratch disease is higher in whites, primary care physicians should include cat-scratch disease in their differential diagnosis for African-American patients with regional lymphadenopathy, which is a hallmark of the disease. In addition, primary care physicians should be familiar with the atypical presentations of cat-scratch disease and the broad differential diagnosis for regional lymphadenopathy, including sarcoidosis, which is more common in African Americans.

  3. A case of cat-scratch disease with unusual ophthalmic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Nicola G; Sams, Waler A

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of cat-scratch disease with unusual posterior segment manifestations. A 12-year-old healthy male presented with three weeks history of decreased visual acuity in the right eye. A significant history of cat exposure and elevated Bartonella titers were present. A large white-gray vascularized mass extending off the optic disk, an early stellate maculopathy, a plaque of choroiditis, an inferior serous retinal detachment involving the macula were present in the right eye. Sector papillitis and a focal area of chorioretinitis along the superotemporal arcade with associated retinal artery to vein anastomosis were present in the left eye. Bilateral optic nerve head involvement including peripapillary angiomatosis, retinal-retinal anastomosis and plaque choroiditis as ocular complications of cat-scratch disease have not been previously described to our knowledge and make this case noteworthy.

  4. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-12-12

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient.

  5. [Cat-scratch disease. A report of 4 cases and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Díaz, F; de la Viuda, J M; Urkijo, J C; Mendoza, F

    1997-01-01

    Four cases of cat-scratch diseases are here reported and a review of the literature is made. The disease, apart from its typical presentation form as a usually self-limited regional lymph node enlargement, can occasionally spread and involve several organs systems. Indirect immunofluorescence serological tests have been of help for its diagnosis and should be included among the diagnostic criteria for the disease. In particular cases, nuclear magnetic resonance can be useful to suggests the diagnosis.

  6. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient. PMID:27213258

  7. Persistent cat scratch disease requiring surgical excision in a patient with MPGN.

    PubMed

    King, Katherine Y; Hicks, M John; Mazziotti, Mark V; Eldin, Karen W; Starke, Jeffrey R; Michael, Mini

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 13-year-old immunosuppressed patient with unrelenting cat scratch disease despite 9 months of antibiotic therapy. The patient was being treated with mycophenolate and prednisone for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (type 1) diagnosed 13 months before the onset of cat scratch disease. Cat scratch disease was suspected due to epitrochlear lymphadenitis and an inoculation papule on the ipsilateral thumb, and the diagnosis was confirmed by the use of acute and convalescent titers positive for Bartonella henselae. The patient experienced prolonged lymphadenitis despite azithromycin and rifampin therapy, and she developed a draining sinus tract ∼4 months after initial inoculation while receiving antibiotics. Acute exacerbation of the primary supratrochlear node prompted incision and drainage of the area, with no improvement in the disease course. Ultimately, excision of all affected nodes and the sinus tract 9 months after the initial diagnosis was required to achieve resolution. Bartonella was detected at a high level according to a polymerase chain reaction assay in the excised nodes. Persistent treatment with oral antibiotics may have prevented disseminated infection in this immunosuppressed patient. Surgical excision of affected nodes should be considered in patients with cat scratch disease that persists beyond 16 weeks.

  8. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient.

  9. Dried blood spots for the enzymatic diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Adrian C.; Haskins, Mark E.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Background In people lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) can be diagnosed by assaying enzyme activities in dried blood spots (DBS). Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using DBS samples from dogs and cats to measure lysosomal enzymatic activities and diagnose LSD. Methods Drops of fresh whole blood collected in EDTA from dogs and cats with known or suspected LSD and from clinically healthy dogs and cats were placed on neonatal screening cards, dried, and mailed to the Metabolic Laboratory, University Children’s Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany. Activities of selected lysosomal enzymes were measured using fluorescent substrates in a 2-mm diameter disk (~2.6 μL blood) punched from the DBS. Results were expressed as nmol substrate hydrolyzed per mL of blood per minute or hour. Results Reference values were established for several lysosomal enzyme activities in DBS from dogs and cats; for most enzymes, activities were higher than those published for human samples. Activities of β-glucuronidase, N-acetylglucosamine-4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B), α-mannosidase, α-galactosidase, α-fucosidase, and hexosaminidase A were measureable in DBS from healthy cats and dogs; α-iduronidase activity was measureable only in cats. In samples from animals with LSD, markedly reduced activity of a specific enzyme was found. In contrast, in samples from cats affected with mucolipidosis II activities of lysosomal enzymes were markedly increased. Conclusions Measurement of lysosomal enzyme activities in DBS provides an inexpensive, simple, and convenient method to screen animals for suspected LSD and requires only a small sample volume. For diseases in which the relevant enzyme activity can be measured in DBS, a specific diagnosis can be made. PMID:23121383

  10. Neuroretinitis Caused by Bartonella henselae (Cat-Scratch Disease) in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Bove-Guri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment. PMID:20628521

  11. [Spasmodic left waist pain in a six years old child--cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Barkai, Galia; Gutman, Gabriel; Sherr-Lurie, Nir; Hoffmann, Chen; Schpirer, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, a bacterium transmitted to humans from cats through a scratch or by fleas. In 90% of cases, the clinical presentation is that of classical cat scratch disease where an adjacent lymph node is infected. Atypical manifestations include prolonged fever, liver and spleen abscesses, infective endocarditis, central nervous system involvement etc. We present a 6 years old girl who suffered from L2 vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess, initially presenting as colic left waist pain, with no back pain or high fevers. During the process of diagnosis, she recovered without surgical intervention or antibiotic treatment. A review of the literature indicates that among the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of cat scratch disease, skeletal involvement is rare. However, in cases of osteomyelitis, vertebrae are a common site as well as formation of a contiguous phlegmon. Although no studies have investigated the efficacy of different treatment regimens, all patients presented were treated with antimicrobial combinations and recovery rates were high. In view of the patient presented here, it is questioned whether the high recovery rates are a result of efficient antibiotic treatment or due to a benign natural course of the disease.

  12. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis. PMID:21851670

  13. From cat scratch disease to endocarditis, the possible natural history of Bartonella henselae infection

    PubMed Central

    Gouriet, Frédérique; Lepidi, Hubert; Habib, Gilbert; Collart, Frédéric; Raoult, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Background Most patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) due to Bartonella henselae have a history of exposure to cats and pre-existing heart valve lesions. To date, none of the reported patients have had a history of typical cat scratch disease (CSD) which is also a manifestation of infection with B. henselae. Case presentation Here we report the case of a patient who had CSD and six months later developed IE of the mitral valve caused by B. henselae. Conclusion Based on this unique case, we speculate that CSD represents the primary-infection of B. henselae and that IE follows in patients with heart valve lesions. PMID:17442105

  14. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and glomerulonephritis in a black-footed cat (Felis nigripes).

    PubMed

    Deem, S L; Heard, D J; LaRock, R

    1998-06-01

    A 6-yr-old, 1.36-kg, intact female black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Florida, with a history of depression, lethargy, and anorexia. Cardiac dysfunction and renal failure were diagnosed on the basis of antemortem and postmortem findings. At necropsy, heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), glomerulonephritis, and endometritis were present. The glomerulonephritis could have been immune mediated and may have been associated with the heartworm infection or the chronic endometritis or both. Heartworm disease should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for any exotic cat housed outdoors in an endemic heartworm region that dies peracutely or has suggestive gastrointestinal or respiratory signs. Heartworm prophylaxis and annual serologic testing in exotic cats housed outdoors in heartworm endemic regions are recommended. PMID:9732037

  15. Lack of genetic association among coat colors, progressive retinal atrophy and polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.

    PubMed

    Rah, HyungChul; Maggs, David J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2006-10-01

    An inherited form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is recognized in Persian cats; however, the prevalence of PRA in the breed has not been determined. Breeders suggest that cats from only brown ('chocolate') or Himalayan ('pointed') lines are at risk for PRA, suggesting the disease is not widespread. This study was designed to evaluate whether PRA in Persian cats is associated with three coat colors, including chocolate, or with a highly prevalent inherited disease in this breed--polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Sixty related cats were evaluated for PRA by ophthalmic examination and genetically typed for PKD and the mutations that cause coat color variants in agouti, brown and color (producing the pointed coloration in Himalayan). No associations were identified among any of the traits, including between PRA and chocolate. These data suggest that PRA is not limited to cats with chocolate coat coloration and breeders and veterinarians should be aware that the prevalence of the disease may be higher than currently claimed.

  16. Impact of feline AIM on the susceptibility of cats to renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients’ health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives. PMID:27731392

  17. Hypercobalaminaemia is associated with hepatic and neoplastic disease in cats: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When increased serum cobalamin concentrations are encountered clinically they are usually attributed to parenteral supplementation, dietary factors, or otherwise ignored. However, recently, hypercobalaminaemia has been associated with numerous diseases in humans, most notably neoplastic and hepatic disorders. The aim of this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was to determine the significance of increased cobalamin in cats. Results In total, 237 records were retrieved and 174 cats, of various ages and sexes met the inclusion criteria. A total of 42 cats had increased serum cobalamin concentration, and had not received prior supplementation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum cobalamin concentration was positively related to pedigree breed (pedigree breeds more likely to have increased cobalamin concentration, odds ratio [OR] 4.24, 95% CI 1.78-10.15, P = 0.001), to having liver disease (OR 9.91, 95% CI 3.54-27.68), and to having a solid neoplasm (OR 8.54, 95% CI 1.10-66.45). Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that increased serum cobalamin concentrations should not be ignored in cats with no history of supplementation, and investigation for underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease is warranted. PMID:25103858

  18. [Treatment of systemic hypertension associated with kidney disease in the dog and cat].

    PubMed

    Buoncompagni, S; Bowles, M H

    2014-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is an increasingly diagnosed disorder in dogs and cats and frequently occurs secondary to chronic kidney disease. Prevention of damage to organs such as the kidneys, brain, heart, and eyes is one of the primary concerns in the management of veterinary patients with hypertension. This article reviews the guidelines for antihypertensive therapy in patients with, or at risk for, kidney disease, including the initiation of treatment and currently recommended medications.

  19. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  20. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease in dogs and cats: 84 cases (1987-1990).

    PubMed

    Jergens, A E; Moore, F M; Haynes, J S; Miles, K G

    1992-11-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease was the diagnosis for 58 dogs and 26 cats, with signs of persistent gastroenteritis, failed responses to dietary trials, and histologic evidence of cellular infiltrates unrelated to other causes of gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Clinical signs of large intestinal dysfunction, watery diarrhea, vomiting, and anorexia with weight loss were common. Nonspecific hematologic, biochemical, and radiographic abnormalities frequently were observed. Mucosal biopsy specimens, obtained endoscopically, were histologically evaluated for severity of mucosal epithelial damage. Mucosal erythema, friability, enhanced granularity, and ulceration or erosion were the predominant endoscopic lesions. Inflammatory bowel disease lesions of moderate severity predominated in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates were limited to the lamina propria in biopsy specimens from all regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammatory bowel disease commonly is associated with chronic gastroenteritis in dogs and cats.

  1. Diseases associated with spontaneous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M

    1989-05-01

    More than 2000 cats sent for necropsy in order to provide a diagnosis were investigated immunohistologically using paraffin sections for the presence of a persistent infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). The spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases associated significantly with FeLV infection was determined statistically. Three-quarters of the cats with persistent FeLV infections died of non-neoplastic diseases and about 23% died of tumors, nearly exclusively those of the leukemia/lymphoma disease complex. A strong association with liver degeneration, icterus and a FeLV-associated enteritis was found in addition to the known association with non-neoplastic diseases and conditions such as anemia, bacterial secondary infections and respiratory tract inflammations due to the immunosuppressive effect of FeLV, hemorrhages and feline infectious peritonitis. Surprisingly, diseases and conditions like feline infectious panleukopenia, enteritis (of other types than FeLV-associated enteritis and feline infectious panleukopenia), glomerulonephritis, uremia and hemorrhagic cystitis were not associated with persistent FeLV infection. Another unexpected finding was that most pathogenic infectious agents demonstrated in the cats were not FeLV-associated either. Thus, immunosuppression due to FeLV infection seems to make the animals susceptible to certain pathogenic infectious agents, but not to the majority. PMID:2549696

  2. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  3. Effect of gentle stroking and vocalization on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease in anxious shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Gourkow, Nadine; Hamon, Sara C; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-11-01

    Emotional, behavioural, and health benefits of gentle stroking and vocalizations, otherwise known as gentling, have been documented for several species, but little is known about the effect of gentling on cats in stressful situations. In this study, 139 cats rated as anxious upon admission to an animal shelter were allocated to either a Gentled or Control group. Cats were gentled four times daily for 10 min over a period of 10 days, with the aid of a tool for cats that were too aggressive to handle. The cats' mood, or persistent emotional state, was rated daily for 10 d as Anxious, Frustrated or Content. Gentled cats were less likely to have negatively valenced moods (Anxious or Frustrated) than Control cats (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.61 CI 0.42-0.88, P=0.007). Total secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was quantified from faeces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gentled cats had increased S-IgA (6.9 ± 0.7 logeμg/g) compared to Control cats (5.9 ± 0.5 logeμg/g) (P<0.0001). Within the Gentled group of cats, S-IgA values were higher for cats that responded positively to gentling (7.03 ± 0.6, logeμg/g), compared with those that responded negatively (6.14 ± 0.8, logeμg/g). Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. There was a significant increase in shedding over time in Control cats (23%, 35%, 52% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively), but not in gentled cats (32%, 26%, 30% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively) (P=0.001). Onset of upper respiratory disease was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, in particular ocular and/or nasal discharge. Control cats were 2.4 (CI: 1.35-4.15) times more likely to develop upper respiratory disease over time than gentled cats (P<0.0001). It is concluded that gentling anxious cats in animal

  4. Ultrasonography of small intestinal inflammatory and neoplastic diseases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasonography, which has become a mainstay of diagnosing intestinal diseases in dogs and cats, is often one of the first diagnostic tools used to differentiate inflammatory from neoplastic infiltration of the small intestine. Although overlap in the sonographic appearances of inflammatory and neoplastic infiltration make a definitive diagnosis difficult, awareness of features of both diseases is important for the accurate interpretation of the sonographic findings. Full-thickness intestinal biopsy remains the gold standard for differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic disease of the small intestine.

  5. Reversible worsening of Parkinson disease motor symptoms after oral intake of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.

  6. Encephalitis associated with cat scratch disease--Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, 1994.

    PubMed

    1994-12-16

    On August 14, 1994, the Broward County Public Health Unit of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services was notified of three children from Pompano Beach who were hospitalized with encephalitis attributed to cat scratch disease (CSD). All three children (aged 5, 6, and 11 years) were previously healthy and had no histories of seizure disorders or diagnoses of CSD. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases.

  7. Cat-Scratch Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gai, M; d'Onofrio, G; di Vico, M C; Ranghino, A; Nappo, A; Diena, D; Novero, D; Limerutti, G; Messina, M; Biancone, L

    2015-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by self-limited fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. In some cases signs of a visceral, neurologic, and ocular involvement can also be encountered. In this report we describe the development of CSD in a kidney transplant patient. Immunocompromised hosts are more susceptible to infection from Bartonella compared with the standard population. Infection of Bartonella should be considered as a differential diagnosis in kidney transplant patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.

  8. [Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after administration of iodine contrast medium with the Renalyzer PRX90 in healthy cats and cats with kidney diseases].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Westhoff, A; Wohlsein, P; Pohlenz, J; Nolte, I

    1998-09-01

    In the present study, the measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the cat with the aid of an iodine contrast medium clearance with the renalyzer PRX90 is introduced. Investigations on the accuracy of measurement showed that even repeated measurement of plasma samples after two days of storage at room temperature yielded reproducible clearance results. Also, partial dilution of the plasma sample (2 ml with 1 ml Aqua bidest.) to reduce the volume of blood withdrawn still produced reliable results. Further dilution of the plasma volume (1 ml with 2 ml Aqua bidest.) however did not allow for accurate measurements. A total of 59 cats of different age and sex were included in the study. 31 cats had healthy kidneys with urea and creatinine values within the reference range, unchanged urine findings and physiologic urine protein patterns (SDS-PAGE). These cats served as reference group. The GFR reference value ascertained for these animals was 2.1 ml/min/kg BW (mean = 3.45 ml/min/kg with s = +/- 1.0 ml/min/kg). 28 cats had elevated values of urea and creatinine in the blood, as well as partially changed urine findings. For further diagnosis of renal disease, separation of urine proteins was done with the SDS-PAGE in the PhastSystem, which in all cases yielded a pathologic urine protein pattern. In 11 cases the renal disease could be further confirmed by histological investigation. GFR in these patients was clearly lowered compared with healthy cats, with measured values between 0 and 1.8 ml/min/kg. It can be concluded that the renalyzer allows reliable determination of the GFR also in the cat. To what extent measurement of the GFR is also helpful to diagnose nephropathies in the stage of compensation needs to be further investigated. In cats with high grade uremia and a GFR below 1 ml/min however, an exact calculation is not possible, since the accuracy of measurement within this range is inadequate. Thus, in severe disease no correct assessment is possible

  9. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Papadomichelakis, Alexandros; Petrakis, Georgios; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a common zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is generally characterized by regional lymphadenopathy following exposure to an infected cat. Organ systemic manifestations occur rarely in atypical forms of the disease. Abscess of the spleen represents a rare, life-threatening clinical entity. Here we report an unusual case of cat scratch disease presenting as an isolated splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult. Comprehensive social history revealed retrospectively close contact with cats. Diagnosis of B. henselae infection was confirmed on the basis of positive serology, skin lesion and imaging findings. Initial efforts at spleen preserving management failed to improve clinical symptoms and classical splenectomy was finally performed. Splenic bartonellosis may become potentially fatal if not recognized. Since diagnosis is challenging, a high index of clinical suspicion is required.

  10. [Cat Scratch Disease as a differential diagnosis in a patient with swelling in the groin].

    PubMed

    Makki, Ahmad; Murra, May; Sommer, Thorbjørn

    2014-08-11

    at Scratch Disease is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae and presents in patients exposed to a scratch/bite from cats. We present a case with a 12-year-old boy with an enlarged inguinal lymph node, initially suspected to be a femoral hernia by ultrasonography. Histologic examination of an inguinal lymph node showed necrosis and B. henselae infection. It is important with a thorough anamnesis including any history of animal bites/scratch and it should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in patients with swelling in the groin, despite the rare diagnosis of this disease.

  11. A comparative study of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats: induction of cyclooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Akira; Mitani, Sawane; Sawa, Mariko; Mizukami, Keijiro; Fujiki, Makoto; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated whether renal cyclooxygenase (COX) induction is associated with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats. The collected kidneys were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The immunoreactivities of COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated quantitatively, and the correlations to the plasma creatinine concentrations, glomerular size, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and interstitial cell infiltration were evaluated statistically. Immunoreactivities for COX-1 were heterogeneously observed in the medullary distal tubules and collecting ducts; no correlations with the severity of renal damage were detected. Immunoreactivities for COX-2 were heterogeneously observed in the macula densa (MD) regions. In dogs, the percentage of COX-2-positive MD was significantly correlated with the glomerular size. In cats, glomeruli with COX-2-positive MD had significantly higher sclerosis scores than those with COX-2-negative MD. In conclusion, renal COX-2 is induced in canine and feline CKD, especially in relation to the glomerular changes. PMID:22244709

  12. Hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults: report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    García, Juan C; Núñez, Manuel J; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M; López, Asunción; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A

    2014-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%-20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin.

  13. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an elderly man.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige

    2015-03-24

    Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided.

  14. Management of Proteinuria in Dogs and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L; Elliott, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Proteinuria is a negative prognostic indicator for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease. A normal dog or cat should excrete very little protein and have a urine protein:creatinine ratio that is less than 0.4 or less than 0.2, respectively; persistent proteinuria above this magnitude warrants attention. Administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, blood pressure control and nutritional modification are considered a standard of care for renal proteinuria. Renal biopsy and administration of immunosuppressive agents should be considered in animals with glomerular proteinuria that have not responded to standard therapy. Targeted patient monitoring is essential when instituting management of proteinuria. PMID:27485278

  15. Salivary gland disease in dogs and cats: 245 cases (1985-1988).

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Culbertson, M R

    1991-02-01

    Diagnostic pathology records spanning 41 months (July 1985 through November 1988) were searched for diagnoses of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats. Review of 87,392 records from that period revealed 245 cases (0.3%) in which salivary gland tissue had been evaluated. During that period, salivary gland tissue was submitted to the laboratory almost twice as often from dogs (160 cases) as from cats (85 cases). On the basis of histologic examination, 89% of salivary gland submissions from small animal practices were allotted to 1 of 5 major categories: malignant neoplasms (30%; 74/245), sialadenitis (26%; 64/245), normal salivary gland (16%; 40/245), sialocele (9%; 21/245), and salivary gland infarction (8%; 20/245). The remaining 11% of submissions included various degenerative or fibrotic lesions, ductal ectasia, sialolithiasis, edema, benign neoplasia, and secondary salivary involvement with systemic or cervical lymphosarcoma or with fibrosarcoma in the head and neck.

  16. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate based on serum iodixanol clearance to IRIS staging in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryosuke; Sato, Tsubasa; Katayama, Masaaki; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2015-08-01

    We examined the correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from an equation based on the serum iodixanol clearance technique and International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. The equation included the injection dose, sampling time, serum concentration and estimated volume of distribution (Vd) of the isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol as a test tracer. The percent changes in the median basal GFR values calculated from the equation in CKD cats resembled those of IRIS stages 1-3. These data validate the association between the GFR derived from the simplified equation and IRIS stages based on the serum creatinine concentration in cats with CKD. They describe the GFR ranges determined using single-sample iodixanol clearance for healthy cats and cats with various IRIS stages of CKD. PMID:25864431

  17. Effect of cognitive enrichment on behavior, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as frustrated on arrival.

    PubMed

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-09-01

    Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study. PMID:27544259

  18. Effect of cognitive enrichment on behavior, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as frustrated on arrival.

    PubMed

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-09-01

    Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study.

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of upper respiratory disease and associated risk factors in cats in an animal shelter in coastal western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gourkow, Nadine; Lawson, James H.; Hamon, Sara C.; Phillips, Clive J.C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined 250 cats at an animal shelter in the coastal temperate region of Canada to determine whether age, source, gender, and sterilization status influenced risk of shedding at intake, transmission of infection, and development of clinical upper respiratory disease (URD). On admission, 28% of the cats were positive for 1 or more infectious agent related to URD; 21% were carriers of Mycoplasma felis and < 3% were carriers of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) or Bordetella bronchiseptica. Chlamydophila felis and H1N1 influenza virus were not detected. Carrier status was not affected by source, gender, sterilization status, or age (P > 0.05). Viral and bacterial shedding increased by 9% and 11%, respectively, over 3 sampling times (days 1, 4, and 10). Over 40 days after admission, the cumulative probability of developing URD was 2.2 times greater for stray than owner-surrendered cats (P = 0.02) and 0.5 times as great for neutered cats as for intact cats (P = 0.03). Cats that were shedding at intake were 2.6 times more likely to develop URD than were non-carriers (P < 0.002). Cats with FHV-1 and B. bronchiseptica infections were most at risk compared with non-shedding cats (P < 0.01). PMID:23904635

  20. [Urine protein analysis with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in healthy cats and cats with kidney diseases].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Wohlsein, P; Trautwein, G; Nolte, I

    1997-03-01

    In this investigation, the value of urine protein analysis by means of molecular-weight related sodium dodecyl-polyacryl gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was examined with regard to its applicability and diagnostic significance in nephropathy in the cat. A total of 87 cats was included in the study, 30 of them that were clinically healthy served as the control group. The urine protein pattern of this group had, besides the band representing the market albumin, and additional broad band within the size of the marker transferrin. In some cases, weak bands were present within the range of the Tamm-Horsfall-protein and immunoglobulin G. Micromolecular protein bands were not demonstrable. The remaining 57 animals had a histologically proven nephropathy. Thirty-eight cats had elevated urea and/or creatinine values in the plasma (group 1), and 19 animals had values within the reference range (group 2). The urine protein pattern as evidenced by SDS-urine electrophoresis was altered in all cats with histologically proven nephropathy, and it is thus concluded that with this technique a nephropathy can be diagnosed very early and prior to changes of plasma urea and creatinine (group 2). Moreover, in most of the cases, the nephrological changes can be classified as glomerular or tubulo-interstitial (group 1 and group 2). However, it is not possible to draw exact conclusions concerning the underlying morphological changes, nor can the severity of the disease be correctly assessed. PMID:9123982

  1. Expression of the Bcl-2 apoptotic marker in cats diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine M; Smedley, Rebecca C; Saavedra, Paulo Vilar; Kiupel, Matti; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2012-10-01

    Immunolabeling for the critical lymphocyte survival factor, Bcl-2, of intestinal biopsies from cats with histologic evidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma was evaluated to determine if expression differed significantly between these two disease processes. Immunolabeling for Bcl-2 was performed on small intestinal endoscopic or full thickness biopsy sections from 55 cats. Diagnosis of IBD, T-cell lymphoma or B-cell lymphoma was established previously. The percentage of infiltrating lymphocytes that were positively labeled for Bcl-2 was subjectively determined for each case. Eight cats were diagnosed with IBD and 47 cats with lymphoma. A significantly higher percentage of cells were positively immunolabeled for Bcl-2 in cats with GI lymphoma [median (range); 90 (5-95)%] compared with cats with IBD [60 (15-95)%] (P = 0.029). However, the overall degree of positive immunolabeling in both groups tended to be high. This over-expression of Bcl-2 may prove useful as a therapeutic target for IBD and GI lymphoma in cats.

  2. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

  3. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  4. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  5. Clostridium perfringens: A review of enteric diseases in dogs, cats and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that is commonly part of the microbiota of humans and animals. It is considered a common enteric pathogen, but the pathogenesis and the predisposing factors of the disease commonly differ between host species. Thus, specific research is necessary to understand the role of this pathogen, how to diagnose it, and which control measures are applicable. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of C. perfringens infections in dogs, cats and wild animals.

  6. Hepatosplenic Abscesses and Osteomyelitis of the Spine in an Immunocompetent Adult with Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knafl, D.; Lötsch, F.; Burgmann, H.; Goliasch, G.; Poeppl, W.; Ramharter, M.; Thalhammer, F.; Schuster, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present an 18-year-old, immunocompetent Austrian military conscript with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, back-pain, and persistent inflammation markers despite two weeks of antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin/sulbactam. All specific laboratory investigations for identification of a specific etiology, including blood cultures and autoantibodies, were inconspicuous. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatosplenic lesions and osteomyelitis of the thoracic and lumbar spine with base plate fracture. Based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, and radiological findings, serology for cat scratch disease (CSD) was performed and high B. henselae specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected. Due to its variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of CSD is challenging, especially in the absence of a history of specific exposure. This case report shall remind the physician that cat scratch disease is a common disease, mainly presenting with fever and lymphadenopathy in young patients. Nevertheless CSD has many different and rare forms of presentations, including hepatosplenic lesions and bone involvement as shown in this case. PMID:26576306

  7. Disseminated cat-scratch disease: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chen; Lee, Chia-Jie; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Wang, Chao-Jan; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-08-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) can present as a systemic disease in 5-10% of cases and lead to various disease entities. A previously healthy 16-month-old boy presented with fever for 7 days without other obvious symptoms. Abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes and multiple small round hypodensities in the spleen. Despite antibiotic treatment for 1 week, the fever persisted and the intrasplenic lesions progressed. Inguinal lymph node biopsy confirmed CSD by immunohistochemistry staining. The diagnosis of CSD was also supported by a history of contact, imaging and serological findings. The patient recovered after treatment with azithromycin for a total of 5 weeks and, in serial follow-up, the hepatosplenic micro-abscesses resolved after 4th months.

  8. Detection of Helicobacter felis in a cat with gastric disease in laboratory animal facility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-06-01

    A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection. PMID:27382381

  9. Detection of Helicobacter felis in a cat with gastric disease in laboratory animal facility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-06-01

    A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection.

  10. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005–2013

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005–2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5–9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50–64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children. PMID:27648778

  11. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S

    2016-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005-2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5-9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50-64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children. PMID:27648778

  12. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S

    2016-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005-2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5-9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50-64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children.

