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Sample records for cat eye syndrome

  1. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.

  2. Cat eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  3. Cytogenetic investigation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G

    1977-10-01

    Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.

  4. Cat eye syndrome with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Masukawa, H; Ozaki, T; Nogimori, T

    1998-10-01

    A 17-year-old male diagnosed as having Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism showed short stature and no development of secondary sex characteristics. Exogeneous gonadotropin replacement therapy combining human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was started. As a result, the short stature and androgen deficiency were relieved. The critical region of CES was tetrasomy of 22 pter-->q11. Abnormalities of other chromosomes which cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may exist, thus further investigation is needed.

  5. [Associated brachial cleft anomalies in the cat eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Avior, Galit; Derowe, Ari; Fliss, Dan M; Leicear-Trejo, Leonor; Braverman, Itzhak

    2007-02-01

    The cat eye syndrome is a congenital malformation usually associated with anal atresia, ocular coloboma, downward slanting eyes, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, strabismus, preauricular tags or fistulas, congenital heart defect particularly septal defect, urinary tract abnormalities, skeletal anomalies and frequently mental and physical retardation. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited and represents an inv dup 22 (q11). A two years old female presented to our department with an association of cat eye syndrome with preauricular tags and a first branchial arch anomaly. This article discusses the surgical management and the association between the cat eye syndrome and first branchial cleft anomaly.

  6. Phenotypic variability of Cat-Eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berends, M J; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; van Essen, A J

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cytogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric duplication of a part of chromosome 22 (inv dup(22)). We report on three CES-patients who carry an inv dup(22) diagnosed with FISH studies. They show remarkable phenotypic variability. The cause of this variability is unknown. Furthermore, we review clinical features of 71 reported patients. Only 41% of the CES-patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and pre-auricular anomalies. Therefore, almost 60% of the CES-patients are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Mild to moderate mental retardation was found in 32% (16/50) of the cases. Mental retardation occurs more frequently in male CES-patients. There is no apparent phenotypic difference between mentally retarded and mentally normal CES-patients.

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of cat eye syndrome marker chromosome.

    PubMed

    Wenger, S L; Surti, U; Nwokoro, N A; Steele, M W

    1994-01-01

    Cat eye syndrome is associated with a partial tetrasomy 22q and can be inherited. The authors have evaluated the marker chromosome in a proband and his mother by cytogenetic banding techniques to verify the dicentric chromosomal rearrangement and by fluorescence in situ hybridization to confirm the involvement of 22. The mother also had an affected offspring with an unrelated aneuploidy, trisomy 21.

  8. Cat-eye syndrome with isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Shimizu, Chikara; Nagai, So; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Umetsu, Masaaki; Kimura, Yasunori; Atsumi, Toshiya; Yoshioka, Narihito; Kubo, Mitsumasa; Koike, Takao

    2005-10-01

    A 34-year-old Japanese man diagnosed as having cat-eye syndrome (CES) with isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) was treated at our university. He showed preauricular pits/tags, downward slanting palpebral fissures, ocular hypertelorism, and strabismus. However, ocular coloboma and anal atresia, major characteristic features of CES, were negative. Chromosomal analysis revealed malformation in chromosome 22 and eunuchoid features and a low grade development of secondary sexual characteristics were also evident. Endocrinological examinations revealed that this patient was in a state of isolated IHH. Although CES with IHH is extremely rare, endocrine disorders should be given due attention.

  9. Renal function evaluation in an adult female with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, G; Triolo, O; Stella, N C; Gemelli, M; Musolino, R; Monardo, P; Savica, V

    1994-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly involving the kidney. It is rarely reported in literature, while renal function has never been studied up to now. Shown here are the morphofunctional renal alterations observed in a female patient affected by cat-eye syndrome.

  10. Severe psychomotor delay in a severe presentation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally.

  11. The aetiology of the cat eye syndrome reconsidered.

    PubMed Central

    Guanti, G

    1981-01-01

    The cat eye syndrome (CES), usually ascribed to the presence of a deleted supernumerary 22 chromosome, is characterised by a typical clinical picture including anal atresia, ocular coloboma, preauricular tags or sinuses, congenital heart defects, urinary tracts anomalies, and mental and physical retardation. An analysis of published reports revealed that of the 57 reported cases, only 21 showed the complete form, and 11 had a normal karyotype. Several observations question the existence of a trisomy 22:(1) the absence of any report in living subjects of trisomy 22 arising from an inherited Robertsonian translocation; (2) the recurrent abortions in carriers of Robertsonian translocations involving chromosome 22; and (3) the existence of a syndrome, showing the same clinical features as trisomy 22, which is irrefutably dependent on a trisomy of the distal region of the 11 long arm. On the basis of a comparison of the clinical features in full trisomy 13, partial 13 trisomies, 13 rings, 13 deletions, and CES the small marker present in this syndrome is considered to be a chromosome 13 with an interstitial deletion. An attempt to map this chromosome has been made. Images PMID:7241528

  12. FISH approach to determine cat eye syndrome chromosome breakpoints of a patient with cat eye syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Gentile, M; De Sanctis, S; Cariola, F; Spezzi, T; Di Carlo, A; Tontoli, F; Lista, F; Buonadonna, A L

    2005-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old man with craniofacial dysmorphic features, anorectal malformations, eye colobomas, orthopaedic anomalies, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. Cat eye syndrome (CES) was suspected, and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis which showed the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as invdup(22). The marker was further analyzed with six BAC clones located at the 22q11.1 and 22q11.2 regions; this analysis allowed correct assignment at low copy repeat 4 on chromosome 22 (LCR22-4) of the two breakpoints, confirming the presence of a CES chromosome type II. The patient's phenotype is considered in the light of the cytogenetic, and FISH investigations results and other patients reported in literature. Molecular definition of the breakpoints at the LCR22-4 copy confirms the role of different chromosome 22-specific LCRs in CES chromosomes generation, as well as in other chromosome 22 germ line rearrangements. Our report confirms that, unlike other conditions, i.e. the invdup(15) bisatellited dicentric marker, the CES phenotype does not appear to correlate with the size of the marker chromosome. Additional cases are necessary to be able to draw more specific genotype-phenotype correlations and to determine the outcome of patients with CES, especially when this rare condition is diagnosed in prenatal age.

  13. Cat eye syndrome associated with aganglionosis of the small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ward, J; Sierra, I A; D'Croz, E

    1989-10-01

    A newborn male infant is presented with the characteristic phenotype of the cat eye syndrome and a small supernumerary chromosome shorter than a 22. He also had complete absence of parasympathetic ganglion cells throughout the small and large intestine.

  14. Short-segment Hirschsprung's disease, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation: a unique association.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles

    2007-08-01

    The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.

  15. [Cat-eye syndrome. Clinical and cytogenetical differentialdiagnosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kunze, J; Tolksdorf, M; Wiedemann, H R

    1975-01-01

    We report a 5 1/2-year-old girl whose clinical symptoms are consistent with diagnosis of the cat-eye syndrome. The prominent symptoms are: anal stenosis, preauricular tags and pits, coloboma of the iris, doubling of the pelvis and ureter on both sides, vesicourethral reflux on the right side and normal mental development. Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal. Chromosomal analysis shows a supernumerary submetacentric chromosome. This extra chromosome is smaller than the G-group chromosomes and has satellites on the short and long arms. Autoradiography after 3H-thymidine incorporation shows a late-labeling marker chromosome. After using the Giemsa-banding technique, the chromatides demonstrate dark bandings with only soft, unstained satellites. With the fluorescence method, one can see spotlike fluorescence of the satellites on both arms and diffuse fluorescence of the hetero-chromatic segments. In addition, the C-bandings demonstrate a homogeneous dark staining of the chromatids, but we did not find stained satellites. Using the Giemsa-11 technique one can see the 47th chromosome with predominantly heterochromatic parts, but small euchromatic segments are visible between them. Satellites are unstained. Using currently accepted cytogenetical methods, it is not possible to identify the origin of this supernumerary marker chromosome.

  16. [Complex cyanotic heart defect in a newborn infant with cat eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Paul, T; Reimer, A; Wilken, M; Miller, K; Kallfelz, H C

    1991-04-01

    In a cyanotic newborn with characteristic features of Cat-Eye-Syndrome, cytogenetic examination disclosed a supernumerary small bisatellited chromosome. Angiography showed Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a narrow patent ductus arteriosus with additional stenosis of the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. At an age of 14 weeks, the patient died after the attempt of corrective cardiac surgery. Congenital cardiac malformation is present in more than one third of patients with cat-eye-syndrome and is usually the lifelimiting malformation in this syndrome.

  17. Cat-eye syndrome with unusual marker chromosome probably not chromosome 22.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, W; Verma, R S; Jhaveri, R C

    1984-05-01

    An unusual supernumerary chromosome with a single satellite on the long arm was found in a child with manifestations of the cat-eye syndrome including apparently low-set and malformed ears, preauricular tags, micrognathia, and imperforate anus. Although G-banding suggested that this extra material was chromosome 22, this was not confirmed by several other banding techniques. After examination of the parents' chromosomes, the nature and origin of this extra chromosome remains obscure. We conclude that patients previously diagnosed as having "partial trisomy 22" with incomplete cat-eye syndrome may have a different chromosome constitution when studied by various banding techniques.

  18. Cat eye syndrome and growth hormone deficiency with pituitary anomalies: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melo, Cláudia; Gama-de-Sousa, Susana; Almeida, Filipa; Rendeiro, Paula; Tavares, Purificação; Cardoso, Helena; Carvalho, Sónia

    2013-10-15

    Cat eye syndrome is a rare congenital disease characterized by the existence of a supernumerary chromosome derived from chromosome 22, with a variable phenotype comprising anal atresia, coloboma of the iris and preauricular tags or pits. We report a girl with cat eye syndrome, presenting short stature, with growth hormone deficiency due to posterior pituitary ectopia. Short stature is a common feature of this syndrome, and the association with a structural pituitary anomaly has been described, however growth hormone deficiency and the underlying mechanisms are rarely reported. A review on short stature and growth hormone deficiency in cat eye syndrome is conducted.

  19. Cat-eye syndrome with different marker chromosomes in a mother and daughter.

    PubMed

    Ing, P S; Lubinsky, M S; Smith, S D; Golden, E; Sanger, W G; Duncan, A M

    1987-03-01

    Except for atypical eye findings in the daughter, a mother and daughter with bisatellited marker chromosomes had abnormalities consistent with cat-eye syndrome. The mother's marker chromosome (mar number 1) is derived from one 22 and another acrocentric, possibly also a 22; the daughter's marker (mar number 2) may be an iso-dicentric, inv-dup (22) derivative of mar number 1. The mother has a tertiary trisomy translocation chromosome composed of at least one and perhaps two copies of 22pter----q11.2, whereas the daughter clearly has a secondary trisomy 22pter----q11.2 isochromosome, confirming this region as a cause of cat-eye syndrome. Results of hybridization using a unique sequence probe localized to 22q11 are consistent with the interpretation that both ends of both marker chromosomes are derived from 22.

  20. Interrupted aortic arch type B in A patient with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Hacker, April M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  1. Phenotypic variability of the cat eye syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rosias, P R; Sijstermans, J M; Theunissen, P M; Pulles-Heintzberger, C F; De Die-Smulders, C E; Engelen, J J; Van Der Meer, S B

    2001-01-01

    We present a male infant with preauricular skin tags and pits, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, ectopic anus, hypospadias, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The clinical features in our patient show phenotypic overlap with the cat eye syndrome, as illustrated by the review of 105 reported cases. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified by microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization as an isodicentric chromosome 22(pter --> q11.2::q11.2 --> pter). It was proved with probes specific for the cat eye syndrome critical region that this region was present in quadruplicate in the propositus. We conclude that CES is characterized by large phenotypic variability, ranging from near normal to severe malformations, as reflected in the neurodevelopmental outcome. Preauricular skin tags and/or pits are the most consistent features, and suggest the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome 22 derived from duplication of the CES critical region.

  2. Interstitial duplication of proximal 22q: phenotypic overlap with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knoll, J H; Asamoah, A; Pletcher, B A; Wagstaff, J

    1995-01-16

    We describe a child with downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular malfunctions, congenital heart defect (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), unilateral absence of a kidney, and developmental delay with an apparent interstitial duplication of proximal 22q. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed duplication of the IGLC locus, and C-banding of the duplicated region was negative. The duplication appears to involve 22q11.2-q12. Although the child has neither colobomas nor microphthalmia, he shows phenotypic overlap with the cat eye syndrome, which is caused by a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome arising from inverted duplication of the short arm and proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Further molecular studies of this patient should help to define the regions responsible for the manifestations of cat eye syndrome.

  3. Interstitial duplication of proximal 22q: Phenotypic overlap with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, J.H.M.; Asamoah, A.; Wagstaff, J.

    1995-01-16

    We describe a child with downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular malfunctions, congenital heart defect (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), unilateral absence of a kidney, and developmental delay with an apparent interstitial duplication of proximal 22q. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed duplication of the IGLC locus, and C-banding of the duplicated region was negative. The duplication appears to involve 22q11.2-q12. Although the child has neither colobomas nor microphthalmia, he shows phenotypic overlap with with the cat eye syndrome, which is caused by a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome arising from inverted duplication of the short arm and proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Further molecular studies of this patient should help to define the regions responsible for the manifestations of cat eye syndrome. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Atypical cat eye syndrome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Bartsch, O; Aksu, F; Fenner, A; Schwinger, E

    1992-08-01

    In 1983, a chromosome analysis was carried out in a newborn preterm infant with minor anomalies (preauricular skin tag, maldescensus testis). All analysed metaphases showed a small extra chromosome, which was symmetric, dicentric and bi-satellited. In spite of in depth analysis, its origin remained obscure. Recent re-evaluation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) led to the diagnosis of a dicentric chromosome 22. The FISH technique is an important new tool in chromosome diagnostics. The phenotype of this infant only vaguely resembles the cat eye syndrome. The syndrome should be diagnosed clinically and not only based on the results of chromosome analysis.

  5. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated.

  6. Anatomical asplenia in cat eye syndrome: an expansion of the disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chellapandian, Deepakbabu; Schneider, Adele

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES) associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis.

  7. Identification of a cat eye syndrome using DNA sequence dosage analysis.

    PubMed

    Bulle, F; Lespinasse, J; Pawlak, A; Vadot, E; Sastre, J; Noël, B; Guellaen, G

    1996-01-01

    We report here the detection of a Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) in a woman who does not exhibit the related phenotype, due to intensive surgery. The analysis of her karyotype reveals a small supernumerary bisatellited chromosome likely to correspond to a fragment of chromosome 13, 15, 21 or 22 on banding analysis. Southern blot of genomic DNA of this patient and her parents hybridized with probes specific of these chromosomes, revealed a DNA amplification of the 22q11 region for the patient, likely to correspond to a CES.

  8. A new case of a severe clinical phenotype of the cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denavit, T Martin; Malan, V; Grillon, C; Sanlaville, D; Ardalan, A; Jacquemont, M L; Burglen, L; Taillemite, J L; Portnoi, M F

    2004-01-01

    A new case of severe clinical phenotype of the cat-eye syndrome: We report on a female infant with severe clinical phenotype of Cat-Eye Syndrome (CES). At birth, she had respiratory distress and marked hypotonia. Physical examination showed major craniofacial anomalies including microcephaly, bilateral total absence of the external ears, hypertelorism, bilateral ocular coloboma of iris and micrognathia. In addition, she had anal stenosis, a patent ductus arteriosus and intra- and extra- hepatic biliary atresia. She deteriorated with the development of bradycardia. She died at age one month of cardiac failure. Cytogenetic analysis of the proband showed an extra de novo small bisatelllited marker chromosome in all cells examined. Molecular cytogenetic analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified the marker as a CES chromosome. Thus, the patient's karyotype was: 47, XX, +idic(22)(pter-->q11.2 ::q11.2-->pter). The duplication breakpoints giving rise to the CES chromosome were distal to the DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) locus 22q11.2. The marker could be classed as a type 11 symmetrical (10). According to a recent review of CES literature (1) only 41 % of the CES patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and preauricular anomalies. Almost 60% are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Only twelve patients showed a severe clinical phenotype leading to the death of the child. This phenotypic variability increases the difficulties of genetic counseling.

  9. CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AL-TR-1 993-0025 AD-A264 069 CATS EYES ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES A R M Joseph C. Antonio DTIC S ELECTET University of Dayton Research Institute MAY 13...Final November 1992 - January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS C F33615-90-C-0005 CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures PE - 62205F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...the loss of NVG performance resulting from improper goggle adjustments. This report describes correct adjustment procedures for the CATS EYES NVG system

  10. Cat-Eyed Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-13

    Bright, high altitude clouds, like those imaged here, often appear more filamentary or streak-like than clouds imaged at slightly deeper levels in Saturn atmosphere. This view also shows one of the many cat eye vortices.

  11. Dynamic mosaicism involving an unstable supernumerary der(22) chromosome in cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urioste, M; Visedo, G; Sanchís, A; Sentís, C; Villa, A; Ludeña, P; Hortigüela, J L; Martínez-Frías, M L; Fernández-Piqueras, J

    1994-01-01

    We have studied a girl, her sister and her mother who had a supernumerary marker chromosome in mosaicism. The marker was studied by cytogenetic methods and non-isotopic in situ hybridization with the single D22S9 DNA probe which maps to 22q11. The supernumerary chromosome was derived from a chromosome 22 and it did not present the same morphology in all the cells. At least 5 distinct types of the marker chromosome were detected and some of them were probably derived from each other (dynamic mosaicism). The proposita had an MCA pattern consistent with mild cat eye syndrome, while her sister and her mother had some of the manifestations described in this syndrome. A specific correlation could be established between phenotype and karyotype.

  12. Dynamic mosaicism involving an unstable supernumerary der(22) chromosome in cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Urioste, M.; Visedo, G.; Sanchis, A.; Sentis, C.; Villa, A.; Ludena, P.; Hortigueela, J.L.; Martinez-Frias, M.L.; Fernandez-Piqueras, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have studied a girl, her sister and her mother who had a supernumerary marker chromosome in mosaicism. The marker was studied by cytogenetic methods and nonisotopic in situ hybridization with the single D22S9 DNA probe which maps to 22q11. The supernumerary chromosome was derived from chromosome 22 and it did not present the same morphology in all the cells. At least 5 distinct types of the marker chromosome were detected and some of them were probably derived from each other (dynamic mosaicism). The proposita had an MCA pattern consistent with mild cat eye syndrome, while her sister and her mother had some of the manifestations described in this syndrome. A specific correlation could be established between phenotype and karyotype. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Absence of lambda immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the "cat eye" syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hough, C A; White, B N; Holden, J J

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the "cat eye" syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter-->22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned lambda immunoglobulin (lambda Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 lambda Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the lambda Ig gene region.

  14. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, A. J.; Duncan, A. M.; Budarf, M. L.; Emanuel, B. S.; Sellinger, B.; Siegel-Bartelt, J.; Greenberg, C. R.; McDermid, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study we have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7912885

  15. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mears, A J; Duncan, A M; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S; Sellinger, B; Siegel-Bartelt, J; Greenberg, C R; McDermid, H E

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study we have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2.

  16. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E. ); Duncan, A.M.V. ); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S.; Sellinger, B. ); Siegel-Bartelt, J. ); Greenberg, C.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study the authors have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cat eye syndrome chromosome breakpoint clustering: identification of two intervals also associated with 22q11 deletion syndrome breakpoints.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, K E; Budarf, M L; Driscoll, D A; Emanuel, B S; Ferreira, P; McDermid, H E

    1998-01-01

    The supernumerary cat eye syndrome (CES) chromosome is dicentric, containing two copies of 22pter-->q11.2. We have found that the duplication breakpoints are clustered in two intervals. The more proximal, most common interval is the 450-650 kb region between D22S427 and D22S36, which corresponds to the proximal deletion breakpoint interval found in the 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome). The more distal duplication breakpoint interval falls between CRKL and D22S112, which overlaps with the common distal deletion interval of the 22q11 deletion syndrome. We have therefore classified CES chromosomes into two types based on the location of the two breakpoints required to generate them. The smaller type I CES chromosomes are symmetrical, with both breakpoints located within the proximal interval. The larger type II CES chromosomes are either asymmetrical, with one breakpoint located in each of the two intervals, or symmetrical, with both breakpoints located in the distal interval. The co-localization of the breakpoints of these different syndromes, plus the presence of low-copy repeats adjacent to each interval, suggests the existence of several specific regions of chromosomal instability in 22q11.2 which are involved in the production of both deletions and duplications. Since the phenotype associated with the larger duplication does not appear to be more severe than that of the smaller duplication, determination of the type of CES chromosome does not currently have prognostic value.

  18. GNE-886: A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of the Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region Candidate 2 Bromodomain (CECR2).

    PubMed

    Crawford, Terry D; Audia, James E; Bellon, Steve; Burdick, Daniel J; Bommi-Reddy, Archana; Côté, Alexandre; Cummings, Richard T; Duplessis, Martin; Flynn, E Megan; Hewitt, Michael; Huang, Hon-Ren; Jayaram, Hariharan; Jiang, Ying; Joshi, Shivangi; Kiefer, James R; Murray, Jeremy; Nasveschuk, Christopher G; Neiss, Arianne; Pardo, Eneida; Romero, F Anthony; Sandy, Peter; Sims, Robert J; Tang, Yong; Taylor, Alexander M; Tsui, Vickie; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Yongyun; Xu, Zhaowu; Zawadzke, Laura; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Albrecht, Brian K; Magnuson, Steven R; Cochran, Andrea G

    2017-07-13

    The biological function of bromodomains, epigenetic readers of acetylated lysine residues, remains largely unknown. Herein we report our efforts to discover a potent and selective inhibitor of the bromodomain of cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 2 (CECR2). Screening of our internal medicinal chemistry collection led to the identification of a pyrrolopyridone chemical lead, and subsequent structure-based drug design led to a potent and selective CECR2 bromodomain inhibitor (GNE-886) suitable for use as an in vitro tool compound.

  19. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: further delineation of the critical region.

    PubMed

    Mears, A J; el-Shanti, H; Murray, J C; McDermid, H E; Patil, S R

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility.

  20. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: Further delineation of the critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.; El-Shanti, H.

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The Cat's Eye Nebula, one of the first planetary nebulae discovered, also has one of the most complex forms known to this kind of nebula. Eleven rings, or shells, of gas make up the Cat's Eye. The full beauty of the Cat's Eye Nebula is revealed in this detailed view from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The image from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) shows a bull's eye pattern of eleven or even more concentric rings, or shells, around the Cat's Eye. Each 'ring' is actually the edge of a spherical bubble seen projected onto the sky -- that's why it appears bright along its outer edge. Observations suggest the star ejected its mass in a series of pulses at 1,500-year intervals. These convulsions created dust shells, each of which contain as much mass as all of the planets in our solar system combined (still only one percent of the Sun's mass). These concentric shells make a layered, onion-skin structure around the dying star. The view from Hubble is like seeing an onion cut in half, where each skin layer is discernible. The bull's-eye patterns seen around planetary nebulae come as a surprise to astronomers because they had no expectation that episodes of mass loss at the end of stellar lives would repeat every 1,500 years. Several explanations have been proposed, including cycles of magnetic activity somewhat similar to our own Sun's sunspot cycle, the action of companion stars orbiting around the dying star, and stellar pulsations. Another school of thought is that the material is ejected smoothly from the star, and the rings are created later on due to formation of waves in the outflowing material. Credit: NASA, ESA, HEIC, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: R. Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain) and Z. Tsvetanov (NASA) The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of the derivative chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Reeser, S L; Donnenfeld, A E; Miller, R C; Sellinger, B S; Emanuel, B S; Driscoll, D A

    1994-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies of cultured amniocytes demonstrated a karyotype of 46,XX/47,XX, +mar. A bisatellited, dicentric, distamycin-DAPI negative, NOR-positive marker was present in 76 per cent of the metaphases examined. Similar markers have been associated with cat eye syndrome (CES). We report on the utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 14/22 alpha-satellite probe and a chromosome 22-specific cosmid for locus D22S9 to determine the origin of the prenatally detected supernumerary marker chromosome. FISH studies demonstrated that the marker is a derivative of chromosome 22 and enabled us to provide the family with additional prognostic information.

  3. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, cat eye, and distal 22q11 microdeletion syndromes: a unique double rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Torti, Erin E; Braddock, Stephen R; Bernreuter, Kristen; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2013-08-01

    An array-CGH on 19-year-old male showed a proximal 1.11 Mb duplication and a distal 1.7 Mb deletion of 22q11.2 regions flanking the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome region that remained intact. FISH analyses revealed both abnormalities to be on the same homolog 22. This double rearrangement lead to the co-existence of two syndromes: Cat eye and distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndromes with a rare associated phenotype of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS). A review of the literature indicates that this is the second report of a proximal duplication and the fifth report of a distal deletion and OAVS suggestive of a possible OAVS candidate gene in this region.

  4. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Riazi, M.A.; Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.

    1994-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome is characterized cytogenetically by the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In order to study this syndrome, we have mapped and cloned within the CES critical region (CESCR) in 22q11.2. A long-range map was constructed using probes previously mapped to the CESCR by somatic cell hybrids. The map spans from probes LN63 to D22S36 and covers approximately 3 Mb. Probes within the region were used to isolate YACs, producing a contig of approximately 1.5 Mb (cLN63-D22S57). DNA studies of a cat eye patient with an unusual marker chromosome refined the minimal critical region proximal to D22S57, indicating that most of the CESCR is now cloned. The physical map will allow us to further delineate the CESCR and isolate genes in the region. Towards this end, we have performed {open_quotes}exon-trapping{close_quotes}on a cosmid, CN63, in this region. A 250 bp exon was isolated which maps to the CESCR and has no homology in GenBank. Further characterization of the gene containing this exon is in progress.

  5. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  6. Wide clinical variability in cat eye syndrome patients: four non-related patients and three patients from the same family.

    PubMed

    Belangero, S I; Pacanaro, A N X; Bellucco, F T; Christofolini, D M; Kulikowski, L D; Guilherme, R S; Bortolai, A; Dutra, A R N; Piazzon, F B; Cernach, M C; Melaragno, M I

    2012-01-01

    A small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 22 is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. This sSMC typically results in tetrasomy for a chromosomal region that spans the chromosome 22p arm and the proximal 2 Mb of 22q11.21. Using classical cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and array techniques, 7 patients with sSMCs derived from chromosome 22 were studied: 4 non-related and 3 from the same family (mother, daughter, and son). The sSMCs in all patients were dicentric and bisatellited chromosomes with breakpoints in the chromosome 22 low-copy repeat A region, resulting in cat eye syndrome (CES) due to chromosome 22 partial tetrasomy 22pter→q11.2 including the cat eye chromosome region. Although all subjects presented the same chromosomal abnormality, they showed a wide range of phenotypic differences, even in the 3 patients from the same family. There are no previous reports of CES occurring within 3 patients in the same family. Thus, the clinical and follow-up data presented here contribute to a better delineation of the phenotypes and outcomes of CES patients and will be useful for genetic counseling.

  7. Trisomy 22pter-q12.3 presenting with hepatic dysfunction variability of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jezela-Stanek, Aleksandra; Dobrzańska, Anna; Maksym-Gasiorek, Dorota; Trzeciakowski, Wojciech; Gutkowska, Anna; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Gajdulewicz, Maria; Spodar, Krystyna; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Krajewska-Walasek, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    We describe the clinical characteristics of two patients with cat-eye syndrome (CES, MIM #115470) resulting from a supernumerary marker chromosome that includes 22pter-q12.3. They both presented a constellation of features typical of CES, including coloboma, auricular malformations, heart and renal anomalies, as well as hepatic dysfunction, which led to severe effects. In one case Pierre Robin sequence was diagnosed which has not been described earlier in this trisomy. Although CES is a well known, but infrequently diagnosed disorder, we draw attention both to its clinical overlaps with other disorders and, in view of the clinical variability being identified within the 22q11 region, to the importance of careful molecular examination of proximal 22q in patients with suggestive clinical signs.

  8. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region.

    PubMed

    McDermid, H E; McTaggart, K E; Riazi, M A; Hudson, T J; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S; Bell, C J

    1996-12-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome derived from human chromosome 22pter to 22q11.2. The region of 22q duplicated in the typical CES marker chromosome extends between the centromere and locus D22S36. We have constructed a long-range restriction map of this region using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and probes to 10 loci (11 probes). The map covers -3.6 Mb. We have also used 15 loci to construct a yeast artificial chromosome contig, which encompasses about half of the region critical to the production of the CES phenotype (centromere to D22S57). Thus, the CES critical region has been mapped and a substantial portion of it cloned in preparation for the isolation of genes in this region.

  9. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. A 1.5-Mb contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region at human chromosome 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Shizuya, H; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    1999-04-15

    We have constructed a 1.5-Mb contig spanning the distal half of the critical region for cat eye syndrome on human chromosome 22 from D22S543 to D22S181. The contig consists of 20 P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones and 11 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones screened from 2 BAC and 2 PAC libraries. Continuous overlap between the clones was confirmed using vectorette PCR and riboprobes. Despite the instability of this region in a previous YAC contig, only 1 BAC showed a minor instability and then in only one isolation. This contig is now providing the basis for genomic sequencing and gene identification in the cat eye syndrome critical region.

  11. Partial trisomy due to a de novo duplication 22q11.1-22q13.1: a cat-eye syndrome variant with brain anomalies.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, D; Ceylaner, S; Ceylaner, G; Dalkilic, S; Karli-Oguz, K; Kandemir, O

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of partial trisomy 22q with de novo duplication of chromosomal region 22q11.1-22q13.1, also confirmed by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (Array-CGH) analysis. The fetus had interhemispheric cyst and corpus callosum agenesis diagnosed by MRI which has not been reported in the literature. This novel phenotype differs from the reported cat eye syndromes by the absence of heart defects and the presence of brain anomalies.

  12. An unusual case of Cat-Eye syndrome phenotype and extragonadal mature teratoma: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tzetis, Maria; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Syrmou, Areti; Kosma, Konstantina; Leze, Eleni; Giannikou, Krinio; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Sofocleous, Christalena; Choulakis, Michael; Kolialexi, Aggeliki; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) with teratoma has not been previously reported. We present the clinical and molecular findings of a 9-month-old girl with features of CES and also a palpable midline neck mass proved to be an extragonadal mature teratoma, additionally characterized by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS High resolution oligonucleotide-based aCGH confirmed that the supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) derived from chromosome 22, as was indicated by molecular cytogenetic analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, aCGH clarified the size, breakpoints, and gene content of the duplication (dup 22q11.1q11.21; size:1.6 Mb; breakpoints: 15,438,946-17,041,773; hg18). The teratoma tissue was also tested with aCGH, in which the CES duplication was not found, but the analysis revealed three aberrations: del Xp22.3 (108,864-2788,689; 2.7 Mb hg18), dup Yp11.2 (6688,491-7340,982; 0.65 Mb, hg18), and dup Yq11.2q11.23 (12,570,853-27,177,133; 14.61 Mb, hg18). These results indicated 46 XY (male) karyotype of the teratoma tissue, making this the second report of mature extragonadal teratoma in a female neonate, probably deriving from an included dizygotic twin of opposite sex (fetus in fetu). CONCLUSIONS Our findings extend the phenotypic spectrum of CES syndrome, a disorder with clinical variability, pointing out specific dosage-sensitive genes that might contribute to specific phenotypic features.

  13. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  14. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome.

  15. Partial tetrasomy of chromosome 22q11.1 resulting from a supernumerary isodicentric marker chromosome in a boy with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Min; Kim, Jun Bum; Pai, Ki Soo; Yun, Jun-No; Park, Sang-Jin

    2010-12-01

    The 22q11 region has been implicated in chromosomal rearrangements that result in altered gene dosage, leading to three different congenital malformation syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome, cat-eye syndrome (CES), and der(22) syndrome. Although DiGeorge syndrome is a common genomic disorder on 22q11, CES is quite rare, and there has been no report of Korean CES cases with molecular cytogenetic confirmation. In this study, we present the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of a 3-month-old boy with CES. Clinical findings included micropthalmia, multiple colobomata, and renal and genital anomalies. Cytogenetic analyses showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified as a bisatellited and isodicentric chromosome derived from an acrocentric chromosome. The results of array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed the karyotype as 47,XY,+mar.ish idic(22)(q11.1) (D22S43+).arr 22q11.1(15,500,000-15,900,000)x4, resulting in a partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of CES confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses.

  16. The Chediak-Higashi syndrome of cats.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J W; Davis, W C; Prieur, D J

    1977-05-01

    Initial clinical, genetic, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies have characterized the Chediak-Higashi syndrome in cats. Three cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome were found in a single line of 27 Persian cats, and three additional affected cats were produced from two prospective breedings of the original line. The disorder was characterized genetically as an autosomal recessive condition. All cats in the line with the combination of yellow eye color and "blue smoke" hair color exhibited the disorder. Four of the five cats examined had bilateral nuclear cataracts as early in life as 3 months of age. No increased susceptibility to infectious disease was observed. A bleeding tendency was noted. Abnormally large eosinophilic, sudanophilic, peroxidase-containing granules were observed in the neutrophils of the granulocytic series of blood and bone marrow by electron and light microscopy. Granules of eosinophils and basophils were also enlarged. Light microscopic studies of hair and skin revealed enlarged melanin granules. These manifestations were similar to those in man, mink, cattle, mice, and the killer whale with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Cats are the sixth species in which this genetic disease has been reported.

  17. Partial trisomy of chromosome 22 resulting from a supernumerary marker chromosome 22 in a child with features of cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bélien, Valérie; Gérard-Blanluet, Marion; Serero, Stéphane; Le Dû, Nathalie; Baumann, Clarisse; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Dupont, Céline; Krabchi, Kada; Drunat, Séverine; Elbez, Annie; Janaud, Jean-Claude; Benzacken, Brigitte; Verloes, Alain; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Aboura, Azzedine

    2008-07-15

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are present in about 0.05% of the human population. In approximately 28% of persons with these markers (excluding the approximately 60% derived from one of the acrocentric chromosomes), an abnormal phenotype is observed. We report on a 3-month-old girl with intrauterine growth retardation, craniofacial features, hypotonia, partial coloboma of iris and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization as part of chromosome 22, and conferring a proximal partial trisomy 22q22.21, not encompassing the DiGeorge critical region (RP11-154H4 + , TBX1-). This observation adds new information relevant to cat eye syndrome and partial trisomy of 22q.

  18. The gene for death agonist BID maps to the region of human 22q11.2 duplicated in cat eye syndrome chromosomes and to mouse chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Footz, T K; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Riazi, M A; McDermid, H E

    1998-08-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a duplication of a segment of human chromosome 22q11.2. Only one gene, ATP6E, has been previously mapped to this duplicated region. We now report the mapping of the human homologue of the apoptotic agonist Bid to human chromosome 22 near locus D22S57 in the CES region. Dosage analysis demonstrated that BID is located just distal to the CES region critical for the majority of malformations associated with the syndrome (CESCR), as previously defined by a single patient with an unusual supernumerary chromosome. However, BID remains a good candidate for involvement in CES-related mental impairment, and its overexpression may subtly add to the phenotype of CES patients. Our mapping of murine Bid confirms that the synteny of the CESCR and the 22q11 deletion syndrome critical region immediately telomeric on human chromosome 22 is not conserved in mice. Bid and adjacent gene Atp6e were found to map to mousechromosome 6, while the region homologous to the DGSCR is known to map to mouse chromosome 16.

  19. Inherited mosaicism for the supernumerary marker chromosome in cat eye syndrome: inter- and intra-individual variation and correlation to the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kvarnung, Malin; Lindstrand, Anna; Malmgren, Helena; Thåström, Anders; Jacobson, Lena; Dahl, Niklas; Lundin, Johanna; Blennow, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    We have studied a family with repeated transmission of mosaicism for a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC), giving rise to varying symptoms of the cat eye syndrome (CES) in the offspring. The frequency of the SMC was investigated using FISH with probes from the CES critical region on lymphocytes as well as buccal cells. The same probes were used to study the frequency of the SMC in spermatozoa from the father. The SMC was characterized in detail using array-CGH and was found to correspond to a symmetrical cat eye SMC type I, with two extra copies of the most proximal part of 22q11, not extending into the classical 22q11.2 deletion region. Mosaicism for the SMC was detected in 4 out of 7 family members, the father and all his three children. The degree of mosaicism varied greatly between individuals as well as between tissues, with twice as many cells with the SMC in epithelial cells compared to blood. The highest frequency (almost 50%) was found in spermatozoa from the father. There was a direct correlation between the degree of mosaicism and the symptoms, varying from no obvious symptoms to classical CES. The study confirms the occurrence of direct transmission of SMC-mosaicism in CES. The results indicate that examination of parental epithelial cells should be preferred compared to blood cells in order to exclude a recurrence risk in parents of a child with CES. Interphase FISH analysis of spermatozoa is the most sensitive method to exclude paternal germ line mosaicsm.

  20. A de novo sSMC(22) Characterized by High-Resolution Arrays in a Girl with Cat-Eye Syndrome without Coloboma.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Fletes, C; Domínguez, M G; Vázquez-Cárdenas, A; Figuera, L E; Neira, V A; Rojas-Martínez, A; Ortiz-López, R

    2012-09-01

    Cat-eye syndrome (CES) results from trisomy or tetrasomy of proximal 22q originated by a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). Two critical regions for the major clinical features of CES (CESCRs) have been suggested; however, CES clinical presentation often does not correlate with the sSMC genetic content. We report here a CES girl without coloboma and carrier of a de novo type I sSMC(22) as determined by G- and C-banding, NOR staining and microarrays. This sSMC included 6 distal genes outside the original CESCR and led to a tetrasomy for 22q11.1-22q11.21. The patient's final karyotype was 47,XX,+psu dic(22)(q11.21).arr 22q11.1q11.21(15,250,000-17,035,860)×4 dn. The amplified region outside of CESCR included some genes that may be related to neurologic, heart and renal abnormalities. Conversely, even though the amplification included the CECR2 gene, a major candidate for eye features, there was no coloboma in the patient. The genetic delineation of the present sSMC further strengthens that the CES clinical presentation does not fit completely with the duplicated genetic content and that CES is actually a genomic disorder. Furthermore, since we observed no mosaicism, we believe that other mechanisms might be behind the variability of CES phenotypes as well, mainly those related with functional interactions among amplified genes.

  1. Hemifacial microsomia in cat-eye syndrome: 22q11.1-q11.21 as candidate loci for facial symmetry.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2013-08-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES), (OMIM 115470) also known as chromosome 22 partial tetrasomy or inverted duplicated 22q11, was first reported by Haab [1879] based on the primary features of eye coloboma and anal atresia. However, >60% of the patients lack these primary features. Here, we present a 9-month-old female who at birth was noted to have multiple defects, including facial asymmetry with asymmetric retrognathia, bilateral mandibular hypoplasia, branchial cleft sinus, right-sided muscular torticollis, esotropia, and an atretic right ear canal with low-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss, bilateral preauricular ear tag/pits, and two skin tags on her left cheek. There were no signs of any colobomas or anal atresia. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) was suspected clinically. Chromosome studies and FISH identified an extra marker originated from 22q11 consistent with CES, and this was confirmed by aCGH. This report expands the phenotypic variability of CES and includes partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1-q11.21 in the differential diagnosis of HFM. In addition, our case as well as the previous association of 22q11.2 deletions and duplications with facial asymmetry and features of HFM, supports the hypothesis that this chromosome region harbors genes important in the regulation of body plan symmetry, and in particular facial harmony.

  2. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  3. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  4. A 600 kb triplication in the cat eye syndrome critical region causes anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in a three-generation family.

    PubMed

    Knijnenburg, Jeroen; van Bever, Yolande; Hulsman, Lorette O M; van Kempen, Chantal A P; Bolman, Galhana M; van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Beverloo, H Berna; van Zutven, Laura J C M

    2012-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is caused by a gain of the proximal part of chromosome 22. Usually, a supernumerary marker chromosome is present, containing two extra copies of the chromosome 22q11.1q11.21 region. More sporadically, the gain is present intrachromosomally. The critical region for CES is currently estimated to be about 2.1 Mb and to contain at least 14 RefSeq genes. Gain of this region may cause ocular coloboma, preauricular, anorectal, urogenital and congenital heart malformations. We describe a family in which a 600 kb intrachromosomal triplication is present in at least three generations. The copy number alteration was detected using MLPA and further characterized with interphase and metaphase FISH and SNP-array. The amplified fragment is located in the distal part of the CES region. The family members show anal atresia and preauricular tags or pits, matching part of the phenotype of this syndrome. This finding suggests that amplification of the genes CECR2, SLC25A18 and ATP6V1E1, mapping within the critical region for CES, may be responsible for anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in patients with CES.

  5. The human homolog of insect-derived growth factor, CECR1, is a candidate gene for features of cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riazi, M A; Brinkman-Mills, P; Nguyen, T; Pan, H; Phan, S; Ying, F; Roe, B A; Tochigi, J; Shimizu, Y; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Buchwald, M; McDermid, H E

    2000-03-15

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is a developmental disorder with multiple organ involvement, associated with the duplication of a 2-Mb region of 22q11.2. Using exon trapping and genomic sequence analysis, we have isolated and characterized a gene, CECR1, that maps to this critical region. The protein encoded by CECR1 is similar to previously identified novel growth factors: IDGF from Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) and MDGF from Aplysia californica (sea hare). The CECR1 gene is alternatively spliced and expressed in numerous tissues, with most abundant expression in human adult heart, lung, lymphoblasts, and placenta as well as fetal lung, liver, and kidney. In situ hybridization of a human embryo shows specific expression in the outflow tract and atrium of the developing heart, the VII/VIII cranial nerve ganglion, and the notochord. The location of this gene in the CES critical region and its embryonic expression suggest that the overexpression of CECR1 may be responsible for at least some features of CES, particularly the heart defects.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Chen, Yi-Yung; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-09-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome (CES) using cultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, left renal hypoplasia, total anomalous pulmonary venous return with dominant right heart and right ear deformity. The sSMC was bisatellited and dicentric, and was characterized by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The SALSA MLPA P250-B1 DiGeorge Probemix showed duplication of gene dosage in the CES region. aCGH showed a 1.26-Mb duplication at 22q11.1-q11.21 encompassing CECR1-CECR7. The sSMC was likely inv dup(22) (q11.21). Prenatal diagnosis of an sSMC(22) at amniocentesis should alert CES. MLPA, aCGH and fetal ultrasound are useful for rapid diagnosis of CES in case of prenatally detected sSMC(22).

  7. A complex rearrangement on chromosome 22 affecting both homologues; haplo-insufficiency of the Cat eye syndrome region may have no clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Kriek, Marjolein; Szuhai, Karoly; Kant, Sarina G; White, Stefan J; Dauwerse, Hans; Fiegler, Heike; Carter, Nigel P; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; den Dunnen, Johan T; Tanke, Hans J; Breuning, Martijn H; Rosenberg, Carla

    2006-08-01

    The presence of highly homologous sequences, known as low copy repeats, predisposes for unequal recombination within the 22q11 region. This can lead to genomic imbalances associated with several known genetic disorders. We report here a developmentally delayed patient carrying different rearrangements on both chromosome 22 homologues, including a previously unreported rearrangement within the 22q11 region. One homologue carries a deletion of the proximal part of chromosome band 22q11. To our knowledge, a 'pure' deletion of this region has not been described previously. Four copies of this 22q11 region, however, are associated with Cat eye syndrome (CES). While the phenotypic impact of this deletion is unclear, familial investigation revealed five normal relatives carrying this deletion, suggesting that haplo-insufficiency of the CES region has little clinical relevance. The other chromosome 22 homologue carries a duplication of the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) region. In addition, a previously undescribed deletion of 22q12.1, located in a relatively gene-poor region, was identified. As the clinical features of patients suffering from a duplication of the VCFS/DGS region have proven to be extremely variable, it is impossible to postulate as to the contribution of the 22q12.1 deletion to the phenotype of the patient. Additional patients with a deletion within this region are needed to establish the consequences of this copy number alteration. This study highlights the value of using different genomic approaches to unravel chromosomal alterations in order to study their phenotypic impact.

  8. The "cat eye syndrome": dicentric small marker chromosome probably derived from a no.22 (tetrasomy 22pter to q11) associated with a characteristic phenotype. Report of 11 patients and delineation of the clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Schinzel, A; Schmid, W; Fraccaro, M; Tiepolo, L; Zuffardi, O; Opitz, J M; Lindsten, J; Zetterqvist, P; Enell, H; Baccichetti, C; Tenconi, R; Pagon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with the so-called Cat Eye syndrome are reported including a more detailed description of the original cases reported by Schmid and Fraccaro. All cases had, in addition to a normal karyotype, a small extra G-like chromosome which appeared to be an isochromosome for the juxtacentromeric region (pter to q11) of an acrocentric chromosome. None were mosaics. Clinical findings and further cytogenetic studies in a few cases suggest that these markers probably derive from a No. 22 chromosome. Characteristic features of the Cat Eye syndrome in these 11 patients and those reviewed from the literature are: ocular coloboma which may involve the iris, choroid and/or optic nerve, preauricular skin tags and/or pits which are probably the most consistent feature, congenital heart defect, anal atresia with a fistula, renal malformations such as unilateral absence, unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia, and cystic dysplasia, and antimongoloid position of eyes. Intelligence is usually low-normal, although moderate retardation is also seen. There is great variability in the clinical findings ranging from near normal to lethal malformations. Less frequent, but also characteristic findings are: microphthalmia, microtia with atresia of the external auditory canal, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary atresia and malrotation of the gut. Direct transmission of the marker from one generation to the other was observed in both sexes. In those families, there was considerable variability in the clinical findings between affected family members. These cases show that there is a bias of ascertainment for patients who have the more striking malformations, especially those with ocular coloboma and anal atresia, a combination which appears to be present in only a minority of cases. Many mildly affected patients probably remain undetected. It is proposed that the term Cat Eye syndrome should be applied only to cases with trisomy or tetrasomy of not more than 22pter to q11 and without

  9. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Daniela A; Van Soens, Iris; Bhatti, Sofie F; Cornelis, Ine; Martlé, Valentine A; Van Ham, Luc M

    2014-04-01

    Two male neutered domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for generalised tremors. On neurological examination both cats showed whole-body tremors, worsening with stress. A mainly cerebellar disorder was suspected. Blood examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological examination of both cats and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in one cat were normal. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome (IGTS) was suspected owing to the exclusion of underlying causes and the clinical similarities with the syndrome in dogs. Treatment as recommended for dogs was initiated and resulted in improvement. This report describes the first cases of IGTS in cats.

