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Sample records for cat eye syndrome

  1. Cat eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. PMID:24842361

  2. Cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome.

  3. Cytogenetic investigation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G

    1977-10-01

    Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.

  4. Cat eye syndrome with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Masukawa, H; Ozaki, T; Nogimori, T

    1998-10-01

    A 17-year-old male diagnosed as having Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism showed short stature and no development of secondary sex characteristics. Exogeneous gonadotropin replacement therapy combining human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was started. As a result, the short stature and androgen deficiency were relieved. The critical region of CES was tetrasomy of 22 pter-->q11. Abnormalities of other chromosomes which cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may exist, thus further investigation is needed.

  5. [Associated brachial cleft anomalies in the cat eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Avior, Galit; Derowe, Ari; Fliss, Dan M; Leicear-Trejo, Leonor; Braverman, Itzhak

    2007-02-01

    The cat eye syndrome is a congenital malformation usually associated with anal atresia, ocular coloboma, downward slanting eyes, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, strabismus, preauricular tags or fistulas, congenital heart defect particularly septal defect, urinary tract abnormalities, skeletal anomalies and frequently mental and physical retardation. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited and represents an inv dup 22 (q11). A two years old female presented to our department with an association of cat eye syndrome with preauricular tags and a first branchial arch anomaly. This article discusses the surgical management and the association between the cat eye syndrome and first branchial cleft anomaly.

  6. Phenotypic variability of Cat-Eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berends, M J; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; van Essen, A J

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cytogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric duplication of a part of chromosome 22 (inv dup(22)). We report on three CES-patients who carry an inv dup(22) diagnosed with FISH studies. They show remarkable phenotypic variability. The cause of this variability is unknown. Furthermore, we review clinical features of 71 reported patients. Only 41% of the CES-patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and pre-auricular anomalies. Therefore, almost 60% of the CES-patients are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Mild to moderate mental retardation was found in 32% (16/50) of the cases. Mental retardation occurs more frequently in male CES-patients. There is no apparent phenotypic difference between mentally retarded and mentally normal CES-patients.

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of cat eye syndrome marker chromosome.

    PubMed

    Wenger, S L; Surti, U; Nwokoro, N A; Steele, M W

    1994-01-01

    Cat eye syndrome is associated with a partial tetrasomy 22q and can be inherited. The authors have evaluated the marker chromosome in a proband and his mother by cytogenetic banding techniques to verify the dicentric chromosomal rearrangement and by fluorescence in situ hybridization to confirm the involvement of 22. The mother also had an affected offspring with an unrelated aneuploidy, trisomy 21.

  8. Cat-eye syndrome with isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Shimizu, Chikara; Nagai, So; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Umetsu, Masaaki; Kimura, Yasunori; Atsumi, Toshiya; Yoshioka, Narihito; Kubo, Mitsumasa; Koike, Takao

    2005-10-01

    A 34-year-old Japanese man diagnosed as having cat-eye syndrome (CES) with isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) was treated at our university. He showed preauricular pits/tags, downward slanting palpebral fissures, ocular hypertelorism, and strabismus. However, ocular coloboma and anal atresia, major characteristic features of CES, were negative. Chromosomal analysis revealed malformation in chromosome 22 and eunuchoid features and a low grade development of secondary sexual characteristics were also evident. Endocrinological examinations revealed that this patient was in a state of isolated IHH. Although CES with IHH is extremely rare, endocrine disorders should be given due attention.

  9. Renal function evaluation in an adult female with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellinghieri, G; Triolo, O; Stella, N C; Gemelli, M; Musolino, R; Monardo, P; Savica, V

    1994-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly involving the kidney. It is rarely reported in literature, while renal function has never been studied up to now. Shown here are the morphofunctional renal alterations observed in a female patient affected by cat-eye syndrome.

  10. Severe psychomotor delay in a severe presentation of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Receveur, Aline; Andrieux, Joris; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Copin, Henri; Morin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally.

  11. FISH approach to determine cat eye syndrome chromosome breakpoints of a patient with cat eye syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Gentile, M; De Sanctis, S; Cariola, F; Spezzi, T; Di Carlo, A; Tontoli, F; Lista, F; Buonadonna, A L

    2005-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old man with craniofacial dysmorphic features, anorectal malformations, eye colobomas, orthopaedic anomalies, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. Cat eye syndrome (CES) was suspected, and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis which showed the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as invdup(22). The marker was further analyzed with six BAC clones located at the 22q11.1 and 22q11.2 regions; this analysis allowed correct assignment at low copy repeat 4 on chromosome 22 (LCR22-4) of the two breakpoints, confirming the presence of a CES chromosome type II. The patient's phenotype is considered in the light of the cytogenetic, and FISH investigations results and other patients reported in literature. Molecular definition of the breakpoints at the LCR22-4 copy confirms the role of different chromosome 22-specific LCRs in CES chromosomes generation, as well as in other chromosome 22 germ line rearrangements. Our report confirms that, unlike other conditions, i.e. the invdup(15) bisatellited dicentric marker, the CES phenotype does not appear to correlate with the size of the marker chromosome. Additional cases are necessary to be able to draw more specific genotype-phenotype correlations and to determine the outcome of patients with CES, especially when this rare condition is diagnosed in prenatal age.

  12. Cat eye syndrome associated with aganglionosis of the small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ward, J; Sierra, I A; D'Croz, E

    1989-10-01

    A newborn male infant is presented with the characteristic phenotype of the cat eye syndrome and a small supernumerary chromosome shorter than a 22. He also had complete absence of parasympathetic ganglion cells throughout the small and large intestine.

  13. Short-segment Hirschsprung's disease, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation: a unique association.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles

    2007-08-01

    The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.

  14. [Cat-eye syndrome. Clinical and cytogenetical differentialdiagnosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kunze, J; Tolksdorf, M; Wiedemann, H R

    1975-01-01

    We report a 5 1/2-year-old girl whose clinical symptoms are consistent with diagnosis of the cat-eye syndrome. The prominent symptoms are: anal stenosis, preauricular tags and pits, coloboma of the iris, doubling of the pelvis and ureter on both sides, vesicourethral reflux on the right side and normal mental development. Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal. Chromosomal analysis shows a supernumerary submetacentric chromosome. This extra chromosome is smaller than the G-group chromosomes and has satellites on the short and long arms. Autoradiography after 3H-thymidine incorporation shows a late-labeling marker chromosome. After using the Giemsa-banding technique, the chromatides demonstrate dark bandings with only soft, unstained satellites. With the fluorescence method, one can see spotlike fluorescence of the satellites on both arms and diffuse fluorescence of the hetero-chromatic segments. In addition, the C-bandings demonstrate a homogeneous dark staining of the chromatids, but we did not find stained satellites. Using the Giemsa-11 technique one can see the 47th chromosome with predominantly heterochromatic parts, but small euchromatic segments are visible between them. Satellites are unstained. Using currently accepted cytogenetical methods, it is not possible to identify the origin of this supernumerary marker chromosome.

  15. [Complex cyanotic heart defect in a newborn infant with cat eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Paul, T; Reimer, A; Wilken, M; Miller, K; Kallfelz, H C

    1991-04-01

    In a cyanotic newborn with characteristic features of Cat-Eye-Syndrome, cytogenetic examination disclosed a supernumerary small bisatellited chromosome. Angiography showed Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a narrow patent ductus arteriosus with additional stenosis of the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. At an age of 14 weeks, the patient died after the attempt of corrective cardiac surgery. Congenital cardiac malformation is present in more than one third of patients with cat-eye-syndrome and is usually the lifelimiting malformation in this syndrome.

  16. Cat-eye syndrome with unusual marker chromosome probably not chromosome 22.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, W; Verma, R S; Jhaveri, R C

    1984-05-01

    An unusual supernumerary chromosome with a single satellite on the long arm was found in a child with manifestations of the cat-eye syndrome including apparently low-set and malformed ears, preauricular tags, micrognathia, and imperforate anus. Although G-banding suggested that this extra material was chromosome 22, this was not confirmed by several other banding techniques. After examination of the parents' chromosomes, the nature and origin of this extra chromosome remains obscure. We conclude that patients previously diagnosed as having "partial trisomy 22" with incomplete cat-eye syndrome may have a different chromosome constitution when studied by various banding techniques.

  17. Cat eye syndrome and growth hormone deficiency with pituitary anomalies: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melo, Cláudia; Gama-de-Sousa, Susana; Almeida, Filipa; Rendeiro, Paula; Tavares, Purificação; Cardoso, Helena; Carvalho, Sónia

    2013-10-15

    Cat eye syndrome is a rare congenital disease characterized by the existence of a supernumerary chromosome derived from chromosome 22, with a variable phenotype comprising anal atresia, coloboma of the iris and preauricular tags or pits. We report a girl with cat eye syndrome, presenting short stature, with growth hormone deficiency due to posterior pituitary ectopia. Short stature is a common feature of this syndrome, and the association with a structural pituitary anomaly has been described, however growth hormone deficiency and the underlying mechanisms are rarely reported. A review on short stature and growth hormone deficiency in cat eye syndrome is conducted.

  18. Cat-eye syndrome with different marker chromosomes in a mother and daughter.

    PubMed

    Ing, P S; Lubinsky, M S; Smith, S D; Golden, E; Sanger, W G; Duncan, A M

    1987-03-01

    Except for atypical eye findings in the daughter, a mother and daughter with bisatellited marker chromosomes had abnormalities consistent with cat-eye syndrome. The mother's marker chromosome (mar number 1) is derived from one 22 and another acrocentric, possibly also a 22; the daughter's marker (mar number 2) may be an iso-dicentric, inv-dup (22) derivative of mar number 1. The mother has a tertiary trisomy translocation chromosome composed of at least one and perhaps two copies of 22pter----q11.2, whereas the daughter clearly has a secondary trisomy 22pter----q11.2 isochromosome, confirming this region as a cause of cat-eye syndrome. Results of hybridization using a unique sequence probe localized to 22q11 are consistent with the interpretation that both ends of both marker chromosomes are derived from 22.

  19. Interrupted aortic arch type B in A patient with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Hacker, April M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  20. Phenotypic variability of the cat eye syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rosias, P R; Sijstermans, J M; Theunissen, P M; Pulles-Heintzberger, C F; De Die-Smulders, C E; Engelen, J J; Van Der Meer, S B

    2001-01-01

    We present a male infant with preauricular skin tags and pits, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, ectopic anus, hypospadias, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The clinical features in our patient show phenotypic overlap with the cat eye syndrome, as illustrated by the review of 105 reported cases. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified by microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization as an isodicentric chromosome 22(pter --> q11.2::q11.2 --> pter). It was proved with probes specific for the cat eye syndrome critical region that this region was present in quadruplicate in the propositus. We conclude that CES is characterized by large phenotypic variability, ranging from near normal to severe malformations, as reflected in the neurodevelopmental outcome. Preauricular skin tags and/or pits are the most consistent features, and suggest the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome 22 derived from duplication of the CES critical region.

  1. Interstitial duplication of proximal 22q: Phenotypic overlap with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, J.H.M.; Asamoah, A.; Wagstaff, J.

    1995-01-16

    We describe a child with downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular malfunctions, congenital heart defect (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), unilateral absence of a kidney, and developmental delay with an apparent interstitial duplication of proximal 22q. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed duplication of the IGLC locus, and C-banding of the duplicated region was negative. The duplication appears to involve 22q11.2-q12. Although the child has neither colobomas nor microphthalmia, he shows phenotypic overlap with with the cat eye syndrome, which is caused by a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome arising from inverted duplication of the short arm and proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Further molecular studies of this patient should help to define the regions responsible for the manifestations of cat eye syndrome. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Interstitial duplication of proximal 22q: phenotypic overlap with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knoll, J H; Asamoah, A; Pletcher, B A; Wagstaff, J

    1995-01-16

    We describe a child with downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular malfunctions, congenital heart defect (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), unilateral absence of a kidney, and developmental delay with an apparent interstitial duplication of proximal 22q. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed duplication of the IGLC locus, and C-banding of the duplicated region was negative. The duplication appears to involve 22q11.2-q12. Although the child has neither colobomas nor microphthalmia, he shows phenotypic overlap with the cat eye syndrome, which is caused by a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome arising from inverted duplication of the short arm and proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Further molecular studies of this patient should help to define the regions responsible for the manifestations of cat eye syndrome.

  3. [Atypical cat eye syndrome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Bartsch, O; Aksu, F; Fenner, A; Schwinger, E

    1992-08-01

    In 1983, a chromosome analysis was carried out in a newborn preterm infant with minor anomalies (preauricular skin tag, maldescensus testis). All analysed metaphases showed a small extra chromosome, which was symmetric, dicentric and bi-satellited. In spite of in depth analysis, its origin remained obscure. Recent re-evaluation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) led to the diagnosis of a dicentric chromosome 22. The FISH technique is an important new tool in chromosome diagnostics. The phenotype of this infant only vaguely resembles the cat eye syndrome. The syndrome should be diagnosed clinically and not only based on the results of chromosome analysis.

  4. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated.

  5. Anatomical asplenia in cat eye syndrome: an expansion of the disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chellapandian, Deepakbabu; Schneider, Adele

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with Cat eye syndrome (CES) associated with anatomical asplenia. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of this association. Screening for asplenia in CES is potentially important, as asplenia places patients at increased risk for life-threatening bacterial infections. Hence patients with CES without a spleen may require the same routine precautions as any other asplenic patients, with penicillin prophylaxis and immunizations to protect against encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis.

  6. Identification of a cat eye syndrome using DNA sequence dosage analysis.

    PubMed

    Bulle, F; Lespinasse, J; Pawlak, A; Vadot, E; Sastre, J; Noël, B; Guellaen, G

    1996-01-01

    We report here the detection of a Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) in a woman who does not exhibit the related phenotype, due to intensive surgery. The analysis of her karyotype reveals a small supernumerary bisatellited chromosome likely to correspond to a fragment of chromosome 13, 15, 21 or 22 on banding analysis. Southern blot of genomic DNA of this patient and her parents hybridized with probes specific of these chromosomes, revealed a DNA amplification of the 22q11 region for the patient, likely to correspond to a CES.

  7. A new case of a severe clinical phenotype of the cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denavit, T Martin; Malan, V; Grillon, C; Sanlaville, D; Ardalan, A; Jacquemont, M L; Burglen, L; Taillemite, J L; Portnoi, M F

    2004-01-01

    A new case of severe clinical phenotype of the cat-eye syndrome: We report on a female infant with severe clinical phenotype of Cat-Eye Syndrome (CES). At birth, she had respiratory distress and marked hypotonia. Physical examination showed major craniofacial anomalies including microcephaly, bilateral total absence of the external ears, hypertelorism, bilateral ocular coloboma of iris and micrognathia. In addition, she had anal stenosis, a patent ductus arteriosus and intra- and extra- hepatic biliary atresia. She deteriorated with the development of bradycardia. She died at age one month of cardiac failure. Cytogenetic analysis of the proband showed an extra de novo small bisatelllited marker chromosome in all cells examined. Molecular cytogenetic analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified the marker as a CES chromosome. Thus, the patient's karyotype was: 47, XX, +idic(22)(pter-->q11.2 ::q11.2-->pter). The duplication breakpoints giving rise to the CES chromosome were distal to the DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) locus 22q11.2. The marker could be classed as a type 11 symmetrical (10). According to a recent review of CES literature (1) only 41 % of the CES patients have the combination of iris coloboma, anal anomalies and preauricular anomalies. Almost 60% are hard to recognize by their phenotype alone. Only twelve patients showed a severe clinical phenotype leading to the death of the child. This phenotypic variability increases the difficulties of genetic counseling.

  8. Dynamic mosaicism involving an unstable supernumerary der(22) chromosome in cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Urioste, M.; Visedo, G.; Sanchis, A.; Sentis, C.; Villa, A.; Ludena, P.; Hortigueela, J.L.; Martinez-Frias, M.L.; Fernandez-Piqueras, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have studied a girl, her sister and her mother who had a supernumerary marker chromosome in mosaicism. The marker was studied by cytogenetic methods and nonisotopic in situ hybridization with the single D22S9 DNA probe which maps to 22q11. The supernumerary chromosome was derived from chromosome 22 and it did not present the same morphology in all the cells. At least 5 distinct types of the marker chromosome were detected and some of them were probably derived from each other (dynamic mosaicism). The proposita had an MCA pattern consistent with mild cat eye syndrome, while her sister and her mother had some of the manifestations described in this syndrome. A specific correlation could be established between phenotype and karyotype. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Dynamic mosaicism involving an unstable supernumerary der(22) chromosome in cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urioste, M; Visedo, G; Sanchís, A; Sentís, C; Villa, A; Ludeña, P; Hortigüela, J L; Martínez-Frías, M L; Fernández-Piqueras, J

    1994-01-01

    We have studied a girl, her sister and her mother who had a supernumerary marker chromosome in mosaicism. The marker was studied by cytogenetic methods and non-isotopic in situ hybridization with the single D22S9 DNA probe which maps to 22q11. The supernumerary chromosome was derived from a chromosome 22 and it did not present the same morphology in all the cells. At least 5 distinct types of the marker chromosome were detected and some of them were probably derived from each other (dynamic mosaicism). The proposita had an MCA pattern consistent with mild cat eye syndrome, while her sister and her mother had some of the manifestations described in this syndrome. A specific correlation could be established between phenotype and karyotype.

  10. Absence of lambda immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the "cat eye" syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hough, C A; White, B N; Holden, J J

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the "cat eye" syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter-->22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned lambda immunoglobulin (lambda Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 lambda Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the lambda Ig gene region.

  11. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E. ); Duncan, A.M.V. ); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S.; Sellinger, B. ); Siegel-Bartelt, J. ); Greenberg, C.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study the authors have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mears, A J; Duncan, A M; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S; Sellinger, B; Siegel-Bartelt, J; Greenberg, C R; McDermid, H E

    1994-07-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study we have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2.

  13. Molecular characterization of the marker chromosome associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, A. J.; Duncan, A. M.; Budarf, M. L.; Emanuel, B. S.; Sellinger, B.; Siegel-Bartelt, J.; Greenberg, C. R.; McDermid, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome which is derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In this study we have used dosage and RFLP analyses on 10 CES patients with marker chromosomes, by using probes to five loci mapped to 22q11.2. The sequences recognized by the probes D22S9, D22S43, and D22S57 are in four copies in all patients, but the sequences at the more distal loci, D22S36 and D22S75, are duplicated only in some individuals. D22S36 is present in three copies in some individuals, and D22S75 is present in two copies in the majority of cases. Only three individuals have a duplication of the most distal locus examined (D22S75), and these individuals have the largest marker chromosomes identified in this study. From the dosage analysis it was found that the marker chromosomes are variable in size and can be asymmetric in nature. There is no obvious correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the size of the duplication. The distal boundary of the CES critical region (D22S36) is proximal to that of DiGeorge syndrome, a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome of 22q11.2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7912885

  14. Cat eye syndrome chromosome breakpoint clustering: identification of two intervals also associated with 22q11 deletion syndrome breakpoints.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, K E; Budarf, M L; Driscoll, D A; Emanuel, B S; Ferreira, P; McDermid, H E

    1998-01-01

    The supernumerary cat eye syndrome (CES) chromosome is dicentric, containing two copies of 22pter-->q11.2. We have found that the duplication breakpoints are clustered in two intervals. The more proximal, most common interval is the 450-650 kb region between D22S427 and D22S36, which corresponds to the proximal deletion breakpoint interval found in the 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome). The more distal duplication breakpoint interval falls between CRKL and D22S112, which overlaps with the common distal deletion interval of the 22q11 deletion syndrome. We have therefore classified CES chromosomes into two types based on the location of the two breakpoints required to generate them. The smaller type I CES chromosomes are symmetrical, with both breakpoints located within the proximal interval. The larger type II CES chromosomes are either asymmetrical, with one breakpoint located in each of the two intervals, or symmetrical, with both breakpoints located in the distal interval. The co-localization of the breakpoints of these different syndromes, plus the presence of low-copy repeats adjacent to each interval, suggests the existence of several specific regions of chromosomal instability in 22q11.2 which are involved in the production of both deletions and duplications. Since the phenotype associated with the larger duplication does not appear to be more severe than that of the smaller duplication, determination of the type of CES chromosome does not currently have prognostic value.

  15. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: Further delineation of the critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.; El-Shanti, H.

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: further delineation of the critical region.

    PubMed

    Mears, A J; el-Shanti, H; Murray, J C; McDermid, H E; Patil, S R

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of the derivative chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Reeser, S L; Donnenfeld, A E; Miller, R C; Sellinger, B S; Emanuel, B S; Driscoll, D A

    1994-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies of cultured amniocytes demonstrated a karyotype of 46,XX/47,XX, +mar. A bisatellited, dicentric, distamycin-DAPI negative, NOR-positive marker was present in 76 per cent of the metaphases examined. Similar markers have been associated with cat eye syndrome (CES). We report on the utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 14/22 alpha-satellite probe and a chromosome 22-specific cosmid for locus D22S9 to determine the origin of the prenatally detected supernumerary marker chromosome. FISH studies demonstrated that the marker is a derivative of chromosome 22 and enabled us to provide the family with additional prognostic information.

  18. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, cat eye, and distal 22q11 microdeletion syndromes: a unique double rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Torti, Erin E; Braddock, Stephen R; Bernreuter, Kristen; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2013-08-01

    An array-CGH on 19-year-old male showed a proximal 1.11 Mb duplication and a distal 1.7 Mb deletion of 22q11.2 regions flanking the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome region that remained intact. FISH analyses revealed both abnormalities to be on the same homolog 22. This double rearrangement lead to the co-existence of two syndromes: Cat eye and distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndromes with a rare associated phenotype of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS). A review of the literature indicates that this is the second report of a proximal duplication and the fifth report of a distal deletion and OAVS suggestive of a possible OAVS candidate gene in this region.

  19. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Riazi, M.A.; Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.