  13. Association between the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and renal injury in chronic kidney disease of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Sawane; Yabuki, Akira; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    The association of renin and angiotensin II, which are potent components of the renin-angiotensin system, with the severity of chronic renal disease was investigated immunohistochemically in dogs and cats. Immunoreactivities of renin and angiotensin II were evaluated quantitatively, and their correlations with the degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were statistically analyzed. Immunoreactivities for renin were detected in afferent arteries in both dogs and cats. The score of renin-positive signals showed no correlation with plasma creatinine concentration or any of the histopathological parameters, except for the diameter of glomeruli in dogs. Immunoreactivities for angiotensin II were detected in tubules (primarily proximal tubules) and interstitial mononuclear cells in both dogs and cats. The score of tubular angiotensin II correlated with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats but not in dogs. The score of interstitial angiotensin II correlated with plasma creatinine concentration, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration and fibrosis in dogs and with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that intrarenal renin-angiotensin system is correlated with the severity of kidney disease, with the underlying mechanism differing between dogs and cats. PMID:22986274

  14. Disseminated cat-scratch disease in an adult with selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Aaron; Ash, Ryan; Vadaparampil, John; Hill, Jacqueline; Wetzel, Louis

    2016-06-01

    A 51-year-old man with history of undiagnosed pulmonary nodules 4 years prior, presented with right-sided chest pain. Acute cardiac workup was negative, and a chest computed tomography examination demonstrated marked improvement in bilateral pulmonary nodules. A concordant abdominal computed tomography examination showed new subcentimeter hypodense lesions throughout the liver and spleen, mild progressive abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy, and new small lytic lesions of T11 and L4 vertebrae. A positron emission tomography examination demonstrated hypermetabolic activity of these abdominopelvic lesions suggesting metastatic disease. Extensive laboratory workup was negative, aside from IgA deficiency. Eventually, biopsy of a hepatic lesion was performed and compatible with Bartonella species. An elevated Bartonella IgG titer was noted, consistent with Bartonella Hensalae infection, or "cat-scratch disease." Radiographic findings showed marked improvement after clinically appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  15. Progression of glomerulonephritis to end-stage kidney disease in a cat with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamiie, Junichi; Haishima, Atsuko; Inoue, Kaoru; Ogihara, Kikumi; Ono, Mihoko; Yasuno, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Aihara, Naoyuki; Ohmuro, Tamio; Shirota, Kinji

    2011-01-01

    A percutaneous renal biopsy was performed on a 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat with pleural effusion, mild azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and proteinuria. Glomerular lesions included mild diffuse hypercellularity and numerous capsular adhesions with segmental sclerosis/hyalinosis of glomerular tufts. Electron microscopy revealed many subendothelial dense deposits with characteristic outer protrusion of glomerular basement membrane. Diffuse and global granular deposits of IgG and C3 were detected along the capillary walls. Tubulo-interstitial changes were mild at the time of biopsy, but progression of the disease was predicted because of the many capsular adhesions of the glomerular tufts. The cat was fed a prescription diet without any other specific or symptomatic therapy after renal biopsy, and died 43 weeks after the biopsy. At necropsy, extensive tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration had developed throughout the cortex and outer medulla, and most glomeruli had extensive global sclerosis or obsolescence with less prominent depositions of IgG and C3. PMID:20823662

  16. Renal ultrasonographic and computed tomographic appearance, volume, and function of cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Reichle, Jean K; DiBartola, Stephen P; Léveillé, Renée

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in cats; to compare renal volume in cats with ADPKD (n = 5; mean age 59 +/- 10 months)) and normal cats (n = 5; mean age 66 +/- 10 months) using 2 imaging modalities, US and CT; and to calculate cyst volume using CT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by 2 methods: 99mTc-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DPTA) scintigraphic uptake and 99-Tc-DTPA plasma clearance. Sonographically, ADPKD affected kidneys were characterized by multiple anechoic to hypoechoic, round to irregularly shaped structures with variation in size. Affected kidneys had indistinct corticomedullary junctions and foci of mineralization. Intravenous (IV) contrast medium administration allowed more definitive identification of cysts with CT, and identification of distortion of renal pelves by cysts. A significant difference (Welch ANOVA, P = 0.05) was detected between the US-estimated renal volumes of normal and affected cats. No statistically significant differences were detected in CT volume (between the normal and affected cats, or between US and CT volume measurements) or the 2 GFR methods. In this group of clinically normal, middle-aged ADPKD cats, renal function was within normal limits and not significantly different than normal. PMID:12175002

  17. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of intestinal full-thickness biopsy samples from cats with lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2014-05-01

    The distribution and numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin(+) plasma cells and calprotectin (L1)(+) macrophages was analyzed in full-thickness, formalin-fixed biopsy samples from the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and from the colon from nine cats with clinical signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All animals had lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or lymphoplasmacytic enterocolitis. Equivalent samples from the same intestinal regions from 12 healthy pet cats served as controls. Labelled cells in the lamina propria were counted by computer-aided morphometry. The different cell types were similarly distributed in both groups, but there were differences in their numbers. There were more CD3(+) T cells in the duodenum and jejunum of cats with IBD; however, the difference was only significant for the duodenum. There were significantly more IgA(+) cells in the duodenal crypt region. There were significantly more IgG(+) cells in the lower jejunal crypt region. Plasma cells expressing IgM were decreased in cats with IBD, but the difference was not significant. L1(+) macrophages were significantly decreased in the lower crypt area of the colon in cats with IBD and there was a trend to decreased L1(+) cells in the upper crypt area of the duodenum and jejunum. Comparison of the results of this study with previous findings on endoscopically-obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats with IBD revealed some differences. These discrepancies might relate to differences between control cat populations, types of biopsy samples, methodological factors such as different counting techniques and the activity of the disease at the time of sampling.

  18. Absence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with and without lower urinary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Lund, Heidi Sjetne; Skogtun, Gaute; Sørum, Henning; Eggertsdóttir, Anna Vigdís

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of bacterial cystitis commonly relies on a positive microbiological culture demonstrating the presence of a significant number of colony-forming units/ml urine, as urine within the upper urinary tract, bladder and proximal urethra generally is considered sterile. Recent studies from human and veterinary medicine indicate the presence of non-culturable bacteria in culture-negative urine samples. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine samples from cats with signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and healthy control cats by 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and subsequent sequencing. The study sample included 38 culture-negative urine samples from cats with FLUTD and 43 culture-negative samples from control cats. Eight culture-positive urine samples from cats with FLUTD were included as external positive controls in addition to negative reaction controls. Of possible methodological limitations, degradation of DNA due to storage, the use of non-sedimented urine for DNA isolation and lack of internal positive reaction controls should be mentioned. The positive controls were recognised, but occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with or without signs of lower urinary tract disease was not demonstrated. However, considering the possible methodological limitations, the presence of bacterial DNA in the urine of culture-negative FLUTD cats cannot be excluded based on the present results alone. Therefore, a prospective study reducing the possibility of degradation of DNA due to storage, in combination with modifications enhancing the chance of detecting even lower levels of bacterial DNA in culture-negative samples, seems warranted.

  19. Management of degenerative lumbosacral disease in cats by dorsal laminectomy and lumbosacral stabilization.

    PubMed

    Danielski, A; Bertran, J; Fitzpatrick, N

    2013-01-01

    In this case series we describe the diagnosis and surgical treatment of five cats affected by clinical cauda equina syndrome as a result of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings confirmed the suspected diagnosis of disc-associated lumbosacral disease. Cauda equina decompression was achieved by dorsal laminectomy followed by dorsal annulectomy and nuclear extirpation. Dorsal stabilization was achieved using miniature positive-profile pins inserted into the vertebral body of L7 and the wings of S1 with the free ends of the pins being embedded in a bolus of gentamicin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate. Reassessment two years postoperatively using a previously validated feline specific owner questionnaire indicated satisfactory outcome with complete return to normal activity and resolution of signs of pain in all cases.

  20. Cat-scratch disease: report of a case with liver lesions and no lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Delbeke, D.; Sandler, M.P.; Shaff, M.I.; Miller, S.F.

    1988-08-01

    The usual presentation of cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a subacute regional lymphadenitis following cutaneous inoculation. We present the case of a 10-yr-old white female with a 4-wk history of abdominal pain and fever, without associated lymphadenopathy. A /sup 67/Ga scintigram showed inhomogenous uptake by the liver. An abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed multiple low density lesions in the liver and the spleen, that were confirmed at laparotomy. Stellate microabscesses were seen on a wedge biopsy of the liver and a CSD antigen skin test was positive. CSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions, even in the absence of lymphadenopathy. This case emphasizes the importance of inhomogeneous /sup 67/Ga uptake by the liver.

  1. Biomarkers in the assessment of acute and chronic kidney diseases in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Cobrin, A R; Blois, S L; Kruth, S A; Abrams-Ogg, A C G; Dewey, C

    2013-12-01

    In both human and veterinary medicine, diagnosing and staging renal disease can be difficult. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate is considered the gold standard for assessing renal function but methods for its assessment can be technically challenging and impractical. The main parameters used to diagnose acute and chronic kidney disease include circulating creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine-specific gravity. However, these parameters can be insensitive. Therefore, there is a need for better methods to diagnose and monitor patients with renal disease. The use of renal biomarkers is increasing in human and veterinary medicine for the diagnosis and monitoring of acute and chronic kidney diseases. An ideal biomarker would identify site and severity of injury, and correlate with renal function, among other qualities. This article will review the advantages and limitations of renal biomarkers that have been used in dogs and cats, as well as some markers used in humans that may be adapted for veterinary use. In the future, measuring a combination of biomarkers will likely be a useful approach in the diagnosis of kidney disorders. PMID:24152019

  2. Biomarkers in the assessment of acute and chronic kidney diseases in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Cobrin, A R; Blois, S L; Kruth, S A; Abrams-Ogg, A C G; Dewey, C

    2013-12-01

    In both human and veterinary medicine, diagnosing and staging renal disease can be difficult. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate is considered the gold standard for assessing renal function but methods for its assessment can be technically challenging and impractical. The main parameters used to diagnose acute and chronic kidney disease include circulating creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine-specific gravity. However, these parameters can be insensitive. Therefore, there is a need for better methods to diagnose and monitor patients with renal disease. The use of renal biomarkers is increasing in human and veterinary medicine for the diagnosis and monitoring of acute and chronic kidney diseases. An ideal biomarker would identify site and severity of injury, and correlate with renal function, among other qualities. This article will review the advantages and limitations of renal biomarkers that have been used in dogs and cats, as well as some markers used in humans that may be adapted for veterinary use. In the future, measuring a combination of biomarkers will likely be a useful approach in the diagnosis of kidney disorders.

  3. The relationship of mucosal bacteria to duodenal histopathology, cytokine mRNA, and clinical disease activity in cats with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, S; Atwater, D; Bogel, E; Greiter-Wilke, A; Gerold, A; Baumgart, M; Bender, H; McDonough, P L; McDonough, S P; Goldstein, R E; Simpson, K W

    2008-04-01

    Feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term applied to a group of poorly understood enteropathies that are considered a consequence of uncontrolled intestinal inflammation in response to a combination of elusive environmental, enteric microbial, and immunoregulatory factors in genetically susceptible cats. The present study sought to examine the relationship of mucosal bacteria to intestinal inflammation and clinical disease activity in cats with inflammatory bowel disease. Duodenal biopsies were collected from 27 cats: 17 undergoing diagnostic investigation of signs of gastrointestinal disease, and 10 healthy controls. Subjective duodenal histopathology ranged from normal (10), through mild (6), moderate (8), and severe (3) IBD. The number and spatial distribution of mucosal bacteria was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes to 16S rDNA. Mucosal inflammation was evaluated by objective histopathology and cytokine profiles of duodenal biopsies. The number of mucosa-associated Enterobacteriaceae was higher in cats with signs of gastrointestinal disease than healthy cats (P<0.001). Total numbers of mucosal bacteria were strongly associated with changes in mucosal architecture (P<0.001) and the density of cellular infiltrates, particularly macrophages (P<0.002) and CD3(+)lymphocytes (P<0.05). The number of Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and Clostridium spp. correlated with abnormalities in mucosal architecture (principally atrophy and fusion), upregulation of cytokine mRNA (particularly IL-1, -8 and -12), and the number of clinical signs exhibited by the affected cats. These data establish that the density and composition of the mucosal flora is related to the presence and severity of intestinal inflammation in cats and suggest that mucosal bacteria are involved in the etiopathogenesis of feline IBD.

  4. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  5. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  6. Evaluation of intrarenal mesenchymal stem cell injection for treatment of chronic kidney disease in cats: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Webb, Tracy L; Gibbons, Debra S; Dow, Steven W

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of autologous intrarenal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was investigated. Six cats (two healthy, four with CKD) received a single unilateral intrarenal injection of autologous bone marrow-derived or adipose tissue-derived MSC (bmMSC or aMSC) via ultrasound guidance. Minimum database and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via nuclear scintigraphy were determined pre-injection, at 7 days and at 30 days post-injection. Intrarenal injection did not induce immediate or long-term adverse effects. Two cats with CKD that received aMSC experienced modest improvement in GFR and a mild decrease in serum creatinine concentration. Despite the possible benefits of intrarenal MSC injections for CKD cats, the number of sedations and interventions required to implement this approach would likely preclude widespread clinical application. We concluded that MSC could be transferred safely by ultrasound-guided intrarenal injection in cats, but that alternative sources and routes of MSC therapy should be investigated. PMID:21334237

  7. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  8. Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Blondeau, Joseph M.; Boothe, Dawn; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Papich, Mark G.; Rankin, Shelley C.; Turnidge, John D.; Sykes, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse) of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. PMID:21776346

  9. Lesion profiling and subcellular prion localization of cervid chronic wasting disease in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Seelig, D M; Nalls, A V; Flasik, M; Frank, V; Eaton, S; Mathiason, C K; Hoover, E A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted, fatal, and progressive prion disease of cervids with an as yet to be fully clarified host range. While outbred domestic cats (Felis catus) have recently been shown to be susceptible to experimental CWD infection, the neuropathologic features of the infection are lacking. Such information is vital to provide diagnostic power in the event of natural interspecies transmission and insights into host and strain interactions in interspecies prion infection. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we detail the topographic pattern of neural spongiosis (the "lesion profile") and the distribution of misfolded prion protein in the primary and secondary passage of feline CWD (Fel(CWD)). We also evaluated cellular and subcellular associations between misfolded prion protein (PrP(D)) and central nervous system neurons and glial cell populations. From these studies, we (1) describe the novel neuropathologic profile of Fel(CWD), which is distinct from either cervid CWD or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), and (2) provide evidence of serial passage-associated interspecies prion adaptation. In addition, we demonstrate through confocal analysis the successful co-localization of PrP(D) with neurons, astrocytes, microglia, lysosomes, and synaptophysin, which, in part, implicates each of these in the neuropathology of Fel(CWD). In conclusion, this work illustrates the simultaneous role of both host and strain in the development of a unique Fel(CWD) neuropathologic profile and that such a profile can be used to discriminate between Fel(CWD) and FSE.

  10. Seropositivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a cohort of symptomatic cats from Europe based on a C6-peptide assay with discussion of implications in disease aetiology.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Pluta, Silvia; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-01-01

    There are only few reports on Lyme borreliosis (LB) in cats. The reasons might be a different tick infestation in cats compared to dogs, a low susceptibility for tick-borne infections or a low awareness of veterinarians for tick-borne diseases in feline patients. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) in feline sera, to compare the significance of feline versus canine LB, as well as to evaluate possible implications on disease occurrence. Specific antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl in cats were detected by a rapid test based on enzyme immunoassay technique. The serum samples were sent to a diagnostic laboratory by veterinarians from Germany and other European countries with request for Borrelia serology in the years 2009-2011. Veterinarians were asked for information regarding the cats' location, age, gender, clinical signs, treatment and follow-up. In six of 271 (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.8-4.8%) cat sera, antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl were detected. Proportion of Borrelia antibody-positive cat sera was significantly lower than the one determined for dogs during the same time period. All positive cats lived in countries endemic for LB (Germany, Sweden and Belgium), and all C6-antibody positive cats with the exception of one cat showed clinical signs. Possible implications on disease occurrence are discussed. Data presented here demonstrate a lower prevalence of Borrelia specific C6-antibodies in European cats when compared to dogs residing in the same regions. The absence of antibodies against Bbsl in 97.8% (95% CI: 95.2-99.2%) of the submitted samples indicate that diagnosis "feline LB"is rare in cats. Nevertheless, LB should be considered in cats with compatible clinical signs (e.g. shifting leg lameness, to less extent neurological signs) when other differential diagnoses are ruled out.

  11. Seropositivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a cohort of symptomatic cats from Europe based on a C6-peptide assay with discussion of implications in disease aetiology.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Pluta, Silvia; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-01-01

    There are only few reports on Lyme borreliosis (LB) in cats. The reasons might be a different tick infestation in cats compared to dogs, a low susceptibility for tick-borne infections or a low awareness of veterinarians for tick-borne diseases in feline patients. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) in feline sera, to compare the significance of feline versus canine LB, as well as to evaluate possible implications on disease occurrence. Specific antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl in cats were detected by a rapid test based on enzyme immunoassay technique. The serum samples were sent to a diagnostic laboratory by veterinarians from Germany and other European countries with request for Borrelia serology in the years 2009-2011. Veterinarians were asked for information regarding the cats' location, age, gender, clinical signs, treatment and follow-up. In six of 271 (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.8-4.8%) cat sera, antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl were detected. Proportion of Borrelia antibody-positive cat sera was significantly lower than the one determined for dogs during the same time period. All positive cats lived in countries endemic for LB (Germany, Sweden and Belgium), and all C6-antibody positive cats with the exception of one cat showed clinical signs. Possible implications on disease occurrence are discussed. Data presented here demonstrate a lower prevalence of Borrelia specific C6-antibodies in European cats when compared to dogs residing in the same regions. The absence of antibodies against Bbsl in 97.8% (95% CI: 95.2-99.2%) of the submitted samples indicate that diagnosis "feline LB"is rare in cats. Nevertheless, LB should be considered in cats with compatible clinical signs (e.g. shifting leg lameness, to less extent neurological signs) when other differential diagnoses are ruled out. PMID:27529996

  12. Prevalence of the polycystic kidney disease and renal and urinary bladder ultrasonographic abnormalities in Persian and Exotic Shorthair cats in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Bottarelli, Ezio; Gazzola, Margherita; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2007-10-01

    The ultrasonographic findings of kidneys, liver and urinary bladder of 288 Persian and 44 Exotic Shorthair clinically normal cats that underwent screening for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) between July 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Cats were divided into two groups, one including cats aged <9 months (group 1) and one cats aged >/=9 months (group 2). Cats were classified as PKD-positive when at least one renal cyst was found. One hundred and thirty-six cats (41.0%) had more than one cyst in at least one kidney. The prevalence of PKD was similar in both groups. Eight PKD-positive cats had cystic livers (5.9%). Other renal abnormalities included a pelvic calculus and a medullary rim sign (MRS). The difference in prevalence of an MRS in group 2 compared to group 1 and the difference between PKD-positive and -negative cats in group 2 were not significant. There was no difference in mean kidney length between PKD-positive and -negative cats in group 2. Urinary bladder anomalies were principally represented by urinary sediment, with prevalence significantly higher in group 2. No difference was detected in group 2 between PKD-positive and -negative cats. In conclusion feline PKD is common in Italy. The ultrasonographic findings of MRS and urinary bladder sediment did not correlate with feline PKD. Urinary bladder sediment is common in Persians and Exotic Shorthairs and more likely in adults. PMID:17498994

  13. Controversies in Veterinary Nephrology: Renal Diets Are Indicated for Cats with International Renal Interest Society Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2 to 4: The Con View.

    PubMed

    Scherk, Margie A; Laflamme, Dottie P

    2016-11-01

    Renal diets typically incorporate protein and phosphorus restriction, supplement with potassium and Omega-3 fatty acids, and address metabolic acidosis. Compared to "maintenance" diets, these modifications appear to benefit cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is limited data in cats justifying the specific amounts of the nutrients used in these diets, and there is little evidence supporting protein restriction in cats with CKD. Energy intake, maintenance of body weight, and muscle and body condition need to be addressed, and may take precedence over special diets. Further research is needed to better define optimum diets for cats with CKD. PMID:27593575

  14. Use of pentosan polysulphate in cats with idiopathic, non-obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wallius, Barbro M; Tidholm, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common clinical entity where different treatments, for example glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as pentosan polysulphate (PPS), are advocated. However, few treatments have been investigated by well-controlled clinical trials. This paper compares the use of PPS in FLUTD compared to placebo. Of the 18 cats in the experiment, nine were treated with PPS and nine were treated with placebo with subcutaneous injections of 3mg/kg PPS or placebo day 1, 2, 5 and 10. The study was double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled. Revaluation was performed after 5 and 10 days, 2 weeks, 2, 6 and 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences concerning clinical signs between groups during treatment or at re-evaluation, except for pretreatment stressful events where PPS-treated cats had experienced significantly more stressful events compared to cats treated with placebo before entering the study. Six cats (33%) showed recurrence of clinical signs during the entire study period, and only one of these cats had more than one recurrent episode. One cat (placebo) was euthanased 7 days after initial treatment because of recurrence of clinical signs. Another cat (placebo) was euthanased due to other reasons after 6 months. At 2 weeks two cats (placebo and PPS) showed clinical signs. At 2 months re-evaluation one cat showed mild clinical signs. At 6 and 12 months all remaining 16 cats were healthy. Idiopathic, non-obstructive FLUTD is a self-limiting disease with good short-term and excellent long-term prognosis without treatment. Whether or not PPS may be beneficial in a subpopulation of cats with continuous or frequently recurring clinical signs may be elucidated in forthcoming double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trials including only this subpopulation of cats.

  15. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role.

  16. An unusual form of motor neuron disease following a cat bite.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A J; Vinters, H V; Povey, R C; Hatch, L A; Percy, D H; Noseworthy, J H; Kaufmann, J C

    1986-05-01

    A case of motor neuron disease with clinical and pathological resemblance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a woman who was severely bitten on the ankle by a cat is described. Weakness first appeared at the ankles and relentlessly advanced proximally, terminating in death from pulmonary failure in a year. A number of unusual features that are uncharacteristic of ALS were found that included a markedly elevated antinuclear antibody titre in the serum and the presence of prominent oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord showed loss of anterior horn cells and pyramidal degeneration that are characteristic of ALS, but an extraordinary finding was the presence of transmural granulomatous inflammation of numerous small and medium sized vessels, especially veins, in the subarachnoid space around the cord. There were also inflammatory changes in the brainstem and spinal cord consisting of microglial and astrocytic nodules and perivenous cuffing by mononuclear cells. Ill-defined hyaline eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were seen in some remaining anterior horn cells. No viral particles were found by electron microscopy despite an extensive search. Virological studies were inconclusive but there is reason to believe that this patient's illness was caused by an as yet unidentified virus.

  17. Macular findings on optical coherence tomography in cat-scratch disease neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Habot-Wilner, Z; Zur, D; Goldstein, M; Goldenberg, D; Shulman, S; Kesler, A; Giladi, M; Neudorfer, M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the macular findings on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD) neuroretinitis. Methods Medical records of all patients diagnosed with CSD neuroretinitis at the Tel Aviv Medical Center between April 2006 and May 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent Stratus OCT macular examination. Results Eight eyes of seven patients with confirmed CSD neuroretinitis, (mean age 33±9.9 years, range 6–48 years) were included in the study. All patients presented clinically with optic nerve swelling and macular edema or macular exudates. OCT demonstrated flattening of the foveal contour, thickening of the neurosensory retina, and accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF) in all studied eyes. Retinal exudates appeared as multiple hyper-reflective foci in the outer plexiform layer. The average central macular thickness was 460 μm (range 170–906 μm) and the average maximal retinal thickness was 613 μm (range 387–1103 μm), at presentation. The macula appeared normal on repeated exams during follow-up. Conclusion Similar OCT findings were demonstrated in patients with CSD neuroretinitis. SRF was found in all eyes, although was not visible on clinical examination or fluorescein angiography. OCT may be used as an adjunct imaging tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CSD neuroretinitis. PMID:21660065

  18. A VIRUS DISEASE OF CATS, PRINCIPALLY CHARACTERIZED BY ALEUCOCYTOSIS, ENTERIC LESIONS AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRANUCLEAR INCLUSION BODIES

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, William D.; Enders, John F.

    1939-01-01

    An acute, highly fatal epizootic disease of cats is described, which can be recognized by a fulminating and extreme leucopenia involving all types of white blood cells, aplasia of the bone marrow, including both the granulocytic and the erythrocytic series and occasionally the megakaryocytes, aplasia of lymphoid tissue, and characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells of the intestinal mucosa and in certain cells of the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. The infection has been induced in healthy cats by means of bacteria-free filtrates of emulsions of the spleen of infected animals. Collateral evidence supports the conclusion that the disease is due to a virus. The pathogenicity of the infectious agent has proved thus far to be strictly limited to the natural host. PMID:19870850

  19. Chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in cats: diagnostic advantages of full-thickness intestinal and extraintestinal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2010-02-01

    An evaluation of histological findings in full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and extraintestinal samples of 43 cats with chronic GIT disease signs was performed. In the majority of cases (46.5%) inflammatory bowel disease, ie, lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis/colitis (32.6%), eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis (11.6%) and mixed inflammatory infiltration (2.3%), was diagnosed. Furthermore, in four animals non-inflammatory mucosal band-shaped fibrosis (9.3%), and in 10 cats (23.3%) a diffuse lymphoma, was found. Six cats displayed only a gastritis (7.0%) or lymphangiectasia (7.0%), respectively. In two cats a mast cell tumour (4.7%) was diagnosed. In one cat no histopathological lesions were found. The availability of transmural biopsies from all segments of the intestine and the collection of extraintestinal samples, especially mesenteric lymph nodes, is especially helpful for diagnosing intestinal tumours such as lymphomas and tumours of mast cell origin.

  20. Atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease: isolated epigastric pain in an immunocompetent, 12-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets. PMID:26273467

  1. Effects of early cat or dog ownership on sensitisation and asthma in a high-risk cohort without disease-related modification of exposure.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, Catarina; Garden, Frances; Kemp, Andrew S; Li, Qiang; Crisafulli, Daniel; Tovey, Euan R; Xuan, Wei; Marks, Guy B

    2010-03-01

    Variation in the observed association between pet ownership and allergic disease may be attributable to selection bias and confounding. The aim of this study was to suggest a method to assess disease-related modification of exposure and second to examine how cat acquisition or dog ownership in early life affects atopy and asthma at 5 years. Information on sociodemographic factors and cat and dog ownership was collected longitudinally in an initially cat-free Australian birth cohort based on children with a family history of asthma. At age 5 years, 516 children were assessed for wheezing, and 488 for sensitisation. Data showed that by age 5 years, 82 children had acquired a cat. Early manifestations of allergic disease did not foreshadow a reduced rate of subsequent acquisition of a cat. Independent risk factors for acquiring a cat were exposure to tobacco smoke at home odds ratio (OR) 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 3.26], maternal education < or =12 years OR 1.95 [1.08, 3.51] and dog ownership OR 2.23 [1.23, 4.05]. Cat or dog exposure in the first 5 years was associated with a decreased risk of any allergen sensitisation, OR 0.50 [0.28, 0.88] but no association with wheeze OR 0.96 [0.57, 1.61]. This risk was not affected by age at which the cat was acquired or whether the pet was kept in- or outdoors. In conclusion, cat or dog ownership reduced the risk of subsequent atopy in this high-risk birth cohort. This cannot be explained by disease-related modification of exposure. Public health recommendations on the effect of cat and dog ownership should be based on birth cohort studies where possible selection bias has been taken into account.

  2. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    of all pulmonary arteries and a random pattern of parenchymal disease with severe lesions immediately adjacent to normal areas. Analysis of CT 3D reconstruction and Hounsfield units demonstrated lung disease consistent with restrictive pulmonary fibrosis with an interstitial infiltrate, absence of air trapping, and decrease in total lung volume in Group IU as compared to Groups UU and PreS I. The clinical implications of this study are that cats pretreated with selamectin 1 month before D. immitis L3 infection did not become serologically positive and did not develop pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and myofibrosis.

  3. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-10-29

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely.

  4. Visceral bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis: possible manifestations of disseminated cat scratch disease in the immunocompromised host: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kemper, C A; Lombard, C M; Deresinski, S C; Tompkins, L S

    1990-08-01

    Opportunistic infection with the causative agent of cat scratch disease may be responsible for an unusual vascular proliferative lesion, referred to as bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis, previously described only in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis involving the liver and bone marrow causing progressive hepatic failure. We also report a case of a cardiac transplant recipient with hepatic and splenic bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis manifesting as a fever of unknown origin, a previously unreported event in a non-HIV-infected patient. These cases represent the first documentation of bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis with visualization of cat scratch-like organisms involving internal organs.