  10. Paraxial ray analysis of a cat's-eye retroreflector.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J J

    1975-08-01

    The cat's-eye retroreflector is a passive optical system consisting of a secondary mirror placed at the focal point of a primary lens. We analyze the cat's eye using the paraxial ray matrix approach. The position of the equivalent reflecting surface and the angular field of view of a realizable cat's eye are functions of the radius of curvature of the secondary mirror. The field of view is maximum for a secondary mirror with a concave radius of curvature equal to the focal length of the primary lens. We further derive the general dependence of retroreflection errors on misadjustment of the secondary mirror.

  11. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  12. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Read in Chinese What causes Down syndrome? Down syndrome is caused by a duplication of all ... Where can I find more information regarding Down Syndrome? National Down Syndrome Society VISIT SITE » Downs Syndrome Association VISIT ...

  13. Cavernous sinus syndrome secondary to intracranial lymphoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Guevar, Julien; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Peplinski, George; Helm, Jenny R; Penderis, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is characterised by internal and external ophthalmoplegia and sensory deficits over the head due to combined deficits of the three cranial nerves (CNs) responsible for the eye movements and pupil function (CN III, IV, VI) and at least one branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). It has rarely been described in cats and may occur secondarily to inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic lesions within the region of the cavernous sinus on the ventral aspect of the calvarium. This report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a 14-year-old domestic shorthair cat with neurological deficits compatible with cavernous sinus syndrome caused by presumptive extranodal lymphoma. Treatment with chemotherapy resulted in clinical and imaging remission. Identification of the neurological deficits in cavernous sinus syndrome allows accurate neuroanatomical localisation in order to target diagnostic imaging studies.

  14. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to osteochondromatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Anna; Bernardini, Marco; Mandara, Maria T; De Benedictis, Giulia M; De Strobel, Francesca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact male Korat cat was referred for ophthalmological consultation due to anisocoria. Mydriasis with external ophthalmoplegia and absence of pupillary light responses in the right eye and nasofacial hypalgesia were seen. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) was suspected. Bilateral deformities of the jaw and phalangeal bones, severe spinal pain and abnormal conformation of the lumbar spine were also present. Radiographic examination revealed several mineralised masses in the appendicular and axial skeleton, indicative of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. For further investigation of the CSS-related neurological deficits, the cat underwent computed tomography (CT) examination of the skull. CT images revealed a non-vascularised, calcified, amorphous mass originating from the right lateral skull base and superimposing on the sella turcica. Based on the severity of diffuse lesions and owing to the clinical signs of extreme pain, the cat was euthanased. A diffuse skeletal and intracranial osteochondromatosis was diagnosed histologically.

  15. High-rise syndrome in cats.

    PubMed

    Whitney, W O; Mehlhaff, C J

    1987-12-01

    High-rise syndrome was diagnosed in 132 cats over a 5-month period. The mean age of the cats was 2.7 years. Ninety percent of the cats had some form of thoracic trauma. Of these, 68% had pulmonary contusions and 63% had pneumothorax. Abnormal respiratory patterns were evident clinically in 55%. Other common clinical findings included facial trauma (57%), limb fractures (39%), shock (24%), traumatic luxations (18%), hard palate fractures (17%), hypothermia (17%), and dental fractures (17%). Emergency (life-sustaining) treatment, primarily because of thoracic trauma and shock, was required in 37% of the cats. Nonemergency treatment was required in an additional 30%. The remaining 30% were observed, but did not require treatment. Ninety percent of the treated cats survived.

  16. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  17. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  18. Sufism in the Novel: "Cat's Eyes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniawi, Nayera

    2013-01-01

    "Cat's Eyes" is a novel about suffering and endurance, early marriage, spirituality and the sanctuary it provides, and Sufism in particular. It uses certain motifs to depict the psychological suffering of a young girl, caused by her conservative father and unsatisfactory marriage, which persists until she finally reaches a moment of…

  19. Sufism in the Novel: "Cat's Eyes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniawi, Nayera

    2013-01-01

    "Cat's Eyes" is a novel about suffering and endurance, early marriage, spirituality and the sanctuary it provides, and Sufism in particular. It uses certain motifs to depict the psychological suffering of a young girl, caused by her conservative father and unsatisfactory marriage, which persists until she finally reaches a moment of…

  20. Sézary syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wood, Casey; Almes, Kelli; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Debey, Brad; Andrews, Gordon; Nietfeld, Jerome; Wilkerson, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome is an uncommon leukemic variant of cutaneous lymphoma in cats. This cat had recurrent dermatitis with erythematous, pruritic plaques. Multiple skin imprints and biopsy samples were obtained over a 6-month period, and histopathological findings were consistent initially with eosinophilic miliary dermatitis and later with erythema multiforme. One week before death, Sézary cells were identified in the peripheral blood that expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD8 antigens. Massive infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes was noted in the skin and multiple internal tissues by histopathological examination. This case demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosing cutaneous lymphoma early in the disease course.

  1. Analysis of the cat eye syndrome critical region in humans and the region of conserved synteny in mice: a search for candidate genes at or near the human chromosome 22 pericentromere.

    PubMed

    Footz, T K; Brinkman-Mills, P; Banting, G S; Maier, S A; Riazi, M A; Bridgland, L; Hu, S; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Pan, H; Nguyen, T; Fang, F; Fu, Y; Ray, L; Wu, H; Shaull, S; Phan, S; Yao, Z; Chen, F; Huan, A; Hu, P; Wang, Q; Loh, P; Qi, S; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    2001-06-01

    We have sequenced a 1.1-Mb region of human chromosome 22q containing the dosage-sensitive gene(s) responsible for cat eye syndrome (CES) as well as the 450-kb homologous region on mouse chromosome 6. Fourteen putative genes were identified within or adjacent to the human CES critical region (CESCR), including three known genes (IL-17R, ATP6E, and BID) and nine novel genes, based on EST identity. Two putative genes (CECR3 and CECR9) were identified, in the absence of EST hits, by comparing segments of human and mouse genomic sequence around two solitary amplified exons, thus showing the utility of comparative genomic sequence analysis in identifying transcripts. Of the 14 genes, 10 were confirmed to be present in the mouse genomic sequence in the same order and orientation as in human. Absent from the mouse region of conserved synteny are CECR1, a promising CES candidate gene from the center of the contig, neighboring CECR4, and CECR7 and CECR8, which are located in the gene-poor proximal 400 kb of the contig. This latter proximal region, located approximately 1 Mb from the centromere, shows abundant duplicated gene fragments typical of pericentromeric DNA. The margin of this region also delineates the boundary of conserved synteny between the CESCR and mouse chromosome 6. Because the proximal CESCR appears abundant in duplicated segments and, therefore, is likely to be gene poor, we consider the putative genes identified in the distal CESCR to represent the majority of candidate genes for involvement in CES.

  2. [Eye and cat scratch disease: A case series].

    PubMed

    Deschasse, C; Bielefeld, P; Muselier, A; Bour, J B; Besancenot, J F; Garcher, C C; Bron, A M

    2016-02-01

    Cat scratch disease is a pleiomorphic condition, sometimes with isolated ophthalmic involvement. We report the clinical observations of seven cases with ophthalmologic manifestations of cat scratch disease. There were seven patients, with a median age of 52 years, of whom five were women and three had unilateral involvement. Six exhibited Leber's stellate neuroretinitis, an incomplete syndrome in two cases, and one associated with chorioretinal foci. One patient had isolated retinal infiltrates. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed by Bartonella henselae serology, positive in all cases. All patients received treatment with doxycycline. Ocular complications (with optic atrophy and macular retinal pigment epithelial changes) were noted in five cases. Ocular bartonellosis is an atypical clinical form. It requires a directed ancillary work-up with serology or PCR, which has the peculiarity of being highly specific if not very sensitive. Treatment is above all preventive. Antibiotics may be initiated. Cat scratch disease must be excluded in the work-up of posterior uveitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy eye syndrome versus sagging eye syndrome in high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Roland Joseph D.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy eye syndrome (HES) presents with esotropia and limited abduction due to superotemporal globe shift relative to the extraocular muscles. Sagging eye syndrome (SES) was originally described in nonmyopic patients exhibiting distance esotropia and cyclovertical strabismus with limited supraduction due to lateral rectus muscle inferodisplacement caused by degeneration of the lateral rectus–superior rectus (LR-SR) band. We hypothesized that SES might also cause strabismus in high myopia. Methods Eleven strabismic subjects with high myopia underwent ophthalmological examination and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess quantitative orbital anatomy. Results Of 11 subjects, 5 had HES; 6, SES. Mean axial length in subjects with HES was 32 ± 5 mm; in subjects with SES, 32 ± 6 mm. Average distance esotropia in subjects with HES was 61Δ ± 39Δ; hypotropia was 26Δ ± 21Δ. Average distance esotropia in subjects with SES was 23Δ ± 57Δ; hypertropia was 2Δ ± 2Δ. All 5 subjects with HES had superotemporal globe prolapse; the LR-SR band was thinned in 6 orbits and ruptured in 2. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles in HES was 121° ± 7°. In SES the LR-SR band was thinned in 7 orbits and ruptured in 5, with superotemporal soft tissue prolapse. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles was 104° ± 11°, significantly less than in HES (P < 0.001). Conclusions SES occurs in highly myopic patients who also exhibit less relative globe dislocation than in HES. Unlike HES, SES exhibits superotemporal soft tissue prolapse that may limit superotemporal globe shift. The distinction is important because surgery for HES uniquely requires creation of a surgical connection between the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles, whereas SES may be treated with conventional surgery. SES can cause strabismus in high axial myopia. Orbital MRI is useful in differentiating SES from HES. PMID

  4. Radioactivity of neutron-irradiated cat's-eye chrysoberyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.

    1999-04-01

    The recent report of marketing of radioactive chrysoberyl cat's-eyes in South-East Asian markets has led us to use an indirect method to estimate the threat to health these color-enhanced gemstones may pose if worn close to skin. We determined the impurity content of several cat's-eye chrysoberyls from Indian States of Orissa and Kerala using PIXE, and calculated the radioactivity that would be generated from these impurities and the constitutional elements if a chrysoberyl was irradiated by neutrons in a nuclear reactor for color enhancement. Of all the radioactive nuclides that could be created by neutron irradiation, only four ( 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn and 59Fe) would not have cooled down within a month after irradiation to the internationally accepted level of specific residual radioactivity of 2 nCi/g. The radioactivity of 46Sc, 51Cr and 59Fe would only fall to this safe limit after 15 months and that of 54Mn could remain above this limit for several years.

  5. Diffractive surfaces for cat-eye array retro-reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, I.

    2008-09-01

    Cat-eye-array retro-reflectors, combining a lenslet array with a reflective surface at the common focal plane of the lenslets, are widely used due to their simple structure and low cost. While for many applications the performance (brightness, acceptance angle range and directionality) is acceptable, others could benefit from better performance. Improving these retroreflectors is difficult because their simplicity results in too few degrees of freedom. Here, we show how the use of one or two diffractive surfaces can significantly increase the brightness of the reflected beam and/or the acceptance angle while still allowing inexpensive manufacturing by molding or replication. Specifically, we focus here on one potential application of cat-eye-array retro-reflectors: semipassive optical communication units. Semi-passive communication units combine a retroreflector with a light modulator. The directional auto-aligned retro-reflected signal enhances security and power efficiency. Furthermore, many modulators use very low power: far lower than light emitter. Modulated retro-reflectors have already been demonstrated for space and military communication. Here we focus on a different application: optical smart cards. These devices described elsewhere, can be used, for example, for access control identification or as non-contact secure teller machine ID. Such devices must have an optical modulator in the optical path, so the effect of the modulator must also be accounted for in the design. As a consumer product, low cost manufacturability is another requirement. Design examples are presented.

  6. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  7. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  8. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  9. Separation anxiety syndrome in cats: 136 cases (1991-2000).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stefanie

    2002-04-01

    To determine whether cats develop clinical signs typical of separation anxiety syndrome (SAS) and the type and frequency of applicable clinical signs in affected cats. Retrospective study. 136 cats with clinical signs typical of SAS in dogs. Subjects were evaluated during home visits. Medical records of pet cats evaluated for behavior problems during a 10-year period were reviewed. Medical records of cats that displayed behaviors typical of dogs with SAS (eg, inappropriate elimination, excessive vocalization, destructiveness, or self-mutilation) were more extensively examined, and cats that displayed these behaviors only when separated from an apparent attachment figure were included in the study. Behavior problems triggered by separation anxiety included inappropriate urination (96 cats), inappropriate defecation (48), excessive vocalization (16), destructiveness (12), and psychogenic grooming (8). Inappropriate defecation was identified in a significantly higher percentage of the neutered females in the study than in the neutered males. Seventy-five percent of the cats that urinated inappropriately urinated exclusively on the owner's bed. Psychogenic grooming was identified in 8 of the 40 neutered females but in none of the neutered males, whereas destructiveness was observed in 12 of the 92 neutered males but in none of the neutered females. Results suggest that cats can develop SAS. Sex and breed differences in the frequency of particular signs of SAS in cats may exist. Feline SAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anxiety-related misbehavior in cats.

  10. [Dry eye syndrome and the PC screen].

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Iulia; Stan, Cristina; Marc, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    To study the correlation between PC screen exposure of over 8 hours and Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 years-old students. This is a cross-sectional, cohort clinical study, carried out in March 2012 - February 2013. All subjects completed a questionnaire, underwent a slit lamp examination and measurement of visual acuity. Among the 59 participants of this study, 26 were EXPOSED (> 8 hours of PC screen exposure = EXPOSED) and 33 were NONEXPOSED. The 18-25 - year old participants who were exposed over 8 hours to the PC screen had a relative risk of 5,5 to develop Dry Eye Syndrome, compared to NONEXPOSED participants. Results indicate that Dry Eye Syndrome incidence and intensity of symptoms had increased proportionally with the hours of exposure. Tear Film Breakup Time, the Ocular Protection Index and the PC Ocular Protection Index decreased with the hours of PC screen exposure, suggesting a behavioral change in the EXPOSED participants. Exposure of over 8 hours to the PC screen caused Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 - year old students, with a relative risk of 5,5.

  11. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  12. Malformations and the Manx Syndrome in Cats

    PubMed Central

    DeForest, M. E.; Basrur, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding experiments were conducted on cats with congenital taillessness, to test the dissemination pattern of taillessness in their offspring. Clinical evaluation, radiographic analysis of the vertebral column and histological studies of the digestive tract and central nervous tissue were conducted to determine the association of malformations of these systems in cats born with different degrees of taillessness noted in the rumpy and stumpy cats. The mode of transmission of the tailless (Manx) condition assumed to be through an autosomal dominant factor (M) was confirmed by this investigation. It is hypothesized that the problems associated with the tailless condition such as spina bifida, urinary and faecal incontinence and locomotor disturbances of the pelvic limbs may all be related to a disturbance affecting the development of the central nervous system in the early embryonic life. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:393376

  13. Analytical beam-width characteristics of distorted cat-eye reflected beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanzhong; Shan, Congmiao; Zheng, Yonghui; Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan

    2015-02-01

    The analytical expression of beam-width of distorted cat-eye reflected beam under far-field condition is deduced using the approximate three-dimensional analytical formula for oblique detection laser beam passing through cat-eye optical lens with center shelter, and using the definition of second order moment, Gamma function and integral functions. The laws the variation of divergence angle and astigmatism degree of the reflected light with incident angle, focal shift, aperture size, and center shelter ratio are established by numerical calculation, and physical analysis. The study revealed that the cat-eye reflected beam is like a beam transmitted and collimated by the target optical lens, and has the same characteristics as that of Gaussian beam. A proper choice of positive focal shift would result in a divergence angle smaller than that of no focal shift. The astigmatism is mainly caused by incidence angle.

  14. Cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Weijian; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    A prototype of cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors is proposed. Based on the framework of compressive sensing, it is possible to recognize cat-eye effect targets by projecting a series of known random patterns and measuring the backscattered light with three single-pixel detectors in different locations. The prototype only requires simpler, less expensive detectors and extends well beyond the visible spectrum. The simulations are accomplished to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed prototype. We compared our results to that obtained from conventional cat-eye effect target recognition methods using area array sensor. The experimental results show that this method is feasible and superior to the conventional method in dynamic and complicated backgrounds.

  15. [Experiences gained with a combined ketamin anaesthesia for eye-surgery on cats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mester, U; Stein, H J; Pillat-Moog, U

    1977-02-23

    A combined anaesthesia with ketamine, urethane und propionylpromazine was performed on 30 cats for lengthy eye-surgery operations. This schedule of anaesthesia proved to be most advantageous because of the promt onset and the sufficient degree of anaesthesia, which could be maintained for hours without complications. Open manometric tonometry showed no raised intraocular pressure during the anaesthesia with a mean value of 27.6 mm Hg, which is within the normal range of IOP for cats.

  16. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in four cats treated with chlorambucil.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Natalie C; Feldman, David G

    2016-12-01

    Fanconi syndrome (FS) is well described in humans and dogs, but has not been reported in cats. This case series describes four cats with acquired FS. On the basis of clinical signs and intestinal biopsies, all cats were initially diagnosed with alimentary lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment with chlorambucil and corticosteroids was started at standard doses, based on published protocols. Within 2-26 months of the start of treatment, glucosuria, despite normoglycemia, was identified incidentally on routine biochemical screening; FS was diagnosed with urine metabolic assays, confirming aminoaciduria and glucosuria in all four cases. Neither polyuria nor polydipsia were noted in any case, and only 1/4 cats had any clinical signs at the time of diagnosis. Partial or complete resolution of FS was seen in 3/4 cases within 3 months of discontinuing chlorambucil therapy. This is the first case series to document acquired FS in the cat, and the first to suggest a possible association between chlorambucil and acquired FS. Cats treated with chlorambucil should be monitored for the development of glucosuria, and discontinuation of chlorambucil should be considered if FS is identified. Further study into the association between chlorambucil and acquired FS in cats is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. A comparison of basal and eye-flush tears for the analysis of cat tear proteins.

    PubMed

    Petznick, Andrea; Evans, Margaret D M; Madigan, Michele C; Markoulli, Maria; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F

    2011-02-01

    To identify a rapid and effective tear collection method providing sufficient tear volume and total protein content (TPC) for analysis of individual proteins in cats. Domestic adult short-haired cats (12-37 months; 2.7-6.6 kg) were used in the study. Basal tears without stimulation and eye-flush tears after instillation of saline (10 μl) were collected using microcapillary tubes from animal eyes either unwounded control or wounded with 9-mm central epithelial debridement giving four groups with n = 3. Tear comparisons were based on total time and rate for tear collection, TPC using micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA), tear immunoglobulin A (IgA), total matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMP-9 activity. Eye-flush tears were collected significantly faster than basal tears in wounded eyes with higher rates for tear collection in unwounded control and wounded eyes. TPC was significantly lower in eye-flush tears compared to basal tears. The relative proportion of tear IgA normalized to TPC (% IgA of TPC) was not significantly different between basal and eye-flush tears. In unwounded control eyes, MMP-9 was slightly higher in eye-flush than in basal tears; activity of MMP-9 in both tear types was similar. In wounded eyes, eye-flush tears showed highest MMP-9 levels and activity on Day 1, which subsequently decreased to Day 7. MMP-9 activity in basal tears from wounded eyes did not display changes in expression. Eye-flush tears can be collected rapidly providing sufficient tear volume and TPC. This study also indicates that eye-flush tears may be more suitable than basal tears for the analysis of MMPs following corneal wounding. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  18. [Perinaud's oculoglandular syndrome as a manifestation of cat-scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Kruse, L P; Engbaek, K

    1995-07-17

    The first Danish case of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, a manifestation of cat-scratch disease, is reported in a 35-year-old man presenting with an enlarged preauricular lymph node and an ipsilateral conjunctival granuloma. Surgical removal of the granulomatous lesion was followed by rapid healing. The diagnosis was verified by demonstrating a high antibody tire against Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae. On subsequent questioning the man gave a history of acquiring a kitten six weeks before his illness. The importance of eye examination in patients presenting with preauricular lymphadenopathy is emphasized.

  19. [Eye and systemic manifestations of Mobius syndrome].

    PubMed

    Borbolla Pertierra, A M; Acevedo González, P; Bosch Canto, V; Ordaz Favila, J C; Juárez Echenique, J C

    2014-11-01

    Mobius syndrome is characterized by damage in the nucleus of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, with subsequent facial palsy and abduction limitation of the eyes. The aim of this article is to describe the ophthalmological findings of the Mobius syndrome in Mexican children. A cross-sectional, retrospective, observational and descriptive study was conducted. A review was made of the clinical charts of patients with Mobius syndrome who were seen in the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico, between the years 2000 and 2010. A total of 64 charts were reviewed. The most important findings were eye abduction limitation (100%), facial palsy (100%), esotropia (54%), epicanthus (51.5%), entropion (22%), and history of use of abortion inducers in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy (28%). We also found exotropia and hypertropia in some cases. Mobius syndrome has a wide spectrum of ophthalmological manifestations that are important to detect early in order to improve function and esthetics. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral laryngeal hemiplegia in three cats.

    PubMed

    Holland, C T

    1996-09-01

    Horner's syndrome is described in three cats associated with wounds to the ventrolateral neck. In each case, ipsilateral laryngeal hemiplegia was observed on laryngoscopy. This finding provided strong evidence to support a diagnosis of second order Horner's syndrome due to disruption of the cervical sympathetic trunk, as motor fibres innervating laryngeal abductors also traverse the neck; both as descending fibres within the contiguous cervical vagus and as ascending fibres within the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Notably, the ability to vocalise was unimpaired in all cases and, in two cats, neck wounds were not apparent until the neck had been clipped and closely examined. These findings indicate that assessment of laryngeal function is of value when localising the site of the neural defect responsible for selected cases of second order Horner's syndrome.

  1. Neuronal connections of eye-dominance columns in the cat cerebral cortex after monocular deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, S V; Toporova, S N; Shkorbatova, P Yu

    2008-09-01

    Plastic changes in intrahemisphere neuronal connections of the eye-dominance columns of cortical fields 17 and 18 were studied in monocularly deprived cats. The methodology consisted of microintophoretic administration of horseradish peroxidase into cortical columns and three-dimensional reconstruction of the areas of retrograde labeled cells. The eye dominance of columns was established, as were their coordinates in the projection of the visual field. In field 17, the horizontal connections of columns receiving inputs from the non-deprived eye via the crossed-over visual tracts were longer than the connections of the "non-crossed" columns of this eye and were longer than in normal conditions; the connections of the columns of the deprived eye were significantly reduced. Changes in the spatial organization of horizontal connections in field 17 were seen for the columns of the non-deprived eye (areas of labeled cells were rounder and the density of labeled cells in these areas were non-uniform). The longest horizontal connections in deprived cats were no longer than the lengths of these connections in cats with strabismus. It is suggested that the axon length of cells giving rise to the horizontal connections of cortical columns has a limit which is independent of visual stimulation during the critical period of development of the visual system.

  2. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4041970

  3. Tonic and phasic phenomena underlying eye movements during sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is not a homogenous state, and different variables have traditionally been used to distinguish different periods during sleep. Of these variables, eye movement is one of the most paradigmatic, and has been used to differentiate between the so-called rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Despite this, eye movements during sleep are poorly understood, and the behaviour of the oculomotor system remains almost unknown. In the present work, we recorded binocular eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle of adult cats by the scleral search-coil technique. During alertness, eye movements consisted of conjugated saccades and eye fixations. During NREM sleep, eye movements were slow and mostly unconjugated. The two eyes moved upwardly and in the abducting direction, producing a tonic divergence and elevation of the visual axis. During the transition period between NREM and REM sleep, rapid monocular eye movements of low amplitude in the abducting direction occurred in coincidence with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Along REM sleep, the eyes tended to maintain a tonic convergence and depression, broken by high-frequency bursts of complex rapid eye movements. In the horizontal plane, each eye movement in the burst comprised two consecutive movements in opposite directions, which were more evident in the eye that performed the abducting movements. In the vertical plane, rapid eye movements were always upward. Comparisons of the characteristics of eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle reveal the uniqueness of eye movements during sleep, and the noteworthy existence of tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system, not observed until now. PMID:18499729

  4. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in the normal cat eye.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    In normal cat eyes, the mean cross-sectional area of the nerve fiber bundles is greater in the temporal than in the nasal lamina cribrosa. The area occupied by the interbundle trabeculae is less in the temporal sectors than in the nasal sectors of the nerve. The number and the shape of the laminar pores are similar in all nerve sectors.

  5. Pressure-induced optic nerve axonal transport interruption in cat eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1981-12-01

    After intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine, optic nerve axonal transport was studied in 30 cat eyes by tissue radioautography. Twenty-five experimental eyes were examined after four hours of acute pressure elevation with perfusion pressures maintained at 20 to 70 mm Hg. In five control specimens, intraocular pressures were maintained at 10 mm Hg for the four-hour interval. The extent of leucine accumulation, as seen by radioautographs, was inversely proportional to the perfusion pressure. Accumulation was limited to the region fo the lamina cribrosa. The anatomic distribution and pressure response of this transport interruption were similar to those seen in primate eyes studied under similar conditions.

  6. Sagging eye syndrome presenting as a form of strabismus fixus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Ho; Jung, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Lateral rectus-superior rectus band degeneration with aging is the major cause of sagging eye syndrome, which usually presents with small-angle esotropia or hypotropia. In contrast, heavy eye syndrome, also called myopic strabismus fixus, is characterized by profound esotropia and hypotropia with the eyeball fixed nasally. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with sagging eye syndrome presenting with strabismus fixus and no myopia.

  7. Neuroretinitis: a clinical syndrome of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Rost Monahan S

    2000-12-01

    Cat-scratch disease is usually a benign self-limited illness, characterized by regional lymphadenopathy lasting between 3 and 6 weeks. The causative organism is Bartonella henselae, a small gram-negative rod. Between 1 and 2% of patients who contract the illness experience blurred vision, metamorphopsia and scotomas as a result of neuroretinitis, an associated clinical syndrome. The classical clinical findings in cat-scratch neuroretinitis include disc edema and a stellate pattern of exudates in the macula. However, a myriad of other signs has been documented, suggesting a much wider spectrum of intra-ocular disease. The following case report presents a young patient with neuroretinitis, and a history of lymphadenopathy secondary to cat-scratch disease.

  8. [Cat's cratch disease and Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escarmelle, A; Delbrassine, N; De Potter, P

    2004-02-01

    By presenting this case report describing Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, we review the medical literature on its most frequent etiology: catscratch disease, a self-limited, systemic illness caused by a Gram-negative bacillus, Bartonella henselae, principally affecting children under 15 years of age. Typical symptoms include regional lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, and fatigue, possibly with more severe complications such as splenomegaly, granulomatous hepatitis, and encephalopathy. Ocular manifestations may include follicular conjunctivitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, neuroretinitis, optic neuritis, and chorioretinitis. Diagnosis is based on serologic tests, and when necessary, antimicrobial treatment can be considered.

  9. Phantom eye syndrome: Its prevalence, phenomenology, and putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sörös, P; Vo, O; Husstedt, I-W; Evers, S; Gerding, H

    2003-05-13

    This study presents data on the clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of the phantom eye syndrome in 112 patients after removal of one eye. The prevalence of phantom eye pain was 26%, nonpainful phantom sensations 29%, and visual hallucinations 31%. Headaches and preoperative eye pain were associated with the presence of phantom experiences. These results suggest that pain is an important cofactor for the development of phantom eye phenomena.

  10. Clinical effect of four different ointment bases on healthy cat eyes.

    PubMed

    Eördögh, Réka; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Tichy, Alexander; Loncaric, Igor; Nell, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    To describe the effects of long-term treatment with four different eye ointment bases (OBs) in cats. Ten healthy cats. The study was performed in two periods. Four different OBs were tested. Hundred grams of OB contained the following: OB-A: 35.17 g liquid paraffin (lp), 64.83 g white petrolatum (wp); OB-B: 10.03 g lp, 84.95 g wp 5.02 g lanolin; OB-C: 18.34 g lp, 51.40 g wp, 25.00 mg KH2 PO4 , 57.00 mg K2 HPO4 , 18.90 g eucerinum anhydricum, 11.28 g water for injections; and OB-D: 70 g unguentum lanalcoli, 20 g lp, 10 g aqua conservans. One eye was treated, and the other served as a negative control. Cats received the OBs TID for 28 days. The two study periods were separated by a 4-month washout phase. Samples for conjunctival impression cytology, swabs for bacteriologic and mycologic examination, and cytobrush samples for FHV-1 and Chlamydophila felis PCR detection were obtained. Both eyes were examined daily. Severity of ocular symptoms was scored using a modified Draize eye irritation test. A total of five eyes were treated with OB-A, five with OB-B, four with OB-C, and five with OB-D. Treated eyes had significantly higher clinical scores. Eyes receiving OB-A had the highest overall clinical score. The results of bacteriologic and mycologic examination concur with the previously published data. All samples tested were negative for FHV-1 and Chlamydophila felis. There was no significant difference between treated and control eyes upon cytological examination. The application of OBs resulted in clinical symptoms in treated eyes. The long-term use of ointments is not well tolerated in cats and may lead to ocular irritation. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Amylin competes for binding sites of CGRP in the chamber angle and uvea of monkey, cat, and pig eye.

    PubMed

    Alajuuma, Päivi; Oksala, Olli; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2003-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites have been identified previously in the eyes of monkey, cat, pig, and guinea pig. In this study, the ability of cat, human, and rat amylins to displace the binding of CGRP in the anterior part of the eye of monkey, cat, and pig was studied. The location and displacement of 125I-hCGRPalpha by amylins as concentrations of 1-1000 nM were studied in cryosections by autoradiography. In the monkey eye, cat and rat amylins were able to compete for the binding sites of CGRP in ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. In the cat eye, cat and human amylins clearly displaced CGRP binding from ciliary muscle, ciliary processes, iris, and chamber angle. Furthermore, rat amylin clearly displaced CGRP binding from ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. In the pig eye, cat, human, and rat amylins competed for the binding sites of CGRP in ciliary muscle, ciliary processes, iris, and limbal conjunctiva. Specific amylin receptors or the possible physiological role of amylin in the eye have not hitherto been reported. It seems, however, that amylin can bind to ocular CGRP receptors and thus probably plays a role in the regulation of the same functions as CGRP, (e.g., aqueous humor outflow).

  12. From cat's eyes to disjoint multicellular natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolás, Alfredo; Báez, Elsa; Bermúdez, Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Numerical results of two-dimensional natural convection problems, in air-filled tall cavities, are reported to study the change of the cat's eyes flow as some parameters vary, the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination ϕ of the cavity, with the Rayleigh number Ra mostly fixed; explicitly, the range of the variation is given by 12⩽A⩽20 and 0°⩽ϕ⩽270°; about Ra=1.1×10. A novelty contribution of this work is the transition from the cat's eyes changes, as A varies, to a disjoint multicellular flow, as ϕ varies. These flows may be modeled by the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in stream function and vorticity variables which is solved with a fixed point iterative process applied to the nonlinear elliptic system that results after time discretization. The validation of the results relies on mesh size and time-step independence studies.

  13. Punctal occlusion for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Law, Andrew; Pucker, Andrew D

    2017-06-26

    Dry eye syndrome is a disorder of the tear film that is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Punctal occlusion is a mechanical treatment that blocks the tear drainage system in order to aid in the preservation of natural tears on the ocular surface. To assess the effects of punctal plugs versus no punctal plugs, different types of punctal plugs, and other interventions for managing dry eye. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase.com (1947 to 8 December 2016), PubMed (1948 to 8 December 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 8 December 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com; last searched 18 November 2012 - this resource is now archived), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov; searched 8 December 2016), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en; searched 8 December 2016). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We also searched the Science Citation Index-Expanded database and reference lists of included studies. The evidence was last updated on 8 December 2016 SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of collagen or silicone punctal plugs in symptomatic participants diagnosed with aqueous tear deficiency or dry eye syndrome. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study investigators for additional information when needed. We included 18 trials (711 participants, 1249 eyes) from Austria, Canada, China, Greece, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Turkey, the UK, and the USA in this review. We also identified one ongoing trial. Overall we judged these trials to be at unclear risk of bias because they were poorly reported. We

  14. Phantom eye syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Agda M; Goiato, Marcelo C; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Guiotti, Aimée M; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: "eye amputation," "eye trauma," "phantom eye syndrome," "phantom pain," and "quality of life," associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach.

  15. Cat-eye target imaging system research and dual-channel DSP implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Haiyang; Shi, Guang; Han, Lei; Zhao, Changming

    2013-09-01

    In modern warfare, well-equipped and trained snipers have become a mortal malady for the combat troops. How to accurately, timely and quickly find and destroy snipers becomes a research focus of national military experts. In order to effectively detect faint echo signal of cat-eye target and get the snipers' position information in the detection area, a small size of dual-channel active laser detection system with monochrome and color Charge-couple Devices(CCD) is designed, which is based on the laser imaging principle of cat-eye effect, associated tests are also conducted. The dual-channel video capture can obtain more information of target area, while taking advantage of the high sensitivity of monochrome CCD will also provide more accurate grayscale information for the video image processing. In order to achieve the miniaturization of system, we choose a video processing board whose size is only 54mm*90mm as hardware platform to complete the algorithm. For verifying the feasibility and accuracy of algorithm, we ultimately build a full set of experimental detection system. The test results show that the system can accurately detect and mark typical cat-eye target from background under different distances, which verifies the rationality and validity of the proposed system and has certain practicality and promotion in the active laser detection system research areas.

  16. [Eye contact in adult patients with Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Wolfgang, D

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if individuals with autism spectrum disorders rarely hold direct eye contact because eyes are unimportant for them, or if it is actively avoided. The aim of the current investigation was to gain a better understanding for their views on direct eye contact by exploring adult patients with Asperger syndrome. 63 adult patients with Asperger syndrome (28 females, 35 males, 21 - 62 years old) were explored about using and sensing direct eye contact by means of a standardised questionnaire. 87 % of investigated patients depict direct eye contact as being disagreeable. They describe it as arduous and distracting. Therefore they mostly actively avoid direct eye contact. The here gained knowledge about aversion towards direct eye contact in individuals with autism should lead to a stronger understanding and acceptance of this problem in the non-autistic population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The potential role of neuropathic mechanisms in dry eye syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mcmonnies, Charles W

    Dry eye syndromes can involve both nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms. Nociceptive symptoms are the normal physiological responses to noxious stimuli. Neuropathic symptoms are caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be the result of hypersensitisation of peripheral or central corneal and conjunctival somatosensory nerves. For example, inflammation could induce neuroplastic peripheral sensitisation of the ocular surface or lid wiper and exacerbate nociceptive symptoms. Neuropathic symptoms may explain the incommensurate relation between signs and symptoms in some dry eye syndromes although absence of signs of a dry eye syndrome may also be a consequence of inappropriate methods used when examining for them. Involvement of neuropathic mechanisms may also help explain dry eye symptoms which occur in association with reduced corneal sensitivity. This review includes a discussion of the potential for ocular symptoms involving neuropathic mechanisms to contribute to psychosocial problems such as depression, stress, anxiety and sleep disorders as well as for these types of psychosocial problems to contribute to neuropathic mechanisms and dry eye syndromes. Failure to consider the possibility that neuropathic mechanisms can contribute to dry eye syndromes may reduce accuracy of diagnosis and the suitability of treatment provided. Dry eye symptoms in the absence of commensurate evidence of tear dysfunction, and unsatisfactory response to tear dysfunction therapies should prompt consideration of neuropathic mechanisms being involved. Symptoms which persist after local anaesthetic instillation are more likely to be neuropathic in origin. Reducing inflammation may help limit any associated neuroplastic hypersensitivity.

  18. Design and performance considerations of cat's-eye retroreflectors for use in open-path Fourier-transform-infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert L; Griffiths, Peter R

    2002-10-20

    A ray-tracing analysis of cat's-eye retroreflectors for use in active open-path Fourier-transform-infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry and the results of testing f/0.5 and f/1.75 cat's-eye retroreflectors built in our laboratory with a commercial active OP/FT-IR spectrometer are presented. The ray-tracing model is based on the optical characteristics of a commercial single-telescope monostatic OP/FT-IR spectrometer and explores trends in cat's-eye behavior in practical but rigorous field conditions encountered during transportable outdoor use. All mirrors modeled are paraboloids for which the focal ratios of the primary mirror are f/0.5, f/1.75, and f/3. The effect of the focal ratio of the primary mirror, the focal length of the secondary mirror, and the off-axis alignment of the primary and the secondary mirror have been evaluated as a function of path length, including variable input-beam divergence, between the spectrometer and the cat's-eye. The paraboloidal mirrors comprising the primary and secondary of the cat's-eye retroreflectors tested were made in our laboratory by spin casting liquid epoxy-graphite composite mixtures followed by in situ polymerization with no postpolishing.

  19. Impaired exploratory eye movements in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Takashi; Morita, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Ishii, Youhei; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-03-01

    Previous eye-tracking studies using an eye mark recorder have reported that disturbances in exploratory eye movements in adult schizophrenic patients are associated with social functioning. The current study sought to determine whether exploratory eye-movement disturbances are present in children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. MATERIALS/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 23 children with AS and 23 age-matched TD children. We measured exploratory eye movements using an EMR-8B eye mark recorder and an exploratory eye movement-measuring device. Eye movements were recorded while participants freely observed a geometric figure (free viewing task), and while they complied with the instructions of an experimenter (repeat-comparison task). We assessed eye fixation points (EFPs) and total eye scanning length (TESL) in all tasks, and measured the responsive search score (RSS) in the repeat-comparison task. In the free viewing task, children with AS exhibited significantly shorter TESL compared with TD children. In the repeat-comparison task, children with AS exhibited significantly lower RSS. Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with both EFP and TESL, but not RSS. The current results revealed that children with AS exhibited dysfunction in exploratory eye movements. Thus, assessing exploratory eye movements in a repeat-comparison task may be useful for detecting social impairment among children with AS. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. A rare differential diagnosis of "red eye"].

    PubMed

    Jäckel, M C; Glock, T; Künster, A

    2006-01-01

    Two cases of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which represents an ocular manifestation of cat-scratch disease, are reported. The symptoms are subacute and include unilateral conjunctivitis and pre-auricular lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis primarily relies on the recognition of suggestive clinical signs in conjunction with positive serologic testing. In most cases, therapy is not necessary.

  1. The eye in the Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Maumenee, I H

    1981-01-01

    One hundred sixty consecutive patients with the Marfan syndrome were reviewed for ocular, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities, and were graded by severity. The most striking ocular abnormality was enlargement of the globe, presumably caused by scleral stretching. Staphylomata were not a feature of any of the patients seen, nor was keratoconus. The cornea, in fact, was flattened but not thinned. Among the 160 patients, 193 eyes showed dislocation of the lens. Dislocation of the lens was positively correlated with increased ocular axial length and with decreasing KJ readings. We postulate that the ocular pathologic changes are primarily caused by stretching of the tunica scleralis, and that the zonular fibers (thus under stress may "give" or may rupture in their area of presumably least density which may be the area of developmental fusion of the optic vesicle. In a small proportion of cases the lens dislocation was progressive. There was no correlation between ocular findings, on one hand, and the skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities on the other. However, there was a good degree of intrafamilial consistency with regard to absence or presence of ocular pathology. The absence of correlation between the ocular and systemic findings in our data on these 160 patients is best explained by the existence of more than 1 point mutation, which may give rise to different but clinically similar phenotypes. The results of our calculations of mutation rate were compatible with such an explanation. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 13 C FIGURE 13 D PMID:7043871

  2. Severe dry-eye syndrome following external beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1994-11-15

    There are limited data in the literature on the probability of dry-eye complications according to radiotherapy dose. This study investigates the risk of radiation-induced severe dry-eye syndrome in patients in whom an entire orbit was exposed to fractionated external beam irradiation. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 33 patients with extracranial head and neck tumors received irradiation of an entire orbit. Most patients were treated with {sup 60}Co. The dose to the lacrimal apparatus was calculated at a depth of 1 cm from the anterior skin surface, the approximate depth of the major lacrimal gland. The end point of the study was severe dry-eye syndrome sufficient to produce visual loss secondary to corneal opacification, ulceration, or vascularization. Twenty patients developed severe dry-eye syndrome. All 17 patients who received dose {ge}57Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome. Three (19%) of 16 patients who received doses {ge}45 Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome; injuries in the latter group were much more slower to develop (4 to 11 years) than in the higher dose group, in whom corneal vascularization and opacification were usually pronounced within 9-10 months. There were no data for the range of doses between 45.01 and 56.99 Gy. The data did not suggest an increased risk of severe dry-eye syndrome with increasing age. Data from the current series and the literature are combined to construct a sigmoid dose response curve. The incidence of injury increases from 0% reported after doses {ge}30 Gy to 100% after doses {ge}57 Gy. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Corneal grafting for the treatment of feline corneal sequestrum: a retrospective study of 18 eyes (13 cats).

    PubMed

    Laguna, Fernando; Leiva, Marta; Costa, Daniel; Lacerda, Rodrigo; Peña Gimenez, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    To determine the clinical outcome of corneal grafting for the treatment of feline corneal sequestrum (FCS). Domestic cats. A review of the medical records of cats that underwent keratoplasty as a treatment of FCS at the VTH-UAB, from 2002 to 2012, was carried out. Thirteen cats (18 eyes) of different breed, age, and gender were included. Persian cats were overrepresented (12/13;92%). There were nine males and four females, of a mean age of 3.4 years (0.7-7.1). Ipsilateral chronic corneal ulceration was reported as the most common concurrent ocular disease (6/18;33%). Keratoplasty was performed bilaterally in 5 cats (5/13;38%) and unilaterally in 8 (8/13;62%). Lamellar keratoplasty was performed in 17 eyes (17/18;95%) and full-thickness keratoplasty in 1 (1/18;5%). Mean graft size was 8.3 mm (4-11.5). Fresh homologous graft was performed in 2 eyes (2/18;11%) and frozen graft in 16 (16/18;89%). Of the latter group, homologous graft was performed in 6 eyes (6/16;37.5%) and heterologous in 10 (10/16;62.5%). In all the cats, postoperative treatment included topical antibiotics, corticosteroids, cycloplegics, and 0.2% cyclosporine A. Median follow-up time was 18.2 months, and main postoperative complications were diffuse mild epithelial pigment formation (2/18;11%), graft malacia (1/18;5%), and sequestrum recurrence (1/18;5%). Mean epithelial healing time was 19.2 days. Good visual outcome was achieved in all the eyes (100%), the majority of them having faint or mild corneal opacity (15/18;83%). Keratoplasty is an effective surgical treatment for FCS. The donor tissue provides excellent tectonic support to the affected corneas, with good visual and cosmetic outcome. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Horner's syndrome in the dog and cat as an aid to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, B R; Studdert, V P

    1975-07-01

    Four cases of Horner's syndrome, two in dogs and two in cats, are described. Miosis, ptosis, and enophthalmos were present in three of the cases and in addition, protrusion of the nictitating membrane was present in the fourth case. In the two cases described in cats, there was also evidence of peripheral vasodilation in the skin of the face on the same side as the Horner's syndrome.

  5. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome in residents of surgical specialties.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, José Alberto; Torres-Martínez, Verónica; Martínez-Ruiz, Adriana; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Rendón-Félix, Jorge; Irusteta-Jiménez, Leire; Márquez-Valdez, Aída Rebeca; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2016-07-16

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dry eye syndrome in a group of Mexican residents of different surgical specialties. A cross-sectional descriptive study where the residents were studied using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, together with diagnostic tests for dry eye syndrome, such as tear breakup time, Oxford Schema, Schirmer's test I, and meibomian gland dysfunction testing. Statistical analyses were performed by Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables and student's t-test for quantitative variables. Any P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. One hundred and twenty-three residents were included (246 eyes); 90 (73 %) were male and 33 (27 %) were female. The mean age was 27.8 ± 2.1 years. A higher number of residents with dry eye syndrome was found in the cardiothoracic surgery (75 %) and otorhinolaryngology (71 %) specialties; 70 % of them reported ocular symptoms, with teardrop quality involvement in >50 % of them. We found a prevalence of 56 % for mild-to-moderate/severe stages of the condition. Their presence in the operating room predisposes surgical residents to dry eye syndrome because of environmental conditions.

  6. Acute Reversible Charles Bonnet Syndrome Following Eye Patch Placement.

    PubMed

    Nan, Lian; Yanbin, Hou; Jingping, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterised by recurrent vivid visual hallucinations in the presence of normal cognition. We present a case of CBS secondary to eye patching following Pars Plana Vitrectomy with an unusually acute onset in a 48-year-old woman. She presented with formed visual hallucinations that started less than 30 min after patching of her left eye. The patch was removed after 2 d, and these hallucinations persisted 2 d following eye patch removal. It is important that the ophthalmic surgeon be aware of the potential for development of CBS and offer appropriate referral and reassurance should it occur.

  7. Effects of the beta1-selective adrenergic antagonist betaxolol on electroretinography in the perfused cat eye.

    PubMed

    Uji, Yukitaka; Kuze, Manami; Matubara, Hisashi; Doi, Motoaki; Sasoh, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the beta1-selective adrenergic antagonist betaxolol on electroretinography (ERG) were studied in the isolated and arterially perfused cat eye. Betaxolol increased the perfusion flow rate, significantly at the administrations of more than 50 microM concentrations and induced a dose-related, reversible increase in the amplitudes of both the a-wave and b-wave of ERG. These results suggest that the calcium-channel blocking mechanism of betaxolol has a beneficial influence on ocular blood flow and retinal electrical activity in response to light. As it is known that ERG is a good indicator of the functional integrity of the retina, this indicates that betaxolol could be an ideal drug for treating glaucoma in which ischemia is involved to some extent.