    1994-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome is characterized cytogenetically by the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In order to study this syndrome, we have mapped and cloned within the CES critical region (CESCR) in 22q11.2. A long-range map was constructed using probes previously mapped to the CESCR by somatic cell hybrids. The map spans from probes LN63 to D22S36 and covers approximately 3 Mb. Probes within the region were used to isolate YACs, producing a contig of approximately 1.5 Mb (cLN63-D22S57). DNA studies of a cat eye patient with an unusual marker chromosome refined the minimal critical region proximal to D22S57, indicating that most of the CESCR is now cloned. The physical map will allow us to further delineate the CESCR and isolate genes in the region. Towards this end, we have performed {open_quotes}exon-trapping{close_quotes}on a cosmid, CN63, in this region. A 250 bp exon was isolated which maps to the CESCR and has no homology in GenBank. Further characterization of the gene containing this exon is in progress.

  20. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  1. Wide clinical variability in cat eye syndrome patients: four non-related patients and three patients from the same family.

    PubMed

    Belangero, S I; Pacanaro, A N X; Bellucco, F T; Christofolini, D M; Kulikowski, L D; Guilherme, R S; Bortolai, A; Dutra, A R N; Piazzon, F B; Cernach, M C; Melaragno, M I

    2012-01-01

    A small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 22 is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. This sSMC typically results in tetrasomy for a chromosomal region that spans the chromosome 22p arm and the proximal 2 Mb of 22q11.21. Using classical cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and array techniques, 7 patients with sSMCs derived from chromosome 22 were studied: 4 non-related and 3 from the same family (mother, daughter, and son). The sSMCs in all patients were dicentric and bisatellited chromosomes with breakpoints in the chromosome 22 low-copy repeat A region, resulting in cat eye syndrome (CES) due to chromosome 22 partial tetrasomy 22pter→q11.2 including the cat eye chromosome region. Although all subjects presented the same chromosomal abnormality, they showed a wide range of phenotypic differences, even in the 3 patients from the same family. There are no previous reports of CES occurring within 3 patients in the same family. Thus, the clinical and follow-up data presented here contribute to a better delineation of the phenotypes and outcomes of CES patients and will be useful for genetic counseling.

  2. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Trisomy 22pter-q12.3 presenting with hepatic dysfunction variability of cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jezela-Stanek, Aleksandra; Dobrzańska, Anna; Maksym-Gasiorek, Dorota; Trzeciakowski, Wojciech; Gutkowska, Anna; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Gajdulewicz, Maria; Spodar, Krystyna; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Krajewska-Walasek, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    We describe the clinical characteristics of two patients with cat-eye syndrome (CES, MIM #115470) resulting from a supernumerary marker chromosome that includes 22pter-q12.3. They both presented a constellation of features typical of CES, including coloboma, auricular malformations, heart and renal anomalies, as well as hepatic dysfunction, which led to severe effects. In one case Pierre Robin sequence was diagnosed which has not been described earlier in this trisomy. Although CES is a well known, but infrequently diagnosed disorder, we draw attention both to its clinical overlaps with other disorders and, in view of the clinical variability being identified within the 22q11 region, to the importance of careful molecular examination of proximal 22q in patients with suggestive clinical signs.

  4. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region.

    PubMed

    McDermid, H E; McTaggart, K E; Riazi, M A; Hudson, T J; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S; Bell, C J

    1996-12-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome derived from human chromosome 22pter to 22q11.2. The region of 22q duplicated in the typical CES marker chromosome extends between the centromere and locus D22S36. We have constructed a long-range restriction map of this region using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and probes to 10 loci (11 probes). The map covers -3.6 Mb. We have also used 15 loci to construct a yeast artificial chromosome contig, which encompasses about half of the region critical to the production of the CES phenotype (centromere to D22S57). Thus, the CES critical region has been mapped and a substantial portion of it cloned in preparation for the isolation of genes in this region.

  5. A 1.5-Mb contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region at human chromosome 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Shizuya, H; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    1999-04-15

    We have constructed a 1.5-Mb contig spanning the distal half of the critical region for cat eye syndrome on human chromosome 22 from D22S543 to D22S181. The contig consists of 20 P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones and 11 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones screened from 2 BAC and 2 PAC libraries. Continuous overlap between the clones was confirmed using vectorette PCR and riboprobes. Despite the instability of this region in a previous YAC contig, only 1 BAC showed a minor instability and then in only one isolation. This contig is now providing the basis for genomic sequencing and gene identification in the cat eye syndrome critical region.

  6. Partial trisomy due to a de novo duplication 22q11.1-22q13.1: a cat-eye syndrome variant with brain anomalies.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, D; Ceylaner, S; Ceylaner, G; Dalkilic, S; Karli-Oguz, K; Kandemir, O

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of partial trisomy 22q with de novo duplication of chromosomal region 22q11.1-22q13.1, also confirmed by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (Array-CGH) analysis. The fetus had interhemispheric cyst and corpus callosum agenesis diagnosed by MRI which has not been reported in the literature. This novel phenotype differs from the reported cat eye syndromes by the absence of heart defects and the presence of brain anomalies.

  7. An unusual case of Cat-Eye syndrome phenotype and extragonadal mature teratoma: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tzetis, Maria; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Syrmou, Areti; Kosma, Konstantina; Leze, Eleni; Giannikou, Krinio; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Sofocleous, Christalena; Choulakis, Michael; Kolialexi, Aggeliki; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) with teratoma has not been previously reported. We present the clinical and molecular findings of a 9-month-old girl with features of CES and also a palpable midline neck mass proved to be an extragonadal mature teratoma, additionally characterized by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS High resolution oligonucleotide-based aCGH confirmed that the supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) derived from chromosome 22, as was indicated by molecular cytogenetic analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, aCGH clarified the size, breakpoints, and gene content of the duplication (dup 22q11.1q11.21; size:1.6 Mb; breakpoints: 15,438,946-17,041,773; hg18). The teratoma tissue was also tested with aCGH, in which the CES duplication was not found, but the analysis revealed three aberrations: del Xp22.3 (108,864-2788,689; 2.7 Mb hg18), dup Yp11.2 (6688,491-7340,982; 0.65 Mb, hg18), and dup Yq11.2q11.23 (12,570,853-27,177,133; 14.61 Mb, hg18). These results indicated 46 XY (male) karyotype of the teratoma tissue, making this the second report of mature extragonadal teratoma in a female neonate, probably deriving from an included dizygotic twin of opposite sex (fetus in fetu). CONCLUSIONS Our findings extend the phenotypic spectrum of CES syndrome, a disorder with clinical variability, pointing out specific dosage-sensitive genes that might contribute to specific phenotypic features.

  8. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  9. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  10. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome.

  11. Partial tetrasomy of chromosome 22q11.1 resulting from a supernumerary isodicentric marker chromosome in a boy with cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Min; Kim, Jun Bum; Pai, Ki Soo; Yun, Jun-No; Park, Sang-Jin

    2010-12-01

    The 22q11 region has been implicated in chromosomal rearrangements that result in altered gene dosage, leading to three different congenital malformation syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome, cat-eye syndrome (CES), and der(22) syndrome. Although DiGeorge syndrome is a common genomic disorder on 22q11, CES is quite rare, and there has been no report of Korean CES cases with molecular cytogenetic confirmation. In this study, we present the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of a 3-month-old boy with CES. Clinical findings included micropthalmia, multiple colobomata, and renal and genital anomalies. Cytogenetic analyses showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome, which was identified as a bisatellited and isodicentric chromosome derived from an acrocentric chromosome. The results of array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed the karyotype as 47,XY,+mar.ish idic(22)(q11.1) (D22S43+).arr 22q11.1(15,500,000-15,900,000)x4, resulting in a partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of CES confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses.

  12. The Chediak-Higashi syndrome of cats.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J W; Davis, W C; Prieur, D J

    1977-05-01

    Initial clinical, genetic, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies have characterized the Chediak-Higashi syndrome in cats. Three cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome were found in a single line of 27 Persian cats, and three additional affected cats were produced from two prospective breedings of the original line. The disorder was characterized genetically as an autosomal recessive condition. All cats in the line with the combination of yellow eye color and "blue smoke" hair color exhibited the disorder. Four of the five cats examined had bilateral nuclear cataracts as early in life as 3 months of age. No increased susceptibility to infectious disease was observed. A bleeding tendency was noted. Abnormally large eosinophilic, sudanophilic, peroxidase-containing granules were observed in the neutrophils of the granulocytic series of blood and bone marrow by electron and light microscopy. Granules of eosinophils and basophils were also enlarged. Light microscopic studies of hair and skin revealed enlarged melanin granules. These manifestations were similar to those in man, mink, cattle, mice, and the killer whale with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Cats are the sixth species in which this genetic disease has been reported.

  13. Partial trisomy of chromosome 22 resulting from a supernumerary marker chromosome 22 in a child with features of cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bélien, Valérie; Gérard-Blanluet, Marion; Serero, Stéphane; Le Dû, Nathalie; Baumann, Clarisse; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Dupont, Céline; Krabchi, Kada; Drunat, Séverine; Elbez, Annie; Janaud, Jean-Claude; Benzacken, Brigitte; Verloes, Alain; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Aboura, Azzedine

    2008-07-15

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are present in about 0.05% of the human population. In approximately 28% of persons with these markers (excluding the approximately 60% derived from one of the acrocentric chromosomes), an abnormal phenotype is observed. We report on a 3-month-old girl with intrauterine growth retardation, craniofacial features, hypotonia, partial coloboma of iris and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization as part of chromosome 22, and conferring a proximal partial trisomy 22q22.21, not encompassing the DiGeorge critical region (RP11-154H4 + , TBX1-). This observation adds new information relevant to cat eye syndrome and partial trisomy of 22q.

  14. The gene for death agonist BID maps to the region of human 22q11.2 duplicated in cat eye syndrome chromosomes and to mouse chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Footz, T K; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Riazi, M A; McDermid, H E

    1998-08-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a duplication of a segment of human chromosome 22q11.2. Only one gene, ATP6E, has been previously mapped to this duplicated region. We now report the mapping of the human homologue of the apoptotic agonist Bid to human chromosome 22 near locus D22S57 in the CES region. Dosage analysis demonstrated that BID is located just distal to the CES region critical for the majority of malformations associated with the syndrome (CESCR), as previously defined by a single patient with an unusual supernumerary chromosome. However, BID remains a good candidate for involvement in CES-related mental impairment, and its overexpression may subtly add to the phenotype of CES patients. Our mapping of murine Bid confirms that the synteny of the CESCR and the 22q11 deletion syndrome critical region immediately telomeric on human chromosome 22 is not conserved in mice. Bid and adjacent gene Atp6e were found to map to mousechromosome 6, while the region homologous to the DGSCR is known to map to mouse chromosome 16.

  15. Inherited mosaicism for the supernumerary marker chromosome in cat eye syndrome: inter- and intra-individual variation and correlation to the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kvarnung, Malin; Lindstrand, Anna; Malmgren, Helena; Thåström, Anders; Jacobson, Lena; Dahl, Niklas; Lundin, Johanna; Blennow, Elisabeth

    2012-05-01

    We have studied a family with repeated transmission of mosaicism for a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC), giving rise to varying symptoms of the cat eye syndrome (CES) in the offspring. The frequency of the SMC was investigated using FISH with probes from the CES critical region on lymphocytes as well as buccal cells. The same probes were used to study the frequency of the SMC in spermatozoa from the father. The SMC was characterized in detail using array-CGH and was found to correspond to a symmetrical cat eye SMC type I, with two extra copies of the most proximal part of 22q11, not extending into the classical 22q11.2 deletion region. Mosaicism for the SMC was detected in 4 out of 7 family members, the father and all his three children. The degree of mosaicism varied greatly between individuals as well as between tissues, with twice as many cells with the SMC in epithelial cells compared to blood. The highest frequency (almost 50%) was found in spermatozoa from the father. There was a direct correlation between the degree of mosaicism and the symptoms, varying from no obvious symptoms to classical CES. The study confirms the occurrence of direct transmission of SMC-mosaicism in CES. The results indicate that examination of parental epithelial cells should be preferred compared to blood cells in order to exclude a recurrence risk in parents of a child with CES. Interphase FISH analysis of spermatozoa is the most sensitive method to exclude paternal germ line mosaicsm.

  16. A de novo sSMC(22) Characterized by High-Resolution Arrays in a Girl with Cat-Eye Syndrome without Coloboma.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Fletes, C; Domínguez, M G; Vázquez-Cárdenas, A; Figuera, L E; Neira, V A; Rojas-Martínez, A; Ortiz-López, R

    2012-09-01

    Cat-eye syndrome (CES) results from trisomy or tetrasomy of proximal 22q originated by a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). Two critical regions for the major clinical features of CES (CESCRs) have been suggested; however, CES clinical presentation often does not correlate with the sSMC genetic content. We report here a CES girl without coloboma and carrier of a de novo type I sSMC(22) as determined by G- and C-banding, NOR staining and microarrays. This sSMC included 6 distal genes outside the original CESCR and led to a tetrasomy for 22q11.1-22q11.21. The patient's final karyotype was 47,XX,+psu dic(22)(q11.21).arr 22q11.1q11.21(15,250,000-17,035,860)×4 dn. The amplified region outside of CESCR included some genes that may be related to neurologic, heart and renal abnormalities. Conversely, even though the amplification included the CECR2 gene, a major candidate for eye features, there was no coloboma in the patient. The genetic delineation of the present sSMC further strengthens that the CES clinical presentation does not fit completely with the duplicated genetic content and that CES is actually a genomic disorder. Furthermore, since we observed no mosaicism, we believe that other mechanisms might be behind the variability of CES phenotypes as well, mainly those related with functional interactions among amplified genes.

  17. Hemifacial microsomia in cat-eye syndrome: 22q11.1-q11.21 as candidate loci for facial symmetry.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2013-08-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES), (OMIM 115470) also known as chromosome 22 partial tetrasomy or inverted duplicated 22q11, was first reported by Haab [1879] based on the primary features of eye coloboma and anal atresia. However, >60% of the patients lack these primary features. Here, we present a 9-month-old female who at birth was noted to have multiple defects, including facial asymmetry with asymmetric retrognathia, bilateral mandibular hypoplasia, branchial cleft sinus, right-sided muscular torticollis, esotropia, and an atretic right ear canal with low-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss, bilateral preauricular ear tag/pits, and two skin tags on her left cheek. There were no signs of any colobomas or anal atresia. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) was suspected clinically. Chromosome studies and FISH identified an extra marker originated from 22q11 consistent with CES, and this was confirmed by aCGH. This report expands the phenotypic variability of CES and includes partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1-q11.21 in the differential diagnosis of HFM. In addition, our case as well as the previous association of 22q11.2 deletions and duplications with facial asymmetry and features of HFM, supports the hypothesis that this chromosome region harbors genes important in the regulation of body plan symmetry, and in particular facial harmony.

  18. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  19. A 600 kb triplication in the cat eye syndrome critical region causes anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in a three-generation family.

    PubMed

    Knijnenburg, Jeroen; van Bever, Yolande; Hulsman, Lorette O M; van Kempen, Chantal A P; Bolman, Galhana M; van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Beverloo, H Berna; van Zutven, Laura J C M

    2012-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is caused by a gain of the proximal part of chromosome 22. Usually, a supernumerary marker chromosome is present, containing two extra copies of the chromosome 22q11.1q11.21 region. More sporadically, the gain is present intrachromosomally. The critical region for CES is currently estimated to be about 2.1 Mb and to contain at least 14 RefSeq genes. Gain of this region may cause ocular coloboma, preauricular, anorectal, urogenital and congenital heart malformations. We describe a family in which a 600 kb intrachromosomal triplication is present in at least three generations. The copy number alteration was detected using MLPA and further characterized with interphase and metaphase FISH and SNP-array. The amplified fragment is located in the distal part of the CES region. The family members show anal atresia and preauricular tags or pits, matching part of the phenotype of this syndrome. This finding suggests that amplification of the genes CECR2, SLC25A18 and ATP6V1E1, mapping within the critical region for CES, may be responsible for anorectal, renal and preauricular anomalies in patients with CES.

  20. The human homolog of insect-derived growth factor, CECR1, is a candidate gene for features of cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riazi, M A; Brinkman-Mills, P; Nguyen, T; Pan, H; Phan, S; Ying, F; Roe, B A; Tochigi, J; Shimizu, Y; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Buchwald, M; McDermid, H E

    2000-03-15

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is a developmental disorder with multiple organ involvement, associated with the duplication of a 2-Mb region of 22q11.2. Using exon trapping and genomic sequence analysis, we have isolated and characterized a gene, CECR1, that maps to this critical region. The protein encoded by CECR1 is similar to previously identified novel growth factors: IDGF from Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) and MDGF from Aplysia californica (sea hare). The CECR1 gene is alternatively spliced and expressed in numerous tissues, with most abundant expression in human adult heart, lung, lymphoblasts, and placenta as well as fetal lung, liver, and kidney. In situ hybridization of a human embryo shows specific expression in the outflow tract and atrium of the developing heart, the VII/VIII cranial nerve ganglion, and the notochord. The location of this gene in the CES critical region and its embryonic expression suggest that the overexpression of CECR1 may be responsible for at least some features of CES, particularly the heart defects.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Chen, Yi-Yung; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-09-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome (CES) using cultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, left renal hypoplasia, total anomalous pulmonary venous return with dominant right heart and right ear deformity. The sSMC was bisatellited and dicentric, and was characterized by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The SALSA MLPA P250-B1 DiGeorge Probemix showed duplication of gene dosage in the CES region. aCGH showed a 1.26-Mb duplication at 22q11.1-q11.21 encompassing CECR1-CECR7. The sSMC was likely inv dup(22) (q11.21). Prenatal diagnosis of an sSMC(22) at amniocentesis should alert CES. MLPA, aCGH and fetal ultrasound are useful for rapid diagnosis of CES in case of prenatally detected sSMC(22).

  2. A complex rearrangement on chromosome 22 affecting both homologues; haplo-insufficiency of the Cat eye syndrome region may have no clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Kriek, Marjolein; Szuhai, Karoly; Kant, Sarina G; White, Stefan J; Dauwerse, Hans; Fiegler, Heike; Carter, Nigel P; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; den Dunnen, Johan T; Tanke, Hans J; Breuning, Martijn H; Rosenberg, Carla

    2006-08-01

    The presence of highly homologous sequences, known as low copy repeats, predisposes for unequal recombination within the 22q11 region. This can lead to genomic imbalances associated with several known genetic disorders. We report here a developmentally delayed patient carrying different rearrangements on both chromosome 22 homologues, including a previously unreported rearrangement within the 22q11 region. One homologue carries a deletion of the proximal part of chromosome band 22q11. To our knowledge, a 'pure' deletion of this region has not been described previously. Four copies of this 22q11 region, however, are associated with Cat eye syndrome (CES). While the phenotypic impact of this deletion is unclear, familial investigation revealed five normal relatives carrying this deletion, suggesting that haplo-insufficiency of the CES region has little clinical relevance. The other chromosome 22 homologue carries a duplication of the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) region. In addition, a previously undescribed deletion of 22q12.1, located in a relatively gene-poor region, was identified. As the clinical features of patients suffering from a duplication of the VCFS/DGS region have proven to be extremely variable, it is impossible to postulate as to the contribution of the 22q12.1 deletion to the phenotype of the patient. Additional patients with a deletion within this region are needed to establish the consequences of this copy number alteration. This study highlights the value of using different genomic approaches to unravel chromosomal alterations in order to study their phenotypic impact.

  3. The "cat eye syndrome": dicentric small marker chromosome probably derived from a no.22 (tetrasomy 22pter to q11) associated with a characteristic phenotype. Report of 11 patients and delineation of the clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Schinzel, A; Schmid, W; Fraccaro, M; Tiepolo, L; Zuffardi, O; Opitz, J M; Lindsten, J; Zetterqvist, P; Enell, H; Baccichetti, C; Tenconi, R; Pagon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with the so-called Cat Eye syndrome are reported including a more detailed description of the original cases reported by Schmid and Fraccaro. All cases had, in addition to a normal karyotype, a small extra G-like chromosome which appeared to be an isochromosome for the juxtacentromeric region (pter to q11) of an acrocentric chromosome. None were mosaics. Clinical findings and further cytogenetic studies in a few cases suggest that these markers probably derive from a No. 22 chromosome. Characteristic features of the Cat Eye syndrome in these 11 patients and those reviewed from the literature are: ocular coloboma which may involve the iris, choroid and/or optic nerve, preauricular skin tags and/or pits which are probably the most consistent feature, congenital heart defect, anal atresia with a fistula, renal malformations such as unilateral absence, unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia, and cystic dysplasia, and antimongoloid position of eyes. Intelligence is usually low-normal, although moderate retardation is also seen. There is great variability in the clinical findings ranging from near normal to lethal malformations. Less frequent, but also characteristic findings are: microphthalmia, microtia with atresia of the external auditory canal, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary atresia and malrotation of the gut. Direct transmission of the marker from one generation to the other was observed in both sexes. In those families, there was considerable variability in the clinical findings between affected family members. These cases show that there is a bias of ascertainment for patients who have the more striking malformations, especially those with ocular coloboma and anal atresia, a combination which appears to be present in only a minority of cases. Many mildly affected patients probably remain undetected. It is proposed that the term Cat Eye syndrome should be applied only to cases with trisomy or tetrasomy of not more than 22pter to q11 and without

  4. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Daniela A; Van Soens, Iris; Bhatti, Sofie F; Cornelis, Ine; Martlé, Valentine A; Van Ham, Luc M

    2014-04-01

    Two male neutered domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for generalised tremors. On neurological examination both cats showed whole-body tremors, worsening with stress. A mainly cerebellar disorder was suspected. Blood examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological examination of both cats and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in one cat were normal. Idiopathic generalised tremor syndrome (IGTS) was suspected owing to the exclusion of underlying causes and the clinical similarities with the syndrome in dogs. Treatment as recommended for dogs was initiated and resulted in improvement. This report describes the first cases of IGTS in cats.

  5. Paraxial ray analysis of a cat's-eye retroreflector.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J J

    1975-08-01

    The cat's-eye retroreflector is a passive optical system consisting of a secondary mirror placed at the focal point of a primary lens. We analyze the cat's eye using the paraxial ray matrix approach. The position of the equivalent reflecting surface and the angular field of view of a realizable cat's eye are functions of the radius of curvature of the secondary mirror. The field of view is maximum for a secondary mirror with a concave radius of curvature equal to the focal length of the primary lens. We further derive the general dependence of retroreflection errors on misadjustment of the secondary mirror.