  5. Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein.

    PubMed

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Samman, Ayman; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sydler, Titus; Cattori, Valentino; Graf, Felix; Diserens, Kevin A; Padrutt, Isabelle; Nesina, Stefanie; Berger, Alice; Ruetten, Maja; Riond, Barbara; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-01-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) infections are associated with oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis and a limping syndrome. Epizootic outbreaks of virulent systemic disease (VSD) have been reported in the USA and Europe. Here, the molecular characterization and neutralization patterns of FCV isolates from cases of severe, non-epizootic infection associated with skin ulceration and edema are presented. Samples from eleven symptomatic cats, four in-contact cats and 27 cats with no contact with symptomatic cats were collected and tested for FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Phylogenetic analyses based on the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV and virus neutralization with antisera raised against four FCV vaccine strains were performed. Nine kittens and two adult cats in two shelters and two veterinary clinics in four geographically distinct locations in Switzerland and Liechtenstein were affected. The cats showed fever, tongue and skin ulceration, head and paw edema, and occasionally jaundice, generalized edema and dyspnea. All symptomatic cats tested FCV-positive but were negative for FHV-1, FeLV and FIV, with the exception of one FIV-positive kitten. All kittens of one litter and both adult cats died. The disease did not spread to cats in the environment. Cats in the environment displayed phylogenetically distinct, but related, FCV strains. Virus neutralization patterns suggested that some cases might have been potentially prevented by vaccination with the optimal vaccine strain. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD.

  6. Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein.

    PubMed

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Samman, Ayman; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sydler, Titus; Cattori, Valentino; Graf, Felix; Diserens, Kevin A; Padrutt, Isabelle; Nesina, Stefanie; Berger, Alice; Ruetten, Maja; Riond, Barbara; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-01-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) infections are associated with oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis and a limping syndrome. Epizootic outbreaks of virulent systemic disease (VSD) have been reported in the USA and Europe. Here, the molecular characterization and neutralization patterns of FCV isolates from cases of severe, non-epizootic infection associated with skin ulceration and edema are presented. Samples from eleven symptomatic cats, four in-contact cats and 27 cats with no contact with symptomatic cats were collected and tested for FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Phylogenetic analyses based on the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV and virus neutralization with antisera raised against four FCV vaccine strains were performed. Nine kittens and two adult cats in two shelters and two veterinary clinics in four geographically distinct locations in Switzerland and Liechtenstein were affected. The cats showed fever, tongue and skin ulceration, head and paw edema, and occasionally jaundice, generalized edema and dyspnea. All symptomatic cats tested FCV-positive but were negative for FHV-1, FeLV and FIV, with the exception of one FIV-positive kitten. All kittens of one litter and both adult cats died. The disease did not spread to cats in the environment. Cats in the environment displayed phylogenetically distinct, but related, FCV strains. Virus neutralization patterns suggested that some cases might have been potentially prevented by vaccination with the optimal vaccine strain. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD. PMID:26711049

  7. Focus on Nutrition: Cats and carbohydrates: implications for health and disease.

    PubMed

    Laflammme, Dottie

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that high-carbohydrate diets contribute to the development of feline diabetes and obesity. The evidence does not support this. Healthy cats efficiently digest and metabolize properly processed starches and complex carbohydrates. Dietary carbohydrate can efficiently meet cats' cellular requirement for carbohydrate (glucose), sparing protein that would otherwise be needed for gluconeogenesis. Excess calories, regardless of source, contribute to obesity and obesity-related problems, but low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets pose a greater risk for obesity. The increasing prevalence of feline diabetes appears to be due to obesity and aging rather than to dietary carbohydrates. However, once cats become diabetic, consumption of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet may be beneficial. PMID:20473847

  8. Comparison between ultrasound and genetic testing for the early diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Exotic Shorthair cats.

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Cozzi, Maria C; Strillacci, Maria G; Polli, Michele; Longeri, Maria; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2009-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (AD-PKD) is common in Persians and Persians-related breeds. The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of early ultrasound examination and to compare ultrasound and genetic testing for early diagnosis. Sixty-three Persians and seven Exotic Shorthairs were considered. All underwent ultrasonographic and genetic testing (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay) between 2.5 and 3.5 months of age (10-14 weeks). With ultrasound, 41.4% showed renal cysts, while 37.1% were PKD positive by genetic testing and DNA sequencing. Six cats with at least one renal cyst were negative by genetic testing, while only one cat negative at ultrasound resulted positive at genetic test. DNA sequencing of three polycystic cats, negative by genetic test, revealed they were heterozygous for the mutation. Agreement was described by Cohen's kappa that resulted 0.85, considering genetic test and DNA sequencing. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound were 96.2% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity was higher and specificity lower than reported previously. The higher sensitivity could be due to improved technical capabilities of ultrasound machines and transducers. Other causes of PKD could explain the lower specificity. In conclusion, ultrasound resulted in a reliable diagnostic method for feline AD-PKD1 at early age and it should always be used with genetic testing, in order to reach a complete screening programme and eventually to identify other genetic mutations. PMID:19046910

  9. Widespread retinal degenerative disease mutation (rdAc) discovered among a large number of popular cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, M; David, V A; Pflueger, S; Roelke, M E; Kehler, J; O'Brien, S J; Narfström, K

    2010-10-01

    The recent discovery of a mutational variant in the CEP290 gene (CEP290: IVS50+9T>G), conferring recessive retinal degeneration in Abyssinian and Somali (long-haired Abyssinian) cats (rdAc) prompted a survey among 41 cat breeds (846 individuals) to assess the incidence, frequency and clinical consequence of rdAc. The rdAc allele displayed widespread distribution, observed in 16/43 (37%) breeds, exhibiting a high allele frequency (∼33%) in North American and European Siamese populations. Clinical evaluations demonstrated high concordance between rdAc pathology and the CEP290 (IVS50+9T>G) homozygous genotype (P=1.1E-6), with clinical disease similar to affected Abyssinians/Somalis. This retinal degeneration has not been reported in breeds other than the Abyssinian/Somali and poses a significant health risk particularly in the Siamese breed group. Alertness of the veterinary community and the present availability of commercial diagnostic testing could synergistically enable breeders to reduce the incidence of rdAc blindness in pure-bred cat populations.

  10. Diagnostic value of the indirect immunofluorescence assay in cat scratch disease with Bartonella henselae and Afipia felis antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Amerein, M P; De Briel, D; Jaulhac, B; Meyer, P; Monteil, H; Piemont, Y

    1996-01-01

    Serum samples from 35 cat scratch disease (CSD) patients, 180 control patients (123 without lymph node enlargement and 57 with lymph node enlargement not evoking CSD), and 102 nonpatient subjects (35 with cat contact and 67 without cat contact) were tested by semiquantitative indirect immunofluorescence assay for the presence of antibodies directed to Afipia felis (ATCC 53690T) or Bartonella henselae (ATCC 49882T). The CSD group had statistically higher antibody titers against B. henselae than the control groups (P < 10(-5)), whereas no difference in A. felis antibody titers was evidenced among all groups tested. Among the 317 serum samples studied, the three with high A. felis antibody titers ( > or = 64) also had high antibody titers against other alpha-2 proteobacteria. The value of the indirect immunofluorescence assay with B. henselae antigen for the diagnosis of CSD was as follows: for a cutoff of 32, sensitivity was 0.80, specificity was 0.85, and the likelihood ratio was 5.1; for a cutoff of 64, the likelihood ratio was 12.1. In summary, in France, CSD is associated with high antibody titers against B. henselae, as previously described in the United States. However, the causes for B. henselae seronegativity in CSD patients and those for high antibody titers outside the typical nosological frame of CSD still have to be identified. PMID:8991636

  11. Effect of interactions with humans on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as contented on arrival.

    PubMed

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-10-01

    Sustained positive affect may decrease vulnerability to upper respiratory infections in cats admitted to a shelter. Incidence of upper respiratory infections was examined in cats rated as Content upon admission to an animal shelter when provided with or without treatment to sustain contentment. Ninety-six cats rated as Content upon admission were provided with either human interaction, including petting, playing, and grooming, in four 10min sessions/d for 10 days or were exposed to a control treatment of a human standing in front of the cage with eyes averted for the same period. Changes in emotional state and mucosal immune responses were measured daily in treated and control groups. Infectious status was determined upon admission and on days 4 and 10 using combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by quantitative real-time PCR for feline herpes virus type 1, feline calicivirus, Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The onset of upper respiratory disease (URD) was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, including ocular or nasal discharge. Treated cats were more likely to remain Content (Incident Rate Ratio [IRR]:1.13, Confidence Interval: 0.98-1.30, P <0.0001) and less likely to be rated as Anxious or Frustrated than Control cats over a 10 day period (IRR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88, P =0.007). Feline secretory IgA (S-IgA) quantified in faeces by ELISA techniques, was greater for Treated than Control cats (1451 Vs 846μg/g). Within the Treatment group, S-IgA was greater for cats that sustained Contentment throughout the study period compared to cats that became Anxious or Frustrated (1846 Vs 1394μg/g). An increasing proportion of Control than Treated cats shed pathogens over time (Control 22%, 36%, 61%; Treated 35%, 26%, 32% on d 1, 4 and 10, respectively; P =0.006). Control cats were more likely to develop URD than Treated cats (HR 2.9, CI: 1.30-6.67, P =0.01). Cats that responded positively to

  12. Effect of interactions with humans on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as contented on arrival.

    PubMed

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-10-01

    Sustained positive affect may decrease vulnerability to upper respiratory infections in cats admitted to a shelter. Incidence of upper respiratory infections was examined in cats rated as Content upon admission to an animal shelter when provided with or without treatment to sustain contentment. Ninety-six cats rated as Content upon admission were provided with either human interaction, including petting, playing, and grooming, in four 10min sessions/d for 10 days or were exposed to a control treatment of a human standing in front of the cage with eyes averted for the same period. Changes in emotional state and mucosal immune responses were measured daily in treated and control groups. Infectious status was determined upon admission and on days 4 and 10 using combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by quantitative real-time PCR for feline herpes virus type 1, feline calicivirus, Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The onset of upper respiratory disease (URD) was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, including ocular or nasal discharge. Treated cats were more likely to remain Content (Incident Rate Ratio [IRR]:1.13, Confidence Interval: 0.98-1.30, P <0.0001) and less likely to be rated as Anxious or Frustrated than Control cats over a 10 day period (IRR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.88, P =0.007). Feline secretory IgA (S-IgA) quantified in faeces by ELISA techniques, was greater for Treated than Control cats (1451 Vs 846μg/g). Within the Treatment group, S-IgA was greater for cats that sustained Contentment throughout the study period compared to cats that became Anxious or Frustrated (1846 Vs 1394μg/g). An increasing proportion of Control than Treated cats shed pathogens over time (Control 22%, 36%, 61%; Treated 35%, 26%, 32% on d 1, 4 and 10, respectively; P =0.006). Control cats were more likely to develop URD than Treated cats (HR 2.9, CI: 1.30-6.67, P =0.01). Cats that responded positively to

  13. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  14. Cat-scratch disease in adult hospitalized for prolonged-Fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Guiyedi, Vincent; Haddad, Hanna; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Gire, Fabien; Ongali, Brice; Lore, Philippes; Gameiro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old patient with a Cat-scratch disease presenting three months continuous alteration of the general condition, including prolonged-fever, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss associated with adenitis and multiple thoracic-abdominal adenopathies, leukocytosis with neutrophil polynuclear predominance, and increased of C-reactive protein. The serologies of toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis and the tuberculosis research by tuberculin reaction test and Ziehl acid-alcohol resistant bacilli direct examination were negatives. The cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus serologies were positives only for immunoglobulin-G. The Bartonella henselae diagnosis was made with the analysis of histopathological specimens. The clinical and biological symptoms regressed following eight weeks of azithromycin's treatment. According to this observation, the cat-scratch disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting prolonged-fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss. The azithromycin would be an alternative therapeutic issue for this pathology in case of confirmed efficacy by studies in a large patient population.

  15. Choroidal neovascularisation as an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of cat-scratch disease in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latanza, L; Viscogliosi, F; Solimeo, A; Calabrò, F; De Angelis, V; De Rosa, P

    2015-10-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that appeared during the primary Bartonella henselae infection in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl was referred to our clinic complaining of a central scotoma in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral disc oedema and in the right eye neuroretinitis with macular star and CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The optical coherence tomography revealed the presence of macular serous retinal detachment. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgM and IgG titres for B. henselae. Cat-scratch disease was diagnosed, and an 8-week treatment with azithromycin was initiated. In addition, an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed in the right eye to treat the CNV. A month later, we decided to administer a systemic antibiotic again for an additional 5 months, due to the persistence of papillitis. Cat-scratch disease should be considered among the different causes of inflammatory CNV secondary to infectious uveitis. Our case was the first described in the literature in which a CNV appeared during the primary infection and not as a later complication. The combination of systemic antibiotic treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy was a successful choice because it allowed us to obtain the complete resolution of neuroretinitis, associated with the scarring of the choroidal neovascular membrane, with a final visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes.

  16. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  17. Penicillium species-induced granuloma in a cat resulting in chronic lower urinary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Banlunara, Wijit; Niyomthum, Waree; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama

    2013-12-01

    A 5-year-old, female neutered Persian cat was admitted to the Small Animal Hospital (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand) with clinical signs of dysuria, haematuria and partial urethral obstruction that had manifested over several months. The animal also had hyperkalaemia and severe azotaemia at the time of presentation. Urinalysis showed haematuria, pyuria and the presence of several transitional cells. In addition, ultrasonography demonstrated an extraluminal mass between the neck of urinary bladder and the colon. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass revealed a fungal form with branching and septate hyphae. Consequently, itraconazole treatment was prescribed and clinical signs of improvement were seen after 7 days. However, 1 month later, the cat died of acute anaemia. Necropsy revealed the presence of extraluminal multifocal fungal granuloma at the neck of the urinary bladder, and contracted kidneys. Histopathological analysis of the fungal granuloma was found to be composed of branching, septate hyphal fungi together with inflammatory cells. Subsequent fungal culture and identification revealed this to be a species of Penicillium.

  18. The Domestic Cat as a Large Animal Model for Characterization of Disease and Therapeutic Intervention in Hereditary Retinal Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Narfström, Kristina; Holland Deckman, Koren; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Large mammals, including canids and felids, are affected by spontaneously occurring hereditary retinal diseases with similarities to those of humans. The large mammal models may be used for thorough clinical characterization of disease processes, understanding the effects of specific mutations, elucidation of disease mechanisms, and for development of therapeutic intervention. Two well-characterized feline models are addressed in this paper. The first model is the autosomal recessive, slowly progressive, late-onset, rod-cone degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the CEP290 gene. The second model addressed in this paper is the autosomal dominant early onset rod cone dysplasia, putatively caused by the mutation found in the CRX gene. Therapeutic trials have been performed mainly in the former type including stem cell therapy, retinal transplantation, and development of ocular prosthetics. Domestic cats, having large human-like eyes with comparable spontaneous retinal diseases, are also considered useful for gene replacement therapy, thus functioning as effective model systems for further research. PMID:21584261

  19. The domestic cat as a large animal model for characterization of disease and therapeutic intervention in hereditary retinal blindness.

    PubMed

    Narfström, Kristina; Holland Deckman, Koren; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Large mammals, including canids and felids, are affected by spontaneously occurring hereditary retinal diseases with similarities to those of humans. The large mammal models may be used for thorough clinical characterization of disease processes, understanding the effects of specific mutations, elucidation of disease mechanisms, and for development of therapeutic intervention. Two well-characterized feline models are addressed in this paper. The first model is the autosomal recessive, slowly progressive, late-onset, rod-cone degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the CEP290 gene. The second model addressed in this paper is the autosomal dominant early onset rod cone dysplasia, putatively caused by the mutation found in the CRX gene. Therapeutic trials have been performed mainly in the former type including stem cell therapy, retinal transplantation, and development of ocular prosthetics. Domestic cats, having large human-like eyes with comparable spontaneous retinal diseases, are also considered useful for gene replacement therapy, thus functioning as effective model systems for further research.

  20. Visceral cat scratch disease with endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.

  1. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Masucci, Marisa

    2016-05-01

    Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition), history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies), and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc.) can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired). Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases.

  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a parathyroid carcinoma in a 16-year-old male neutered cat with concurrent chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Mathieu R; Freiche, Valérie; Bongrand, Yannick; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old domestic shorthaired cat with chronic kidney disease was presented with a subacute history of weakness and anorexia. Severe hypercalcaemia was identified and attributed to a cervical mass, diagnosed as a parathyroid carcinoma after surgery. Renal function, as evaluated by plasma creatinine, initially worsened during hypercalcaemia but fully returned to previously documented values two months post-operatively.

  3. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  4. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  5. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Masucci, Marisa

    2016-05-01

    Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition), history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies), and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc.) can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired). Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases. PMID:27284217

  6. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Masucci, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition), history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies), and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc.) can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired). Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases. PMID:27284217

  7. Pancreatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids.

  8. Maximizing the diagnostic utility of endoscopic biopsy in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Jergens, Albert E; Willard, Michael D; Allenspach, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Flexible endoscopy has become a valuable tool for the diagnosis of many small animal gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, but the techniques must be performed carefully so that the results are meaningful. This article reviews the current diagnostic utility of flexible endoscopy, including practical/technical considerations for endoscopic biopsy, optimal instrumentation for mucosal specimen collection, the correlation of endoscopic indices to clinical activity and to histopathologic findings, and new developments in the endoscopic diagnosis of GI disease. Recent studies have defined endoscopic biopsy guidelines for the optimal number and quality of diagnostic specimens from different regions of the gut. They also have shown the value of ileal biopsy in the diagnosis of canine and feline chronic enteropathies, and have demonstrated the utility of endoscopic biopsy specimens beyond routine hematoxylin and eosin histopathological analysis, including their use in immunohistochemical, microbiological, and molecular studies. PMID:27387727

  9. Decabromobiphenyl, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and brominated phenolic compounds in serum of cats diagnosed with the endocrine disease feline hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Norrgran, Jessica; Jones, Bernt; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Bergman, Ake

    2012-07-01

    The incidence of cats being diagnosed with feline hyperthyroidism (FH) has increased greatly since it was first described in 1979. The cause of FH has not been established. Hypothetically, there is a link between increasing FH and exposure to brominated flame retardants. Much greater polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) concentrations have been reported in cat serum compared with human serum, likely due to cat licking behaviour. This study aimed to extend the present identification of brominated compounds in cat serum, with a focus on hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE, to improve the understanding of feline metabolism of PBDEs. A pooled serum sample from 30 Swedish pet cats with FH was analysed, and brominated species were identified. The results showed exposure to the discontinued flame retardant decabromobiphenyl (BB-209) and technical penta- and octa-BDEs. Altogether 12 PBDE congeners were identified along with 2'-MeO-BDE68. Furthermore, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,4,6-, 2,4,5- and 2,3,4-tribromophenol plus 2'-OH-BDE68, 6-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49 were identified. 2,4,6-tribromophenol and 6-OH-BDE47 were the most prominent species in cat serum. Considering that these are natural products, it can be concluded that metabolism of PBDEs to OH-PBDEs is not a major route of PBDE elimination in cats. It is notable that BB-209, 6-OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol all suggested that endocrine-disrupting chemicals were present in high concentrations in cat serum.

  10. Phenotypical characterization, distribution and quantification of different mast cell subtypes in transmural biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract of cats with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2010-10-15

    In this study subtypes, distribution and number of mast cells were investigated within mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract of 24 cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in comparison to 11 control cats. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed transmural gastrointestinal biopsies from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were examined. Mast cells were phenotyped and quantified based on their chymase and tryptase content, by applying a combined enzyme-histochemical and immunohistochemical double-labeling technique and on their heparin content by a metachromatic staining method (kresylecht-violet, MC(KEV)). Mast cells containing both chymase and tryptase were not found in any of the samples examined. Furthermore, in the stomach neither chymase (MC(C)) nor tryptase (MC(T)) bearing mast cells were detected. In cats with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or enterocolitis elevated numbers of MC(T) or MC(C) were identified in comparison to controls mainly located in the inflamed segments. The highest quantity of MC(C) was found in cats with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis or enterocolitis in comparison to other IBD forms, but only minor numbers of MC(T) were detected in these cases. In cats with fibrosing enteropathy (FE) a decrease of MC(C) and mast cells containing heparin was detected in affected segments, while increased numbers of MC(T) were detected in all locations. The elevation in the number of MC(T) was higher in unaffected areas than in fibrotic regions. Regarding all IBD cases higher counts of MC(C) were found especially in the inflamed locations, whereas in unaffected segments increased numbers of MC(T) were detected. The clear predominance of MC(C) and MC(T) within the mucosa and of MC(KEV) within the submucosa of all cats examined possibly represents differences of the cytokine milieu within the intestinal layers. In FE, mast cells are possibly pivotal for the containment of the inflammatory process because of their antiinflammatory

  11. In vitro efficacy of cefovecin against anaerobic bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque of dogs and cats with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease. PMID:24930431

  12. Quantification of feline herpesvirus 1 DNA in ocular fluid samples of clinically diseased cats by real-time TaqMan PCR.

    PubMed

    Vögtlin, A; Fraefel, C; Albini, S; Leutenegger, C M; Schraner, E; Spiess, B; Lutz, H; Ackermann, M

    2002-02-01

    A fluorogenic PCR was established for the quantification of feline herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) DNA in ocular fluid samples of clinically diseased cats. The new assay was specific for FeHV-1 and sensitive. The 100% detection rate ranged from 0.6 to 6 50% tissue culture infective doses per sample. When spiked samples with known quantities of virus were used, infectious virus titers and quantification of viral DNA by PCR correlated to each other in a linear fashion (R(2) = 0.9858) over a range of 4 orders of magnitude. Within this range, it was possible to calculate the FeHV-1 DNA content from a given infectious dose, and vice versa. The new diagnostic procedure was applied to ocular fluid samples from cats experimentally infected with FeHV-1 and specific FeHV-1-free cats. A good correlation between virus titer and quantitative PCR was observed, although only early in infection. In a second stage, the titer of infectious virus collapsed, while the PCR signal remained high. A constantly decreasing PCR signal accompanied by negative virus isolation was characteristic for a final stage of the infection. Finally, clinical samples from 20 cats that were suspected to suffer from FeHV-1 infection were analyzed. By comparing virus titers and quantitative PCR signals, it was possible to determine the current stage of the ongoing infection. Based on these findings, comparison of the results of consecutive samples allows the tracking of the course of the infection. Therefore, the new method combines the advantages of the two previously established conventional methods, qualitative PCR and virus isolation and titration.

  13. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  14. Prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis in specific cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Pesteanu-Somogyi, Loretta D; Radzai, Christina; Pressler, Barrak M

    2006-02-01

    Although known that purebreed cats are more likely to develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), previous studies have not examined the prevalence of disease in individual breeds. All cats diagnosed with FIP at a veterinary teaching hospital over a 16-year period were identified. Breed, sex and reproductive status of affected cats were compared to the general cat population and to mixed breed cats evaluated during the same period. As with previous studies sexually intact cats and purebreed cats were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with FIP; males and young cats also had a higher prevalence of disease. Abyssinians, Bengals, Birmans, Himalayans, Ragdolls and Rexes had a significantly higher risk, whereas Burmese, Exotic Shorthairs, Manxes, Persians, Russian Blues and Siamese cats were not at increased risk for development of FIP. Although additional factors doubtlessly influence the relative prevalence of FIP, this study provides additional guidance when prioritizing differentials in ill purebreed cats. PMID:15994104

  15. Phenazopyridine toxicosis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J W; Kornick, H P

    1976-08-01

    Severe illness developed after the oral administration of several drugs, including large doses of phenazopyridine (100 mg TID for 4 days) to a cat with dysuria and hematuria. Hemolysis and icterus were evident in blood serum and plasma after day 4 of drug administration, and many hemolyzed red blood cell "ghosts" containing Heinz bodies were observed on a stained blood smear. The cat became anemic and died within 48 hours after the last dose was administered. In an attempt to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between drug administration and disease, 100 mg of phenazopyridine was given TID (65 mg/kg/day) for 3 days to a clinically normal cat. Nearly 50% of the hemoglobin was oxidized to methemoglobin during the course of phenazopyridine administration. Lower dosages of phenazopyridine (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) for longer periods of administration to 2 other clinically normal cats did not result in illness or anemia; however, the number and size of Heinz bodies and blood methemoglobin content were increased. Evidence of hepatic injury was observed in the clinically affected cat and in 2 of the experimental cats. The relationship between hepatic injury and toxic signs was not determined. Combination products recommeneded for treatment of cystitis in man often contain phenazopyridine. Such products should be avoided in cats unless a safe, effective dosage for phenazopyridine can be established.

  16. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  17. Studies on poxvirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Baxby, D; Kelly, D F

    1989-01-01

    The development of clinical disease and the pathogenesis of cowpox were studied in domestic cats inoculated by a variety of routes. Intradermal titration in two cats demonstrated that as little as five pfu of cowpox virus caused a primary skin lesion. Intradermal inoculation of greater than or equal to 10(5) pfu cowpox virus resulted in severe systemic disease. Large amounts of virus (greater than or equal to 10(3) pfu/g) were isolated from skin lesions and the turbinates of cats killed at eight and 11 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lesser amounts of virus (congruent to 10(2) pfu/g) were isolated from lymphoid tissues and the lung, and small amounts of virus were isolated from various other tissues. A white cell-associated viraemia was detected from 5 dpi onwards. Skin scarification with 10(3) or 50 pfu cowpox virus enabled reproduction of the naturally-acquired disease. Cat-to-cat transmission was demonstrated from cats inoculated by skin scarification, but caused only subclinical infection in sentinel cats. Oronasal inoculation resulted in transient coryza and milder generalized disease than skin inoculation, and no transmission to sentinel cats. Preliminary investigations showed vaccinia virus (Lister strain) to be of low infectivity in cats while inoculation of ectromelia virus (Mill Hill strain) did not cause any clinical signs.

  18. Keep the Worms Out of Your Pet's Heart! The Facts About Heartworm Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for heartworm disease. Is Heartworm Disease Different In Cats? Heartworm disease in cats is a bit different ... What Are The Symptoms Of Heartworm Disease In Cats? Not all cats with heartworm disease show symptoms. ...

  19. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  20. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  1. Characterization of a spontaneous novel mutation in the NPC2 gene in a cat affected by Niemann Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Stefania; Bianchi, Ezio; Cantile, Carlo; Saleri, Roberta; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids within the lysosomes due to mutation in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. A feline model of NPC carrying a mutation in NPC1 gene has been previously described. We have identified two kittens affected by NPC disease due to a mutation in NPC2 gene. They manifested with tremors at the age of 3 months, which progressed to dystonia and severe ataxia. At 6 months of age cat 2 was unable to stand without assistance and had bilaterally reduced menace response. It died at the age of 10 months. Post-mortem histological analysis of the brain showed the presence of neurons with cytoplasmic swelling and vacuoles, gliosis of the substantia nigra and degeneration of the white matter. Spheroids with accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates were prominent in the cerebellar cortex. Purkinje cells were markedly reduced in number and they showed prominent intracytoplasmic storage. Scattered perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes and microglial cells proliferation were present in the thalamus and midbrain. Proliferation of Bergmann glia was also observed. In the liver, hepatocytes were swollen because of accumulation of small vacuoles and foamy Kupffer cells were also detected. Foamy macrophages were observed within the pulmonary interstitium and alveoli as well. At 9 months cat 1 was unable to walk, developed seizures and it was euthanized at 21 months. Filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts showed massive storage of unesterified cholesterol. Molecular analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes showed the presence of a homozygous intronic mutation (c.82+5G>A) in the NPC2 gene. The subsequent analysis of the mRNA showed that the mutation causes the retention of 105 bp in the mature mRNA, which leads to the in frame insertion of 35 amino acids between residues 28 and 29 of NPC2 protein (p.G28_S29ins35).