  8. Dancing Eye Syndrome associated with spontaneous recovery and normal neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ki Pang, K; Lynch, Bryan J; Osborne, John P; Pike, Michael G

    2010-03-01

    Five patients with spontaneously recovering Dancing Eye Syndrome/Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome are described. Age at presentation ranged from 4 to 19 months. Four had symptoms of fever and a coryzal illness within days to a few weeks prior to the onset. One of the 4 also had varicella zoster 4 weeks before presentation. All had opsoclonus, myoclonus/ataxia and irritability. Associated infective agents identified were Coxsackie virus and rotavirus. Spontaneous improvement of symptoms started within 9 days of presentation and total duration of illness ranged from 10 to 24 days. Developmental progress at follow-up was normal in all cases. A range of immunomodulatory therapies have been advocated for the treatment of Dancing Eye Syndrome/Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome. However, in some children, early spontaneous recovery may occur, an observation which should be borne in mind when designing therapeutic trials in this condition.

  9. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  10. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  11. Characteristics of retinal reflectance changes induced by transcorneal electrical stimulation in cat eyes.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Hirohara, Yoko; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishida, Kohji; Fujikado, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) activates retinal neurons leading to visual sensations. How the retinal cells are activated by TES has not been definitively determined. Investigating the reflectance changes of the retina is an established technique and has been used to determine the mechanism of retinal activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reflectance changes elicited by TES in cat eyes. Eight eyes of Eight cats were studied under general anesthesia. Biphasic electrical pulses were delivered transcornealy. The fundus images observed with near-infrared light (800-880 nm) were recorded every 25 ms for 26 s. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the images of 10 consecutive recordings were averaged. Two-dimensional topographic maps of the reflective changes were constructed by subtracting images before from those after the TES. The effects of different stimulus parameters, e.g., current intensity, pulse duration, frequency, and stimulus duration, on the reflective changes were studied. Our results showed that after TES, the reflective changes appeared on the retinal vessels and optic disc. The intensity of reflectance changes increased as the current intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation duration increased (P<0.05 for all). The maximum intensity of the reflective change was obtained when the stimulus frequency was 20 Hz. The time course of the reflectance changes was also altered by the stimulation parameters. The response started earlier and returned to the baseline later with higher current intensities, longer pulse durations, but the time of the peak of the response was not changed. These results showed that the reflective changes were due to the activation of retinal neurons by TES and might involve the vascular changes induced by an activation of the retinal neurons.

  12. Sustained and transient discharges of retinal ganglion cells during spontaneous eye movements of cat.

    PubMed

    Noda, H

    1975-02-14

    Discharges of 223 retinal ganglion cells during spontaneous eye movements (saccades) across a stationary grating pattern were studied in chronically prepared cats. Of these 83 showed sustained responses to local differences in luminance of the grating stripes (S-units); 84 showed transient responses to saccades and did not register local differences in luminance (T-units); and 56 showed mixed responses, i.e., transient responses to saccades and sustained firings in response to local luminance (M-units). When tested with diffuse light, 93.9% of the S-units showed either ON-sustained or OFF-sustained responses; 95.2% of the T-units showed either ON-transient, OFF-transient, or ON-OFF-transient responses; and 50% of the M-units showed ON-OFF responses. In the overall responses properties, most S-units corresponded to the X-cells, most T-units to the Y-cells of retinal ganglion cells previously known from acute experiments. Under normal conditions of active eye movements, the major function of the S-units would be to register the differences in luminance in their receptive fields, and subserve the mechansim of form recognition. The major function of the T-units would be to register information related to quick image motion, induced either by eye or object movements, and subserve the mechanism of detecting the dynamic aspects of visual stimuli. The other important functions of the T-units are their possible participation in the afferent routes for two recently proposed mechanisms; one for goal-directed saccades and the other for saccadic suppression. The M-units would possess the functions of both S- and T-units.

  13. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.

  14. Paroxysmal eye-head movements in Glut1 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Toni S; Pons, Roser; Engelstad, Kristin; Kane, Steven A; Goldberg, Michael E; De Vivo, Darryl C

    2017-04-25

    To describe a characteristic paroxysmal eye-head movement disorder that occurs in infants with Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 101 patients with Glut1 DS to obtain clinical data about episodic abnormal eye movements and analyzed video recordings of 18 eye movement episodes from 10 patients. A documented history of paroxysmal abnormal eye movements was found in 32/101 patients (32%), and a detailed description was available in 18 patients, presented here. Episodes started before age 6 months in 15/18 patients (83%), and preceded the onset of seizures in 10/16 patients (63%) who experienced both types of episodes. Eye movement episodes resolved, with or without treatment, by 6 years of age in 7/8 patients with documented long-term course. Episodes were brief (usually <5 minutes). Video analysis revealed that the eye movements were rapid, multidirectional, and often accompanied by a head movement in the same direction. Eye movements were separated by clear intervals of fixation, usually ranging from 200 to 800 ms. The movements were consistent with eye-head gaze saccades. These movements can be distinguished from opsoclonus by the presence of a clear intermovement fixation interval and the association of a same-direction head movement. Paroxysmal eye-head movements, for which we suggest the term aberrant gaze saccades, are an early symptom of Glut1 DS in infancy. Recognition of the episodes will facilitate prompt diagnosis of this treatable neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  15. [Systematic deviations of saccadic eye movements in Wallenberg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hamann, K U

    1979-01-01

    A patient suffering from lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome) is presented, exhibiting a striking bias of all saccadic eye movements toward the side of the lesion. Oculographic tracings demonstrate this oculomotor disorder. Other disturbances of ocular motility which resemble this one superficially are discussed. Interruption of fixation leads to a gliding movement veeringly to the side of the infarction. Since all saccades generated under different circumstances are affected, it is contemplated where the pathological signal is intruded into the prenuclear level, to adulterate all saccades causing lateropulsion of saccadic eye movements.

  16. Xerostomia, xerophthalmia, and plasmacytic infiltrates of the salivary glands (Sjögren's-like syndrome) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Canapp, S O; Cohn, L A; Maggs, D J; Miller, M A; Kerl, M E; O'Brien, D P

    2001-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of dysphagia and weight loss of 4 weeks' duration. MIld blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia were evident in both eyes, oral mucous membranes were tacky on palpation, and salivary glands were enlarged. Results of a Schirmer tear test were 0 mm/min for both eyes. Administration of atropine did not cause salivation or caused secretion fo thick rope-like saliva. Examination of biopsy specimens of salivary glands revealed a plasmacytic infiltrate. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was diagnosed. Oral administration of prednisone was instituted but was discontinued after a minimal positive response was evident 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Palliative treatment with a 6% solution of pilocarpine 4 to 5 times/d, cyclosporine, hylan A, and neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin ophthalmic ointment resulted in clinical improvement in the cat. Although reported rarely in animals, SS may be more common than currently is recognized. Most treatment regimens for SS are aimed at alleviating clinical signs.

  17. Modeling of micro cat's eye retroreflectors using a matrix-based three-dimensional ray tracing technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-jun; Chao, Keng-hsing; Tsai, Jui-che

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we develop a three-dimensional (3D) ray tracing tool based on the ABCD ray transfer matrices. With symmetric optical components and under paraxial approximation, two sets of 2×2 ABCD matrices, each for a two-dimensional subspace, can be used to describe the 3D ray propagation completely. Compared to commercial ray-tracing software packages, our tool requires no tedious drawing, and the results for various conditions, such as different device dimensions and incident angles, can be easily obtained by simply changing the parameter values used for the calculation. We have employed this matrix-based 3D ray tracing tool to model cat's eye retroreflectors. The cat's eye performance, including the retroreflection efficiency, acceptance angle (i.e., field of view), and beam divergence and deviation, is fully studied. The application of this 3D ray tracing technique can be further extended to other optical components.

  18. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome and Sjogren's syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kosrirukvongs, Panida; Ngowyutagon, Panotsom; Pusuwan, Pawana; Koolvisoot, Ajchara; Nilganuwong, Surasak

    2012-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis has manifestations in various organs including ophthalmic involvement. The present study evaluates prevalence of dry eye and secondary Sjogren's syndrome using salivary scintigraphy which has not been used in previous reports. To evaluate the prevalence of secondary Sjogren's syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including clinical characteristics and dry eye, compared with non-Sjogren's syndrome. Descriptive cross sectional study Sixty-one patients with rheumatoid arthritis were recruited at Siriraj Hospital during March 2009-September 2010 and filled in the questionnaires about dry eye for Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) with a history taking of associated diseases, medications, duration of symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth. The Schirmer I test without anesthesia, tear break-up time, rose bengal staining score, severity of keratitis and salivary scintigraphy were measured and analyzed. Prevalence of secondary Sjogren's syndrome and dry eye were 22.2% (95% CI 15.4 to 30.9) and 46.7% (95% CI 38.0 to 55.6), respectively. Dry eye interpreted from OSDI, Schirmer 1 test, tear break-up time and rose bengal staining was 16.4%, 46.7%, 82% and 3.3% respectively. Fifty-two percent of patients had a history of dry eye and dry mouth with mean duration 27.4 and 29.8 months, respectively. Superficial punctate keratitis and abnormal salivary scintigraphy were found in 58.2% and 77.8%. Duration of rheumatoid arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not correlated with secondary Sjogren's syndrome. Dry eye from OSDI with secondary Sjogren's syndrome (33.3%) compared with non-Sjogren's syndrome (9.5%) was significant difference (p = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratio for secondary Sjogren's syndrome in OSDIL score > 25 was 13.8 (95% CI 2.6 to 73.8, p = 0.002) compared to OSDI score < 25. Awareness and detection of dry eye syndrome and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis was crucial for evaluation of their severity and proper

  19. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the hand following a cat bite.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Dabloun, Slim; Benzarti, Sofien; Khechimi, Myriam; Jenzeri, Abdesselem; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Cat bites at the hand are common situation in emergency departments. Neglected or poorly supported, these lesions sometimes lead to serious injuries that may compromise the function of the hand. Pasteurellamultocida is the most offending germ in these lesions, despite their sensitivity to antibiotics; it can sometimes lead to deep infections involving the skin, bones and joints. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is exceptional after cat bite. We report a case of a 56 Year old female presenting with an acute carpal tunnel syndrome associated with compartment syndrome of the right hand 6 days after a cat bite of her right thumb. The patient was treated by surgery to relieve the median nerve. Microbiology identified PasteurellaMultocida.

  20. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the hand following a cat bite

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Dabloun, Slim; Benzarti, Sofien; Khechimi, Myriam; Jenzeri, Abdesselem; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Cat bites at the hand are common situation in emergency departments. Neglected or poorly supported, these lesions sometimes lead to serious injuries that may compromise the function of the hand. Pasteurellamultocida is the most offending germ in these lesions, despite their sensitivity to antibiotics; it can sometimes lead to deep infections involving the skin, bones and joints. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is exceptional after cat bite. We report a case of a 56 Year old female presenting with an acute carpal tunnel syndrome associated with compartment syndrome of the right hand 6 days after a cat bite of her right thumb. The patient was treated by surgery to relieve the median nerve. Microbiology identified PasteurellaMultocida. PMID:26421101

  1. Horner's syndrome in dogs and cats: 100 cases (1975-1985).

    PubMed

    Kern, T J; Aromando, M C; Erb, H N

    1989-08-01

    The medical records of 74 dogs and 26 cats with Horner's syndrome (HS) that were admitted to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine between January 1975 and October 1985 were reviewed. In dogs, but not cats, HS was associated significantly (P less than 0.01) with increasing age. Dogs with hypothyroidism (defined liberally but not rigorously), intracranial neoplasia, or thoracic neoplasia, cats with otitis media/interna (defined liberally), and dogs and cats with brachial plexus root avulsion were at greater risk for developing HS than were animals that were hit by a car. Dogs and cats with otitis externa were at less risk of developing HS than were animals that were hit by a car. The cause of HS could not be determined in 50% of dogs and 42.3% of cats. The results of topical adrenergic drug testing in dogs were inconclusive in localizing lesion site. In dogs and cats, HS appeared to be unassociated with gender, breed, or right vs left side. The important causes of HS in dogs and cats were trauma (hit by car), brachial plexus root avulsion, intracranial and thoracic neoplasia, and otitis media/interna.

  2. Particle dynamics and mixing in the frequency driven "Kelvin cat eyes" flow.

    PubMed

    Tsega, Yamlak; Michaelides, Efstathios E.; Eschenazi, Elia V.

    2001-06-01

    The "Kelvin cat eyes" stream function is used as a simple fluid flow model to study particle dynamics, mixing and transport in a two-dimensional time-dependent flow field. Lagrangian formulation is used to describe the motion of small spherical particles present in the flow. Individual particle trajectories, under the influence of various flow parameters are studied. The equation describing the motion of these particles constitutes a set of first-order nonlinear differential equations describing a dynamical system. The time-dependent Eulerian flow field is studied as a nonintegrable Hamiltonian system in order to get insight into the underlying nonlinear properties of the system, which directly influence its complicated transport and mixing behavior. Chaotic advection (Lagrangian turbulence) was observed for heavy particles (high Stokes numbers) while no stochastic behavior was observed for light particles. The introduction of perturbation had only a limited effect on individual particle trajectories. However, the introduction of perturbation caused a shrinking of the phase space where bounded stochastic or quasi-periodic motion occurs. This phenomenon can lead to a better understanding of the link between the behavior of the underlying flow in the Hamiltonian formulation and the dynamics of the passive scalars in the Lagrangian description. The Eulerian flow field itself was found to behave chaotically under the influence of a periodic perturbation, because the stable and unstable manifolds associated with neighboring hyperbolic points intersected. This coincides with the better mixing of the fluid. Stochasticity was also discovered close to the periodic points of the system using Poincare maps. Mixing and transport properties are analyzed as a function of the perturbation frequency. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Nitric oxide facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission in the cat oculomotor system: a physiological mechanism in eye movement control.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Escudero, Miguel; Estrada, Carmen

    2002-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by prepositus hypoglossi (PH) neurons is necessary for the normal performance of horizontal eye movements. We have previously shown that unilateral injections of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors into the PH nucleus of alert cats produce velocity imbalance without alteration of the eye position control, both during spontaneous eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This NO effect is exerted on the dorsal PH neuropil, whose fibres increase their cGMP content when stimulated by NO. In an attempt to determine whether NO acts by modulation of a specific neurotransmission system, we have now compared the oculomotor effects of NOS inhibition with those produced by local blockade of glutamatergic, GABAergic or glycinergic receptors in the PH nucleus of alert cats. Both glutamatergic antagonists used, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) and 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo quinoxaline (NBQX), induced a nystagmus contralateral to that observed upon NOS inhibition, and caused exponential eye position drift. In contrast, bicuculline and strychnine induced eye velocity alterations similar to those produced by NOS inhibitors, suggesting that NO oculomotor effects were due to facilitation of some inhibitory input to the PH nucleus. To investigate the anatomical location of the putative NO target neurons, the retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected in one PH nucleus, and the brainstem sections containing Fast Blue-positive neurons were stained with double immunohistochemistry for NO-sensitive cGMP and glutamic acid decarboxylase. GABAergic neurons projecting to the PH nucleus and containing NO-sensitive cGMP were found almost exclusively in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and marginal zone. The results suggest that the nitrergic PH neurons control their own firing rate by a NO-mediated facilitation of GABAergic afferents from the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus. This self-control mechanism could play an important role

  4. Nitric oxide facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission in the cat oculomotor system: a physiological mechanism in eye movement control

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Escudero, Miguel; Estrada, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by prepositus hypoglossi (PH) neurons is necessary for the normal performance of horizontal eye movements. We have previously shown that unilateral injections of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors into the PH nucleus of alert cats produce velocity imbalance without alteration of the eye position control, both during spontaneous eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This NO effect is exerted on the dorsal PH neuropil, whose fibres increase their cGMP content when stimulated by NO. In an attempt to determine whether NO acts by modulation of a specific neurotransmission system, we have now compared the oculomotor effects of NOS inhibition with those produced by local blockade of glutamatergic, GABAergic or glycinergic receptors in the PH nucleus of alert cats. Both glutamatergic antagonists used, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) and 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo quinoxaline (NBQX), induced a nystagmus contralateral to that observed upon NOS inhibition, and caused exponential eye position drift. In contrast, bicuculline and strychnine induced eye velocity alterations similar to those produced by NOS inhibitors, suggesting that NO oculomotor effects were due to facilitation of some inhibitory input to the PH nucleus. To investigate the anatomical location of the putative NO target neurons, the retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected in one PH nucleus, and the brainstem sections containing Fast Blue-positive neurons were stained with double immunohistochemistry for NO-sensitive cGMP and glutamic acid decarboxylase. GABAergic neurons projecting to the PH nucleus and containing NO-sensitive cGMP were found almost exclusively in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and marginal zone. The results suggest that the nitrergic PH neurons control their own firing rate by a NO-mediated facilitation of GABAergic afferents from the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus. This self-control mechanism could play an important role

  5. Chandra Reveals The X-Ray Glint In The Cat's Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists have discovered a glowing bubble of hot gas and an unexpected X-ray bright central star within the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new results, presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting, provide insight into the ways that stars like our Sun end their lives. Scientists believe they are witnessing the expulsion of material from a star that is in the last stages of its existence as a normal star. Material shed by the star is flying away at a speed of about 4 million miles per hour, and the star itself is expected to collapse to become a white dwarf star in a few million years. The X-ray data from the Cat's Eye Nebula, also known as NGC 6543, clearly show a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas. By comparing the Chandra data with those from the Hubble Space Telescope, researchers are able to see where the hotter, X-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by Hubble. "Despite the complex optical appearance of the nebula, the X-ray emission illustrates unambiguously that the hot gas in the central bubble is driving the expansion of the optical nebula," said You-Hua Chu of the University of Illinois and lead author of the paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal. "The Chandra data will help us to better understand how stars similar to our Sun produce planetary nebulas and evolve into white dwarfs as they grow old." With Chandra, astronomers measured the temperature of the central bubble of X-ray emitting material, and this presents a new puzzle. Though still incredibly energetic and hot enough to emit X-rays, this hot gas is cooler than scientists would have expected from the stellar wind that has come to stagnation from the initial high speed of 4 million miles per hour. At first, the researchers thought that the cooler, outer shell might have mixed with the energetic material closer to the

  6. Cranial vena cava syndrome secondary to cryptococcal mediastinal granuloma in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Boysen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The successful management of cranial vena cava syndrome with suspected secondary chylothorax due to mediastinal cryptococcal granuloma in a 4-year-old male domestic shorthair cat is described. Treatment included long-term antifungal medication, short-term corticosteroids, intermittent thoracocentesis, rutin, octreotide, and enalapril. PMID:25829555

  7. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  8. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  9. Cat-pork syndrome: a case report with a thee years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Savi, E; Rossi, A; Incorvaia, C

    2006-12-01

    A case of cat-pork syndrome with subsequent follow-up in a 17-year-old male patient is reported. At the initial observation, the patient was sensitized to cat epithelium--along with house dust mites and grass pollen--from two years. In 2001 he had an immediate reaction with urticaria, angioedema and dyspnea after eating grilled meat and sausage, and skin tests and CAP/RAST revealed a sensitization to pork meat, with a value of 4.7 KU/L for pork meat, and of 55 KU/L for cat epithelium. The patient was followed up for three years with annual repetition of diagnostic tests. The elimination of pork meat from the diet was incomplete, with slight skin reactions to small amounts of cooked pork meat but tolerance to seasoned pork products such as salami. A challenge test with pork meat in 2004 was positive, with angioedema and asthma symptoms, and CAP/RAST showed a value of 43 KU/L for cat epithelium and 4 KU/L for pork meat. RAST inhibition confirmed the significant cross-reactivity between the two allergen sources. These findings provide some knowledge on the natural history of the cat-pork syndrome, and confirm that very prolonged avoidance of the offending foods are needed to expect a loss of sensitization.

  10. Signalling properties of identified deep cerebellar nuclear neurons related to eye and head movements in the alert cat.

    PubMed Central

    Gruart, A; Delgado-García, J M

    1994-01-01

    1. The spike activity of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons was recorded in the alert cat during spontaneous and during vestibularly and visually induced eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified according to their location in the nuclei, their antidromic activation from projection sites, their sensitivity to eye position and velocity during spontaneous eye movements, and their responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimuli. 3. Type I EPV (eye position and velocity) neurons were located mainly in the posterior part of the fastigial nucleus and activated antidromically almost exclusively from the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex. These neurons, reported here for the first time, increased their firing rate during saccades and eye fixations towards the contralateral hemifield. Their position sensitivity to eye fixations in the horizontal plane was 5.3 +/- 2.6 spikes s-1 deg-1 (mean +/- S.D.). Eye velocity sensitivity during horizontal saccades was 0.71 +/- 0.52 spikes s-1 deg-1 s-1. Variability of their firing rate during a given eye fixation was higher than that shown by abducens motoneurons. 4. Type I EPV neurons increased their firing rate during ipsilateral head rotations at 0.5 Hz with a mean phase lead over eye position of 95.3 +/- 9.5 deg. They were also activated by contralateral optokinetic stimulation at 30 deg s-1. Their sensitivity to eye position and velocity in the horizontal plane during vestibular and optokinetic stimuli yielded values similar to those obtained for spontaneous eye movements. 5. Type II neurons were located in both fastigial and dentate nuclei and were activated antidromically from the restiform body, the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex, the red nucleus and the pontine nuclei. Type II neurons were not related to spontaneous eye movements. These neurons increased their firing rate in response to contralateral head rotation and during ipsilateral optokinetic stimulation, and

  11. Cationic amino acid transporters and beta-defensins in dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Kristin; Garreis, Fabian; Dunse, Matthias; Paulsen, Friedrich P

    2010-01-01

    Several diseases concomitant with L-arginine deficiency (diabetes, chronic kidney failure, psoriasis) are significantly associated with dry eye syndrome. One important factor that has so far been neglected is the y(+) transporter. In humans, y(+) accounts for nearly 80% of arginine transport, exclusively carrying the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine. y(+) is represented by CAT(cationic amino acid transporter) proteins. L-arginine is a precursor of the moisturizer urea, which has been used in the treatment of dry skin diseases. Although urea has also been shown to be part of the tear film, little attention has been paid to it in this role. Moreover, L-arginine and L-lysine are major components contributing to synthesis of the antimicrobially active beta-defensins induced under dry eye conditions. The first results have demonstrated that transport of L-arginine and L-lysine into epithelial cells is limited by the y(+) transporter at the ocular surface.

  12. A FAS-ligand variant associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in cats.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, Danielle; Munday, John S; Gandolfi, Barbara; Dittmer, Keren E; Malik, Richard; Garrick, Dorian J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2017-02-01

    British shorthair (BSH) kittens in multiple litters died as a result of a severe non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease that showed many similarities with human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Human ALPS is caused by inherited defects in FAS-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis and the possibility of similar defects was investigated in BSH cats. The whole genomes of two affected kittens were sequenced and compared to 82 existing cat genomes. Both BSH kittens had homozygous insertions of an adenine within exon 3 of the FAS-ligand gene. The resultant frameshift and premature stop codon were predicted to result in a severely truncated protein that is unlikely to be able to activate FAS. Three additional affected BSH kittens were homozygous for the variant, while 11 of 16 unaffected, but closely related, BSH cats were heterozygous for the variant. All BSH cats in the study were from a population with significant inbreeding. The variant was not identified in a further survey of 510 non-BSH cats. Identification of a genetic defect in the FAS-mediated apoptosis pathway confirms that the lymphoproliferative disease in BSH cats fulfills the diagnostic criteria for ALPS in humans. These results will enable the development of a genetic test to detect BSH carrier animals.

  13. Scanning laser polarimetry in eyes with exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Antonios T; Katsanos, Andreas; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Giannopoulos, Theodoros; Empeslidis, Theodoros; Teus, Miguel A; Holló, Gábor; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2013-01-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of normotensive eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and healthy eyes.
 Sixty-four consecutive individuals with XFS and normal office-time intraocular pressure (IOP) and 72 consecutive healthy controls were prospectively enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis in this hospital-based observational study. The GDx-VCC parameters (temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal [TSNIT] average, superior average, inferior average, TSNIT standard deviation (SD), and nerve fiber indicator [NFI]) were compared between groups. Correlation between various clinical parameters and RNFLT parameters was investigated with Spearman coefficient. 
 The NFI, although within normal limits for both groups, was significantly greater in the XFS group compared to controls: the respective median and interquartile range (IQR) values were 25.1 (22.0-29.0) vs 15.0 (12.0-20.0), p<0.001. In the XFS group, all RNFLT values were significantly lower compared to controls (p<0.001). However, they were all within the normal clinical ranges for both groups: TSNIT average median (IQR): 52.8 (49.7-55.7) vs 56.0 (53.0-59.3) µm; superior average mean (SD): 62.3 (6.7) vs 68.8 (8.2) µm; inferior average mean (SD): 58.0 (7.2) vs 64.8 (7.7) µm, respectively. TSNIT SD was significantly lower in the XFS group, median (IQR): 18.1 (15.4-20.4) vs 21.0 (18.4-23.8), p<0.001. There was no systematic relationship between RNFLT and visual acuity, cup-to-disc ratio, IOP, central corneal thickness, Humphrey mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation in either group. 
 Compared to control eyes, polarimetry-determined RNFLT was lower in XFS eyes with normal IOP. Therefore, close monitoring of RNFLT may facilitate early identification of those XFS eyes that convert to exfoliative glaucoma.

  14. The eye amputated - consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed

    2010-12-01

    In this thesis the term eye amputation (EA) covers the removing of an eye by: evisceration, enucleation and exenteration. Amputation of an eye is most frequently the end-stage in a complicated disease, or the primary treatment in trauma and neoplasm. In 2010 the literature is extensive due to knowledge about types of surgery, implants and surgical technique. However, not much is known about the time past surgery. To identify the number of EA, the causative diagnosis and the indication for surgical removal of the eye, the chosen surgical technique and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in Denmark from 1996 until 2003 (paper I); To describe the phantom eye syndrome and its prevalence of visual hallucinations, phantom pain and phantom sensations (paper II); To characterise the quality of phantom eye pain, including its intensity and frequency among EA patients. We attempted to identify patients with increased risk of developing pain after EA and investigated if preoperative pain is a risk factor for a later development of phantom pain (paper III); In addition we wanted to investigate the health related quality of life, perceived stress, self rated health, job separation due to illness or disability and socio-economic position of the EA in comparison with the general Danish population (paper IV). Records on 431 EA patients, clinical ophthalmological examination and an interview study of 173 EA patients and a questionnaire answered by 120 EA patients. The most frequent indications for EA in Denmark were painful blind eye (37%) and neoplasm (34%). During the study period 1996-2003, the annual number of eye amputations was stable, but an increase in bulbar eviscerations was noticed. Orbital implants were used with an increasing tendency until 2003. The Phantom eye syndrome is frequent among EA patients. Visual hallucinations were described by 42% of the patients. The content were mainly elementary visual hallucinations, with white or colored light as a

  15. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Mylène; Dunn, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Three 8-week-old kittens were presented with a history of acute, generalized weakness and severe fever. One cat was dead upon presentation, and necropsy findings were supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. During their clinical courses, two of the three kittens developed a progressive, marked swelling of one or more limbs. One moribund and severely hypothermic cat was euthanized a few hours after presentation, and necropsy was also supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. One kitten recovered. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome was suspected because of the fulminant progression of the septicemia.

  16. Endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement sleep in cats

    PubMed Central

    Orem, John; Lovering, Andrew T; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali; Vidruk, Edward H

    2000-01-01

    A putative endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may explain many characteristics of breathing in that state, e.g. its irregularity and variable ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. This drive is hypothetical, and determinations of its existence and character are complicated by control of the respiratory system by the oscillator and its feedback mechanisms. In the present study, endogenous drive was studied during apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation. We reasoned that if there was a REM-dependent drive to the respiratory system, then respiratory activity should emerge out of the background apnoea as a manifestation of the drive. Diaphragmatic muscle or medullary respiratory neuronal activity was studied in five intact, unanaesthetized adult cats who were either mechanically hyperventilated or breathed spontaneously in more than 100 REM sleep periods. Diaphragmatic activity emerged out of a background apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation an average of 34 s after the onset of REM sleep. Emergent activity occurred in 60 % of 10 s epochs in REM sleep and the amount of activity per unit time averaged approximately 40 % of eupnoeic activity. The activity occurred in episodes and was poorly related to pontogeniculo-occipital waves. At low CO2 levels, this activity was non-rhythmic. At higher CO2 levels (less than 0.5 % below eupnoeic end-tidal percentage CO2 levels in non-REM (NREM) sleep), activity became rhythmic. Medullary respiratory neurons were recorded in one of the five animals. Nineteen of twenty-seven medullary respiratory neurons were excited in REM sleep during apnoea. Excited neurons included inspiratory, expiratory and phase-spanning neurons. Excitation began about 43 s after the onset of REM sleep. Activity increased from an average of 6 impulses s−1 in NREM sleep to 15.5 impulses s−1 in REM sleep. Neuronal activity was non-rhythmic at low CO2 levels and became rhythmic when levels

  17. Lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other eye of a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Bikram Bahadur; Singh, Ramandeep; Ram, Jagat; Kumar, Abiraj

    2014-12-09

    We present a case of Marfan syndrome with lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other. A 14-year-old girl reported decreased vision in the left eye. Her visual acuity was 6/24 and counting fingers at 1 m in the right and left eyes, respectively. Her intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in both eyes. Evaluation of the right eye on slit lamp biomicroscopy under mydriasis revealed an inferiorly visible flattened and concave crystalline lens equator from 4 to 8 o'clock position along with notching and absence of zonules, suggestive of lens coloboma. Left eye examination revealed a superiorly subluxated lens from 3 to 9 o'clock position and posterior subcapsular cataract. The posterior segment evaluation of both eyes was normal. Her father, aunt and grandfather were of tall stature, characteristic of Marfan syndrome. On systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as Marfan syndrome. After surgical correction she achieved vision of 6/6 in both eyes.

  18. Crouzon Syndrome: Relationship of Eye Movements to Pattern Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Avery H; Kelly, John P; Hopper, Richard A; Phillips, James O

    2015-07-01

    To characterize conjugate eye movements in Crouzon syndrome (CS) patients with and without strabismus. Smooth pursuit, saccades, horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were recorded using binocular video-oculography (VOG) in 10 children with CS (5 orthotropic, 5 strabismic) and 12 age-matched controls. Hess-Lancaster plots were generated from Orbit 1.8 using rectus muscle pulley locations from computed tomography imaging. Two-dimensional eye scan paths from VOG recordings were compared with the Hess-Lancaster plots. Targeted saccades were normometric on average but variable, and followed the main sequence in both CS groups. Smooth pursuit gains were normal for both CS groups; however, SP gains of the fixating eye in subjects with strabismus were significantly lower. Optokinetic nystagmus gains were reduced in both CS groups (P < 0.02) but were lower in subjects with strabismus. Shifting misalignments of binocular eye position in primary and eccentric gazes were associated with reduction in OKN gain in both CS groups. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gains for both CS groups were largely normal despite the presence of an off-axis vertical component. Normal gains for saccades and smooth pursuit in CS patients with strabismus are consistent with accurate execution of both movements despite extorsion of the globe. Vestibulo-ocular reflex in CS patients with strabismus had an off-axis vertical component consistent with extorted muscle pulleys. Optokinetic nystagmus is reduced in CS without strabismus owing to binocular position disparities and in CS with strabismus is likely due to cortical suppression associated with cross-axis orientation and exotropia.

  19. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  20. Irritable eye syndrome: neuroimmune mechanisms and benefits of selected nutrients.

    PubMed

    Feher, Janos; Pinter, Erika; Kovács, Illés; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Agnes; Markovics, Adrienn; Plateroti, Rocco; Librando, Aloisa; Cruciani, Filippo

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies showed comorbidity of some ocular, enteral, and affective symptoms comprising irritable eye syndrome. Aims of the present study were to learn more about the pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome and to evaluate benefits of food supplements on these disorders. In in vitro assay, Lactobacillus acidophilus lysate inhibited interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages in dose- and size-dependent manner. For a prospective, open-label phase I/II controlled clinical trial, 40 subjects affected by ocular dysesthesia and hyperesthesia and comorbid enteral and anxiety-depression symptoms were randomly assigned either into the treated group, which received a composition containing probiotic lysate, vitamins A, B, and D and omega 3 fatty acids, or into the control group, which received vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids. For reference, 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were also selected. White blood count (WBC) and lymphocyte and monocyte counts, as well as IL-6 and TNF-α levels, were significantly above the reference levels in both treated and control groups. After 8 weeks, WBC and lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and cytokine levels significantly decreased, and ocular, enteral, and anxiety-depression symptoms significantly improved in the treated group as compared to the control group. This proof-of-concept study suggested that subclinical inflammation may be a common mechanism connecting ocular, enteral, and anxiety/depression symptoms, and supplements affecting dysbiosis may be a new approach to treating this syndrome.

  1. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Sphynx and Devon Rex Cats with Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Hitte, Christophe; Bossé, Philippe; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Thomas, Anne; Martignat, Lionel; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, fatigability and variable electromyographic or muscular histopathological features has been described in the two related Sphynx and Devon Rex cat breeds (Felis catus). Collection of data from two affected Sphynx cats and their relatives pointed out a single disease candidate region on feline chromosome C2, identified following a genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity mapping strategy. In that region, we further identified COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase) as a good candidate gene, since COLQ mutations were identified in affected humans and dogs with endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency leading to a synaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A homozygous c.1190G>A missense variant located in exon 15 of COLQ, leading to a C397Y substitution, was identified in the two affected cats. C397 is a highly-conserved residue from the C-terminal domain of the protein; its mutation was previously shown to produce CMS in humans, and here we confirmed in an affected Sphynx cat that it induces a loss of acetylcholinesterase clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Segregation of the c.1190G>A variant was 100% consistent with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the disorder in our cat pedigree; in addition, an affected, unrelated Devon Rex cat recruited thereafter was also homozygous for the variant. Genotyping of a panel of 333 cats from 14 breeds failed to identify a single carrier in non-Sphynx and non-Devon Rex cats. Finally, the percentage of healthy carriers in a European subpanel of 81 genotyped Sphynx cats was estimated to be low (3.7%) and 14 control Devon Rex cats were genotyped as wild-type individuals. Altogether, these results strongly support that the neuromuscular disorder reported in Sphynx and Devon Rex breeds is a CMS caused by a unique c.1190G>A missense mutation, presumably transmitted through a founder effect, which

  2. Horner's syndrome in dogs and cats: 49 cases (1980-1986).

    PubMed

    Morgan, R V; Zanotti, S W

    1989-04-15

    Medical records of 49 dogs and cats with Horner's syndrome were reviewed. Causes included head, neck, and chest trauma, chronic otitis, cranial thoracic mass, and injury attributable to cleaning of the external ear canal. Cause could not be delineated in 54.5% of the dogs. Numerous diagnostic tests and pharmacologic challenge exposure with epinephrine were used to localize the site of injury. Resolution of all clinical signs was observed in 36 animals and required a mean of 7.7 weeks.

  3. Entropion correction in dogs and cats using a combination Hotz-Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection: results in 311 eyes.

    PubMed

    Read, Robert A; Broun, Hugh C

    2007-01-01

    A novel surgical combination technique for the correction of lateral lower lid entropion in dogs and cats is described, involving a combination of Hotz-Celsus and lateral eyelid wedge resection procedures. The technique was used to treat 311 eyes with lower lid entropion: 269 canine (109 bilateral, 51 unilateral) and 42 feline (16 bilateral, 10 unilateral). The most common canine breeds were the Shar Pei, Rottweiler, Bull Mastiff and Labrador Retriever. Domestic cats made up the majority of feline cases. The overall success rate for a single surgical procedure to correct lower lid entropion with this technique was 94.2% per eye.

  4. Cat scratch disease mimicking Richter's Syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Mohammad; Godkar, Darshan; Mankan, Nagander; Sridhar, Sundara; Hussain, Shafkat; Ohri, Anju

    2005-03-01

    Richter's Syndrome is a highly refractory and usually fatal condition. It occurs as a result of transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or low grade lymphoma into highly aggressive lymphoma. Patients usually present with rapidly enlarging lymph nodes and systemic symptoms like night sweats, fever and weight loss. We are reporting a case of CLL presenting with similar symptoms. Initial suspicion of Richter's Syndrome proved wrong when lymph node biopsy did not reveal evidence of high grade lymphoma. Instead it showed findings consistent with cat scratch disease (CSD), later confirmed by serology. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of CSD in a patient with CLL.

  5. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H

    1983-03-01

    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  6. Depression in the excitability of relay cells of lateral geniculate nucleus following saccadic eye movements in the cat.

    PubMed

    Noda, H

    1975-07-01

    1. The excitability of relay cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus during a saccadic eye movement was studied in alert cats. Excitability was assessed by the firing probability of the cells in response to electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm. Modifications in the excitability were evaluated during the period following eye movements, by triggering a stimulator from potential shifts in electro-oculogram and altering delays in the stimulus pulse. 2. The cells were classified into S and T cells, based on their response properties and the latencies to chiasmatic stimulation. With a saccade in a stationary patterned field, T cells showed a burst discharge, while the discharges of S cells were completely suppressed. 3. The excitability was depressed in both S and T cells for 150-200 msec after a saccade, when the eye movement occurred in light. However, the depression did not occur in complete darkness. 4. The depression occurred also in the absence of eye movement, when the patterned visual field was moved in a saccadic fashion. 5. The depression in S cells occurred during an inhibitory period. Since S cells do not receive signals on image movement directly from the retina, the depression was due to a recurrent inhibition by signals transferred through the T ganglion-relay cell channel. 6. The depression in T cells occurred concomitantly with the burst discharge. Since the recurrent inhibition was operating less effectively during the period, the depression may be due to a phasic occlusion of the test impulse by coincident high-rate firings in the same cell. 7. The impairment in transmission of visual information through the lateral geniculate nucleus during the period following eye movements has been discussed in connexion with a neurophysiological basis for saccadic suppression.

  7. Mixing and transport in the Kelvin-Stuart cat eyes driven flow using the topological approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue, Stephen Michael

    Transport rates for the Kelvin-Stuart Cat Eyes driven flow are calculated using the lobe transport theory of Rom-Kedar and Wiggins through application of the Topological Approximation Method (TAM) developed by Rom-Kedar. Numerical studies by Ottino (1989) and Tsega, Michaelides, and Eschenazi (2001) of the driven or perturbed flow indicated frequency dependence of the transport. One goal of the present research is to derive an analytical expression for the transport and to study its dependence upon the perturbation frequency o. The Kelvin-Stuart Cat Eyes dynamical system consists of an infinite string of equivalent vortices exhibiting a 2pi spatial periodicity in x with an unperturbed streamfunction of H( x, y) = ln(cosh y + A cos x) - ln(1+A). The driven flow has perturbation terms of a sin(o) in both the x and y directions. Lobe dynamics transport theory states that transport occurs through the transfer of turnstile lobes, and that transport rates are equal to the area of the lobes transferred. Lobes may intersect, necessitating the calculation and removal of lobe intersection areas. The TAM requires the use of a Melnikov integral function, the zeroes of which locate the lobes, and a Whisker map (Chirikov 1979), which locates lobe intersection points. An analytical expression for the Melnikov integral function is derived for the Kelvin-Stuart Cat Eyes driven flow. Using the derived analytical Melnikov integral function, derived expressions for the periods of internal and external orbits as functions of H, and the Whisker map, the Topological Approximation Method is applied to the Kelvin-Stuart driven flow to calculate transport rates for a range of frequencies from (o = 1.21971 to o = 3.27532 as the structure index L is varied from L = 2 to L = 10. Transport rates per iteration, and cumulative transport per iteration, are calculated for 100 iterations for both internal and external lobes. The transport rates exhibit strong frequency dependence in the frequency

  8. An Exploration of the Use of Eye Gaze and Gestures in Females with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Girdler, Sonya; Ciccone, Natalie; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the communicative use of eye gaze and gestures in females with Rett syndrome. Method: Data on 151 females with Rett syndrome participating in the Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used in this study. Items from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist…

  9. An Exploration of the Use of Eye Gaze and Gestures in Females with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Girdler, Sonya; Ciccone, Natalie; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the communicative use of eye gaze and gestures in females with Rett syndrome. Method: Data on 151 females with Rett syndrome participating in the Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used in this study. Items from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist…

  10. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood–brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide

  11. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES. We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively. Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance. FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  12. Time Course of Visual Attention in Infant Categorization of Cats versus Dogs: Evidence for a Head Bias as Revealed through Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous looking time studies have shown that infants use the heads of cat and dog images to form category representations for these animal classes. The present research used an eye-tracking procedure to determine the time course of attention to the head and whether it reflects a preexisting bias or online learning. Six- to 7-month-olds were…

  13. Time Course of Visual Attention in Infant Categorization of Cats versus Dogs: Evidence for a Head Bias as Revealed through Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous looking time studies have shown that infants use the heads of cat and dog images to form category representations for these animal classes. The present research used an eye-tracking procedure to determine the time course of attention to the head and whether it reflects a preexisting bias or online learning. Six- to 7-month-olds were…

  14. Effects of eye movement with functional electrical stimulation on balance in stroke patients with neglect syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether eye movement in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation (FES) could improve balance ability in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 stroke patients with neglect syndrome. The intervention was eye movement in conjunction with FES. The program was conducted 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Static balance (eyes-open and eyes-closed) and dynamic balance were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurement of static balance, subjects showed significant differences in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not the eyes-closed condition. In measurement of dynamic balance, the subjects showed significant differences in limit of stability (forward/backward and left/right). [Conclusion] These results indicate that eye movement in conjunction with FES had a positive effect on the static and dynamic balance in the eyes-open condition, but not in the eyes-closed condition of stroke patients with neglect syndrome. Further studies should therefore investigate various interventions in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. PMID:27313375

  15. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in feral cats from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Kang, Jun-Gu; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Cho, Young-Sun; Lee, Hang; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study tested serum samples of feral cats from a highly urbanized habitat, Seoul, Korea to determine the infection to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). From 126 samples tested, SFTSV was detected by RT-PCR in 22 (17.5%) cats from various sites of Seoul. Sequences identified from this study were grouped with clusters from China and Japan. Our result provides data that SFTSV may have been circulating in settings that were suspected to have relatively low risk, such as highly urbanized habitats. Thus it warrants further study to investigate the ecology of SFTSV in urban-dwelling animals including ticks, human and other potential host species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Dry eye disease in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu Cabuk, Kubra; Cakir, İlkay; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kursat; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate dry eye disease (DED) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compare with healthy individuals. The study was conducted in the Ophthalmology and Endocrinology Department of Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, a tertiary care center in Istanbul, Turkey, between January and December 2015. In this prospective case-controlled study, dry eye disease tests were performed on 44 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls. TearLab Osmolarity System, which is a lab-on-a-chip technology, was used to measure tear osmolarity. McMonnies & Ho symptoms questionnaire along with Schirmer I test and tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test were also performed. Statistical evaluation was performed by students' independent test. There was no statistically significant difference in tear osmolarity, TFBUT, and McMonnies and Ho questionnaire scores between MetS and normal group. However, Schirmer I test was significantly higher in MetS group (14.8±9.4mm versus 20.4±9.4, p=0.007). In women subgroup, tear osmolarity was significantly higher in MetS group compared  to the normal group and over the cut-off score 308 mOsm/L (309.4±13.1 mOsm/L versus 301.2±8.7mOsm/L, p=0.012). Patients with MetS present with lower tear volumes and a higher incidence of lacrimal gland hypofunction than age-matched controls. Especially women with MetS have higher tear osmolarities, which disrupt the normal functioning of the ocular surface and cause inflammation. Clinicians should be aware of higher DED incidence in patients with MetS for early treatment to prevent serious ocular complications.

  17. [Dry eye syndrome in patients with conjunctival concretions].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Janková, H; Jirsová, K

    2006-11-01

    To establish the possible correlation between the presence of conjunctival concretions and the instability of the tear film. The group consisted of 50 asymptomatic patients with accidentally detected conjunctival concretions, presented mostly for refractive errors at the outpatient department of the Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. The age of the patients ranged 24-69 years, mean 44.1 years. In 35 patients (group A) were present the conjunctival concretions only, in the remaining 15 patients (group B), together with the concretions, the Meibomian glands dysfunction was also discovered. The complete eye examination was performed, including detailed analysis of tarsal conjunctiva and fornices, Schirmer's test I, the tear film break-up time (BUT) and rose bengal staining. In five patients, the mucin ferning test (MFT) was also performed. Advanced to severe tear deficiency was detected in 42.8 % of patients of the group A, and in 46.6 % of patients in the group B respectively. BUT was shorter or extremely shorter (< 10 sec) in 51.4 % of patients in the group A and in 60 % of patients in the group B. The pathological staining with bengal rose was not detected even in a single patient. MFT was normal in all 5 examined patients (classification I and II). In patients with conjunctival concretions, the tear film deficiency may be present (decreased values of the Schirmer's test and BUT). The tear film break-up time (BUT) is surprisingly shorter in younger patients (younger than 45 years of age), in patients with and also without Meibomian glands dysfunction as well. In older patients (over 45 years of age), the defect of the aqueous layer is more pronounced. Patients with conjunctival concretions are potentially affected with the dry eye syndrome.