  6. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  7. Cavernous sinus syndrome secondary to intracranial lymphoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Guevar, Julien; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Peplinski, George; Helm, Jenny R; Penderis, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is characterised by internal and external ophthalmoplegia and sensory deficits over the head due to combined deficits of the three cranial nerves (CNs) responsible for the eye movements and pupil function (CN III, IV, VI) and at least one branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). It has rarely been described in cats and may occur secondarily to inflammatory, infectious or neoplastic lesions within the region of the cavernous sinus on the ventral aspect of the calvarium. This report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a 14-year-old domestic shorthair cat with neurological deficits compatible with cavernous sinus syndrome caused by presumptive extranodal lymphoma. Treatment with chemotherapy resulted in clinical and imaging remission. Identification of the neurological deficits in cavernous sinus syndrome allows accurate neuroanatomical localisation in order to target diagnostic imaging studies.

  8. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  9. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  10. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to osteochondromatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Perazzi, Anna; Bernardini, Marco; Mandara, Maria T; De Benedictis, Giulia M; De Strobel, Francesca; Zotti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact male Korat cat was referred for ophthalmological consultation due to anisocoria. Mydriasis with external ophthalmoplegia and absence of pupillary light responses in the right eye and nasofacial hypalgesia were seen. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) was suspected. Bilateral deformities of the jaw and phalangeal bones, severe spinal pain and abnormal conformation of the lumbar spine were also present. Radiographic examination revealed several mineralised masses in the appendicular and axial skeleton, indicative of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. For further investigation of the CSS-related neurological deficits, the cat underwent computed tomography (CT) examination of the skull. CT images revealed a non-vascularised, calcified, amorphous mass originating from the right lateral skull base and superimposing on the sella turcica. Based on the severity of diffuse lesions and owing to the clinical signs of extreme pain, the cat was euthanased. A diffuse skeletal and intracranial osteochondromatosis was diagnosed histologically.

  11. Sufism in the Novel: "Cat's Eyes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniawi, Nayera

    2013-01-01

    "Cat's Eyes" is a novel about suffering and endurance, early marriage, spirituality and the sanctuary it provides, and Sufism in particular. It uses certain motifs to depict the psychological suffering of a young girl, caused by her conservative father and unsatisfactory marriage, which persists until she finally reaches a moment of…

  12. Sézary syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wood, Casey; Almes, Kelli; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Debey, Brad; Andrews, Gordon; Nietfeld, Jerome; Wilkerson, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome is an uncommon leukemic variant of cutaneous lymphoma in cats. This cat had recurrent dermatitis with erythematous, pruritic plaques. Multiple skin imprints and biopsy samples were obtained over a 6-month period, and histopathological findings were consistent initially with eosinophilic miliary dermatitis and later with erythema multiforme. One week before death, Sézary cells were identified in the peripheral blood that expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD8 antigens. Massive infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes was noted in the skin and multiple internal tissues by histopathological examination. This case demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosing cutaneous lymphoma early in the disease course.

  13. Analysis of the cat eye syndrome critical region in humans and the region of conserved synteny in mice: a search for candidate genes at or near the human chromosome 22 pericentromere.

    PubMed

    Footz, T K; Brinkman-Mills, P; Banting, G S; Maier, S A; Riazi, M A; Bridgland, L; Hu, S; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Pan, H; Nguyen, T; Fang, F; Fu, Y; Ray, L; Wu, H; Shaull, S; Phan, S; Yao, Z; Chen, F; Huan, A; Hu, P; Wang, Q; Loh, P; Qi, S; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    2001-06-01

    We have sequenced a 1.1-Mb region of human chromosome 22q containing the dosage-sensitive gene(s) responsible for cat eye syndrome (CES) as well as the 450-kb homologous region on mouse chromosome 6. Fourteen putative genes were identified within or adjacent to the human CES critical region (CESCR), including three known genes (IL-17R, ATP6E, and BID) and nine novel genes, based on EST identity. Two putative genes (CECR3 and CECR9) were identified, in the absence of EST hits, by comparing segments of human and mouse genomic sequence around two solitary amplified exons, thus showing the utility of comparative genomic sequence analysis in identifying transcripts. Of the 14 genes, 10 were confirmed to be present in the mouse genomic sequence in the same order and orientation as in human. Absent from the mouse region of conserved synteny are CECR1, a promising CES candidate gene from the center of the contig, neighboring CECR4, and CECR7 and CECR8, which are located in the gene-poor proximal 400 kb of the contig. This latter proximal region, located approximately 1 Mb from the centromere, shows abundant duplicated gene fragments typical of pericentromeric DNA. The margin of this region also delineates the boundary of conserved synteny between the CESCR and mouse chromosome 6. Because the proximal CESCR appears abundant in duplicated segments and, therefore, is likely to be gene poor, we consider the putative genes identified in the distal CESCR to represent the majority of candidate genes for involvement in CES.

  14. Heavy eye syndrome versus sagging eye syndrome in high myopia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Roland Joseph D.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy eye syndrome (HES) presents with esotropia and limited abduction due to superotemporal globe shift relative to the extraocular muscles. Sagging eye syndrome (SES) was originally described in nonmyopic patients exhibiting distance esotropia and cyclovertical strabismus with limited supraduction due to lateral rectus muscle inferodisplacement caused by degeneration of the lateral rectus–superior rectus (LR-SR) band. We hypothesized that SES might also cause strabismus in high myopia. Methods Eleven strabismic subjects with high myopia underwent ophthalmological examination and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess quantitative orbital anatomy. Results Of 11 subjects, 5 had HES; 6, SES. Mean axial length in subjects with HES was 32 ± 5 mm; in subjects with SES, 32 ± 6 mm. Average distance esotropia in subjects with HES was 61Δ ± 39Δ; hypotropia was 26Δ ± 21Δ. Average distance esotropia in subjects with SES was 23Δ ± 57Δ; hypertropia was 2Δ ± 2Δ. All 5 subjects with HES had superotemporal globe prolapse; the LR-SR band was thinned in 6 orbits and ruptured in 2. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles in HES was 121° ± 7°. In SES the LR-SR band was thinned in 7 orbits and ruptured in 5, with superotemporal soft tissue prolapse. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles was 104° ± 11°, significantly less than in HES (P < 0.001). Conclusions SES occurs in highly myopic patients who also exhibit less relative globe dislocation than in HES. Unlike HES, SES exhibits superotemporal soft tissue prolapse that may limit superotemporal globe shift. The distinction is important because surgery for HES uniquely requires creation of a surgical connection between the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles, whereas SES may be treated with conventional surgery. SES can cause strabismus in high axial myopia. Orbital MRI is useful in differentiating SES from HES. PMID

  15. Diffractive surfaces for cat-eye array retro-reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, I.

    2008-09-01

    Cat-eye-array retro-reflectors, combining a lenslet array with a reflective surface at the common focal plane of the lenslets, are widely used due to their simple structure and low cost. While for many applications the performance (brightness, acceptance angle range and directionality) is acceptable, others could benefit from better performance. Improving these retroreflectors is difficult because their simplicity results in too few degrees of freedom. Here, we show how the use of one or two diffractive surfaces can significantly increase the brightness of the reflected beam and/or the acceptance angle while still allowing inexpensive manufacturing by molding or replication. Specifically, we focus here on one potential application of cat-eye-array retro-reflectors: semipassive optical communication units. Semi-passive communication units combine a retroreflector with a light modulator. The directional auto-aligned retro-reflected signal enhances security and power efficiency. Furthermore, many modulators use very low power: far lower than light emitter. Modulated retro-reflectors have already been demonstrated for space and military communication. Here we focus on a different application: optical smart cards. These devices described elsewhere, can be used, for example, for access control identification or as non-contact secure teller machine ID. Such devices must have an optical modulator in the optical path, so the effect of the modulator must also be accounted for in the design. As a consumer product, low cost manufacturability is another requirement. Design examples are presented.

  16. Radioactivity of neutron-irradiated cat's-eye chrysoberyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.

    1999-04-01

    The recent report of marketing of radioactive chrysoberyl cat's-eyes in South-East Asian markets has led us to use an indirect method to estimate the threat to health these color-enhanced gemstones may pose if worn close to skin. We determined the impurity content of several cat's-eye chrysoberyls from Indian States of Orissa and Kerala using PIXE, and calculated the radioactivity that would be generated from these impurities and the constitutional elements if a chrysoberyl was irradiated by neutrons in a nuclear reactor for color enhancement. Of all the radioactive nuclides that could be created by neutron irradiation, only four ( 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn and 59Fe) would not have cooled down within a month after irradiation to the internationally accepted level of specific residual radioactivity of 2 nCi/g. The radioactivity of 46Sc, 51Cr and 59Fe would only fall to this safe limit after 15 months and that of 54Mn could remain above this limit for several years.

  17. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  18. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  19. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... have diabetes or those who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Cat-scratch disease is also called cat-scratch fever. ... You can also get the bacteria in your eyes if you pet a cat that has the bacteria on its fur and ...

  20. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  1. Analytical beam-width characteristics of distorted cat-eye reflected beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanzhong; Shan, Congmiao; Zheng, Yonghui; Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan

    2015-02-01

    The analytical expression of beam-width of distorted cat-eye reflected beam under far-field condition is deduced using the approximate three-dimensional analytical formula for oblique detection laser beam passing through cat-eye optical lens with center shelter, and using the definition of second order moment, Gamma function and integral functions. The laws the variation of divergence angle and astigmatism degree of the reflected light with incident angle, focal shift, aperture size, and center shelter ratio are established by numerical calculation, and physical analysis. The study revealed that the cat-eye reflected beam is like a beam transmitted and collimated by the target optical lens, and has the same characteristics as that of Gaussian beam. A proper choice of positive focal shift would result in a divergence angle smaller than that of no focal shift. The astigmatism is mainly caused by incidence angle.

  2. Cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Weijian; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    A prototype of cat-eye effect target recognition with single-pixel detectors is proposed. Based on the framework of compressive sensing, it is possible to recognize cat-eye effect targets by projecting a series of known random patterns and measuring the backscattered light with three single-pixel detectors in different locations. The prototype only requires simpler, less expensive detectors and extends well beyond the visible spectrum. The simulations are accomplished to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed prototype. We compared our results to that obtained from conventional cat-eye effect target recognition methods using area array sensor. The experimental results show that this method is feasible and superior to the conventional method in dynamic and complicated backgrounds.

  3. Malformations and the Manx Syndrome in Cats

    PubMed Central

    DeForest, M. E.; Basrur, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding experiments were conducted on cats with congenital taillessness, to test the dissemination pattern of taillessness in their offspring. Clinical evaluation, radiographic analysis of the vertebral column and histological studies of the digestive tract and central nervous tissue were conducted to determine the association of malformations of these systems in cats born with different degrees of taillessness noted in the rumpy and stumpy cats. The mode of transmission of the tailless (Manx) condition assumed to be through an autosomal dominant factor (M) was confirmed by this investigation. It is hypothesized that the problems associated with the tailless condition such as spina bifida, urinary and faecal incontinence and locomotor disturbances of the pelvic limbs may all be related to a disturbance affecting the development of the central nervous system in the early embryonic life. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:393376

  4. Neuronal connections of eye-dominance columns in the cat cerebral cortex after monocular deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, S V; Toporova, S N; Shkorbatova, P Yu

    2008-09-01

    Plastic changes in intrahemisphere neuronal connections of the eye-dominance columns of cortical fields 17 and 18 were studied in monocularly deprived cats. The methodology consisted of microintophoretic administration of horseradish peroxidase into cortical columns and three-dimensional reconstruction of the areas of retrograde labeled cells. The eye dominance of columns was established, as were their coordinates in the projection of the visual field. In field 17, the horizontal connections of columns receiving inputs from the non-deprived eye via the crossed-over visual tracts were longer than the connections of the "non-crossed" columns of this eye and were longer than in normal conditions; the connections of the columns of the deprived eye were significantly reduced. Changes in the spatial organization of horizontal connections in field 17 were seen for the columns of the non-deprived eye (areas of labeled cells were rounder and the density of labeled cells in these areas were non-uniform). The longest horizontal connections in deprived cats were no longer than the lengths of these connections in cats with strabismus. It is suggested that the axon length of cells giving rise to the horizontal connections of cortical columns has a limit which is independent of visual stimulation during the critical period of development of the visual system.

  5. Sagging eye syndrome presenting as a form of strabismus fixus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Ho; Jung, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Lateral rectus-superior rectus band degeneration with aging is the major cause of sagging eye syndrome, which usually presents with small-angle esotropia or hypotropia. In contrast, heavy eye syndrome, also called myopic strabismus fixus, is characterized by profound esotropia and hypotropia with the eyeball fixed nasally. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with sagging eye syndrome presenting with strabismus fixus and no myopia.

  6. [Perinaud's oculoglandular syndrome as a manifestation of cat-scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Kruse, L P; Engbaek, K

    1995-07-17

    The first Danish case of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, a manifestation of cat-scratch disease, is reported in a 35-year-old man presenting with an enlarged preauricular lymph node and an ipsilateral conjunctival granuloma. Surgical removal of the granulomatous lesion was followed by rapid healing. The diagnosis was verified by demonstrating a high antibody tire against Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae. On subsequent questioning the man gave a history of acquiring a kitten six weeks before his illness. The importance of eye examination in patients presenting with preauricular lymphadenopathy is emphasized.

  7. Tonic and phasic phenomena underlying eye movements during sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is not a homogenous state, and different variables have traditionally been used to distinguish different periods during sleep. Of these variables, eye movement is one of the most paradigmatic, and has been used to differentiate between the so-called rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Despite this, eye movements during sleep are poorly understood, and the behaviour of the oculomotor system remains almost unknown. In the present work, we recorded binocular eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle of adult cats by the scleral search-coil technique. During alertness, eye movements consisted of conjugated saccades and eye fixations. During NREM sleep, eye movements were slow and mostly unconjugated. The two eyes moved upwardly and in the abducting direction, producing a tonic divergence and elevation of the visual axis. During the transition period between NREM and REM sleep, rapid monocular eye movements of low amplitude in the abducting direction occurred in coincidence with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Along REM sleep, the eyes tended to maintain a tonic convergence and depression, broken by high-frequency bursts of complex rapid eye movements. In the horizontal plane, each eye movement in the burst comprised two consecutive movements in opposite directions, which were more evident in the eye that performed the abducting movements. In the vertical plane, rapid eye movements were always upward. Comparisons of the characteristics of eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle reveal the uniqueness of eye movements during sleep, and the noteworthy existence of tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system, not observed until now. PMID:18499729

  8. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in the normal cat eye.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    In normal cat eyes, the mean cross-sectional area of the nerve fiber bundles is greater in the temporal than in the nasal lamina cribrosa. The area occupied by the interbundle trabeculae is less in the temporal sectors than in the nasal sectors of the nerve. The number and the shape of the laminar pores are similar in all nerve sectors.

  9. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4041970

  10. Pressure-induced optic nerve axonal transport interruption in cat eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1981-12-01

    After intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine, optic nerve axonal transport was studied in 30 cat eyes by tissue radioautography. Twenty-five experimental eyes were examined after four hours of acute pressure elevation with perfusion pressures maintained at 20 to 70 mm Hg. In five control specimens, intraocular pressures were maintained at 10 mm Hg for the four-hour interval. The extent of leucine accumulation, as seen by radioautographs, was inversely proportional to the perfusion pressure. Accumulation was limited to the region fo the lamina cribrosa. The anatomic distribution and pressure response of this transport interruption were similar to those seen in primate eyes studied under similar conditions.

  11. Neuroretinitis: a clinical syndrome of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Rost Monahan S

    2000-12-01

    Cat-scratch disease is usually a benign self-limited illness, characterized by regional lymphadenopathy lasting between 3 and 6 weeks. The causative organism is Bartonella henselae, a small gram-negative rod. Between 1 and 2% of patients who contract the illness experience blurred vision, metamorphopsia and scotomas as a result of neuroretinitis, an associated clinical syndrome. The classical clinical findings in cat-scratch neuroretinitis include disc edema and a stellate pattern of exudates in the macula. However, a myriad of other signs has been documented, suggesting a much wider spectrum of intra-ocular disease. The following case report presents a young patient with neuroretinitis, and a history of lymphadenopathy secondary to cat-scratch disease.

  12. [Cat's cratch disease and Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escarmelle, A; Delbrassine, N; De Potter, P

    2004-02-01

    By presenting this case report describing Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, we review the medical literature on its most frequent etiology: catscratch disease, a self-limited, systemic illness caused by a Gram-negative bacillus, Bartonella henselae, principally affecting children under 15 years of age. Typical symptoms include regional lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, and fatigue, possibly with more severe complications such as splenomegaly, granulomatous hepatitis, and encephalopathy. Ocular manifestations may include follicular conjunctivitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, neuroretinitis, optic neuritis, and chorioretinitis. Diagnosis is based on serologic tests, and when necessary, antimicrobial treatment can be considered.

  13. Amylin competes for binding sites of CGRP in the chamber angle and uvea of monkey, cat, and pig eye.

    PubMed

    Alajuuma, Päivi; Oksala, Olli; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2003-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites have been identified previously in the eyes of monkey, cat, pig, and guinea pig. In this study, the ability of cat, human, and rat amylins to displace the binding of CGRP in the anterior part of the eye of monkey, cat, and pig was studied. The location and displacement of 125I-hCGRPalpha by amylins as concentrations of 1-1000 nM were studied in cryosections by autoradiography. In the monkey eye, cat and rat amylins were able to compete for the binding sites of CGRP in ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. In the cat eye, cat and human amylins clearly displaced CGRP binding from ciliary muscle, ciliary processes, iris, and chamber angle. Furthermore, rat amylin clearly displaced CGRP binding from ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. In the pig eye, cat, human, and rat amylins competed for the binding sites of CGRP in ciliary muscle, ciliary processes, iris, and limbal conjunctiva. Specific amylin receptors or the possible physiological role of amylin in the eye have not hitherto been reported. It seems, however, that amylin can bind to ocular CGRP receptors and thus probably plays a role in the regulation of the same functions as CGRP, (e.g., aqueous humor outflow).

  14. From cat's eyes to disjoint multicellular natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolás, Alfredo; Báez, Elsa; Bermúdez, Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Numerical results of two-dimensional natural convection problems, in air-filled tall cavities, are reported to study the change of the cat's eyes flow as some parameters vary, the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination ϕ of the cavity, with the Rayleigh number Ra mostly fixed; explicitly, the range of the variation is given by 12⩽A⩽20 and 0°⩽ϕ⩽270°; about Ra=1.1×10. A novelty contribution of this work is the transition from the cat's eyes changes, as A varies, to a disjoint multicellular flow, as ϕ varies. These flows may be modeled by the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in stream function and vorticity variables which is solved with a fixed point iterative process applied to the nonlinear elliptic system that results after time discretization. The validation of the results relies on mesh size and time-step independence studies.

  15. Cat-eye target imaging system research and dual-channel DSP implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Haiyang; Shi, Guang; Han, Lei; Zhao, Changming

    2013-09-01

    In modern warfare, well-equipped and trained snipers have become a mortal malady for the combat troops. How to accurately, timely and quickly find and destroy snipers becomes a research focus of national military experts. In order to effectively detect faint echo signal of cat-eye target and get the snipers' position information in the detection area, a small size of dual-channel active laser detection system with monochrome and color Charge-couple Devices(CCD) is designed, which is based on the laser imaging principle of cat-eye effect, associated tests are also conducted. The dual-channel video capture can obtain more information of target area, while taking advantage of the high sensitivity of monochrome CCD will also provide more accurate grayscale information for the video image processing. In order to achieve the miniaturization of system, we choose a video processing board whose size is only 54mm*90mm as hardware platform to complete the algorithm. For verifying the feasibility and accuracy of algorithm, we ultimately build a full set of experimental detection system. The test results show that the system can accurately detect and mark typical cat-eye target from background under different distances, which verifies the rationality and validity of the proposed system and has certain practicality and promotion in the active laser detection system research areas.

  16. The potential role of neuropathic mechanisms in dry eye syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mcmonnies, Charles W

    Dry eye syndromes can involve both nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms. Nociceptive symptoms are the normal physiological responses to noxious stimuli. Neuropathic symptoms are caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be the result of hypersensitisation of peripheral or central corneal and conjunctival somatosensory nerves. For example, inflammation could induce neuroplastic peripheral sensitisation of the ocular surface or lid wiper and exacerbate nociceptive symptoms. Neuropathic symptoms may explain the incommensurate relation between signs and symptoms in some dry eye syndromes although absence of signs of a dry eye syndrome may also be a consequence of inappropriate methods used when examining for them. Involvement of neuropathic mechanisms may also help explain dry eye symptoms which occur in association with reduced corneal sensitivity. This review includes a discussion of the potential for ocular symptoms involving neuropathic mechanisms to contribute to psychosocial problems such as depression, stress, anxiety and sleep disorders as well as for these types of psychosocial problems to contribute to neuropathic mechanisms and dry eye syndromes. Failure to consider the possibility that neuropathic mechanisms can contribute to dry eye syndromes may reduce accuracy of diagnosis and the suitability of treatment provided. Dry eye symptoms in the absence of commensurate evidence of tear dysfunction, and unsatisfactory response to tear dysfunction therapies should prompt consideration of neuropathic mechanisms being involved. Symptoms which persist after local anaesthetic instillation are more likely to be neuropathic in origin. Reducing inflammation may help limit any associated neuroplastic hypersensitivity.

  17. The eye in the Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Maumenee, I H

    1981-01-01

    One hundred sixty consecutive patients with the Marfan syndrome were reviewed for ocular, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities, and were graded by severity. The most striking ocular abnormality was enlargement of the globe, presumably caused by scleral stretching. Staphylomata were not a feature of any of the patients seen, nor was keratoconus. The cornea, in fact, was flattened but not thinned. Among the 160 patients, 193 eyes showed dislocation of the lens. Dislocation of the lens was positively correlated with increased ocular axial length and with decreasing KJ readings. We postulate that the ocular pathologic changes are primarily caused by stretching of the tunica scleralis, and that the zonular fibers (thus under stress may "give" or may rupture in their area of presumably least density which may be the area of developmental fusion of the optic vesicle. In a small proportion of cases the lens dislocation was progressive. There was no correlation between ocular findings, on one hand, and the skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities on the other. However, there was a good degree of intrafamilial consistency with regard to absence or presence of ocular pathology. The absence of correlation between the ocular and systemic findings in our data on these 160 patients is best explained by the existence of more than 1 point mutation, which may give rise to different but clinically similar phenotypes. The results of our calculations of mutation rate were compatible with such an explanation. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 13 C FIGURE 13 D PMID:7043871

  18. [Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome. A rare differential diagnosis of "red eye"].