  2. Polymorphisms in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, GPx, TXNRD, SEPP1, SEP15 and SELS) and risk of chronic kidney disease in Japanese - cross-sectional data from the J-MICC study.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Asahi; Okada, Rieko; Naito, Mariko; Morita, Emi; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Hosono, Satoyo; Nanri, Hinako; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Suzuki, Sadao; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Mikami, Haruo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Watanabe, Isao; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known as a strong risk factor for both of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, GPx, TXNRD, SEPP1, SEP15 and SELS) with the risk of CKD in Japanese, we examined this association using the cross-sectional data of Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. The subjects were 3,285 men and women, aged 35-69 years, selected from J-MICC Study participants for whom genotyping were conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based Invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for CKD stages 3-5 (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). When those with CAT C-262T C/C were defined as reference, those with CAT C-262T C/T demonstrated the OR for CKD of 0.67 (95% CI 0.43-1.06) with the marginally significant trend for decreased odds ratio with increasing numbers of T allele (p = 0.070). There were no significant associations between the other polymorphisms with CKD risk. The present study found a marginally significant trend of the decreased risk of CKD with increasing numbers of T allele of CAT, which may suggest the possibility of personalized risk estimation of this life-limiting disease in the near future.

  3. Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Bourdeau, P; Waldman, L; Amiel, S; Zur, G

    2015-12-01

    Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results.

  4. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  5. Structural and functional changes of neuronal and glial components of the feline enteric nervous system in cats with chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Nolte, Ingo; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Immunohistochemical examinations of the enteric nervous system (ENS) were performed on biopsies of healthy cats and compared to findings in cats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease or intestinal lymphoma. In lymphocytic-plasmacytic enterocolitis all affected samples had significant reductions in glial fibrillary acidic protein and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and mostly of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) possibly reflecting alterations in enteric glial cells and neurons. In cases with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis significantly reduced phosphorylated neurofilament (PN) expression was present suggesting a disturbance in neuronal cytoskeleton, whereas cats with fibrosing enteropathy had reduced expression of NSE, non-phosphorylated neurofilaments (NPN), PN and VIP, possibly reflecting neuronal disturbances. In cases with intestinal lymphoma only the reduction in PN and the increase in NPN were obvious suggesting direct damage or interference of neoplastic cells with enteric neurons. In conclusion, structural and functional alterations of the ENS may contribute to clinically evident signs of vomiting and/or diarrhea.

  6. Is inflammatory bowel disease in dogs and cats associated with a Th1 or Th2 polarization?

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-12-15

    Mucosal immunity involves complex interactions to generate either immune tolerance or active immune responses. An imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that drive the recruitment of immune cells to the intestinal mucosa are a key characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease in humans, where distinctive helper-T-lymphocyte profiles help to discriminate between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This review evaluates the current veterinary literature to determine whether a Th1/Th2 (and possibly also Th17) polarization also exists in canine and feline inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Lymphadenopathy in a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced cat scratch disease results from lymphocyte immigration and proliferation and is regulated by interferon-alpha/beta.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefanie; Oberle, Karin; Sander, Anna; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

    2008-04-01

    In immunocompetent humans, cat scratch disease (CSD) is elicited by the Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella henselae and is characterized by a benign regional lymphadenopathy, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced CSD-like disease that allowed us to investigate the mechanisms leading to lymphadenopathy in vivo. In wild-type mice, a subcutaneous inoculation of either viable or inactivated B. henselae led to a strong swelling of the draining lymph node, which was long-lasting despite the rapid elimination of the bacteria. Carboxyfluorescein- and bromodesoxyuridine-labeling experiments showed that lymph node enlargement resulted from modified immigration and enhanced proliferation of lymphocytes, preferentially of B cells. A comparative analysis of B. henselae and the rodent pathogen B. grahamii in wild-type versus interferon-alpha/beta-receptor I chain-deficient mice revealed that interferon-alpha/beta is not only differentially induced by these two Bartonella species but also exerts an inhibitory effect on the development of lymphadenopathy both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that the lymphadenopathy of human CSD can be reproduced and studied in a mouse model and provide the first insights into the underlying immunological mechanisms.

  8. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  9. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  10. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  11. 16S rRNA sequences of Bartonella bacilliformis and cat scratch disease bacillus reveal phylogenetic relationships with the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, S P; Dorsch, M; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Stackebrandt, E

    1991-01-01

    The primary structures of 16S rRNAs of Bartonella bacilliformis, an isolate of the cat scratch disease (CSD) bacillus, and a strain phenotypically similar to the CSD bacillus were determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing. These microorganisms were found to be members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria. The sequence from B. bacilliformis was most closely related to the rRNA of Rochalimaea quintana (91.7% homology), the etiologic agent of trench fever. The sequence from the isolate of the CSD bacillus showed the greatest homology with Brucella abortus (89.7%) and, when compared with oligonucleotide catalog data, formed a cluster with Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Pseudomonas carboxidovorans, Nitrobacter species, and Bradyrhizobium species. The 16S rRNA sequence was also determined for the Cleveland Clinic isolate, which was previously shown to be phenotypically similar to and approximately 30% related, by DNA hybridization, to the CSD bacillus. The Cleveland Clinic isolate was isolated from a patient not diagnosed with CSD. The rRNAs from these bacteria exhibited 98.2% homology, confirming that this isolate is a second species in the same genus as the CSD bacillus. Our data suggest that neither B. bacilliformis nor the CSD bacillus is the etiologic agent of bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis. PMID:1719021

  12. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  13. New-onset refractory status epilepticus in an adult with an atypical presentation of cat-scratch disease: successful treatment with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Laswell, Emily M; Chambers, Kasandra D; Whitsel, Danielle R; Poudel, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is defined as a sudden onset of refractory status epilepticus in patients who do not have a history of epilepsy. It is a neurologic emergency, and determining the underlying etiology is an important factor for effectively managing and predicting the prognosis of NORSE. We describe the case of a 28-year-old woman who was hospitalized with NORSE secondary to an unknown etiology. She did not respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy, including benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin, propofol, and levetiracetam. The patient was placed on continuous electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and was treated further with multiple antiepileptics, which were titrated aggressively based on EEG readings and therapeutic drug levels; despite this treatment, EEG monitoring revealed continued seizures. Thus, high-dose corticosteroids were started for seizure control. Her workup included computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head, a lumbar puncture, toxicology screening, and extensive testing for multiple infectious and inflammatory etiologies. The patient's history revealed recent exposure to a new cat. Serologic results were positive for Bartonella henselae, and she was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease (CSD). She did not have the typical presentation of symptoms of lymphadenopathy, however, which is common in CSD. Doxycycline 100 mg and rifampin 300 mg twice daily were added to the patient's anticonvulsant and corticosteroid therapy. She was hospitalized for a total of 26 days and discharged with only minor neurologic impairment (short-term memory deficits and minor cognitive problems). The patient was discharged receiving antiepileptics, antibiotics, and a corticosteroid taper. To our knowledge, this is the first clinically known case of NORSE secondary to CSD without typical CSD symptoms in the adult population. The patient failed to respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy alone. With the addition of high

  14. Usefulness of the CAT, LCOPD, EQ-5D and COPDSS scales in understanding the impact of lung disease in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Manca, Sandra; Rodriguez, Esther; Huerta, Arturo; Torres, Maria; Lazaro, Lourdes; Curi, Sergio; Pirina, Pietro; Miravitlles, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder responsible for early onset emphysema associated with a significant impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our aim was to assess the usefulness of different instruments to evaluate the HRQoL in patients with AATD compared to non-AATD COPD. Observational, cross-sectional study in which all patients filled out a series of questionnaires: the COPD severity score (COPDSS), the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), the Living with COPD (LCOPD) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). A total of 96 patients were included, 35 with AATD (mean age 56.5 yrs, 57.1% male and mean FEV1(%) 48.7% and 61 non-AATD COPD (70.3 yrs, 80.3% men and FEV1(%) 47%. The questionnaire scores were similar, with a tendency towards worse scores in AATD for the EQ-5D (VAS) (64.8 (20.2) vs. 71.6 (17.1); p = 0.08). The correlations between the different scores and FEV1(%) were significant in both groups for COPDSS and LCOPD, but not for CAT and EQ-5D. In general, the correlations of scores with FEV1(%) were stronger for AATD compared with non-AATD COPD patients: COPDSS r = -0.570, p < 0.01 for AATD and r = -0.260, p < 0.05 for COPD; LCOPD r = -0.502, p < 0.001 for AATD and r = -0.304, p < 0.05 for non-AATD COPD. Patients with AATD have a similar degree of HRQoL impairment as older subjects with non-AATD COPD and showed a stronger correlation between HRQoL measurements and lung function impairment compared with non-AATD COPD. This may be related to the characteristics of the disease in these patients who are usually younger, with less co-morbidity and lower smoking consumption.

  15. Disease outcome and cytokine responses in cats immunized with an avirulent feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-UCD1 and challenge-exposed with virulent FIPV-UCD8.

    PubMed

    Kiss, I; Poland, A M; Pedersen, N C

    2004-04-01

    Eight cats were immunized with an avirulent strain of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-UCD1, then challenge-exposed to a highly virulent cat passaged strain (FIPV-UCD8). Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured throughout in the experiment. No clinical signs of FIP were evident in the experimental cats after immunization. After challenge, the immunized cats demonstrated one of four clinical outcomes: (1) classical effusive FIP; (2) accelerated FIP; (3) non-effusive FIP, or (4) resistance to challenge. Only minor cytokine changes were observed following immunization, however, several cytokine changes occurred following challenge-exposure. The most noteworthy changes were in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) levels. Our preliminary findings suggest that immunity against FIP is associated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma response imbalance, with high TNF-alpha/low IFN-gamma mRNA responses favouring disease and low TNF-alpha/high IFN-gamma mRNA responses being indicative of immunity.

  16. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall. PMID:15789811

  17. Raising awareness of common problems in older cats.

    PubMed

    2016-08-13

    The need to actively look for signs of disease in older cats was discussed during a recent conference held by the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) in Malta. Delegates heard that many older cats could be suffering from diseases associated with ageing but might show only subtle clinical signs. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:27516559

  18. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  19. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  20. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  1. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  2. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  3. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  4. Concentration of D-dimers in healthy cats and sick cats with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

    PubMed

    Tholen, Inger; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to measure concentrations of D-dimers in 48 cats with various diseases and in 20 healthy cats to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for D-dimers to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The cats were classified as having DIC if an underlying disease and at least three of the following criteria were present: thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time or thrombin time, schistocytes and/or a reduced antithrombin activity. D-dimer concentrations were measured using a semi-quantitative latex agglutination (LA) test (Accuclot D-Dimer, Sigma Diagnostics). The D-dimer test was positive for 8/12 cats with DIC and for 16/36 sick cats without DIC. D-dimers were negative for all healthy control cats. The comparison of the sick cats with DIC and those without DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of the D-dimer test of 56% and 67%; a comparison of the results for healthy cats and cats with DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The D-dimer LA test is only of limited value for the diagnosis of DIC in cats.

  5. Chronic Vomiting in Cats: Etiology and Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Shannon Ryan; Gisselman, Kelly; Cordner, Amy; Nicholson, Angela Gasser

    2016-01-01

    Chronic vomiting in cats is a common presenting problem seen in veterinary practice today. The initial step when presented with a vomiting patient is to differentiate between vomiting and regurgitation or dysphagia. There are numerous causes for chronic vomiting in cats, and therefore a detailed and comprehensive patient history and a systematic diagnostic approach are key steps in determining the cause for vomiting and the most appropriate treatment plan. Common causes for chronic vomiting in cats may include inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, gastrointestinal motility disorders, neoplasia, and extra-gastrointestinal diseases, such as renal disease, hepatobiliary disease, and hyperthyroidism. PMID:27487349

  6. Prevalence of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mutations in Siamese cats.

    PubMed

    Crawley, A C; Muntz, F H; Haskins, M E; Jones, B R; Hopwood, J J

    2003-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease, is one of the more prevalent inherited diseases in cats and is commonly found in cats with Siamese ancestry. The prevalence of 2 known MPS VI mutations in cats was investigated in 101 clinically normal Siamese cats, in 2 cats with clinical signs of MPS VI, and in 202 cats from 4 research colonies. The mutation L476P which causes a severe clinical phenotype, was present on both alleles in the known MPS VI cats from Italy and North America and was present in all research colonies that originated from North America. However, LA76P was not detected in the Siamese population screened. In contrast, the mutation D520N, which causes a mild clinical phenotype, was identified in 23 of 202 (11.4%) alleles tested in Siamese cats from 3 continents, 2 of which were homozygous for D520N. Thus, the D520N mutation was widespread, and it is likely that cats inheriting both mutations (LA76P/D520N compound heterozygotes) would be in the general Siamese population, particularly in North America. Practitioners should note the high incidence of degenerative joint disease in these animals.

  7. [Diarrhea in cats].

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C

    1992-11-15

    Diarrhoea is regarded as the characteristic symptom of intestinal disturbances. However, cats with intestinal disturbances can also show other symptoms such as vomiting, increased or decreased appetite and loss of weight. Cats with diarrhoea are usually only referred to the clinic if they have a chronic problem. Acute diarrhoea reacts well to symptomatic treatment, but chronic diarrhoea requires a specific diagnosis for a directed therapy and prognosis. It is essential to examine faeces and blood when evaluating a cat with diarrhoea. In contrast to the situation for dogs, there are no good specific digestion and absorption tests available for cats to evaluate pancreatic and intestinal function. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency rarely occurs in cats. A preliminary diagnosis of small intestine disorders can be made on the basis of the faeces staining positive for fat, an oral fat absorption test and the response to therapy. The definitive diagnosis must usually await the results of histological examination of intestinal biopsy samples. Cats with acute diarrhoea often recover spontaneously, and symptomatic treatment is only necessary for severe cases. A specific diagnosis is needed for cats with chronic diarrhoea, to enable directed treatment. Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of chronic enteritis because of their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. Antibiotics are only indicated for specific bacterial infections (such as Salmonella and Campylobacter), bloody diarrhoea, or rampant bacterial growth. Specially formulated diets play a major role in the treatment of both acute and chronic diarrhoea.

  8. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  9. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  10. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  11. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.

  12. Vitamin D intoxication caused by ingestion of commercial cat food in three kittens.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.

  13. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  14. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  15. Course of COPD assessment test (CAT) and clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) scores during recovery from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction COPD exacerbations have a negative impact on lung function, decrease quality of life (QoL) and increase the risk of death. The objective of this study was to assess the course of health status after an outpatient or inpatient exacerbation in patients with COPD. Methods This is an epidemiological, prospective, multicentre study that was conducted in 79 hospitals and primary care centres in Spain. Four hundred seventy-six COPD patients completed COPD assessment test (CAT) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) questionnaires during the 24 hours after presenting at hospital or primary care centres with symptoms of an exacerbation, and also at weeks 4–6. The scores from the CAT and CCQ were evaluated and compared at baseline and after recovery from the exacerbation. Results A total of 164 outpatients (33.7%) and 322 inpatients (66.3%) were included in the study. The majority were men (88.2%), the mean age was 69.4 years (SD = 9.5) and the mean FEV1 (%) was 47.7% (17.4%). During the exacerbation, patients presented high scores in the CAT: [mean: 22.0 (SD = 7.0)] and the CCQ: [mean: 4.4 (SD = 1.2)]. After recovery there was a significant reduction in the scores of both questionnaires [CAT: mean: -9.9 (SD = 5.1) and CCQ: mean: -3.1 (SD = 1.1)]. Both questionnaires showed a strong correlation during and after the exacerbation and the best predictor of the magnitude of improvement in the scores was the severity of each score at onset. Conclusions Due to their good correlation, CAT and CCQ can be useful tools to measure health status during an exacerbation and to evaluate recovery. However, new studies are necessary in order to identify which factors are influencing the course of the recovery of health status after a COPD exacerbation. PMID:23987232

  16. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    PubMed

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake.

  17. Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William B

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic epilepsy is the most common brain disease in dogs and also occurs in cats. Optimal management entails an accurate diagnosis and appropriate drug therapy. In dogs, either phenobarbital or bromide is appropriate as initial therapy. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for cats. Several other drugs including zonisamide and levetiracetam have the advantage of fewer side effects and are being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. Treatment is successful in most cases, allowing the pet and client to enjoy a good quality of life.

  18. Immune-mediated disorders of cats.

    PubMed

    Werner, L L; Gorman, N T

    1984-09-01

    Immune-mediated disorders in cats share many clinical and pathologic similarities with their counterparts in other species. Cats, however, are unique among domestic animals owing to the involvement of feline leukemia virus. In addition, a number of other infectious organisms can produce immune-mediated sequelae--that is, FIP virus, FeSFV, and H. felis. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aims in the management of feline immune-mediated disorders must take into account the probability of a primary or underlying disease process. PMID:6149649

  19. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    PubMed

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.

  20. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    PubMed

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. PMID:26379227

  1. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  2. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  3. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  4. Mite infestations of man contracted from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Thomsett, L R

    1968-07-13

    Acarine infestations of the dog and cat are transmissible to man. The relation between age incidence in the host, duration of disease, and circumstances under which the animal is kept are stated. Fifty out of 65 human contacts at risk to 42 infected dogs and cats showed lesions of mite infestation; 48% of these lesions were confined to the arms and torso.It is important to consider animal mite infestation in the differential diagnosis of human pruritic and papular skin disease.

  5. [Declawing in cats?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, I

    1983-02-15

    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons. PMID:6836550

  6. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  7. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  8. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance.

  9. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  10. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  11. The molecular cat.

    PubMed

    Pedio, Maddalena; Chergui, Majed

    2009-02-23

    A manifestation of electronic entanglement in core-level spectroscopic measurements of diatomic molecules, reported recently by Schöffler and co-workers, is discussed. The results are reminiscent of Schrödinger's famous Gedanken experiment with the cat (see picture).

  12. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  13. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats.

  14. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats. PMID:17317801

  15. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (<10 eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  16. Helicobacter pylori isolated from the domestic cat: public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J; Paster, B J; Yan, L L; Rozmiarek, H; Rufo, R; Stalis, I H

    1994-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been directly linked with active chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Although a substantial portion of the human population is colonized with H. pylori, the patterns of transmission of the organism remain in doubt, and reservoir hosts have not been identified. This study documents the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats obtained from a commercial vendor. The isolation of H. pylori from these cats was confirmed by morphologic and biochemical evaluations, fatty acid analysis, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. H. pylori was cultured from 6 cats and organisms compatible in appearance with H. pylori were observed in 15 additional cats by histologic examination. In most animals, H. pylori was present in close proximity to mucosal epithelial cells or in mucus layers of the glandular or surface epithelium. Microscopically, H. pylori-infected cat stomachs contained a mild to severe diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with small numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in the subglandular and gastric mucosae. Lymphoid follicles were also noted, particularly in the antrum, and often displaced glandular mucosal tissue. Thus, the domestic cat may be a potential model for H. pylori disease in humans. Also, the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats raises the possibility that the organism may be a zoonotic pathogen, with transmission occurring from cats to humans. Images PMID:8188360

  17. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.

  18. [Chronic-idiopathic enteropathy in cats--a case control study].

    PubMed

    Meneses, F; Ehinger, B; Gerhardt, A; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Amtsberg, G; Nolte, I

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study is to clinically, microbiologically and histopathologically characterize inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the cat. Nine cats with chronic persistent or intermitent vomitus and diarrhea were examined between 1998 and 2001. All cats had a thuorough diagnostic workup performed. Full thickness biopsies from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were surgically obtained for histopathological examination. Duodenal juice was obtained by direct aspiration for microbiologic qualitative and semiquantitative examination. Seven cats euthanized for other medical reasons were used as controls. Six cats had a lymphoplasmacytic IBD and three an eosinophilic IBD. Four cats with IBD had additional diseases diagnosed. Three cats with IBD had elevated bacterial counts. Retrospectively no correlation could be found between clinical symptoms and histopathological results. Serum TLI was not able to differentiate chronic pancreatitis and IBD. Serum folic acid and cobalamin did not correlate with the distribution of lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Finally, no correlation was found between bacterial counts in the proximal duodenum and IBD.

  19. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  20. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  1. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    SciTech Connect

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man`ko, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}, C{sub 3v} Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states.

  2. Detection of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) nucleic acids in FIV-seronegative cats.

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, S; Beebe, A M; Barlough, J; Phillips, T; Elder, J; Torten, M; Pedersen, N

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the rate of viral transmission among naive specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats living in close contact with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. Twenty SPF cats were housed in the same rooms with experimentally FIV-infected seropositive and virus culture-positive cats for 2 to 4 years and were monitored for the presence of FIV nucleic acids and antibodies. Only 1 of the 20 cats became seropositive and virus culture positive and developed signs of disease. Genomic DNA from bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 10 of 19 healthy-appearing seronegative cats became positive for FIV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-eight SPF cats housed as groups in separate quarters and never exposed to FIV-infected cats were uniformly negative for FIV DNA. FIV RNA transcripts were detected in concanavalin A-stimulated PBMC cultures from 4 of 10 FIV DNA-positive, seronegative cats by in situ hybridization. PBMC from three of four naive SPF cats acquired FIV nucleic acids after the cats were transfused with blood and bone marrow from FIV genome-positive, seronegative donors. Three of five FIV-seronegative cats housed for years with naturally FIV-infected cats in a private household were also found to harbor FIV DNA, indicating that the same phenomenon occurred in the field. These findings demonstrate that cats living in close contact with FIV-infected seropositive cats can acquire FIV nucleic acids without developing detectable levels of serum antibodies or disease. Images PMID:1318395

  3. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  4. Risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats in a suburban US town.

    PubMed

    Loyd, K A T; Hernandez, S M; Abernathy, K J; Shock, B C; Marshall, G J

    2013-09-28

    Free-roaming cats may experience numerous hazardous encounters in the outdoor environment, including: vehicular accidents, aggression from other animals and exposure to infectious disease. This research quantitatively examined the outdoor activities of 55 owned cats by monitoring pets outfitted with 'KittyCam' video cameras. KittyCams are a type of Crittercam, designed by National Geographic to allow recording of a cat-eye view without disrupting behaviour. We investigated the activities of free-roaming cats in suburban Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, during all four seasons. Research objectives included documenting the type and regularity of risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats and identifying characteristics of pet cats (eg, age, sex, roaming habitat) which predict risky behaviour in the outdoors. The most common risk behaviours exhibited by suburban free-roaming cats included crossing roads (45 per cent of our sample), encountering strange cats (25 per cent), eating and drinking substances away from home (25 per cent), exploring storm drain systems (20 per cent), and entering crawlspaces of houses (20 per cent). Male cats were more likely to engage in risk behaviours than female cats, and older cats engaged in fewer risk behaviours than younger individuals. We hope this information can be used to encourage the public to keep cats indoors more often (with consideration for their indoor quality of life) or supervise them while outdoors. PMID:23913174

  5. Implementation of a feral cat management program on a university campus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kathy L; Slater, Margaret R

    2002-01-01

    In August 1998, Texas AM University implemented on campus a trap-test-vaccinate-alter-return-monitor (TTVARM) program to manage the feral cat population. TTVARM is an internationally recognized term for trapping and neutering programs aimed at management of feral cat populations. In this article we summarize results of the program for the period August 1998 to July 2000. In surgery laboratories, senior veterinary students examined cats that were humanely trapped once a month and tested them for feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus infections, vaccinated, and surgically neutered them. They euthanized cats testing positive for either infectious disease. Volunteers provided food and observed the cats that were returned to their capture sites on campus and maintained in managed colonies. The program placed kittens and tame cats for adoption; cats totaled 158. Of the majority of 158 captured cats, there were less kittens caught in Year 2 than in Year 1. The proportion of tame cats trapped was significantly greater in Year 2 than in Year 1. The prevalence found for feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus ELISA test positives was 5.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Following surgery, 101 cats returned to campus. The project recaptured, retested, and revaccinated more than one-fourth of the cats due for their annual vaccinations. The program placed 32 kittens, juveniles, and tame adults for adoption. The number of cat complaints received by the university's pest control service decreased from Year 1 to Year 2.

  6. [A comparison of corneal sensitivity between healthy cats and cats with corneal sequestra].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Frank; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Heider, Hans-Josef; Görig, Christiane; Nolte, Ingo

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish reference values for corneal sensitivity in ophthalmologically healthy persians (n = 40) and domestic short hair cats (n = 60) a prospective study was conducted. Furthermore corneal sensitivity in 48 cats with a corneal sequestrum was measured. Corneal sensitivity was recorded with the help of the aesthesiometer according to Cochet and Bonnet in five different corneal locations (central, nasal, dorsal, temporal, and ventral). The sensitivity for the central corneal region was recorded as amounting to 3.58 +/- 0.56 cm in ophthalmologically healthy domestic short hair cats and to 2.97 +/- 0.58 cm in healthy persian cats. The sensitivity of the central corneal area of a cat with a corneal sequester only amounts to 2.03 +/- 0.53 cm. Between the diseased and the healthy eyes no statistical difference could be demonstrated for any of the measured corneal locations. The sensitivity of the peripheral corneal locations is significantly lower than that of the central corneal region in all three groups examined. PMID:14526473

  7. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  8. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  9. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  10. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  12. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-07-02

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  13. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  14. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  15. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  16. Changes in renal function in cats following treatment of hyperthyroidism using 131I.

    PubMed

    Adams, W H; Daniel, G B; Legendre, A M; Gompf, R E; Grove, C A

    1997-01-01

    BUN, serum creatinine, and urine specific gravity values. It was concluded that significant declines in renal function occur after treatment of hyperthyroidism and this decline is clinically important in cats with renal disease. Pretreatment measurement of GFR is valuable in detecting subclinical renal disease and in predicting which cats may have clinically important declines in renal function following treatment. PMID:9238796

  17. Meniscal mineralisation in little spotted cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the stifle joints of little spotted cats in captivity using radiographic and CT studies. The hypothesis was that these animals would have meniscal mineralisation that could be detectable by imaging studies. Twelve intact little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 2 females and 10 males, aged from 1.5 to 11.11 years old and weighing 1.9–3.05 kg were studied. These animals, which were living in the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo, had no symptoms or known disease processes at the time of the study. The plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans of both stifle joints were performed under general anaesthesia. Sequential transverse images were acquired on a spiral scanner. Results No signs of articular disease were observed in any of the animals. Radiographically, the meniscal mineralisation was detected as an oval radiopacity in the cranial compartment on the mediolateral projection, located within the area of the medial meniscus. On craniocaudal projection, the mineralisation was more difficult to visualise. In one of the animals, it was not possible to identify the meniscal mineralisation in either of the stifle joints. Using CT, meniscal mineralisation was best identified in the transverse plane images. Conclusions Meniscal mineralisation appears to be a normal anatomic feature in little spotted cats. PMID:23506083

  18. Feasibility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Thomas; Willard, Michael D; Ruhnke, Isabelle; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Cats are predisposed to diseases of the biliary tract and the exocrine pancreas and these can be challenging to diagnose. In humans and dogs > 10 kg, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been successfully used to diagnose some of these disorders. The purpose of our study was to determine whether ERCP would also be feasible in cats using a pediatric duodenoscope. Four purpose-bred, clinically healthy, castrated domestic shorthair cats participated in two studies. Study 1 compared standard white light endoscopy with chromoendoscopy for localizing the major duodenal papilla. In Study 2 ERCP was performed. Repeated clinical examinations and measurements of serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) were performed before and up to 18 hours after interventions on all cats. Chromoendoscopy was subjectively judged to be superior for localizing the major papilla. Insertion of the ERCP catheter was best accomplished when cats were in dorsal recumbency. Complete ERCP was successful in two cats. In the other cats, either retrograde cholangiography or pancreatography was possible. Serum fPLI concentrations increased temporarily in two cats during Study 2 when measured immediately, 2, 4, and 18 h after ERCP. Peak fPLI concentrations were detected either immediately after ERCP or 2 h later. No clinical signs of complications were observed within 18 h after the procedures. Findings indicated that ERCP is technically demanding but feasible in healthy cats. Future studies need to determine whether the temporary increases in serum fPLI concentrations are clinically important and to investigate the utility of ERCP in feline patients.