  18. Dry eye disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Cakir, Ilkay; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kursat; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate dry eye disease (DED) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compare with healthy individuals. Methods The study was conducted in the Ophthalmology and Endocrinology Department of Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, a tertiary care center in Istanbul, Turkey, between January and December 2015. In this prospective case-controlled study, dry eye disease tests were performed on 44 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls. TearLab Osmolarity System, which is a lab-on-a-chip technology, was used to measure tear osmolarity. McMonnies & Ho symptoms questionnaire along with Schirmer I test and tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test were also performed. Statistical evaluation was performed by students’ independent test. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tear osmolarity, TFBUT, and McMonnies & Ho questionnaire scores between MetS and normal group. However, Schirmer I test was significantly higher in MetS group (14.8±9.4mm versus 20.4±9.4, p=0.007). In women subgroup, tear osmolarity was significantly higher in MetS group compared to the normal group and over the cut-off score 308 mOsm/L (309.4±13.1 mOsm/L versus 301.2±8.7mOsm/L, p=0.012). Conclusion Patients with MetS present with lower tear volumes and a higher incidence of lacrimal gland hypofunction than age-matched controls. Especially women with MetS have higher tear osmolarities, which disrupt the normal functioning of the ocular surface and cause inflammation. Clinicians should be aware of higher DED incidence in patients with MetS for early treatment to prevent serious ocular complications. PMID:27874148

  19. Holmium laser use in the treatment of selected dry eye syndrome complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Dariusz; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Mariusz

    1996-03-01

    The authors present initial results of treatment selected complications of dry eye syndrome with holmium laser. The lacrimal puncta obliteration and coagulation of the corneal ulcer surface were done.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome might be associated with dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Asproudis, Ioannis; Tsoumani, Anthoula T.; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Theopistos, Vasileios; Paschidis, Konstantinos A.; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.; Christodoulou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background A possible association between dry eye disease (DED) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been hypothesized based on the fact that they both share an inflammatory pathogenesis. Methods Ninety-five patients with IBS and 276 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All patients answered a questionnaire regarding DED symptoms and had a complete ophthalmic examination. DED signs were evaluated using Schirmer’s 1 and tear break-up time (tBUT) tests in both groups. Results Female IBS participants presented significantly lower Schirmer’s test and tBUT (P=0.002 and P<0.001 respectively) than controls. Both diagnostic tests in male IBS patients were also significantly lower than in controls (P<0.001). 72% of IBS patients gave at least 3 positive answers to the questionnaire compared with 42% of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest a correlation between IBS and DED. DED symptoms can cause further complications in patients with IBS, and should be considered in their management. However, further research is needed to establish a possible pathophysiologic association. PMID:27708515

  1. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. Systemic and topical omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids have been used as treatment for patients with dry eye disease and showed promising results. Further multicenter randomized controlled trials are required in order to establish a standardized protocol for the treatment of dry eye syndrome with those essential fatty acids. PMID:25278796

  2. A Screening Tool to Measure Eye Contact Avoidance in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Venema, Kaitlin M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the reliability, validity and factor structure of the Eye Contact Avoidance Scale (ECAS), a new 15-item screening tool designed to measure eye contact avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Internal consistency of the scale was acceptable to excellent and convergent validity with the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second…

  3. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  4. Reversible and cachexia-associated feline skin fragility syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Furiani, Nicla; Porcellato, Ilaria; Brachelente, Chiara

    2017-10-01

    Feline skin fragility syndrome (FSFS) is an acquired disorder characterized by altered collagen production resulting in an extremely thin and fragile skin. FSFS is associated with diseases characterized by excessive steroidal hormones that can inhibit collagen synthesis. It is also described concomitantly with severe inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic conditions where the pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To describe three cases of FSFS in cats that become cachectic secondary to different causes without glucocorticoid involvement. To describe the histopathological features of connective tissue for both fragile skin and the skin after healing. All cats developed cachexia in less than two months (body condition score ranging from 1-1.5). Concomitant diseases were diagnosed in Case 1 (aspiration pneumonia due to mega-oesophagus) and Case 2 (feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)). In Case 3, malnutrition was suspected as a primary cause. The main histological feature of fragile skin was an atrophic dermis with pale eosinophilic, thin and irregular collagen fibres with numerous red cores observed with Masson's stain. Elastic fibres were normal. Postrecovery histopathological findings at 11 (Case 1) and six months (Case 3) after diagnosis, indicated normalization of the collagen and of the whole skin as compared with controls. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a reversible, nonsteroid-induced FSFS, associated with rapidly developing cachexia in cats. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  6. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Tara K; Mauldin, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Vickie; Del Piero, Fabio; Hess, Rebecka S

    2007-10-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with a 3-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and hiding was examined. A palpable abdominal fluid wave, dehydration, and a small tear on the left flank were noted during initial examination. When the cat was gently restrained for blood sampling, the skin on the dorsal neck tore, leaving a 15 cm x 7 cm flap of skin. Clinicopathological abnormalities included nonregenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased globulin concentration, and mildly elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Abdominal fluid was viscous and had a total protein of 5.3 g dL(-1) with 316 cells microL(-1), consistent with a modified transudate. Cytology of the abdominal fluid revealed 86% nondegenerate neutrophils, 13% macrophages, and 1% small lymphocytes. Histopathological evaluation and indirect immunohistochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis, hepatic lipidosis and feline skin fragility syndrome. Feline skin fragility syndrome has not previously been reported in association with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Its inclusion as a clinical sign associated with FIP may facilitate a diagnosis.

  7. Cachexia and sarcopenia: emerging syndromes of importance in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L M

    2012-01-01

    Cachexia is the loss of lean body mass (LBM) that affects a large proportion of dogs and cats with congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer, and a variety of other chronic diseases. Sarcopenia, the loss of LBM that occurs with aging, is a related syndrome, although sarcopenia occurs in the absence of disease. As many of the diseases associated with muscle loss are more common in aging, cachexia and sarcopenia often are concurrent problems. Both cachexia and sarcopenia have important clinical implications because they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of these 2 syndromes is complex and multifactorial, but recent studies have provided new information that has helped to clarify mechanisms and identify potential new targets for treatment. Newly identified mechanisms and pathways that mediate cachexia appear to act by increasing energy requirements, decreasing energy intake, impairing nutrient absorption, and causing metabolic alterations. Whereas cachexia and sarcopenia are important areas of research for drug development in people, they are only beginning to be recognized in veterinary medicine. Greater awareness and earlier diagnosis will help provide practical approaches to managing body weight and lean tissue in dogs and cats, as well as more directed targets for treatment. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Compulsive Behavior and Eye Blink in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Neurochemical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsen, Laura; Thompson, Travis

    2004-01-01

    Compulsive behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome is well-documented, though the neurochemical basis of these behaviors remains unknown. We studied a group of 16 people with Prader-Willi syndrome and a comparison group of 19 people with intellectual disability. Using eye-blink rate as an indirect measure of central nervous system dopamine, we found a…

  9. Compulsive Behavior and Eye Blink in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Neurochemical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsen, Laura; Thompson, Travis

    2004-01-01

    Compulsive behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome is well-documented, though the neurochemical basis of these behaviors remains unknown. We studied a group of 16 people with Prader-Willi syndrome and a comparison group of 19 people with intellectual disability. Using eye-blink rate as an indirect measure of central nervous system dopamine, we found a…

  10. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  11. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  12. An Exploration of the Use of Eye Gaze and Gestures in Females With Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Girdler, Sonya; Ciccone, Natalie; Leonard, Helen

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the communicative use of eye gaze and gestures in females with Rett syndrome. Data on 151 females with Rett syndrome participating in the Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used in this study. Items from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (Wetherby & Prizant, 2002) were used to measure communication. Relationships between the use of eye gaze and gestures for communication were investigated using logistic regression. The influences of MECP2 mutation type, age, and level of motor abilities on the use of eye gaze and gestures were investigated using multivariate linear regression. Both eye gaze and the use of gestures predicted the ability to make requests. Women aged 19 years or older had the lowest scores for eye gaze. Females with better gross motor abilities had higher scores for the use of eye gaze and gestures. The use of eye gaze did not vary across mutation groups, but those with a C-terminal deletion had the highest scores for use of gestures. Eye gaze is used more frequently than gestures for communication, and this is related to age, MECP2 mutation type, and gross motor abilities.

  13. The Prevalence of Dry Eye and Sjögren Syndrome in Patients with Migraine.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Ozge; Kosekahya, Pinar; Yildiz Tasci, Yelda; Keklikoglu, Hava D; Deniz, Orhan; Erten, Şükran; Çağıl, Nurullah

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the presence of dry eye and primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) in patients with migraine. In total, 46 eyes of 46 patients with migraine (group 1) and 50 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (group 2) were included in this study. Detailed ophthalmologic, neurologic and rheumatologic examination were performed on all participants. Ocular surface disease index questionnaire, tear function tests, visual analog scale for pain, serologic analysis were also performed. Dry eye symptoms and findings were significantly higher and more severe in group 1 when compared with group 2. Primary SS was not found in any of the participants. The migraine lifetime duration was negatively correlated with the tear function tests while it was positively correlated with the ocular surface disease index scores. Dry eye symptoms and findings are higher in migraine patients when compared with the healthy subjects without the presence of Sjögren syndrome.

  14. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection. PMID:19721738

  15. Using percentile schedules to increase eye contact in children with Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection.

  16. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training Using Eye Blink Switch for Locked-in Syndrome Patient.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Woon; Yim, You-Lim; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Seung-Min

    2012-04-01

    Locked-in Syndrome is a severe pontine stroke causing quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of only vertical gaze and upper eyelid movement in a conscious patient. We present a case of a Locked-in Syndrome patient who received communication training with augmentative and alternative communication equipment by using eye blinks. After 3 weeks of training, the patient was able to make an attempt to interact with other people, and associate a new word by Korean alphabet selection. Augmentative and alternative communication equipment which uses eye blinks might be considered to be beneficial in improving the communication skills of locked-in syndrome patients.

  17. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training Using Eye Blink Switch for Locked-in Syndrome Patient

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Woon; Yi, Sook-hee; Kim, Hyun-young; Jung, Seung-min

    2012-01-01

    Locked-in Syndrome is a severe pontine stroke causing quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of only vertical gaze and upper eyelid movement in a conscious patient. We present a case of a Locked-in Syndrome patient who received communication training with augmentative and alternative communication equipment by using eye blinks. After 3 weeks of training, the patient was able to make an attempt to interact with other people, and associate a new word by Korean alphabet selection. Augmentative and alternative communication equipment which uses eye blinks might be considered to be beneficial in improving the communication skills of locked-in syndrome patients. PMID:22639753

  18. Antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops.

    PubMed

    Jee, Donghyun; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul

    2014-07-03

    To compare the antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops. A total of 100 patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were randomly divided into two groups. Fifty patients (group 1) were treated four times with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops in the first month and with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops in the second and third months. Another 50 patients (group 2) were treated with preserved eye drops on the same schedule. Ocular Surface Disease Index, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, impression cytology, and antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears were evaluated. Treatment with preservative-free eye drops led to significant improvements in symptoms, tear film breakup time, Schirmer I score, and impression cytologic findings compared to treatment with preserved eye drops (P < 0.05) in patients with dry eye syndrome. There was a statistically significant decrease in the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α concentrations and a statistically significant increase in the catalase, peroxiredoxin 2, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2), and thioredoxin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of tears in the preservative-free group at 1, 2, and 3 months compared to initial values, respectively (P < 0.05). Treatment with preservative-free eye drops is effective against the dry eye syndrome. Preservative-free eye drops seem to be more effective than preserved eye drops in decreasing ocular inflammation and in increasing antioxidant contents in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, P; Di Stefano, G; Ferreri, F; Spinella, R; Stilo, A

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients with hypotonic or isotonic hyaluronate eye drops. Methods: 40 Sjögren's syndrome patients were divided in two groups and treated as follows: group 1 with hypotonic (150 mOsm/l) 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops; group 2 with isotonic 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops. The eye drops were instilled six times a day for 90 days. Grading of subjective symptoms, break up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival rose bengal staining, Schirmer's I test, and conjunctival impression cytology were carried out at 0 and 15, 30, 90 days from the beginning of the study. Patients were examined in a blind fashion. For the statistical analysis the Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were performed. Results: Symptoms were statistically significantly improved at day 15 in both groups but group 1 patients had a global score statistically significantly better group 2 (p=0.02). At day 15 group 1 patients had an improvement from baseline values of BUT (p=0.003), fluorescein, and rose bengal score (p=0.000001 and p=0.0004 respectively). Group 2 patients had, at day 15, an improvement of BUT and fluorescein score compared to baseline values (p=0.05 and p=0.0001 respectively). A comparison between the two groups showed better results for group 1 patients at day 15 for rose bengal stain (p=0.01) and for BUT (p=0.05) and fluorescein score (p=0.0003) at day 90. The conjunctival impression cytology showed that group 1 had a statistically significant better total score than group 2 starting from day 15 and lasting throughout the study (p<0.02). Also group 2 patients showed an improvement from baseline values starting from day 30 (p=0.000005). Conclusion: Hyaluronate eye drops are useful for treating severe dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. The use of a formulation with pronounced hypotonicity showed better effects on corneoconjunctival epithelium than the isotonic solution. PMID:12140209

  20. [Effect of anti-inflammatory therapy on the treatment of dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Rogowska-Godela, Anna; Gierek-Ciaciura, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common chronic disease; agents and strategies for its effective management are still lacking. The syndrome tends to be accompanied by ocular surface inflammation; therefore, the use of anti-inflammatory agents might prove beneficial. The authors present up-to-date guidelines, strategies, and efficacy of dry eye syndrome management, including anti-inflammatory treatment. As no diagnostic tests are now available to assess ocular surface inflammation severity, the right timing to launch an anti-inflammatory agent is difficult to determine. Patients with mild intermittent bouts of symptoms which can be alleviated with ophthalmic lubricants do not typically require anti-inflammatory therapy. The latter should be considered in those who do not respond to lubricating drops, obtain poor results on clinical tests, and show symptoms of ocular surface irritation (eg. conjunctivae redness). Anti-inflammatory treatment of dry eye syndrome may include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine A emulsion, oral tetracycline therapy, oral omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and autologous serum eye drops. Anti-inflammatory treatment should be safe and effective; potential benefits should be evaluated for each individual patient. The authors have reviewed the advantages of anti-inflammatory treatment in dry eye syndrome, presented in literature.

  1. Aging eye microbiota in Dry Eye Syndrome in patients treated with Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Eleonora Margherita; Borzì, Antonio Maria; Ozyalcin, Erdogan; Chisari, Clara Grazia

    2017-07-04

    Aging seem to have a key role in the onset and progression of ocular surface diseases. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface in which symptoms may interfere with the ability to work and carry out daily functions. This clinical trial was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of supplementation with mixture (MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) on the tear film. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A (n.30 subjects) and group B (n.30 subjects). Group A (control) treated only with substitute tear and group B treated with substitute tear + mixture (symbiotic). The data obtained in the two study groups A and B were, respectively the following: Schirmer I: 9.2±0.2 Vs 12.8±0.4 (p< 0.001); Schirmer II: 3.6±0.1 Vs 4.6±0.2 (p<0.001); BUT 3.8±0.3 Vs 6.2±0.2 (p<0.001). Culture test showed initial bacterial growth in group "A" (placebo) 27 out of 60 samples tested, corresponding to 45.0% and "B" after treatment (probiotic) was found positive culture with growth of bacteria in 18 tests equal to 30.0%. The total numbers of isolations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were found in both group A and B after treatment. A reduction of 23 to 16 strains of aerobic and anaerobic isolates from 13 to 7 has been found. The administration of probiotics strains was effective in reducing DES. In light of these results, we have identified in our probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) activity integration with the action of tear substitutes, along with standardization of clinical parameters of the tear film and microbiological activity in restoring of the microbiota ocular surface subject with DES. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Locked jaw syndrome in dogs and cats: 37 cases (1998-2005).

    PubMed

    Gatineau, Matthieu; El-Warrak, Alexander O; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; Kamiya, D; Moreau, Maxime

    2008-03-01

    A consecutive series of cases of dogs and cats with locked jaw syndrome (inability to open or close the mouth) are reported in this study. Dogs were significantly overrepresented (84.0%) and adult dogs were more frequently affected (81.0%). Temporomandibular joint ankylosis due to fracture was the most common cause (54.0%) of locked jaw syndrome. Additional potential causes of locked jaw syndrome are masticatory muscle myositis, neoplasia, trigeminal nerve paralysis and central neurological lesions, temporomandibular joint luxation and dysplasia, osteoarthritis, retrobulbar abscess, tetanus, and severe ear disease. Treatment of locked jaw is directed towards the primary cause. It is important to treat the tonic spasm in order to minimize periarticular fibrosis. Surgical intervention is recommended for temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Masticatory muscle myositis treatment is initiated by gradually opening the mouth, with medical treatment based on immunosuppressive therapy. Fracture and masticatory muscle myositis are associated with a relatively good prognosis in regard to short-term outcome as compared to animals with central neurologic lesions or osteosarcoma which have a poor prognosis.

  3. Bite-related and septic syndromes caused by cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Richard L; Velez, Ana P; Mizrachi, Michelle; Lamarche, Jorge; Gompf, Sandra

    2009-07-01

    Bite infections can contain a mix of anaerobes and aerobes from the patient's skin and the animal's oral cavity, including species of Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Capnocytophaga. Domestic cat and dog bite wounds can produce substantial morbidity and often require specialised care techniques and specific antibiotic therapy. Bite wounds can be complicated by sepsis. Disseminated infections, particularly those caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida, can lead to septic shock, meningitis, endocarditis, and other severe sequelae. An emerging syndrome in veterinary and human medicine is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections shared between pets and human handlers, particularly community-acquired MRSA disease involving the USA300 clone. Skin, soft-tissue, and surgical infections are the most common. MRSA-associated infections in pets are typically acquired from their owners and can potentially cycle between pets and their human acquaintances.

  4. [The pork-cat syndrome: effect of sensitization to cats on sensitization to pork meat. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Drouet, M; Lauret, M G; Sabbah, A

    1994-10-01

    A patient who presented with exercise-induced anaphylaxis, linked with a food allergy to pork meat (VP), about three years ago became allergic to VP though effort was necessary to trigger the anaphylactic reactions. These disappeared after suppression of the VP allergy, but the IgE response to VP persisted until the cat was removed from the environment.

  5. Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bourchany, A; Giurgea, I; Thevenon, J; Goldenberg, A; Morin, G; Bremond-Gignac, D; Paillot, C; Lafontaine, P O; Thouvenin, D; Massy, J; Duncombe, A; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Masurel-Paulet, A; Chehadeh, S El; Huet, F; Bron, A; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Lyonnet, S; Faivre, L

    2015-07-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by a specific facial gestalt, intellectual deficiency, Hirschsprung disease and multiple congenital anomalies. Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox2 gene (ZEB2) cause MWS. ZEB2 encodes for Smad-interacting protein 1, a transcriptional co-repressor involved in TGF-beta and BMP pathways and is strongly expressed in early stages of development in mice. Eye abnormalities have rarely been described in patients with this syndrome. Herein, we describe four patients (two males and two females; mean age 7 years) with MWS and eye malformations. Ocular anomalies included, iris/retinal colobomas, atrophy or absence of the optic nerve, hyphema, and deep refraction troubles, sometimes with severe visual consequences. All eye malformations were asymmetric and often unilateral and all eye segments were affected, similarly to the nine MWS cases with ophthalmological malformations previously reported (iris/chorioretinal/optic disc coloboma, optic nerve atrophy, retinal epithelium atrophy, cataract, and korectopia). In human embryo, ZEB2 is expressed in lens and neural retina. Using the present report and data from the literature, we set out to determine whether or not the presence of eye manifestations could be due to specific type or location of mutations. We concluded that the presence of eye malformations, although a rare feature in MWS, should be considered as a part of the clinical spectrum of the condition.

  6. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  7. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments associated to Stickler syndrome in a tertiary eye care center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Saeed T; Ghazi, Nicola G; Al-Rashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical findings and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Stickler syndrome on affected and fellow eyes that underwent prophylactic retinopexy. Patients and methods Chart review of 70 eyes (62 patients). Incidence of RRD, postoperative visual acuity, and risk factors were evaluated. Results Twenty-two patients (35%) had RRD in the fellow eye, 37% of the eyes had cataract, 93% had macular detachment, 50% had proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and 41% had posterior vitreous detachment. Success rates were: 60% of patients after scleral buckling; 57.1% after pars plana vitrectomy; and 75% after combined scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy. Sixty-one (93.8%) of patients had successful surgery (including second surgery). Silicone oil tamponade was significantly associated with final anatomic outcome, with a protective odds ratio of 0.11 (P=0.027). Visual acuity improved in 54% of eyes and decreased in 5%. Statistically significant associations were present for eyes with final visual acuity ≥20/200, and total retinal detachment (P<0.001); preoperative cataract (P=0.023); and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P<0.001). RRD developed in 16/44 eyes despite laser prophylaxis. Conclusion Prophylactic retinopexy was not beneficial for Stickler syndrome patients. Success of primary surgery for RRD remains low. The primary surgery should be vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling and silicone oil tamponade. PMID:26730175

  8. Dry Eye Syndrome in Non-Exophthalmic Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Bruscolini, A; Abbouda, A; Locuratolo, N; Restivo, L; Trimboli, P; Romanelli, F

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to assess qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tear film and corneal related impairment and to evaluate the quality of life in a cohort of non-exophthalmic Graves' disease (GD) patients. The series comprised 50 eyes from 25 newly diagnosed GD patients with no proptosis. As control group, 56 eyes of 28 thyroid disease-free subjects were enrolled. The results of Schirmer I and II, break-up time, and Oxford scheme showed a significant difference between GD and controls. By ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, eleven (44%) GD patients had normal ocular surface, while two (8%) had mild, four (16%) had moderate, and eight (32%) had severe dry eye. The mean score of the OSDI in the GD group was significantly (p < 0.001) higher with respect to the control group. This study shows that the tear film and cornea are damaged in newly non-exophthalmic GD subjects.

  9. Saccadic movements of the eyes in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Damyanovich, E V; Baziyan, B Kh; Sagalov, M V; Kumskova, G A

    2013-11-01

    Saccadic movements of the eyes were analyzed in children with the attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome. Saccadic movements of the eyes were recorded by a special method for their isolated registration without involvement of the head and in coordination tests (eye-head, eye-hand, and eye-head-hand). Comparative analysis of saccadic movements in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity and in normal subjects was carried out. Saccades recorded in each participant in complex tests with one or two additional motor acts, such as movements of the head and hand, were compared and the changes were analyzed for the group. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome had problem with gaze fixation on the peripheral target after the end of the saccade and these changes augmented in more complex tasks with one or two additional acts. This could be due to discrepancy between the difficulty of the task and the potentialities of the frontal cortex, more immature in these patients than in healthy children. The changes could form the objective base for disorders in the formation of reading and writing habits, often observed in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

  10. Eight-year observation and comparative study of specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) subtypes A and B: terminal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cat infected with FIV petaluma strain.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, M; Uetsuka, K; Ikeda, Y; Inoshima, Y; Shimojima, M; Sato, E; Inada, G; Toyosaki, T; Miyazawa, T; Doi, K; Mikami, T

    1998-03-01

    Three specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) strains Petaluma, TM1 and TM2, respectively were observed for over 8 years. Without showing any significant clinical signs of immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 8 years and 4 months of asymptomatic phase, the Petaluma-infected cat exhibited severe stomatitis/gingivitis, anorexia, emaciation, hematological and immunological disorders such as severe anemia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and decrease of CD4/CD8 ratio to 0.075, and finally died with hemoperitoneum at 8 years and 8 months post-infection. Histopathological studies revealed that the cat had systemic lymphoid atrophy and bone marrow disorders indicating acute myelocytic leukemia (aleukemic type). Plasma viral titer of the cat at AIDS phase was considerably high and anti-FIV antibody titer was slightly low as compared with the other FIV-infected cats. In addition, immunoblotting analysis using serially collected serum/plasma samples of these cats revealed that antibodies against FIV proteins were induced in all the infected cats, however in the Petaluma-infected cat anti-Gag antibodies disappeared during the asymptomatic period. These results suggested that plasma viral load and anti-FIV Gag antibody response correlated with disease progression, and supported FIV-infected cats as a suitable animal model of human AIDS.

  11. Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David

    2009-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…

  12. Looking at Movies and Cartoons: Eye-Tracking Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, D.; Hancock, P. J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autism and Williams syndrome (WS) are neuro-developmental disorders associated with distinct social phenotypes. While individuals with autism show a lack of interest in socially important cues, individuals with WS often show increased interest in socially relevant information. Methods: The current eye-tracking study explores how…

  13. Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David

    2009-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…

  14. Looking at Movies and Cartoons: Eye-Tracking Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, D.; Hancock, P. J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autism and Williams syndrome (WS) are neuro-developmental disorders associated with distinct social phenotypes. While individuals with autism show a lack of interest in socially important cues, individuals with WS often show increased interest in socially relevant information. Methods: The current eye-tracking study explores how…

  15. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  16. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-09-15

    A 43-year-old man with infantile nystagmus syndrome complained of "head tremor" that would occur during attempted reading. Three-dimensional, combined eye and head recordings were performed with the magnetic search coil technique in two conditions: 1) looking straight-ahead under photopic conditions without a particular attentional focus and 2) reading a simple text held one meter away. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading.

  17. Green nail syndrome treated with the application of tobramycin eye drop.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul; Park, Young Lip

    2014-08-01

    Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome.

  18. Actinomyces endogenous endophthalmitis in a cat following multiple dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A

    2013-11-01

    An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression.

  19. Contribution of Social and Information-Processing Factors to Eye-Gaze Avoidance in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…

  20. Eye problems in a woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Benjamin D; Donald, Carrlene B; Mendez, Anthony P

    2017-02-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare, systemic vasculitis of unknown cause. Ocular involvement is a rare but established complication and can lead to vision damage or blindness if not treated promptly. Treatment of ocular manifestations corresponds with systemic treatment of the disease and consists primarily of corticosteroids.

  1. Detection of early markers for Sjögren syndrome in dry eye patients.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Kenneth A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the detection of early markers for Sjögren syndrome (SS) in 3 patients with chronic dry eye who previously tested negative for classic SS autoantibodies. Cases of 3 patients with a history of dry eye are described. Current assessments in a cornea/ocular surface specialist clinical setting and an ocular medical history review are presented in conjunction with laboratory testing for the presence of novel autoantibody markers linked to the early stages of SS. All 3 dry eye patients described in this case series tested negative for the classic autoantibody markers [Sjögren syndrome type A (SS-A) and Sjögren syndrome type B (SS-B)]. However, autoantibodies were detected in these patients indicating a likely diagnosis of early-stage SS. All patients were referred to a rheumatologist for further evaluation and treatment. Patients with a history of dry eye signs/symptoms that persist despite treatment (male and female patients) may benefit from a serological evaluation for SS that is capable of detecting not only the traditional SS-A and SS-B markers, but also the recently identified autoantibodies.

  2. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  3. The Effect of Persistent Vortices on Boundary Layer Behavior in Turbulent Flow along a Kelvin-Stuart Cat's Eyes Wavy Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Amir

    The vortex persistence theory predicts that the addition of a sufficiently strong, stationary vortex near a wall will reduce the wall fluxes in turbulent flows. To test the theory flow visualization and hot-wire experiments in a water tunnel at moderate Reynolds number reveal that a persistent vortex will relaminarize the boundary layer along wavy even in the presence of freestream turbulence. This result is consistent with Dawson who found similar boundary layer behavior using a von Karman separatrix shaped wavy wall, and Balle, who's results showed laminar wall heat fluxes under stationary vortices using the von Karman wavy wall. Based on Dawson's flow visualization, and following Balle's analogy, the separatrix of a Kelvin-Stuart Cat's Eyes flow pattern was replaced with a solid wavy wall to stabilize the vortices shed by an array of half-delta vortex generators just upstream of the leading edge of the wavy wall. The correct angle of the array allows for persistent vortices to traverse along the grooves of the wavy wall, and displacing the array even slightly yields different turbulent fluxes. The present flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry results suggest that using the cat's eyes wavy wall gives better relaminarization properties than the von Karman shaped wavy wall, which can have many real world applications.

  4. 'Dancing eyes, dancing feet syndrome' in small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandramohan; Acharya, Mihir; Kumawat, Bansi Lal; Kochar, Abhishek

    2014-04-23

    A 60-year-old man presented with a 25-day history of acute onset instability of gait, tremulousness of limbs and involuntary eye movements. Examination revealed presence of opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia, without any loss of motor power in the limbs. Prompt investigations were directed towards identifying an underlying malignancy which is often associated with this type of clinical scenario. CT of the brain was normal and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. A cavitatory lesion was found in the right lung base on the high-resolution CT of the chest and histopathological examination of this lung mass showed small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was managed symptomatically with levetiracetam and baclofen and referred to oncology department for resection of the lung mass.

  5. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Abnormalities in Children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Thomas; Buckley, Ashura; Hommer, Rebecca; Grant, Paul; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James F.; Swedo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Polysomnographic investigation of sleep architecture in children presenting with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Methods: Fifteen consecutive subjects meeting criteria for PANS (mean age = 7.2 y; range 3–10 y) underwent single-night full polysomnography (PSG) read by a pediatric neurologist. Results: Thirteen of 15 subjects (87%) had abnormalities detected with PSG. Twelve of 15 had evidence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep motor disinhibition, as characterized by excessive movement, laughing, hand stereotypies, moaning, or the continuation of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) into REM sleep. Conclusions: This study shows various forms of REM sleep motor disinhibition present in a population of children with PANS. Citation: Gaughan T, Buckley A, Hommer R, Grant P; Williams K, Leckman JF, Swedo SE. Rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1027–1032. PMID:27166296

  6. Gabapentin therapy for ocular opsoclonus-myoclonus restores eye movement communication in a patient with a locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sarà, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The experience with a patient with locked-in syndrome suffering from opsoclonus-myoclonus symptoms is described: gabapentin successfully reversed the symptoms, just favoring the regaining of eye-dependent communication strategies.

  7. A highly soluble matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor for potential treatment of dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mattia; De Lorenzo, Emanuele; Torre, Eugenio; Fragai, Marco; Nativi, Cristina; Luchinat, Claudio; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2012-11-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) or keratoconjunctivitis sicca is an eye disease caused by the chronic lack of lubrication and moisture of the eye. The pathogenesis of DES involves the over-expression and over-activity of corneal Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). We propose herein a new, non-symptomatic approach for the treatment of DES based on the inhibition of MMP-9 by a new highly soluble molecule, designed as PES_103 that has been shown to inhibit MMP-9 both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of PES_103 in vivo and the potential benefits of this treatment in restoring tear production were studied in this work using an animal model of reduced lacrimation. PES_103 did not show any significant corneal toxicity. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. Pathogenesis of the dry eye syndrome observed by optical coherence tomography in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kray, Oya; Lenz, Markus; Spöler, Felix; Kray, Stefan; Kurz, Heinrich

    2011-06-01

    Three dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) is introduced as a valuable tool to analyze the pathogenesis of corneal diseases. Here, OCT in combination with a novel in vitro model for the dry eye syndrome enables an improved understanding of the underlying damaging process of the ocular surface. En-face OCT projections indicate a deep structural damage of the epithelium and anterior stroma by osmotic forces.

  9. Clinical management of tumours in geriatric dogs and cats: systemic effects of tumours and paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gorman, N T

    1990-04-21

    There are many clinical presentations of neoplastic disease in the dog and cat. Some relate to the presence of a solid mass but many relate to the systemic effect that the tumour has on the animal. This paper covers the broad categories of the systemic metabolic and haematological effects that are associated with tumours in the dog and cat.

  10. Efficacy of Several Therapeutic Agents in a Murine Model of Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we used 56 female BALB/c mice with induced dry eye syndrome to evaluate the therapeutic effects of formal saline (FS), sodium hyaluronate (SH), diclofenac sodium (DS), olopatadine (OP), retinoic acid (RA), fluoromethanole (FML), cyclosporine A (CsA), and doxycycline hyclate (DH). All subjects were kept in an evaporative ‘dry eye cabinet’ for the assessment of blink rate, tear production, tear break-up time, and impression cytology prior to (baseline) and during weeks 2, 4, and 6 of the study. The right eyes of all subjects were treated topically with 5 µL of the test agent twice daily during weeks 2 through 6. Impression cytology and tear break-up time differed between time points in all groups and differed between groups at weeks 4 and 6. Blink rate differed by time point only in the FS, FML, and DH groups. Tear production according to the phenol red cotton thread test differed by time point for all groups except RA, CsA, and DH and differed between groups only at week 6. Among the compounds tested in the present study, DS and CsA were the most effective therapeutic agents in our mouse model of dry eye syndrome; these agents likely exert their therapeutic effect through their antiinflammatory activity. PMID:27053565

  11. Analysis of Th17-associated cytokines in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, X; Sun, S; Liu, Y; Zhu, T; Wang, K; Ren, T; Wu, Z; Xu, H; Zhu, L

    2014-05-01

    To determine the levels of Th17-associated cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Tear samples were collected from 20 healthy volunteers, 20 dry eye (DE) patients with non-Sjögren's syndrome (NSSDE) and 20 DE patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SSDE). Symptom questionnaire was self-administered and multiple dry eye disease (DED)-related clinical tests were performed. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in tears were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 were significantly increased in tears of DE patients compared with those of controls and also higher in SSDE patients compared with those of NSSDE patients (P<0.05). Moreover, the levels of IL-17 and IL-22 were positively correlated with questionnaire score and keratopathy score but negatively correlated with tear film break-up time and Schirmer I test in both NSSDE and SSDE patients (P<0.05). The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in tears were significantly increased in DE patients, which were associated with the disease severity. Therefore, Th17 cell-associated cytokines, particularly IL-17 and IL-22, may have important roles in the immunopathogenesis of the DED.

  12. Rett syndrome: basic features of visual processing-a pilot study of eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Aleksandra; Valicenti McDermott, Maria; Mavrommatis, Kathleen; Martins, Cristina L

    2012-07-01

    Consistently observed "strong eye gaze" has not been validated as a means of communication in girls with Rett syndrome, ubiquitously affected by apraxia, unable to reply either verbally or manually to questions during formal psychologic assessment. We examined nonverbal cognitive abilities and basic features of visual processing (visual discrimination attention/memory) by analyzing patterns of visual fixation in 44 girls with Rett syndrome, compared with typical control subjects. To determine features of visual fixation patterns, multiple pictures (with the location of the salient and presence/absence of novel stimuli as variables) were presented on the screen of a TS120 eye-tracker. Of the 44, 35 (80%) calibrated and exhibited meaningful patterns of visual fixation. They looked longer at salient stimuli (cartoon, 2.8 ± 2 seconds S.D., vs shape, 0.9 ± 1.2 seconds S.D.; P = 0.02), regardless of their position on the screen. They recognized novel stimuli, decreasing the fixation time on the central image when another image appeared on the periphery of the slide (2.7 ± 1 seconds S.D. vs 1.8 ± 1 seconds S.D., P = 0.002). Eye-tracking provides a feasible method for cognitive assessment and new insights into the "hidden" abilities of individuals with Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal derivation of inv dup (22) and clinical variation in cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tupler, R; Hoeller, A; Pezzolo, A; Maraschio, P

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in a male child with dismorphies and renal anomalies showed an extra bisatellited chromosome. In situ hybridization and an analysis of cytogenetic polymorphisms revealed that the abnormal chromosome derived from a single maternal chromosome 22.

  14. Effect of pulsed laser light in patients with dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guilloto Caballero, S; García Madrona, J L; Colmenero Reina, E

    2017-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical benefits of pulsed light therapy for the treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to the decrease in aqueous tear production (aqueous deficient DES) and/or excessive tear evaporation (evaporative DES) due to Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD). A study was conducted on 72 eyes corresponding to 36 patients with DES. Out of these 72 eyes, 60 underwent refractive surgery (48 with femtosecond laser, 6 were operated with a mechanical microkeratome, and 6 with refractive photo-keratectomy[RPK], 6 treated with phacoemulsification, and 6 with no previous surgical treatment. Pulsed laser light (Intense Pulsed Light Regulated [IRPL(®)]) was use to stimulate the secretion of the Meibomian glands during 4 sessions, one every 15 days. Patients with aqueous deficient DES did not show any improvement. Eyes with no previous surgery and those treated with phacoemulsification and PRK had a favourable outcome. On the other hand, less conclusive results were observed in the eyes treated with excimer laser. This treatment could be very helpful to treat evaporative DES produced by MGD. On the other hand, it is not helpful for those cases related to an isolated damage in the aqueous phase, or the mucin phase. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ang, Bryan Chin Hou; Sng, James Jie; Wang, Priscilla Xin Hui; Htoon, Hla Myint; Tong, Louis Hak Tien

    2017-08-21

    This systematic review and meta-analysis compares sodium hyaluronate (HY) with non-HY based artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye syndrome. A literature search for clinical trials comparing HY against non-HY preparations was conducted across PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus databases from inception up to May 2016. Majority of the 18 studies selected for review showed superiority of HY in improving ocular staining and symptoms. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining Schirmer's I (SH) and tear breakup time (TBUT) underwent further meta-analyses with calculation of pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). 7 RCTs including 383 eyes randomized to HY and 596 eyes to non-HY preparations underwent meta-analysis for SH. 9 RCTs including 458 eyes randomized to HY and 651 eyes to non-HY preparations underwent meta-analysis for TBUT. By fixed-effects modelling, HY demonstrated greater improvement of SH compared to non-HY preparations (SMD, 0.238; 95% CI, 0.107 to 0.369; p < 0.001). By random-effects modelling, HY demonstrated less improvement of TBUT (SMD, -0.566; 95% CI, -1.099 to -0.0336; p = 0.037). In summary, neither preparation was shown to be consistently superior across all outcome measures. The difference in effect between preparations on SH and TBUT was not clinically significant.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson-like syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Song, R B; Glass, E N; Kent, M; Castro, F A; deLahunta, A

    2015-10-01

    A 3.5-year-old spayed female Domestic Shorthair cat was evaluated for new onset seizures and lateralising signs indicative of a lesion in the right prosencephalon. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the head revealed hypoplasia of the right cerebral hemisphere and changes in the overlying cranium, including hyperostosis and expansion of the diploic space, resulting in an increased pneumatisation of the rostral bones of the cranium. A congenital injury to the cerebral hemisphere and secondary changes of the cranium in response to the decreased brain parenchyma was presumed. Similar changes have been previously recognised in human patients with unilateral anomalies of the cerebral hemispheres, termed Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS). The case presented is the first clinical and imaging description of a cat with a syndrome that closely resembles DDMS in humans. The description of the syndrome allows recognition of an additional differential for seizures in a young patient and informs the clinician of the imaging characteristics of the cranium seen with early loss of brain parenchyma. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Neuronal activity in the lateral cerebellum of the cat related to visual stimuli at rest, visually guided step modification, and saccadic eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Marple-Horvat, D E; Criado, J M; Armstrong, D M

    1998-01-01

    The discharge patterns of 166 lateral cerebellar neurones were studied in cats at rest and during visually guided stepping on a horizontal circular ladder. A hundred and twelve cells were tested against one or both of two visual stimuli: a brief full-field flash of light delivered during eating or rest, and a rung which moved up as the cat approached. Forty-five cells (40%) gave a short latency response to one or both of these stimuli. These visually responsive neurones were found in hemispheral cortex (rather than paravermal) and the lateral cerebellar nucleus (rather than nucleus interpositus).Thirty-seven cells (of 103 tested, 36%) responded to flash. The cortical visual response (mean onset latency 38 ms) was usually an increase in Purkinje cell discharge rate, of around 50 impulses s−1 and representing 1 or 2 additional spikes per trial (1.6 on average). The nuclear response to flash (mean onset latency 27 ms) was usually an increased discharge rate which was shorter lived and converted rapidly to a depression of discharge or return to control levels, so that there were on average only an additional 0.6 spikes per trial. A straightforward explanation of the difference between the cortical and nuclear response would be that the increased inhibitory Purkinje cell output cuts short the nuclear response.A higher proportion of cells responded to rung movement, sixteen of twenty-five tested (64%). Again most responded with increased discharge, which had longer latency than the flash response (first change in dentate output ca 60 ms after start of movement) and longer duration. Peak frequency changes were twice the size of those in response to flash, at 100 impulses s−1 on average and additional spikes per trial were correspondingly 3–4 times higher. Both cortical and nuclear responses were context dependent, being larger when the rung moved when the cat was closer than further away.A quarter of cells (20 of 84 tested, 24%) modulated their activity in advance

  18. Eyes on MEGDEL: distinctive basal ganglia involvement in dystonia deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Barić, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings.

  19. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  20. Severity of dry eye syndrome is related to anti-dsDNA autoantibody in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without secondary Sjogren syndrome: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alexander; Chen, Hung-Ta; Hwang, Yih-Hsiou; Chen, Yi-Tsun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-07-01

    There are as many as one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome. To this date, dry eye syndrome in SLE patients is believed to be caused by secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). However, there is increasing evidence for possible independency of dry eye syndrome and sSS in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective observational case series was to identify SLE patients without sSS who had dry eye syndrome, examine the correlation of different autoantibodies and dry eye severity, and determine the cause of dry eye in these patients.We included 49 consecutive SLE patients with dry eye who visited our dry eye clinic. In order to rule out sSS, these patients were all negative for anti-Sjogren's-syndrome-related antigen A and B (anti-SSA/SSB) and had no oral symptoms. Each patient's lupus activity was determined by serological tests including antidouble-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), complement levels (C3, C4), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and antinuclear antibody (ANA). Severity of dry eye syndrome was determined by corneal sensation (KSen), superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer-I test (Schirmer), and tear film break-up time (TBUT). The autoantibodies and the dry eye parameters in each group were tested using the χ test or the Mann-Whitney U test for normally distributed or skewed data, respectively.The anti-dsDNA showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.042) but not TBUT. The C3 showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.014) but not TBUT. No correlations of dry eye parameters were observed between C4, ESR, and ANA.The major finding of this study was that the severity of dry eye syndrome in SLE patients without sSS was strongly correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 but not with C4, ESR, and ANA.

  1. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  2. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  3. Manifestation of meibomian gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, non-Sjögren's dry eye, and non-dry eye controls.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yeon Soo; Lee, Hyo Seok; Li, Ying; Choi, Won; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-05-31

    To evaluate the manifestation of meibomian gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (non-SS) patients, and non-dry eye controls. We recruited 31 participants with SS dry eye, 30 participants with non-SS dry eye, and 35 healthy controls without dry eye symptoms. Noninvasive tear breakup time (NITBUT) and meibomian gland dropout score (meiboscore) were measured using the Oculus Keratograph 5 M. Meibomian gland expressibility and secretion quality were evaluated via slit lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between measurements was analyzed. NITBUT was lower, and the meiboscore, meibomian gland expressibility, and secretion quality scores were significantly higher in the SS and non-SS groups than in the control group (p < 0.001). NITBUT was lower, and the meiboscore and meibomian gland expressibility were higher in the SS group than in the non-SS group. NITBUT correlated negatively with the meiboscore in both SS and non-SS groups and with meibomian gland expressibility in the SS group. A positive correlation was obtained between meiboscore and meibomian gland expressibility in both the SS and the non-SS groups. Patients in both SS and non-SS groups exhibited greater impairment in meibomian gland function than the non-dry eye controls. SS patients had more severe meibomian gland dysfunction with poorer mean meiboscore and meibomian gland expressibility than non-SS patients.

  4. Effect of Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmandi, Mohammad; Neiseh, Fatemeh; SadeghiShermeh, Mehdi; Ebadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by purposeful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. Results: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 ± 1.88) from before intervention (10.46 ± 4.09) (p < 0.000). In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 ± 1.88) was significant different from the control group (8.43 ± 1.97) (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alternative method of treatment instead of drug therapy. PMID:25276688

  5. Inhibition of return in response to eye gaze and peripheral cues in young people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Ruggiero, Sabrina; Maccari, Lisa; Rosa, Caterina; Lupiáñez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) reflects slower reaction times to stimuli presented in previously attended locations. In this study, we examined this inhibitory after-effect using two different cue types, eye-gaze and standard peripheral cues, in individuals with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing individuals. Typically developing participants showed evidence of IOR for both eye-gaze and peripheral cues. In contrast, the Asperger group showed evidence of IOR to previously peripherally cued locations but failed to show IOR for eye-gaze cues. This absence of IOR for eye-gaze cues observed in the participants with Asperger may reflect an attentional impairment in responding to socially relevant information.

  6. Dry eye syndrome, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in an older male veteran population.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Cristina A; Galor, Anat; Arheart, Kristopher L; Musselman, Dominique L; Venincasa, Vincent D; Florez, Hermes J; Lee, David J

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate whether veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression have differences in dry eye symptoms and signs compared to a population without these conditions. Male patients aged ≥50 years with normal eyelid, conjunctival, and corneal anatomy were recruited from the Miami Veterans Affairs Eye Clinic (N = 248). We compared dry eye symptoms (determined by the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5 [DEQ5] score) to tear film indicators obtained by clinical examination (i.e., tear osmolarity, corneal staining, tear breakup time, Schirmer's, meibomian gland quality, orifice plugging, lid vascularity) between patients with PTSD or depression and those without these conditions. Student's t-tests, χ(2) analyses, and linear and logistic regressions were used to assess differences between the groups. DEQ5 scores were higher in the PTSD (mean = 13.4; standard error [SE] = 1.1; n = 22) and depression (mean = 12.0; SE = 0.8; n = 40) groups compared to the group without these conditions (mean = 9.8; SE = 0.4; n = 186; P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). More patients in the PTSD and depression groups had severe dry eye symptoms, defined as a DEQ5 score ≥ 12 (77% and 63% vs. 41%; P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). No significant differences in tear film indicators were found among the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that a PTSD diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-15.14) and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.01-7.00) were significantly associated with severe symptoms. Patients with PTSD have ocular surface symptoms that are not solely explained by tear indicators. Identifying underlying conditions associated with ocular discomfort is essential to better understand the mechanisms behind ocular pain in dry eye syndrome.

  7. Treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop: Prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Hoshino-Ruiz, Diego Ricardo; Albers, Marcos Bottene Villa; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop. Prospective double-blind randomized study. Institutional outpatient clinic. Forty-eight eyes of twenty-four patients with dry eye related to Sjögren syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: tacrolimus (n=14) and vehicle (n=10) group. The tacrolimus group received a vial containing tacrolimus 0.03% (almond oil as vehicle) and the other group received the almond oil vehicle. All patients were instructed to use the eye drops every 12h in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up-time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining scores were evaluated in all patients one day before the treatment (baseline), 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after treatment with the eye drops. The average fluorescein and Rose Bengal scores improved statistically after 7 days of treatment and even more after 90 days. The average Schirmer I and BUT values were unchanged after 7, 14 and 21 days but did show an improvement relative to baseline after 28 days of treatment. Schirmer I, BUT, fluorescein and Rose Bengal did not show any statistical significance in the vehicle group. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop improved tear stability and ocular surface status in cases of inflammatory or SS-related dry eye. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01850979. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Primary hyperaldosteronism in cats].