    PubMed

    Jäckel, M C; Glock, T; Künster, A

    2006-01-01

    Two cases of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which represents an ocular manifestation of cat-scratch disease, are reported. The symptoms are subacute and include unilateral conjunctivitis and pre-auricular lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis primarily relies on the recognition of suggestive clinical signs in conjunction with positive serologic testing. In most cases, therapy is not necessary.

  19. Design and performance considerations of cat's-eye retroreflectors for use in open-path Fourier-transform-infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Robert L; Griffiths, Peter R

    2002-10-20

    A ray-tracing analysis of cat's-eye retroreflectors for use in active open-path Fourier-transform-infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry and the results of testing f/0.5 and f/1.75 cat's-eye retroreflectors built in our laboratory with a commercial active OP/FT-IR spectrometer are presented. The ray-tracing model is based on the optical characteristics of a commercial single-telescope monostatic OP/FT-IR spectrometer and explores trends in cat's-eye behavior in practical but rigorous field conditions encountered during transportable outdoor use. All mirrors modeled are paraboloids for which the focal ratios of the primary mirror are f/0.5, f/1.75, and f/3. The effect of the focal ratio of the primary mirror, the focal length of the secondary mirror, and the off-axis alignment of the primary and the secondary mirror have been evaluated as a function of path length, including variable input-beam divergence, between the spectrometer and the cat's-eye. The paraboloidal mirrors comprising the primary and secondary of the cat's-eye retroreflectors tested were made in our laboratory by spin casting liquid epoxy-graphite composite mixtures followed by in situ polymerization with no postpolishing.

  20. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cats Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... hand washing whenever you play or work with cats Wash your hands with soap and running water ...

  1. Severe dry-eye syndrome following external beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1994-11-15

    There are limited data in the literature on the probability of dry-eye complications according to radiotherapy dose. This study investigates the risk of radiation-induced severe dry-eye syndrome in patients in whom an entire orbit was exposed to fractionated external beam irradiation. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 33 patients with extracranial head and neck tumors received irradiation of an entire orbit. Most patients were treated with {sup 60}Co. The dose to the lacrimal apparatus was calculated at a depth of 1 cm from the anterior skin surface, the approximate depth of the major lacrimal gland. The end point of the study was severe dry-eye syndrome sufficient to produce visual loss secondary to corneal opacification, ulceration, or vascularization. Twenty patients developed severe dry-eye syndrome. All 17 patients who received dose {ge}57Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome. Three (19%) of 16 patients who received doses {ge}45 Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome; injuries in the latter group were much more slower to develop (4 to 11 years) than in the higher dose group, in whom corneal vascularization and opacification were usually pronounced within 9-10 months. There were no data for the range of doses between 45.01 and 56.99 Gy. The data did not suggest an increased risk of severe dry-eye syndrome with increasing age. Data from the current series and the literature are combined to construct a sigmoid dose response curve. The incidence of injury increases from 0% reported after doses {ge}30 Gy to 100% after doses {ge}57 Gy. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Acute Reversible Charles Bonnet Syndrome Following Eye Patch Placement.

    PubMed

    Nan, Lian; Yanbin, Hou; Jingping, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterised by recurrent vivid visual hallucinations in the presence of normal cognition. We present a case of CBS secondary to eye patching following Pars Plana Vitrectomy with an unusually acute onset in a 48-year-old woman. She presented with formed visual hallucinations that started less than 30 min after patching of her left eye. The patch was removed after 2 d, and these hallucinations persisted 2 d following eye patch removal. It is important that the ophthalmic surgeon be aware of the potential for development of CBS and offer appropriate referral and reassurance should it occur.

  3. Dancing Eye Syndrome associated with spontaneous recovery and normal neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ki Pang, K; Lynch, Bryan J; Osborne, John P; Pike, Michael G

    2010-03-01

    Five patients with spontaneously recovering Dancing Eye Syndrome/Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome are described. Age at presentation ranged from 4 to 19 months. Four had symptoms of fever and a coryzal illness within days to a few weeks prior to the onset. One of the 4 also had varicella zoster 4 weeks before presentation. All had opsoclonus, myoclonus/ataxia and irritability. Associated infective agents identified were Coxsackie virus and rotavirus. Spontaneous improvement of symptoms started within 9 days of presentation and total duration of illness ranged from 10 to 24 days. Developmental progress at follow-up was normal in all cases. A range of immunomodulatory therapies have been advocated for the treatment of Dancing Eye Syndrome/Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome. However, in some children, early spontaneous recovery may occur, an observation which should be borne in mind when designing therapeutic trials in this condition.

  4. Characteristics of retinal reflectance changes induced by transcorneal electrical stimulation in cat eyes.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Hirohara, Yoko; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishida, Kohji; Fujikado, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) activates retinal neurons leading to visual sensations. How the retinal cells are activated by TES has not been definitively determined. Investigating the reflectance changes of the retina is an established technique and has been used to determine the mechanism of retinal activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reflectance changes elicited by TES in cat eyes. Eight eyes of Eight cats were studied under general anesthesia. Biphasic electrical pulses were delivered transcornealy. The fundus images observed with near-infrared light (800-880 nm) were recorded every 25 ms for 26 s. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the images of 10 consecutive recordings were averaged. Two-dimensional topographic maps of the reflective changes were constructed by subtracting images before from those after the TES. The effects of different stimulus parameters, e.g., current intensity, pulse duration, frequency, and stimulus duration, on the reflective changes were studied. Our results showed that after TES, the reflective changes appeared on the retinal vessels and optic disc. The intensity of reflectance changes increased as the current intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation duration increased (P<0.05 for all). The maximum intensity of the reflective change was obtained when the stimulus frequency was 20 Hz. The time course of the reflectance changes was also altered by the stimulation parameters. The response started earlier and returned to the baseline later with higher current intensities, longer pulse durations, but the time of the peak of the response was not changed. These results showed that the reflective changes were due to the activation of retinal neurons by TES and might involve the vascular changes induced by an activation of the retinal neurons.

  5. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  6. Sustained and transient discharges of retinal ganglion cells during spontaneous eye movements of cat.

    PubMed

    Noda, H

    1975-02-14

    Discharges of 223 retinal ganglion cells during spontaneous eye movements (saccades) across a stationary grating pattern were studied in chronically prepared cats. Of these 83 showed sustained responses to local differences in luminance of the grating stripes (S-units); 84 showed transient responses to saccades and did not register local differences in luminance (T-units); and 56 showed mixed responses, i.e., transient responses to saccades and sustained firings in response to local luminance (M-units). When tested with diffuse light, 93.9% of the S-units showed either ON-sustained or OFF-sustained responses; 95.2% of the T-units showed either ON-transient, OFF-transient, or ON-OFF-transient responses; and 50% of the M-units showed ON-OFF responses. In the overall responses properties, most S-units corresponded to the X-cells, most T-units to the Y-cells of retinal ganglion cells previously known from acute experiments. Under normal conditions of active eye movements, the major function of the S-units would be to register the differences in luminance in their receptive fields, and subserve the mechansim of form recognition. The major function of the T-units would be to register information related to quick image motion, induced either by eye or object movements, and subserve the mechanism of detecting the dynamic aspects of visual stimuli. The other important functions of the T-units are their possible participation in the afferent routes for two recently proposed mechanisms; one for goal-directed saccades and the other for saccadic suppression. The M-units would possess the functions of both S- and T-units.

  7. Modeling of micro cat's eye retroreflectors using a matrix-based three-dimensional ray tracing technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-jun; Chao, Keng-hsing; Tsai, Jui-che

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we develop a three-dimensional (3D) ray tracing tool based on the ABCD ray transfer matrices. With symmetric optical components and under paraxial approximation, two sets of 2×2 ABCD matrices, each for a two-dimensional subspace, can be used to describe the 3D ray propagation completely. Compared to commercial ray-tracing software packages, our tool requires no tedious drawing, and the results for various conditions, such as different device dimensions and incident angles, can be easily obtained by simply changing the parameter values used for the calculation. We have employed this matrix-based 3D ray tracing tool to model cat's eye retroreflectors. The cat's eye performance, including the retroreflection efficiency, acceptance angle (i.e., field of view), and beam divergence and deviation, is fully studied. The application of this 3D ray tracing technique can be further extended to other optical components.

  8. Xerostomia, xerophthalmia, and plasmacytic infiltrates of the salivary glands (Sjögren's-like syndrome) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Canapp, S O; Cohn, L A; Maggs, D J; Miller, M A; Kerl, M E; O'Brien, D P

    2001-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of dysphagia and weight loss of 4 weeks' duration. MIld blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia were evident in both eyes, oral mucous membranes were tacky on palpation, and salivary glands were enlarged. Results of a Schirmer tear test were 0 mm/min for both eyes. Administration of atropine did not cause salivation or caused secretion fo thick rope-like saliva. Examination of biopsy specimens of salivary glands revealed a plasmacytic infiltrate. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was diagnosed. Oral administration of prednisone was instituted but was discontinued after a minimal positive response was evident 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Palliative treatment with a 6% solution of pilocarpine 4 to 5 times/d, cyclosporine, hylan A, and neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin ophthalmic ointment resulted in clinical improvement in the cat. Although reported rarely in animals, SS may be more common than currently is recognized. Most treatment regimens for SS are aimed at alleviating clinical signs.

  9. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.

  10. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the hand following a cat bite.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Dabloun, Slim; Benzarti, Sofien; Khechimi, Myriam; Jenzeri, Abdesselem; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Cat bites at the hand are common situation in emergency departments. Neglected or poorly supported, these lesions sometimes lead to serious injuries that may compromise the function of the hand. Pasteurellamultocida is the most offending germ in these lesions, despite their sensitivity to antibiotics; it can sometimes lead to deep infections involving the skin, bones and joints. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is exceptional after cat bite. We report a case of a 56 Year old female presenting with an acute carpal tunnel syndrome associated with compartment syndrome of the right hand 6 days after a cat bite of her right thumb. The patient was treated by surgery to relieve the median nerve. Microbiology identified PasteurellaMultocida.

  11. Nitric oxide facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission in the cat oculomotor system: a physiological mechanism in eye movement control

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Escudero, Miguel; Estrada, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by prepositus hypoglossi (PH) neurons is necessary for the normal performance of horizontal eye movements. We have previously shown that unilateral injections of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors into the PH nucleus of alert cats produce velocity imbalance without alteration of the eye position control, both during spontaneous eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This NO effect is exerted on the dorsal PH neuropil, whose fibres increase their cGMP content when stimulated by NO. In an attempt to determine whether NO acts by modulation of a specific neurotransmission system, we have now compared the oculomotor effects of NOS inhibition with those produced by local blockade of glutamatergic, GABAergic or glycinergic receptors in the PH nucleus of alert cats. Both glutamatergic antagonists used, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) and 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo quinoxaline (NBQX), induced a nystagmus contralateral to that observed upon NOS inhibition, and caused exponential eye position drift. In contrast, bicuculline and strychnine induced eye velocity alterations similar to those produced by NOS inhibitors, suggesting that NO oculomotor effects were due to facilitation of some inhibitory input to the PH nucleus. To investigate the anatomical location of the putative NO target neurons, the retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected in one PH nucleus, and the brainstem sections containing Fast Blue-positive neurons were stained with double immunohistochemistry for NO-sensitive cGMP and glutamic acid decarboxylase. GABAergic neurons projecting to the PH nucleus and containing NO-sensitive cGMP were found almost exclusively in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and marginal zone. The results suggest that the nitrergic PH neurons control their own firing rate by a NO-mediated facilitation of GABAergic afferents from the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus. This self-control mechanism could play an important role

  12. Particle dynamics and mixing in the frequency driven "Kelvin cat eyes" flow.

    PubMed

    Tsega, Yamlak; Michaelides, Efstathios E.; Eschenazi, Elia V.

    2001-06-01

    The "Kelvin cat eyes" stream function is used as a simple fluid flow model to study particle dynamics, mixing and transport in a two-dimensional time-dependent flow field. Lagrangian formulation is used to describe the motion of small spherical particles present in the flow. Individual particle trajectories, under the influence of various flow parameters are studied. The equation describing the motion of these particles constitutes a set of first-order nonlinear differential equations describing a dynamical system. The time-dependent Eulerian flow field is studied as a nonintegrable Hamiltonian system in order to get insight into the underlying nonlinear properties of the system, which directly influence its complicated transport and mixing behavior. Chaotic advection (Lagrangian turbulence) was observed for heavy particles (high Stokes numbers) while no stochastic behavior was observed for light particles. The introduction of perturbation had only a limited effect on individual particle trajectories. However, the introduction of perturbation caused a shrinking of the phase space where bounded stochastic or quasi-periodic motion occurs. This phenomenon can lead to a better understanding of the link between the behavior of the underlying flow in the Hamiltonian formulation and the dynamics of the passive scalars in the Lagrangian description. The Eulerian flow field itself was found to behave chaotically under the influence of a periodic perturbation, because the stable and unstable manifolds associated with neighboring hyperbolic points intersected. This coincides with the better mixing of the fluid. Stochasticity was also discovered close to the periodic points of the system using Poincare maps. Mixing and transport properties are analyzed as a function of the perturbation frequency. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  14. Chandra Reveals The X-Ray Glint In The Cat's Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Scientists have discovered a glowing bubble of hot gas and an unexpected X-ray bright central star within the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new results, presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting, provide insight into the ways that stars like our Sun end their lives. Scientists believe they are witnessing the expulsion of material from a star that is in the last stages of its existence as a normal star. Material shed by the star is flying away at a speed of about 4 million miles per hour, and the star itself is expected to collapse to become a white dwarf star in a few million years. The X-ray data from the Cat's Eye Nebula, also known as NGC 6543, clearly show a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas. By comparing the Chandra data with those from the Hubble Space Telescope, researchers are able to see where the hotter, X-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by Hubble. "Despite the complex optical appearance of the nebula, the X-ray emission illustrates unambiguously that the hot gas in the central bubble is driving the expansion of the optical nebula," said You-Hua Chu of the University of Illinois and lead author of the paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal. "The Chandra data will help us to better understand how stars similar to our Sun produce planetary nebulas and evolve into white dwarfs as they grow old." With Chandra, astronomers measured the temperature of the central bubble of X-ray emitting material, and this presents a new puzzle. Though still incredibly energetic and hot enough to emit X-rays, this hot gas is cooler than scientists would have expected from the stellar wind that has come to stagnation from the initial high speed of 4 million miles per hour. At first, the researchers thought that the cooler, outer shell might have mixed with the energetic material closer to the

  15. Cranial vena cava syndrome secondary to cryptococcal mediastinal granuloma in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Boysen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The successful management of cranial vena cava syndrome with suspected secondary chylothorax due to mediastinal cryptococcal granuloma in a 4-year-old male domestic shorthair cat is described. Treatment included long-term antifungal medication, short-term corticosteroids, intermittent thoracocentesis, rutin, octreotide, and enalapril. PMID:25829555

  16. Cationic amino acid transporters and beta-defensins in dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Kristin; Garreis, Fabian; Dunse, Matthias; Paulsen, Friedrich P

    2010-01-01

    Several diseases concomitant with L-arginine deficiency (diabetes, chronic kidney failure, psoriasis) are significantly associated with dry eye syndrome. One important factor that has so far been neglected is the y(+) transporter. In humans, y(+) accounts for nearly 80% of arginine transport, exclusively carrying the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine. y(+) is represented by CAT(cationic amino acid transporter) proteins. L-arginine is a precursor of the moisturizer urea, which has been used in the treatment of dry skin diseases. Although urea has also been shown to be part of the tear film, little attention has been paid to it in this role. Moreover, L-arginine and L-lysine are major components contributing to synthesis of the antimicrobially active beta-defensins induced under dry eye conditions. The first results have demonstrated that transport of L-arginine and L-lysine into epithelial cells is limited by the y(+) transporter at the ocular surface.

  17. Lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other eye of a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Bikram Bahadur; Singh, Ramandeep; Ram, Jagat; Kumar, Abiraj

    2014-12-09

    We present a case of Marfan syndrome with lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other. A 14-year-old girl reported decreased vision in the left eye. Her visual acuity was 6/24 and counting fingers at 1 m in the right and left eyes, respectively. Her intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in both eyes. Evaluation of the right eye on slit lamp biomicroscopy under mydriasis revealed an inferiorly visible flattened and concave crystalline lens equator from 4 to 8 o'clock position along with notching and absence of zonules, suggestive of lens coloboma. Left eye examination revealed a superiorly subluxated lens from 3 to 9 o'clock position and posterior subcapsular cataract. The posterior segment evaluation of both eyes was normal. Her father, aunt and grandfather were of tall stature, characteristic of Marfan syndrome. On systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as Marfan syndrome. After surgical correction she achieved vision of 6/6 in both eyes.

  18. Endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement sleep in cats

    PubMed Central

    Orem, John; Lovering, Andrew T; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali; Vidruk, Edward H

    2000-01-01

    A putative endogenous excitatory drive to the respiratory system in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may explain many characteristics of breathing in that state, e.g. its irregularity and variable ventilatory responses to chemical stimuli. This drive is hypothetical, and determinations of its existence and character are complicated by control of the respiratory system by the oscillator and its feedback mechanisms. In the present study, endogenous drive was studied during apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation. We reasoned that if there was a REM-dependent drive to the respiratory system, then respiratory activity should emerge out of the background apnoea as a manifestation of the drive. Diaphragmatic muscle or medullary respiratory neuronal activity was studied in five intact, unanaesthetized adult cats who were either mechanically hyperventilated or breathed spontaneously in more than 100 REM sleep periods. Diaphragmatic activity emerged out of a background apnoea caused by mechanical hyperventilation an average of 34 s after the onset of REM sleep. Emergent activity occurred in 60 % of 10 s epochs in REM sleep and the amount of activity per unit time averaged approximately 40 % of eupnoeic activity. The activity occurred in episodes and was poorly related to pontogeniculo-occipital waves. At low CO2 levels, this activity was non-rhythmic. At higher CO2 levels (less than 0.5 % below eupnoeic end-tidal percentage CO2 levels in non-REM (NREM) sleep), activity became rhythmic. Medullary respiratory neurons were recorded in one of the five animals. Nineteen of twenty-seven medullary respiratory neurons were excited in REM sleep during apnoea. Excited neurons included inspiratory, expiratory and phase-spanning neurons. Excitation began about 43 s after the onset of REM sleep. Activity increased from an average of 6 impulses s−1 in NREM sleep to 15.5 impulses s−1 in REM sleep. Neuronal activity was non-rhythmic at low CO2 levels and became rhythmic when levels

  19. Cat-pork syndrome: a case report with a thee years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Savi, E; Rossi, A; Incorvaia, C

    2006-12-01

    A case of cat-pork syndrome with subsequent follow-up in a 17-year-old male patient is reported. At the initial observation, the patient was sensitized to cat epithelium--along with house dust mites and grass pollen--from two years. In 2001 he had an immediate reaction with urticaria, angioedema and dyspnea after eating grilled meat and sausage, and skin tests and CAP/RAST revealed a sensitization to pork meat, with a value of 4.7 KU/L for pork meat, and of 55 KU/L for cat epithelium. The patient was followed up for three years with annual repetition of diagnostic tests. The elimination of pork meat from the diet was incomplete, with slight skin reactions to small amounts of cooked pork meat but tolerance to seasoned pork products such as salami. A challenge test with pork meat in 2004 was positive, with angioedema and asthma symptoms, and CAP/RAST showed a value of 43 KU/L for cat epithelium and 4 KU/L for pork meat. RAST inhibition confirmed the significant cross-reactivity between the two allergen sources. These findings provide some knowledge on the natural history of the cat-pork syndrome, and confirm that very prolonged avoidance of the offending foods are needed to expect a loss of sensitization.

  20. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  1. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  2. A FAS-ligand variant associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in cats.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, Danielle; Munday, John S; Gandolfi, Barbara; Dittmer, Keren E; Malik, Richard; Garrick, Dorian J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2017-02-01

    British shorthair (BSH) kittens in multiple litters died as a result of a severe non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease that showed many similarities with human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Human ALPS is caused by inherited defects in FAS-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis and the possibility of similar defects was investigated in BSH cats. The whole genomes of two affected kittens were sequenced and compared to 82 existing cat genomes. Both BSH kittens had homozygous insertions of an adenine within exon 3 of the FAS-ligand gene. The resultant frameshift and premature stop codon were predicted to result in a severely truncated protein that is unlikely to be able to activate FAS. Three additional affected BSH kittens were homozygous for the variant, while 11 of 16 unaffected, but closely related, BSH cats were heterozygous for the variant. All BSH cats in the study were from a population with significant inbreeding. The variant was not identified in a further survey of 510 non-BSH cats. Identification of a genetic defect in the FAS-mediated apoptosis pathway confirms that the lymphoproliferative disease in BSH cats fulfills the diagnostic criteria for ALPS in humans. These results will enable the development of a genetic test to detect BSH carrier animals.

  3. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in feral cats from Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Kang, Jun-Gu; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Cho, Yun-Kyung; Cho, Young-Sun; Lee, Hang; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study tested serum samples of feral cats from a highly urbanized habitat, Seoul, Korea to determine the infection to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). From 126 samples tested, SFTSV was detected by RT-PCR in 22 (17.5%) cats from various sites of Seoul. Sequences identified from this study were grouped with clusters from China and Japan. Our result provides data that SFTSV may have been circulating in settings that were suspected to have relatively low risk, such as highly urbanized habitats. Thus it warrants further study to investigate the ecology of SFTSV in urban-dwelling animals including ticks, human and other potential host species.

  4. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Mylène; Dunn, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Three 8-week-old kittens were presented with a history of acute, generalized weakness and severe fever. One cat was dead upon presentation, and necropsy findings were supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. During their clinical courses, two of the three kittens developed a progressive, marked swelling of one or more limbs. One moribund and severely hypothermic cat was euthanized a few hours after presentation, and necropsy was also supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. One kitten recovered. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome was suspected because of the fulminant progression of the septicemia.