  19. Helicobacter infection in dogs and cats: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Neiger, R; Simpson, K W

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of the spiral bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its causative role in gastric disease in humans has brought a dramatic change to gastroenterology. Although spiral bacteria have been known for more than a century to infect the stomachs of dogs and cats, recent research has been conducted mainly in the wake of interest in H. pylori. H. pylori has not been found in dogs and only very rarely in cats and zoonotic risk is minimal. A variety of other Helicobacter spp. can infect the stomach of pets; however, their pathogenic role is far from clear, and they have a small but real zoonotic potential. The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats is high, irrespective of clinical signs, and as in human medicine, mode of transmission is unclear. The relationship of Helicobacter spp. to gastric inflammation in cats and dogs is unresolved, with inflammation, glandular degeneration, and lymphoid follicle hyperplasia accompanying infection in some but not all subjects. Circulating anti-Helicobacter immunoglobulin G antibodies have been detected in 80% of dogs with naturally acquired infection and most dogs and cats with experimental infection. The gastric secretory axis is similar in infected and uninfected cats and dogs and no relationship of infection to gastrointestinal ulcers has been found. Differences in the pathogenicity of Helicobacter spp. are apparent, because infection with H pylori is associated with a more severe gastritis than infection with other Helicobacter spp. in both cats and dogs. Rapid urease test, histopathology, and touch cytology are all highly accurate invasive diagnostic tests for gastric Helicobacter-like organisms in dogs and cats, whereas culture and polymerase chain reaction are the only means to identify them to the species level. Urea breath and blood tests or serology can be used to diagnose Helicobacter spp. noninvasively in dogs and cats. Most therapeutic studies in pets have not shown long-term eradication of

  20. Congenital Paraesophageal Hernia in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kim; Guillou, Reunan; Vét, Doc

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male domestic shorthair weighing 2 kg was presented for acute onset of anorexia, lethargy, paradoxical breathing, and a palpable mass effect in the cranial abdomen. Initial diagnostics and imaging suggested a pleuroperitoneal or hiatal hernia. Emergency abdominal exploration was performed, and a complex type II paraesophageal hiatal hernia was identified. The entire stomach, greater and lesser omenta, spleen, left limb of the pancreas, and the proximal segment of the descending duodenum were herniated through a discrete defect in the phrenicoesophageal ligament. After reduction of the herniated organs back into the abdomen, a phrenicoplasty, esophagopexy, and left-sided fundic gastropexy were performed. The cat recovered uneventfully from the procedure and was free of any signs of disease for at least 30 mo postoperatively. This is the first detailed report of the findings and successful surgical treatment of a complex congenital, type II paraesophageal hiatal hernia with complete herniation of the stomach, omenta, and spleen in a cat.

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in dogs and cats and its prevalence is increasing in both species, probably due to an increase in obesity, although only in cats has obesity been clearly identified as a major risk factor for diabetes. While the classification of diabetes in dogs and cats has been modeled after that of humans, many aspects are different. Autoimmune destruction of beta cells, a feature of type 1 DM in people, is common in dogs; however, in contrast to what is seen in people, the disease occurs in older dogs. Diabetes also occurs in older cats but islet pathology in those species is characterized by the presence of amyloid, the hallmark of type 2 DM. Despite being overweight or obese, most naive diabetic cats, contrary to type 2 diabetic humans, present with low insulin concentrations. The physiology of carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes, including histopathologic findings, in dogs and cats are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Occurrence and regional distribution of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats in Germany.

    PubMed

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Infections with the metastrongyloid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats have been reported sporadically from Germany. To assess the occurrence and regional geographical distribution of A. abstrusus in Germany, faecal samples from 391 cats with symptoms of respiratory disease were collected from December 2009 to November 2011. The zinc chloride/sodium chloride flotation and Baermann funnel technique were used to examine the samples for the presence of lungworm larvae. The collected data were analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS). Infections with lungworms were diagnosed in 26 (6.6 %) of the examined cats. The infection rates did not show significant differences in the age groups up to 7 years. Only cats older than 7 were significantly less infected with lungworms than young cats. Sixteen of the 192 female cats examined and 7 of the 186 males were positive for A. abstrusus, but there were no significant differences for the variable 'gender infection rate'. Most of the A. abstrusus-positive cats were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg, followed by Lower Saxony, Bremen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saarland, Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. The majority of infected cats showed severe clinical symptoms characterised by coughing and dyspnoea, increased breathing rate, weight loss, bronchopneumonia, generally poor condition, sneezing and nasal discharge. The high number of lungworm-positive cats and the severe clinical symptoms should encourage veterinarians in Germany to consider infections with A. abstrusus as a differential diagnosis in cats with symptoms of respiratory disease. PMID:23239090

  3. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  4. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  5. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  6. Malignant histiocytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Court, E A; Earnest-Koons, K A; Barr, S C; Gould, W J

    1993-11-01

    A 13-year-old male domestic shorthair cat was found to have normocytic hypochromic regenerative anemia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Transfusions of packed RBC failed to maintain the PCV above 13% for > 8 hours. The cat was euthanatized. At necropsy, the spleen liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow were infiltrated with malignant histiocytes undergoing erythrophagocytosis.

  7. Sickness behaviors in response to unusual external events in healthy cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judi L.; Lord, Linda K.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Design Prospective observational study. Animals 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Procedures Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks. Results An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs. PMID:21194324

  8. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  9. Long-term follow-up after weight management in obese cats.

    PubMed

    Deagle, Gabrielle; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; Morris, Penelope J; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Feline obesity is a prevalent medical disease and the main therapeutic strategy is dietary energy restriction. However, at present there are no data regarding long-term outcome in this species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if, as in other species, some cats regain weight following successful weight loss, and to identify any influencing factors in a cohort of client-owned cats with naturally occurring obesity. Twenty-six cats were included, all of which had successfully completed a weight management programme. After weight loss, cats were periodically monitored. The median duration of follow-up was 954 d (72-2162 d). Ten cats (39 %) maintained their completion weight (±5 %), four (15 %) lost >5 % additional weight and 12 (46 %) gained >5 % weight. Seven of the rebounding cats (58 %) regained over 50 % of their original weight lost. Older cats were less likely to regain weight than younger cats (P = 0·024); with an approximately linear negative association between the cat's age and the amount of weight regained (Kendall's τ = -0·340, P = 0·016). Furthermore, cats whose energy intake during weight loss was greater were also more likely to regain weight (P = 0·023). When the characteristics of weight regain in cats were compared with those from a similar cohort of dogs, cats that rebounded were more likely to regain >50 % of the weight they had lost. These results suggest that weight regain, after successful weight loss, is common in obese cats, and that young cats (<7 years of age) are most at risk. PMID:26101594

  10. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  11. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  12. Annotated features of domestic cat – Felis catus genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. Feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. A rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotation a highly informative resource that facilitates multifaceted research endeavors. Findings Here we report a preliminary annotation of the whole genome sequence of Cinnamon, a domestic cat living in Columbia (MO, USA), bisulfite sequencing of Boris, a male cat from St. Petersburg (Russia), and light 30× sequencing of Sylvester, a European wildcat progenitor of cat domestication. The annotation includes 21,865 protein-coding genes identified by a comparative approach, 217 loci of endogenous retrovirus-like elements, repetitive elements which comprise about 55.7% of the whole genome, 99,494 new SNVs, 8,355 new indels, 743,326 evolutionary constrained elements, and 3,182 microRNA homologues. The methylation sites study shows that 10.5% of cat genome cytosines are methylated. An assisted assembly of a European wildcat, Felis silvestris silvestris, was performed; variants between F. silvestris and F. catus genomes were derived and compared to F. catus. Conclusions The presented genome annotation extends beyond earlier ones by closing gaps of sequence that were unavoidable with previous low-coverage shotgun genome sequencing. The assembly and its annotation offer an important resource for connecting the rich veterinary and natural history of cats to genome discovery. PMID:25143822

  13. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in cats.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jacquie S

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are 2 potentially life-threatening presentations of feline diabetes mellitus. Presentations range from mildly anorexic cats with diabetic ketoacidosis to comatose cats with diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Such cases are the result of severe insulin deficiency and/or concurrent disease, resulting in nausea and vomiting, electrolyte and water losses, acidosis, and circulatory collapse. The condition requires careful attention to supportive care to correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, treatment of concurrent diseases, and reversal of the effects of insulin deficiency. However, early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and institution of appropriate insulin therapy prevents these complications.

  14. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  15. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended. PMID:26387062

  16. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.

  17. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  18. Studying Cat (Felis catus) Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, Stijn J. M.; Forcada, Yaiza; Mantis, Panagiotis; Lamb, Christopher R.; Harrington, Norelene; Fowkes, Rob; Korbonits, Márta; Smith, Ken; Church, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in domestic cats (Felis catus). It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay), followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml) through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1%) demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6–28.6%). Of these cats a subset of 63 (20%) underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89%) had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90–100%), thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2–28.6%). Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease. PMID:26023776

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in 19 cats from a Single Institution (1980-2013).

    PubMed

    Goussev, Staci A; Center, Sharon Anne; Randolph, John F; Kathrani, Aarti; Butler, Brian P; McDonough, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Clinical features of feline hepatocellular carcinoma (HCA) have been poorly characterized. In this retrospective study, we describe the signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic parameters, imaging characteristics, hepatic mass size and lobe distribution, concurrent disorders, and survival in 19 cats with HCA. HCA is a rare neoplasm in elderly cats often associated with weight loss, hyporexia, and increased hepatic transaminase activities. Concurrent disorders (e.g., hyperthyroidism, inflammatory bowel disease, cholangiohepatitis, copper-associated hepatopathy) often confounded interpretation of clinical and clinicopathologic findings; 42% of HCA were incidentally identified. Although an abdominal mass was palpated in only 21% of cats, many cats had masses identified on ultrasonographic imaging with 47% having lesions >4 cm. Tumors were nearly equally distributed between right and left liver lobes, and two cats had HCA in multiple liver lobes. Median survival of eight cats diagnosed antemortem was 1.7 (0.6 to 6.5) yr. Median survival of six cats undergoing HCA surgical resection was 2.4 (1.0 to 6.5) yr with two cats still alive at time of manuscript submission. Following surgical resection, one cat treated with carboplatin survived 4 yr. Two cats with HCA diagnosed antemortem without surgical resection survived for 0.6 and 1 yr.

  20. Clinical investigation of doxorubicin, daunomycin, and 6-thioguanine in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Henness, A M; Theilen, G H; Lewis, J P

    1977-04-01

    Cats frequently develop a variety of spontaneous hemolymphatic noeplasias. Long-term remissions in the nonlymphatic leukemic cat are difficult to obtain; therefore, more successful chemotherapeutic agents are sought for disease control. The purpose in the present study is to describe the clinical investigation of 3 antineoplastic drugs given to 23 normal cats. The cats tolerated doxorubican given at the dose level of 30 mg/m2 of body surface area once every 3 weeks; daunomycin, 15 to 30 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks; and 6-thioguanine, 25 mg/m2 for 5 days every 20 to 30 days.

  1. Homologous protection but lack of heterologous-protection by various species and types of Bartonella in specific pathogen-free cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Chang, C C; Tseggai, T; Decker, P R; Mackowiak, M; Floyd-Hawkins, K A; Pedersen, N C

    1998-10-23

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae, and possibly by B. clarridgeiae. In immuno-compromised persons, B. henselae is one of the agents causing bacillary angiomatosis. Domestic cats are the main reservoir of these bacteria, which are transmitted primarily from cat to cat by fleas. Possible strategies to prevent the spread of infection among cats are to eliminate flea infestation or to prophylactically immunize cats. In order to develop an appropriate vaccine, it is important to determine if cats become resistant to re-infection by the same strain or various types or species of Bartonella. In a series of experiments, 21 SPF cats were experimentally infected by the intradermal route with 10(5)-10(10) colony-forming units/ml of either B. henselae type II (17 cats), or a new strain 'Humboldt' isolated from a mountain lion (4 cats). The cats were bled weekly to every other week for determination of bacteremia and specific antibody production. After they cleared their infection, they were challenged by a homologous or heterologous strain of Bartonella: 10 cats were challenged with B. henselae type II, three cats with B. henselae type I, four cats with B. clarridgeiae and four cats with the 'Humboldt' strain. Seven of these cats received a third inoculum dose resulting in three cats sequentially infected with sequence B. henselae type II/B. henselae type II/'Humboldt', two cats with sequence B. henselae type II/'Humboldt'/B. clarridgeiae, and two cats with the sequence 'Humboldt'/B. henselae type II/'Humboldt'. All cats challenged with a homologous strain remained abacteremic after challenge and had an increased IgG antibody titer. All cats challenged with either a different Bartonella species or type became bacteremic. The few cats receiving a third inoculum with a strain homologous to the initial strain remained abacteremicafter that challenge. All cats infected with B. clarridgeiae suffered relapsing bacteremia compared to only 36% of the B

  2. Multimodal Imaging Assisting the Early Diagnosis of Cat-Scratch Neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Neto, Clovis Arcoverde; Oréfice, Fernando; Costa, Rogerio A; Oréfice, Juliana L; Dhanireddy, Swetha; Maghsoudlou, Armin; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To describe how a multifocal fundus imaging system assisted the early diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis in a case of a 27-year-old male with unilateral visual loss, neuroretinitis, and a peripapillary angiomatous lesion. Multimodal fundus imaging analysis was an essential contributor to the clinical diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis during the early stage of the disease.

  3. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  4. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in hematologic diseases in patients over 15 years old: long-term experience at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, P; Nervi, B; Bertin, P; Poggi, H; Lagos, M; Selman, C; Pizarro, I; Jara, V; Wiestruck, A; Barriga, F

    2013-01-01

    Most patients who require a sibling stem cell transplantation do not have a matched donor. In our experience, only 1/3 patients have a matched unrelated donor (MUD); therefore, the majority of the patients will require umbilical cord blood (UCB). Patients treated for hematologic diseases with UCB transplants were included. UCB selection and conditioning regimens were performed according to the Minnesota group. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, infection prevention, and patient care were performed according to institutional guidelines. We analyzed patients and graft demography, neutrophil and platelet recovery, chimerism kinetics, GVHD incidence, overall (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We included 29 patients with a median age of 34.8 years (range 15-55). Eighteen were male and the median weight was 72.6 kg (range 54-100). Nineteen patients had acute leukemia. Myeloablative (MA) conditioning was used in 27 patients. Seventeen received double UCB (DUCB) grafts. Median total nucleated cell (10(7)/kg) was 4.2 (range 3.9-4.9) and 4.4 (range 2.8-6.3) for single UCB (SUCB) and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 24.7 (range 14-43) and 25.8 days (range 14-52) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for platelet engraftment was 147 (range 30-516) and 81 days (range 37-200) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. All the patients receiving MA conditioning had >95% chimerism shortly after transplant. Cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD was 41% and 20%, respectively. Localized chronic GVHD was seen in 14% of the patients. Median follow-up was 16.7 months (range 1-63). Five-year OS and PFS were 38% and 39%, respectively. One-year TRM was 42%. UCB transplantation is associated with potential cure of hematologic malignancies and our results are similar to other series. Studies are needed to decrease mortality and improve immune

  5. Experimental infection of cats with Afipia felis and various Bartonella species or subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Henn, Jennifer B; Koehler, Jane E; Chang, Chao-chin

    2014-08-27

    Based upon prior studies, domestic cats have been shown to be the natural reservoir for Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella koehlerae. However, other Bartonella species, such as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella quintana or Bartonella bovis (ex weissii) have been either isolated from or Bartonella DNA sequences PCR amplified and sequenced. In the late 1980s, before B. henselae was confirmed as the etiological agent of cat scratch disease, Afipia felis had been proposed as the causative agent. In order to determine the feline susceptibility to A. felis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella rochalimae, B. quintana or B. bovis, we sought to detect the presence of bacteremia and seroconversion in experimentally-inoculated cats. Most of the cats seroconverted, but only the cats inoculated with B. rochalimae became bacteremic, indicating that cats are not natural hosts of A. felis or the other Bartonella species or subspecies tested in this study.

  6. An open clinical trial on the efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride in the management of allergic pruritus in cats

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Joya S.; Scott, Danny W.; Miller, William H.; Tranchina, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Cetirizine hydrochloride was administered orally at 5 mg/cat, q24h, to 32 cats with allergic skin disease. Pruritus was reduced in 41% (13/32) of the cats. The antipruritic effect was repeatable and sustainable. There was no significant association between patient age, disease severity, or cutaneous reaction pattern and improvement during cetirizine administration. No adverse side effects were reported. PMID:22753962

  7. Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions in cats: 7 cases (1999-2009).

    PubMed

    Fiani, Nadine; Arzi, Boaz; Johnson, Eric G; Murphy, Brian; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2011-06-01

    Objective-To describe clinical features of oral and maxillofacial osteomas in cats. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-7 cats with oral or maxillofacial osteoma or both. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging findings, results of serum biochemical analyses and histologic testing, surgical procedures performed, and perioperative complications. Outcome was determined on the basis of follow-up telephone interviews of owners. Results-Cats ranged from 1 to 23 years of age. Clinical signs were observed in 5 cats and were attributed to the presence of the mass. Diagnostic imaging (radiography and computed tomography) and histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoma. Three cats were euthanatized; 1 cat was treated by mandibulectomy, 1 was treated by maxillectomy, and 2 were treated by debulking. At the time of follow-up at least 1 year after surgery, all 4 treated cats were alive, with owners reporting an acceptable quality of life. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions is an uncommon tumor in cats. Most cats are examined during an advanced stage of the disease, when treatment options may be limited. Although osteoma is a benign tumor, the recommendation is to perform a clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, biopsy, and treatment early in the disease process, when less invasive surgical approaches may be feasible.

  8. Dynamic sound localization in cats

    PubMed Central

    Ruhland, Janet L.; Jones, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  9. Dynamic sound localization in cats.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Janet L; Jones, Amy E; Yin, Tom C T

    2015-08-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  10. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  11. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  12. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  13. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  14. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  15. Serum α-1 acid glycoprotein and serum amyloid A concentrations in cats receiving antineoplastic treatment for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Valter M; Pavan, Tatiana L R; Wirthl, Vera A B F; Alves, Ana L N; Lucas, Silvia R R

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize serum α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations at diagnosis and during treatment in cats with lymphoma. ANIMALS 16 cats with various anatomic forms of lymphoma and 25 healthy cats. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from healthy cats once and from cats with lymphoma at diagnosis and 2-week intervals until the 12th week of antineoplastic treatment. Serum harvested from blood samples was assessed for AGP and SAA concentrations. Differences in serum AGP and SAA values were investigated between healthy cats and cats with lymphoma (at diagnosis) and, for cats with lymphoma, between diagnosis and various points during treatment. RESULTS Serum AGP and SAA concentrations were higher in cats with lymphoma at diagnosis (median, 832.60 and 1.03 μg/mL, respectively), compared with those in healthy cats (median, 269.85 and 0.10 μg/mL). Treatment resulted in a gradual decrease in serum AGP concentration after 4 weeks and in SAA concentration after 8 weeks of treatment, and these concentrations returned to values comparable with those of healthy cats by 12 weeks of treatment, by which point all cats had achieved complete remission of the disease. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serum AGP and SAA concentrations in cats with lymphoma were higher at diagnosis than after antineoplastic treatment. Decreases to values established for healthy cats corresponded with achievement of complete disease remission. Serum AGP and SAA may be useful protein markers for monitoring of antineoplastic treatment in cats with lymphoma.

  16. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    PubMed

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  17. Development of a Highly Specific IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Bartonella henselae Using Refined N-Lauroyl-Sarcosine-Insoluble Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Kondou, Kaori; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    The conventional anti-Bartonella henselaeIgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods for diagnosing cat scratch disease (CSD) remain poor in both sensitivity and specificity. We sought to develop an IgM-ELISA with improved accuracy in the serodiagnosis of CSD by exploring the antigens that are most suitable for an ELISA. We prepared 5 different protein antigens: antigen I (sonicatedB. henselaewhole-cell antigen), antigen II (N-lauroyl-sarcosine-insoluble antigen), antigen III (processed sarcosine-soluble antigen), and antigen IV and antigen V (sarcosine-insoluble and sarcosine-soluble antigens refined by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography). The IgM antibodies in the sera of 47 patients with clinically suspected CSD (24 definite, 23 suspected) and of 85 healthy individuals were examined by ELISAs using the 5 antigens, and the results were compared with those of an IgM indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IgM-IFA). In a reference panel, which consisted of 5 positive and 5 negative sera, antigen I and antigen III failed to distinguish between the two statuses, whereas the other three antigens succeeded in distinguishing between them. When the cutoff value was set at the 98th percentile of the ELISA index for healthy individuals, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA for the 24 cases of definite CSD was 54%, whereas the sensitivities of the IgM-ELISAs with antigen II, IV, and V were 75%, 83%, and 75%, respectively. The sensitivities of these three IgM-ELISAs for all 47 of the clinically suspected cases were 49%, 64%, and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA was 28%. These results indicate that the refined sarcosine-insoluble proteins (antigen IV), which possessed the highest specificity among the 5 antigens, are the most appropriate for developing an IgM-ELISA for the highly specific serodiagnosis of CSD.

  18. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  19. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  20. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  1. [Pericardial effusion in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yvonne; Wess, G; Hartmann, K

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the disease progression of a male cat with pericardial effusion. Clinical signs (dyspnea, lethargy, and weakness) started very acutely. The initial laboratory profile showed only an increase in alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity. Diagnostic imaging revealed pericardial effusion. Effusion analysis showed a Rivalta-positive, modified transudate. Detection of feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages was negative. General condition and laboratory parameters dramatically worsened within seven days. Therefore, the owners decided to euthanize the cat. Even if effusion variables are macroscopically and microscopically suspicious for FIP, a definitive diagnosis of FIP could only be made by histology (including immunhistochemical staining).

  2. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller, S; Francey, T; Hartmann, K; Hugonnard, M; Kohn, B; Nally, J E; Sykes, J

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but appears to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats, however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control of leptospirosis, therefore, is important not only from an animal but also from a public health perspective. The aim of this consensus statement is to raise awareness of leptospirosis and to outline the current knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment measures relevant to canine and feline leptospirosis in Europe. PMID:25754092

  3. Imaging diagnosis: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in a cat.

    PubMed

    Klang, Andrea; Kneissl, Sibylle; Glänzel, Romana; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old female cat was presented for progressive alopecia, gait abnormalities, and stiffness. Radiography demonstrated multiple calcified lesions within the soft tissues of the cervical and thoracic spine, shoulder, and limbs. Postmortem computed tomography provided more detailed information on the distribution, pattern, and extension of lesions. In addition, computed tomography helped guide sample selection for histopathology. The final diagnosis was fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. This is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by fibrosis and heterotopic bone formation in connective tissues. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing this disease in a European cat.

  4. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  5. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  6. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner’s-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner’s-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner’s-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner’s-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner’s-choice foods. Cats fed owner’s-choice foods were

  7. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  8. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6–10 cats, group 3: fed 11–20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18–81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. “Heavy” feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, “heavy” feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders’ reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity

  9. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  10. Stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Taugner, F M

    2001-01-01

    Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of the ventricular myocardium, which may cause sudden death in cats, but neither the aetiology nor the effect on the circulation are well understood. Fourteen cats of either sex with naturally occurring HCM were studied post mortem. Their ages ranged from 9 months to 10 years with an average age of 4.9 years. Heart weights and heart weight expressed as a percentage of body weight were elevated (27.9 g and 0.65%, respectively) as compared with normal values obtained in previous studies. Myocardial disarray was evident in nine of the 14 cats and moderate to severe fibrosis was present in six animals. To evaluate the renal renin-angiotensin system, semiquantitative morphometric data were obtained by means of renin immunohistochemistry and compared with results from an earlier study of 10 healthy cats by the author. The juxtaglomerular index was 36.8% in the cats with HCM as compared with 30.6% in healthy cats. The renin-positive portion of the afferent arteriole was increased in cats affected by HCM to 86.0 microm as compared with 49.9 microm in normal cats. The increase in kidney renin values in cats with HCM may have been due to decreased blood pressure and reduced renal perfusion resulting from impaired cardiac output. PMID:11578127

  11. Tissue distribution of amyloid deposits in Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Tarr, M J; Benson, M D

    1986-07-01

    The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits was studied in 15 related Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis. There was interstitial medullary amyloidosis in the kidneys of all 15 cats but only 11 had detectable glomerular involvement. The thyroid glands, stomach and colon were affected in all cats examined. Most of the cats also had amyloid deposits in the small intestine, spleen, heart, adrenals, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes and bladder. In 50 per cent or fewer of the cats examined, there was involvement of the parathyroids, lung and gonads. The central nervous system was not involved in any of the 3 cats evaluated. In 8 of the cats, no concurrent inflammatory disease could be detected. The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits resembled that found in other breeds of domestic cats with systemic amyloidosis. Despite the wide tissue distribution of amyloid deposits, clinical signs were related to renal amyloidosis. Familial amyloidosis in the Abyssinian cat may represent a valuable spontaneous animal model for the study of Familial Mediterranean Fever in man and the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in general. PMID:3734172

  12. Immunological changes in cats with concurrent Toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, D S; Bowman, D D; Jacobson, R H

    1992-01-01

    To examine the immunological changes in cats concurrently infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Toxoplasma gondii, kittens (four per group) were inoculated with FIV, T. gondii, both agents, or no pathogens. Blood mononuclear cells and plasma were collected weekly for lymphocyte assays and serology. At week 14, spleen and lymph node cells were used for lymphocyte assays; brains and mesenteric lymph nodes were used for isolation of T. gondii. More T. gondii organisms were present in tissues of the dually infected cats than in tissues of cats with toxoplasmosis alone. Two dually infected cats and one cat infected with T. gondii developed chorioretinitis. Spleen, lymph node, and blood mononuclear cells from dually infected cats had the greatest reduction in mitogenic responses. By week 3, cats infected with FIV underwent a decrease in the number of CD4 cells that was not changed by concurrent T. gondii infection; the number of CD8 cells increased only in cats infected with T. gondii alone. For cats infected with T. gondii, the responses of lymphocytes to T. gondii antigen were not affected by FIV infection; the responses to FIV antigen were negligible in all groups. Overall, this study indicates that FIV infection favors T. gondii proliferation. Also, the establishment of toxoplasmosis may enhance FIV-induced immunodeficiency and is likely to cause a more rapid disease progression than that from infection with FIV alone. PMID:1346403

  13. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  14. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  15. Bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in California: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers.

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, B B; Abbott, R C; Kasten, R W; Floyd-Hawkins, K A; Kass, P H; Glaser, C A; Pedersen, N C; Koehler, J E

    1995-01-01

    The isolation of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease, from the blood of naturally infected domestic cats and the demonstration that cats remain bacteremic for several months suggest that cats play a major role as a reservoir for this bacterium. A convenience sample of 205 cats from northern California was selected between 1992 and 1994 to evaluate the B. henselae antibody and bacteremia prevalences and to determine the risk factors and associations between bacteremia and antibody titers. B. henselae was isolated from the blood of 81 cats (39.5%). Forty-two (52%) of these bacteremic cats were found to be infected with > or = 1,000 CFU/ml of blood. Impounded or former stray cats were 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94, 4.22) times more likely to be bacteremic than the pet cats. Young cats ( < 1 year old) were more likely than adult cats to be bacteremic (relative risk = 1.64; (95% CI = 1.19, 2.28). Bacteremic cats were more likely than nonbacteremic cats to be infested with fleas (relative risk = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.38, 1.96). No association between B. henselae infection and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody prevalence was observed. Eighty-one percent of the cats (166 of 205) tested positive for B. henselae antibodies, and titers were higher in bacteremic than in nonbacteremic cats. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age and seropositivity for B. henselae antibodies were associated with bacteremia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7494043

  16. Vaccination of cats against emerging and reemerging zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Olsen, C W

    1999-01-01

    Many of the emerging infectious agents that threaten the human population are either directly zoonotic or involve animals, rather than humans, as their primary reservoir in nature. Vaccination of animals may be an important consideration for control of some of these diseases, and this review has specifically focused on the concept of vaccinating cats in the prevention of infection with T. gondii, B. henselae, and H. pylori. If we return to the considerations that were presented in Table III, T. gondii is really the only one of these three agents for which each of these "criteria" for vaccination is fulfilled at the present time. However, cats clearly play an important role in the epidemiology of infection with B. henselae and this is an organism for which we probably will and should see a vaccine for widespread and routine use in cats. PMID:9890026

  17. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in a Siamese/short-haired European cat.