    PubMed

    Willi, B; Kook, P H; Quante, S; Boretti, F; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Grest, P; Scherrer, O; Riond, B; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Nussberger, J; Reusch, C E

    2012-12-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an elevated aldosterone secretion by the adrenals. The present case series describes 7 cats with primary hyperaldosteronism, which were presented between 2002 and 2011. Common clinical symptoms were weakness, anorexia, cervical ventroflexion and blindness. All cats showed hypokalemia. In 6 cats, blood pressure was determined: 5 cats showed hypertension, of which 4 animals exhibited retinal detachment and blindness. In the ultrasonographic examination, unilateral adrenomegaly was present in 6 cats whereas one animal showed normal adrenals. In 4 cats, the serum aldosterone concentration was above the reference range. Five cats underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, which was accomplished uneventfully and returned the electrolytes back to normal. Histopathological examination of the adrenals revealed 2 carcinomas and 4 adenomas; one cat with ultrasonographic normal adrenals exhibited bilateral nodular hyperplasia.

  9. Frequency of a FAS ligand gene variant associated with inherited feline autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in British shorthair cats in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, D; Munday, J S; Dittmer, K E; Heathcott, R W; Lyons, L A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To determine the frequency of the FAS-ligand gene (FASLG) variant associated with feline autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (FALPS) and the proportion of carriers of the variant in three British shorthair (BSH) breeding catteries in New Zealand. METHODS Buccal swabs were collected from all cats in two BSH breeding catteries from the South Island and one from the North Island of New Zealand. DNA was extracted and was tested for the presence of the FASLG variant using PCR. Cats with the FASLG variant were identified and the frequency of the FASLG variant allele calculated. Pedigree analysis was performed and inbreeding coefficients were calculated for cats with the FASLG variant. RESULTS Of 32 BSH cats successfully tested for the presence of the FASLG variant, one kitten (3%) was homozygous (FALPS-affected), and seven (22%) cats were heterozygous (carriers) for the FASLG variant allele, and 24 (75%) cats were homozygous for the wild type allele. The overall frequency of the FASLG variant allele in these 32 cats was 0.14. Cats carrying the FASLG variant were from all three breeding catteries sampled, including two catteries that had not previously reported cases of FALPS. Pedigree analysis revealed common ancestry of FALPS-affected and carrier cats within six generations, as well as frequent inbreeding, with inbreeding coefficients >0.12 for five cats with the FASLG variant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE There was a high frequency of the FASLG variant allele (0.14) in this small sample of BSH cats, with 22% of healthy cats identified as carriers of the FASLG variant. For an inherited disease, lethal at a young age, in a small population in which inbreeding is common, these results are significant. To prevent future cases of disease and stop further spread of the FASLG variant allele within the BSH population in New Zealand, it is recommended that all BSH and BSH-cross cats be tested for the presence of the FASLG variant before mating. Cats identified as

  10. Incidence and long-term outcomes of toxic anterior segment syndrome at Aravind Eye Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Chang, David F; Gandhi, Rajiv; Kenia, Hemal; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2011-09-01

    To determine the incidence and long-term outcomes of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) at a single institution. Aravind Eye Hospital, Pondicherry, India. Case series. The records of all eyes developing TASS during a 1-year period after cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes, including corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure, and complications, were recorded at the 1-month and 6-month follow-up visits. Toxic anterior segment syndrome occurred in 60 eyes (0.22%) in 26 408 consecutive cataract surgeries. Although there were 2 identifiable clusters of TASS, 52% of cases were sporadic. The mean duration until resolution of severe iridocyclitis was 6.11 days ± 2.19 (SD). Of the 24 eyes (40%) with a follow-up of at least 6 months (mean 11.24 ± 2.3 months), 6 (24%) had atrophic iris changes, 1 (4%) had cystoid macular edema, 3 (12.5%) developed anterior capsule phimosis, and 4 (16%) had posterior capsule opacification (PCO). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean CDVA at 1 month (0.08 ± 0.06 logMAR) (n = 60) and the mean final CDVA (0.11 ± 0.1 logMAR, minimum 6 months; n = 24) (P=.42). Although it is impossible to generalize for all etiologies, this study found that TASS is uncommon but not rare, responded to intensive topical antiinflammatory medication, and was usually associated with a good visual outcome. Anterior capsule contraction and PCO were the principal delayed-onset complications beyond those present 1 month postoperatively. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel spelling system for locked-in syndrome patients using only eye contact.

    PubMed

    Kopsky, David Jos; Winninghoff, Yvonne; Winninghoff, Albert C M; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke Marjan

    2014-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a novel spelling system for patients with locked-in syndrome: patients with tetraplegia, not able to talk, and only able to blink their eyes. A new communication grid was compared with existing non-technical communication methods for practical daily use. The means of the number of decision steps to reach a full sentence were compared testing 10 sentences relevant in daily care. These 10 sentences together encompass all letters of the alphabet. The new communication grid is organised alphabetically in 4 columns and 2 main rows, with each row subdivided in three rows. The first column contains vowels while the other columns contain consonants. Letters in each column are alphabetically ordered. When spelling a sentence the conversation partner counts the columns, until the patient indicates by an upward eye movement that the column contains the intended letter. Hereafter, the patient indicates by looking straight ahead or by looking down, whether the intended letter is in the upper or in the lower main row, respectively. The conversation partner will then read out the letters until the patient indicates the intended letter. Compared to other spelling systems, this system requires only vertical eye movement, is easier to memorise, and faster in use. The comparison of means of decision steps to reach the 10 full sentences for different communication grids shows that using the new communication grid is approximately one-third to three times faster than the existing spelling systems (p = 0.005). This new grid is a valuable communication tool, especially in situations, such as bathing, getting dressed or out of house activities where no devices are available. Implications for Rehabilitation Communication with patients with locked-in syndrome is a complicated and strenuous task. Communication methods, such as the alphabet board and brain-computer interfaces, are time consuming or too sophisticated to use in daily life tasks. This communication

  12. [Comparison of local acetylcysteine and artificial tears in the management of dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pokupec, Rajko; Petricek, Igor; Sikić, Jakov; Bradić, Mirna; Popović-Suić, Smiljka; Petricek, Goranka

    2005-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common clinical entity causing difficulties to many people, especially the elderly. Standard substitution therapy with artificial tears may frequently prove inadequate, thus any new treatment modality is highly welcome. The syndrome implies lacrimal hyperosmolality, which in turn results in mucus accumulation in the conjunctival sac causing additional irritation. Locally applied acetylcysteine, a mucolytic, regulates mucus secretion and reduces mucus accumulation. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of artificial tear therapy and therapy with local acetylcysteine. The study included 32 patients with the symptoms and signs of dry eye attending our department between March 20 and May 9, 2003. All study patients were on long-term substitution therapy with artificial tears. Upon evaluation of subjective discomforts and objective signs, the patients were switched from artificial tear therapy (Isopto-Tears, Alcon, with polyvinyl alcohol as active ingredient) to therapy with locally applied acetylcysteine (Brunac, Bruschettini). All parameters were re-evaluated at 2-week control visit. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) completed the study with control visit. Of these, 18 (60%) patients reported reduction of subjective discomforts, ten (33%) patients observed no change, and two (7%) patients experienced more discomforts with acetylcysteine than with artificial tear therapy. On objective sign evaluation, 12 (40%) patients showed less discomforts, unchanged condition was recorded in 13 (43%) patients, and five (17%) patients had more discomforts as compared with artificial tear therapy. A statistically significant difference (p=0.05) between artificial tear therapy and acetylcysteine therapy was found for the subjective symptom score but not for the objective sign score. Therapy with acetylcysteine proved more efficient than artificial tears in reducing subjective symptoms but had no effect on the objective signs of dry eye syndrome. The

  13. A clinical study of acupuncture and SSP (silver spike point) electro-therapy for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Lieh; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Tso, Kam-Yuen; Woung, Lin-Chung; Su, Yi-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed as a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of acupuncture and silver spike point (SSP) electro-therapy on dry eye syndrome. A total of 43 dry eye syndrome patients participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into control, acupuncture and SSP electro-therapy groups. The three groups were all given artificial tears treatment. Patients in the treatment groups were given two 20-minute treatments of either acupuncture or SSP. Assessment was carried out using the Basal Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), visual analog scale (VAS) and an overall score of eye condition. After four weeks of treatment, both the acupuncture and SSP treatment groups showed improvements over the control group, in Schirmer tests of the left eye and average tearing of both eyes. After 8 weeks of treatment, both treatment groups showed improvements over the control group both in Schirmer tests and VAS. For the right eye, treatment groups showed significant improvements in Schirmer test and VAS versus the control group averages for both eyes. There was no significant difference in BUT at any time. Comparing scores before and after treatment, the acupuncture and SSP groups showed a significant improvement compared to the control group. The acupuncture group showed a greater 8-week improvement in Schirmer tests scores compared to the SSP group. However, the SSP group patients used fewer applications of artificial tears. Acupuncture and SSP electro-therapy were effective in increasing tear secretion in patients with dry eye syndrome. The SSP electro-therapy not only alleviated dry eye syndrome, but also reduced the number of applications of artificial tears necessary.

  14. Syndrome of arachnodactyly, disturbance of cranial ossification, protruding eyes, feeding difficulties, and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosztolanyi, G.; Weisenbach, J.; Mehes, K.

    1995-09-11

    We have evaluated an infant with a striking combination of craniofacial anomalies, arachnodactyly, and severe developmental failure. She died at the age of 5 months during a recurrent apneic episode. She also had protruding eyes, downward slant of palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, extreme underdevelopment of the epiglottis, and severe feeding difficulties. The patient closely resembled four other previously reported patients. It is suggested that these five patients represent the same malformation syndrome, a well-recognizable separate entity. Our patient also had a pericentric inversion of chromosome 10; a possible association of this with the phenotype cannot be excluded. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. [New method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Zabegaĭlo, A O; Fedorov, A A; Lukisheva, O V

    2014-01-01

    A new combined method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome is developed. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The treatment implied the use of artificial tears, Restasis, and Blephasteam spectacle frame. The course included 20 procedures on daily basis. The monitoring period was 1 year. A pronounced anti-inflammatory, reparative, and moistening effect as well as stabilization of the precorneal film was achieved in short time. Owing to the combined approach, negative side effects (such as burning, conjunctival irritation, and fluctuating vision) were minimized. Repeated treatment courses maintained the positive therapeutic effect and prolongated the remission.

  16. Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia in cats infected with feline leukemia virus clone33 containing a unique long terminal repeat.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Masaharu; Nagashima, Naho; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Fukuzawa, Isao; Ura, Shigeyoshi; Katae, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Yamada, Takatsugu; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2009-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) clone33 was obtained from a domestic cat with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The long terminal repeat (LTR) of this virus, like the LTRs present in FeLV from other cats with AML, differs from the LTRs of other known FeLV in that it has 3 tandem direct 47-bp repeats in the upstream region of the enhancer (URE). Here, we injected cats with FeLV clone33 and found 41% developed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. Some of the cats with MDS eventually developed AML. The bone marrow of the majority of cats with FeLV clone33 induced MDS produced fewer erythroid and myeloid colonies upon being cultured with erythropoietin or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-SCF) than bone marrow from normal control cats. Furthermore, the bone marrow of some of the cats expressed high-levels of the apoptosis-related genes TNF-alpha and survivin. Analysis of the proviral sequences obtained from 13 cats with naturally occurring MDS reveal they also bear the characteristic URE repeats seen in the LTR of FeLV clone33 and other proviruses from cats with AML. Deletions and mutations within the enhancer elements are frequently observed in naturally occurring MDS as well as AML. These results suggest that FeLV variants that bear URE repeats in their LTR strongly associate with the induction of both MDS and AML in cats.

  17. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö®), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  18. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö(®)), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  19. Anterior segment anomalies of the eye, growth retardation associated with hypoplastic pituitary gland and endocrine abnormalities: Jung syndrome or a new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Shather, Bedir; Kaplan, Waleed; Algawi, Kais; Ali, Bassam R

    2009-02-01

    We report on two children from an inbred Arab family with anterior segment anomalies of the eyes, growth retardation, associated with small pituitary gland, and endocrine abnormalities. The features in the sibs in this report are similar to those described in Peters-plus syndrome. However, small pituitary gland associated with growth hormone deficiency has not been reported in Peters-plus syndrome. In addition, sequencing of the B3GALTL gene, the gene implicated in Peters-plus syndrome did not reveal any mutation in the sibs reported here. The association of anterior segment anomalies of the eye, growth retardation, and endocrine problems has previously been described by Jung et al. in 1995. We suggest that the features in the children in this report could represent variable manifestation of this syndrome or previously not described syndrome. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Comparison of Whole Eye versus First-Surface Astigmatism in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Rachel; Marsack, Jason D; Leach, Norman E; Herring, Ralph J; Anderson, Heather A

    2015-07-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome have structural differences in the cornea and lens, as compared with the general population. This study investigates objectively measured refractive and corneal astigmatism, as well as calculated internal astigmatism in subjects with and without Down syndrome. Refractive (Grand Seiko autorefraction) and anterior corneal astigmatism (difference between steep and flat keratometry obtained with Zeiss Atlas corneal topography) were measured in 128 subjects with Down syndrome (mean [±SD] age, 24.8 [±8.7] years) and 137 control subjects without Down syndrome (mean [±SD] age, 24.9 [±9.9] years), with one eye randomly selected for analysis per subject. Refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism were converted to vector notation (J0, J45) to calculate internal astigmatism (Refractive - Corneal) and then converted back to minus cylinder form. Mean [±SD] refractive astigmatism was significantly greater in subjects with Down syndrome than in control subjects (-1.94 [±1.30] DC vs. -0.66 [±0.60] DC, t = -10.16, p < 0.001), as were mean corneal astigmatism (1.70 [±1.04] DC vs. 1.02 [±0.63] DC, t = 6.38, p < 0.001) and mean internal astigmatism (-1.07 [±0.68] DC vs. -0.77 [±0.41] DC, t = -4.21, p < 0.001). A positive linear correlation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was observed for both study populations for both the J0 and J45 vectors (p < 0.001 for all comparisons; R(2) range, 0.31 to 0.74). The distributions of astigmatism orientation differed significantly between the two study populations for comparisons of corneal and calculated internal astigmatism (χ(2), p < 0.007), but not refractive astigmatism (p = 0.46). This study demonstrates that corneal astigmatism is predictive of overall refractive astigmatism in subjects with Down syndrome, as it is in the general population. The greater magnitudes of astigmatism and wider variation of astigmatism orientation in subjects with Down syndrome for refractive, corneal, and

  1. Treatment of dry eye by autologous serum application in Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsubota, K.; Goto, E.; Fujita, H.; Ono, M.; Inoue, H.; Saito, I.; Shimmura, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum application for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome.
METHODS—The stability of essential components (EGF, vitamin A, and TGF-β) in preserved serum were examined following preservation at 4°C and −20°C. In a primary clinical trial, 12 patients with Sjögren's syndrome were treated with autologous serum (diluted to 20% with sterile saline) for 4 weeks, and vital staining of the ocular surface was compared before and after treatment. The effects of serum on mucin (MUC-1) expression were observed in cultured conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro.
RESULTS—EGF, vitamin A, and TGF-β were well preserved for up to 1 month in the refrigerator at 4°C and up to 3 months in the freezer at −20°C. Rose bengal and fluorescein scores improved significantly from the initial scores of 5.3 and 5.6 to 1.7 and 2.5 after 4 weeks, respectively. The additive effect of human serum for cultured conjunctival epithelial cells showed significant MUC-1 upregulation on the cell surface.
CONCLUSION—Autologous serum application is a safe and efficient way to provide essential components to the ocular surface in the treatment of dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

 Keywords: autologous serum; Sjögren's syndrome; tears ocular surface PMID:10434857

  2. Cat and mouse search: the influence of scene and object analysis on eye movements when targets change locations during search.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, Anne P; Segabinazi, Joice D; Godwin, Hayward J; Liversedge, Simon P; Benson, Valerie

    2017-02-19

    We explored the influence of early scene analysis and visible object characteristics on eye movements when searching for objects in photographs of scenes. On each trial, participants were shown sequentially either a scene preview or a uniform grey screen (250 ms), a visual mask, the name of the target and the scene, now including the target at a likely location. During the participant's first saccade during search, the target location was changed to: (i) a different likely location, (ii) an unlikely but possible location or (iii) a very implausible location. The results showed that the first saccade landed more often on the likely location in which the target re-appeared than on unlikely or implausible locations, and overall the first saccade landed nearer the first target location with a preview than without. Hence, rapid scene analysis influenced initial eye movement planning, but availability of the target rapidly modified that plan. After the target moved, it was found more quickly when it appeared in a likely location than when it appeared in an unlikely or implausible location. The findings show that both scene gist and object properties are extracted rapidly, and are used in conjunction to guide saccadic eye movements during visual search.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  3. A new autosomal dominant eye and lung syndrome linked to mutations in TIMP3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Isabelle; Bocquet, Béatrice; Labesse, Gilles; Zeitz, Christina; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Lacroux, Annie; Mauget-Faysse, Martine; Drumare, Isabelle; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Mathieu, Cyril; Marquette, Virginie; Sagot, Lola; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Arndt, Carl; Carroll, Patrick; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José-Alain; Puech, Bernard; Audo, Isabelle; Mrejen, Sarah; Hamel, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    To revisit the autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) as a syndromic condition including late-onset pulmonary disease. We report clinical and imaging data of ten affected individuals from 2 unrelated families with SFD and carrying heterozygous TIMP3 mutations (c.572A > G, p.Y191C, exon 5, in family 1 and c.113C > G, p.S38C, exon 1, in family 2). In family 1, all SFD patients older than 50 (two generations) had also a severe emphysema, despite no history of smoking or asthma. In the preceding generation, the mother died of pulmonary emphysema and she was blind after the age of 50. Her two great-grandsons (<20 years), had abnormal Bruch Membrane thickness, a sign of eye disease. In family 2, eye and lung diseases were also associated in two generations, both occurred later, and lung disease was moderate (bronchiectasis). This is the first report of a syndromic SFD in line with the mouse model uncovering the role of TIMP3 in human lung morphogenesis and functions. The TIMP3 gene should be screened in familial pulmonary diseases with bronchiectasis, associated with a medical history of visual loss. In addition, SFD patients should be advised to avoid tobacco consumption, to practice sports, and to undergo regular pulmonary examinations. PMID:27601084

  4. Intraoperative and Immediate Postoperative Outcomes of Cataract Surgery using Phacoemulsification in Eyes with and without Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neelam R; Dubey, Arun K; Shankar, P Ravi

    2014-12-01

    To compare the intraoperative and immediate postoperative behavior and complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome with eyes having senile cataract without PEX during cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (PKE). In this prospective study, 68 eyes of 68 patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (test) comprised 34 eyes with immature senile cataract with PEX and Group 2 (control) included 34 eyes with immature senile cataract without PEX and any coexisting ocular pathology. Phacoemulsification (modern cataract surgery) was performed on both groups through stop and chop technique and comparative analysis of the incidence of intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications was made. There was no significant difference in rates of intraoperative complications between PEX (2.9%) and Control (0%) group. The mean pupil diameter was significantly smaller in Group 1 (p<0.001). No eye in either group had phacodonesis. 58.8% of eyes in Group 1 and 29.4% in Group 2 had a harder cataract (nuclear sclerosis) ≥ grade 3 (p=0.017). PKE was performed in all eyes with cataract in both groups. Intraoperative complication (zonular dialysis (dehiscence) was encountered in only 2.9% (1 case) of eyes with PEX. PC (posterior capsule) tear (rent) with vitreous loss was seen in 2.9% eyes of Group 1 and none in Group 2. Postoperatively, IOP (intraocular pressure) and aqueous flare response were comparable between the groups. Significantly higher inflammatory cell response was observed in Group 1 (p=0.014). BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) using Snellen chart with pinhole on postoperative day1 was significantly better in the control group compared to the group with PEX (p=0.027). Phacoemulsification can be safely performed by experienced hands in cataractous eyes with PEX. The incidence of intraoperative and immediate post-operative complications in eyes with PEX was not significantly different compared to eyes without PEX in our study. Further studies

  5. An fMRI Study of Frontostriatal Circuits During the Inhibition of Eye Blinking in Persons With Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Luigi; Yu, Shan; Blair, Clancy; Gunter, Benjamin C.; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to study activity in neural circuits that subserve the inhibition of a semi-involuntary motor behavior, eye blinking, in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and in healthy comparison subjects. Method Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan 120 participants (51 with Tourette syndrome and 69 comparison subjects) as they either blinked normally or successfully inhibited eye blinking. The authors compared the blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during these two conditions across the Tourette and comparison groups. Results Relative to comparison subjects, patients with Tourette syndrome activated more strongly the frontal cortex and striatum during eye blink inhibition. Activation increased more with age in the dorsolateral and inferolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus in the Tourette group relative to comparison subjects. In addition, the Tourette group more strongly activated the middle frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate, and temporal cortices. The severity of tic symptoms in the Tourette group correlated inversely with activation in the putamen and inferolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions Frontostriatal activity is increased in persons with Tourette syndrome during the inhibition of eye blinks. Activation of frontostriatal circuits in this population may help to maintain regulatory control over semi-involuntary behaviors, whether these are tics or eye blinks. PMID:20080981

  6. Quantifying naturalistic social gaze in fragile X syndrome using a novel eye tracking paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Frank, Michael C; Pusiol, Guido T; Farzin, Faraz; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the propensity for individuals with the syndrome to exhibit significant impairments in social gaze during interactions with others. However, previous studies employing eye tracking methodology to investigate this phenomenon have been limited to presenting static photographs or videos of social interactions rather than employing a real-life social partner. To improve upon previous studies, we used a customized eye tracking configuration to quantify the social gaze of 51 individuals with FXS and 19 controls, aged 14-28 years, while they engaged in a naturalistic face-to-face social interaction with a female experimenter. Importantly, our control group was matched to the FXS group on age, developmental functioning, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Results showed that participants with FXS spent significantly less time looking at the face and had shorter episodes (and longer inter-episodes) of social gaze than controls. Regression analyses indicated that communication ability predicted higher levels of social gaze in individuals with FXS, but not in controls. Conversely, degree of autistic symptoms predicted lower levels of social gaze in controls, but not in individuals with FXS. Taken together, these data indicate that naturalistic social gaze in FXS can be measured objectively using existing eye tracking technology during face-to-face social interactions. Given that impairments in social gaze were specific to FXS, this paradigm could be employed as an objective and ecologically valid outcome measure in ongoing Phase II/Phase III clinical trials of FXS-specific interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.

  8. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Jose L.; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G.; Kennedy, Jeffrey B.; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies’ efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. Methods The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Results Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Syndrome in a United States Veterans Affairs Population

    PubMed Central

    GALOR, ANAT; FEUER, WILLIAM; LEE, DAVID J.; FLOREZ, HERMES; CARTER, DAVID; POUYEH, BOZORGMEHR; PRUNTY, WILLIAM J.; PEREZ, VICTOR L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a US Veterans Affairs population receiving ocular care services. DESIGN Retrospective study. METHODS SETTINGS Patients were seen in the Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs eye clinics between 2005 and 2010. PATIENTS POPULATION Patients were divided into cases and controls with regard to their dry eye status (cases = ICD9 code for DES plus dry eye therapy; controls = patients without ICD9 code plus no therapy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors. RESULTS A total of 16 862 patients were identified as either a dry eye case (n = 2056) or control (n = 14 806). Overall, 12% of male and 22% of female patients had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04–2.81) over male gender. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk including post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.75–2.23), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.73–2.10), thyroid disease (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.46–2.26), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.97–2.46) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications, including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.79–2.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.58–1.91), and anti–benign prostatic hyperplasia medications (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51–1.86), was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our eye care population. This is the first study to demonstrate that in a veteran population, several diagnoses were significantly associated with DES, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. PMID:21684522

  10. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Diego, Jose L; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G; Kennedy, Jeffrey B; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G; Petrash, J Mark; McCourt, Emily A

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies' efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat-reduced milk but continued to

  11. Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Visomitin Eye Drops in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brzheskiy, Vladimir V; Efimova, Elena L; Vorontsova, Tatiana N; Alekseev, Vladimir N; Gusarevich, Olga G; Shaidurova, Ksenia N; Ryabtseva, Alla A; Andryukhina, Olga M; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G; Sumarokova, Elena S; Miljudin, Eugeny S; Egorov, Eugeny A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Surov, Alexander V; Korol, Andrii R; Nasinnyk, Illia O; Bezditko, Pavel A; Muzhychuk, Olena P; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Yani, Elena V; Savchenko, Alla Y; Karger, Elena M; Fedorkin, Oleg N; Mironov, Alexander N; Ostapenko, Victoria; Popeko, Natalia A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Skulachev, Maxim V

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of an international, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of Visomitin (Mitotech LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation) eye drops in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Visomitin is the first registered (in Russia) drug with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SkQ1) as the active ingredient. In this multicenter (10 sites) study of 240 subjects with DES, study drug (Visomitin or placebo) was self-administered three times daily (TID) for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week follow-up period. Seven in-office study visits occurred every 2 weeks during both the treatment and follow-up periods. Efficacy measures included Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, fluorescein staining, meniscus height, and visual acuity. Safety measures included adverse events, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Tolerability was also evaluated. This clinical study showed the effectiveness of Visomitin eye drops in the treatment of signs and symptoms of DES compared with placebo. The study showed that a 6-week course of TID topical instillation of Visomitin significantly improved the functional state of the cornea; Visomitin increased tear film stability and reduced corneal damage. Significant reduction of dry eye symptoms (such as dryness, burning, grittiness, and blurred vision) was also observed. Based on the results of this study, Visomitin is effective and safe for use in eye patients with DES for protection from corneal damage. Mitotech LLC.

  12. Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Phogat, Hemant; Kaur, Avinash; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, tear film break up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) in patients with computer vision syndrome. Interventional, randomized, double blind, multi-centric study. Four hundred and seventy eight symptomatic patients using computers for more than 3h per day for minimum 1 year were randomized into two groups: 220 patients received two capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily (O3FA group) and 236 patients received two capsules of a placebo containing olive oil daily for 3 months (placebo group). The primary outcome measure was improvement in dry eye symptoms and secondary outcome measures were improvement in Nelson grade and an increase in Schirmer and TBUT scores at 3 months. In the placebo group, before dietary intervention, the mean symptom score, Schirmer, TBUT and CIC scores were 7.5±2, 19.9±4.7mm, 11.5±2s and 1±0.9 respectively, and 3 months later were 6.8±2.2, 20.5±4.7mm, 12±2.2s and 0.9±0.9 respectively. In the O3FA group, these values were 8.0±2.6, 20.1±4.2mm, 11.7±1.6s and 1.2±0.8 before dietary intervention and 3.9±2.2, 21.4±4mm, 15±1.7s, 0.5±0.6 after 3 months of intervention, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  14. A DETAILED MORPHO-KINEMATIC MODEL OF THE ESKIMO, NGC 2392: A UNIFYING VIEW WITH THE CAT'S EYE AND SATURN PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.; Lopez, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G. E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx

    2012-12-20

    The three-dimensional and kinematic structure of the Eskimo nebula, NGC 2392, has been notoriously difficult to interpret in detail given its complex morphology, multiple kinematic components and its nearly pole-on orientation along the line of sight. We present a comprehensive, spatially resolved, high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the Eskimo planetary nebula. The data consist of 21 spatially resolved, long-slit echelle spectra tightly spaced over the Eskimo and along its bipolar jets. This data set allows us to construct a velocity-resolved [N II] channel map of the nebula with a resolution of 10 km s{sup -1} that disentangles its different kinematic components. The spectroscopic information is combined with Hubble Space Telescope images to construct a detailed three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the Eskimo using the code SHAPE. With this model we demonstrate that the Eskimo is a close analog to the Saturn and the Cat's Eye nebulae, but rotated 90 Degree-Sign to the line of sight. Furthermore, we show that the main characteristics of our model apply to the general properties of the group of elliptical planetary nebulae with ansae or FLIERS, once the orientation is considered. We conclude that this kind of nebula belongs to a class with a complex common evolutionary sequence of events.

  15. LOOKING DEEP INTO THE CAT'S EYE: STRUCTURE AND ROTATION IN THE FAST WIND OF THE PN CENTRAL STAR OF NGC 6543

    SciTech Connect

    Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D. L.; Cantiello, M.

    2012-11-10

    We present HST/STIS time-series spectroscopy of the central star of the 'Cat's Eye' planetary nebula NGC 6543. Intensive monitoring of the UV lines over a 5.8 hr period reveals well-defined details of large-scale structure in the fast wind, which are exploited to provide new constraints on the rotation rate of the central star. We derive characteristics of the line profile variability that support a physical origin due to corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that are rooted at the stellar surface. The recurrence time of the observed spectral signatures of the CIRs is used to estimate the rotation period of the central star and, adopting a radius between 0.3 and 0.6 R{sub Sun} constrains the rotational velocity to the range 54 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub rot} {<=} 108 km s{sup -1}. The implications of these results for single star evolution are discussed based on models calculated here for low-mass stars. Our models predict a subsurface convective layer in NGC 6543 which we argue to be causally connected to the occurrence of structure in the fast wind.

  16. [The cat cry (cri du chat) syndrome: report of a case with review of 10 cases at the National Taiwan University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Chuang, S M; Wang, T R; Jean, H H; Lee, F Y

    1989-06-01

    The cat cry (cri du chat) syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly due to partial deletion of the short arm of the No. 5 chromosome. Since the first report of Lejeune et al, in 1963, nearly 400 cases have been reported. However, the syndrome with a ring chromosome is still very rare and only 10 cases were reported up to 1988, since the first report of Rohde and Tompkins in 1965. To investigate the chromosomal changes in the patients of cat cry syndrome, a chromosomal study was carried out on 10 cases of cat cry syndrome from 5,870 cases submitted to the Laboratory of Cytogenetics, National Taiwan University Hospital from Nov. 1968 through Apr. 1988. These ten cases included 3 males and 7 females (M:F = 1:2.3) aged 2 days to 18 months with an average of 5.5 months. The most common clinical features are: cat-like cry, growth failure, microcephaly with mental retardation, round face with facial abnormalities including hypertelorism, downward slanting palpebral fissures, micrognathia and low-set ears, and simian crease. Laryngomalacia or underdevelopment of the larynx may be a factor causing the cat-like cry. On chromosome analysis, 8 out of these 10 cases showed the usual simple deletion of the short arm of the no. 5 chromosome, and the other 2 cases revealed ring chromosome including a case of pure ring chromosome([(4, XY, r (5)] and a case of mosaicism with one ring chromosome, 2 ring chromosomes and simple deletion of the short arm of the No. 5 chromosome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Inhibition of Return in Response to Eye Gaze and Peripheral Cues in Young People with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Ruggiero, Sabrina; Maccari, Lisa; Rosa, Caterina; Lupianez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) reflects slower reaction times to stimuli presented in previously attended locations. In this study, we examined this inhibitory after-effect using two different cue types, eye-gaze and standard peripheral cues, in individuals with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing individuals. Typically developing…

  18. Do Faces Capture the Attention of Individuals with Williams Syndrome or Autism? Evidence from Tracking Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2009-01-01

    The neuro-developmental disorders of Williams syndrome (WS) and autism can reveal key components of social cognition. Eye-tracking techniques were applied in two tasks exploring attention to pictures containing faces. Images were (i) scrambled pictures containing faces or (ii) pictures of scenes with embedded faces. Compared to individuals who…

  19. The Importance of the Eye Area in Face Identification Abilities and Visual Search Strategies in Persons with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkmer, Marita; Larsson, Matilda; Bjallmark, Anna; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2010-01-01

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24…

  20. Do Faces Capture the Attention of Individuals with Williams Syndrome or Autism? Evidence from Tracking Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2009-01-01

    The neuro-developmental disorders of Williams syndrome (WS) and autism can reveal key components of social cognition. Eye-tracking techniques were applied in two tasks exploring attention to pictures containing faces. Images were (i) scrambled pictures containing faces or (ii) pictures of scenes with embedded faces. Compared to individuals who…

  1. Inhibition of Return in Response to Eye Gaze and Peripheral Cues in Young People with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Ruggiero, Sabrina; Maccari, Lisa; Rosa, Caterina; Lupianez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) reflects slower reaction times to stimuli presented in previously attended locations. In this study, we examined this inhibitory after-effect using two different cue types, eye-gaze and standard peripheral cues, in individuals with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing individuals. Typically developing…

  2. The Importance of the Eye Area in Face Identification Abilities and Visual Search Strategies in Persons with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkmer, Marita; Larsson, Matilda; Bjallmark, Anna; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2010-01-01

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24…

  3. Long-term Outcome of Argon Laser Peripheral Iridoplasty in the Management of Plateau Iris Syndrome Eyes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jeffrey R; Anderson, John W; Blieden, Lauren S; Chuang, Alice Z; Feldman, Robert M; Bell, Nicholas P

    2017-09-01

    To report long-term (>5 y) outcomes of plateau iris syndrome patients treated with argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI). A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients with plateau iris syndrome treated with ALPI from 1996 to 2007. The study included 22 eyes from 22 patients with plateau iris after peripheral iridotomy that were followed for at least 1 year after ALPI. The primary outcome was incidence of needing any intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications or surgery (either a filtering procedure or phacoemulsification). Demographic and baseline clinical data were summarized by mean (±SD) or frequency (percentage). Snellen best-corrected visual acuity was converted to logMAR. The paired t test was used to compare IOP changes, number of IOP-lowering medications, and best-corrected visual acuity from baseline to annual follow-up. Mean follow-up was 76 months. Only 2 (9%) eyes maintained an IOP<21 mm Hg without requiring medication or surgery. Seventeen (77%) eyes underwent surgery at an average of 49.1±7.9 months after ALPI. Eight (36%) eyes underwent filtering surgery, and 9 (41%) eyes underwent phacoemulsification. Three months after cataract extraction, no eyes required IOP-lowering medication. The beneficial effects of ALPI last for <4 years, with the majority of patients (77%) requiring surgery. Phacoemulsification alone was a successful treatment for plateau iris in our patient population.

  4. Choroidal neovascularisation triggered multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) in predisposed eyes.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Thibaud; Delaunay, Benoit; Cahuzac, Armelle; Vasseur, Vivien; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2017-09-28

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is an inflammatory disease that can be associated with choroidalneovascularisation (CNV). However, few studies in the literature have described the occurrence of MEWDS in association with CNV. This paper discusses whether CNV can trigger MEWDS in a predisposed eye. A retrospective multicentric case series of six eyes in six patients with acute onset of MEWDS and evidence of previous CNV was conducted between January 2015 and January 2017. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination including multimodal imaging at baseline and during follow-up. The mean age was 32.2±12.2 years. The majority of patients were women (5/1). In each case, MEWDS was diagnosed during a recurrence or occurrence of CNV secondary to choriocapillaritis, central serous chorioretinopathy or atrophic scar, presumably due to congenital toxoplasmosis. All patients were treated with intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) with good anatomical and functional responses (mean gain of 0.3±0.31 logMAR). The mean duration of follow-up was 13.5±10.65 months. This study highlights a sequence in the development of MEWDS, following the occurrence or recurrence of CNV. CNV may trigger MEWDS, possibly due to the proinflammatory environment created by the retinal tissue surrounding the CNV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-02-23

    Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not consider head-to-head comparisons of artificial tears with

  6. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  7. Case Report: Explantation of A Binkhorst Iridocapsular Lens >30 Years After Implantation in an Eye With Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Adriano; Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Sabater, Alfonso L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An 86-year-old man with a Binkhorst 2-loop intraocular lens (IOL) that was implanted in the pupillary sphincter 33 years earlier was examined. The pupil of the implanted eye with the Binkhorst IOL was irregular and the eye had pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome. Pupillary erosion resulted from rubbing of the IOL edge against the pupillary sphincter with PEX material. The IOL was removed because of visual distortion and intense pseudophakodonesis. Gross and light microscopic analyses showed no irido-fibro-lenticular adhesions over the lens or fragments of iris tissue attached to the lens. Scanning electron microscopy showed several pores of different sizes. No inflammatory cells were present, suggesting that the IOL was well tolerated. The case suggested that the pupillary ruff was not a good location for implantation of an IOL in an eye with PEX. Caution is recommended before implanting or suturing an IOL close to the pupillary border in eyes with PEX during cataract surgery. PMID:26313806

  8. Neuropathic ocular pain due to dry eye is associated with multiple comorbid chronic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (P<0.01), we found that the high CPS group reported more severe neuropathic-type DE symptoms compared to the low CPS group, including worse ocular pain assessed via 3 different pain scales (P<0.05), with similar objective corneal DE signs. This is the first study to demonstrate DE patients who manifest a greater number of comorbid CPS report more severe DE symptoms and features of NOP. These findings provide further evidence that NOP may represent a central pain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863

  9. Tear proteomic analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes and dry eye syndrome by two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Sheng, Minjie; Xie, Liqi; Liu, Feng; Yan, Guoquan; Wang, Weifang; Lin, Anjuan; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yihui

    2014-01-09

    Diabetes mellitus has been shown to be associated with and complicated by dry eye syndrome. We sought to examine and compare the tear film proteome of type 2 diabetic patients with or without dry eye syndrome and normal subjects using two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Tears were collected from eight type 2 diabetes patients with dry eye syndrome, eight type 2 diabetes patients without dry eye syndrome, and eight normal subjects. Tear breakup time (BUT) was determined, and tear proteins were prepared and analyzed using two-dimensional strong cation-exchange/reversed-phase nano-scale liquid chromatography MS. All MS/MS spectra were identified by using SEQUEST against the human International Protein Index (IPI) database and the relative abundance of individual proteins was assessed by spectral counting. Tear BUT was significantly lower in patients with diabetes and dry eye syndrome than in patients with diabetes only and normal subjects. Analysis of spectral counts of tear proteins showed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with diabetes and dry eye syndrome had increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins, like annexin A1, and immunity- and inflammation-related proteins, including neutrophil elastase 2 and clusterin, and glycometabolism-related proteins, like apolipoprotein A-II. Dry eye syndrome in diabetic patients is associated with aberrant expression of tear proteins, and the findings could lead to identification of novel pathways for therapeutic targeting and new diagnostic markers.

  10. Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes in dogs and cats: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Turek, Michelle M

    2003-12-01

    Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of noncancerous dermatoses associated with internal malignancy. Their recognition can facilitate detection and timely treatment of underlying cancer. More than 30 such disorders have been identified in the human scientific literature, whereas only a few are described in veterinary medicine. This may reflect a lower incidence in animals than in people or may be the result of failure to recognize an association between certain skin lesions and neoplasia. Establishing a relationship between a cutaneous disorder and neoplasia can be difficult unless the skin lesions are rare and almost always associated with a particular tumour type, as is the case for most recognized veterinary paraneoplastic dermatoses. Among these are feline paraneoplastic alopecia, feline thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis, nodular dermatofibrosis, feminization syndrome associated with testicular tumours, superficial necrolytic dermatitis and paraneoplastic pemphigus. The aetiology of most cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes has remained elusive in both people and animals.

  11. Changes in the activity of units of the cat motor cortex with rapid conditioning and extinction of a compound eye blink movement.

    PubMed

    Aou, S; Woody, C D; Birt, D

    1992-02-01

    Patterns of spike activity were measured in the pericruciate cortex of conscious cats before and after development of a Pavlovian conditioned eye blink response. Unit activity was tested with presentations of a click conditioned stimulus (CS) and a hiss discriminative stimulus (DS) of similar intensity to the click. Unit discharge in response to the CS increased after conditioning, but not after backward conditioning when conditioned reflexes (CRs) were not performed. Rates of spontaneous, baseline discharge were not increased after conditioning with respect to rates of discharge measured in the naive state. It appeared that an increase in the ratio of CS-elicited discharge to background activity, together with an increase in the number of units responding to the CS after conditioning, supported discrimination of the CS from the DS and performance of the conditioned blink response. This is the first detailed characterization of patterns of a rapidly conditioned Pavlovian response. Activation of units by the CS preceded the onset of the CR, supporting the hypothesis that the activity played a role in initiating the conditioned eye blink movement. Extinction with retention of performance of the CR was associated with perseverance of the increased unit discharge in response to the CS. Extinction with substantially reduced performance of the CR was associated with diminution of the unit response to the CS below levels found with conditioning. Averages of patterns of spike activity elicited by the CS after conditioning showed components of discharge with onsets of 8-40 msec (alpha 1), 40-72 msec (alpha 2), 72-112 msec (beta), and greater than 112 msec (gamma), corresponding to each of four separate excitatory EMG components of the compound blink CR. Each component increased in magnitude after conditioning, relative to levels found in the naive state. The finding that long- as well as short-latency components of unit activation increased after conditioning supported the

  12. Male infant with cat cry syndrome and apparent absence of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tolksdorf, M; Kunze, J; Rossius, H; Chiyo, H

    1980-05-01

    We report a boy with cri-du-chat syndrome and apparent absence of the Y chromosome. The karyotype is interpreted as 45,X,del(5)(qter leads to p13:). The boy has normal male external genitalia and bilateral testes although no Y chromosome was found in lymphocytes or fibroblasts.

  13. Risk of dry eye syndrome in patients treated with whole-brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Tavish; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Campbell, Ashley A; Bathras, Ryan M; Jani, Ashish; Kazim, Michael; Wang, Tony J C

    2017-08-04

    With improvements in systemic therapy, patients with cancer treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) are living long enough to develop late toxicities, including dry eye syndrome. In general practice, dose to the lacrimal gland (LG) is not constrained (maximum constraint <40 Gy) in WBRT. The purpose of this study was to measure dose to the LG in WBRT and determine methods for reducing radiation exposure. We conducted a retrospective review of 70 3-dimensional (3D) conformal plans; thirty-six plans with a radiation prescription of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and 34 plans with a prescription of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions. LGs were contoured in accordance with Freedman and Sidani (2015). Biological effective dose (BED)3 maximum constraints were calculated from 40 Gy and 20 Gy to be 32.17 Gy (30 Gy) and 36.70 Gy (37.5 Gy). Both regimens demonstrated supraorbital blocking by 3 methods: T1, bordering the supraorbital ridge; T2, no contact with supraorbital ridge; and T3, coverage of the supraorbital ridge. Mean dose for the plans with a 30-Gy prescription and the plans with a 37.5-Gy prescription was 27.5 Gy and 35.2 Gy, respectively (p ≤ 0.0001). BED3 maximum constraint (Dmax) was violated 16 of 26 (61.5%) in T1 (average Dmax: 32.2 Gy), 13 of 28 (46.4%) in T2 (average Dmax: 32.1 Gy), and 5 of 18 (27.8%) in T3 (average Dmax: 31.8 Gy) for the 30-Gy prescription. Dmax was violated in 32 of 32 (100%) in T1 (average Dmax: 40.1 Gy), 22 of 22 (100%) in T2 (average Dmax: 40.3 Gy), and 14 of 14 (100%) in T3 (average Dmax: 39.4) for the 37.5 Gy prescription. Average Dmax for the 37.5-Gy prescription was highly significant in favor of T3 (p = 0.0098). Patients who receive WBRT may develop dry eye syndrome as a late toxicity. Constraints are commonly violated with a prescription of 37.5 Gy. Methods to reduce dose include T3 supraorbital blocking, an easily implementable change that may dramatically improve patient quality of life. Copyright © 2017

  14. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  15. Determination of the 'critical region' for cat-like cry of Cri-du-chat syndrome and analysis of candidate genes by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingfa; Niebuhr, Erik; Yang, Huanming; Hansen, Lars

    2005-04-01

    Cri-du-chat (CDC, OMIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome that results from partial deletions on the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical features of CDC normally include high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism and epicanthic folds. The cat-like cry is the most prominent clinical characteristic in newborn children and is usually considered as diagnostic for the CDC syndrome. Using a strategy of 'phenotype dissection', the critical region for cat-like cry was mapped to the chromosomal segment 5p15.3-5p15.2 in previous reports. In this study, the distal breakpoints of two interstitial deletions in two clinical distinctive CDC patients are analysed, one with and one without the cat-like cry. Using PCR, the critical region for the cat-like cry is mapped to a short 640 kbp region on chromosome 5p. Genome analysis of this critical region reveals a gene-rich sequence containing five known genes, five putative genes and three spliced EST sequences, altogether 71 predicted exons. Three genes, FLJ25076, a homolog to a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC-E2, FLJ20303, a nucleolar protein NOP2, which may play a role in the regulation of the cell cycle and MGC5309, a protein with similarity to Nut2, a Drosophila transcriptional coactivator, have been characterized and expression profiles determined by quantitative PCR. These results suggest that one candidate gene, FLJ25076, encodes a ubiquitin-conjugated enzyme E2 type, which is locally expressed in thoracic and scalp tissues. The other two genes are expressed uniformly in all tissues tested, which suggest that they are housekeeping genes.