  5. Irritable eye syndrome: neuroimmune mechanisms and benefits of selected nutrients.

    PubMed

    Feher, Janos; Pinter, Erika; Kovács, Illés; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Agnes; Markovics, Adrienn; Plateroti, Rocco; Librando, Aloisa; Cruciani, Filippo

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies showed comorbidity of some ocular, enteral, and affective symptoms comprising irritable eye syndrome. Aims of the present study were to learn more about the pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome and to evaluate benefits of food supplements on these disorders. In in vitro assay, Lactobacillus acidophilus lysate inhibited interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages in dose- and size-dependent manner. For a prospective, open-label phase I/II controlled clinical trial, 40 subjects affected by ocular dysesthesia and hyperesthesia and comorbid enteral and anxiety-depression symptoms were randomly assigned either into the treated group, which received a composition containing probiotic lysate, vitamins A, B, and D and omega 3 fatty acids, or into the control group, which received vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids. For reference, 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were also selected. White blood count (WBC) and lymphocyte and monocyte counts, as well as IL-6 and TNF-α levels, were significantly above the reference levels in both treated and control groups. After 8 weeks, WBC and lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and cytokine levels significantly decreased, and ocular, enteral, and anxiety-depression symptoms significantly improved in the treated group as compared to the control group. This proof-of-concept study suggested that subclinical inflammation may be a common mechanism connecting ocular, enteral, and anxiety/depression symptoms, and supplements affecting dysbiosis may be a new approach to treating this syndrome.

  6. An Exploration of the Use of Eye Gaze and Gestures in Females with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Girdler, Sonya; Ciccone, Natalie; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the communicative use of eye gaze and gestures in females with Rett syndrome. Method: Data on 151 females with Rett syndrome participating in the Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used in this study. Items from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist…

  7. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Sphynx and Devon Rex Cats with Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Hitte, Christophe; Bossé, Philippe; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Thomas, Anne; Martignat, Lionel; Blot, Stéphane; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by skeletal muscle weakness, fatigability and variable electromyographic or muscular histopathological features has been described in the two related Sphynx and Devon Rex cat breeds (Felis catus). Collection of data from two affected Sphynx cats and their relatives pointed out a single disease candidate region on feline chromosome C2, identified following a genome-wide SNP-based homozygosity mapping strategy. In that region, we further identified COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase) as a good candidate gene, since COLQ mutations were identified in affected humans and dogs with endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency leading to a synaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A homozygous c.1190G>A missense variant located in exon 15 of COLQ, leading to a C397Y substitution, was identified in the two affected cats. C397 is a highly-conserved residue from the C-terminal domain of the protein; its mutation was previously shown to produce CMS in humans, and here we confirmed in an affected Sphynx cat that it induces a loss of acetylcholinesterase clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Segregation of the c.1190G>A variant was 100% consistent with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the disorder in our cat pedigree; in addition, an affected, unrelated Devon Rex cat recruited thereafter was also homozygous for the variant. Genotyping of a panel of 333 cats from 14 breeds failed to identify a single carrier in non-Sphynx and non-Devon Rex cats. Finally, the percentage of healthy carriers in a European subpanel of 81 genotyped Sphynx cats was estimated to be low (3.7%) and 14 control Devon Rex cats were genotyped as wild-type individuals. Altogether, these results strongly support that the neuromuscular disorder reported in Sphynx and Devon Rex breeds is a CMS caused by a unique c.1190G>A missense mutation, presumably transmitted through a founder effect, which

  8. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H

    1983-03-01

    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  9. Cat scratch disease mimicking Richter's Syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Mohammad; Godkar, Darshan; Mankan, Nagander; Sridhar, Sundara; Hussain, Shafkat; Ohri, Anju

    2005-03-01

    Richter's Syndrome is a highly refractory and usually fatal condition. It occurs as a result of transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or low grade lymphoma into highly aggressive lymphoma. Patients usually present with rapidly enlarging lymph nodes and systemic symptoms like night sweats, fever and weight loss. We are reporting a case of CLL presenting with similar symptoms. Initial suspicion of Richter's Syndrome proved wrong when lymph node biopsy did not reveal evidence of high grade lymphoma. Instead it showed findings consistent with cat scratch disease (CSD), later confirmed by serology. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of CSD in a patient with CLL.

  10. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES. We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively. Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance. FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  11. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood–brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide

  12. Mixing and transport in the Kelvin-Stuart cat eyes driven flow using the topological approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue, Stephen Michael

    Transport rates for the Kelvin-Stuart Cat Eyes driven flow are calculated using the lobe transport theory of Rom-Kedar and Wiggins through application of the Topological Approximation Method (TAM) developed by Rom-Kedar. Numerical studies by Ottino (1989) and Tsega, Michaelides, and Eschenazi (2001) of the driven or perturbed flow indicated frequency dependence of the transport. One goal of the present research is to derive an analytical expression for the transport and to study its dependence upon the perturbation frequency o. The Kelvin-Stuart Cat Eyes dynamical system consists of an infinite string of equivalent vortices exhibiting a 2pi spatial periodicity in x with an unperturbed streamfunction of H( x, y) = ln(cosh y + A cos x) - ln(1+A). The driven flow has perturbation terms of a sin(o) in both the x and y directions. Lobe dynamics transport theory states that transport occurs through the transfer of turnstile lobes, and that transport rates are equal to the area of the lobes transferred. Lobes may intersect, necessitating the calculation and removal of lobe intersection areas. The TAM requires the use of a Melnikov integral function, the zeroes of which locate the lobes, and a Whisker map (Chirikov 1979), which locates lobe intersection points. An analytical expression for the Melnikov integral function is derived for the Kelvin-Stuart Cat Eyes driven flow. Using the derived analytical Melnikov integral function, derived expressions for the periods of internal and external orbits as functions of H, and the Whisker map, the Topological Approximation Method is applied to the Kelvin-Stuart driven flow to calculate transport rates for a range of frequencies from (o = 1.21971 to o = 3.27532 as the structure index L is varied from L = 2 to L = 10. Transport rates per iteration, and cumulative transport per iteration, are calculated for 100 iterations for both internal and external lobes. The transport rates exhibit strong frequency dependence in the frequency

  13. Effects of eye movement with functional electrical stimulation on balance in stroke patients with neglect syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether eye movement in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation (FES) could improve balance ability in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 stroke patients with neglect syndrome. The intervention was eye movement in conjunction with FES. The program was conducted 5 times per week, for 6 weeks. Static balance (eyes-open and eyes-closed) and dynamic balance were measured before and after testing. [Results] In measurement of static balance, subjects showed significant differences in sway length and sway area when examined in the eyes-open condition, but not the eyes-closed condition. In measurement of dynamic balance, the subjects showed significant differences in limit of stability (forward/backward and left/right). [Conclusion] These results indicate that eye movement in conjunction with FES had a positive effect on the static and dynamic balance in the eyes-open condition, but not in the eyes-closed condition of stroke patients with neglect syndrome. Further studies should therefore investigate various interventions in stroke patients with neglect syndrome. PMID:27313375

  14. Dry eye disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Cakir, Ilkay; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kursat; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate dry eye disease (DED) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compare with healthy individuals. Methods The study was conducted in the Ophthalmology and Endocrinology Department of Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, a tertiary care center in Istanbul, Turkey, between January and December 2015. In this prospective case-controlled study, dry eye disease tests were performed on 44 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls. TearLab Osmolarity System, which is a lab-on-a-chip technology, was used to measure tear osmolarity. McMonnies & Ho symptoms questionnaire along with Schirmer I test and tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test were also performed. Statistical evaluation was performed by students’ independent test. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tear osmolarity, TFBUT, and McMonnies & Ho questionnaire scores between MetS and normal group. However, Schirmer I test was significantly higher in MetS group (14.8±9.4mm versus 20.4±9.4, p=0.007). In women subgroup, tear osmolarity was significantly higher in MetS group compared to the normal group and over the cut-off score 308 mOsm/L (309.4±13.1 mOsm/L versus 301.2±8.7mOsm/L, p=0.012). Conclusion Patients with MetS present with lower tear volumes and a higher incidence of lacrimal gland hypofunction than age-matched controls. Especially women with MetS have higher tear osmolarities, which disrupt the normal functioning of the ocular surface and cause inflammation. Clinicians should be aware of higher DED incidence in patients with MetS for early treatment to prevent serious ocular complications. PMID:27874148

  15. Time Course of Visual Attention in Infant Categorization of Cats versus Dogs: Evidence for a Head Bias as Revealed through Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous looking time studies have shown that infants use the heads of cat and dog images to form category representations for these animal classes. The present research used an eye-tracking procedure to determine the time course of attention to the head and whether it reflects a preexisting bias or online learning. Six- to 7-month-olds were…

  16. Holmium laser use in the treatment of selected dry eye syndrome complications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Dariusz; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Mariusz

    1996-03-01

    The authors present initial results of treatment selected complications of dry eye syndrome with holmium laser. The lacrimal puncta obliteration and coagulation of the corneal ulcer surface were done.

  17. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infant's cry, which is high-pitched and sounds like a cat. Causes Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It is caused by a missing piece of chromosome 5. Most cases are believed to occur during the development of ... Cry that is high-pitched and may sound like a cat Downward slant to the eyes ...

  18. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. Systemic and topical omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids have been used as treatment for patients with dry eye disease and showed promising results. Further multicenter randomized controlled trials are required in order to establish a standardized protocol for the treatment of dry eye syndrome with those essential fatty acids. PMID:25278796

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome might be associated with dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Asproudis, Ioannis; Tsoumani, Anthoula T.; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Theopistos, Vasileios; Paschidis, Konstantinos A.; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.; Christodoulou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background A possible association between dry eye disease (DED) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been hypothesized based on the fact that they both share an inflammatory pathogenesis. Methods Ninety-five patients with IBS and 276 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All patients answered a questionnaire regarding DED symptoms and had a complete ophthalmic examination. DED signs were evaluated using Schirmer’s 1 and tear break-up time (tBUT) tests in both groups. Results Female IBS participants presented significantly lower Schirmer’s test and tBUT (P=0.002 and P<0.001 respectively) than controls. Both diagnostic tests in male IBS patients were also significantly lower than in controls (P<0.001). 72% of IBS patients gave at least 3 positive answers to the questionnaire compared with 42% of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest a correlation between IBS and DED. DED symptoms can cause further complications in patients with IBS, and should be considered in their management. However, further research is needed to establish a possible pathophysiologic association. PMID:27708515

  20. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  1. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  2. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  3. Compulsive Behavior and Eye Blink in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Neurochemical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsen, Laura; Thompson, Travis

    2004-01-01

    Compulsive behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome is well-documented, though the neurochemical basis of these behaviors remains unknown. We studied a group of 16 people with Prader-Willi syndrome and a comparison group of 19 people with intellectual disability. Using eye-blink rate as an indirect measure of central nervous system dopamine, we found a…

  4. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection. PMID:19721738

  5. Using percentile schedules to increase eye contact in children with Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection.

  6. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training Using Eye Blink Switch for Locked-in Syndrome Patient

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Woon; Yi, Sook-hee; Kim, Hyun-young; Jung, Seung-min

    2012-01-01

    Locked-in Syndrome is a severe pontine stroke causing quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of only vertical gaze and upper eyelid movement in a conscious patient. We present a case of a Locked-in Syndrome patient who received communication training with augmentative and alternative communication equipment by using eye blinks. After 3 weeks of training, the patient was able to make an attempt to interact with other people, and associate a new word by Korean alphabet selection. Augmentative and alternative communication equipment which uses eye blinks might be considered to be beneficial in improving the communication skills of locked-in syndrome patients. PMID:22639753

  7. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training Using Eye Blink Switch for Locked-in Syndrome Patient.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Woon; Yim, You-Lim; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Seung-Min

    2012-04-01

    Locked-in Syndrome is a severe pontine stroke causing quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of only vertical gaze and upper eyelid movement in a conscious patient. We present a case of a Locked-in Syndrome patient who received communication training with augmentative and alternative communication equipment by using eye blinks. After 3 weeks of training, the patient was able to make an attempt to interact with other people, and associate a new word by Korean alphabet selection. Augmentative and alternative communication equipment which uses eye blinks might be considered to be beneficial in improving the communication skills of locked-in syndrome patients.

  8. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Tara K; Mauldin, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Vickie; Del Piero, Fabio; Hess, Rebecka S

    2007-10-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with a 3-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and hiding was examined. A palpable abdominal fluid wave, dehydration, and a small tear on the left flank were noted during initial examination. When the cat was gently restrained for blood sampling, the skin on the dorsal neck tore, leaving a 15 cm x 7 cm flap of skin. Clinicopathological abnormalities included nonregenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased globulin concentration, and mildly elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Abdominal fluid was viscous and had a total protein of 5.3 g dL(-1) with 316 cells microL(-1), consistent with a modified transudate. Cytology of the abdominal fluid revealed 86% nondegenerate neutrophils, 13% macrophages, and 1% small lymphocytes. Histopathological evaluation and indirect immunohistochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis, hepatic lipidosis and feline skin fragility syndrome. Feline skin fragility syndrome has not previously been reported in association with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Its inclusion as a clinical sign associated with FIP may facilitate a diagnosis.

  9. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, P; Di Stefano, G; Ferreri, F; Spinella, R; Stilo, A

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients with hypotonic or isotonic hyaluronate eye drops. Methods: 40 Sjögren's syndrome patients were divided in two groups and treated as follows: group 1 with hypotonic (150 mOsm/l) 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops; group 2 with isotonic 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops. The eye drops were instilled six times a day for 90 days. Grading of subjective symptoms, break up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival rose bengal staining, Schirmer's I test, and conjunctival impression cytology were carried out at 0 and 15, 30, 90 days from the beginning of the study. Patients were examined in a blind fashion. For the statistical analysis the Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were performed. Results: Symptoms were statistically significantly improved at day 15 in both groups but group 1 patients had a global score statistically significantly better group 2 (p=0.02). At day 15 group 1 patients had an improvement from baseline values of BUT (p=0.003), fluorescein, and rose bengal score (p=0.000001 and p=0.0004 respectively). Group 2 patients had, at day 15, an improvement of BUT and fluorescein score compared to baseline values (p=0.05 and p=0.0001 respectively). A comparison between the two groups showed better results for group 1 patients at day 15 for rose bengal stain (p=0.01) and for BUT (p=0.05) and fluorescein score (p=0.0003) at day 90. The conjunctival impression cytology showed that group 1 had a statistically significant better total score than group 2 starting from day 15 and lasting throughout the study (p<0.02). Also group 2 patients showed an improvement from baseline values starting from day 30 (p=0.000005). Conclusion: Hyaluronate eye drops are useful for treating severe dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. The use of a formulation with pronounced hypotonicity showed better effects on corneoconjunctival epithelium than the isotonic solution. PMID:12140209

  10. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight for victory. Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  11. Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bourchany, A; Giurgea, I; Thevenon, J; Goldenberg, A; Morin, G; Bremond-Gignac, D; Paillot, C; Lafontaine, P O; Thouvenin, D; Massy, J; Duncombe, A; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Masurel-Paulet, A; Chehadeh, S El; Huet, F; Bron, A; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Lyonnet, S; Faivre, L

    2015-07-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by a specific facial gestalt, intellectual deficiency, Hirschsprung disease and multiple congenital anomalies. Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox2 gene (ZEB2) cause MWS. ZEB2 encodes for Smad-interacting protein 1, a transcriptional co-repressor involved in TGF-beta and BMP pathways and is strongly expressed in early stages of development in mice. Eye abnormalities have rarely been described in patients with this syndrome. Herein, we describe four patients (two males and two females; mean age 7 years) with MWS and eye malformations. Ocular anomalies included, iris/retinal colobomas, atrophy or absence of the optic nerve, hyphema, and deep refraction troubles, sometimes with severe visual consequences. All eye malformations were asymmetric and often unilateral and all eye segments were affected, similarly to the nine MWS cases with ophthalmological malformations previously reported (iris/chorioretinal/optic disc coloboma, optic nerve atrophy, retinal epithelium atrophy, cataract, and korectopia). In human embryo, ZEB2 is expressed in lens and neural retina. Using the present report and data from the literature, we set out to determine whether or not the presence of eye manifestations could be due to specific type or location of mutations. We concluded that the presence of eye malformations, although a rare feature in MWS, should be considered as a part of the clinical spectrum of the condition.

  12. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments associated to Stickler syndrome in a tertiary eye care center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Saeed T; Ghazi, Nicola G; Al-Rashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical findings and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Stickler syndrome on affected and fellow eyes that underwent prophylactic retinopexy. Patients and methods Chart review of 70 eyes (62 patients). Incidence of RRD, postoperative visual acuity, and risk factors were evaluated. Results Twenty-two patients (35%) had RRD in the fellow eye, 37% of the eyes had cataract, 93% had macular detachment, 50% had proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and 41% had posterior vitreous detachment. Success rates were: 60% of patients after scleral buckling; 57.1% after pars plana vitrectomy; and 75% after combined scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy. Sixty-one (93.8%) of patients had successful surgery (including second surgery). Silicone oil tamponade was significantly associated with final anatomic outcome, with a protective odds ratio of 0.11 (P=0.027). Visual acuity improved in 54% of eyes and decreased in 5%. Statistically significant associations were present for eyes with final visual acuity ≥20/200, and total retinal detachment (P<0.001); preoperative cataract (P=0.023); and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P<0.001). RRD developed in 16/44 eyes despite laser prophylaxis. Conclusion Prophylactic retinopexy was not beneficial for Stickler syndrome patients. Success of primary surgery for RRD remains low. The primary surgery should be vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling and silicone oil tamponade. PMID:26730175

  13. Locked jaw syndrome in dogs and cats: 37 cases (1998-2005).

    PubMed

    Gatineau, Matthieu; El-Warrak, Alexander O; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; Kamiya, D; Moreau, Maxime

    2008-03-01

    A consecutive series of cases of dogs and cats with locked jaw syndrome (inability to open or close the mouth) are reported in this study. Dogs were significantly overrepresented (84.0%) and adult dogs were more frequently affected (81.0%). Temporomandibular joint ankylosis due to fracture was the most common cause (54.0%) of locked jaw syndrome. Additional potential causes of locked jaw syndrome are masticatory muscle myositis, neoplasia, trigeminal nerve paralysis and central neurological lesions, temporomandibular joint luxation and dysplasia, osteoarthritis, retrobulbar abscess, tetanus, and severe ear disease. Treatment of locked jaw is directed towards the primary cause. It is important to treat the tonic spasm in order to minimize periarticular fibrosis. Surgical intervention is recommended for temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Masticatory muscle myositis treatment is initiated by gradually opening the mouth, with medical treatment based on immunosuppressive therapy. Fracture and masticatory muscle myositis are associated with a relatively good prognosis in regard to short-term outcome as compared to animals with central neurologic lesions or osteosarcoma which have a poor prognosis.

  14. Bite-related and septic syndromes caused by cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Richard L; Velez, Ana P; Mizrachi, Michelle; Lamarche, Jorge; Gompf, Sandra

    2009-07-01

    Bite infections can contain a mix of anaerobes and aerobes from the patient's skin and the animal's oral cavity, including species of Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Capnocytophaga. Domestic cat and dog bite wounds can produce substantial morbidity and often require specialised care techniques and specific antibiotic therapy. Bite wounds can be complicated by sepsis. Disseminated infections, particularly those caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida, can lead to septic shock, meningitis, endocarditis, and other severe sequelae. An emerging syndrome in veterinary and human medicine is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections shared between pets and human handlers, particularly community-acquired MRSA disease involving the USA300 clone. Skin, soft-tissue, and surgical infections are the most common. MRSA-associated infections in pets are typically acquired from their owners and can potentially cycle between pets and their human acquaintances.

  15. Saccadic movements of the eyes in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Damyanovich, E V; Baziyan, B Kh; Sagalov, M V; Kumskova, G A

    2013-11-01

    Saccadic movements of the eyes were analyzed in children with the attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome. Saccadic movements of the eyes were recorded by a special method for their isolated registration without involvement of the head and in coordination tests (eye-head, eye-hand, and eye-head-hand). Comparative analysis of saccadic movements in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity and in normal subjects was carried out. Saccades recorded in each participant in complex tests with one or two additional motor acts, such as movements of the head and hand, were compared and the changes were analyzed for the group. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome had problem with gaze fixation on the peripheral target after the end of the saccade and these changes augmented in more complex tasks with one or two additional acts. This could be due to discrepancy between the difficulty of the task and the potentialities of the frontal cortex, more immature in these patients than in healthy children. The changes could form the objective base for disorders in the formation of reading and writing habits, often observed in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

  16. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  17. Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David

    2009-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…

  18. Looking at Movies and Cartoons: Eye-Tracking Evidence from Williams Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, D.; Hancock, P. J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autism and Williams syndrome (WS) are neuro-developmental disorders associated with distinct social phenotypes. While individuals with autism show a lack of interest in socially important cues, individuals with WS often show increased interest in socially relevant information. Methods: The current eye-tracking study explores how…

  19. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-09-15

    A 43-year-old man with infantile nystagmus syndrome complained of "head tremor" that would occur during attempted reading. Three-dimensional, combined eye and head recordings were performed with the magnetic search coil technique in two conditions: 1) looking straight-ahead under photopic conditions without a particular attentional focus and 2) reading a simple text held one meter away. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading.

  20. Contribution of Social and Information-Processing Factors to Eye-Gaze Avoidance in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…

  1. Eight-year observation and comparative study of specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) subtypes A and B: terminal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cat infected with FIV petaluma strain.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, M; Uetsuka, K; Ikeda, Y; Inoshima, Y; Shimojima, M; Sato, E; Inada, G; Toyosaki, T; Miyazawa, T; Doi, K; Mikami, T

    1998-03-01

    Three specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) strains Petaluma, TM1 and TM2, respectively were observed for over 8 years. Without showing any significant clinical signs of immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 8 years and 4 months of asymptomatic phase, the Petaluma-infected cat exhibited severe stomatitis/gingivitis, anorexia, emaciation, hematological and immunological disorders such as severe anemia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and decrease of CD4/CD8 ratio to 0.075, and finally died with hemoperitoneum at 8 years and 8 months post-infection. Histopathological studies revealed that the cat had systemic lymphoid atrophy and bone marrow disorders indicating acute myelocytic leukemia (aleukemic type). Plasma viral titer of the cat at AIDS phase was considerably high and anti-FIV antibody titer was slightly low as compared with the other FIV-infected cats. In addition, immunoblotting analysis using serially collected serum/plasma samples of these cats revealed that antibodies against FIV proteins were induced in all the infected cats, however in the Petaluma-infected cat anti-Gag antibodies disappeared during the asymptomatic period. These results suggested that plasma viral load and anti-FIV Gag antibody response correlated with disease progression, and supported FIV-infected cats as a suitable animal model of human AIDS.