    PubMed

    Macrì, B; Marino, F; Mazzullo, G; Trusso, A; De Maria, R; Amedeo, S; Divari, S; Castagnaro, M

    2002-10-01

    A 3-year-old Siamese/short-haired European cat was referred for clinical disease characterized by dwarfism, facial dysmorphia, paralysis, small and curled ears, corneal clouding and large areas of alopecia. X-ray examination showed multiple bone dysplasia. On the basis of clinical features a form of mucopolysaccharidosis was suspected. The cat, killed at the owner's request, presented several severe skeletal deformities such as long caudal limbs, enlarged thorax with sunken breastbone, vertebral ankylosis in many spinal segments and visceral involvement. Histologically, the cat showed diffuse vacuolization and enlargement of cells in cartilage, bone and visceral organs. Ultrastructurally, membrane-bound vacuoles were filled with fibrillar and fluffy-material or concentrically whorled lamellae. Arylsulphatase B activity was 3.24 nm/mg/h in the affected cat and 30.6 in a normal age-matched control (NC). The L-iduronidase activity was slightly increased. Quantitation of total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) revealed a 4.5-fold increase in the affected cat as compared with NC, while electrophoretic run of specific GAGs [chondroitin sulphate (CA); hyaluronan (HA); heparan sulphate (HS); dermatan sulphate (DS); keratan sulphate (KS)] performed on a cellulose acetate sheet, showed a striking increase in the DS band. On densitometric analysis of the electrophoretic run stained with Alcian Blue 8GX, the absorption of DS was eight-fold increased as compared with NC. The clinical and morphological features, and the biochemical findings, were consistent with the diagnosis of feline mucopolysaccharidosis VI.

  18. Characterization of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis in 3 cats.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, M D; Armien, A G; Gilliam, D H; Johnson, G S; Zeng, R; Wünschmann, A; Kovi, R C; Katz, M L

    2014-07-01

    Three young domestic shorthair cats were presented for necropsy with similar histories of slowly progressive visual dysfunction and neurologic deficits. Macroscopic examination of each cat revealed cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, dilated lateral ventricles, and slight brown discoloration of the gray matter. Histologically, there was bilateral loss of neurons within the limbic, motor, somatosensory, visual, and, to a lesser extent, vestibular systems with extensive astrogliosis in the affected regions of all 3 cases. Many remaining neurons and glial cells throughout the entire central nervous system were distended by pale yellow to eosinophilic, autofluorescent cytoplasmic inclusions with ultrastructural appearances typical of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs). Differences in clinical presentation and neurological lesions suggest that the 3 cats may have had different variants of NCL. Molecular genetic characterization in the 1 cat from which DNA was available did not reveal any plausible disease-causing mutations of the CLN1 (PPT1), CLN3, CLN5, CLN8, and CLN10 (CTSD) genes. Further investigations will be required to identify the mutations responsible for NCLs in cats. PMID:24026940

  19. MicroRNA expression profiling of cat and dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yabuki, Akira; Horino, Taro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. Here, we present the first analysis of miRNA expression in the kidneys of healthy cats and dogs. Kidneys were divided into renal cortex (CO) and medulla (MD), and RNA sequence analysis was performed using the mouse genome as a reference. A total of 277, 276, 295, and 297 miRNAs were detected in cat CO, cat MD, dog CO, and dog MD, respectively. By comparing the expression ratio of CO to MD, we identified highly expressed miRNAs in each tissue as follows: 41 miRNAs including miR-192-5p in cat CO; 45 miRNAs including miR-323-3p in dog CO; 78 miRNAs including miR-20a-5p in cat MD; and 11 miRNAs including miR-132-5p in dog MD. Further, the target mRNAs of these miRNAs were identified. These data provide veterinary medicine critical information regarding renal miRNA expression.

  20. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  1. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  2. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  3. Effect of Polyprenyl Immunostimulant on the survival times of three cats with the dry form of feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Alfred M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2009-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is considered a fatal disease. Three cats with dry form FIP were treated with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant. Two of the three cats are still on treatment and are alive and well 2 years after diagnosis. The third cat survived 14 months but was treated for only 4.5 months. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential of the Polyprenyl Immunostimulant.

  4. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  5. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  6. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  7. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  8. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  9. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  10. Vocalization in the cat and kitten.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Buchwald, J S; Johnson, J R; Mikolich, D J

    1978-11-01

    Vocal responses of kittens and mature cats were recorded in a variety of standard behavioral situations. Sonographic analysis of these responses showed similarities of responses obtained repeatedly from different cats within each recording situation. Marked differences in response patterns were noted in different recording situations. The kitten and cat vocal repertoires thus include a variety of specific responses to particular motivational or behavioral circumstances.

  11. Human-Related Factors Regulate the Spatial Ecology of Domestic Cats in Sensitive Areas for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298

  12. Lily toxicity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2010-11-01

    Lilies are commonly kept flowering ornamental plants that are used in holiday celebrations, weddings, and funerals, and in various floral arrangements. Lilies of genera Lilium and Hemerocallis (day lilies) have been shown to cause nephrotoxicity in cats. Confusion arises because so many different plants are called lilies. Members of the genus Convallaria (lily of the valley), while sparing on the kidneys, elicit toxic effects because they possess potent cardiac glycosides similar to digitalis. Even more confusing as to which lilies are toxic is the fact that many hybrids exist. The majority of the public do not know that lilies can be dangerous to cats and, in fact, cannot correctly identify the plants in their own homes. Cats have been shown to be extremely sensitive to the toxic effects of lilies. As little as 2 leaves or part of a single flower have resulted in deaths. It should be pointed out that the whole plant-petals, stamen, leaves, and pollen are toxic. The exact toxic dose and the precise toxins responsible for renal damage are currently unknown. The quick onset of clinical signs suggests a rapid absorption rate of the toxin. The renal tubular epithelium appears to be the target of the toxin. Studies indicate that it is the water-soluble fraction of the lily that is nephrotoxic. In cats, clinical signs of lily intoxication include salivation, vomiting, anorexia, and depression. Polyuric renal failure leads to dehydration and anuric renal failure and death results. No analytic verification of lily ingestion is currently available. Successful treatment includes initiation of fluid diuresis before the onset of anuric renal failure. Once anuria develops, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is the only potential treatment. Differential diagnoses of lily poisoning include any potential cause of acute renal failure in a cat. Prognosis is excellent if fluid diuresis is started before anuric renal failure has developed. The public must be made aware of potentially

  13. Plasma and urine biochemical changes in cats with experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Lucke, V M; Stokes, C R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1991-01-01

    Biochemical changes in plasma and urine were monitored in six cats before and during the induction of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) by daily intravenous administration of human serum albumin (HSA). The earliest indication of renal dysfunction in the cats was hypoalbuminaemia, which occurred as early as 13 weeks before cats developed clinical signs of renal disease. Proteinuria occurred 2 to 3 weeks before clinical disease, but was sensitive in predicting renal pathology in two cats that did not develop clinical signs of disease. In addition, increased activities of several urinary enzymes were detected in affected cats, with measurement of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and gamma-glutamyl transferase providing the earliest and most sensitive indication of renal damage. These plasma and urine measurements correlated more closely with the renal pathology, observed at postmortem, than clinical assessment of disease. It was concluded that ICGN in the cat could be diagnosed earliest by measurement of plasma protein concentration, whilst disease progress could be effectively monitored by including assays to measure urine protein and urine enzymes. PMID:1826913

  14. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species. PMID:18487501

  15. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species.

  16. Gait and jump analysis in healthy cats using a pressure mat system.

    PubMed

    Stadig, Sarah M; Bergh, Anna K

    2015-06-01

    Physical orthopaedic examination in cats does not always reveal signs of lameness and no objective gait analysis method has yet been standardised for use in cats. The aims of the present study were to define appropriate parameters for pressure mat analyses during walk and jump, and to define reference values for gait parameters of healthy cats. Further, the distribution of the vertical force within the paws and the influence of a non-centred head position were investigated. The hypothesis was that cats have a symmetrical gait, a front/hindlimb asymmetry similar to dogs, and that peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) have high intraclass correlation coefficients, confirming the reliability of these parameters. Data for walking (n = 46) showed gait symmetry indices of close to 1.0, besides PVF front/hind (1.3 ± 0.2). The PVF front/hind for jumping cats (n = 16) was 1.7 ± 0.6. Results from the distribution of the vertical force within the paw (n = 39) showed that the main weight during a strike is transferred from the caudal towards the craniomedial part of the paw. The findings support the hypothesis that healthy cats have similar gait symmetry to healthy dogs and that PVF and VI are reliable gait parameters. In conclusion, the present study provides a reference interval for healthy cats. Further studies are needed to investigate gait parameters in cats with orthopaedic disease.

  17. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  18. Urban stray cats infested by ectoparasites with zoonotic potential in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lefkaditis, Menelaos A; Sossidou, Anna V; Panorias, Alexandros H; Koukeri, Smaragda E; Paştiu, Anamaria I; Athanasiou, Labrini V

    2015-10-01

    A large population of stray cats is encountered in many urban areas sharing the same environment with people, usually being in a close direct contact with them. A variety of ectoparasites can infest such cats, causing mild dermatological abnormalities to more severe systemic disorders. In order to determine the extent of which stray cats carry ectoparasites, particularly those of zoonotic potential, 341 stray cats originating from the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were examined between 2012 and 2014. The signalment of each cat such as gender, hair length, and roughly estimated age were recorded. From a total of 341 examined stray cats, 127 (37.24%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.14-42.64) were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasites: mites-Otodectes cynotis (15.8%), Notoedres cati (2.35%), Cheyletiella blakei (2.05%); fleas-Ctenocephalides felis (24.3%); ticks-Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.88%); and lice-Felicola subrostratus (0.59%). A significantly higher prevalence of ectoparasites was observed in long-haired individuals (p < 0.00001). The above ectoparasites may either cause or transmit diseases not only in cats but also in humans Therefore, antiparasitic control should be included in stray cat neutering campaigns while public health education for taking preventive measures will decrease the risk of transmission to humans.

  19. Comparison of the effects of long-term pimobendan and benazepril administration in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yuichi; Machida, Noboru; Toda, Noriko; Tominaga, Yoshinori; Takemura, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    Pimobendan (PIMO) can cause adverse effects, such as mitral valve degeneration, in dogs; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur in cats. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether PIMO or benazepril produces adverse cardiac effects in healthy cats. This was a blinded, randomized, prospective parallel study. Twelve cats were randomly divided into two groups of six cats, namely, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor group that received benazepril and a PIMO group. Cats were administered their respective treatments for 506 days, and we evaluated cardiac parameters, blood biochemistry and glomerular filtration rates during that time. At the end of the trial, the cats were euthanized, and histopathological examinations were performed by a pathologist who was blinded to the treatment groups. No significant changes were observed in any of the parameters measured in either of the groups. In particular, no significant cardiac lesions were observed in either of the groups. In healthy cats, neither PIMO nor benazepril appears to cause cardiac lesions, but future studies are needed to examine the effects of PIMO in cats with heart disease. PMID:26972332

  20. Comparison of the effects of long-term pimobendan and benazepril administration in normal cats

    PubMed Central

    MIYAGAWA, Yuichi; MACHIDA, Noboru; TODA, Noriko; TOMINAGA, Yoshinori; TAKEMURA, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pimobendan (PIMO) can cause adverse effects, such as mitral valve degeneration, in dogs; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur in cats. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether PIMO or benazepril produces adverse cardiac effects in healthy cats. This was a blinded, randomized, prospective parallel study. Twelve cats were randomly divided into two groups of six cats, namely, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor group that received benazepril and a PIMO group. Cats were administered their respective treatments for 506 days, and we evaluated cardiac parameters, blood biochemistry and glomerular filtration rates during that time. At the end of the trial, the cats were euthanized, and histopathological examinations were performed by a pathologist who was blinded to the treatment groups. No significant changes were observed in any of the parameters measured in either of the groups. In particular, no significant cardiac lesions were observed in either of the groups. In healthy cats, neither PIMO nor benazepril appears to cause cardiac lesions, but future studies are needed to examine the effects of PIMO in cats with heart disease. PMID:26972332

  1. Attempted immunisation of cats against feline infectious peritonitis using canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, C A; Barlough, J E; Baldwin, C A; Scott, F W

    1988-11-01

    Specific pathogen free kittens were vaccinated with an unattenuated field isolate of canine coronavirus (CCV) either by aerosol or subcutaneously, and received boosting vaccinations four weeks later. Aerosolisation elicited a homologous virus-neutralising (VN) antibody response that increased steadily over a four-week period and levelled off one to two weeks after revaccination. The initial aerosolised dose produced an asymptomatic infection with excretion of CCV from the oropharynx up to eight days after vaccination; virus shedding was not detected, however, after the second inoculation. Cats vaccinated subcutaneously developed low VN antibody titres after the first CCV dose and experienced a strong anamnestic response after the second dose. Neutralising antibody titres then levelled off one to two weeks after revaccination at mean values somewhat lower than in cats vaccinated by aerosol. CCV was not isolated from the oropharynx after either subcutaneous dose. Four weeks after CCV boosting inoculations, vaccinated cats and sham-vaccinated control cats were divided into three subgroups and challenged by aerosol with the virulent UCD1 strain of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV UCD1) at three different dosage levels. Five of six cats (including sham-vaccinated controls) given the lowest challenge dose showed no signs of disease, while all other cats developed lesions typical of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The five surviving cats developed FIP after subsequent challenge with a fivefold higher dose of FIPV. Thus heterotypic vaccination of cats with CCV did not provide effective protection against FIPV challenge.

  2. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  3. Ovulation without cervical stimulation in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Johnston, S D; Hegstad, R L; Keltner, D G; Owens, S F

    1993-01-01

    Progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay of serum collected at monthly intervals for 9 months (April-December) in 24 adult female American short-hair cats (age 2.5-11 years, mean 7.4 years); 20 cats were intact, and four were ovariohysterectomized controls. One of the 20 intact queens was ovariohysterectomized after 7 months, when pyometra was diagnosed. Cats could see and hear one another, and could see and hear male cats housed individually in the same room. Direct contact with other cats was prevented. Tactile stimulation of the cats' hindquarters and perineal regions by handlers was avoided. Serum progesterone concentration > or = 4.8 nmol l-1 was defined as evidence of ovulation. This concentration was exceeded in seven of 20 intact queens (35%) at one or more occurrences of non-coital ovulation; there were 13 such occurrences in all (1-3 per queen). Serum progesterone concentration ranged from 0.2 to 103.4 (mean 14.09 +/- 2.0) nmol l-1 in these seven cats, and was significantly greater than concentrations in the other intact and neutered cats. In the remaining 13 intact and four ovariohysterectomized cats, serum progesterone concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 (mean 1.24 +/- 1.46) nmol l-1. These data suggest that, at least as far as cats housed in proximity to one another are concerned, intact female cats do not always require cervical stimulation to induce ovulation. PMID:8229985

  4. [Organization of the Dutch Cat Fancy].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O

    1998-11-01

    The present study of the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy' describes the organization and structure of the Dutch Cat Fancy, and is subdivided into three parts. The first part presents a survey of the number of cat clubs, date of their establishment, number of members, associated breed clubs and participation in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The second part describes the basic organization of Dutch cat clubs, including their membership, cattery registration, breed registration, exhibitions and judges, cat magazines, health care and welfare, and breed clubs. The third part focuses attention on other organizational forms such as clubs for a particular breed, seen within the Dutch Cat Fancy.

  5. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons. PMID:23735675

  6. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons.

  7. Association of feline leukemia virus with lymphosarcoma and other disorders in the cat.

    PubMed

    Cotter, S M; Hardy, W D; Essex, M

    1975-03-01

    Two hundred fifty Boston cats with disorders such as lymphosarcoma, myeloproliferative disease, anemia, glomerulonephritis, pregnancy abnormalities, feline infectious peritonitis, toxoplasmosis, and various bacterial infections were examined for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by immunofluorescence. Antibody titers against feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) were tested in 133 of these cats. The tests for FeLV and FOCMA antibody were also conducted among healthy cats not known to have been exposed to FeLV, as well as among healthy cats from households where FeLV was known to be present. Most of the cats with lymphosarcoma and the other aforementioned disorders were infected with FeLV and low FOCMA antibody titers. Healthy cats known to have been exposed to FeLV were often viremic, but those that remained healthy were able to develop high FOCMA antibody titers. Healthy cats without known prior exposure to FeLV were unlikely to be viremic but often had detectable FOCMA antibody titers, indicating that some exposure occurs under natural conditions in the Boston area. The association of FeLV with infections other than lymphosarcoma was assumed to be caused by the immunosuppresive effect of FeLV, thus allowing development of disease. PMID:163223

  8. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    PubMed

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat.

  9. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  10. Hairless cats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hendy-Ibbs, P M

    1984-01-01

    Ten hairless kittens are known to have been born in Britain since 1978. Pedigree study supports the hypothesis of a monogenic, recessive mode of inheritance proposed in previous reports. A review of the literature suggests the possibility of at least two mutations giving rise to hairless cats, one of which has normal whiskers and the other attenuated whiskers. For these, the gene symbols hi, and hr, respectively, have been proposed.

  11. Pharmacodynamics of warfarin in cats.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Kraft, S L; Lewis, D C; Melethil, S; Freeman, L C

    2000-12-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamic response to warfarin in cats. The specific aim was to determine if a log-linear indirect response model (Nagashima et al., 1969) used to describe the in vivo effect of warfarin in humans could be applied to cats. The pharmacokinetics of racemic warfarin were described using a non-compartmental approach. The relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and normalized prothrombin time (PTR) was defined for feline plasma under our experimental conditions, and determined to be: %PCA=12.38+648 e-PTR/0.492. These data were then integrated and used to predict the warfarin dose associated with therapeutic anti-coagulation defined as an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The maximum prothrombinopenic response to warfarin in cats after a single intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg occurred at 24-48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling suggested that each cat had a narrow therapeutic range of the steady-state concentration of total warfarin required to appropriately block prothrombin complex synthesis (median: 265.2-358.7 ng/mL). The median daily dose range predicted to yield therapeutic concentrations of warfarin was 0.061-0.088 mg/kg per day. Wide inter-individual variations in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic response suggest that a more optimal dosing of warfarin may be possible with the development of individual pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic algorithms, analogous to those currently employed in human patients. PMID:11168910

  12. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  13. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  14. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of SuberoylanilideHydroxamic Acid in Cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonnel, Samantha J; Tell, Lisa A; Murphy, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA), or vorinostat, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for use as chemotherapy for lymphoma in humans. The goal of this study was to establish pharmacological parameters of SAHA in cats. Our interest in treating cats with SAHA is two-fold: as an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic and as anti-latency therapy for feline retroviral infections. Relying solely on data from studies in other animals would be inappropriate as SAHA is partially metabolized by glucuronidation, which is absent in feline metabolism. SAHA was administered to cats intravenously (2 mg/kg) or orally (250 mg/m2, ~17 mg/kg) in a cross-over study design. Clinically, SAHA was well tolerated at these dosages as no abnormalities were noted following administration. The pharmacokinetics of SAHA in cats was found to be similar to that of dogs, but the overall serum drug exposure was much less than that of humans at an equivalent dose. The pharmacodynamic effect of an increase in acetylated histone proteins in blood was detected after both routes of administration. An increased oral dose of 60 mg SAHA/kg administered to one animal resulted in a surprisingly modest increase in peak drug concentration, suggesting possible saturation of absorption kinetics. This study provides a foundation for future studies of the clinical efficacy of SAHA in treating feline disease. PMID:24236915

  16. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  17. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine.

  18. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  19. Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.

    PubMed

    Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class. PMID:24643287

  20. Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.

    PubMed

    Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class.

  1. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  2. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  3. Primary immune-mediated neutropenia in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Carly E.; Scott, Katherine D.; Bryan, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    An 18-month-old male castrated indoor Himalayan cat was presented for recurrent fever, lethargy, and uveitis. Persistent neutropenia was identified and tests for infectious disease and bone marrow cytology were performed. Primary immune-mediated neutropenia was diagnosed and successfully treated. At the time of writing this report, 24 mo after the initial diagnosis. the patient was clinically normal and not receiving therapy. PMID:25392551

  4. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  5. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  6. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  7. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204

  8. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in dog and cat fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia.

  9. Sirtuin 1 suppresses nuclear factor κB induced transactivation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cat fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Shingo; TAKEMITSU, Hiroshi; HABARA, Makoto; MORI, Nobuko; YAMAMOTO, Ichiro; ARAI, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key factor in the development of chronic inflammation and is deeply involved in age-related and metabolic diseases development. These diseases have become a serious problem in cats. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is associated with aging and metabolism through maintaining inflammation via NF-κB. In addition, fibroblasts are considered an important factor in the development of chronic inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of cat SIRT1 (cSIRT1) on NF-κB in cat fibroblast cells. The up-regulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression by p65 subunit of NF-κB and lipopolysaccharide was suppressed by cSIRT1 in cat fibroblast cells. Our findings show that cSIRT1 is involved in the suppression of inflammation in cat fibroblast cells. PMID:26165138

  10. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  11. Conditioning laboratory cats to handling and transport.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Thomson, Andrea E; Clary, Gillian P; Hamilton, Alexandra K; Hudson, Lola C; Meeker, Rick B; Sherman, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    As research subjects, cats have contributed substantially to our understanding of biological systems, from the development of mammalian visual pathways to the pathophysiology of feline immunodeficiency virus as a model for human immunodeficiency virus. Few studies have evaluated humane methods for managing cats in laboratory animal facilities, however, in order to reduce fear responses and improve their welfare. The authors describe a behavioral protocol used in their laboratory to condition cats to handling and transport. Such behavioral conditioning benefits the welfare of the cats, the safety of animal technicians and the quality of feline research data.

  12. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  13. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-02-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions.

  14. Frequency of piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Roggero, Nora; Caracappa, Santo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by piroplasms pose a health risk for man and other animals, and domestic cats have been proposed as potential reservoirs for some piroplasm infections. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of the piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern Italy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these infections. Blood samples from 260 stray cats enrolled in a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program in northern Italy were examined with conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis DNA. No sample (0.0%) tested positive for C. felis, whilst B. microti DNA was detected in two samples (0.8%). Both infected cats were in good clinical condition and recovered well from the neutering surgery. One of these two cats had a triple coinfection with Babesia microti, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Evidence presented in this study indicates that the blood borne protozoans Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis are not widely distributed in stray cat populations in Milan, northern Italy, and that the significance of cats as a reservoir host for B. microti in this area is limited.

  15. Frequency of Piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in Stray Cats from Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Perego, Roberta; Roggero, Nora; Caracappa, Santo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by piroplasms pose a health risk for man and other animals, and domestic cats have been proposed as potential reservoirs for some piroplasm infections. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of the piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern Italy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these infections. Blood samples from 260 stray cats enrolled in a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program in northern Italy were examined with conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis DNA. No sample (0.0%) tested positive for C. felis, whilst B. microti DNA was detected in two samples (0.8%). Both infected cats were in good clinical condition and recovered well from the neutering surgery. One of these two cats had a triple coinfection with Babesia microti, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Evidence presented in this study indicates that the blood borne protozoans Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis are not widely distributed in stray cat populations in Milan, northern Italy, and that the significance of cats as a reservoir host for B. microti in this area is limited. PMID:24895629

  16. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  17. Gallbladder sludge on ultrasound is predictive of increased liver enzymes and total bilirubin in cats.

    PubMed

    Harran, Nathaniel; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Dunn, Marilyn; Beauchamp, Guy

    2011-09-01

    The purposes of this retrospective study were to assess the prevalence of gallbladder sludge (GBS) in a population of cats presented for abdominal ultrasound in a teaching hospital and to determine its association with increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB). Gallbladder sludge was detected in 152 (14%) of the cats undergoing abdominal ultrasound between 2004 and 2008. This population was compared to a control group of 32 cats without GBS. Alanine aminotransferase, ALP, and TB mean values were significantly higher in cats with GBS than in controls (P ≤ 0.0005) and odds for increased values in cats with GBS were 4.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6 to 11.0], 9.5 (95% CI: 2.2 to 41.7), and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5 to 11.5), respectively (P ≤ 0.007). In conclusion, GBS is an uncommon ultrasonographic finding in cats that is predictive of increased liver enzymes and TB. More studies are needed to establish potential links between GBS and hepatobiliary disease in cats.

  18. Cat Heart Muscle in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Page, Ernest; Solomon, A. K.

    1960-01-01

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of total water, inulin space, and K and Na content in muscles of 0.5 to 10 mg. wet weight. These methods have been used to define steady state conditions with respect to intracellular K concentration in papillary muscles from cat hearts perfused and contracting isometrically at 27–28°C. and at 37–38°C. Cell volumes and intracellular ionic concentrations have been followed as a function of the external K concentration and compared with values predicted on the basis of electroneutrality and osmotic equilibrium. PMID:13732016

  19. The reserpine-treated cat

    PubMed Central

    Withrington, P.; Zaimis, Eleanor

    1961-01-01

    In cats, 24 hr after the administration of 1 mg/kg of reserpine, it was found that (a) the heart is in failure; (b) the sensitivity of the peripheral vessels to adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline, administered intravenously or close-arterially, is decreased; (c) any blood pressure changes are, as a rule, secondary to changes in heart contraction; and (d) the peripheral blood flow passively follows the blood pressure changes. Furthermore, any improvement of the circulation at this stage was found to be almost exclusively the result of an amelioration in the force of cardiac contraction. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig 8 PMID:14007730

  20. Prevalence of upper respiratory pathogens in four management models for unowned cats in the Southeast United States.

    PubMed

    McManus, C M; Levy, J K; Andersen, L A; McGorray, S P; Leutenegger, C M; Gray, L K; Hilligas, J; Tucker, S J

    2014-08-01

    Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a pervasive problem in cats and impacts the capacity and cost of sheltering programs. This study determined the pattern of respiratory pathogens in cats with and without clinical signs of URI in four different models for managing unowned cats, namely, (1) short-term animal shelters (STS), (2) long-term sanctuaries (LTS), (3) home-based foster care programs (FCP), and (4) trap-neuter-return programs for community cats (TNR). Conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs from 543 cats, approximately half of which showed clinical signs of URI, were tested for feline herpes virus-1 (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydia felis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma felis, and canine influenza virus by real-time PCR. FHV (59%, 41%) and B. bronchiseptica (33%, 24%) were more prevalent in both clinically affected and nonclinical cats, respectively, in STS than other management models. FCV (67%, 51%) and M. felis (84%, 86%) were more prevalent in LTS than any other management model. Clinically affected cats in FCP were more likely to carry FHV (23%, 6%), C. felis (24%, 10%), or M. felis (58%, 38%) than were nonclinical cats. Clinically affected cats in TNR were more likely to carry FCV (55%, 36%) or C. felis (23%, 4%) than were nonclinical cats. The prevalence of individual pathogens varied between different management models, but the majority of the cats in each model carried one or more respiratory pathogens regardless of clinical signs. Both confined and free-roaming cats are at risk of developing infectious respiratory disease and their health should be protected by strategic vaccination, appropriate antibiotic therapy, effective biosecurity, feline stress mitigation, and alternatives to high-density confinement. PMID:24923756

  1. Efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Valérie J; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara; Vail, David M; Straw, Rodney C

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common feline oral tumor. Standard radiation protocols have been reported to achieve tumor control durations of 1.5-5.5 months (45-165 days). The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral SCC. Twenty-one cats with histologically confirmed oral SCC and T1-3N0M0 were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 4.8 Gy. Seventeen cats had macroscopic disease and four were microscopic after incomplete excision. Acute toxicity consisted of grade 2 mucositis in all cats and this was effectively managed using esophageal or gastric tube feeding, pain medication, and antibiotics. Late toxicity effects for cats with available follow-up data included alopecia (4 cats), leukotricia (6), tongue ulceration (1), and oronasal fistula (1). Response could be assessed in 17 cats (seven complete response and five partial response). Four cats (19%) developed metastatic disease without evidence of local progression. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 105 days (1 year PFS of 23%), median local progression-free survival (LPFS) was 219 days (1 year LPFS of 41%), and median overall survival (OS) was 174 days (1 year OS of 29%). Only tumor stage was prognostic, with T1 having a median PFS of 590 days. Findings indicated that this accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol was well tolerated in cats with oral SCC, with manageable adverse events. Tumor response was observed in most cats and long tumor control durations were achieved in some cats.

  2. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  3. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Ritz, Susanne

    2008-05-15

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection resulting in clinical signs is invariably fatal despite clinical intervention. As FIP is an immune-mediated disease, treatment is mainly aimed at controlling the immune response triggered by the infection with the feline coronavirus (FCoV). Immune suppressive drugs such as prednisone or cyclophosphamide may slow disease progression but do not produce a cure. In nearly every published case report of attempted therapy for clinical FIP, glucocorticoids have been used; there are, however, no controlled studies that evaluate the effect of glucocorticoids as a therapy for FIP. Some veterinarians prescribe immune modulators to treat cats with FIP with no documented controlled evidence of efficacy. It has been suggested that these agents may benefit infected animals by restoring compromised immune function, thereby allowing the patient to control viral burden and recover from clinical signs. However, a non-specific stimulation of the immune system may be contraindicated as clinical signs develop and progress as a result of an immune-mediated response to the mutated FCoV.