  16. The association between sleep duration and dry eye syndrome among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanhyung; Lim, Sung-Shil; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and dry eye syndrome (DES) symptoms. We investigated 15,878 subjects (male = 6684; female = 9194) aged 20 years and older who underwent physical examinations and completed a self-report questionnaire and other anthropometric variables from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for DES according to sleep duration were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Compared to that in an optimal sleep group (6-8 h/day), OR (95% CI) DES prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, sociodemographic factors (educational level, occupation, household income, and residence), and health behaviors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and level of exercise) was 1.20 (1.05-1.36) for a mild short sleep group (5 h/day) and 1.29 (1.08-1.55) for a severe short sleep group (≤4 h/day). Our results revealed that DES increased at shorter sleep durations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sam Young; Bae, Seok Hyun; Shin, Young Joo; Park, Shin Goo; Hwang, Sang-Hee; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common tear film and ocular surface disease that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Systemic diseases associated with DES include diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, anxiety, thyroid disease, allergic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, and hyperlipidemia. Interestingly, it has been found that most of these are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or inadequate sunlight exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional data analysis, noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥19 years (N = 17,542) who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012 were included. Information regarding duration of sunlight exposure was collected from the survey participants. Serum 25(OH)D and zinc levels were measured. The confounding variables were age, gender, sunlight exposure time, region of residence, obesity, serum 25(OH)D level, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and walking exercise. Results Mean serum 25(OH)D levels of subjects with and without DES were 16.90 ± 6.0 and 17.52 ± 6.07 (p<0.001). Inadequate sunlight exposure time (odds ratio [OR], 1.554; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.307–1.848), urban residence (OR, 1.669; 95% CI, 1.456–1.913), indoor occupation (OR, 1.578; 95% CI, 1.389–1.814), and low serum 25(OH)D level (OR, 1.158; 95% CI, 1.026–1.308) were the risk factors for DES. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and occupation, low serum 25(OH)D level (OR, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.010–1.372) and deficient sunlight exposure time (OR, 1.383; 95% CI, 1.094–1.749) were the risk factors for diagnosed DES. Conclusion Low serum 25

  18. Shiga toxin-producing and attaching and effacing Escherichia coli in cats and dogs in a high hemolytic uremic syndrome incidence region in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bentancor, A; Rumi, M V; Gentilini, M V; Sardoy, C; Irino, K; Agostini, A; Cataldi, A

    2007-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), responsible for the hemolytic uremic syndrome, is an endemic pathogen in Argentina. We studied the prevalence of STEC in fecal samples from cats and dogs of Buenos Aires city and suburbs. Cultures were used for screening stx1/stx2 and rfbO157 by multiplex PCR. All E. coli-positive colonies for these genes were further characterized for the eae gene and for serotypes. In dogs, 17 (3.7%), 19 (4.2%) and 34 (7.5%) of samples were positive for stx2, stx1 and rfb, respectively. In cats, six (4.0%) of the samples were positive for stx2, three (2.0%) for stx1 and four (2.7%) for rfbO157. In 18 (4.0%) of the dog samples, a bacteriological diagnosis was obtained by isolation. The percentage of positive isolates corresponding to the rfbO157 and to the stx2 genotypes were 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively. In four of the cat samples, the bacteriological diagnosis for stx2 (2.6% prevalence of STEC) was confirmed. Although these data suggest that the high infection index of STEC in children in Argentina does not seem to be due mainly to the role of cats and dogs, there are some strains with virulence genes in common for humans and their domestic animals.

  19. Contractile properties of extraocular muscle in Siamese cat.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, G

    1979-01-01

    Siamese cats are albinos with poor visual resolution and severely impaired binocular vision. Eey muscle phyiology was studied in Siamese cats as a part of a more extensive project on eye muscle properties in cats with deficient binocular vision. Isometric contractions of the inferior oblique muscle were recorded in response to single and repetitive muscle nerve stimulation. Speed of contraction, measured as twitch contraction time, fusion frequency and rate of tetanic tension rise, was lower in Siamese than in normal cats. Eye muscles of Siamese cats fatiqued more easily to continuous activation than normal cat eye mucle. These functional changes have also been found in cats with binocular defects from monocular lid suture, but were much more marked in Siamese cats. It is suggested that the eye muscle changes represent muscular adaptations to genetically caused impairments of binocular vision and visual resolution in Siamese cats.

  20. Tear evaporation rates in Sjögren syndrome and non-Sjögren dry eye patients.

    PubMed

    Goto, Eiki; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Kamoi, Mizuka; Endo, Koji; Ishida, Reiko; Dogru, Murat; Kaido, Minako; Kojima, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    To reinvestigate tear evaporation rates in Sjögren syndrome (SS) and non-Sjögren (non-SS) dry eye patients with a recently reported ventilated chamber evaporimeter system. Prospective case-control study. A ventilated chamber evaporimeter system was used to measure tear evaporation rates. A DR-1 camera (Kowa, Nagoya, Japan) was used for tear lipid layer interference image acquisition. The Yokoi severity grading system was used for DR-1 image evaluation. Twenty-four aqueous tear deficiency (ATD) eyes of 21 consecutive patients with SS were studied (SS ATD group). Twenty-one ATD eyes of 12 non-SS patients (non-SS ATD group) were examined as control subjects. Tear evaporation rates of the SS ATD group (5.9 +/- 3.5 [10(-7) g/cm(2) per second]) were significantly higher than those of the non-SS ATD group (2.9 +/- 1.8 [10(-7) g/cm(2) per second]; P = .0009). The severity grading of DR-1 tear interference images of the SS ATD group was significantly higher (P = .03), along with significantly worse meibomian gland expressibility and vital staining scores, compared with those of the non-SS ATD group. Tear evaporation rates were higher in eyes of the SS ATD group compared with the non-SS ATD group. Tear evaporation assessed in conjunction with tear lipid layer findings and meibomian gland expressibility provides an increased understanding in the differential diagnosis of dry eye states.

  1. A natural history of a child with monosomy 5p syndrome (Cat-cry/Cri-du-chat syndrome) during the 18 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Posmyk, R; Panasiuk, B; Yatsenko, S A; Stankiewicz, P; Midro, A T

    2005-01-01

    A record of a natural history of a long-term case study devoted to monosomy 5p (Cat-cry/Cri-du-chat) syndrome has been described rarely. Knowledge on the range of the changes in phenotype attributable to advancing age can be useful in clinical diagnosis of monosomy 5p at the different developmental stages, including adolescence, as well in prognosis for genetic counseling. In this case a detailed analysis of the morphologic phenotype in a girl with del(5)(p13.3) observed from 4 months to 18 years of age is reported. The comparative analysis of the girl's phenotype in different developmental stages has revealed that microcephaly, flat occipital region, face asymmetry, wide spaced palpebral fissures, epicanthic folds, small mouth fissure, thin mucous lip, small and low set ears and short IV metacarpals has not changed with advancing age. However, facial asymmetry was more evident, frontal tubers were less prominent, nasal root and back became prominent nasal back became elongated, the subnasal region was shorter and marked malocclusion appeared.

  2. Comparison of Whole Eye vs. First-Surface Astigmatism in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Rachel; Marsack, Jason D.; Leach, Norman E.; Herring, Ralph J.; Anderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have structural differences in the cornea and lens, as compared to the general population. This study investigates objectively measured refractive and corneal astigmatism, as well as calculated internal astigmatism in subjects with and without DS. Methods Refractive (Grand Seiko autorefraction) and anterior corneal astigmatism (difference between steep and flat keratometry obtained with Zeiss Atlas corneal topography) were measured in 128 subjects with DS (mean age = 24.8±8.7 yrs) and 137 controls without DS (mean age = 24.9±9.9 yrs), with 1 eye randomly selected for analysis per subject. Refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism were converted to vector notation (J0, J45) to calculate internal astigmatism (Refractive – Corneal) and then converted back to minus cylinder form. Results Mean refractive astigmatism was significantly greater in subjects with DS than controls (−1.94±1.30DC vs −0.66±0.60DC, t=−10.16, p<0.001), as was mean corneal astigmatism (1.70±1.04DC vs 1.02±0.63DC, t=6.38, p<0.001) and mean internal astigmatism (−1.07±0.68DC vs −0.77±0.41DC, t=−4.21, p<0.001). A positive linear correlation between corneal and refractive astigmatism was observed for both study populations for both the J0 and J45 vectors (p<0.001 for all comparisons, R2 range = 0.31 to 0.74). The distributions of astigmatism orientation differed significantly between the two study populations when compared across all three types of astigmatism (Chi-Square, p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that corneal astigmatism is predictive of overall refractive astigmatism in individuals with DS, as it is in the general population. The greater magnitudes of astigmatism and wider variation of astigmatism orientation in individuals with DS for refractive, corneal, and calculated internal astigmatism is likely attributable to previously reported differences in the structure of the cornea and internal optical components

  3. A novel approach to brachycephalic syndrome. 3. Isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE).

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, Riccarda; Pohl, Sabine; Oechtering, Gerhard U

    2017-01-01

    To describe isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE) as a new minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of brachycephalic dogs with obstructing caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT). Prospective clinical study. Brachycephalic dogs (24 Pugs, 1 English Bulldog) with CAT but adequate air spaces between the lamellae of the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha. A rhinoscopically guided diode laser fiber introduced from anterior was used to dissect CAT within the nasopharyngeal meatus, while leaving the intranasal turbinates intact. Small grasping forceps were used to extract the dissected CAT from anterior or to push it through the nasopharyngeal meatus for extraction from posterior. Isolated CAT LATE was successfully performed on 32 CAT in 25 dogs. Intranasally applied xylometazoline helped shrink the ventral concha, making the approach and extraction easier. Minor bleeding was the only complication observed. It is possible to remove CAT with endoscopically applied diode-laser energy while leaving the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha intact. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Strength of evidence for the effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: The Club Med Syndrome Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Various types of evidence have been promulgated as proof for the effects of feral cats on wildlife, typically including numerous studies on predation inferred from diet, mortality attributed to pathogens, and photographic or videographic documentation. The strength of these types of evidence is often short of conclusive. For example, studies of predation inferred from diet provide weak evidence for two reasons: 1) they cannot differentiate depredation from scavenging by feral cats, and 2) they cannot address population-level effects on wildlife because it is rarely understood if mortality acts in compensatory or additive manner. Likewise, pathogens may cause mortality of individuals, but population-level effects of pathogens are rarely known. Photographic or videographic documentation provides direct ‘smoking gun’ evidence that may be useful for positive identification of depredation by cats, or identification of prey designated as threatened or endangered species. However, the most direct and compelling evidence comes from examples where feral cats have been entirely removed from islands. In many cases, several species of seabirds as well as other wildlife have recovered after the complete removal of cats. Where possible, the experimental removal of cats would provide the most conclusive proof of effects on wildlife populations. In other cases where cat removal is not feasible, modeling based on predation rates and life history parameters of species may be the only means of assessing population-level effects on wildlife. Understanding population-level effects of feral cats on wildlife will ultimately be necessary to resolve long-standing wildlife management issues.

  5. [Long-term efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy in preventing progression in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome].

    PubMed

    Qing, Guoping; Zhang, Shaodan; Wang, Huaizhou; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shuhua; Chen, Hong; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ningli

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in preventing deterioration in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS). A cohort study. Nineteen patients with PDS were treated with LPI and followed up periodically in Beijing Tongren Eye Center from May 2006 to April 2007. One eye of each patient was chosen randomly for the study. Main investigating items included iris configuration, intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber pigmentation, and visual field analysis. The average follow-up period was (6.5 ± 0.3) years. A paired sample t test was used to determine whether there is a significant difference between average values of pre- and post-LPI IOP and mean deviation of Humphrey visual field analysis in these PDS eyes. The average age of the 19 patients were (35.8 ± 7.1) years on admission. The initial IOP of the 19 eyes was (24.7 ± 2.2) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) before LPI. The mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey visual field analysis (VFA) were (-1.82 ± 1.26) dB (-4.34--0.28 dB) . All 19 eyes had concave iris and heavy trabecular pigmentation. The iris became flat in all PDS eyes after the laser treatment. At the last follow-up visit, the average IOP was 14.8 ± 2.0 (12-20) mmHg, which was statistically lower than that of baseline (t = 11.49, P < 0.01) . Extent of trabecular pigmentation reduced obviously in 16 eyes. No deterioration or new visual field defect was detected in any of the PDS eyes. MD of the last VFA was -1.79 ± 1.21 (-4.39--0.21 dB) . There was no statistical difference between MD of the last VFA and baseline (t = -0.26, P = 0.798). The long-term follow-up results showed that LPI prevents progression effectively in eyes with PDS.

  6. Characteristics of the Anterior Segment Biometry and Corneal Endothelium in Eyes with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Senile Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Banu; Güzel, Hüseyin; Kamış, Ümit; Gedik, Şansal; Okudan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anterior segment biometric features and corneal endothelial changes in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and senile cataract. Materials and Methods: The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness, endothelial cell density (ECD), and percentages of polymegathism and pleomorphism of 52 subjects with PEX and cataract were compared with 51 age- and gender-matched control subjects with cataract using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, Lenstar LS 900; Haag Streit AG, Switzerland) and in-vivo confocal microscopy (Confo Scan 4, Nidek Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Nineteen subjects with PEX syndrome had glaucoma and were using anti-glaucoma medications. Only one eye of the subjects was used in statistical analysis and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: None of the OLCR parameters reached statistically significant differences among the 3 groups (ANOVA p>0.05). The percentage of eyes with ACD <2.5 mm was 13.7% in the control group, 24.2% in PEX eyes without glaucoma and 21.1% in PEX eyes with glaucoma, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.45). There was a significant difference in mean ECD among the 3 groups (ANOVA p=0.02), whereas no differences could be found in respect to polymegathism and pleomorphism (p>0.05). Mean ECD was significantly lower in the PEX glaucoma group (2,199.5±176.8 cells/mm2) than the control group (2,363±229.3 cells/mm2) (p=0.02), whereas no difference was found in mean ECD of PEX eyes without glaucoma and the control group (p=0.42). ECD was less than 2,000 cells/mm2 in 15.8% of PEX subjects with glaucoma, 9.8% of control subjects and 6.1% of PEX eyes without glaucoma, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.52). Conclusion: As eyes with both PEX glaucoma and cataract seem to be associated with decreased endothelial cell number, specular or confocal microscopy screening should be done for the patients

  7. Dynamic sound localization in cats

    PubMed Central

    Ruhland, Janet L.; Jones, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  8. Severe Dry Eye Syndrome After Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Moiseenko, Vitali; Song, William Y.; Morris, Christopher G.; Bhatti, M. Tariq; Mendenhall, William M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of severe dry eye syndrome (DES) after external beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer and its dependence on the parameters relevant to external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study included 78 patients treated for primary extracranial head-and-neck tumors between 1965 and 2000, whose lacrimal apparatus/entire globe was exposed to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The dose received by the major lacrimal gland was used for analysis. The end point of the present study was the ophthalmologic diagnosis of severe DES leading to vision compromise. Results: Of the 78 patients, 40 developed severe DES leading to visual compromise. The incidence of DES increased steadily from 6% at 35-39.99 Gy to 50% at 45-49.99 Gy and 90% at 60-64.99 Gy. With a mean of 0.9 years (range, 1 month to 3 years), the latency of DES was observed to be a function of the total dose and the dose per fraction. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the total dose (p < .0001 and p < .0001, respectively) and dose per fraction (p {<=} .0001 and p = .0044, respectively) were significant. However, age, gender, and the use of chemoradiotherapy were not. The actuarial analysis indicated a 5-year probability of freedom from DES of 93% for doses <45 Gy, 29% for 45-59.9 Gy, and 3% doses {>=}60 Gy. A logistic normal tissue complication probability model fit to our data obtained a dose of 34 and 38 Gy corresponding to a 5% and 10% incidence of DES. Conclusion: With a dose of 34 Gy corresponding to a 5% incidence of DES, the risk of severe DES increased, and the latency decreased with an increase in the total dose and dose per fraction to the lacrimal gland. The effect of chemoradiotherapy and hyperfractionation on the risk of DES needs additional investigation.

  9. Hereditary and congenital ocular disease in the cat.

    PubMed

    Narfström, K

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this review of hereditary and congenital ocular disease in cats is to present an overview of the most common disorders seen in this species, the pathogenesis of the problems and wherever possible, how they are treated. Several defects are common in breeds such as the Persian, Himalayan and Burmese cats and affect the anterior segment of the eye. Examples are agenesis of the eyelids, dermoids, entropion and corneal sequestrum. Other problems such as cataracts, lens luxation and retinal dysplasia, cause problems of the intraocular structures, but are less common in cats compared to dogs. Finally, various parts of the retina and in some diseases other parts of the eye, are specifically affected by hereditary diseases. Examples of these are lysosomal storage disease, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and progressive rod cone degeneration and rod cone dysplasia. Research of the latter two hereditary diseases, both described in the Abyssinian breed of cat, have made affected individuals important animal models for research into comparable diseases of humans.

  10. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P < 0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P < 0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the

  11. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life in a non-clinic-based general population.

    PubMed

    Le, Qihua; Zhou, Xiaodong; Ge, Ling; Wu, Liangcheng; Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang

    2012-07-16

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F=60.331, P<0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F=55.158 and 40.778, P<0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F=4.901, P=0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F=10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P<0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the adjustment of all other factors (all P<0.01). The symptoms of dry eye are associated

  12. Protective effects of carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, against chemical induced dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Na, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Sung Bum; Sung, Hye-Rim; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kim, Ki Young

    2017-09-08

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a disorder of the eye due to tear deficiency or excessive evaporation that causes damage to the eye and is associated with discomfort and dryness. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. Recently, 11β-HSD1 has been expressed in human and rodent eyes and has been recognized as a target of glaucoma. In this study, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, were investigated in benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells and a rat DES model. In the in vitro study, carbenoxolone dose-dependently inhibited cell death and 11β-HSD1 activity in BAC-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells. For the in vivo study, carbenoxolone or a solvent was administered to the BAC-induced DES model twice daily. BAC-treated rat eyes showed significant increases in ocular surface damage, a reduction of tears, decrease corneal thickness, corneal basement membrane destruction, apoptosis in the conjunctival epithelium, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and 11β-HSD1. These effects of BAC were reversed by topical carbenoxolone treatment. These results demonstrate that carbenoxolone can prevent DES by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and cell death of the corneal and conjunctival epithelium via inhibition of both 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in the eyes of BAC-treated rats. It is suggested that topical 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and/or treatment of DES.

  13. A case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with tourette syndrome associated with compulsive eye rubbing: case report.

    PubMed

    Kandarakis, Artemios; Karampelas, Michael; Soumplis, Vasileios; Panos, Christos; Makris, Nikolaos; Kandarakis, Stylianos; Karagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-09-21

    Tourette syndrome is a neurologic disorder that is characterized by repetitive muscle contractions that produce stereotyped movements or sounds. Approximately 50% of individuals with TS also exhibit obsessive-compulsive behaviors including eye rubbing. We report a case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with TS, associated with compulsive eye rubbing. A 35-year-old man was first seen in our clinic as an outpatient due to rapid deterioration of vision in his right eye associated with pain and tearing, over a period of one month. Slit lamp biomicroscopy of the right eye showed a central stromal scar due to corneal hydrops. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the left eye were normal. Six months later the patient developed corneal hydrops of his left eye. During the following examinations his vision continued to deteriorate in both eyes, while a central stromal scar was forming in his left cornea. Four years after the initial examination the patient's visual acuity was no light perception in the right eye and counting fingers at 33 cm in the left eye. His right eye was phthisic. Our patient developed a rapidly progressing bilateral corneal ectasia and phthisis of his right eye during a time period of 4 years. This unusual pattern suggests that the patient's compulsive behavior compromised both of his corneas and led to bilateral keratoconus.

  14. A case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with tourette syndrome associated with compulsive eye rubbing: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tourette syndrome is a neurologic disorder that is characterized by repetitive muscle contractions that produce stereotyped movements or sounds. Approximately 50% of individuals with TS also exhibit obsessive-compulsive behaviors including eye rubbing. We report a case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with TS, associated with compulsive eye rubbing. Case presentation A 35-year-old man was first seen in our clinic as an outpatient due to rapid deterioration of vision in his right eye associated with pain and tearing, over a period of one month. Slit lamp biomicroscopy of the right eye showed a central stromal scar due to corneal hydrops. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the left eye were normal. Six months later the patient developed corneal hydrops of his left eye. During the following examinations his vision continued to deteriorate in both eyes, while a central stromal scar was forming in his left cornea. Four years after the initial examination the patient's visual acuity was no light perception in the right eye and counting fingers at 33 cm in the left eye. His right eye was phthisic. Conclusions Our patient developed a rapidly progressing bilateral corneal ectasia and phthisis of his right eye during a time period of 4 years. This unusual pattern suggests that the patient's compulsive behavior compromised both of his corneas and led to bilateral keratoconus. PMID:21936935

  15. Rapamycin Eye Drops Suppress Lacrimal Gland Inflammation In a Murine Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C.; Reddy Janga, Srikanth; Yarber, Frances; Meng, Zhen; Klinngam, Wannita; Bushman, Jonathan; Ma, Tao; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Mehta, Arjun; Ding, Chuanqing; MacKay, J. Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of topical rapamycin in treating autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods We developed rapamycin in a poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelle formulation to maintain solubility. Rapamycin or PEG-DSPE eye drops (vehicle) were administered in a well-established Sjögren's syndrome disease model, the male nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, twice daily for 12 weeks starting at 8 weeks of age. Mouse tear fluid was collected and tear Cathepsin S, a putative tear biomarker for Sjögren's syndrome, was measured. Lacrimal glands were retrieved for histological evaluation, and quantitative real-time PCR of genes associated with Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis. Tear secretion was measured using phenol red threads, and corneal fluorescein staining was used to assess corneal integrity. Results Lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal glands from rapamycin-treated mice was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced by 3.8-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice after 12 weeks of treatment. Rapamycin, but not vehicle, treatment increased tear secretion and decreased corneal fluorescein staining after 12 weeks. In rapamycin-treated mice, Cathepsin S activity was significantly reduced by 3.75-fold in tears (P < 0.0001) and 1.68-fold in lacrimal gland lysates (P = 0.003) relative to vehicle-treated mice. Rapamycin significantly altered the expression of several genes linked to Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis, including major histocompatibility complex II, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12a, as well as Akt3, an effector of autophagy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that topical rapamycin reduces autoimmune-mediated lacrimal gland inflammation while improving ocular surface integrity and tear secretion, and thus has potential for treating Sjögren's syndrome–associated dry eye. PMID:28122086

  16. Efficacy and safety of diquafosol ophthalmic solution in patients with dry eye syndrome: a Japanese phase 2 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ohashi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of diquafosol ophthalmic solution for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Randomized, double-masked, multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 286 Japanese patients with dry eye who were prescribed topical diquafosol (1%, n = 96; 3%, n = 96) or placebo ophthalmic solution (n = 94). After a washout period of 2 weeks, qualified subjects were randomized to receive a single drop of 1% or 3% diquafosol or placebo ophthalmic solutions 6 times per day for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was fluorescein corneal staining score assessment. The secondary outcome measures were Rose Bengal corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear break-up time (BUT), and subjective symptom assessment. Safety measures were clinical blood and urine examination and recording of adverse events. Fluorescein corneal staining scores significantly improved with both 1% and 3% topical diquafosol compared with placebo at 4 weeks, respectively (P = 0.037, P = 0.002). There was a dose-dependent effect among the groups. Rose Bengal corneal and conjunctival staining scores also improved significantly with both 1% and 3% diquafosol compared with placebo (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively). Subjective dry eye symptom scores significantly improved with both diquafosol ophthalmic solutions (P ≤ 0.033), although there were no significant differences in BUT compared with placebo. No significant differences between the treatment groups were observed in relation to the occurrence of adverse events. Both 1% and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solutions are considered effective and safe for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Cortisol Phosphate in Hyaluronic Acid Vehicle in the Treatment of Dry Eye in Sjogren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Maurizio; Vagge, Aldo

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of 0.3% cortisol phosphate eye drops in hyaluronic acid vehicle in the treatment of dry eye in Sjogren Syndrome. This prospective, single-center, masked (single blind), randomized controlled study included 40 female patients divided into 2 groups, group 1 treated with Idracemi, 0.3% cortisol phosphate eye drops twice a day, and group 2 treated with Cortivis, 0.3% cortisol phosphate in hyaluronic acid vehicle, with the same posology. Screening (day -7), randomization (day 0), follow-up (day 7), and termination (day 28) visits were conducted. Symptoms (VAS) questionnaire, tear film breakup time, corneo-conjunctival stain, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and fundus examination were performed at each visit. Conjunctival impression cytology for human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression at visit 1 and 4 was also performed. No changes in IOP or fundus examination were observed in either group at each time point. Group 1 showed at day 28 a statistically significant amelioration of symptoms and reduction of HLA-DR expression. Group 2 showed at day 7 statistically significant improvement of corneal and conjunctival stain versus baseline and versus group 1; the symptom score was statistically significantly better than baseline and versus group 1 after 28 days too. The HLA-DR expression and the epithelial cell area were statistically significantly reduced versus baseline and versus group 1 at the same time. Cortisol phosphate proved to be safe and effective in treating dry eye in Sjogren Syndrome patients in both formulations. However, the formula with hyaluronic acid vehicle proved to be more effective. Both formulations were very well tolerated.

  18. Managing Sjögren’s Syndrome and non-Sjögren Syndrome dry eye with anti-inflammatory therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coursey, Terry G; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye from Sjögren’s syndrome is a multifactorial disease that results in dysfunction of the lacrimal functional unit. Studies have shown changes in tear composition, including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteinase. T-lymphocytes have been shown to increase in the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands in patient and animal models. This inflammation is in part responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease, which results in symptoms of eye irritation, ocular surface epithelial disease, and loss of corneal barrier function. There are a number of anti-inflammatory approaches for treating this disease. The current study reviews details of immune response and anti–inflammatory therapies used to control this disease. PMID:25120351

  19. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated. PMID:24153100

  20. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rodolfo O; Gil, Solange; Brito, Maria Tv; McGahie, David; Niza, Maria Mre; Tavares, Luís

    2013-10-23

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated.

  1. Ocular manifestations of the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in four species of animals.

    PubMed

    Collier, L L; Bryan, G M; Prieur, D J

    1979-09-15

    Ocular examinations were performed on cattle, cats, mink, and mice affected with Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS). Bovine eyes were examined grossly and with an indirect ophthalmoscope, and Schirmer tear tests were performed. Feline eyes were examined grossly as well as with an indirect opthalmoscope and a slit lamp biomicroscope, and Schirmer tear tests were done on them. Postrotatory nystagmus was induced and measured in clinically normal Siamese cats, in clinically normal Persian and domestic short-haired cats, and in cats with CHS. Mink and mouse eyes were examined grossly with focal illumination. The animals with CHS had photophobia, pale irises, and fundic hypopigmentation associated with red fundic light reflections. Cats with CHS also had cataracts. Spontaneous nystagmus was observed in four of nine cats with CHS, and the duration of induced nystagmus was longer in the cats with CHS and in Siamese cats than in clinically normal cats that were not Siamese. Tear secretion appeared to be normal in all species of animals with CHS. The ocular manifestations of CHS in these animals were compared with those reported in man and were found to be similar.

  2. Placement of a caudal vena cava stent for treatment of Budd-Chiari-like syndrome in a 4-month-old Ragdoll cat.

    PubMed

    Hoehne, Sabrina N; Milovancev, Milan; Hyde, Aleshia J; deMorais, Helio A; Scollan, Kate F; Nemanic, Sarah

    2014-08-15

    A 16-week-old 1.5-kg (3.3-lb) sexually intact male Ragdoll kitten that had a 9-week history of marked modified transudate ascites was evaluated. A membranous obstruction of the caudal vena cava at the cranial aspect of the liver was identified via CT angiography. Physical examination findings included a markedly distended abdomen and panting. Testing for circulating FIV antibody and FeLV antigen, a PCR assay for feline coronavirus performed on a sample of peritoneal fluid, and fecal flotation yielded negative results. A diagnosis of Budd-Chiari-like syndrome secondary to a membranous obstruction of the caudal vena cava was made. The cat was anesthetized, and the subhepatic portion of the caudal vena cava was identified and accessed via median celiotomy and direct venipuncture. A 6F 8 × 24-mm balloon-expandable nitinol biliary stent was placed across the stenotic area under fluoroscopic guidance. The patient remained free of clinical signs at the last follow-up 13 months following the procedure. Budd-Chiari-like syndrome is a rare phenomenon in veterinary medicine, and congenital malformations should be considered in young feline patients with ascites. Computed tomography angiography proved to be a helpful adjunctive imaging technique to establish a diagnosis in this case. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of a congenital caudal vena cava obstruction by means of stent placement in a juvenile cat.

  3. Ocular manifestation of disseminated Mycobacterium simiae infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, U; Arnold, P; Guscetti, F; Pfyffer, G E; Spiess, B

    2003-03-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial disease was diagnosed in an eight-year-old domestic shorthaired cat, with involvement of the skin, lungs, lymph nodes and one eye. Mycobacterium simiae was cultured from skin biopsies on solid agar and in liquid media. This organism is known to cause pulmonary, cutaneous or disseminated infection in human patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome but has never been encountered as a pathogen in companion animals. Combination treatment with rifampicin, enrofloxacin and clarithromycin resulted in complete clinical remission within six months, with no side effects. No recurrence was observed in a 22-month follow-up period.

  4. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer’s test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  5. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer's test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  6. Mouse Models for the Dissection of CHD7 Functions in Eye Development and the Molecular Basis for Ocular Defects in CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Philip J.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CHARGE syndrome (Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retardation of growth and/or development, Genital and/or urinary tract abnormalities, and Ear abnormalities and deafness) is the second-leading cause of deaf-blindness after Usher syndrome. Heterozygous mutations in CHD7 cause CHARGE syndrome in 70% to 90% of patients. We tested the hypothesis that tissue-specific mutant mice provide models for molecularly dissecting CHD7 functions during eye development. Methods The conditional Chd7flox allele was mated together with tissue-specific Cre transgenes. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the normal CHD7 pattern in the early eye primordia and to assess Chd7 mutants for expression of region-specific protein markers. Results CHD7 is present in the neural ectoderm and surface ectoderm of the eye. Deletion from neural and surface ectoderm results in severely dysmorphic eyes generally lacking recognizable optic cup structures and small lenses. Deletion from the neural ectoderm results in similar defects. Deletion from the surface ectoderm results in eyes with smaller lenses. Lens tissue and the major subdivisions of the neural ectoderm are present following conditional deletion of Chd7 from the neural ectoderm. Closure of the optic fissure depends on the Chd7 gene dose within the neural ectoderm. Conclusions Eye development requires CHD7 in multiple embryonic tissues. Lens development requires CHD7 in the surface ectoderm, whereas optic cup and stalk morphogenesis require CHD7 in the neural ectoderm. CHD7 is not absolutely required for specification of the major subdivisions within the neural ectoderm. As in humans, normal eye development in mice is sensitive to Chd7 haploinsufficiency. These data indicate the Chd7 mutant mice are models for determining the molecular etiology of ocular defects in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:26670829

  7. The Floccular Syndrome: Dynamic Changes in Eye Movements and Vestibulo-ocular Reflex in Isolated Infarction of the Cerebellar Flocculus.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario Andres; Akly, Manuel Perez; Luis, Leonel; Zee, David S

    2017-08-26

    The cerebellar flocculus is a critical structure involved in the control of eye movements. Both static and dynamic abnormalities of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have been described in animals with experimental lesions of the flocculus/paraflocculus complex. In humans, lesions restricted to the flocculus are rare so they can become an exceptional model to contrast with the clinical features in experimental animals or in patients with more generalized cerebellar diseases. Here, we examined a 67-year-old patient with an acute vestibular syndrome due to an isolated infarct of the right flocculus. We evaluated him multiple times over 6 months-to follow the changes in eye movements and vestibular function-with caloric testing, video-oculography and head-impulse testing, and the anatomical changes on imaging. Acutely, he had an ipsilateral-beating spontaneous nystagmus, bilateral gaze-evoked nystagmus, borderline impaired smooth pursuit, and a complete contraversive ocular tilt reaction. The VOR gain was reduced for head impulses directed contralateral to the lesion, and there was also an ipsilesional caloric weakness. All abnormalities progressively improved at follow-up visits but with a considerable reduction in volume of the affected flocculus on imaging. The vestibular and ocular motor findings, qualitatively similar to a previously reported patient, further clarify the "acute floccular syndrome" in humans. We also add new information about the pattern of recovery from such a lesion with corresponding changes in the size of the affected flocculus on imaging.

  8. Nationwide outbreak of red eye syndrome associated with transfusion of leukocyte-reduced red blood cell units.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Echanove, Juan; Sippy, Brian D; Chin, Arthur E; Cairns, Lisa; Haley, Rebecca; Epstein, Jay S; Richards, Michael J; Edelhauser, Henry; Hedberg, Katrina; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Jarvis, William R; Pearson, Michele L

    2006-11-01

    To characterize red eye reactions occurring within 24 hours after receipt of units of leukocyte-reduced red blood cells, determine their etiology, and investigate their potential link to transfusion. We conducted a survey of transfusion facilities nationwide to determine the scope and magnitude of the reactions; performed case-control and cohort studies among transfused patients at the facility where most reactions occurred; and performed animal experiments, using cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from leukocyte-reduction filters and filter precursors, to reproduce reactions. From January 1, 1997, through January 15, 1998, we identified 159 reactions in 117 patients from 17 states. Reactions were characterized by conjunctival erythema or hemorrhage (in 100% of patients), eye pain (in 62%), photophobia (in 46%), and decreased visual acuity (in 32%). Symptom onset occurred 1-24 hours after initiation of transfusion and resolved within a median of 5 days. Reactions were associated with transfusion sessions that included units of red blood cells filtered with a specific brand of filter, the LeukoNet filter (HemaSure) (odds ratio, 100.4; P<.001). There was a dose-response relationship between the number of LeukoNet-filtered units transfused and the attack rate for reactions, ranging from 0.8% among sessions in which 1 unit was transfused to 27.3% among sessions in which 3 or more units were transfused (P<.001). A similar ocular syndrome was elicited in rabbits injected with cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from unused LeukoNet filters or filter precursors. No reactions were reported after LeukoNet filters were withdrawn from the market. This transfusion-associated red eye syndrome was linked to a specific brand of leukocyte-reduction filter and likely resulted from cellulose acetate derivatives leached from the filter membrane.

  9. Differential diagnostic value of eye movement recording in PSP-parkinsonism, Richardson's syndrome, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Jürgens, Reinhart; Becker, Wolfgang; Valdarno, Federica; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2008-12-01

    Vertical gaze palsy is a highly relevant clinical sign in parkinsonian syndromes. As the eponymous sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), it is one of the core features in the diagnosis of this disease. Recent studies have suggested a further differentiation of PSP in Richardson's syndrome (RS) and PSP-parkinsonism (PSPP). The aim of this study was to search for oculomotor abnormalities in the PSP-P subset of a sample of PSP patients and to compare these findings with those of (i) RS patients, (ii) patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and (iii) a control group. Twelve cases of RS, 5 cases of PSP-P, and 27 cases of IPD were examined by use of video-oculography (VOG) and compared to 23 healthy normal controls. Both groups of PSP patients (RS, PSP-P) had significantly slower saccades than either IPD patients or controls, whereas no differences in saccadic eye peak velocity were found between the two PSP groups or in the comparison of IPD with controls. RS and PSP-P were also similar to each other with regard to smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), with both groups having significantly lower gain than controls (except for downward pursuit); however, SPEM gain exhibited no consistent difference between PSP and IPD. A correlation between eye movement data and clinical data (Hoehn & Yahr scale or disease duration) could not be observed. As PSP-P patients were still in an early stage of the disease when a differentiation from IPD is difficult on clinical grounds, the clear-cut separation between PSP-P and IPD obtained by measuring saccade velocity suggests that VOG could contribute to the early differentiation between these patient groups.

  10. Comparison of corneal biomechanics in Sjögren's syndrome and non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eyes by Scheimpflug based device.

    PubMed

    Long, Qin; Wang, Jing-Yi; Xu, Dong; Li, Ying

    2017-01-01

    To compare the corneal biomechanics of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and non-SS dry eyes with Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CorVis ST). Corneal biomechanics and tear film parameters, namely the Schirmer I test value, tear film break-up time (TBUT) and corneal staining score (CSS) were detected in 34 eyes of 34 dry eye patients with SS (SSDE group) and 34 dry eye subjects without SS (NSSDE group) using CorVis ST. The differences of the above parameters between the two groups were examined, and the relationship between corneal biomechanics and tear film parameters were observed. The differences in age, sex, intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were not significant between the two groups (P>0.05). The tear film parameters had significant differences between the SSDE group and NSSDE group (all P<0.05). Patients in the SSDE group had significantly lower A1-time and HC-time, but higher DA (P=0.01, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively) compared with the NSSDE group. In the SSDE group, DA was negatively correlated with TBUT (rho=-0.38, P=0.03); HC-time was negatively correlated with CSS (rho=-0.43, P=0.02). In the NSSDE group, HC-time was again negatively correlated with CSS (rho=-0.39, P=0.02). There are differences in corneal biomechanical properties between SSDE and NSSDE. The cornea of SSDE tends to show less "stiffness", as seen by a significantly shorter A1-time and HC-time, but larger DA, compared with the cornea of NSSDE. Biomechanical parameters can be influenced by different tear film parameters in both groups.

  11. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  12. Factors relevant to adoption of cats in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Jacqueline M; Miller, Katherine A; Weiss, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This study performed a multifactor analysis of the effects of the provision of toys, cage location, and cat characteristics (activity level, age, sex, and coat color) on 111 cats available for adoption in a nonhuman animal shelter. The analysis revealed a greater adopter viewing of cats housed at eye level and of those with toys-even though the toys did not affect the cats' behavior. Adopters viewed cats who were active for longer periods of time. The active cats were more likely to be adopted during the 16-week study than cats who were less active.

  13. Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome with Orally Administered CF101: Data from a Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Avni, Isaac; Garzozi, Hanna J.; Barequet, Irina S.; Segev, Fanni; Varssano, David; Sartani, Gil; Chetrit, Noa; Bakshi, Erez; Zadok, David; Tomkins, Oren; Litvin, Gilad; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Fishman, Sari; Harpaz, Zivit; Farbstein, Motti; Bar Yehuda, Sara; Silverman, Michael H.; Kerns, William D.; Bristol, David R.; Cohn, Ilan; Fishman, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of CF101, an A3 adenosine receptor agonist, in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome Design Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Participants 68 patients completed the study, 35 patients in the placebo group and 33 patients in the CF101 group. Intervention Patients were orally treated with either 1 mg CF101 pills or matching vehicle-filled placebo pills, given twice daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 2-week post-treatment observation. Main Outcome Measures Efficacy an improvement of >25% over baseline at week 12 in one of the following parameters: (a) tear break-up time (BUT); (b) superficial punctate keratitis assessed by fluorescein staining (FS); (c) Schirmer tear test 1 (ST1). Safety clinical laboratory safety tests, ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, electrocardiographic evaluations, vital sign measurements and monitoring of adverse events. Results A statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients who achieved more than 25% improvement in the corneal staining and in the clearance of corneal staining was noted between the CF101-treated group and the placebo group. Treatment with CF101 resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the mean change from baseline at week 12 of the corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus (TM) height in the CF101-treated group CF101 was well tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. A statistically significant decrease from baseline was observed in the IOP of the CF101-treated group in comparison with the placebo group. Conclusions CF101, given orally, induced a statistically significant improvement in the corneal staining and an improvement in the BUT and TM in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome. The drug was very well tolerated. These data and the anti-inflammatory characteristic of CF101 support further study

  14. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Hirotaka; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide was initially developed and approved for use in treating gastric ulcers and lesions associated with gastritis. Discovery of its ability to increase gastric mucin led to investigations of its effect on ocular surface mucin and the subsequent development for use in dry eye patients. Investigations have confirmed that rebamipide increases corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances along with improving corneal and conjunctival injury. Clinically, rebamipide ophthalmic suspensions can effectively treat tear deficiency and mucin-caused corneal epithelial damage, and can restore the microstructure responsible for tear stability. Topical rebamipide has also been shown to be effective in treating other ocular surface disorders such as lagophthalmos, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and persistent corneal erosion. Rebamipide’s ability to modify epithelial cell function, improve tear stability, and suppress inflammation in the absence of any known major side effects suggest that it may be a beneficial first drug of choice for severe dry eye treatment and other ocular surface disorders. This review summarizes the history and development of this innovative dry eye treatment from its initial use as an effective stomach medication to its current use in the treatment of dry eye in Japan. PMID:24940041

  15. The Middle-Norway eye-screening study. I. Epidemiology of the pseudo-exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, A; Blika, S; Elsås, T; Guldahl, J; Brevik, T; Hesstvedt, P; Johnsen, H; Hoff, K; Høisen, H; Kjørsvik, S

    1988-12-01

    This is the first population-based PE prevalence study allowing comparison of observations from different geographical areas. The prevalence of the PE syndrome for persons above 64 years of age was found to be 10.2, 21.0 and 19.6% in three municipalities lying distinctly apart. Of 343 married couples the man was PE-positive in 36, the woman in 34, and both in 12 cases. One of the 12 couples was excluded because the spouses were cousins. The observed number of 11 couples is significantly higher (P = 0.022) than expected assuming independent occurrence of PE syndrome. Two homozygote pairs of twins were found in this material, both of them discordant for the presence of PE syndrome. This fact along with the discrepancy between observed and expected numbers of PE positivity in both spouses may indicate environmental influence on the distribution of the syndrome.

  16. Effect of Korean Red Ginseng supplementation on dry eye syndrome in glaucoma patients - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Minkyo; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with glaucoma have difficulty using antiglaucoma eye drops because of dry eye symptom. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of Korean Red Ginseng on dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma treated with antiglaucoma eye drops. Forty-nine participants were allocated to the Korean Red Ginseng (3 g/day; n = 24) or placebo (n = 25) groups for 8 weeks. Tear film stability, fluorescein corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, tear production, grade of meibomian gland dysfunction, and dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) were evaluated at baseline and on completion of the treatment. Almost all patients displayed dry eye symptoms and signs at baseline. After the 8-week intervention, Korean Red Ginseng supplementation significantly improved the tear film stability and total Ocular Surface Disease Index score, as compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Korean Red Ginseng supplementation may provide an additional treatment option for dry eye and patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops.

  17. Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J.; Pasztor, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

  18. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  19. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiali, Larissa K.; Brannagan III, Thomas H.; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L.; Odel, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis. PMID:28182120

  20. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephanie S L; Ghadiali, Larissa K; Brannagan Iii, Thomas H; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L; Odel, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  1. The eye-tracking of social stimuli in patients with Rett syndrome and autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, José Salomão; Velloso, Renata de Lima; D'Antino, Maria Eloísa Famá; Santos, Silvana

    2015-05-01

    To compare visual fixation at social stimuli in Rett syndrome (RT) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) patients. Visual fixation at social stimuli was analyzed in 14 RS female patients (age range 4-30 years), 11 ASD male patients (age range 4-20 years), and 17 children with typical development (TD). Patients were exposed to three different pictures (two of human faces and one with social and non-social stimuli) presented for 8 seconds each on the screen of a computer attached to an eye-tracker equipment. Percentage of visual fixation at social stimuli was significantly higher in the RS group compared to ASD and even to TD groups. Visual fixation at social stimuli seems to be one more endophenotype making RS to be very different from ASD.

  2. A family with Townes-Brocks syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism and a novel mutation of the SALL1 gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Ik; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Han Wook; Oh, Sung Hee

    2010-12-01

    Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder caused by mutations in the SALL1 gene. Its signs and symptoms overlap with other genetic syndromes, including VACTERL association, Pendred syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, and cat eye syndrome. Structural vertebral abnormalities, hypoplasia of the thumb, and radial bone abnormalities, which are not usually associated with TBS, help in the differential diagnosis of these syndromes. We report the case of a family whose members were diagnosed with TBS with congenital hypothyroidism and had a novel SALL1 gene mutation.

  3. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  4. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  5. Long-Term Outcome of Treatment with Topical Corticosteroids for Severe Dry Eye Associated with Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Ho; Ji, Yong Sok; Sung, Mi Sun; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to analyze the long-term outcome of topical corticosteroid treatment for severe dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Patients who had severe dry eye associated with SS were topically treated with loteprednol etabonate 0.5% (group A, n=66) or fluorometholone 0.1% (group B, n=67) twice daily and were followed up for 2 years. Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), Schirmer test, tear film breakup time (BUT), keratoepitheliopathy, and symptom scores were measured at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. VA and IOP were not changed significantly during follow-up in either group. Schirmer test results, keratoepitheliopathy, and symptom scores at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (p<0.05) and tear film BUT at 12, 18, and 24 months (p<0.05) significantly improved after treatment compared with baseline in both groups. No significant differences between the groups were found in any parameter during follow-up. At 24 months, the number of patients with IOP elevation of more than 2 mmHg compared with baseline was 4 in group A (6.1%) and 9 in group B (13.4%). The mean IOP in these patients was lower in group A than in group B (15.00±0.82 mmHg versus 16.50±1.12 mmHg; p=0.04). Long-term application of low-dose topical corticosteroids is effective for controlling signs and symptoms of chronic, severe dry eye associated with SS. Loteprednol etabonate 0.5% may have a lower risk for IOP elevation than fluorometholone 0.1%. PMID:25914877

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer's test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer's test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES.

  8. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders – new strategies for diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Mark S.; Beckman, Kenneth A.; Luchs, Jodi I.; Allen, Quentin B.; Awdeh, Richard M.; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S.; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P.; Goldberg, Damien F.; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K.; Jackson, Mitchell A.; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A.; Malhotra, Ranjan P.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Rajpal, Rajesh K.; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D.; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A.; Waring, George O.; Weinstock, Robert J.; Wiley, William F.; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition. PMID:28099212

  9. [Population-based study of tear production in healthy individuals and patients with dry eye syndrome in Altai Republic].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Shirina, M A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time population-based study of tear production was performed, prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome (DES) were determined in native ethnic group of Altai Republic--tubalars. Authors examined 673 people, representing 44% of the whole tubalar population. The mean total tear production (Shirmer test I) was 13,3 +/- 0,3 mm in healthy (without DES signs) tubalars. It ranges in 22,6% of healthy tubalars from 0 to 5 mm, in 20,8%--6 to 11 mm, in 20,5%--12 to 17 mm, in 34,5%-- > 17 mm. Prevalence of DES in tubalar population is 86,18 per thousand. Total tear production (Shirmer test I) in tubalars with DES ranges from 0 to 5 mm in 34%, 6-11 mm in 31,5%, 12-17 mm in 21% and > 17 mm in 13% of eyes. This results showed Shirmer test I to be nonspecific in diagnosis of DES. In author's opinion this test may be useful for follow-up and for assessment of treatment efficacy.