  2. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  3. 'Dancing eyes, dancing feet syndrome' in small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandramohan; Acharya, Mihir; Kumawat, Bansi Lal; Kochar, Abhishek

    2014-04-23

    A 60-year-old man presented with a 25-day history of acute onset instability of gait, tremulousness of limbs and involuntary eye movements. Examination revealed presence of opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia, without any loss of motor power in the limbs. Prompt investigations were directed towards identifying an underlying malignancy which is often associated with this type of clinical scenario. CT of the brain was normal and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. A cavitatory lesion was found in the right lung base on the high-resolution CT of the chest and histopathological examination of this lung mass showed small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was managed symptomatically with levetiracetam and baclofen and referred to oncology department for resection of the lung mass.

  4. Actinomyces endogenous endophthalmitis in a cat following multiple dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A

    2013-11-01

    An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression.

  5. Gabapentin therapy for ocular opsoclonus-myoclonus restores eye movement communication in a patient with a locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sarà, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The experience with a patient with locked-in syndrome suffering from opsoclonus-myoclonus symptoms is described: gabapentin successfully reversed the symptoms, just favoring the regaining of eye-dependent communication strategies.

  6. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Abnormalities in Children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Thomas; Buckley, Ashura; Hommer, Rebecca; Grant, Paul; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James F.; Swedo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Polysomnographic investigation of sleep architecture in children presenting with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Methods: Fifteen consecutive subjects meeting criteria for PANS (mean age = 7.2 y; range 3–10 y) underwent single-night full polysomnography (PSG) read by a pediatric neurologist. Results: Thirteen of 15 subjects (87%) had abnormalities detected with PSG. Twelve of 15 had evidence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep motor disinhibition, as characterized by excessive movement, laughing, hand stereotypies, moaning, or the continuation of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) into REM sleep. Conclusions: This study shows various forms of REM sleep motor disinhibition present in a population of children with PANS. Citation: Gaughan T, Buckley A, Hommer R, Grant P; Williams K, Leckman JF, Swedo SE. Rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1027–1032. PMID:27166296

  7. The Effect of Persistent Vortices on Boundary Layer Behavior in Turbulent Flow along a Kelvin-Stuart Cat's Eyes Wavy Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Amir

    The vortex persistence theory predicts that the addition of a sufficiently strong, stationary vortex near a wall will reduce the wall fluxes in turbulent flows. To test the theory flow visualization and hot-wire experiments in a water tunnel at moderate Reynolds number reveal that a persistent vortex will relaminarize the boundary layer along wavy even in the presence of freestream turbulence. This result is consistent with Dawson who found similar boundary layer behavior using a von Karman separatrix shaped wavy wall, and Balle, who's results showed laminar wall heat fluxes under stationary vortices using the von Karman wavy wall. Based on Dawson's flow visualization, and following Balle's analogy, the separatrix of a Kelvin-Stuart Cat's Eyes flow pattern was replaced with a solid wavy wall to stabilize the vortices shed by an array of half-delta vortex generators just upstream of the leading edge of the wavy wall. The correct angle of the array allows for persistent vortices to traverse along the grooves of the wavy wall, and displacing the array even slightly yields different turbulent fluxes. The present flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry results suggest that using the cat's eyes wavy wall gives better relaminarization properties than the von Karman shaped wavy wall, which can have many real world applications.

  8. Pathogenesis of the dry eye syndrome observed by optical coherence tomography in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kray, Oya; Lenz, Markus; Spöler, Felix; Kray, Stefan; Kurz, Heinrich

    2011-06-01

    Three dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) is introduced as a valuable tool to analyze the pathogenesis of corneal diseases. Here, OCT in combination with a novel in vitro model for the dry eye syndrome enables an improved understanding of the underlying damaging process of the ocular surface. En-face OCT projections indicate a deep structural damage of the epithelium and anterior stroma by osmotic forces.

  9. Efficacy of Several Therapeutic Agents in a Murine Model of Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we used 56 female BALB/c mice with induced dry eye syndrome to evaluate the therapeutic effects of formal saline (FS), sodium hyaluronate (SH), diclofenac sodium (DS), olopatadine (OP), retinoic acid (RA), fluoromethanole (FML), cyclosporine A (CsA), and doxycycline hyclate (DH). All subjects were kept in an evaporative ‘dry eye cabinet’ for the assessment of blink rate, tear production, tear break-up time, and impression cytology prior to (baseline) and during weeks 2, 4, and 6 of the study. The right eyes of all subjects were treated topically with 5 µL of the test agent twice daily during weeks 2 through 6. Impression cytology and tear break-up time differed between time points in all groups and differed between groups at weeks 4 and 6. Blink rate differed by time point only in the FS, FML, and DH groups. Tear production according to the phenol red cotton thread test differed by time point for all groups except RA, CsA, and DH and differed between groups only at week 6. Among the compounds tested in the present study, DS and CsA were the most effective therapeutic agents in our mouse model of dry eye syndrome; these agents likely exert their therapeutic effect through their antiinflammatory activity. PMID:27053565

  10. Eyes on MEGDEL: distinctive basal ganglia involvement in dystonia deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Barić, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings.

  11. Maternal derivation of inv dup (22) and clinical variation in cat-eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tupler, R; Hoeller, A; Pezzolo, A; Maraschio, P

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in a male child with dismorphies and renal anomalies showed an extra bisatellited chromosome. In situ hybridization and an analysis of cytogenetic polymorphisms revealed that the abnormal chromosome derived from a single maternal chromosome 22.

  12. Severity of dry eye syndrome is related to anti-dsDNA autoantibody in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without secondary Sjogren syndrome: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alexander; Chen, Hung-Ta; Hwang, Yih-Hsiou; Chen, Yi-Tsun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-07-01

    There are as many as one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome. To this date, dry eye syndrome in SLE patients is believed to be caused by secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). However, there is increasing evidence for possible independency of dry eye syndrome and sSS in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective observational case series was to identify SLE patients without sSS who had dry eye syndrome, examine the correlation of different autoantibodies and dry eye severity, and determine the cause of dry eye in these patients.We included 49 consecutive SLE patients with dry eye who visited our dry eye clinic. In order to rule out sSS, these patients were all negative for anti-Sjogren's-syndrome-related antigen A and B (anti-SSA/SSB) and had no oral symptoms. Each patient's lupus activity was determined by serological tests including antidouble-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), complement levels (C3, C4), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and antinuclear antibody (ANA). Severity of dry eye syndrome was determined by corneal sensation (KSen), superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer-I test (Schirmer), and tear film break-up time (TBUT). The autoantibodies and the dry eye parameters in each group were tested using the χ test or the Mann-Whitney U test for normally distributed or skewed data, respectively.The anti-dsDNA showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.042) but not TBUT. The C3 showed significant correlations with KSen (P < 0.001), SPK (P < 0.001), and Schirmer (P = 0.014) but not TBUT. No correlations of dry eye parameters were observed between C4, ESR, and ANA.The major finding of this study was that the severity of dry eye syndrome in SLE patients without sSS was strongly correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 but not with C4, ESR, and ANA.

  13. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  14. Clinical management of tumours in geriatric dogs and cats: systemic effects of tumours and paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gorman, N T

    1990-04-21

    There are many clinical presentations of neoplastic disease in the dog and cat. Some relate to the presence of a solid mass but many relate to the systemic effect that the tumour has on the animal. This paper covers the broad categories of the systemic metabolic and haematological effects that are associated with tumours in the dog and cat.

  15. Effect of Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmandi, Mohammad; Neiseh, Fatemeh; SadeghiShermeh, Mehdi; Ebadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep is one of the basic human needs and sleep deprivation causes nu-merous adverse effects on the human body and mind. Due to reduced sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome, this study was carried out to determine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: In this two-group controlled clinical trial, sixty patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units of Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran in 2010 were selected by purposeful sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups of case and control. In the case group, in the second night stay, the intervention of eye mask was done per night and by using the Petersburg's sleep quality index; sleep quality was evaluated during and at the end of hospitalization. Then data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient and SPSS software version 19. Results: Total sleep quality score of the case group was significantly decreased after intervention (4.86 ± 1.88) from before intervention (10.46 ± 4.09) (p < 0.000). In addi-tion, total score of sleep quality after intervention in the case group (4.86 ± 1.88) was significant different from the control group (8.43 ± 1.97) (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Using eye mask, as an economical and uncomplicated method, can improve sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the coronary care units and can be used as an alternative method of treatment instead of drug therapy. PMID:25276688

  16. Inhibition of return in response to eye gaze and peripheral cues in young people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Ruggiero, Sabrina; Maccari, Lisa; Rosa, Caterina; Lupiáñez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) reflects slower reaction times to stimuli presented in previously attended locations. In this study, we examined this inhibitory after-effect using two different cue types, eye-gaze and standard peripheral cues, in individuals with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing individuals. Typically developing participants showed evidence of IOR for both eye-gaze and peripheral cues. In contrast, the Asperger group showed evidence of IOR to previously peripherally cued locations but failed to show IOR for eye-gaze cues. This absence of IOR for eye-gaze cues observed in the participants with Asperger may reflect an attentional impairment in responding to socially relevant information.

  17. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  18. [Comparison of local acetylcysteine and artificial tears in the management of dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pokupec, Rajko; Petricek, Igor; Sikić, Jakov; Bradić, Mirna; Popović-Suić, Smiljka; Petricek, Goranka

    2005-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common clinical entity causing difficulties to many people, especially the elderly. Standard substitution therapy with artificial tears may frequently prove inadequate, thus any new treatment modality is highly welcome. The syndrome implies lacrimal hyperosmolality, which in turn results in mucus accumulation in the conjunctival sac causing additional irritation. Locally applied acetylcysteine, a mucolytic, regulates mucus secretion and reduces mucus accumulation. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of artificial tear therapy and therapy with local acetylcysteine. The study included 32 patients with the symptoms and signs of dry eye attending our department between March 20 and May 9, 2003. All study patients were on long-term substitution therapy with artificial tears. Upon evaluation of subjective discomforts and objective signs, the patients were switched from artificial tear therapy (Isopto-Tears, Alcon, with polyvinyl alcohol as active ingredient) to therapy with locally applied acetylcysteine (Brunac, Bruschettini). All parameters were re-evaluated at 2-week control visit. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) completed the study with control visit. Of these, 18 (60%) patients reported reduction of subjective discomforts, ten (33%) patients observed no change, and two (7%) patients experienced more discomforts with acetylcysteine than with artificial tear therapy. On objective sign evaluation, 12 (40%) patients showed less discomforts, unchanged condition was recorded in 13 (43%) patients, and five (17%) patients had more discomforts as compared with artificial tear therapy. A statistically significant difference (p=0.05) between artificial tear therapy and acetylcysteine therapy was found for the subjective symptom score but not for the objective sign score. Therapy with acetylcysteine proved more efficient than artificial tears in reducing subjective symptoms but had no effect on the objective signs of dry eye syndrome. The

  19. [New method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Zabegaĭlo, A O; Fedorov, A A; Lukisheva, O V

    2014-01-01

    A new combined method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome is developed. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The treatment implied the use of artificial tears, Restasis, and Blephasteam spectacle frame. The course included 20 procedures on daily basis. The monitoring period was 1 year. A pronounced anti-inflammatory, reparative, and moistening effect as well as stabilization of the precorneal film was achieved in short time. Owing to the combined approach, negative side effects (such as burning, conjunctival irritation, and fluctuating vision) were minimized. Repeated treatment courses maintained the positive therapeutic effect and prolongated the remission.

  20. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö®), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  1. Making the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Kenneth A; Luchs, Jodi; Milner, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive systemic autoimmune disease that often presents initially with symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Symptoms are often nonspecific and develop gradually, making diagnosis difficult. Patients with dry eye complaints warrant a step-wise evaluation for possible SS. Initial evaluation requires establishment of a dry eye diagnosis using a combination of patient questionnaires and objective ocular tests, including inflammatory biomarker testing. Additional work-up using the Schirmer test and tear film break-up time can differentiate between aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye. The presence of ADDE should trigger further work-up to differentiate between SS-ADDE and non-SS-ADDE. There are numerous non-ocular manifestations of SS, and monitoring for SS-related comorbid findings can aid in diagnosis, ideally in collaboration with a rheumatologist. The clinical work-up of SS can involve a variety of tests, including tear function tests, serological tests for autoantibody biomarkers, minor salivary gland and lacrimal gland biopsies. Examination of classic SS biomarkers (SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor) is a convenient and non-invasive way of evaluating patients for the presence of SS, even years prior to confirmed diagnosis, although not all SS patients will test positive, particularly those with early disease. Recently, newer biomarkers have been identified, including autoantibodies to salivary gland protein-1, parotid secretory protein, and carbonic anhydrase VI, and may allow for earlier diagnosis of SS. A diagnostic test kit is commercially available (Sjö(®)), incorporating these new biomarkers along with the classic autoantibodies. This advanced test has been shown to identify SS patients who previously tested negative against traditional biomarkers only. All patients with clinically significant ADDE should be considered for serological assessment for SS, given the

  2. Treatment of dry eye by autologous serum application in Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsubota, K.; Goto, E.; Fujita, H.; Ono, M.; Inoue, H.; Saito, I.; Shimmura, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum application for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome.
METHODS—The stability of essential components (EGF, vitamin A, and TGF-β) in preserved serum were examined following preservation at 4°C and −20°C. In a primary clinical trial, 12 patients with Sjögren's syndrome were treated with autologous serum (diluted to 20% with sterile saline) for 4 weeks, and vital staining of the ocular surface was compared before and after treatment. The effects of serum on mucin (MUC-1) expression were observed in cultured conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro.
RESULTS—EGF, vitamin A, and TGF-β were well preserved for up to 1 month in the refrigerator at 4°C and up to 3 months in the freezer at −20°C. Rose bengal and fluorescein scores improved significantly from the initial scores of 5.3 and 5.6 to 1.7 and 2.5 after 4 weeks, respectively. The additive effect of human serum for cultured conjunctival epithelial cells showed significant MUC-1 upregulation on the cell surface.
CONCLUSION—Autologous serum application is a safe and efficient way to provide essential components to the ocular surface in the treatment of dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

 Keywords: autologous serum; Sjögren's syndrome; tears ocular surface PMID:10434857

  3. A new autosomal dominant eye and lung syndrome linked to mutations in TIMP3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Isabelle; Bocquet, Béatrice; Labesse, Gilles; Zeitz, Christina; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Lacroux, Annie; Mauget-Faysse, Martine; Drumare, Isabelle; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Mathieu, Cyril; Marquette, Virginie; Sagot, Lola; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Arndt, Carl; Carroll, Patrick; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José-Alain; Puech, Bernard; Audo, Isabelle; Mrejen, Sarah; Hamel, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    To revisit the autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) as a syndromic condition including late-onset pulmonary disease. We report clinical and imaging data of ten affected individuals from 2 unrelated families with SFD and carrying heterozygous TIMP3 mutations (c.572A > G, p.Y191C, exon 5, in family 1 and c.113C > G, p.S38C, exon 1, in family 2). In family 1, all SFD patients older than 50 (two generations) had also a severe emphysema, despite no history of smoking or asthma. In the preceding generation, the mother died of pulmonary emphysema and she was blind after the age of 50. Her two great-grandsons (<20 years), had abnormal Bruch Membrane thickness, a sign of eye disease. In family 2, eye and lung diseases were also associated in two generations, both occurred later, and lung disease was moderate (bronchiectasis). This is the first report of a syndromic SFD in line with the mouse model uncovering the role of TIMP3 in human lung morphogenesis and functions. The TIMP3 gene should be screened in familial pulmonary diseases with bronchiectasis, associated with a medical history of visual loss. In addition, SFD patients should be advised to avoid tobacco consumption, to practice sports, and to undergo regular pulmonary examinations. PMID:27601084

  4. Cat and mouse search: the influence of scene and object analysis on eye movements when targets change locations during search.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, Anne P; Segabinazi, Joice D; Godwin, Hayward J; Liversedge, Simon P; Benson, Valerie

    2017-02-19

    We explored the influence of early scene analysis and visible object characteristics on eye movements when searching for objects in photographs of scenes. On each trial, participants were shown sequentially either a scene preview or a uniform grey screen (250 ms), a visual mask, the name of the target and the scene, now including the target at a likely location. During the participant's first saccade during search, the target location was changed to: (i) a different likely location, (ii) an unlikely but possible location or (iii) a very implausible location. The results showed that the first saccade landed more often on the likely location in which the target re-appeared than on unlikely or implausible locations, and overall the first saccade landed nearer the first target location with a preview than without. Hence, rapid scene analysis influenced initial eye movement planning, but availability of the target rapidly modified that plan. After the target moved, it was found more quickly when it appeared in a likely location than when it appeared in an unlikely or implausible location. The findings show that both scene gist and object properties are extracted rapidly, and are used in conjunction to guide saccadic eye movements during visual search.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  5. Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia in cats infected with feline leukemia virus clone33 containing a unique long terminal repeat.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Masaharu; Nagashima, Naho; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Fukuzawa, Isao; Ura, Shigeyoshi; Katae, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Yamada, Takatsugu; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2009-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) clone33 was obtained from a domestic cat with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The long terminal repeat (LTR) of this virus, like the LTRs present in FeLV from other cats with AML, differs from the LTRs of other known FeLV in that it has 3 tandem direct 47-bp repeats in the upstream region of the enhancer (URE). Here, we injected cats with FeLV clone33 and found 41% developed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. Some of the cats with MDS eventually developed AML. The bone marrow of the majority of cats with FeLV clone33 induced MDS produced fewer erythroid and myeloid colonies upon being cultured with erythropoietin or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-SCF) than bone marrow from normal control cats. Furthermore, the bone marrow of some of the cats expressed high-levels of the apoptosis-related genes TNF-alpha and survivin. Analysis of the proviral sequences obtained from 13 cats with naturally occurring MDS reveal they also bear the characteristic URE repeats seen in the LTR of FeLV clone33 and other proviruses from cats with AML. Deletions and mutations within the enhancer elements are frequently observed in naturally occurring MDS as well as AML. These results suggest that FeLV variants that bear URE repeats in their LTR strongly associate with the induction of both MDS and AML in cats.

  6. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Jose L.; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G.; Kennedy, Jeffrey B.; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies’ efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. Methods The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Results Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat

  7. The Importance of the Eye Area in Face Identification Abilities and Visual Search Strategies in Persons with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkmer, Marita; Larsson, Matilda; Bjallmark, Anna; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2010-01-01

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24…

  8. Do Faces Capture the Attention of Individuals with Williams Syndrome or Autism? Evidence from Tracking Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2009-01-01

    The neuro-developmental disorders of Williams syndrome (WS) and autism can reveal key components of social cognition. Eye-tracking techniques were applied in two tasks exploring attention to pictures containing faces. Images were (i) scrambled pictures containing faces or (ii) pictures of scenes with embedded faces. Compared to individuals who…

  9. Inhibition of Return in Response to Eye Gaze and Peripheral Cues in Young People with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Andrea; Pasini, Augusto; Ruggiero, Sabrina; Maccari, Lisa; Rosa, Caterina; Lupianez, Juan; Casagrande, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) reflects slower reaction times to stimuli presented in previously attended locations. In this study, we examined this inhibitory after-effect using two different cue types, eye-gaze and standard peripheral cues, in individuals with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing individuals. Typically developing…

  10. A DETAILED MORPHO-KINEMATIC MODEL OF THE ESKIMO, NGC 2392: A UNIFYING VIEW WITH THE CAT'S EYE AND SATURN PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.; Lopez, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G. E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx

    2012-12-20

    The three-dimensional and kinematic structure of the Eskimo nebula, NGC 2392, has been notoriously difficult to interpret in detail given its complex morphology, multiple kinematic components and its nearly pole-on orientation along the line of sight. We present a comprehensive, spatially resolved, high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the Eskimo planetary nebula. The data consist of 21 spatially resolved, long-slit echelle spectra tightly spaced over the Eskimo and along its bipolar jets. This data set allows us to construct a velocity-resolved [N II] channel map of the nebula with a resolution of 10 km s{sup -1} that disentangles its different kinematic components. The spectroscopic information is combined with Hubble Space Telescope images to construct a detailed three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the Eskimo using the code SHAPE. With this model we demonstrate that the Eskimo is a close analog to the Saturn and the Cat's Eye nebulae, but rotated 90 Degree-Sign to the line of sight. Furthermore, we show that the main characteristics of our model apply to the general properties of the group of elliptical planetary nebulae with ansae or FLIERS, once the orientation is considered. We conclude that this kind of nebula belongs to a class with a complex common evolutionary sequence of events.

  11. LOOKING DEEP INTO THE CAT'S EYE: STRUCTURE AND ROTATION IN THE FAST WIND OF THE PN CENTRAL STAR OF NGC 6543

    SciTech Connect

    Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D. L.; Cantiello, M.

    2012-11-10

    We present HST/STIS time-series spectroscopy of the central star of the 'Cat's Eye' planetary nebula NGC 6543. Intensive monitoring of the UV lines over a 5.8 hr period reveals well-defined details of large-scale structure in the fast wind, which are exploited to provide new constraints on the rotation rate of the central star. We derive characteristics of the line profile variability that support a physical origin due to corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that are rooted at the stellar surface. The recurrence time of the observed spectral signatures of the CIRs is used to estimate the rotation period of the central star and, adopting a radius between 0.3 and 0.6 R{sub Sun} constrains the rotational velocity to the range 54 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub rot} {<=} 108 km s{sup -1}. The implications of these results for single star evolution are discussed based on models calculated here for low-mass stars. Our models predict a subsurface convective layer in NGC 6543 which we argue to be causally connected to the occurrence of structure in the fast wind.