  4. Granulomatous rhinitis due to Candida parapsilosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Grune, Sterrett C; Estrada, Marko M; McIlwain, Mary B; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old female spayed Domestic Medium Hair cat presented to the referring veterinarian with a 2-week history of sneezing, which progressed to swelling over the nasal planum. The cat had been under veterinary care for inflammatory bowel disease and had been treated with 1.25 mg/kg prednisolone once a day for approximately 1 year. On physical examination, an approximately 2-3 mm diameter, round polypoid pink soft-tissue mass was protruding slightly from the right nostril. Through histologic examination of representative sections from the mass, there was a severe diffuse infiltrate of epithelioid macrophages and neutrophils that surrounded frequent 15-20 µm yeast organisms. A Grocott methenamine silver stain revealed the presence of pseudohyphae in addition to the previously noted yeast forms. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Cryptococcus neoformans, Ajellomyces dermatitidis (syn. Blastomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides immitis, Ajellomyces capsulatus (syn. Histoplasma capsulatum), Malassezia spp., and Candida spp. was performed on the paraffin-embedded sample. The PCR for Candida spp. was positive; the product was then sequenced and was determined to be consistent with Candida parapsilosis. Following the PCR diagnosis and prior to treatment of the infection, C. parapsilosis was cultured from a nasal swab. The infection in the cat in the current report was considered opportunistic and secondary to immunosuppression, following treatment for the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23883665

  5. Therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentrations obtained using chronic transdermal administration of phenobarbital in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Delamaide Gasper, Joy A; Barnes Heller, Heidi L; Robertson, Michelle; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-04-01

    Seizures are a common cause of neurologic disease, and phenobarbital (PB) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug. Chronic oral dosing can be challenging for cat owners, leading to poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the transdermal administration of PB could achieve serum PB concentrations of between 15 and 45 μg/ml in healthy cats. Nineteen healthy cats were enrolled in three groups. Transdermal PB in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) was applied to the pinnae for 14 days at a dosage of 3 mg/kg q12h in group 1 (n = 6 cats) and 9 mg/kg q12h in group 2 (n = 7 cats). Transdermal PB in Lipoderm Activemax was similarly applied at 9 mg/kg q12h for 14 days in group 3 (n = 6 cats). Steady-state serum PB concentrations were measured at trough, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after the morning dose on day 15. In group 1, median concentrations ranged from 6.0-7.5 μg/ml throughout the day (observed range 0-11 μg/ml). Group 2 median concentrations were 26.0 μg/ml (observed range 18.0-37.0 μg/ml). For group 3, median concentrations ranged from 15.0-17.0 μg/ml throughout the day (range 5-29 μg/ml). Side effects were mild. One cat was withdrawn from group 2 owing to ataxia and sedation. These results show therapeutic serum PB concentrations can be achieved in cats following chronic transdermal administration of PB in PLO at a dosage of 9 mg/kg q12h. More individual variation was noted using Lipoderm Activemax. Transdermal administration may be an alternative for cats that are difficult to medicate orally.

  6. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Karthik; Osborne, Carl; Giger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA) reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus) with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn) from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu) in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met) from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats. PMID:27404572

  7. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Raj, Karthik; Osborne, Carl; Giger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA) reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus) with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn) from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu) in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met) from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats. PMID:27404572

  8. Cystinuria Associated with Different SLC7A9 Gene Variants in the Cat.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Raj, Karthik; Osborne, Carl; Giger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is a classical inborn error of metabolism characterized by a selective proximal renal tubular defect affecting cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA) reabsorption, which can lead to uroliths and urinary obstruction. In humans, dogs and mice, cystinuria is caused by variants in one of two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which encode the rBAT and bo,+AT subunits of the bo,+ basic amino acid transporter system, respectively. In this study, exons and flanking regions of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA of cats (Felis catus) with COLAuria and cystine calculi. Relative to the Felis catus-6.2 reference genome sequence, DNA sequences from these affected cats revealed 3 unique homozygous SLC7A9 missense variants: one in exon 5 (p.Asp236Asn) from a non-purpose-bred medium-haired cat, one in exon 7 (p.Val294Glu) in a Maine Coon and a Sphinx cat, and one in exon 10 (p.Thr392Met) from a non-purpose-bred long-haired cat. A genotyping assay subsequently identified another cystinuric domestic medium-haired cat that was homozygous for the variant originally identified in the purebred cats. These missense variants result in deleterious amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in the bo,+AT protein. A limited population survey supported that the variants found were likely causative. The remaining 2 sequenced domestic short-haired cats had a heterozygous variant at a splice donor site in intron 10 and a homozygous single nucleotide variant at a branchpoint in intron 11 of SLC7A9, respectively. This study identifies the first SLC7A9 variants causing feline cystinuria and reveals that, as in humans and dogs, this disease is genetically heterogeneous in cats.

  9. Experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis and the nephrotic syndrome in cats immunised with cationised bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Mohammed, N A; Wright, N G

    1990-11-01

    Membranous nephropathy was induced in four cats by repeated intravenous injections of 120 mg cationic bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI 9.5). All four cats developed diffuse granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular capillary walls as early as five weeks which persisted until the end of the experiment at 17 weeks. Ultrastructural studies revealed many subepithelial electron dense deposits. Two cats developed severe proteinuria and the nephrotic syndrome characterised by hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. An additional four cats received repeated injections of unmodified native BSA (pI 4.5) and remained basically normal. This is the first report of membranous nephropathy and the nephrotic syndrome in an experimental animal model which, unlike other animal models, is subject to the spontaneously occurring disease. PMID:2148430

  10. Toxocara malaysiensis infection in domestic cats in Vietnam--An emerging zoonotic issue?

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Thuy, Do Thi Thu; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis of canids is a parasitic nematode (ascaridoid) that infects humans and other hosts, causing different forms of toxocariasis. This species of Toxocara appears to be the most important cause of human disease, likely followed by Toxocara cati from felids. Although some studies from Malaysia and China have shown that cats can harbor another congener, T. malaysiensis, no information is available about this parasite for other countries. Moreover, the zoonotic potential of this parasite is unknown at this point. In the present study, we conducted the first investigation of domestic dogs and cats for Toxocara in Vietnam using molecular tools. Toxocara malaysiensis was identified as a common ascaridoid of domestic cats (in the absence of T. cati), and T. canis was commonly found in dogs. Together with findings from previous studies, the present results emphasize the need to explore the significance and zoonotic potential of T. malaysiensis in Vietnam and other countries where this parasite is endemic and prevalent in cats.

  11. Group G streptococcal epizootic in a closed cat colony.

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, P C; Dodson, N D; Indiveri, M

    1982-01-01

    An epizootic of beta-hemolytic Lancefield group G streptococcal infections occurred in a specific-pathogen-free colony of laboratory cats. A total of 19 out of 68 animals in a single building were affected over a 10-day period. Clinical signs included fever, depression, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, and submandibular edema. The organism was recovered from the pharynx in two of five clinically normal cats from the affected building. Cultures from 12 animals in the same colony but housed in unaffected buildings were negative. Two doses of long-acting penicillin G 72 h apart stopped the outbreak and resulted in negative cultures for previously affected animals. Three months later, two new cases occurred in the same building. The disease was finally eradicated from the colony by depopulating the affected building. PMID:7161373

  12. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats. PMID:17845619

  13. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  14. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  15. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  16. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  17. Detection of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica in domestic cats in the Ege Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-09-15

    Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease.

  18. Cows, cats, and FSE: death penalty justified?

    PubMed

    Oomkes, C; van Knapen, F

    2001-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies affect a number of mammalian species. The most common spongiform encephalopathies are scrapie in sheep and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE) is a related disorder in domestic cats. Because of the link between BSE and FSE, cats are put on a par with cattle, in terms of politics and regulations. In the Netherlands, when a case of BSE is found on a farm, not only the ruminants, but also the cats are taken away for post-mortem examination. So far, the cats examined have always been negative for FSE. There are no scientific reasons for destroying the cats on farms where BSE has been found.

  19. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  20. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  1. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy of Fresh, Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Severe Refractory Gingivostomatitis in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Mills-Ko, Emily; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Kol, Amir; Walker, Naomi J.; Badgley, Megan R.; Fazel, Nasim; Murphy, William J.; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapy for immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders, because of their potent immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the use of fresh, autologous, adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) for feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a chronic, debilitating, idiopathic, oral mucosal inflammatory disease. Nine cats with refractory FCGS were enrolled in this pilot study. Each cat received 2 intravenous injections of 20 million autologous ASCs, 1 month apart. Oral biopsies were taken before and at 6 months after the first ASC injection. Blood immune cell subsets, serum protein, and cytokine levels were measured at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment to assess immunomodulatory effects. Seven of the 9 cats completed the study. Five cats responded to treatment by either complete clinical remission (n = 3) or substantial clinical improvement (n = 2). Two cats were nonresponders. Cats that responded to treatment also exhibited systemic immunomodulation demonstrated by decreased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells, a normalization of the CD4/CD8 ratio, decreased neutrophil counts, and interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β concentration, and a temporary increase in serum IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration. No clinical recurrence has occurred following complete clinical remission (follow-up of 6–24 months). In this study, cats with <15% cytotoxic CD8 T cells with low expression of CD8 (CD8lo) cells were 100% responsive to ASC therapy, whereas cats with >15% CD8lo cells were nonresponders. The relative absence of CD8lo cells may be a biomarker to predict response to ASC therapy, and may shed light on pathogenesis of FCGS and mechanisms by which ASCs decrease oral inflammation and affect T-cell phenotype. Significance This study is the first to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of fresh, autologous, adipose-derived stem cell systemic therapy for a naturally occurring, chronic inflammatory disease in cats

  3. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  4. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  5. Arterial thromboembolism in cats: acute crisis in 127 cases (1992-2001) and long-term management with low-dose aspirin in 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie A; Tobias, Anthony H; Jacob, Kristin A; Fine, Deborah M; Grumbles, Pamela L

    2003-01-01

    Records of 127 cats with arterial thromboembolism (ATE) were reviewed. Abyssinian, Birman, Ragdoll, and male cats were overrepresented. Tachypnea (91%), hypothermia (66%), and absent limb motor function (66%) were common. Of 90 cats with diagnostics performed, underlying diseases were hyperthyroidism (12), cardiomyopathy (dilated [8], unclassified [33], hypertrophic obstructive [5], hypertrophic [19]), neoplasia (6), other (4), and none (3). Common abnormalities were left atrial enlargement (93%), congestive heart failure (CHF, 44%), and arrhythmias (44%). Of cats without CHF, 89% were tachypneic. Common biochemical abnormalities were hyperglycemia, azotemia, and abnormally high serum concentrations of muscle enzymes. Of 87 cats treated for acute limb ATE, 39 (45%) survived to be discharged. Significant differences were found between survivors and nonsurvivors for temperature (P < .00001), heart rate (P = .038), serum phosphorus concentration (P = .024), motor function (P = .008), and number of limbs affected (P = .001). No significant difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors when compared by age, respiratory rate, other biochemical analytes, or concurrent CHE A logistic regression model based on rectal temperature predicted a 50% probability of survival at 98.9 degrees F (37.2 degrees C). Median survival time (MST) for discharged cats was 117 days. Eleven cats had ATE recurrences, and 5 cats developed limb problems. Cats with CHF (MST: 77 days) had significantly shorter survival than cats without CHF (MST: 223 days; P = .016). No significant difference was found in survival or recurrence rate between cats receiving high-dose aspirin (> or = 40 mg/cat q72h) and cats receiving low-dose aspirin (5 mg/cat q72h). Adverse effects were less frequent and milder for the lower dosage.

  6. Efficacy of a single dose of a novel topical combination product containing eprinomectin to prevent heartworm infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine F; Tielemans, Eric; Pollmeier, Matthias G; McCall, John W; McCall, Scott D; Irwin, Jennifer; Chester, S Theodore; Carithers, Doug S; Rosentel, Joseph K

    2014-04-28

    Cats may be infected by heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, through mosquito bites. They can develop severe heartworm disease when infective D. immitis larvae migrate and develop into adults in the pulmonary vasculature or other tissues. As there is no curative treatment for feline heartworm infection, the monthly administration of preventative treatment is recommended in endemic areas. Three controlled, blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the preventative efficacy of BROADLINE(®), a novel combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against D. immitis in cats. In each study, 28 cats were inoculated with approximately 100 (studies 1 and 2) or 40 (study 3) infective third stage D. immitis larvae by subcutaneous injection, thirty days prior to treatment. The larvae were from recent field isolates from naturally infected dogs from three distinct geographic areas (two in the USA and one in Europe). In each study, the cats were allocated randomly to two study groups of 14 cats each. The control group remained untreated. On Day 0, each cat in the treated group received one topical application of the novel topical formulation, delivering the minimum intended dose of 0.5mg of eprinomectin per kilogram of body weight. At 6 months after infection, all cats were humanely euthanized and examined for adult D. immitis. Across all three studies, 28 (68%) of the 41 untreated cats harbored one or more heartworms, while 100% of the 42 treated cats remained free of heartworm infection, demonstrating the 100% preventive efficacy of BROADLINE(®) against D. immitis in cats. The treatment was well tolerated and no health abnormality was observed in any treated cat.

  7. Efficacy of a single dose of a novel topical combination product containing eprinomectin to prevent heartworm infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine F; Tielemans, Eric; Pollmeier, Matthias G; McCall, John W; McCall, Scott D; Irwin, Jennifer; Chester, S Theodore; Carithers, Doug S; Rosentel, Joseph K

    2014-04-28

    Cats may be infected by heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, through mosquito bites. They can develop severe heartworm disease when infective D. immitis larvae migrate and develop into adults in the pulmonary vasculature or other tissues. As there is no curative treatment for feline heartworm infection, the monthly administration of preventative treatment is recommended in endemic areas. Three controlled, blinded laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the preventative efficacy of BROADLINE(®), a novel combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel against D. immitis in cats. In each study, 28 cats were inoculated with approximately 100 (studies 1 and 2) or 40 (study 3) infective third stage D. immitis larvae by subcutaneous injection, thirty days prior to treatment. The larvae were from recent field isolates from naturally infected dogs from three distinct geographic areas (two in the USA and one in Europe). In each study, the cats were allocated randomly to two study groups of 14 cats each. The control group remained untreated. On Day 0, each cat in the treated group received one topical application of the novel topical formulation, delivering the minimum intended dose of 0.5mg of eprinomectin per kilogram of body weight. At 6 months after infection, all cats were humanely euthanized and examined for adult D. immitis. Across all three studies, 28 (68%) of the 41 untreated cats harbored one or more heartworms, while 100% of the 42 treated cats remained free of heartworm infection, demonstrating the 100% preventive efficacy of BROADLINE(®) against D. immitis in cats. The treatment was well tolerated and no health abnormality was observed in any treated cat. PMID:24703077

  8. Mechanisms of Tritrichomonas foetus Pathogenicity in Cats with Insights from Venereal Trichomonosis.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M K; Gookin, J L

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 years has passed since trichomonosis was first recognized as a potential cause of diarrhea in domestic cats. Despite progress in confirming disease causation, developing means for diagnosis, and identifying approaches to treatment of the infection, we still know very little about how this parasite causes diarrhea. With increasing recognition of resistance of trichomonosis to treatment with 5-nitroimidazole drugs, new treatment strategies based on an understanding of disease pathogenesis are needed. In this review, lessons learned from the pathogenesis of venereal trichomonosis in people and cattle are applied to clinical observations of trichomonosis in cats in effort to generate insight into areas where further research may be beneficial. PMID:26946069

  9. Successful treatment of cervical spinal epidural empyema secondary to grass awn migration in a cat.

    PubMed

    Granger, Nicolas; Hidalgo, Antoine; Leperlier, Dimitri; Gnirs, Kirsten; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Delisle, Françoise; Blot, Stéphane

    2007-08-01

    Spinal epidural empyema (SEE) represents a severe pyogenic infection of the epidural space. Clinical signs of the disease are non-specific--increased body temperature, intense neck pain, neurological signs of a transverse myelopathy--and can lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits. This report describes the diagnosis and successful surgical treatment of cervical SEE secondary to grass awn migration in a cat. Although it is uncommon, this disease should be suspected in cats with progressive myelopathy. Early diagnosis and emergency surgery combined with antibiotic therapy are required to allow a complete recovery. PMID:17449314

  10. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  11. Stance control in the chronic spinal cat.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C A; Fung, J; Macpherson, J M

    1994-05-01

    1. A longitudinal study of the control of quiet and perturbed stance was conducted before and for 1 yr after complete spinal transection (T12) in a cat trained to stand on a moveable force platform. 2. With daily training, the spinal cat recovered full weight support and some intermittent control of lateral stability within 1 mo. Within the second month postspinalization, the spinal cat achieved the ability to maintain independent, unassisted stance (no external support or stimulation) for up to 45 s during quiet stance, as well as for 62-97% of the trials of horizontal translations of the support surface. 3. Control of lateral stability in the spinal cat was severely compromised, however, as eventually the spinal cat always lost its balance. Head movements and the tendency for the hindlimbs to initiate stepping movements were more destabilizing than platform translations. 4. Our preliminary results indicate that the recovery of partial lateral stability of the hindquarters in the spinal cat is the product of passive muscle properties and segmental reflexes, which, in isolation can provide only limited balance control in the chronic spinal cat.

  12. Pancreatitis and triaditis in cats: causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K W

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis in cats is frequently accompanied by concurrent disease in other organ systems. Co-morbidities include hepatic lipidosis, inflammatory liver disease, bile duct obstruction, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, vitamin deficiency (B12/cobalamin, folate or K), intestinal lymphoma, nephritis, pulmonary thromboembolism and pleural and peritoneal effusions. "Triaditis" is the term used to describe concurrent inflammation of the pancreas, liver and small intestines. Triaditis has been reported in 50 to 56% of cats diagnosed with pancreatitis and 32 to 50% of those with cholangitis/inflammatory liver disease. A definitive diagnosis of triaditis is based on the histopathological evaluation of each organ. However, the specific conditions of each organ that constitute a diagnosis of triaditis remains to be defined. While the aetiopathogenesis of pancreatitis and its relationship to inflammation in other organ systems is unclear, preliminary studies point to a heterogeneous group of conditions with differential involvement of host inflammatory and immune responses and enteric bacteria. Comprehensive, prospective studies that simultaneously evaluate the presence of predefined clinical, clinicopathological and histopathological abnormalities, coupled with high-resolution evaluation of pancreaticobiliary morphology, immunological profiling and screening for bacterial colonisation are required to advance diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Intestinal Tritrichomonas suis (=T. foetus) infection in Japanese cats.

    PubMed

    Doi, Junko; Hirota, Junichi; Morita, Akihiko; Fukushima, Kanae; Kamijyo, Hiromi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toru; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2012-04-01

    Tritrichomonas suis (=T. foetus) has recently been reported to be a causative agent of chronic large-bowel diarrhea in cats. While the disease was previously attributed to Pentatrichomonas hominis, the etiologic agent for feline trichomonal diarrhea was identified as T. suis. Although feline trichomonosis due to T. suis has been reported at prevalences ranging from 14 to 31% in Europe and the U.S., no reports of the pathogen have been published to date in Japan. In 2008, however, we encountered a case of feline trichomonosis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Hokkaido University. The parasite was identified as T. suis by nested PCR amplification of partial internal transcribed spacer region 1 and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene sequences with T. suis-specific primers and DNA sequencing of the amplified products. We then conducted surveys for feline trichomonosis in three different animal hospitals using either cultivation and/or PCR-based assays. The results revealed that 13 of 147 samples (8.8%) were positive for T. suis, and that 5 of the 13 infected cats, which ranged between 1 month and 7.5 years-old, showed chronic diarrhea. Seven of the infected cats were purebred and 6 were mixed breed. These findings suggested that feline trichomonosis is prevalent in Japan, and that T. suis may play a role as a causative agent of feline chronic diarrhea.

  14. Autologous fibrin tissue adhesive for ossicular reconstruction in cats.

    PubMed

    Peters, B R; Strunk, C L; Fulmer, R P

    1992-11-01

    Autologous fibrin tissue adhesive is currently the most promising adhesive for otologic use with respect to strength and biocompatibility without the risk of transmissable disease that is of concern with the commercially prepared fibrin adhesive. We set out to evaluate the practicality of preparing autologous fibrin adhesive in cats and to see if the adhesive's duration and strength of bonding was sufficient to allow natural tissue union to occur with various grafting materials. Autologous fibrin adhesive was prepared preoperatively from ten cats using the ammonium sulfate precipitation technique. Twenty otologic procedures were performed in which the incus long process was resected and the defect bridged with one of four grafting materials: autograft ossicular bone, bone pate-fibrin glue, porous hydroxylapatite, and Plastipore-bone pate. All grafts were secured with the autologous adhesive. The cats were sacrificed at 6 and 12 weeks. We found the the autologous adhesive provided adequate duration and strength of support to enable a firm tissue union between all the grafting materials and the adjoining incus and stapes. PMID:1449181

  15. Population ecology of free-roaming cats and interference competition by coyotes in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Gehrt, Stanley D; Wilson, Evan C; Brown, Justin L; Anchor, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in reproductive condition. Annual survival rate was relatively high (S=0.70, SE=0.10), with vehicles and predation the primary causes of death. Size of annual home range varied by sex, but not reproductive status or body weight. We observed partitioning of the landscape by cats and coyotes, with little interspecific overlap between core areas of activity. Coyotes selected for natural habitats whereas cats selected for developed areas such as residences. Free-roaming cats were in better condition than we predicted, but their use of natural habitat fragments, and presumably their ecological impact, appeared to be limited by coyotes through intraguild competition.

  16. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    PubMed

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  17. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats. PMID:19073369

  18. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    PubMed

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae.

  19. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  20. Molecular characterization of a feline calicivirus isolated from tiger and its pathogenesis in cats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Dafei; Liu, Yongxiang; Wu, Hongxia; Jiang, Yanmei; Zu, Shaopo; Liu, Chunguo; Sun, Xue; Liu, Jiasen; Qu, Liandong

    2016-08-30

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus that causes respiratory disease in cats. In this study, the FCV TIG-1 was isolated from Siberian tiger feces collected in 2014 in Heilongjiang Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis among TIG-1 and other FCVs showed that TIG-1 does not share the same lineage with other FCV isolates from Heilongjiang or other regions in China but is located in the same cluster with the FCV strain Urbana, which was isolated from the United States. The growth kinetics in vitro and the pathogenicity in cats between TIG-1 and the domestic cat-origin FCV strain F9 (vaccine strain) and strain 2280 were compared. We found that the growth kinetics of strains TIG-1 and 2280 were faster than that of strain F9 from 12h to 36h post-infection, indicating that strains TIG-1 and 2280 produce infectious virions and reach peak yields earlier. Challenge experiments in cats showed that TIG-1 grew faster than the other two strains in the lungs of cats and that TIG-1 is a virulent FCV with 100% morbidity and lethality. In addition, the histopathological results showed that the virulent TIG-1 strain directly led to severe lung tissue damage and indirectly led to intestinal damage. The results presented here show that a tiger-origin FCV exhibits high virulence in cats. PMID:27527772

  1. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L.; Searle, Steven M. J.; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Davis, Brian W.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Barr, Christina S.; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Murphy, William J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  2. Comparison of plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine, exo-iohexol, and endo-iohexol over a range of glomerular filtration rates expected in cats.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid M; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Paepe, Dominique; Croubels, Siska; Biourge, Vincent; Daminet, Sylvie

    2009-12-01

    The study investigated plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine (PECCT), exo-iohexol (PexICT) and endo-iohexol (PenICT) in six healthy cats, four cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and six hyperthyroid (HT) cats to assess potential differences in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement over a wide range of GFR values. The PECCT, PexICT and PenICT were performed in a combined protocol. There was a significant difference between PexICT and PenICT and PECCT in healthy cats. Differences between clearance techniques are suggested to be correlated to range in GFRs and should be taken into account when GFR is measured. PMID:19679501

  3. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-12-18

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter.

  4. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  5. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  6. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  7. Increased risk for lymphoma and glomerulonephritis in a closed population of cats exposed to feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Francis, D P; Essex, M; Jakowski, R M; Cotter, S M; Lerer, T J; Hardy, W D

    1980-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated diseases were observed in a household in eastern Connecticut having 134 cats over a period of five and a half years. FeLV-positive cats had a much higher mortality rate (34.6 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up) than did FeLV-negative cats (8.9 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up). The leading cause of death was glomerulonephritis followed by lymphoma. The relative risk for virus-positive cats as compared to virus-negative cats for the two diseases was 9.9 and 9.6, respectively. The major risk factors for the development of lymphoma were virus positivity and low antibody titer to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA). No significant differences in cancer incidence were seen between the two major breeds (Abyssinian and Burmese) in the household. An older age at arrival in the house decreased death rates for all causes in the household, but it did not significantly affect death rates from lymphoma, although there was a positive trend. PMID:6244730

  8. Frequency and significance of feline leukemia virus infection in necropsied cats.

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Theilen, G

    1987-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection was diagnosed immunohistologically on paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from 1,095 necropsied cats. Significant association of FeLV infection was demonstrated by chi 2 and Fisher's tests with various conditions and diseases (ie, anemia, tumors of the leukemia/lymphoma complex, feline infectious peritonitis, bacterial infections, emaciation, FeLV-associated enteritis, lymphatic hyperplasia, and hemorrhage). Unexpected findings associated with FeLV infection were icterus, several types of hepatitis, and liver degeneration. A negative association with FeLV infection was found for most parasitic and viral infections, including feline panleukopenia. Neither positive nor negative associations were established for FeLV infection and most forms of nephritis, including severe glomerulonephritis. Feline leukemia virus-infected cats were significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test) older than were FeLV-negative cats with the same nonneoplastic FeLV-associated diseases. PMID:3037951

  9. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  10. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  Conducted successful underflights of opportunity ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  For more information, please see the  CATS ...

  11. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  12. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  13. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  14. Refeeding syndrome in a cat with hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Karen; KuKanich, Kate S; Smee, Nicole M

    2011-08-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by severe hypophosphatemia occurring in patients given enteral or parenteral nutrition after severe weight loss. There are few veterinary reports that describe this syndrome but it is well documented in human medicine. This report describes a case of a domestic shorthair cat diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis following a 4-week history of decreased appetite and weight loss and in whom refeeding syndrome was documented after initiation of enteral nutrition. Clinical findings, blood work abnormalities and disease progression in this patient are described from the time of diagnosis through to recovery. A review of the current literature pertinent to this clinical syndrome is included.

  15. Spinal epidural empyema in a cat.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Noritaka; Kanda, Teppei; Sasaki, Takanori; Morita, Takehito; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis and surgical treatment of spinal epidural empyema (SEE) in a 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat is described. SEE was diagnosed by computed tomographic myelography (CT myelography) and surgical exploration. The lesion was missed on both non-enhanced CT and conventional myelography. SEE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive myelopathy in cats, and CT myelography should be undertaken when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot be performed. PMID:20226705

  16. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    PubMed

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  17. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats. PMID:7195585

  18. Immunologic consequences of taurine deficiency in cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller-Levis, G; Mehta, P D; Rudelli, R; Sturman, J

    1990-04-01

    Our results show that a lack of taurine in the diet of cats results in a significant leukopenia, a shift in the percentage of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes, an increase in the absolute count of mononuclear leukocytes, and a change in the sedimentation characteristics of white cells. Functional studies of polymorphonuclear cells isolated from cats fed taurine-free diets show a significant decrease in the respiratory burst as measured by chemiluminescence as well as a decrease in phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermis compared to cats fed the same diet containing taurine. In addition, serum gamma globulin in cats fed taurine-free diets was significantly increased compared to taurine-supplemented cats, indicating that other immune cells may be affected by taurine deficiency. Histological examination of lymph nodes and spleen revealed regression of follicular centers with depletion of reticular cells, mature and immature lymphocytes (B cell areas), as well as mild extravascular hemolysis. These results indicate that there are profound immunologic consequences in cats with prolonged taurine deficiency. PMID:2319206

  19. Devil Declines and Catastrophic Cascades: Is Mesopredator Release of Feral Cats Inhibiting Recovery of the Eastern Quoll?