  10. Lipidomic analysis of human tear fluid reveals structure-specific lipid alterations in dry eye syndrome1[S

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Louis; Reux, Bastien; Duan, Xinrui; Petznick, Andrea; Yong, Siew Sian; Khee, Cynthia Boo Shiao; Lear, Martin J.; Wenk, Markus R.; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-01-01

    As current diagnostic markers for dry eye syndrome (DES) are lacking in both sensitivity and specificity, a pressing concern exists to develop activity markers that closely align with the principal axes of disease progression. In this study, a comprehensive lipidomic platform designated for analysis of the human tear lipidome was employed to characterize changes in tear lipid compositions from a cohort of 93 subjects of different clinical subgroups classified based on the presence of dry eye symptoms and signs. Positive correlations were observed between the tear levels of cholesteryl sulfates and glycosphingolipids with physiological secretion of tears, which indicated the possible lacrimal (instead of meibomian) origin of these lipids. Notably, we found wax esters of low molecular masses and those containing saturated fatty acyl moieties were specifically reduced with disease and significantly correlated with various DES clinical parameters such as ocular surface disease index, tear breakup time, and Schirmer's I test (i.e., both symptoms and signs). These structure-specific changes in tear components with DES could potentially serve as unifying indicators of disease symptoms and signs. In addition, the structurally-specific aberrations in tear lipids reported here were found in patients with or without aqueous deficiency, suggesting a common pathology for both DES subtypes. PMID:24287121

  11. Acupuncture therapy is more effective than artificial tears for dry eye syndrome: evidence based on a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Yang, Zongguo; Yu, Hong; Song, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of acupuncture in dry eye syndrome patients remains controversial. Methods. Pubmed, Ovid, Cochrane libraries, CNKI, Wanfang, and CQVIP databases were electronically searched until October 1, 2014. Outcomes including tear break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), and cornea fluorescein staining (CFS) were analyzed. A meta-analysis was performed using both fixed- and random-effects models based on heterogeneity across studies. Results. Seven studies were included in this study; 198 and 185 patients were randomly treated with acupuncture and artificial tears, respectively. The overall BUT of patients in acupuncture group was significantly longer than that of the artificial tears group after treatment (P < 0.00001). The SIT was significantly higher in the acupuncture group than that in the artificial tears group after treatment (P = 0.001). The CFS of patients in acupuncture group was significantly improved compared to that in artificial group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Acupuncture therapy is effective for the dry eye patients, partly better than artificial tear treatment.

  12. Increased frequency of DNA deletions in pink-eyed unstable mice carrying a mutation in the Werner syndrome gene homologue.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases, including cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that the WS gene product is involved in resolving aberrant DNA structures that may arise during the process of DNA replication and/or transcription. To estimate the frequency of DNA deletions directly in the skin of mouse embryos, mice with a deletion of part of the murine WRN helicase domain were created. These mutant mice were then crossed to the pink-eyed unstable animals, which have a 70 kb internal duplication at the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene. This report indicates that the frequency of deletion of the duplicated sequence at the p locus is elevated in mice with a mutation in the WRN allele when compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the inhibitor of topoisomerase I camptothecin also increases the frequency of deletion at the p locus. This frequency is even more elevated in WRN mutant mice treated with camptothecin. In contrast, while the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity by 3-aminobenzamide increases the frequency of DNA deletion, mutant WRN mice are not significantly more sensitive to the inhibition of PARP activity than wild-type animals.

  13. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders - new strategies for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Milner, Mark S; Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi I; Allen, Quentin B; Awdeh, Richard M; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P; Goldberg, Damien F; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K; Jackson, Mitchell A; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A; Malhotra, Ranjan P; McDonald, Marguerite B; Rajpal, Rajesh K; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A; Waring, George O; Weinstock, Robert J; Wiley, William F; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition.

  14. Sleep patterns are disturbed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Prospéro-García, O; Herold, N; Phillips, T R; Elder, J H; Bloom, F E; Henriksen, S J

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sleep disturbances have been reported early in AIDS. Likewise, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a natural lentivirus pathogen of cats, produces a similar immunodeficiency syndrome with neurological sequelae. To identify the neurophysiological substrate of FIV infection in brain, pathogen-free cats were infected with the Maryland strain of FIV. Eight weeks after inoculation, all FIV-infected cats seroconverted and virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and in the mononuclear cells of peripheral blood. Ten to 12 months after the FIV inoculation, inoculated and control cats were surgically implanted with electrodes to record the sleep/wake cycle. These sleep recordings were obtained under conditions controlling for environmental variables and instrumental adaptation. FIV-infected cats spent 50% more time awake than the sham-inoculated controls and exhibited many more sleep/waking stage shifts--i.e., 40% more than controls. In addition, FIV-infected cats showed approximately 30% of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reduction compared to controls. The latency to sleep and REM sleep onset was also significantly delayed in FIV-infected cats. In addition, a remarkable increase in cortically recorded spindle activity (8-13 Hz) was observed during slow-wave sleep in some infected subjects, similar to changes described in HIV-infected humans. Moreover, infected cats exhibited no overt signs of systemic morbidity, such as hyperpyrexia or body weight loss. These results indicate that FIV-infected cats exhibit sleep abnormalities similar to the sleep disturbances previously described in AIDS patients and further support the feline preparation as a valuable animal model of HIV infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7809152

  15. Post Filtering Surgery Globe Massage-induced Keratoconus in an Eye with Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Fakhraie, Ghasem; Vahedian, Zakieh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of unilateral post trabeculectomy globe massage-induced keratoconus (KCN). Case Report: A 52-year-old lady with a history of trabeculectomy due to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her right eye was instructed to massage her globe to control gradual rise of intraocular pressure 1.5 years after surgery. The patient experienced high astigmatism and marked inferior corneal steepening after 3 years of globe massage. The left eye was normal in all aspects. Findings in different visual examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of unilateral KCN in the right eye of our patient. Conclusion: Chronic forceful frequent eye rubbing particularly with fingertips can be assumed to be the most important causative factor for KCN formation in this patient. PMID:27621792

  16. Post Filtering Surgery Globe Massage-induced Keratoconus in an Eye with Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Fakhraie, Ghasem; Vahedian, Zakieh

    2016-01-01

    To report a case of unilateral post trabeculectomy globe massage-induced keratoconus (KCN). A 52-year-old lady with a history of trabeculectomy due to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her right eye was instructed to massage her globe to control gradual rise of intraocular pressure 1.5 years after surgery. The patient experienced high astigmatism and marked inferior corneal steepening after 3 years of globe massage. The left eye was normal in all aspects. Findings in different visual examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of unilateral KCN in the right eye of our patient. Chronic forceful frequent eye rubbing particularly with fingertips can be assumed to be the most important causative factor for KCN formation in this patient.

  17. [Efficacy of physiotherapy and hygienic procedures in treatment of adults and children with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Prozornaia, L P; Brzhevskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    110 patients aged from 3 to 42 years old were examined to estimate the efficacy of chronic blepharitis treatment: 50 patients with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (DES), 28 with DES due to computer vision syndrome and 32 with isolated chronic blepharitis. All patients received eyelid massage. If the secretion was too thick and difficult to evacuate from meibomian glands then duct probing was performed. In addition a complex of hygienic procedures was performed using phytoproducts ("Geltec-Medika", Russia): blepharoshampoo, blepharolotion, blepharogel 1 and 2. Moist warm pads (with blepharolotion and calendula extraction) were applied on the eyelids in 25 patients. Massage and probing of meibomian gland ducts and hygienic procedures were showed to be effective in management of clinical signs of chronic blepharitis including coexisting DES. Moist warm pads improve efficacy of background therapy in patients with meibomian gland hypofunction and have no effect in blepharitis with excessive meibomian gland secretion. Eyelid hygiene was showed to be effective in adults and children as well including infants.

  18. Spatial Breakdown in Spatial Construction: Evidence from Eye Fixations in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara; Pagani, Barney

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the role of executive and spatial representational processes in impaired performance of block construction tasks by children with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic defect that results in severely impaired spatial cognition. In Experiment 1, we examined performance in two kinds of block construction tasks, Simple Puzzles, in…

  19. Reliability of Eye Tracking and Pupillometry Measures in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Scaggs, Felicia; Hervey, Crystal; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent insight into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has led to the proposal and development of new pharmaceutical treatment strategies, and the initiation of clinical trials aimed at correcting core symptoms of the developmental disorder. Consequently, there is an urgent and critical need for outcome…

  20. "Hungry Eyes": Visual Processing of Food Images in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P. F.; Dykens, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, compulsivity, hyperphagia and increased risks of life-threatening obesity. Food preferences in people with PWS are well documented, but research has yet to focus on other properties of food in PWS, including composition and suitability for…

  1. "Hungry Eyes": Visual Processing of Food Images in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P. F.; Dykens, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, compulsivity, hyperphagia and increased risks of life-threatening obesity. Food preferences in people with PWS are well documented, but research has yet to focus on other properties of food in PWS, including composition and suitability for…

  2. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  3. Spatial Breakdown in Spatial Construction: Evidence from Eye Fixations in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara; Pagani, Barney

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the role of executive and spatial representational processes in impaired performance of block construction tasks by children with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic defect that results in severely impaired spatial cognition. In Experiment 1, we examined performance in two kinds of block construction tasks, Simple Puzzles, in…

  4. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  5. Reliability of Eye Tracking and Pupillometry Measures in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Scaggs, Felicia; Hervey, Crystal; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent insight into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has led to the proposal and development of new pharmaceutical treatment strategies, and the initiation of clinical trials aimed at correcting core symptoms of the developmental disorder. Consequently, there is an urgent and critical need for outcome…

  6. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chen, Ko-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v) HA (E10/HA) compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits. PMID:27336157

  7. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chen, Ko-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v) HA (E10/HA) compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits.

  8. The Use of Topical Corticosteroids for Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Carlo Alberto; Barabino, Stefano; Bonzano, Chiara; Traverso, Carlo Enrico

    2017-09-14

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and damage to the ocular surface. Because chronic inflammation plays an important role in DED, treatment with topical corticosteroids has been demonstrated to ameliorate the signs and symptoms of the disease. Although these agents have proven short-term efficacy, their long-term use may cause intraocular pressure elevation and cataract progression. A carefully review of the different studies shows that differences between corticosteroids may exist regarding the incidence of side effects and evidence of efficacy in DED patients.

  9. Choroidal abnormalities and masquerade syndromes confounding the diagnosis of laser-induced eye injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Henry D.; Zwick, Harry; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Dicks, Ronald; Cheramie, Rachel; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2005-04-01

    The diagnosis of a laser-induced eye injury occurring in occupational or military environments is often complicated by confounding symptoms, the possibility of pre-existing pathology, and/or a lack of visual deficits that can be clearly associated with a specific incident. Two recent cases are described that illustrate the importance of a thorough differential diagnosis when coexisting retinal pathologies are present with potentially different (e.g. laser or disease) etiologies. Indocyanine green angiography (ICG) and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) used in combination with standard ophthalmic imaging can provide helpful insights as to the etiology of these lesions. Vascular choroidal abnormalities such as hemangiomas or occult histoplasmosis infection can produce findings that can mimic the leakage that may be evident from neovascular membranes associated with laser injury. Further evaluation with OCT and conventional fluorescein angiography (FA) is helpful to look for the classic signature of retinal disruption and retinal pigment layer changes that are often present in association with laser injury. Furthermore, a careful situational assessment of a potential laser exposure is important to confirm the diagnosis of laser-induced eye injury.

  10. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies - Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2004-01-01

    We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene.

  11. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  12. Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing as Treatment for Chronic Pain Syndromes: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tefft, Angela J; Jordan, Irma O

    2016-04-05

    Chronic pain is public health problem in the United States, costing upwards of $560 to $635 billion annually. Guidelines consistently recommend psychological treatment for chronic pain. Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) psychotherapy may provide an alternate approach to treating chronic pain. Review of literature to evaluate the effectiveness of EMDR in the treatment of chronic pain. A literature search of seven databases was conducted to find relevant studies addressing the use of EMDR for chronic pain. Most studies reported improvement in pain and psychological indices with EMDR. Because most literature reported case studies, the results have limited generalizability. However, for clients who suffer from chronic pain, EMDR is a reasonable treatment alternative. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Adaptation of the tear film to work in air-conditioned rooms (office-eye syndrome).

    PubMed

    Sommer, H J; Johnen, J; Schöngen, P; Stolze, H H

    1994-11-01

    To detect mechanisms of tear-film adaptation to a dry climate, we investigated co-workers in our hospital with air-conditioned rooms. Three groups were formed according to the time of occupancy (6 months to 2 years, 2-4 years, and 4-6 years) and were compared with a control group. The number of patients with frequent dry-eye complaints increased up to 48%, reaching a steady state after 2-4 years. The breakup time was slightly reduced (decrease, 17.5%; P < 0.01) and also reached a steady state after 2-4 years. The tear-ferning test, however, showed a highly significant improvement (P < 0.01). A slight reduction in the Schirmer test was found. Our study indicates that improved tear quality is important for adaptation to long-standing increased evaporation of the tear film.

  14. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Donghyun; Kang, Seungbum; Yuan, Changzheng; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. Methods A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies. Results The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55–1.30, P for trend = 0.076) after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30–1.64) and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59–0.99) were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18–0.76) and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12–0.81) were lower in men. Conclusions The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES. PMID:26894581

  15. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jee, Donghyun; Kang, Seungbum; Yuan, Changzheng; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies. The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55-1.30, P for trend = 0.076) after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.64) and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99) were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76) and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81) were lower in men. The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES.

  16. Horner's syndrome associated with a mandibular symphyseal fracture and bilateral temporomandibular luxation.

    PubMed

    Baines, S J; Langley-Hobbs, S

    2001-12-01

    Interruption of the postganglionic neuron in the sympathetic pathway to the eye is reported to be a common cause of Horner's syndrome in the cat, although there are few clinical reports identifying the site and nature of the lesion responsible. A case of Horner's syndrome resulting from trauma to the periorbital structures following reduction of temporomandibular joint luxation is presented. In this case, the ophthalmic abnormalities resolved spontaneously over eight days.

  17. Tear-film osmolarity in normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kyshia; Townsend, Wendy

    2011-09-01

    To compare the tear-film osmolarity of normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis. The population consisted of shelter, research, and privately owned cats. Cats were classified as normal or having conjunctivitis. An ophthalmic examination including Schirmer tear test (STT), fluorescein staining, tear-film break-up time (TFBUT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment was performed. The severity of conjunctivitis was graded and assigned a numerical score. The Tear Lab(TM) Osmolarity System was utilized to determine the tear-film osmolarity. Unpaired t-tests were used to compare tear-film osmolarity, TFBUT, IOP, and STT of the two groups. A total of 93 cats (186 eyes) were examined. There were 37 normal cats (74 eyes) and 39 conjunctivitis cats (78 eyes). The mean age was 2.34 years. There was no statistical difference (P = 0.2065) between the median tear-film osmolarity of normal cats (328.5 ± 17.94 mOsms/L) and conjunctivitis cats (325.0 ± 24.84 mOsms/L). Cats with conjunctivitis had an accelerated TFBUT (P < 0.0001) and lower IOPs (P < 0.0001) as compared to normal cats. No statistical difference was found between STT values (P = 0.1304). The median tear-film osmolarity of normal cats was 328.5 mOsms/L. Despite the accelerated TFBUT, conjunctivitis did not cause a statistically significant change in tear-film osmolarity. The Tear Lab(TM) Osmolarity System was easily used and well tolerated by the cats in the study. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  19. Visual acuity in adults with Asperger's syndrome: no evidence for "eagle-eyed" vision.

    PubMed

    Falkmer, Marita; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Danielsson, Henrik; Bram, Staffan; Lönebrink, Mikael; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2011-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication. Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently, Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been the subject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt. The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger's syndrome and compared their results with 25 control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart. The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity. Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger's syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visual perception in ASC are not explained by this factor. A continued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in persons with ASC is therefore warranted. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Association between Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome and Metabolic Outcome in a General Population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Won; Park, Jong Woon

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is recognized as a public health concern. One of the pathophysiologies in the development of DES is inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is highly prevalent in the general population, is a well-known chronic and systemic inflammatory condition. Despite the increasing interest regarding a relationship between DES and MetS, information is lacking on the association between DES and MetS and its individual components. We investigated the association between DES symptoms and MetS and its components among adults aged ≥ 19 years using population-based data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. A sample group of 15,294 adults (42.67% men and 57.33% women) completed household interviews in which they provided blood (for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose) and anthropometric measurements (including waist circumference, weight, and height) to define MetS. We also collected information regarding sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. The survey results showed that 11.50% of men and 22.35% of women experienced DES and 5.30% of patients had both DES and diagnosis of MetS, including 204 men and 606 women. Thus, no significant difference was observed between DES and the diagnosis of MetS according to sex (P = 0.4008 in men; P = 0.0804 in women); however, a significant association was observed between DES and hypertriglyceridemia in women (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29). Therefore, hypertriglyceridemia might be an important factor in the association between DES and MetS. Further longitudinal research is needed to evaluate this relationship.

  1. [Surgical treatment of Duane's syndrome type I by recession of the medial rectus of the affected eye and faden operation of the contralateral medial rectus].

    PubMed

    Puerto-Hernández, B; López-Caballero, C; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J M; González-Manrique, M; Contreras, I

    2008-02-01

    Different surgical approaches have been described for the treatment of Duane's syndrome. The purpose of our study is to report the results of patients undergoing recession of the medial rectus (MR) muscle of the affected eye and placement of contralateral MR faden posterior fixation sutures. Retrospective study of 11 patients treated by a 4-7 mm recession of the MR of the affected eye and 13 mm faden posterior fixation suture of the contralateral MR in order to correct abnormal head position and esotropia in primary position. After surgery, there was no torticolis in 81.8% of patients, with less than 10 degrees of torticolis in the remainder. In all patients, postoperative esotropia was less than 5 prismatic dioptres. This is a safe and effective procedure in Duane's syndrome type I to treat moderate esotropia and torticolis.

  2. Cat Scratch Disease: Not a Benign Condition.

    PubMed

    Barros, Sandra; De Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Cavalcanti, Cecilia; Nascimento, Heloisa

    2017-06-30

    Describe a case series of ocular Cat-scratch-disease (CSD) with vision-threatening findings and poor outcomes, indicating severity of disease. Retrospective case series from the Uveitis Department of São Paulo Federal University from 2011 to 2015. In this period, six eyes of four patients had confirmed diagnosis of CSD. Two were male and two female. Mean age was 24.8 years old [7-45]. Two had bilateral disease. Visual acuity at presentation ranged from no light perception to 20/25. Three patients were treated with doxycycline and one with clarithromycin and prednisone. Visual outcome after treatment ranged from counting fingers to 20/20: 5/6 eyes had final visual acuity of less than 20/40 and 3/6 had final visual acuity equal or less than 20/400. Although usually described as a benign disease with spontaneous resolution, CSD can present with atypical manifestations such as vascular angiomatous lesions, serous retinal detachment, and vascular occlusion syndromes, carrying a severe course and guarded prognosis.

  3. Dancing Eyes Dancing Feet Syndrome-A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, S; V, Sriramakrishnan; M, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Opsoclonus Myoclonus (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder which appears to be the result of an autoimmune dysfunction. It is an extremely rare condition, affecting as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people every year. It affects 2 to 3% of children. Opsoclonus Myoclonus, which manifests itself as post infectious encephalopathy, occasionally along with HIV infection, post Streptococcal infection, West Nile virus encephalitis and Rickettsial infection, most often presents as a paraneoplastic syndrome, which is especially caused by occult neuroblastoma which is commonly seen in childhood and occurs in adults in relation to breast cancer and small cell lung cancer. In this study, two adult post infectious cases which had rare manifestations, have been presented. The cases were managed by using corticosteroids. PMID:24995204

  4. Supercritical fluid-mediated liposomes containing cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a rabbit model: comparative study with the conventional cyclosporin A emulsion.

    PubMed

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Kim, Hyun Do; Kang, Han; Sun, Bo Kyung; Jin, Su-Eon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporin (CsA)-encapsulated liposomes with the commercially available CsA emulsion (Restasis) for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in rabbits. Liposomes containing CsA were prepared by the supercritical fluid (SCF) method consisted of phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SCF-S100) and egg lecithins (SCF-EPCS). An in vitro permeation study was carried out using artificial cellulose membrane in Franz diffusion cells. Dry eye syndrome was induced in male albino rabbits and further subdivided into untreated, Restasis-treated, EPCS, and S100-treated groups. Tear formation in the dry-eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test. All formulations were also evaluated by ocular irritation tests using the Draize eye and winking methods with the determination of CsA concentration in rabbit tears. After the treatment, the Schirmer tear test value significantly improved in EPCS-treated (P=0.005) and S100-treated (P=0.018) groups compared to the Restasis-treated group. The AUC₀₋₂₄ h for rabbit's tear film after the administration of SCF-S100 was 32.75±9.21 μg·h/mg which was significantly higher than that of 24.59±8.69 μg·h/mg reported with Restasis. Liposomal CsA formulations used in this study showed lower irritation in rabbit eyes compared with Restasis. These results demonstrate that the novel SCF-mediated liposomal CsA promises a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges associated with the treatment of dry eyes.

  5. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  6. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in cats.

    PubMed

    Del Sole, María J; Sande, Pablo H; Bernades, José M; Aba, Marcelo A; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy domestic cats with no evidence of ocular disease and to analyze the influence of photoperiod, age, gender and ocular diseases on diurnal-nocturnal variations of cat IOP. All animals were Domestic Short-haired cats; 30 were without systemic or ocular diseases, classified as follows: 12 male intact adult cats, five intact adult female, five adult spayed female, and eight male cats; the latter were less than 1 year of age. In addition, five adult cats with uveitis and three adult cats with secondary glaucoma were included. IOP was assessed with a Tono-Pen XL at 3-h intervals over a 24-h period in 12 healthy adult male cats kept under a photoperiod of 12-h light/12-h darkness for 2 weeks. Eight animals from the same group were then kept under constant darkness for 48 h, and IOP was measured at 3-h intervals for the following 24 h. In addition, IOP was assessed at 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. in five intact females, five spayed females, and in eight young cats, as well as in five adult cats with uveitis and three glaucomatous cats. Consistent, daily variations in IOP were observed in animals exposed to a light-dark cycle, with maximal values during the night. In cats exposed to constant darkness, maximal values of IOP were observed at subjective night. Differences of IOP values between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. (diurnal-nocturnal variations) persisted in intact females, spayed females, and young animals, as well as in uveitic and glaucomatous eyes. The present results indicate a daily rhythm of cat IOP, which appears to persist in constant darkness, suggesting some level of endogenous circadian control. In addition, daily variations of cat IOP seem to be independent of gender, age, or ocular diseases (particularly uveitis and glaucoma).

  7. Eye Gaze Technology as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: Experiences of Families in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Townend, Gillian S; Marschik, Peter B; Smeets, Eric; van de Berg, Raymond; van den Berg, Mariёlle; Curfs, Leopold M G

    This paper provides a brief report on families' experiences of eye gaze technology as one form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), and the advice, training and support they receive in relation to this. An online survey exploring communication and AAC was circulated to 190 Dutch families; of the 67 questionnaires that were returned, 63 had answered questions relating to eye gaze technology. These 63 were analysed according to parameters including: experiences during trial periods and longer-term use; expert knowledge, advice and support; funding; communicative progress; and family satisfaction. 20 respondents were using or had previous experience of using an eye gaze system at the time of the survey, 28 of those with no prior experience wanted to try a system in the future. Following a trial period, 11 systems had been funded through health insurance for long-term use and two families had decided a system was not appropriate for them. Levels of support during trials and following long-term provision varied. Despite frustrations with the technology, satisfaction with the systems was higher than satisfaction with the support. The majority of families reported progress in their child's skills with longer term use. These findings suggest that although eye gaze technologies offer potential to individuals with RTT and their families, greater input from suppliers and knowledgeable AAC professionals is essential for individuals and families to benefit maximally. Higher levels of training and support should be part of the 'package' when an eye gaze system is provided.

  8. Tear Film Stability in Sjögren Syndrome Patients Treated with Hyaluronic Acid Versus Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Cagini, Carlo; Torroni, Giovanni; Fiore, Tito; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Lupidi, Marco; Aragona, Pasquale; Iaccheri, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    To compare the stability of the tear film after instillation of eye drops containing hyaluronic acid (HA) or crosslinked hyaluronic acid (CLHA)-based in patients with Sjögren syndrome-related dry eye (SSDE). Forty subjects were included in this study and were divided into 2 groups: the first group (control group) consisted of 20 healthy volunteers; the second group (study group) constituted of 20 suffering from SSDE; before and 5, 30, and 60 min after instillation of eye drops the surface regularity index (SRI) and surface asymmetry index (SAI) were registered. Comparing HA and CLHA, in the control group, SAI show statistically significant difference in the time 0 and in time 5, whereas there is no a statistically significant difference after 30 and 60 min from instillation. For SRI there is no statistically significant difference at any time. In SSDE group there is no statistically significant difference in the time 0 and 5, whereas there is a statistically significant difference after 60 min for SAI, and after 30 and 60 min for SRI from instillation. Both SRI and SAI in dry eyes were significantly greater than in control eyes (P < 0.05). Our study showed a better efficacy of CLHA compared with HA in maintaining the stability of the tear film in a patient suffering from SSDE.

  9. Exploring inhibitory deficits in female premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome: through eye movements.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim; Kraan, Claudine; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Bradshaw, John L; Hocking, Darren R; Archibald, Alison D; Cohen, Jonathan; Trollor, Julian N; Fielding, Joanne

    2014-03-01

    There is evidence which demonstrates that a subset of males with a premutation CGG repeat expansion (between 55 and 200 repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene exhibit subtle deficits of executive function that progressively deteriorate with increasing age and CGG repeat length. However, it remains unclear whether similar deficits, which may indicate the onset of more severe degeneration, are evident in female PM-carriers. In the present study we explore whether female PM-carriers exhibit deficits of executive function which parallel those of male PM-carriers. Fourteen female fragile X premutation carriers without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and fourteen age, sex, and IQ matched controls underwent ocular motor and neuropsychological tests of select executive processes, specifically of response inhibition and working memory. Group comparisons revealed poorer inhibitory control for female premutation carriers on ocular motor tasks, in addition to demonstrating some difficulties in behaviour self-regulation, when compared to controls. A negative correlation between CGG repeat length and antisaccade error rates for premutation carriers was also found. Our preliminary findings indicate that impaired inhibitory control may represent a phenotype characteristic which may be a sensitive risk biomarker within this female fragile X premutation population.

  10. Impaired ADAMTS9 secretion: A potential mechanism for eye defects in Peters Plus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dubail, Johanne; Vasudevan, Deepika; Wang, Lauren W.; Earp, Sarah E.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Apte, Suneel S.

    2016-01-01

    Peters Plus syndrome (PPS), a congenital disorder of glycosylation, results from recessive mutations affecting the glucosyltransferase B3GLCT, leading to congenital corneal opacity and diverse extra-ocular manifestations. Together with the fucosyltransferase POFUT2, B3GLCT adds Glucoseβ1-3Fucose disaccharide to a consensus sequence in thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs) of several proteins. Which of these target proteins is functionally compromised in PPS is unknown. We report here that haploinsufficiency of murine Adamts9, encoding a secreted metalloproteinase with 15 TSRs, leads to congenital corneal opacity and Peters anomaly (persistent lens-cornea adhesion), which is a hallmark of PPS. Mass spectrometry of recombinant ADAMTS9 showed that 9 of 12 TSRs with the O-fucosylation consensus sequence carried the Glucoseβ1-3Fucose disaccharide and B3GLCT knockdown reduced ADAMTS9 secretion in HEK293F cells. Together, the genetic and biochemical findings imply a dosage-dependent role for ADAMTS9 in ocular morphogenesis. Reduced secretion of ADAMTS9 in the absence of B3GLCT is proposed as a mechanism of Peters anomaly in PPS. The functional link between ADAMTS9 and B3GLCT established here also provides credence to their recently reported association with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27687499

  11. Diverse Clinical Signs of Ocular Involvement in Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oray, Merih; Önal, Sumru; Koç Akbay, Aylin; Tuğal Tutkun, İlknur

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Results: Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male) with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye), optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis), retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig) M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day) was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Conclusion: Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations. PMID:28182175

  12. Diverse Clinical Signs of Ocular Involvement in Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Oray, Merih; Önal, Sumru; Koç Akbay, Aylin; Tuğal Tutkun, İlknur

    2017-01-01

    To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male) with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye), optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis), retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig) M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day) was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations.

  13. Overlapping irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: less to this than meets the eye?

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS. Access to methodologies, such the assay for levels of calprotectin in feces, now allows identification of ongoing inflammation in some such individuals and prompts appropriate therapy. More challenging is the IBD patient with persisting symptoms and no detectable evidence of inflammation; is this coincident IBS, IBS triggered by IBD or an even more subtle level of IBD activity unrecognized by available laboratory or imaging methods? Arguments can be advanced for each of these proposals; lacking definitive data, this issue remains unresolved. The occurrence of IBS-type symptoms in the IBD patient, together with some data suggesting a very subtle level of ‘inflammation‘ or ‘immune activation‘ in IBS, raises other questions: is IBS a prodromal form of IBD; and are IBS and IBD part of the spectrum of the same disease? All of the available evidence indicates that the answer to both these questions should be a resounding ‘no’. Indeed, the whole issue of overlap between IBS and IBD should be declared moot given their differing pathophysiologies, contrasting natural histories and divergent treatment paths. The limited symptom repertoire of the gastrointestinal tract may well be fundamental to the apparent confusion that has, of late, bedeviled this area. PMID:26929782

  14. Comparison of Visceral Fat Accumulation and Metabolome Markers among Cats of Varying BCS and Novel Classification of Feline Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yuki; Kobayashi, Motoo; Sawamura, Masaki; Arai, Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    As in humans, obesity and its associated diseases represent the most significant threat to the health of veterinary populations. Previous human studies have provided insights into the risk factors of obesity, complex pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, and their life-threatening consequences. In humans, the “metabolic syndrome” represents a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and its complications increase health-care utilization and medical expenses. Early diagnosis and intervention through preemptive approach is in need, and the new International Diabetes Federation definition of MS serves as the universally accepted diagnostic tool that is accessible in clinical settings. In veterinary populations, especially in cats, similar pathophysiological path and disease progression to the development of MS, such as adipokine dysregulations, chronic inflammation, lipotoxicity, are expected. The aim of this manuscript is twofold. First of all, it presents our preliminary feline obesity study that serves as the basis for discussion of obesity and its metabolic impact on feline population. In this study, we observed the effects of weight gain on energy metabolism using metabolome markers, such as adiponectin (ADN) and proinflammatory cytokines, in correlation with other common biochemical parameters in 14 clinically healthy cats of varying weight status. Further, we evaluated the visceral fat accumulation in three subjects of varying Body Condition Scores via computed tomography imaging and laparoscopic examination, and assessed the adipocyte type and size histologically. Mutually antagonizing changes in ADN and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) reflected the pathophysiological derangements leading to MS earlier than the common biochemical predictors such as glucose, liver values, and lipid markers. Second, it proposes the

  15. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  16. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  17. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Ophthalmic Inserts (Lacrisert) Reduce the Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome and Improve Patient Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Marguerite; D’Aversa, Gerard; Perry, Henry D.; Wittpenn, John R.; Donnenfeld, Eric D.; Nelinson, Donald S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A multicenter, 2-visit, open-label, 4-week study was conducted to determine the acceptability of hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic inserts in adult patients with a history of dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: At visit 1, patients (N = 520) were evaluated, screened by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), a validated measure of quality of life. Patients were trained in the proper placement and use of hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic inserts and were contacted by telephone on day 3 of the study. At week 4, patients were given a clinical evaluation and completed a second questionnaire. Answers determined changes in symptoms and quality of life. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results: Four hundred eighteen patients completed the study and reported significant improvements in discomfort, burning, dryness, grittiness, stinging, and light sensitivity (P = .05) after 4 weeks use of hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic inserts. Significant improvements in clinical signs (keratitis, conjunctival staining, and tear volume) were reported. Contact lens wearers reported significant improvements similar to nonwearers, with a strong trend toward improvement in light sensitivity. Mean OSDI total scores, measuring quality of life, significantly improved by 21.3% (from 41.8 ± 22.38 to 32.9 ± 21.97, P ≤ .0215). The most commonly reported adverse event leading to discontinuation was blurred vision, observed in 8.7% of patients (n = 45). Compliance during the study was good; 41.5% of subjects were fully compliant. Of the 58.5% of subjects who missed doses, the majority (69.4%) missed only one to five. Conclusions: Hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic inserts significantly reduced symptoms and clinical signs of moderate to severe DES. They also significantly improved DES in patients wearing contact lenses. Patients experienced a statistically significant improvement in quality of life, as measured by the OSDI, of

  18. Effects of Labeling and Pointing on Object Gaze in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastergeorge, Ann M.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    We examined the visual processing of a social learning stimulus and the ways in which visual attention was distributed to objects as well as to the examiner’s face during word learning under conditions that varied only in the presence or absence of a label. The goal of the current study, then, was to evaluate the effects of differentially providing pointing and labeling during exposure to a novel target object in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n = 14, ages 4.33–10.02), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 17, ages 4.04–10.4), or typical development (TD) (n = 18, ages 2.05–5.33). In particular, the present study examined attention to the examiner’s face as well as target and distracter objects that were presented as video stimuli. An eye-tracker captured gaze to the video stimuli as they were shown in order to examine the way in which children with FXS, ASD, or TD distributed their gaze toward the examiner and the objects. Results indicated that no group showed increased gaze toward the target object compared to the distracter object. However, results revealed that participants with FXS showed significantly increased face gaze compared to the novel objects, whereas children with ASD and TD both showed similar amounts of relative gaze toward the face and objects. Furthermore, the act of pointing at the target object was found to increase gaze toward the target objects compared to when there was no pointing in all groups. Together, these findings suggest that social cues like those employed in a word-learning task, when presented with video, may relate to gaze in FXS in context- or task-dependent ways that are distinct from those expected during live interaction. PMID:25062097

  19. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Cyclosporin A Nanoemulsion in the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Seung; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Hyon, Joon Young; Shin, Ko Un; Choi, Chul Young

    2017-09-01

    Topical administration of the anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporin A (CsA) is recommended for long-term management of dry eye syndrome (DES), yet standard ophthalmic CsA preparations have been reported to be unstable. In this trial, the efficacy and safety of Clacier™ (based on a phase 3 study developed by Huons Co. Ltd.), a novel 0.05% CsA nanoemulsion formulation, are compared with those of the conventional Restasis(®) emulsion. Patients with moderate-to-severe DES were randomly assigned to receive topical 0.05% CsA in the form of Clacier or Restasis, to be administered twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from baseline in corneal fluorescein staining scores at week 12; changes at weeks 4 and 8 were secondary endpoints. Additional endpoints included score changes from baseline in nonanesthetic Schirmer's test I, tear breakup time, ocular surface disease index, and conjunctival staining. At week 12, corneal staining scores were improved in patients treated with Clacier and Restasis, with no significant difference between treatments (P = 0.41). Temporal conjunctival surface damage was significantly more ameliorated with Clacier treatment than with Restasis treatment (P = 0.034). Notably, tear film stability was improved more rapidly in Clacier patients at week 4 (P = 0.005) than in Restasis patients (P = 0.36). Improvements in tear production were comparable with both Clacier and Restasis treatments. Clacier did not increase the risk of adverse events as compared with Restasis. Treatment with Clacier alleviated clinical signs and symptoms of DES comparably to the commercially available Restasis, resulting in improved quality of life for patients. Clacier is an effective and safe therapeutic agent for DES.

  20. Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability.

    PubMed

    Heitger, Marcus H; Jones, Richard D; Macleod, A D; Snell, Deborah L; Frampton, Chris M; Anderson, Tim J

    2009-10-01

    Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) can affect up to 20%-30% of patients with mild closed head injury (mCHI), comprising incomplete recovery and debilitating persistence of post-concussional symptoms. Eye movements relate closely to the functional integrity of the injured brain and eye movement function is impaired post-acutely in mCHI. Here, we examined whether PCS patients continue to show disparities in eye movement function at 3-5 months following mCHI compared with patients with good recovery. We hypothesized that eye movements might provide sensitive and objective functional markers of ongoing cerebral impairment in PCS. We compared 36 PCS participants (adapted World Health Organization guidelines) and 36 individually matched controls (i.e. mCHI patients of similar injury severity but good recovery) on reflexive, anti- and self-paced saccades, memory-guided sequences and smooth pursuit. All completed neuropsychological testing and health status questionnaires. Mean time post-injury was 140 days in the PCS group and 163 days in the control group. The PCS group performed worse on anti-saccades, self-paced saccades, memory-guided sequences and smooth pursuit, suggesting problems in response inhibition, short-term spatial memory, motor-sequence programming, visuospatial processing and visual attention. This poorer oculomotor performance included several measures beyond conscious control, indicating that subcortical functionality in the PCS group was poorer than expected after mCHI. The PCS group had poorer neuropsychological function (memory, complex attention and executive function). Analysis of covariance showed oculomotor differences to be practically unaffected by group disparities in depression and estimated intellectual ability. Compared with neuropsychological tests, eye movements were more likely to be markedly impaired in PCS cases with high symptom load. Poorer eye movement function, and particularly poorer subcortical oculomotor function, correlated more

  1. Abelson Interactor 1 (Abi1) and Its Interaction with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (Wasp) Are Critical for Proper Eye Formation in Xenopus Embryos*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Winterbottom, Emily F.; Ji, Yon Ju; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Daar, Ira O.

    2013-01-01

    Abl interactor 1 (Abi1) is a scaffold protein that plays a central role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics as a constituent of several key protein complexes, and homozygous loss of this protein leads to embryonic lethality in mice. Because this scaffold protein has been shown in cultured cells to be a critical component of pathways controlling cell migration and actin regulation at cell-cell contacts, we were interested to investigate the in vivo role of Abi1 in morphogenesis during the development of Xenopus embryos. Using morpholino-mediated translation inhibition, we demonstrate that knockdown of Abi1 in the whole embryo, or specifically in eye field progenitor cells, leads to disruption of eye morphogenesis. Moreover, signaling through the Src homology 3 domain of Abi1 is critical for proper movement of retinal progenitor cells into the eye field and their appropriate differentiation, and this process is dependent upon an interaction with the nucleation-promoting factor Wasp (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein). Collectively, our data demonstrate that the Abi1 scaffold protein is an essential regulator of cell movement processes required for normal eye development in Xenopus embryos and specifically requires an Src homology 3 domain-dependent interaction with Wasp to regulate this complex morphogenetic process. PMID:23558677

  2. Proteomic analysis revealed the altered tear protein profile in a rabbit model of Sjögren's syndrome-associated dry eye.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wei, Ruihua; Zhao, Ping; Koh, Siew Kwan; Beuerman, Roger W; Ding, Chuanqing

    2013-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that results in pathological dryness of mouth and eye. The diagnosis of SS depends on both clinical evaluation and specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to use quantitative proteomics to investigate changes in tear proteins in a rabbit model of SS-associated dry eye, induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis (IAD). Proteomic analysis was performed by iTRAQ and nano LC-MS/MS on tears collected from the ocular surface, and specific proteins were verified by high resolution MRM. It was found that in the tears of IAD rabbits at 2 and 4 weeks after induction, S100 A6, S100 A9, and serum albumin were upregulated, whereas serotransferrin (TF), prolactin-inducible protein (PIP), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and Ig gamma chain C region were downregulated. High resolution MRM with mTRAQ labeling verified the changes in S100 A6, TF, PIP, and pIgR. Our results indicated significant changes of tear proteins in IAD rabbits, suggesting these proteins could potentially be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of dry eye. Several of these proteins were also found in the tears of non-SS dry eye patients indicating a common basis of ocular surface pathology, however, pIgR appears to be unique to SS. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. EFFECTS OF TOPICAL CORTICOSTEROID ADMINISTRATION ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN NORMAL AND GLAUCOMATOUS CATS

    PubMed Central

    Gosling, Allyson A; Kiland, Julie A; Rutkowski, Lauren E; Hoefs, Adam; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McLellan, Gillian J

    2016-01-01

    Objective to determine the effect of topical corticosteroid (CCS) therapy on intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal cats and cats with primary feline congenital glaucoma (FCG). Animals studied 5 normal and 11 FCG cats were studied in 2 cohorts. Procedures IOP was measured by a single, masked observer, once daily 3–5 days/week throughout the course of CCS treatment and for up to 11 days after treatment discontinuation. One eye per cat was randomly assigned for treatment twice daily with CCS; Balanced salt solution (BSS) applied to the contralateral eye, served as a control. Differences between eyes and between weeks of the study period were calculated for each cat. A positive response to CCS was defined as a consistent >15% or >25% higher IOP in the treated relative to control eye in normal and FCG cats, respectively. Results 8/11 FCG cats responded to topical CCS after 1–5 weeks of treatment with an increase in IOP relative to the untreated eye (maximum IOP discrepancy of 56 mmHg). 2/5 normal cats responded to topical CCS with appreciable but clinically unimportant increase in IOP in the treated eye (maximum IOP discrepancy of 6.4 mmHg). Conclusions our data indicate that the incidence of steroid induced IOP elevation in cats is lower than previously published feline studies suggest. Cats with pre-existing compromise in aqueous humor outflow may show a greater, clinically relevant response to topical CCS than normal cats. PMID:26876736

  4. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  5. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at increased risk of developing weak, brittle bones (osteoporosis). Pregnancy complications. Most women with Turner syndrome are infertile. ... loss, eye problems, high blood pressure, diabetes and osteoporosis. Periodic ... Pregnancy and fertility treatment Few women with Turner syndrome ...

  6. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the cat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-08-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by an insufficient amount of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the small intestine. Clinical signs most commonly reported in cats with EPI are weight loss, loose and voluminous stools, steatorrhea, polyphagia, and in some cases a greasy soiling of the hair coat in the perianal region. Serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration is the diagnostic test of choice for the diagnosis of affected cats. Treatment of cats with EPI consists of enzyme supplementation with either a powdered pancreatic extract or raw pancreas. Most cats with EPI also have severely decreased serum cobalamin concentrations and may require lifelong parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Most cats respond well to therapy and can have a normal life expectancy and quality of life.

  7. Postanaesthetic tear production and ocular irritation in cats.

    PubMed

    Peche, N; Köstlin, R; Reese, S; Pieper, K

    2015-01-01

    General anaesthesia significantly reduces tear production and normal values are not immediately re-established on ending anaesthesia. Therefore, adequate protection of the cornea has to be assured during the perianaesthetic period. There are various methods available, including taping of the eyelids and the application of eye ointments, gels and drops. In human medicine studies, different formulations were found to induce signs of ocular irritation. The aim of the present study was to determine tear production in cats after general anaesthesia, and to identify possible causes of irritation. Tear production was determined in 41 cats after general anaesthesia and eyes were examined for signs of irritation. Two different anaesthetic protocols were used. To protect the cornea, an ointment and gel were applied to the right and left eyes, respectively. Postoperatively, tear production was significantly reduced for 6 hours and 18 hours in the right and left eyes, respectively. Two hours after anaesthesia, blepharospasm of the right eye was observed in 92.7% (n = 38) of the cats. In contrast, the left eye was always held open. This study demonstrated that tear production in cats is significantly decreased both during and after anaesthesia. The degree of reduction was independent of the anaesthetic protocol. Both the eye ointment and gel proved effective in protecting the corneal surface. However, eye gel use is recommended because the eye ointment consistently caused an irritation comparable to the foreign-body sensation reported in humans.

  8. Design and optimization of a novel implantation technology in contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Shaikh, Anjum A; Lakdawala, Dhara H; Desai, Ankita R; Pandya, Mihir M; Singhania, Sulabh S; Vaidya, Rutvi J; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-01-25

    Contact lenses are widely used for ophthalmic drug delivery, but incorporation of drug or formulation in the contact lenses affects its optical and physical property. In the present study, we have designed a novel hyaluronic acid (HA)-laden ring implant contact lenses (modified cast moulding method), to circumvent the changes in critical lens property. The objective was to improve the ocular residence time of HA, by providing sustained ocular HA delivery through implant contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Optimization of HA-implant was carried out using 3(2) factorial design by tailoring the amount of cross linker and thickness of implant, to achieve sustained HA release with constraint on effective ion diffusivity. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbit tear fluid showed sustained HA release up to 15days, by fabricating implant (80μgHA loading) with 78.4μm thickness (total thickness of lens=100μm) using 0.925% of cross linker, with effective ion diffusivity>1.5×10(-6)mm(2)/min. In vivo efficacy study in benzalkonium chloride induced dry eye syndrome rabbits showed faster healing with implant contact lenses in comparison to positive control group. The study demonstrated the promising potential of implantation technology to deliver hyaluronic acid without compromising optical and physical properties of contact lens.

  9. [Cat scratch disease - a neglected zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Hozáková, L; Rožnovský, L; Janout, V

    2017-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is a relatively rare infection that is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. This disease occurs after cat scratch or bite. The course of the disease depends on the patients immunity status. In immunocompetent patients, the disease typically runs as a lymph node syndrome. Sometimes, mild general symptoms may appear, or the course can be atypical with a more serious clinical manifestation involving various organs. In immunocompromised patients, Bartonella henselae can cause bacillary angiomatosis or peliosis with a severe course.

  10. Successful Treatment of Dry Mouth and Dry Eye Symptoms in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients With Oral Pilocarpine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Adjustment Study.