  12. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  13. Case Report: Explantation of A Binkhorst Iridocapsular Lens >30 Years After Implantation in an Eye With Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Adriano; Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Sabater, Alfonso L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An 86-year-old man with a Binkhorst 2-loop intraocular lens (IOL) that was implanted in the pupillary sphincter 33 years earlier was examined. The pupil of the implanted eye with the Binkhorst IOL was irregular and the eye had pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome. Pupillary erosion resulted from rubbing of the IOL edge against the pupillary sphincter with PEX material. The IOL was removed because of visual distortion and intense pseudophakodonesis. Gross and light microscopic analyses showed no irido-fibro-lenticular adhesions over the lens or fragments of iris tissue attached to the lens. Scanning electron microscopy showed several pores of different sizes. No inflammatory cells were present, suggesting that the IOL was well tolerated. The case suggested that the pupillary ruff was not a good location for implantation of an IOL in an eye with PEX. Caution is recommended before implanting or suturing an IOL close to the pupillary border in eyes with PEX during cataract surgery. PMID:26313806

  14. A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  15. Neuropathic ocular pain due to dry eye is associated with multiple comorbid chronic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (P<0.01), we found that the high CPS group reported more severe neuropathic-type DE symptoms compared to the low CPS group, including worse ocular pain assessed via 3 different pain scales (P<0.05), with similar objective corneal DE signs. This is the first study to demonstrate DE patients who manifest a greater number of comorbid CPS report more severe DE symptoms and features of NOP. These findings provide further evidence that NOP may represent a central pain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863

  16. [The cat cry (cri du chat) syndrome: report of a case with review of 10 cases at the National Taiwan University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Chuang, S M; Wang, T R; Jean, H H; Lee, F Y

    1989-06-01

    The cat cry (cri du chat) syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly due to partial deletion of the short arm of the No. 5 chromosome. Since the first report of Lejeune et al, in 1963, nearly 400 cases have been reported. However, the syndrome with a ring chromosome is still very rare and only 10 cases were reported up to 1988, since the first report of Rohde and Tompkins in 1965. To investigate the chromosomal changes in the patients of cat cry syndrome, a chromosomal study was carried out on 10 cases of cat cry syndrome from 5,870 cases submitted to the Laboratory of Cytogenetics, National Taiwan University Hospital from Nov. 1968 through Apr. 1988. These ten cases included 3 males and 7 females (M:F = 1:2.3) aged 2 days to 18 months with an average of 5.5 months. The most common clinical features are: cat-like cry, growth failure, microcephaly with mental retardation, round face with facial abnormalities including hypertelorism, downward slanting palpebral fissures, micrognathia and low-set ears, and simian crease. Laryngomalacia or underdevelopment of the larynx may be a factor causing the cat-like cry. On chromosome analysis, 8 out of these 10 cases showed the usual simple deletion of the short arm of the no. 5 chromosome, and the other 2 cases revealed ring chromosome including a case of pure ring chromosome([(4, XY, r (5)] and a case of mosaicism with one ring chromosome, 2 ring chromosomes and simple deletion of the short arm of the No. 5 chromosome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes in dogs and cats: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Turek, Michelle M

    2003-12-01

    Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of noncancerous dermatoses associated with internal malignancy. Their recognition can facilitate detection and timely treatment of underlying cancer. More than 30 such disorders have been identified in the human scientific literature, whereas only a few are described in veterinary medicine. This may reflect a lower incidence in animals than in people or may be the result of failure to recognize an association between certain skin lesions and neoplasia. Establishing a relationship between a cutaneous disorder and neoplasia can be difficult unless the skin lesions are rare and almost always associated with a particular tumour type, as is the case for most recognized veterinary paraneoplastic dermatoses. Among these are feline paraneoplastic alopecia, feline thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis, nodular dermatofibrosis, feminization syndrome associated with testicular tumours, superficial necrolytic dermatitis and paraneoplastic pemphigus. The aetiology of most cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes has remained elusive in both people and animals.

  18. Changes in the activity of units of the cat motor cortex with rapid conditioning and extinction of a compound eye blink movement.

    PubMed

    Aou, S; Woody, C D; Birt, D

    1992-02-01

    Patterns of spike activity were measured in the pericruciate cortex of conscious cats before and after development of a Pavlovian conditioned eye blink response. Unit activity was tested with presentations of a click conditioned stimulus (CS) and a hiss discriminative stimulus (DS) of similar intensity to the click. Unit discharge in response to the CS increased after conditioning, but not after backward conditioning when conditioned reflexes (CRs) were not performed. Rates of spontaneous, baseline discharge were not increased after conditioning with respect to rates of discharge measured in the naive state. It appeared that an increase in the ratio of CS-elicited discharge to background activity, together with an increase in the number of units responding to the CS after conditioning, supported discrimination of the CS from the DS and performance of the conditioned blink response. This is the first detailed characterization of patterns of a rapidly conditioned Pavlovian response. Activation of units by the CS preceded the onset of the CR, supporting the hypothesis that the activity played a role in initiating the conditioned eye blink movement. Extinction with retention of performance of the CR was associated with perseverance of the increased unit discharge in response to the CS. Extinction with substantially reduced performance of the CR was associated with diminution of the unit response to the CS below levels found with conditioning. Averages of patterns of spike activity elicited by the CS after conditioning showed components of discharge with onsets of 8-40 msec (alpha 1), 40-72 msec (alpha 2), 72-112 msec (beta), and greater than 112 msec (gamma), corresponding to each of four separate excitatory EMG components of the compound blink CR. Each component increased in magnitude after conditioning, relative to levels found in the naive state. The finding that long- as well as short-latency components of unit activation increased after conditioning supported the

  19. Male infant with cat cry syndrome and apparent absence of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tolksdorf, M; Kunze, J; Rossius, H; Chiyo, H

    1980-05-01

    We report a boy with cri-du-chat syndrome and apparent absence of the Y chromosome. The karyotype is interpreted as 45,X,del(5)(qter leads to p13:). The boy has normal male external genitalia and bilateral testes although no Y chromosome was found in lymphocytes or fibroblasts.

  20. Determination of the 'critical region' for cat-like cry of Cri-du-chat syndrome and analysis of candidate genes by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingfa; Niebuhr, Erik; Yang, Huanming; Hansen, Lars

    2005-04-01

    Cri-du-chat (CDC, OMIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome that results from partial deletions on the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical features of CDC normally include high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism and epicanthic folds. The cat-like cry is the most prominent clinical characteristic in newborn children and is usually considered as diagnostic for the CDC syndrome. Using a strategy of 'phenotype dissection', the critical region for cat-like cry was mapped to the chromosomal segment 5p15.3-5p15.2 in previous reports. In this study, the distal breakpoints of two interstitial deletions in two clinical distinctive CDC patients are analysed, one with and one without the cat-like cry. Using PCR, the critical region for the cat-like cry is mapped to a short 640 kbp region on chromosome 5p. Genome analysis of this critical region reveals a gene-rich sequence containing five known genes, five putative genes and three spliced EST sequences, altogether 71 predicted exons. Three genes, FLJ25076, a homolog to a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC-E2, FLJ20303, a nucleolar protein NOP2, which may play a role in the regulation of the cell cycle and MGC5309, a protein with similarity to Nut2, a Drosophila transcriptional coactivator, have been characterized and expression profiles determined by quantitative PCR. These results suggest that one candidate gene, FLJ25076, encodes a ubiquitin-conjugated enzyme E2 type, which is locally expressed in thoracic and scalp tissues. The other two genes are expressed uniformly in all tissues tested, which suggest that they are housekeeping genes.

  1. Characteristics of the Anterior Segment Biometry and Corneal Endothelium in Eyes with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Senile Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Banu; Güzel, Hüseyin; Kamış, Ümit; Gedik, Şansal; Okudan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anterior segment biometric features and corneal endothelial changes in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and senile cataract. Materials and Methods: The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness, endothelial cell density (ECD), and percentages of polymegathism and pleomorphism of 52 subjects with PEX and cataract were compared with 51 age- and gender-matched control subjects with cataract using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, Lenstar LS 900; Haag Streit AG, Switzerland) and in-vivo confocal microscopy (Confo Scan 4, Nidek Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Nineteen subjects with PEX syndrome had glaucoma and were using anti-glaucoma medications. Only one eye of the subjects was used in statistical analysis and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: None of the OLCR parameters reached statistically significant differences among the 3 groups (ANOVA p>0.05). The percentage of eyes with ACD <2.5 mm was 13.7% in the control group, 24.2% in PEX eyes without glaucoma and 21.1% in PEX eyes with glaucoma, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.45). There was a significant difference in mean ECD among the 3 groups (ANOVA p=0.02), whereas no differences could be found in respect to polymegathism and pleomorphism (p>0.05). Mean ECD was significantly lower in the PEX glaucoma group (2,199.5±176.8 cells/mm2) than the control group (2,363±229.3 cells/mm2) (p=0.02), whereas no difference was found in mean ECD of PEX eyes without glaucoma and the control group (p=0.42). ECD was less than 2,000 cells/mm2 in 15.8% of PEX subjects with glaucoma, 9.8% of control subjects and 6.1% of PEX eyes without glaucoma, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.52). Conclusion: As eyes with both PEX glaucoma and cataract seem to be associated with decreased endothelial cell number, specular or confocal microscopy screening should be done for the patients

  2. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  3. Severe Dry Eye Syndrome After Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Moiseenko, Vitali; Song, William Y.; Morris, Christopher G.; Bhatti, M. Tariq; Mendenhall, William M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of severe dry eye syndrome (DES) after external beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer and its dependence on the parameters relevant to external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study included 78 patients treated for primary extracranial head-and-neck tumors between 1965 and 2000, whose lacrimal apparatus/entire globe was exposed to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The dose received by the major lacrimal gland was used for analysis. The end point of the present study was the ophthalmologic diagnosis of severe DES leading to vision compromise. Results: Of the 78 patients, 40 developed severe DES leading to visual compromise. The incidence of DES increased steadily from 6% at 35-39.99 Gy to 50% at 45-49.99 Gy and 90% at 60-64.99 Gy. With a mean of 0.9 years (range, 1 month to 3 years), the latency of DES was observed to be a function of the total dose and the dose per fraction. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the total dose (p < .0001 and p < .0001, respectively) and dose per fraction (p {<=} .0001 and p = .0044, respectively) were significant. However, age, gender, and the use of chemoradiotherapy were not. The actuarial analysis indicated a 5-year probability of freedom from DES of 93% for doses <45 Gy, 29% for 45-59.9 Gy, and 3% doses {>=}60 Gy. A logistic normal tissue complication probability model fit to our data obtained a dose of 34 and 38 Gy corresponding to a 5% and 10% incidence of DES. Conclusion: With a dose of 34 Gy corresponding to a 5% incidence of DES, the risk of severe DES increased, and the latency decreased with an increase in the total dose and dose per fraction to the lacrimal gland. The effect of chemoradiotherapy and hyperfractionation on the risk of DES needs additional investigation.

  4. Shiga toxin-producing and attaching and effacing Escherichia coli in cats and dogs in a high hemolytic uremic syndrome incidence region in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bentancor, A; Rumi, M V; Gentilini, M V; Sardoy, C; Irino, K; Agostini, A; Cataldi, A

    2007-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), responsible for the hemolytic uremic syndrome, is an endemic pathogen in Argentina. We studied the prevalence of STEC in fecal samples from cats and dogs of Buenos Aires city and suburbs. Cultures were used for screening stx1/stx2 and rfbO157 by multiplex PCR. All E. coli-positive colonies for these genes were further characterized for the eae gene and for serotypes. In dogs, 17 (3.7%), 19 (4.2%) and 34 (7.5%) of samples were positive for stx2, stx1 and rfb, respectively. In cats, six (4.0%) of the samples were positive for stx2, three (2.0%) for stx1 and four (2.7%) for rfbO157. In 18 (4.0%) of the dog samples, a bacteriological diagnosis was obtained by isolation. The percentage of positive isolates corresponding to the rfbO157 and to the stx2 genotypes were 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively. In four of the cat samples, the bacteriological diagnosis for stx2 (2.6% prevalence of STEC) was confirmed. Although these data suggest that the high infection index of STEC in children in Argentina does not seem to be due mainly to the role of cats and dogs, there are some strains with virulence genes in common for humans and their domestic animals.

  5. A natural history of a child with monosomy 5p syndrome (Cat-cry/Cri-du-chat syndrome) during the 18 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Posmyk, R; Panasiuk, B; Yatsenko, S A; Stankiewicz, P; Midro, A T

    2005-01-01

    A record of a natural history of a long-term case study devoted to monosomy 5p (Cat-cry/Cri-du-chat) syndrome has been described rarely. Knowledge on the range of the changes in phenotype attributable to advancing age can be useful in clinical diagnosis of monosomy 5p at the different developmental stages, including adolescence, as well in prognosis for genetic counseling. In this case a detailed analysis of the morphologic phenotype in a girl with del(5)(p13.3) observed from 4 months to 18 years of age is reported. The comparative analysis of the girl's phenotype in different developmental stages has revealed that microcephaly, flat occipital region, face asymmetry, wide spaced palpebral fissures, epicanthic folds, small mouth fissure, thin mucous lip, small and low set ears and short IV metacarpals has not changed with advancing age. However, facial asymmetry was more evident, frontal tubers were less prominent, nasal root and back became prominent nasal back became elongated, the subnasal region was shorter and marked malocclusion appeared.

  6. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P < 0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P < 0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the

  7. Contractile properties of extraocular muscle in Siamese cat.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, G

    1979-01-01

    Siamese cats are albinos with poor visual resolution and severely impaired binocular vision. Eey muscle phyiology was studied in Siamese cats as a part of a more extensive project on eye muscle properties in cats with deficient binocular vision. Isometric contractions of the inferior oblique muscle were recorded in response to single and repetitive muscle nerve stimulation. Speed of contraction, measured as twitch contraction time, fusion frequency and rate of tetanic tension rise, was lower in Siamese than in normal cats. Eye muscles of Siamese cats fatiqued more easily to continuous activation than normal cat eye mucle. These functional changes have also been found in cats with binocular defects from monocular lid suture, but were much more marked in Siamese cats. It is suggested that the eye muscle changes represent muscular adaptations to genetically caused impairments of binocular vision and visual resolution in Siamese cats.

  8. Rapamycin Eye Drops Suppress Lacrimal Gland Inflammation In a Murine Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C.; Reddy Janga, Srikanth; Yarber, Frances; Meng, Zhen; Klinngam, Wannita; Bushman, Jonathan; Ma, Tao; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Mehta, Arjun; Ding, Chuanqing; MacKay, J. Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of topical rapamycin in treating autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods We developed rapamycin in a poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelle formulation to maintain solubility. Rapamycin or PEG-DSPE eye drops (vehicle) were administered in a well-established Sjögren's syndrome disease model, the male nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, twice daily for 12 weeks starting at 8 weeks of age. Mouse tear fluid was collected and tear Cathepsin S, a putative tear biomarker for Sjögren's syndrome, was measured. Lacrimal glands were retrieved for histological evaluation, and quantitative real-time PCR of genes associated with Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis. Tear secretion was measured using phenol red threads, and corneal fluorescein staining was used to assess corneal integrity. Results Lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal glands from rapamycin-treated mice was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced by 3.8-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice after 12 weeks of treatment. Rapamycin, but not vehicle, treatment increased tear secretion and decreased corneal fluorescein staining after 12 weeks. In rapamycin-treated mice, Cathepsin S activity was significantly reduced by 3.75-fold in tears (P < 0.0001) and 1.68-fold in lacrimal gland lysates (P = 0.003) relative to vehicle-treated mice. Rapamycin significantly altered the expression of several genes linked to Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis, including major histocompatibility complex II, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12a, as well as Akt3, an effector of autophagy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that topical rapamycin reduces autoimmune-mediated lacrimal gland inflammation while improving ocular surface integrity and tear secretion, and thus has potential for treating Sjögren's syndrome–associated dry eye. PMID:28122086

  9. Strength of evidence for the effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: The Club Med Syndrome Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Various types of evidence have been promulgated as proof for the effects of feral cats on wildlife, typically including numerous studies on predation inferred from diet, mortality attributed to pathogens, and photographic or videographic documentation. The strength of these types of evidence is often short of conclusive. For example, studies of predation inferred from diet provide weak evidence for two reasons: 1) they cannot differentiate depredation from scavenging by feral cats, and 2) they cannot address population-level effects on wildlife because it is rarely understood if mortality acts in compensatory or additive manner. Likewise, pathogens may cause mortality of individuals, but population-level effects of pathogens are rarely known. Photographic or videographic documentation provides direct ‘smoking gun’ evidence that may be useful for positive identification of depredation by cats, or identification of prey designated as threatened or endangered species. However, the most direct and compelling evidence comes from examples where feral cats have been entirely removed from islands. In many cases, several species of seabirds as well as other wildlife have recovered after the complete removal of cats. Where possible, the experimental removal of cats would provide the most conclusive proof of effects on wildlife populations. In other cases where cat removal is not feasible, modeling based on predation rates and life history parameters of species may be the only means of assessing population-level effects on wildlife. Understanding population-level effects of feral cats on wildlife will ultimately be necessary to resolve long-standing wildlife management issues.

  10. Hereditary and congenital ocular disease in the cat.

    PubMed

    Narfström, K

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this review of hereditary and congenital ocular disease in cats is to present an overview of the most common disorders seen in this species, the pathogenesis of the problems and wherever possible, how they are treated. Several defects are common in breeds such as the Persian, Himalayan and Burmese cats and affect the anterior segment of the eye. Examples are agenesis of the eyelids, dermoids, entropion and corneal sequestrum. Other problems such as cataracts, lens luxation and retinal dysplasia, cause problems of the intraocular structures, but are less common in cats compared to dogs. Finally, various parts of the retina and in some diseases other parts of the eye, are specifically affected by hereditary diseases. Examples of these are lysosomal storage disease, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and progressive rod cone degeneration and rod cone dysplasia. Research of the latter two hereditary diseases, both described in the Abyssinian breed of cat, have made affected individuals important animal models for research into comparable diseases of humans.

  11. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer’s test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  12. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer's test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  13. Mouse Models for the Dissection of CHD7 Functions in Eye Development and the Molecular Basis for Ocular Defects in CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Philip J.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CHARGE syndrome (Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retardation of growth and/or development, Genital and/or urinary tract abnormalities, and Ear abnormalities and deafness) is the second-leading cause of deaf-blindness after Usher syndrome. Heterozygous mutations in CHD7 cause CHARGE syndrome in 70% to 90% of patients. We tested the hypothesis that tissue-specific mutant mice provide models for molecularly dissecting CHD7 functions during eye development. Methods The conditional Chd7flox allele was mated together with tissue-specific Cre transgenes. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the normal CHD7 pattern in the early eye primordia and to assess Chd7 mutants for expression of region-specific protein markers. Results CHD7 is present in the neural ectoderm and surface ectoderm of the eye. Deletion from neural and surface ectoderm results in severely dysmorphic eyes generally lacking recognizable optic cup structures and small lenses. Deletion from the neural ectoderm results in similar defects. Deletion from the surface ectoderm results in eyes with smaller lenses. Lens tissue and the major subdivisions of the neural ectoderm are present following conditional deletion of Chd7 from the neural ectoderm. Closure of the optic fissure depends on the Chd7 gene dose within the neural ectoderm. Conclusions Eye development requires CHD7 in multiple embryonic tissues. Lens development requires CHD7 in the surface ectoderm, whereas optic cup and stalk morphogenesis require CHD7 in the neural ectoderm. CHD7 is not absolutely required for specification of the major subdivisions within the neural ectoderm. As in humans, normal eye development in mice is sensitive to Chd7 haploinsufficiency. These data indicate the Chd7 mutant mice are models for determining the molecular etiology of ocular defects in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:26670829

  14. Differential diagnostic value of eye movement recording in PSP-parkinsonism, Richardson's syndrome, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Jürgens, Reinhart; Becker, Wolfgang; Valdarno, Federica; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2008-12-01

    Vertical gaze palsy is a highly relevant clinical sign in parkinsonian syndromes. As the eponymous sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), it is one of the core features in the diagnosis of this disease. Recent studies have suggested a further differentiation of PSP in Richardson's syndrome (RS) and PSP-parkinsonism (PSPP). The aim of this study was to search for oculomotor abnormalities in the PSP-P subset of a sample of PSP patients and to compare these findings with those of (i) RS patients, (ii) patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and (iii) a control group. Twelve cases of RS, 5 cases of PSP-P, and 27 cases of IPD were examined by use of video-oculography (VOG) and compared to 23 healthy normal controls. Both groups of PSP patients (RS, PSP-P) had significantly slower saccades than either IPD patients or controls, whereas no differences in saccadic eye peak velocity were found between the two PSP groups or in the comparison of IPD with controls. RS and PSP-P were also similar to each other with regard to smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), with both groups having significantly lower gain than controls (except for downward pursuit); however, SPEM gain exhibited no consistent difference between PSP and IPD. A correlation between eye movement data and clinical data (Hoehn & Yahr scale or disease duration) could not be observed. As PSP-P patients were still in an early stage of the disease when a differentiation from IPD is difficult on clinical grounds, the clear-cut separation between PSP-P and IPD obtained by measuring saccade velocity suggests that VOG could contribute to the early differentiation between these patient groups.

  15. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated. PMID:24153100

  16. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rodolfo O; Gil, Solange; Brito, Maria Tv; McGahie, David; Niza, Maria Mre; Tavares, Luís

    2013-10-23

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated.

  17. Ocular manifestation of disseminated Mycobacterium simiae infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, U; Arnold, P; Guscetti, F; Pfyffer, G E; Spiess, B

    2003-03-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial disease was diagnosed in an eight-year-old domestic shorthaired cat, with involvement of the skin, lungs, lymph nodes and one eye. Mycobacterium simiae was cultured from skin biopsies on solid agar and in liquid media. This organism is known to cause pulmonary, cutaneous or disseminated infection in human patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome but has never been encountered as a pathogen in companion animals. Combination treatment with rifampicin, enrofloxacin and clarithromycin resulted in complete clinical remission within six months, with no side effects. No recurrence was observed in a 22-month follow-up period.