    PubMed Central

    Fancourt, Bronwyn A.; Hawkins, Clare E.; Cameron, Elissa Z.; Jones, Menna E.; Nicol, Stewart C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized Australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. This decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. A recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) populations, due to the spread of the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease, have released feral cats (Felis catus) from competitive suppression, with eastern quoll declines linked to a subsequent increase in cat sightings. Yet current evidence of intraguild suppression among devils, cats and quolls is scant and equivocal. We therefore assessed the influences of top-down effects on abundance and activity patterns among devils, feral cats and eastern quolls. Between 2011 and 2013, we monitored four carnivore populations using longitudinal trapping and camera surveys, and performed camera surveys at 12 additional sites throughout the eastern quoll’s range. We did not find evidence of a negative relationship between devil and cat abundance, nor of higher cat abundance in areas where devil populations had declined the longest. Cats did not appear to avoid devils spatially; however, there was evidence of temporal separation of cat and devil activity, with reduced separation and increasing nocturnal activity observed in areas where devils had declined the longest. Cats and quolls used the same areas, and there was no evidence that cat and quoll abundances were negatively related. Temporal overlap in observed cat and quoll activity was higher in summer than in winter, but this seasonal difference was unrelated to devil declines. We suggest that cats did not cause the recent quoll decline, but that predation of juvenile quolls by cats could be inhibiting low density quoll populations from recovering their former abundance

  20. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values <30 breaths/min. However, little is known about SRR and RRR in dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean <30 breaths/min at home. Clinicians can use these data to help determine how best to control CHF in dogs and cats.

  1. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1-10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1-25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40-180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40-100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53-128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59-154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93-180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41-84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  2. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1–10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1–25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40–180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40–100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53–128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59–154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93–180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41–84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  3. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Dogs and cats have been sharing our environment for a long time and as pets they bring major psychological well-being to our modern urbanized society. However, they still can be a source of human infection by various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Abstract Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  4. Pneumonia and gastritis in a cat caused by feline herpesvirus-1

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Glenna F.; Sheehan, Karen; Simko, Elemir

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of fatal respiratory and gastric herpesvirus infection in a vaccinated, adult cat with no known immunosuppression or debilitation. The disease was characterized by severe necrotizing bronchopneumonia, fibrinonecrotic laryngotracheitis, and multifocal necrotizing gastritis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and a large amount of feline herpesvirus-1 antigen detected with immunohistochemistry. PMID:26834264

  5. Identification of Bordetella bronchseptica in fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of tracheobronchitis and upper respiratory disease in dogs and cats, but it can also lead to fatal pneumonia. Identification of this pathogen is important due the risk of transmission to other animals, availability of vaccines and potential...

  6. Pneumonia and gastritis in a cat caused by feline herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Glenna F; Sheehan, Karen; Simko, Elemir

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of fatal respiratory and gastric herpesvirus infection in a vaccinated, adult cat with no known immunosuppression or debilitation. The disease was characterized by severe necrotizing bronchopneumonia, fibrinonecrotic laryngotracheitis, and multifocal necrotizing gastritis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and a large amount of feline herpesvirus-1 antigen detected with immunohistochemistry. PMID:26834264

  7. Pneumonia and gastritis in a cat caused by feline herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Glenna F; Sheehan, Karen; Simko, Elemir

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of fatal respiratory and gastric herpesvirus infection in a vaccinated, adult cat with no known immunosuppression or debilitation. The disease was characterized by severe necrotizing bronchopneumonia, fibrinonecrotic laryngotracheitis, and multifocal necrotizing gastritis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and a large amount of feline herpesvirus-1 antigen detected with immunohistochemistry.

  8. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. in fleas from cats in Albania.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Knaus, Martin; Rapti, Dhimiter; Shukullari, Enstela; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Fleas can serve as vectors for bacterial pathogens like Bartonella and Rickettsia species, which have been isolated worldwide. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in general and thus on flea-borne diseases in Albania is limited. Therefore, from 78 free-roaming cats in Tirana, Albania, fleas (371 Ctenocephalides felis and 5 Ctenocephalides canis) were collected to examine them for the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species. Ten of the 371 C. felis (2.7%) were positive for Rickettsia felis, and 24 (6.5%) for Bartonella spp. (B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). In total, fleas from 15 cats (19.2%) were positive for either one or the other of the pathogens. The results of this study provided evidence for the presence of R. felis (causing flea-borne spotted fever) and Bartonella spp. (causing cat scratch disease) in Albania. Thus, these infectious diseases should be considered as differential diagnoses when febrile symptoms are presented, especially after contact with cats or their fleas.

  9. Factors affecting treatment decisions and satisfaction of owners of cats with cancer.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Barton, C L; Rogers, K S; Peterson, J L; Harris, C K; Wallace, K

    1996-04-15

    Cancer in cats is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Euthanasia or an active intervention such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery are treatment choices for the owner at diagnosis of the cat's disease. In this study, 2 interviews with cat owners, one soon after diagnosis of cancer in the cat and one 6 months later, were used to identify owner characteristics associated with a decision of euthanasia or intervention, to identify factors associated with an owner's satisfaction with euthanasia or intervention, and to evaluate inappropriate expectations of the owners who selected an intervention. The study included 89 owners from 3 referral hospitals. In logistic regression analysis, significant factors were not found that affected the owner's decision to euthanatize the cat versus intervene. Satisfaction with the decision to euthanatize the cat was associated with the ability of the cat to groom itself, eat, and play at the first interview. Among owners who selected an intervention, 4 combinations of factors were associated with being satisfied. The first combination was clinic of origin (CLIN), having a live cat at the 6-month follow-up interview (LIVE), and understanding the number of return visits required for the intervention. The second was CLIN, LIVE, and type and frequency of adverse effects from the intervention at the 6-month interview. The third was CLIN, LIVE, and feeling guilty at the 6-month interview. The fourth was CLIN, LIVE, and whether the cat had a good or excellent quality of life at the first interview. Thirty percent (21/69) of the owners tended to overestimate their cats' life expectancy. Owners also felt they had reasonably accurate estimations of adverse effects of treatment and number of return visits, but underestimated the costs required for an intervention. For owners who elect an intervention, a reminder from the veterinarian that emotional upheavals may develop even after the decision has been made is important. To

  10. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Sphynx and Devon Rex Cats with Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Marie; Hitte, Christophe; Bossé, Philippe; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Thomas, Anne; Martignat, Lionel; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, fatigability and variable electromyographic or muscular histopathological features has been described in the two related Sphynx and Devon Rex cat breeds (Felis catus). Collection of data from two affected Sphynx cats and their relatives pointed out a single disease candidate region on feline chromosome C2, identified following a genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity mapping strategy. In that region, we further identified COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase) as a good candidate gene, since COLQ mutations were identified in affected humans and dogs with endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency leading to a synaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A homozygous c.1190G>A missense variant located in exon 15 of COLQ, leading to a C397Y substitution, was identified in the two affected cats. C397 is a highly-conserved residue from the C-terminal domain of the protein; its mutation was previously shown to produce CMS in humans, and here we confirmed in an affected Sphynx cat that it induces a loss of acetylcholinesterase clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Segregation of the c.1190G>A variant was 100% consistent with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the disorder in our cat pedigree; in addition, an affected, unrelated Devon Rex cat recruited thereafter was also homozygous for the variant. Genotyping of a panel of 333 cats from 14 breeds failed to identify a single carrier in non-Sphynx and non-Devon Rex cats. Finally, the percentage of healthy carriers in a European subpanel of 81 genotyped Sphynx cats was estimated to be low (3.7%) and 14 control Devon Rex cats were genotyped as wild-type individuals. Altogether, these results strongly support that the neuromuscular disorder reported in Sphynx and Devon Rex breeds is a CMS caused by a unique c.1190G>A missense mutation, presumably transmitted through a founder effect, which

  11. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Sphynx and Devon Rex Cats with Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Hitte, Christophe; Bossé, Philippe; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Thomas, Anne; Martignat, Lionel; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, fatigability and variable electromyographic or muscular histopathological features has been described in the two related Sphynx and Devon Rex cat breeds (Felis catus). Collection of data from two affected Sphynx cats and their relatives pointed out a single disease candidate region on feline chromosome C2, identified following a genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity mapping strategy. In that region, we further identified COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase) as a good candidate gene, since COLQ mutations were identified in affected humans and dogs with endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency leading to a synaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A homozygous c.1190G>A missense variant located in exon 15 of COLQ, leading to a C397Y substitution, was identified in the two affected cats. C397 is a highly-conserved residue from the C-terminal domain of the protein; its mutation was previously shown to produce CMS in humans, and here we confirmed in an affected Sphynx cat that it induces a loss of acetylcholinesterase clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Segregation of the c.1190G>A variant was 100% consistent with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the disorder in our cat pedigree; in addition, an affected, unrelated Devon Rex cat recruited thereafter was also homozygous for the variant. Genotyping of a panel of 333 cats from 14 breeds failed to identify a single carrier in non-Sphynx and non-Devon Rex cats. Finally, the percentage of healthy carriers in a European subpanel of 81 genotyped Sphynx cats was estimated to be low (3.7%) and 14 control Devon Rex cats were genotyped as wild-type individuals. Altogether, these results strongly support that the neuromuscular disorder reported in Sphynx and Devon Rex breeds is a CMS caused by a unique c.1190G>A missense mutation, presumably transmitted through a founder effect, which

  12. Antibody response and antibody affinity maturation in cats with experimental proliferative immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Bailey, M; Lucke, V M; Stokes, C R

    1992-07-01

    An experimental model of proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) in the cat, which closely resembles human proliferative forms of GN, has been used to study the role of antibody and antibody affinity in the development of immune complex-mediated renal disease. The serum IgG and IgM antibody response to antigen, average antibody affinity (avidity) and affinity heterogeneity of the IgG and IgM populations was assessed at varying times after commencement of chronic immunization with the antigen, human serum albumin (HSA), by enzyme immunoassay. Cats could be classified according to whether they were "low", "intermediate" or "high" IgG responders, by quantification of serum IgG values. Cats with the lowest serum IgG values failed to develop glomerulonephritis. However, there was no relationship between actual IgG values and the severity of the induced disease. In contrast to IgG, there was no division of cats into low or high IgM anti-HSA responders. Again, cats with the lowest IgM values failed to develop GN, but, more interestingly, a late, marked increase in serum IgM anti-HSA occurred only in cats that developed clinical signs of GN (anterior uveitis and nephrotic syndrome). Maturation of average, functional IgG affinity (avidity) for HSA following chronic immunization was clearly demonstrated for all cats. At the end of the experiment, all cats had IgG of high affinity for HSA and the average affinity heterogeneity of the IgG populations was less than in measurements taken earlier. Values of IgG affinity at the end of the experiment were very similar both in cats which developed GN and in those which remained clinically, biochemically and pathologically normal. In contrast to IgG antibody, some cats developed IgM of increased affinity, whilst others produced antibody of reduced affinity, following chronic immunization. There was no correlation between the development of disease and the production of either low or high affinity IgM antibody. Data indicated that an

  13. [Keeping of bears and big cats in the zoo and circus].

    PubMed

    Rietschel, W

    2002-03-01

    The exhibition of bears and big cats in zoo and circus causes regular criticism, justified and unjustified, by people engaged in the prevention of cruelty to animals. Main points of critique are holding conditions, feeding and health status of the animals. The official veterinarian involved in the supervision often needs the cooperation of a specialised zoo veterinarian. In most cases the clinical examination of bears and big cats requires an immobilisation. This article will enter into some of the most common holding problems and diseases of big carnivores in zoo and circus.

  14. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans.

  15. Vancomycin for multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium cholangiohepatitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Pressel, Michelle A; Fox, Leslie E; Apley, Michael D; Simutis, Frank J

    2005-10-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated with a life-long history of intermittent, predominantly small bowel diarrhea and a 3 day history of hematochezia. At presentation, the cat had increased liver enzyme activities and an inflammatory leukogram. Histopathology demonstrated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis. The cholangiohepatitis was associated with a multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium. Gallbladder agenesis was also documented. Treatment with vancomycin was safely instituted for 10 days. Clinical signs resolved, however, cure of the bacterial cholangiohepatitis was not achieved. The risk of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in human and veterinary medicine is discussed. PMID:16182186

  16. Clinical characteristics and causes of pruritus in cats: a multicentre study on feline hypersensitivity-associated dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Hobi, Stefan; Linek, Monika; Marignac, Geneviève; Olivry, Thierry; Beco, Luc; Nett, Claudia; Fontaine, Jacques; Roosje, Petra; Bergvall, Kerstin; Belova, Sveta; Koebrich, Stefanie; Pin, Didier; Kovalik, Marcel; Meury, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Sylvie; Favrot, Claude

    2011-10-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are often suspected in cats. Cats with HD are reported to present with one or more of the following patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, self-induced symmetrical alopecia or head and/or neck excoriations. Previous reports on feline HD included small numbers of animals, took place in geographically restricted areas or did not compare these conditions with other causes of pruritus. The goal of the present study was to analyse 72 parameters covering signalment, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics from a large group of pruritic cats from different geographical areas. Of the 502 cats, the following diagnoses were made: flea HD (29% of cases), food HD (12%) nonflea/nonfood HD (20%) and other diseases in which pruritus was a feature (24%). Cats with signs consistent with a HD but which did not complete a food trial were not analysed further (15% of cases). Most cats with nonflea HD exhibited signs compatible with one or more of the four typical lesional patterns, but none of these patterns was found to be pathognomonic for any specific diagnosis. Food HD and nonflea/nonfood HD were found to be clinically undistinguishable. Young adult, purebred and female cats appeared predisposed to nonflea/nonfood HD. As many diagnoses presented with similar lesional patterns, a thorough clinical work-up is required for establishment of a specific diagnosis.

  17. Clinical improvement in feline herpesvirus 1 infected cats by oral low dose of interleukin-12 plus interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Filomena; Cantiello, Antonietta; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Navas, Luigi; Diffidenti, Carmine; De Martino, Luisa; Maharajan, Veeramani; Olivieri, Fabio; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a widespread cat pathogen inducing rhinitis, conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. To alleviate acute FHV-1-induced disease, antiviral agents are used often with antibiotics. But sometimes, these treatments, as well as conventional doses of cytokines have moderate efficacy and/or collateral effects. Herein we have investigated the effects of low dose interleukin (IL)-12 plus interferon (IFN)-gamma, prepared by Sequential Kinetic Activated (SKA), on the treatment of FHV-1 infection. Twenty-five, unvaccinated FHV-1-positive cats were recruited into a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Fifteen cats were treated for 6 months with oral low doses of SKA IL-12 plus IFN-gamma and 10 cats were treated with placebo. At 1, 6 and 12 months (follow-up) after the beginning of treatment, clinical assessment, PCR assay and blood count were carried out. At follow-up, in treated group, we observed significant (p<0.05) improvements in clinical signs and PCR became negative in 12/15 cats (80%). In placebo, 10/10 cats were PCR-positive, with improvements (30%) or worsening (70%) in clinical signs. Blood values were normal in both groups. Our results show that the low dose therapy, based on activated solutions of IL-12 plus IFN-gamma, represents a novel approach to treat FHV-1 infection in cats. PMID:27638118

  18. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ULTRASOUND AND CLINICAL FINDINGS IN 87 CATS WITH URETHRAL OBSTRUCTION.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Jonathan R; Mai, Wilfried; Thomas, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Urethral obstruction is a life-threatening form of feline lower urinary tract disease. Ultrasonographic risk factors for reobstruction have not been previously reported. Purposes of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to describe urinary tract ultrasound findings in cats following acute urethral obstruction and determine whether ultrasound findings were associated with reobstruction. Inclusion criteria were a physical examination and history consistent with urethral obstruction, an abdominal ultrasound including a full evaluation of the urinary system within 24 h of hospitalization, and no cystocentesis prior to ultrasound examination. Medical records for included cats were reviewed and presence of azotemia, hyperkalemia, positive urine culture, and duration of hospitalization were recorded. For medically treated cats with available outcome data, presence of reobstruction was also recorded. Ultrasound images were reviewed and urinary tract characteristics were recorded. A total of 87 cats met inclusion criteria. Common ultrasound findings for the bladder included echogenic urine sediment, bladder wall thickening, pericystic effusion, hyperechoic pericystic fat, and increased urinary echoes; and for the kidneys/ureters included pyelectasia, renomegaly, perirenal effusion, hyperechoic perirenal fat, and ureteral dilation. Six-month postdischarge outcomes were available for 61 medically treated cats and 21 of these cats had reobstruction. No findings were associated with an increased risk of reobstruction. Ultrasonographic perirenal effusion was associated with severe hyperkalemia (P = 0.009, relative risk 5.75, 95% confidence interval [1.54-21.51]). Findings supported the use of ultrasound as an adjunct for treatment planning in cats presented with urethral obstruction but not as a method for predicting risk of reobstruction.

  19. Ultrasonographic measurements of adrenal glands in cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Peremans, Kathelijne; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism is potentially associated with exaggerated responsiveness of the adrenal gland cortex. The adrenal glands of 23 hyperthyroid cats were examined ultrasonographically and compared to the adrenal glands of 30 control cats. Ten hyperthyroid cats had received antithyroid drugs until 2 weeks before sonography, the other 13 were untreated. There was no difference in adrenal gland shape between healthy and hyperthyroid cats: bean-shaped, well-defined, hypoechoic structures surrounded by a hyperechoic halo in 43/60 (71.6%) healthy cats and 34/46 (73.9%) hyperthyroid cats; more ovoid in 13/60 (21.6%) healthy cats and 9/46 (19.6%) hyperthyroid cats while more elongated in 4/60 (6.7%) healthy cats, 3/46 (6.5%) hyperthyroid cats. Hyperechoic foci were present in 9/23 (39.1%) hyperthyroid cats and 2/30 (6.7%) healthy cats. The adrenal glands were significantly larger in hyperthyroid cats, although there was overlap in size range. The mean difference between hyperthyroid cats and healthy cats was 1.6 and 1.7 mm in left and right adrenal gland length, 0.8 and 0.9 mm in left and right cranial adrenal gland height, and 0.4 and 0.9 mm in left and right caudal adrenal gland height. There was no significant difference between the adrenal gland measurements in treated and untreated hyperthyroid cats. The adrenomegaly was most likely associated with the hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex documented in hyperthyroid cats. Hyperthyroidism should be an alternative to hyperadrenocorticism, hyperaldosteronism, and acromegaly in cats with bilateral moderate adrenomegaly.

  20. Antigenic role of the endosymbionts of filarial nematodes: IgG response against the Wolbachia surface protein in cats infected with Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, C; Ceciliani, F; McCall, J W; Ricci, I; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

    2000-01-01

    Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners' cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D. immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D. immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and experimentally infected cats. WSP was recognized only by sera from positive cats and from cats experimentally infected with D. immitis; this protein was not recognized by sera from negative cats and from cats before experimental infection with D. immitis. The results of Western blot assays on WSP thus support the hypothesis that infection with filarial nematodes induces the production of antibodies against Wolbachia proteins. PMID:11197127

  1. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history. PMID:25573289

  2. Mucins in cat airway secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J R; Gallagher, J T; Richardson, P S; Sheehan, J K; Carlstedt, I

    1991-01-01

    Mucous secretions were obtained from cat tracheas that had received [3H]glucose and [35S]sulphate to radiolabel mucus glycoproteins biosynthetically. Samples were collected under resting ('basal') conditions as well as after pilocarpine stimulation and were separated into gel and sol phases by centrifugation. Macromolecules were partially purified by using gel chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B, and the species that were eluted with the void volume were then separated into two major populations with isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl. The major component from the gel phase of pilocarpine-induced secretions had a buoyant density typical of mucins and was observed as linear and apparently flexible chains by electron microscopy. Reduction of disulphide bonds gave subunits that could be further cleaved by trypsin digestion into components of approximately the same size as the high-Mr glycopeptides obtained from other mucins after this treatment. In contrast, the dominant species in the gel phase of the 'basal' secretion had a significantly higher buoyant density than expected for mucins and was largely unaffected by reduction, as studied by gel chromatography. The macromolecules were fragmented by trypsin, suggesting that they contain a polypeptide backbone. This more dense component also predominated in the sol phase both from the 'basal' secretions and from the pilocarpine-released secretions. Digestion with DNAase, chondroitin ABC lyase or heparan sulphate lyase had no effect, which shows that this component is not DNA, a dermatan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate or a heparan sulphate proteoglycan. In contrast, endo-beta-galactosidase and keratanase caused some fragmentation, suggesting that the molecules contain some linkages of the poly-(N-acetyl-lactosamine) type, although the degradation was not as extensive as expected for keratan sulphate. Treatment with alkaline borohydride resulted in extensive fragmentation of the high-Mr glycopeptides from both

  3. Ocular manifestations of feline viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Feline viral diseases are common and cats can be presented with a variety of clinical manifestations. Ocular disease associated with viral pathogens is not unusual, particularly with viruses causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats, such as feline herpesvirus type 1 and feline calicivirus. These agents mainly cause ocular surface disease. Other viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus, can cause uveitis, while feline leukemia virus can induce ocular lymphosarcoma. This review covers the most common viral pathogens of cats that cause ocular manifestations, the specific features of the ocular diseases caused by these viruses and therapeutic recommendations.

  4. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  5. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging.

  6. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  7. The genetic diversity of clinical isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, T; Kano, R; Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2001-08-01

    Molecular investigation of 110 clinical isolates of non-lipid-dependent Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs and cats was carried out by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) gene sequence analyses. The RAPD analysis indicated that the clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis constituted four distinct genetic types (A, B, C and D). Moreover, the results from CHS2 gene analysis completely agreed with those from the RAPD analyses. The clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis were obtained from normal external ears, lesions of atopic dermatitis, flea allergic dermatitis, otitis externa, pyoderma and seborrheic dermatitidis in dogs and cats. Type A consisted of 93 clinical isolates as well as the ex-neotype strain of M. pachydermatis. The isolates of type A M. pachydermatis originated from lesions of all kinds of diseases. They were predominant on dog and cat skin. The other types, B, C, and D were isolated mainly from otitis externa. PMID:11556762

  8. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies to Leishmania infantum in cats from southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Ramos, Cláudia; Coimbra, Mónica; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBD) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary medical importance, cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some VBD agents by acting as reservoirs, amplifying hosts or sentinels. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and of antibodies to Leishmania infantum in a sample of 271 cats from southern Portugal. Thirteen (4.8%) cats were positive to D. immitis, while antibodies to L. infantum were detected in 10 (3.7%) animals. The prevalence of D. immitis and L. infantum in the feline population from southern Portugal should alert for the need to implement control measures to protect animals and people from these zoonotic parasites. Furthermore, both parasitoses must be included in the differential diagnosis in feline clinical practice.

  9. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  10. Ultrasonographic appearance of histoplasmosis identified in the spleen in 15 cats.

    PubMed

    Atiee, Genna; Kvitko-White, Heather; Spaulding, Kathy; Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is the second most common fungal infection reported in the cat. The disseminated form involving lung, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow is a frequent manifestation of the disease. Limited information is available in the literature regarding the ultrasonographic appearance of the spleen in cats with disseminated or splenic histoplasmosis. A retrospective review of splenic ultrasound images from 15 cats confirmed to have histoplasmosis by splenic aspirates was performed. Size, echotexture, echogenicity, margin appearance, presence of nodules, and the overall shape of the spleen were reported in each case. Splenomegaly was documented in all cases (15/15) and a hypoechoic appearance of the spleen was documented in 14/15 of cases. The spleen was diffusely and uniformly affected in 14/15 (six homogenous and eight with a subtle mottled appearance) and had discrete nodules in 1/15 cats. Histoplasmosis should be included in the differential list for an enlarged and hypoechoic spleen in cats with consistent clinical findings. Additionally, ultrasound guided splenic aspirate may be a useful method to obtain a cytology sample for diagnosis.

  11. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  12. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  13. Studies on the role of feline calicivirus in chronic stomatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Knowles, J O; McArdle, F; Dawson, S; Carter, S D; Gaskell, C J; Gaskell, R M

    1991-05-01

    Two groups of cats were inoculated oro-nasally with one of two isolates of feline calicivirus (FCV) from clinical cases of chronic stomatitis. All cats developed signs typical of acute FCV infection; namely, ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and marked oral ulceration. None of the cats shed virus beyond 28 days. Seronegative control cats were then infected with a lower dose of one isolate, but again only acute signs were seen and no carriers produced. The original cats were then re-infected with the heterologous isolate. As before, only signs of acute disease were seen, but the range of clinical signs and severity was reduced. Virus shedding patterns in one group were similar to those seen originally, but in the other the duration was reduced. No chronic stomatitis developed over the 10 months of the study. Serum virus neutralising and serum and salivary class specific immunoglobulin responses were investigated. Although long-term carriers were not induced, no relationship between cessation of virus shedding in an individual animal and systemic and local antibody responses was seen.

  14. Measurement of cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal biopsies of cats with inflammatory enteropathy using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van, N; Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Tasker, S; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2006-10-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common condition in cats characterised by infiltration of inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa. In this study, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in intestinal biopsies from cats. Biopsies were collected from seven cats with chronic diarrhoea and histologically confirmed IBD, five cats with chronic diarrhoea due to non-IBD gastrointestinal (GI) disease, and nine clinically normal cats with or without subclinical inflammatory changes in small intestine. Real-time RT-PCR was developed for quantification of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), IL-18, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a 'housekeeper' gene. All real-time PCR efficiencies were>90% (range 90.4-102%) with correlation coefficients >0.99 (range 0.998-1). The results of the study were analyzed on the basis of either clinical presentation or histopathological evidence of intestinal inflammation. The former analysis showed that mRNA encoding IL-10 and TGF-beta (immunoregulatory cytokines), and IL-6, IL-18, TNF-alpha and IL-12 p40 (Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines) was significantly higher in clinically normal cats and cats with IBD when compared to cats with other GI diseases. IL-5 mRNA was significantly higher in cats with IBD compared to clinically normal cats. IL-2 mRNA was significantly lower in cats with non-IBD GI disease than in clinically normal cats. Analysis on the basis of histopathological change revealed that cats with intestinal inflammation had significantly more transcription of genes encoding IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta than those with normal intestinal morphology. The results suggest that immune dysregulation plays a role in feline IBD and that IBD

  15. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Kufuor-Mensah, Eric

    2007-02-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Persian cat was referred for evaluation of progressive paraplegia. The cat was thin, cachectic and paraplegic on presentation. The survey radiographs showed a left caudal pulmonary lesion and lytic skeletal lesions at the right iliac crest and left distal scapula. Due to a poor prognosis for complete recovery, the owner opted for euthanasia. Post-mortem examination revealed bilaterally small and irregular kidneys, lysis of the left iliac crest and left distal scapula and a dilated left ventricular lumen with a thin interventricular septum. Histologically, all the lesions were determined to be squamous cell carcinoma. It appears that the origin or the primary site of the malignancy in this case is pulmonary as cardiac and skeletal tissues are primarily mesenchymal in origin and are less likely to develop a primary epithelial malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, there is no description of cardiac or skeletal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat. PMID:16859943

  16. Postanesthetic death in a cat with myopathy.

    PubMed

    Remmers, G; Hayden, D W; Jaeger, M A; Ervasti, J M; Valberg, S J

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of naturally occurring muscular dystrophy in domestic animals. Herein, we describe a case of muscular dystrophy in a 4-year-old neutered male American domestic shorthair cat that died unexpectedly following anesthesia for an elective surgical procedure. Macroscopic muscular hypertrophy and histologic evidence of myofiber size variation, mineralization, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis were compatible with a diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Extensive endomysial fibrosis was noted histologically in the diaphragm. A complete absence of dystrophin protein in Western blot confirmed the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed reduced levels of dystrophin-associated proteins and an upregulation of utrophin at the sarcolemma. Anesthetic deaths can occur in dystrophin-deficient cats, and therefore muscular dystrophy and the associated cardiomyopathy should be considered in the differential diagnoses for perianesthetic death in cats.

  17. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene. PMID:25611903

  18. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat.

  19. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene.

  20. Microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Carminato, Antonio; Vascellari, Marta; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Mutinelli, Franco

    2011-12-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered male cat was presented for a subcutaneous mass on the neck. After surgical removal of the mass, a pet identification microchip was found within the tumour. Histological examination of the mass revealed typical features of the feline postinjection sarcoma. The cat had never received injections at the tumour site; all routine vaccinations were administered in the hindlimbs. Few cases of sarcomas developing at the site of microchip application have been reported in animals, although the contributory role of vaccine administrations has not been ruled out. This is the first report of a microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners vaccination guidelines, avoiding the interscapular area, enabled confirmation of the definitive aetiology of the neoplasia.