    PubMed

    Papas, Athena S; Sherrer, Yvonne S; Charney, Michael; Golden, Harvey E; Medsger, Thomas A; Walsh, Bridget T; Trivedi, Madhu; Goldlust, Barry; Gallagher, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    : Sjögren's syndrome is characterized by the presence of xerostomia and/or xerophthalmia. Pilocarpine, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist, has been proven to be efficacious in treating radiation-induced xerostomia (up to 30 mg/day) and symptoms of dry mouth in Sjögren's patients (up to 20 mg/day). : To compare the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (dose-adjusted) versus placebo in the treatment of dry eye and dry mouth symptoms in Sjögren's syndrome at 6 and 12 weeks. : In this 11-center, 256-patient placebo-controlled study, the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (20 mg to 30 mg daily) for relief of Sjögren's-related dry mouth and dry eye symptoms was assessed. Changes in symptoms and salivary flow were measured over 12 weeks. : Compared with placebo, salivary flow was significantly increased in the pilocarpine group (Peyes (P

  11. Corneal fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Strong, Travis D; Tangeman, Sarah; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Haynes, Joseph; Allbaugh, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    To present the clinicopathologic features of a Domestic Short-haired cat with spontaneous, intermediate-grade corneal fibrosarcoma, possibly secondary to chronic corneal irritation associated with a corneal sequestrum. A 12-year-old, spayed female Domestic Short-haired cat was evaluated for a slowly growing, pink, exophytic mass affecting the left cornea. The cat had presented 6 years previously for bilateral brown corneal sequestra, as well as 3 years previously for a small pale growth on the left cornea hypothesized to be an epithelial inclusion cyst and a corneal ulcer affecting the right eye. Incisional biopsy of the corneal mass indicated intermediate-grade corneal fibrosarcoma within the corneal stroma. Owing to the potential for malignant behavior, the left globe was enucleated. Routine systemic staging was performed prior to surgery with no evidence of metastasis. Definitive diagnosis of corneal fibrosarcoma was made through histopathologic examination of the incisional biopsy. There was an elevated mitotic index, indicating an intermediate-grade phenotype. Histopathology of the enucleated globe substantiated the initial findings, and complete tumor resection was confirmed. Subjacent to the corneal fibrosarcoma, there was a region of necrotic tissue suggestive of a corneal sequestrum. Six months after diagnosis and enucleation, the patient remained healthy with no signs of local spread or distant metastasis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a corneal fibrosarcoma in a cat. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Electro-oculography of smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus eye movements in type I Duane's retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melek, Nélida B; Blanco, Susana; Garcia, Horacio

    2006-01-01

    These two eye movements have not been previously studied in this condition by this method. Five cases were studied. Both visual acuity and eye examination of anterior and posterior segments were normal. A Nicolet Nystar Plus system with chloride silver electrodes was used to record the EOG. Of the two systems under study, the smooth pursuit system showed the most relevant anomalies, both in the Duane's eye and in the apparently healthy eye. No correlation was found between the pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus disorders. In some cases, more significant abnormalities were observed in the clinically normal eye. The results clearly demonstrated a significant impairment of the pursuit system. This suggests that this motor disorder is not exclusively caused by hypoplasia or aplasia of the nucleus of the abducens nerve (VIth cranial nerve). These abnormalities might be related to a poor development of the rhombencephalon since both supramotor nuclei as well as the pathways of this system arise from this region of the embryonic brain. In the particular case of OKN, the supramotor nuclei have a different origin. Therefore, these systems might be affected differently.

  13. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M.; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S. Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain–hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl−/− mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl−/− mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl−/− mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. PMID:20921407

  14. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-10-19

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain-hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl(-/-) mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl(-/-) mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl(-/-) mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep.

  15. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  16. Congenital abnormalities of cranial nerve development: overview, molecular mechanisms, and further evidence of heterogeneity and complexity of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Elias I

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23-q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei.

  17. CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES OF CRANIAL NERVE DEVELOPMENT: OVERVIEW, MOLECULAR MECHANISMS, AND FURTHER EVIDENCE OF HETEROGENEITY AND COMPLEXITY OF SYNDROMES WITH CONGENITAL LIMITATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Traboulsi, Elias I

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Methods Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. Results The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23–q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. Conclusions There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei. PMID:15747768

  18. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  19. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  20. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  1. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sep. 01, 2016 Eye allergies, also called allergic conjunctivitis, are quite common. They occur when the eyes ... can tear and burn. Unlike other kinds of conjunctivitis, eye allergies are not spread from person to ...

  2. Watery eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of excess tearing is dry eyes . Drying causes the eyes to become uncomfortable, which stimulates the body to produce too many tears. One of the main tests for tearing is to check whether the eyes ...

  3. Proper balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplements with topical cyclosporine attenuated contact lens-related dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Chen, Xi; Hao, Jingfang; Yang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Essential fatty acids had been applied in the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES), but the effects of different combinations of fatty acids have not been investigated. 360 long-term contact lens wearers were included in this double-blinded study. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were combined in different ratios and supplied to the participants that were randomly divided into six groups, and the effects of different essential fatty acids mixture on DES with or without topical cyclosporine were investigated. More than half of long-term contact lens wearers suffered from DES, which were found to be attenuated by oral supplement of properly balanced O3FA and O6FA fatty acid. The topical cyclosporine treatment considerably inhibited the production of cytokines compared to the cyclosporine negative groups, which further relieved DES. Proper balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid combination significantly alleviated contact lens-related DES.

  4. Laterality in persons with intellectual disability II. Hand, foot, ear, and eye laterality in persons with Trisomy 21 and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gérard-Desplanches, Aude; Deruelle, Christine; Stefanini, Silvia; Ayoun, Catherine; Volterra, Virginia; Vicari, Stefano; Fisch, Gene; Carlier, Michèle

    2006-09-01

    Laterality (hand, foot, ear, and eye) was assessed in participants with Trisomy 21 (62) and Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) (39). Handedness was also assessed in a card reaching task. The comparison group included 184 typically developing persons. Two independent age sub-groups were formed: 7 to 10 years old and 11 to 34 years old. We confirmed previous data: individuals with T21 were more frequently left- or mixed-handed than typically developing persons; individuals with WBS had intermediate scores. The two groups with genetic disorders had less right foot preference. Manual and foot inconsistencies characterized both groups with genetic disorders. Cross hand-foot preference was lower in the typically developing group. Differences in IQ levels did not correlate with differences in laterality scores. Overall laterality profiles were not the same in the two groups with genetic disorders: the greatest differences were observed between typically developing persons and persons with Trisomy 21.

  5. [Potential of impression cytology in diagnosis and evaluation of efficacy of pharmacological correction of dry eye syndrome associated with contact lens wearing].

    PubMed

    Egorova, G B; Fedorova, A A; Mitichkina, T S

    2012-01-01

    Potential of impression cytology in diagnosis and evaluation of efficacy of pharmacological correction of dry eye syndrome (DES) associated with contact lens wearing was studied. When wearing contact lenses for a long time DES with tear film instability and reduction of tear production occurs in more than 50% patients. Morphological changes of epithelium of tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva manifest consequently. Impression cytology reveals structural damage of epithelium with keratinization signs and decrease of goblet cells density down to total absence. After tear substitution therapy tear break-up time increased by 65,3% and total tear production by 11,4%. In control impression cytology of tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva during tear substitution therapy the following changes were revealed: recovery of goblet cells density and differentiation, recovery of epithelial structure and reduction of epithelium keratinization.

  6. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment on Dry Eyes in Subjects with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028). PMID:27366013

  7. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment on Dry Eyes in Subjects with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-07-01

    The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028).

  8. Efficacy of nutritional supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in dry eye syndrome: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Ignacio; Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2017-03-30

    To critically appraise scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of nutritional supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES). A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was performed. Two independent reviewers selected and analysed the scientific papers that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Objective and subjective efficacy outcomes were assessed. The trials involved a total of 2591 patients in fifteen independent studies. All studies were published between 2005 and 2015. The supplements used were mostly omega-3 and omega-6 in different proportions. Subjective improvement was measured using mainly Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) test and Dry Eye Severity Score (DESS) test: significant differences in favour of the experimental group were found in seven of the studies. The objective amelioration was assessed by lacrimal function parameters: Tear break-up time (TBUT) significantly increased in nine studies and Schirmer's test in four studies. We observed a discrete improvement in the parameters of tear function. Scientific evidence is not strong enough to systematically recommend the use of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as a standalone treatment of DES independently from its aetiology. However, they could be considered as an effective alternative to topical treatment in patients with DES secondary to certain pathologies. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services prior to the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in female patients: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Fa, Wen-Hsiung; Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2014-05-20

    To investigate the utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services prior to the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome in female Taiwanese patients. A nationwide, population-based case-control study. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 347 patients with a diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome from 2005 to 2010 and 1735 controls frequency matched on 10-year age interval and index year were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Diagnoses of eye disorder (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes from 360 to 370) were retrospectively screened to 1997. The utilisation of eye disorder-related medical service over different intervals prior to diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome between cases and controls were compared using generalised estimating equations with negative binomial distribution and log link function. A significantly higher proportion of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (7.5%) utilised eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services over an 8-year interval prior to the diagnosis of the disease compared with controls (4.8%). The annual frequency of utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services increased significantly faster when closer to the index date in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with controls (interaction effect, p=0.010). Subgroup analyses indicated that the changes over time in the utilisation of services related to disorders of lacrimal system (interaction effect, p=0.019) and conjunctiva (interaction effect, p=0.066) were significantly greater in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with controls. An increase in the utilisation of eye disorder-related ambulatory medical services was observed in patients with Sjögren's syndrome several years prior to the diagnosis of the disease. General practitioners and ophthalmologists can play an important role by including Sj

  10. Effects of unilateral topical administration of 0.5% tropicamide on anterior segment morphology and intraocular pressure in normal cats and cats with primary congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Filipe Espinheira; Bentley, Ellison; Lin, Ting-Li; McLellan, Gillian J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide on anterior segment morphology (ASM) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal and glaucomatous cats. Animals used Normal cats and cats with inherited primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Procedures Control IOP curves were performed in untreated normal and PCG cats. In the first experiment, tropicamide was applied OD in eight normal and nine PCG cats. IOP and pupillary diameter (PD) were measured at 0, 30, and 60 min, then hourly until 8 h post-treatment. In a second experiment, six normal and seven PCG cats received tropicamide OD. High-resolution ultrasound images were obtained at 0, 1, 5, and 10 h post-treatment to measure ASM changes. IOP and PD were measured OD at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 h. Results In untreated normal cats IOP OU decreased throughout the day. In PCG cats IOP OU had wide fluctuations over time. In normal cats IOP response varied in the treated eye but did not change significantly in untreated eyes. IOP significantly increased from baseline in both eyes of all treated PCG cats. Increases in IOP were associated with some ASM changes. Cats with PCG had a significantly smaller angle recess areas, diminished ciliary clefts and decreased iris-lens contact. ASM changes were not strongly correlated with IOP in all cats. Conclusions The ASM of PCG cats is markedly different from normal cats, and clinically significant increases in IOP OU occur in cats with PCG after tropicamide treatment. The mechanism for this increase remains unclear. PMID:21923827

  11. Macro- and microstructure of the superior cervical ganglion in dogs, cats and horses during maturation.

    PubMed

    Fioretto, Emerson Ticona; de Abreu, Rogério Navarro; Castro, Marcelo Fernandes de Souza; Guidi, Wanderley Lima; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2007-01-01

    The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) provides sympathetic input to the head and neck, its relation with mandible, submandibular glands, eyes (second and third order control) and pineal gland being demonstrated in laboratory animals. In addition, the SCG's role in some neuropathies can be clearly seen in Horner's syndrome. In spite of several studies published involving rats and mice, there is little morphological descriptive and comparative data of SCG from large mammals. Thus, we investigated the SCG's macro- and microstructural organization in medium (dogs and cats) and large animals (horses) during a very specific period of the post-natal development, namely maturation (from young to adults). The SCG of dogs, cats and horses were spindle shaped and located deeply into the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, close to the distal vagus ganglion and more related to the internal carotid artery in dogs and horses, and to the occipital artery in cats. As to macromorphometrical data, that is ganglion length, there was a 23.6% increase from young to adult dogs, a 1.8% increase from young to adult cats and finally a 34% increase from young to adult horses. Histologically, the SCG's microstructure was quite similar between young and adult animals and among the 3 species. The SCG was divided into distinct compartments (ganglion units) by capsular septa of connective tissue. Inside each ganglion unit the most prominent cellular elements were ganglion neurons, glial cells and small intensely fluorescent cells, comprising the ganglion's morphological triad. Given this morphological arrangement, that is a summation of all ganglion units, SCG from dogs, cats and horses are better characterized as a ganglion complex rather than following the classical ganglion concept. During maturation (from young to adults) there was a 32.7% increase in the SCG's connective capsule in dogs, a 25.8% increase in cats and a 33.2% increase in horses. There was an age-related increase in the

  12. Joubert's syndrome with retinal dysplasia: neonatal tachypnoea as the clue to a genetic brain-eye malformation.

    PubMed Central

    King, M D; Dudgeon, J; Stephenson, J B

    1984-01-01

    Five children with features of Joubert's syndrome and Leber's amaurosis are described. The presenting symptoms were panting tachypnoea in the newborn, prolonged apnoeic attacks in the neonatal period (in both of identical twins), global developmental delay, and failure to develop vision. Three children had multiple hemifacial spasms, such as have been seen in Joubert's syndrome, and the same three had cystic dysplasia of the kidneys. Necropsy confirmed the retinal and renal pathology, together with agenesis of the vermis and brainstem dysgenesis in the identical twins. It is concluded that a gene for Leber's amaurosis may commonly manifest itself as the specific hind brain malformation underlying Joubert's syndrome. In infants with respiratory irregularities (especially rapid panting), hemifacial spasms, or developmental delay, absence of the cerebellar vermis should be specifically sought by ultrasound and computed tomography, and the electroretinogram measured, whether or not impaired vision is clinically evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6476867

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Lacrimal Drainage System Plugs for Dry Eye Syndrome: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Marcus M; Shtein, Roni M; Bradley, Elizabeth A; Deng, Sophie X; Meyer, Dale R; Bilyk, Jurij R; Yen, Michael T; Lee, W Barry; Mawn, Louise A

    2015-08-01

    To review the published literature assessing the efficacy and safety of lacrimal drainage system plug insertion for dry eye in adults. Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on March 9, 2015, without date restrictions and were limited to English language abstracts. The searches retrieved 309 unique citations. The primary authors reviewed the titles and abstracts. Inclusion criteria specified reports that provided original data on plugs for the treatment of dry eyes in at least 25 patients. Fifty-three studies of potential relevance were assigned to full-text review. The 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria underwent data abstraction by the panels. Abstracted data included study characteristics, patient characteristics, plug type, insertion technique, treatment response, and safety information. All studies were observational and rated by a methodologist as level II or III evidence. The plugs included punctal, intracanalicular, and dissolving types. Fifteen studies reported metrics of improvement in dry eye symptoms, ocular-surface status, artificial tear use, contact lens comfort, and tear break-up time. Twenty-five studies included safety data. Plug placement resulted in ≥50% improvement of symptoms, improvement in ocular-surface health, reduction in artificial tear use, and improved contact lens comfort in patients with dry eye. Serious complications from plugs were infrequent. Plug loss was the most commonly reported problem with punctal plugs, occurring on average in 40% of patients. Overall, among all plug types, approximately 9% of patients experienced epiphora and 10% required removal because of irritation from the plugs. Canaliculitis was the most commonly reported problem for intracanalicular plugs and occurred in approximately 8% of patients. Other complications were reported in less than 4% of patients on average and included tearing, discomfort, pyogenic granuloma, and dacryocystitis. On the basis of

  14. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  15. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat.

  16. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  17. Route-Learning Strategies in Typical and Atypical Development; Eye Tracking Reveals Atypical Landmark Selection in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, E. K.; Formby, S.; Daniyal, F.; Holmes, T.; Van Herwegen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful navigation is crucial to everyday life. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have impaired spatial abilities. This includes a deficit in spatial navigation abilities such as learning the route from A to B. To-date, to determine whether participants attend to landmarks when learning a route, landmark recall tasks have been…

  18. Route-Learning Strategies in Typical and Atypical Development; Eye Tracking Reveals Atypical Landmark Selection in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, E. K.; Formby, S.; Daniyal, F.; Holmes, T.; Van Herwegen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful navigation is crucial to everyday life. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have impaired spatial abilities. This includes a deficit in spatial navigation abilities such as learning the route from A to B. To-date, to determine whether participants attend to landmarks when learning a route, landmark recall tasks have been…

  19. Eye on children: acute work-up for pediatric Horner's syndrome. case presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Joseph A; Ross, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Ptosis and anisocoria in a child may be subtle indications of occult pathology, and making the observation acutely in the emergency department (ED) is important in guiding patient management and treatment. Emergency physicians must evaluate patients to exclude serious or life-threatening emergencies and ensure correct disposition of patients. Horner syndrome in children may be considered congenital or acquired and may be from benign or malignant causes. When an isolated, acquired Horner syndrome is suspected in a pediatric patient, physical examination of the neck and abdomen for masses, as well as spot urine catecholamines, vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid, and varying degrees of imaging are recommended as part of the initial evaluation. These evaluations may be performed in the ED or may require hospitalization, depending on the suspected anatomical localization and diagnostic considerations. A 21-month-old, normally developed girl presented to the University Hospital ED with a 2-h history of right-sided eyelid drooping in the setting of a febrile illness. An eventual diagnosis of Horner syndrome from cervical lymph node compression was made on the basis of history, examination, and imaging findings. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: ED evaluations of pediatric patients differ from adults. Evaluation and work-up of Horner syndrome in children can be challenging and can require varying degrees of assessment and evaluation, depending on the diagnostic considerations. This article will address the common pathologies responsible for isolated pediatric Horner syndrome and the recommended ED evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish Announcements Connect With Us Digital Press Kit Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  1. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  2. Frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies syndrome with a partial 21q22.3 deletion.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

    2012-07-01

    We describe a girl with a phenotype characterized by frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies who presents a 46,XX,r(21) karyotype. Array-comparative genomic hybridization using the Afflymetrix 100K DNA oligoarray set showed an interstitial deletion 21q22.3 of approximately 219 kb. Conventional karyotype of both parents was normal, and it was not possible to perform the molecular studies. In this report we raise the hypothesis that the deleted genes located at 21q22.3 could account to the phenotype.

  3. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  4. Orbital Prosthetic Rehabilitation in "ADAM Complex" Multiple Orofacial-Cleft Disruption Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barabde, Aparna; Barabde, Shailesh M; Bhagat, Ashish; Thakare, Amar

    2013-01-01

    To be human is great; to look human is wonderful! It is nature's greatest gift! Mother nature's womb is the safest place on earth for any life, but the calamity strikes and no one knows how Hence, Treasure your exceptions!, since nature seems nowhere accustomed more openly to display, its secret mysteries than in cases where it shows traces of its workings apart from the beaten path. A dismorphological pattern of congenital oro-craniofacial and limb defects which is a rare form of amniotic rupture sequence required persistent coordinated efforts of multiple disciplines and had manifested as bizarre orofacial clefting, cat eye syndrome with an ectopic eye, and aberrant tissue band lesions on limb. The challenge was to meet the child's clamour for functional demands on premature exposure to open world and was overcome through a phased treatment implementation. Anophthalmos resulting from multiple ophthalmic surgeries for aberrant ectopic left eye and cat eye syndrome of right eye required a staged sequential preemptive planning for a successful outcome. Every phase of fabrication of orbital prosthesis comes with an impending challenge. Thus, a well-defined technique eliminating the common errors and creating a natural looking prosthesis, in the face of limitations, is imperative.

  5. Orbital Prosthetic Rehabilitation in “ADAM Complex” Multiple Orofacial-Cleft Disruption Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barabde, Aparna; Barabde, Shailesh M.; Bhagat, Ashish; Thakare, Amar

    2013-01-01

    To be human is great; to look human is wonderful! It is nature's greatest gift! Mother nature's womb is the safest place on earth for any life, but the calamity strikes and no one knows how Hence, Treasure your exceptions!, since nature seems nowhere accustomed more openly to display, its secret mysteries than in cases where it shows traces of its workings apart from the beaten path. A dismorphological pattern of congenital oro-craniofacial and limb defects which is a rare form of amniotic rupture sequence required persistent coordinated efforts of multiple disciplines and had manifested as bizarre orofacial clefting, cat eye syndrome with an ectopic eye, and aberrant tissue band lesions on limb. The challenge was to meet the child's clamour for functional demands on premature exposure to open world and was overcome through a phased treatment implementation. Anophthalmos resulting from multiple ophthalmic surgeries for aberrant ectopic left eye and cat eye syndrome of right eye required a staged sequential preemptive planning for a successful outcome. Every phase of fabrication of orbital prosthesis comes with an impending challenge. Thus, a well-defined technique eliminating the common errors and creating a natural looking prosthesis, in the face of limitations, is imperative. PMID:23762737

  6. Cat-Scratch Disease: Unusual Perivascular Chorioretinal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation PMID:25756063

  7. Cat-scratch disease: unusual perivascular chorioretinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation.

  8. Restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and hypersomnia in patients with two parkin mutations.

    PubMed

    Limousin, Nadège; Konofal, Eric; Karroum, Elias; Lohmann, Ebba; Theodorou, Ioannis; Dürr, Alexandra; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2009-10-15

    Parkin gene mutations cause a juvenile parkinsonism. Patients with these mutations may commonly exhibit REM sleep behaviour disorders, but other sleep problems (insomnia, sleepiness, restless legs syndrome) have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sleep-wake phenotype in patients with two parkin mutations, compared with patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). Sleep interview and overnight video-polysomnography, followed by multiple sleep latency tests, were assessed in 11 consecutive patients with two parkin mutations (aged 35-60 years, from seven families) and 11 sex-matched patients with iPD (aged 51-65 years). Sleep complaints in the parkin group included insomnia (73% patients versus 45% in the iPD group), restless legs syndrome (45%, versus none in the iPD group, P = 0.04), and daytime sleepiness (45%, versus 54% in the iPD group). Of the parkin patients, 45% had REM sleep without atonia, but only 9% had a definite REM sleep behavior disorder. All sleep measures were similar in the parkin and iPD groups. Two parkin siblings had a central hypersomnia, characterized by mean daytime sleep latencies of 3 min, no sleep onset REM periods, and normal nighttime sleep. Although the patients with two parkin mutations were young, their sleep phenotype paralleled the clinical and polygraphic sleep recording abnormalities reported in iPD, except that restless legs syndrome was more prevalent and secondary narcolepsy was absent.

  9. Treatment of dry eye: an analysis of the British Sjögren's syndrome association comparing substitute tear viscosity and subjective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bhojwani, Rajan; Cellesi, Francesco; Maino, Anna; Jalil, Assad; Haider, David; Noble, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to address the lack of independent subjective efficacy data on artificial tear substitutes in the treatment of dry eye due to the anecdotal association of 'thicker' products being more effective. This is an independent study of the subjective use and efficacy of topical treatments used by members of the British Sjögren's Syndrome Association (BSSA) related to product viscosity. 2000 members of the BSSA were sent a questionnaire regarding their physical condition and the use of artificial tear substitutes. Viscosity analysis was performed on the most popular preparations. Statistical comparison is made between subjective efficacies related to substitute tear viscosity. 1088 patients responded giving information regarding their condition together with the subjective use and efficacy data of artificial tear substitutes. Visco-analysis was performed on the most popular preparations; these had more than 50 patients using them. In terms of subjective benefits related to viscosity for 'frequency' and 'duration' the data suggests a general trend toward viscous preparations being instilled less frequently and lasting longer; however this was not shown to be significantly correlated and some interesting comparisons are reported. The results confirm high levels of ocular lubricant use in the BSSA population. Our data investigates the often-anecdotal evidence that thicker preparations are more effective. However, we did not find this correlation to be statistically significant suggesting further study into factors related to subjective product efficacy. These results lay foundations for the development of future products in the treatment of severe dry eye. 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Binocular behavior of split-brain cats which have previously learned monocularly opposite visual discriminations.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, G G

    1998-04-10

    Twelve adult split-brain cats were tested binocularly in visual tasks which had been previously learned monocularly in a two-choice paradigm. Eight experimental cats learned two opposite tasks with two eyes because contingencies of reinforcement changed with the open eye. Four control cats learned the same tasks but contingencies of reinforcement did not change with the open eye and therefore they learned the same problems with the two eyes. Thereafter, cats were submitted binocularly to the same tasks but in a free-choice paradigm. Experimental cats showed extinction of the discriminative response in 12 out of 16 binocular testings; in four the extinction criterion was not reached. In control cats no extinction behavior was observed in seven out of eight testings. It is suggested that extinction of the discriminative response in experimental cats could be caused by an inhibitory effect build-up because the two hemispheres attempted to control binocular behavior in opposite ways. Alternatively, these cats may develop a response alternative to discrimination in which one hemisphere takes the control of subcortical motor and/or attentional centers. In four testings no extinction was recorded for experimental cats and it is likely that control of those centers shifted from one hemisphere to the other every few trials.

  11. More than meets the eye: The evolving phenotype of Weill-Marchesani syndrome-diagnostic confusion with geleophysic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Allen L; Wilcox, William R; Reinstein, Eyal

    2013-12-01

    The criteria for diagnosing and distinguishing between Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) and geleophysic dysplasia (GD) are inexact and often overlap. We report the clinical findings and evolving phenotype for a period of 18 years in a patient whose diagnosis, and distinguishing characteristics, transformed from GD to WMS. Molecular testing demonstrated novel mutations in the ADAMTS10 gene confirming a diagnosis of autosomal recessive WMS in the proposita. We further report on phenotypic features not classically linked to WMS. These findings indicate that the Weill-Marchesani phenotype may be developed and is not always apparent in early childhood.

  12. Visuomotor integration in split-brain cats.

    PubMed

    SCHRIER, A M; SPERRY, R W

    1959-05-08

    Chiasm- and callosum-sectioned (split-brain) cats and controls were trained to displace the correct one of two different objects, using each forelimb half the time. During this discrimination training, vision was restricted to one eye, thus confining visual input and learning to a single hemisphere in the split-brain animals. It was found that either forelimb could be used about equally well by all the animals.

  13. Characterization of uveitis induced by use of a single intravitreal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in cats.

    PubMed

    Del Sole, María J; Sande, Pablo H; Felipe, Antonio E; Fernandez, Diego C; Keller Sarmiento, María I; Aba, Marcelo A; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the use of a single intravitreal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to experimentally induce uveitis in cats. 7 young male European shorthair cats that were considered physically and ophthalmologically healthy. In each cat, LPS was injected intravitreally into 1 eye; the contralateral eye was injected with the preparation vehicle. During a period of 45 days, both eyes were evaluated by means of clinical evaluation; assessment of the integrity of the blood-aqueous humor barrier (determined via measurement of protein concentration and cell content in samples of aqueous humor); functional analysis (via electroretinography); and following euthanasia, histologic examination of the retinas. In LPS-treated eyes, several clinical signs were observed until day 45 after injection. Compared with vehicle-treated eyes, intraocular pressure was significantly lower and protein concentration and the number of infiltrating cells were significantly higher in LPS-treated eyes. Mean amplitudes of scotopic electroretinographic a- and b-waves were significantly reduced in eyes injected with LPS, compared with findings in eyes injected with vehicle. At 45 days after injection, LPS-induced alterations in photoreceptors and the middle portion of the retina were detected histologically. Results indicated that a single intravitreal injection of LPS in eyes of cats induced clinical, biochemical, functional, and histologic changes that were consistent with the main features of naturally occurring uveitis. This technique may be a useful tool in the investigation of new treatment strategies for uveitis in cats.

  14. Vision-related quality of life and psychological status in Chinese women with Sjogren's syndrome dry eye: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Alice; Zhao, Naiqing; Gong, Lan

    2016-12-12

    Sjogren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) mainly affects middle-aged women and can negatively affect women's psychological and social functioning. However, little is known about the correlation between vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) and psychological status for women with SSDE. We therefore examined VR-QoL and psychological status in two groups of Chinese women: an SSDE group and a non-SSDE group. We also explored the associations between VR-QoL scores, sociodemographic measures, ophthalmologic parameters, and psychological status in women with SSDE. The case-control study recruited 30 female outpatients with SSDE and 30 without SSDE from the Eye and Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Hospital of Fudan University. Demographic and ophthalmologic data were collected from all participants. Ophthalmologic examinations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test. Data collected using the National Eye Institute's Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) survey instruments were analyzed to identify potential differences in VR-QoL between the SSDE group and the non-SSDE group. We also used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Self-Rating Depression Scales (SAS and SDS) to determine psychological status in both groups. The SSDE group scored significantly lower than the non-SSDE group on the NEI-VFQ subscales of general health, general vision, and long-distance vision activities (all p < 0.05). The SSDE group achieved a significantly higher ocular symptoms score compared with the control group (p = 0.0256). The SAS and SDS scores of the SSDE group were significantly higher than the non-SSDE group (p = 0.0072 and 0.0162, respectively). The prevalence of anxiety and depression in the SSDE group was significantly higher than the non-SSDE group (p = 0.0240 and 0.0200, respectively). Nine of twelve NEI-VFQ subscales were negatively correlated with SAS

  15. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  16. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  17. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by common household products such as cleaning solutions, garden chemicals, solvents, or other types of chemicals. Fumes ... in the eye with a ball, such as indoor racket sports Images Eye First aid kit References ...

  18. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  19. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  20. Spatial analysis of ocular dominance patterns in monocularly deprived cats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin E; Stephan, Michael; Singer, Wolf; Löwel, Siegrid

    2002-08-01

    Monocular deprivation during a critical period in postnatal development leads to a shift in functional and anatomical ocular dominance at the expense of the deprived eye. We analyzed the complete two-dimensional pattern of [(3)H]proline-labeled afferents in primary visual cortex (area 17) of cats monocularly deprived of vision at eye opening. Substantial shrinkage of deprived eye territory in favor of the normal eye extended into optic disc and monocular segment representations. However, small domains of deprived eye afferents were distributed evenly over the entire visual field representation. Interestingly, normal and deprived eye afferents overlapped extensively in the ipsilateral and in the peripheral contralateral visual field representation of the deprived eye, so that ipsi- and contralateral ocular dominance patterns are not at all complementary. We suggest that this could be the result of both an earlier maturation of crossed versus uncrossed visual pathways and of a maturational gradient within area 17 leading to a lower vulnerability of the central visual field representation to monocular deprivation. Quantitative analysis, using a triangulation algorithm which confirmed previously described larger spacing of adjacent ocular dominance columns in strabismic cats, revealed no difference in spacing of ocular dominance domains in area 17 between monocularly deprived and normals cats. In addition, column spacing was very similar in the same animal and in littermates, indicating that the genetic influence on columnar layout is stronger than previously assumed.

  1. Comparison of treatment with preservative-free versus preserved sodium hyaluronate 0.1% and fluorometholone 0.1% eyedrops after cataract surgery in patients with preexisting dry-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jee, Donghyun; Park, Minji; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul

    2015-04-01

    To compare treatment with preservative-free and preserved sodium hyaluronate 0.1% and fluorometholone 0.1% eyedrops after cataract surgery in patients with preexisting dry-eye syndrome. Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Randomized controlled study. Patients with cataract and dry-eye syndrome were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 patients were treated with preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% and preservative-free fluorometholone 0.1% eyedrops 4 times a day in the first month and twice a day in the second month. Group 2 patients were treated with preserved eyedrops using the same schedule. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, tear-film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining, impression cytology, and antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears were evaluated. Both groups comprised 40 patients. At 2 months, the OSDI score, TBUT, Schirmer I score, fluorescein staining score, impression cytology findings, and goblet cell count were significantly better in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P<.05). The interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were significantly less in the tears of Group 1 patients than in the tears of Group 2 patients, and catalase and superoxide dismutase 2 fluorescence intensities were significantly greater in the tears of Group 1 patients than in the tears of Group 2 patients (P<.05). Preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.1% and fluorometholone 0.1% eyedrops can improve the symptoms and signs of dry-eye syndrome after cataract surgery. Preservative-free fluorometholone eyedrops may have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in tears of patients with dry-eye syndrome. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the intestinal tracts of many animals, particularly cats. Infectious organisms are shed in cat feces, and are introduced into the body by ... is prudent for pregnant women to avoid handling cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects ...

  3. Exploring different explanations for performance on a theory of mind task in Williams syndrome and autism using eye movements.

    PubMed

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Smith, Tim J; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the looking behaviours of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing (TD) children while they were administered a low-verbal Theory of Mind (ToM) task. Although ToM performance in both clinical groups was impaired, only participants with WS showed small differences in looking behaviour at the start of the video. Furthermore, while TD children who passed the ToM task looked longer at the original hiding place there was no such contrast in the clinical groups. This shows that looking behaviour in ASD and WS is not necessarily atypical when saliency aspects such as language, background, and colour are removed and that differences in looking behaviour cannot explain ToM performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Delineation of a spatial working memory profile using a non-verbal eye-tracking paradigm in young children with autism and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Peter A J; Hocking, Darren R; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-02-09

    Working memory deficits profoundly inhibit children's ability to learn. While deficits have been identified in disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS), findings are equivocal, and very little is known about the nature of these deficits early in development. A major barrier to advances in this area is the availability of tasks suitable for young children with neurodevelopmental disorders who experience difficulties with following verbal instructions or who are distressed by formal testing demands. To address these issues, a novel eye-tracking paradigm was designed based on an adaptation of the classic A not B paradigm in order to examine the early foundations of spatial working memory capabilities in 26 developmentally delayed preschool children with ASD, 18 age- and IQ-matched children with WS, and 19 age-matched typically-developing (TD) children. The results revealed evidence that foundational spatial working memory performance in ASD and WS was comparable with that of TD children. Performance was associated with intellectual ability in the ASD and TD groups, but not in the WS group. Performance was not associated with adaptive behavior in any group. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research that has been largely limited to older and substantially less developmentally delayed children with these neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  6. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to abnormal development of the 6 th cranial nerve. It is characterized by difficulty rotating one or ... eye muscles. In Duane syndrome, the 6 th cranial nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle ...

  7. Barotrauma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Manning, M M; Brunson, D B

    1994-07-01

    A 3.5-year-old domestic long-hair cat was admitted to the veterinary hospital for routine procedures, including dental prophylaxis. The cat appeared clinically normal. General anesthesia was induced, and 30 minutes later, the pop-off valve was inadvertently left in a closed position. The cat developed pneumothorax, which was treated via thoracentesis and administration of oxygen. The condition resolved and the cat was released from the hospital to its owner. Barotrauma resulted because of high pressure in the anesthetic circuit. Barotrauma is a life-threatening complication of general anesthesia.

  8. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared with craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eason, Jessica; Williams, Antionette L; Chawla, Bahaar; Apsey, Christian; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization. Our studies demonstrated that foxd3-positive neural crest cells in the periocular mesenchyme and developing eye were less sensitive to ETOH than sox10-positive craniofacial neural crest cells that form the pharyngeal arches and jaw. ETOH increased apoptosis in the retina, but did not affect survival of periocular and ocular neural crest cells. ETOH also did not increase reactive oxygen species within the eye. In contrast, ETOH increased ventral neural crest apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in the facial mesenchyme. In the eye and craniofacial region, sod2 showed high levels of expression in the anterior segment and in the setting of Sod2 knockdown, low levels of ETOH decreased migration of foxd3-positive neural crest cells into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development. Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Unusual pyramidal pathology syndrome].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M; Tatsiĭ, N P

    1989-01-01

    A syndrome is described comprising: 1, impossibility to close only one eye (right or left) at a time, or each eye alternatively with intact capability of closing both eyes; 2, unvoluntary screwing up of an eye during voluntary closing of another (palpebro-palpebral synkinesia); 3, head turning to the side of an eye closed (palpebrocervical synkinesia); 4, with the hands clenched, left thumb is over the right, as is the left arm over the right when folded. The syndrome is supposed to be related with consealed lefthandedness which is presumably indicative of lateralization of the dominant speech center. If this is correct, the syndrome may have a distinct topical diagnostic value.

  10. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  11. Development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    1994-09-01

    Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.

  12. Examinee Issues in CAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    The perspective of the examinee during the administration of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) is discussed, focusing on issues of test development. Item review is the first issue discussed. Virtually no CATs provide the opportunity for the examinee to go back and review, and possibly change, answers. There are arguments on either side of the…

  13. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  14. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  15. Interocular transfer of extinction of visual pattern discriminations in split-chiasm and split-brain cats.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, G G; Arriagada, J R

    1988-08-01

    The interocular transfer of the extinction of visual pattern discrimination was studied in cats with either section of optic chiasm (split-chiasm cats) or combined sections of chiasm and forebrain commissures (split-brain cats). Visual pattern discriminations were monocularly learned and their interocular transfer was assessed through the opposite eye. Then, learning was unilaterally extinguished and interocular transfer of extinction was tested on the other side. In split-chiasm cats, the total number of trials to extinction criterion (EC) was significantly lower with the second eye than with the first eye, indicating a successful interocular transfer. In split-brain cats, EC with the second eye was attained faster than with the first in some performances; it was similar with both eyes in other tasks, and with the second eye was higher than with the first in still other tasks. Statistical analysis applied to this group of split-brain cats pointed out that extinction performances with the two eyes were not significantly different. These findings suggest that interocular transfer of extinction was abolished in split-brain cats and that memory for extinction was unilaterally established in the absence of forebrain commissures.

  16. B group short-arm deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sedano, H O; Look, R A; Carter, C; Cohen, M M

    1971-06-01

    Three cases of the cat-cry syndrome are reported and the literature on Bp- syndromes is reviewed. Although the 4p- and 5p- syndromes have many overlapping features, the cleft lip-palate, seizures, iris coloboma, and other features of the 4p- syndrome, as well as absent cat-cry, are frequently sufficient to distinguish between the 4p- and 5p- syndromes.

  17. Comparison of the clinical effects of carbomer-based lipid-containing gel and hydroxypropyl-guar gel artificial tear formulations in patients with dry eye syndrome: a 4-week, prospective, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, noninferiority study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Wang, I-Jong; Ho, Jau-Der; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Huang, Man-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Most marketed artificial tears are substitutes for the aqueous layers of the tear film; therefore, frequent instillation of artificial tears is necessary. Newer gel-, cellulose-, and mineral oil-based formulations have been designed to overcome the disadvantages of current aqueous tear substitutes by offering prolonged retention times. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and local tolerance of artificial tears containing carbomer-based lipids or hydroxypropyl (HP)-guar gel in patients with dry eye syndrome. A 4-week, prospective, randomized, parallel-group, comparative, noninferiority study was conducted at the Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) in patients with dry eye syndrome who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: the carbomer-based lipid-containing (CBLC) gel group and the HP-guar gel group. The primary end point was global assessment of study treatment by the patients at weeks 2 and 4. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of impaired tear function and ocular surface abnormalities. Outcomes measured at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks included Schirmer's test values, tear breakup time (TBUT), and a patient subjective assessment of symptoms. Safety and tolerability were assessed by clinically significant changes in terms of incidence of adverse events and conducted by unmasked investigators. A total of 30 Taiwanese patients with dry eye syndrome were included and randomly assigned to the 2 treatment groups: the mean (SD) age was 40.37 (14.96) years in the CBLC gel group and 49.49 (12.20) years in the HP-guar gel group. At baseline, the mean (SD) Schirmer's test value was 4.53 (2.28) mm in the right eye and 5.13 (2.42) mm in the left eye in the CBLC gel group; 4.40 (2.16) mm in the right eye and 4.20 (1.78) mm in the left eye for the HP-guar gel group. The mean (SD) for both eyes was 4.83 (2.36) mm in the CBLC gel group and 4.30 (2.08) mm in the HP-guar gel group. There was no statistically significant

  18. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  19. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  20. Bilateral tibial agenesis and syndactyly in a cat.

    PubMed

    Di Dona, Francesco; Murino, Carla; Della Valle, Giovanni; Fatone, Gerardo

    2016-07-19

    A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies.

  1. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats.

    PubMed

    Aboutboul, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. This paper summarizes homeopathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

  2. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inner corner of the eyes ( epicanthal folds ), droopy eyelids ( ptosis ), and outside corners of the eyes that point ... my area? Other Names for This Condition blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual disability syndrome BPIDS KOS oculocerebrofacial syndrome, Kaufman ...

  4. Cat scratch disease and other Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Zangwill, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1931, cat scratch disease remains the most commonly identified clinical syndrome associated with Bartonella infection. Over the last 20 years, however, the discovery and use of modern diagnostic tests has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and treatment options for Bartonella infections of all types. Indeed, each varies substantially depending on the infecting species and the immune status of the host.

  5. An Eight-Eyed Version of Hawkins and Shohet's Clinical Supervision Model: The Addition of the Cognitive Analytic Therapy Concept of the "Observing Eye/I" as the "Observing Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…

  6. An Eight-Eyed Version of Hawkins and Shohet's Clinical Supervision Model: The Addition of the Cognitive Analytic Therapy Concept of the "Observing Eye/I" as the "Observing Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…

  7. Risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats in a suburban US town.

    PubMed

    Loyd, K A T; Hernandez, S M; Abernathy, K J; Shock, B C; Marshall, G J

    2013-09-28

    Free-roaming cats may experience numerous hazardous encounters in the outdoor environment, including: vehicular accidents, aggression from other animals and exposure to infectious disease. This research quantitatively examined the outdoor activities of 55 owned cats by monitoring pets outfitted with 'KittyCam' video cameras. KittyCams are a type of Crittercam, designed by National Geographic to allow recording of a cat-eye view without disrupting behaviour. We investigated the activities of free-roaming cats in suburban Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, during all four seasons. Research objectives included documenting the type and regularity of risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats and identifying characteristics of pet cats (eg, age, sex, roaming habitat) which predict risky behaviour in the outdoors. The most common risk behaviours exhibited by suburban free-roaming cats included crossing roads (45 per cent of our sample), encountering strange cats (25 per cent), eating and drinking substances away from home (25 per cent), exploring storm drain systems (20 per cent), and entering crawlspaces of houses (20 per cent). Male cats were more likely to engage in risk behaviours than female cats, and older cats engaged in fewer risk behaviours than younger individuals. We hope this information can be used to encourage the public to keep cats indoors more often (with consideration for their indoor quality of life) or supervise them while outdoors.

  8. Abnormal erythroid cell proliferation and myelofibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tomoko; Miura, Naoki; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Endo, Yasuyuki; Momoi, Yasuyuki

    2012-07-01

    A cat was presented with severe progressive anemia despite marked erythroblastosis. The cat was negative for feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody. Bone marrow cytology revealed an excess of erythroid cells with a predominance of prorubricytes and basophilic rubricytes. No response to immunosuppressive therapy was obtained, and a tentative diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome was made. The cat showed a partial response to low-dose cytarabine (20 mg/m(2) subcutaneously q24) but died 51 days after the 1st admission. Histopathological examination revealed fibrosis in the bone marrow and marked infiltration of erythroid cells into other organs.

  9. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  10. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  11. [A comparison of corneal sensitivity between healthy cats and cats with corneal sequestra].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Frank; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Heider, Hans-Josef; Görig, Christiane; Nolte, Ingo

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish reference values for corneal sensitivity in ophthalmologically healthy persians (n = 40) and domestic short hair cats (n = 60) a prospective study was conducted. Furthermore corneal sensitivity in 48 cats with a corneal sequestrum was measured. Corneal sensitivity was recorded with the help of the aesthesiometer according to Cochet and Bonnet in five different corneal locations (central, nasal, dorsal, temporal, and ventral). The sensitivity for the central corneal region was recorded as amounting to 3.58 +/- 0.56 cm in ophthalmologically healthy domestic short hair cats and to 2.97 +/- 0.58 cm in healthy persian cats. The sensitivity of the central corneal area of a cat with a corneal sequester only amounts to 2.03 +/- 0.53 cm. Between the diseased and the healthy eyes no statistical difference could be demonstrated for any of the measured corneal locations. The sensitivity of the peripheral corneal locations is significantly lower than that of the central corneal region in all three groups examined.

  12. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  13. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  14. Permethrin toxicosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Linnett, P-J

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of all adverse experience reports received by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority's Adverse Experience Reporting Program for veterinary medicines since 1995, showed that permethrin toxicity in cats usually occurred after the owner applied a canine permethrin-containing product, typically a spot-on. Cats are also at risk from grooming or being in direct contact with recently treated dogs. This paper reviews permethrin toxicosis and its treatment in cats, incorporating information from the Australian and selected overseas veterinary pharmacovigilance programs.

  15. Diabetes mellitus in cats.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jacquie S; Marshall, Rhett D

    2005-01-01

    Feline diabetes is a multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental factors, including diet, excess body weight, and physical inactivity, involved in its pathogenesis. Although type 2 diabetes is most common in cats, most cats are insulin-dependent at the time of diagnosis. If good glycemic control can be achieved early after diagnosis, a substantial proportion of diabetic cats go into clinical remission. Diabetic remission may be facilitated by using a low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet combined with a long-acting insulin, such as glargine, administered twice daily. Rather than just controlling clinical signs, these new treatment modalities make curing feline diabetes a realistic goal for practitioners.

  16. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  17. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters.

  18. Cat-scratch disease: ocular manifestations and visual outcome.

    PubMed

    Curi, André L L; Machado, Danuza; Heringer, Gustavo; Campos, Wesley Ribeiro; Lamas, Cristiane; Rozental, Tatiana; Gutierres, Alexandro; Orefice, Fernando; Lemos, Elba

    2010-10-01

    To describe the intra-ocular manifestations of cat-scratch disease (CSD) found at two uveitis reference centers in Brazil. Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with CSD in the Uveitis Department of São Geraldo Hospital and the Ophthalmology Department of the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-FIOCRUZ, from 2001 to 2008. In the 8-year period, 24 patients with the diagnosis of CSD were identified. Twelve patients were male and 12 female. The mean age was 27.04 years (range 7-56). Sixteen patients (66.6%) presented with a history of a cat scratch and all patients reported cat exposure. Visual acuity ranged from counting fingers to 1.0 in the affected eye. Thirteen patients presented with bilateral disease. Sixteen (66.6%) patients complained of systemic symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, liver and spleen enlargement and rash. All patients presented with serum antibodies (IgG) to Bartonella henselae. Thirty-seven eyes were affected. The most common findings were small areas of retinal infiltrates which occurred in 11 eyes (29.7%) and angiomatous lesions which occurred in nine eyes (24.3%). Neuroretinitis occurred in only six eyes (16.2%). The most common findings of CSD in our study were retinal infiltrates and angiomatous lesions. CSD patients may present with significant visual loss. Patients may benefit from systemic treatment with antibiotics.

  19. Reversal of visual discrimination and visual acute extinction in cats with poor or limited early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Zernicki, B

    1997-01-01

    Transformation of visual instrumental conditioned reflexes rewarded with food was compared in cats binocularly deprived of pattern vision in the early period of life (BD cats), control cats reared also in the laboratory but with open eyes (C cats) and cats reared in normal environment (N cats). In Expt. I the cats were given 4 sequential reversal trainings of cross vs. disc discrimination and in Expt. II a response to a gate marked with a cross or a disc was submitted to 4 sequential acute extinctions and restorations. The results show that both visual deprivation and rearing in monotonous laboratory environment moderately affect transformation of associations between visual stimuli and hunger drive and instrumental responses. However, in BD cats transformation learning is less impaired than previously studied visual discrimination learning.

  20. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.