  18. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  19. Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome with Orally Administered CF101: Data from a Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Avni, Isaac; Garzozi, Hanna J.; Barequet, Irina S.; Segev, Fanni; Varssano, David; Sartani, Gil; Chetrit, Noa; Bakshi, Erez; Zadok, David; Tomkins, Oren; Litvin, Gilad; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Fishman, Sari; Harpaz, Zivit; Farbstein, Motti; Bar Yehuda, Sara; Silverman, Michael H.; Kerns, William D.; Bristol, David R.; Cohn, Ilan; Fishman, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of CF101, an A3 adenosine receptor agonist, in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome Design Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Participants 68 patients completed the study, 35 patients in the placebo group and 33 patients in the CF101 group. Intervention Patients were orally treated with either 1 mg CF101 pills or matching vehicle-filled placebo pills, given twice daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 2-week post-treatment observation. Main Outcome Measures Efficacy an improvement of >25% over baseline at week 12 in one of the following parameters: (a) tear break-up time (BUT); (b) superficial punctate keratitis assessed by fluorescein staining (FS); (c) Schirmer tear test 1 (ST1). Safety clinical laboratory safety tests, ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, electrocardiographic evaluations, vital sign measurements and monitoring of adverse events. Results A statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients who achieved more than 25% improvement in the corneal staining and in the clearance of corneal staining was noted between the CF101-treated group and the placebo group. Treatment with CF101 resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the mean change from baseline at week 12 of the corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus (TM) height in the CF101-treated group CF101 was well tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. A statistically significant decrease from baseline was observed in the IOP of the CF101-treated group in comparison with the placebo group. Conclusions CF101, given orally, induced a statistically significant improvement in the corneal staining and an improvement in the BUT and TM in patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome. The drug was very well tolerated. These data and the anti-inflammatory characteristic of CF101 support further study

  20. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  1. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephanie S L; Ghadiali, Larissa K; Brannagan Iii, Thomas H; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L; Odel, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  2. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiali, Larissa K.; Brannagan III, Thomas H.; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L.; Odel, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis. PMID:28182120

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  4. Acupuncture therapy is more effective than artificial tears for dry eye syndrome: evidence based on a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Yang, Zongguo; Yu, Hong; Song, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of acupuncture in dry eye syndrome patients remains controversial. Methods. Pubmed, Ovid, Cochrane libraries, CNKI, Wanfang, and CQVIP databases were electronically searched until October 1, 2014. Outcomes including tear break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), and cornea fluorescein staining (CFS) were analyzed. A meta-analysis was performed using both fixed- and random-effects models based on heterogeneity across studies. Results. Seven studies were included in this study; 198 and 185 patients were randomly treated with acupuncture and artificial tears, respectively. The overall BUT of patients in acupuncture group was significantly longer than that of the artificial tears group after treatment (P < 0.00001). The SIT was significantly higher in the acupuncture group than that in the artificial tears group after treatment (P = 0.001). The CFS of patients in acupuncture group was significantly improved compared to that in artificial group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Acupuncture therapy is effective for the dry eye patients, partly better than artificial tear treatment.

  5. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders – new strategies for diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Mark S.; Beckman, Kenneth A.; Luchs, Jodi I.; Allen, Quentin B.; Awdeh, Richard M.; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S.; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P.; Goldberg, Damien F.; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K.; Jackson, Mitchell A.; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A.; Malhotra, Ranjan P.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Rajpal, Rajesh K.; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D.; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A.; Waring, George O.; Weinstock, Robert J.; Wiley, William F.; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition. PMID:28099212

  6. Increased frequency of DNA deletions in pink-eyed unstable mice carrying a mutation in the Werner syndrome gene homologue.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases, including cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that the WS gene product is involved in resolving aberrant DNA structures that may arise during the process of DNA replication and/or transcription. To estimate the frequency of DNA deletions directly in the skin of mouse embryos, mice with a deletion of part of the murine WRN helicase domain were created. These mutant mice were then crossed to the pink-eyed unstable animals, which have a 70 kb internal duplication at the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene. This report indicates that the frequency of deletion of the duplicated sequence at the p locus is elevated in mice with a mutation in the WRN allele when compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the inhibitor of topoisomerase I camptothecin also increases the frequency of deletion at the p locus. This frequency is even more elevated in WRN mutant mice treated with camptothecin. In contrast, while the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity by 3-aminobenzamide increases the frequency of DNA deletion, mutant WRN mice are not significantly more sensitive to the inhibition of PARP activity than wild-type animals.

  7. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  8. Post Filtering Surgery Globe Massage-induced Keratoconus in an Eye with Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Fakhraie, Ghasem; Vahedian, Zakieh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of unilateral post trabeculectomy globe massage-induced keratoconus (KCN). Case Report: A 52-year-old lady with a history of trabeculectomy due to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in her right eye was instructed to massage her globe to control gradual rise of intraocular pressure 1.5 years after surgery. The patient experienced high astigmatism and marked inferior corneal steepening after 3 years of globe massage. The left eye was normal in all aspects. Findings in different visual examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of unilateral KCN in the right eye of our patient. Conclusion: Chronic forceful frequent eye rubbing particularly with fingertips can be assumed to be the most important causative factor for KCN formation in this patient. PMID:27621792

  9. Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J.; Pasztor, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

  10. A family with Townes-Brocks syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism and a novel mutation of the SALL1 gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Ik; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Han Wook; Oh, Sung Hee

    2010-12-01

    Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder caused by mutations in the SALL1 gene. Its signs and symptoms overlap with other genetic syndromes, including VACTERL association, Pendred syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, and cat eye syndrome. Structural vertebral abnormalities, hypoplasia of the thumb, and radial bone abnormalities, which are not usually associated with TBS, help in the differential diagnosis of these syndromes. We report the case of a family whose members were diagnosed with TBS with congenital hypothyroidism and had a novel SALL1 gene mutation.

  11. [Efficacy of physiotherapy and hygienic procedures in treatment of adults and children with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Prozornaia, L P; Brzhevskiĭ, V V

    2013-01-01

    110 patients aged from 3 to 42 years old were examined to estimate the efficacy of chronic blepharitis treatment: 50 patients with chronic blepharitis and dry eye syndrome (DES), 28 with DES due to computer vision syndrome and 32 with isolated chronic blepharitis. All patients received eyelid massage. If the secretion was too thick and difficult to evacuate from meibomian glands then duct probing was performed. In addition a complex of hygienic procedures was performed using phytoproducts ("Geltec-Medika", Russia): blepharoshampoo, blepharolotion, blepharogel 1 and 2. Moist warm pads (with blepharolotion and calendula extraction) were applied on the eyelids in 25 patients. Massage and probing of meibomian gland ducts and hygienic procedures were showed to be effective in management of clinical signs of chronic blepharitis including coexisting DES. Moist warm pads improve efficacy of background therapy in patients with meibomian gland hypofunction and have no effect in blepharitis with excessive meibomian gland secretion. Eyelid hygiene was showed to be effective in adults and children as well including infants.

  12. Spatial Breakdown in Spatial Construction: Evidence from Eye Fixations in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara; Pagani, Barney

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the role of executive and spatial representational processes in impaired performance of block construction tasks by children with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic defect that results in severely impaired spatial cognition. In Experiment 1, we examined performance in two kinds of block construction tasks, Simple Puzzles, in…

  13. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  14. "Hungry Eyes": Visual Processing of Food Images in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P. F.; Dykens, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, compulsivity, hyperphagia and increased risks of life-threatening obesity. Food preferences in people with PWS are well documented, but research has yet to focus on other properties of food in PWS, including composition and suitability for…

  15. Reliability of Eye Tracking and Pupillometry Measures in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Scaggs, Felicia; Hervey, Crystal; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent insight into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has led to the proposal and development of new pharmaceutical treatment strategies, and the initiation of clinical trials aimed at correcting core symptoms of the developmental disorder. Consequently, there is an urgent and critical need for outcome…

  16. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chen, Ko-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v) HA (E10/HA) compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits.

  17. Synergistic Effect of Artificial Tears Containing Epigallocatechin Gallate and Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Rabbits with Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chen, Ko-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common eye disease. Artificial tears (AT) are used to treat DES, but they are not effective. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of AT containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on DES. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were used in the WST-8 assay to determine the safe dose of EGCG. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCECs showing inflammation were treated with EGCG/HA. The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed by real-time PCR and AT physical properties such as the viscosity, osmolarity, and pH were examined. AT containing EGCG and HA were topically administered in a rabbit DES model established by treatment with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Tear secretion was assessed and fluorescein, H&E, and TUNEL staining were performed. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the corneas were also examined. The non-toxic optimal concentration of EGCG used for the treatment of HCECs in vitro was 10 μg/mL. The expression of several inflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, was significantly inhibited in inflamed HCECs treated with 10 μg/mL EGCG and 0.1% (w/v) HA (E10/HA) compared to that in inflamed HCECs treated with either EGCG or HA alone. AT containing E10/HA mimic human tears, with similar osmolarity and viscosity and a neutral pH. Fluorescence examination of the ocular surface of mouse eyes showed that HA increased drug retention on the ocular surface. Topical treatment of DES rabbits with AT plus E10/HA increased tear secretion, reduced corneal epithelial damage, and maintained the epithelial layers and stromal structure. Moreover, the corneas of the E10/HA-treated rabbits showed fewer apoptotic cells, lower inflammation, and decreased IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, we showed that AT plus E10/HA had anti-inflammatory and mucoadhesive properties when used as topical eye drops and were effective for treating DES in rabbits. PMID:27336157

  18. Choroidal abnormalities and masquerade syndromes confounding the diagnosis of laser-induced eye injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Henry D.; Zwick, Harry; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Dicks, Ronald; Cheramie, Rachel; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2005-04-01

    The diagnosis of a laser-induced eye injury occurring in occupational or military environments is often complicated by confounding symptoms, the possibility of pre-existing pathology, and/or a lack of visual deficits that can be clearly associated with a specific incident. Two recent cases are described that illustrate the importance of a thorough differential diagnosis when coexisting retinal pathologies are present with potentially different (e.g. laser or disease) etiologies. Indocyanine green angiography (ICG) and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) used in combination with standard ophthalmic imaging can provide helpful insights as to the etiology of these lesions. Vascular choroidal abnormalities such as hemangiomas or occult histoplasmosis infection can produce findings that can mimic the leakage that may be evident from neovascular membranes associated with laser injury. Further evaluation with OCT and conventional fluorescein angiography (FA) is helpful to look for the classic signature of retinal disruption and retinal pigment layer changes that are often present in association with laser injury. Furthermore, a careful situational assessment of a potential laser exposure is important to confirm the diagnosis of laser-induced eye injury.

  19. Managing the child with a diagnosis of Moebius syndrome: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    McKay, Victoria H; Touil, Leila L; Jenkins, Dagan; Fattah, Adel Y

    2016-09-01

    Moebius syndrome (MBS) is a congenital, non-progressive facial and abducens nerve palsy in the presence of full vertical gaze and may be associated with limb abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphisms. MBS is now defined as a disorder of rhombencephalic maldevelopment and recent gene discoveries have shown this to be a dominant disorder in a subset of patients. Accurate diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in congenital facial palsy is paramount.

  20. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies - Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2004-01-01

    We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene.

  1. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  2. Sleep patterns are disturbed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Prospéro-García, O; Herold, N; Phillips, T R; Elder, J H; Bloom, F E; Henriksen, S J

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sleep disturbances have been reported early in AIDS. Likewise, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a natural lentivirus pathogen of cats, produces a similar immunodeficiency syndrome with neurological sequelae. To identify the neurophysiological substrate of FIV infection in brain, pathogen-free cats were infected with the Maryland strain of FIV. Eight weeks after inoculation, all FIV-infected cats seroconverted and virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and in the mononuclear cells of peripheral blood. Ten to 12 months after the FIV inoculation, inoculated and control cats were surgically implanted with electrodes to record the sleep/wake cycle. These sleep recordings were obtained under conditions controlling for environmental variables and instrumental adaptation. FIV-infected cats spent 50% more time awake than the sham-inoculated controls and exhibited many more sleep/waking stage shifts--i.e., 40% more than controls. In addition, FIV-infected cats showed approximately 30% of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reduction compared to controls. The latency to sleep and REM sleep onset was also significantly delayed in FIV-infected cats. In addition, a remarkable increase in cortically recorded spindle activity (8-13 Hz) was observed during slow-wave sleep in some infected subjects, similar to changes described in HIV-infected humans. Moreover, infected cats exhibited no overt signs of systemic morbidity, such as hyperpyrexia or body weight loss. These results indicate that FIV-infected cats exhibit sleep abnormalities similar to the sleep disturbances previously described in AIDS patients and further support the feline preparation as a valuable animal model of HIV infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7809152

  3. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  4. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Donghyun; Kang, Seungbum; Yuan, Changzheng; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. Methods A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies. Results The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55–1.30, P for trend = 0.076) after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30–1.64) and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59–0.99) were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18–0.76) and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12–0.81) were lower in men. Conclusions The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES. PMID:26894581

  5. The Association between Symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome and Metabolic Outcome in a General Population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Won; Park, Jong Woon

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is recognized as a public health concern. One of the pathophysiologies in the development of DES is inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is highly prevalent in the general population, is a well-known chronic and systemic inflammatory condition. Despite the increasing interest regarding a relationship between DES and MetS, information is lacking on the association between DES and MetS and its individual components. We investigated the association between DES symptoms and MetS and its components among adults aged ≥ 19 years using population-based data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V. A sample group of 15,294 adults (42.67% men and 57.33% women) completed household interviews in which they provided blood (for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose) and anthropometric measurements (including waist circumference, weight, and height) to define MetS. We also collected information regarding sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. The survey results showed that 11.50% of men and 22.35% of women experienced DES and 5.30% of patients had both DES and diagnosis of MetS, including 204 men and 606 women. Thus, no significant difference was observed between DES and the diagnosis of MetS according to sex (P = 0.4008 in men; P = 0.0804 in women); however, a significant association was observed between DES and hypertriglyceridemia in women (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29). Therefore, hypertriglyceridemia might be an important factor in the association between DES and MetS. Further longitudinal research is needed to evaluate this relationship.

  6. Dancing Eyes Dancing Feet Syndrome-A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, S; V, Sriramakrishnan; M, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Opsoclonus Myoclonus (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder which appears to be the result of an autoimmune dysfunction. It is an extremely rare condition, affecting as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people every year. It affects 2 to 3% of children. Opsoclonus Myoclonus, which manifests itself as post infectious encephalopathy, occasionally along with HIV infection, post Streptococcal infection, West Nile virus encephalitis and Rickettsial infection, most often presents as a paraneoplastic syndrome, which is especially caused by occult neuroblastoma which is commonly seen in childhood and occurs in adults in relation to breast cancer and small cell lung cancer. In this study, two adult post infectious cases which had rare manifestations, have been presented. The cases were managed by using corticosteroids. PMID:24995204

  7. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  8. Eye Gaze Technology as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: Experiences of Families in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Townend, Gillian S; Marschik, Peter B; Smeets, Eric; van de Berg, Raymond; van den Berg, Mariёlle; Curfs, Leopold M G

    This paper provides a brief report on families' experiences of eye gaze technology as one form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), and the advice, training and support they receive in relation to this. An online survey exploring communication and AAC was circulated to 190 Dutch families; of the 67 questionnaires that were returned, 63 had answered questions relating to eye gaze technology. These 63 were analysed according to parameters including: experiences during trial periods and longer-term use; expert knowledge, advice and support; funding; communicative progress; and family satisfaction. 20 respondents were using or had previous experience of using an eye gaze system at the time of the survey, 28 of those with no prior experience wanted to try a system in the future. Following a trial period, 11 systems had been funded through health insurance for long-term use and two families had decided a system was not appropriate for them. Levels of support during trials and following long-term provision varied. Despite frustrations with the technology, satisfaction with the systems was higher than satisfaction with the support. The majority of families reported progress in their child's skills with longer term use. These findings suggest that although eye gaze technologies offer potential to individuals with RTT and their families, greater input from suppliers and knowledgeable AAC professionals is essential for individuals and families to benefit maximally. Higher levels of training and support should be part of the 'package' when an eye gaze system is provided.

  9. Impaired ADAMTS9 secretion: A potential mechanism for eye defects in Peters Plus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dubail, Johanne; Vasudevan, Deepika; Wang, Lauren W.; Earp, Sarah E.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Apte, Suneel S.

    2016-01-01

    Peters Plus syndrome (PPS), a congenital disorder of glycosylation, results from recessive mutations affecting the glucosyltransferase B3GLCT, leading to congenital corneal opacity and diverse extra-ocular manifestations. Together with the fucosyltransferase POFUT2, B3GLCT adds Glucoseβ1-3Fucose disaccharide to a consensus sequence in thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs) of several proteins. Which of these target proteins is functionally compromised in PPS is unknown. We report here that haploinsufficiency of murine Adamts9, encoding a secreted metalloproteinase with 15 TSRs, leads to congenital corneal opacity and Peters anomaly (persistent lens-cornea adhesion), which is a hallmark of PPS. Mass spectrometry of recombinant ADAMTS9 showed that 9 of 12 TSRs with the O-fucosylation consensus sequence carried the Glucoseβ1-3Fucose disaccharide and B3GLCT knockdown reduced ADAMTS9 secretion in HEK293F cells. Together, the genetic and biochemical findings imply a dosage-dependent role for ADAMTS9 in ocular morphogenesis. Reduced secretion of ADAMTS9 in the absence of B3GLCT is proposed as a mechanism of Peters anomaly in PPS. The functional link between ADAMTS9 and B3GLCT established here also provides credence to their recently reported association with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27687499

  10. Exploring inhibitory deficits in female premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome: through eye movements.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim; Kraan, Claudine; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Bradshaw, John L; Hocking, Darren R; Archibald, Alison D; Cohen, Jonathan; Trollor, Julian N; Fielding, Joanne

    2014-03-01

    There is evidence which demonstrates that a subset of males with a premutation CGG repeat expansion (between 55 and 200 repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene exhibit subtle deficits of executive function that progressively deteriorate with increasing age and CGG repeat length. However, it remains unclear whether similar deficits, which may indicate the onset of more severe degeneration, are evident in female PM-carriers. In the present study we explore whether female PM-carriers exhibit deficits of executive function which parallel those of male PM-carriers. Fourteen female fragile X premutation carriers without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and fourteen age, sex, and IQ matched controls underwent ocular motor and neuropsychological tests of select executive processes, specifically of response inhibition and working memory. Group comparisons revealed poorer inhibitory control for female premutation carriers on ocular motor tasks, in addition to demonstrating some difficulties in behaviour self-regulation, when compared to controls. A negative correlation between CGG repeat length and antisaccade error rates for premutation carriers was also found. Our preliminary findings indicate that impaired inhibitory control may represent a phenotype characteristic which may be a sensitive risk biomarker within this female fragile X premutation population.

  11. Overlapping irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: less to this than meets the eye?

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS. Access to methodologies, such the assay for levels of calprotectin in feces, now allows identification of ongoing inflammation in some such individuals and prompts appropriate therapy. More challenging is the IBD patient with persisting symptoms and no detectable evidence of inflammation; is this coincident IBS, IBS triggered by IBD or an even more subtle level of IBD activity unrecognized by available laboratory or imaging methods? Arguments can be advanced for each of these proposals; lacking definitive data, this issue remains unresolved. The occurrence of IBS-type symptoms in the IBD patient, together with some data suggesting a very subtle level of ‘inflammation‘ or ‘immune activation‘ in IBS, raises other questions: is IBS a prodromal form of IBD; and are IBS and IBD part of the spectrum of the same disease? All of the available evidence indicates that the answer to both these questions should be a resounding ‘no’. Indeed, the whole issue of overlap between IBS and IBD should be declared moot given their differing pathophysiologies, contrasting natural histories and divergent treatment paths. The limited symptom repertoire of the gastrointestinal tract may well be fundamental to the apparent confusion that has, of late, bedeviled this area. PMID:26929782

  12. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  13. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  14. Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability.

    PubMed

    Heitger, Marcus H; Jones, Richard D; Macleod, A D; Snell, Deborah L; Frampton, Chris M; Anderson, Tim J

    2009-10-01

    Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) can affect up to 20%-30% of patients with mild closed head injury (mCHI), comprising incomplete recovery and debilitating persistence of post-concussional symptoms. Eye movements relate closely to the functional integrity of the injured brain and eye movement function is impaired post-acutely in mCHI. Here, we examined whether PCS patients continue to show disparities in eye movement function at 3-5 months following mCHI compared with patients with good recovery. We hypothesized that eye movements might provide sensitive and objective functional markers of ongoing cerebral impairment in PCS. We compared 36 PCS participants (adapted World Health Organization guidelines) and 36 individually matched controls (i.e. mCHI patients of similar injury severity but good recovery) on reflexive, anti- and self-paced saccades, memory-guided sequences and smooth pursuit. All completed neuropsychological testing and health status questionnaires. Mean time post-injury was 140 days in the PCS group and 163 days in the control group. The PCS group performed worse on anti-saccades, self-paced saccades, memory-guided sequences and smooth pursuit, suggesting problems in response inhibition, short-term spatial memory, motor-sequence programming, visuospatial processing and visual attention. This poorer oculomotor performance included several measures beyond conscious control, indicating that subcortical functionality in the PCS group was poorer than expected after mCHI. The PCS group had poorer neuropsychological function (memory, complex attention and executive function). Analysis of covariance showed oculomotor differences to be practically unaffected by group disparities in depression and estimated intellectual ability. Compared with neuropsychological tests, eye movements were more likely to be markedly impaired in PCS cases with high symptom load. Poorer eye movement function, and particularly poorer subcortical oculomotor function, correlated more

  15. Diverse Clinical Signs of Ocular Involvement in Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oray, Merih; Önal, Sumru; Koç Akbay, Aylin; Tuğal Tutkun, İlknur

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Results: Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male) with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye), optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis), retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig) M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day) was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Conclusion: Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations. PMID:28182175

  16. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  18. Comparison of Visceral Fat Accumulation and Metabolome Markers among Cats of Varying BCS and Novel Classification of Feline Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yuki; Kobayashi, Motoo; Sawamura, Masaki; Arai, Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    As in humans, obesity and its associated diseases represent the most significant threat to the health of veterinary populations. Previous human studies have provided insights into the risk factors of obesity, complex pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, and their life-threatening consequences. In humans, the “metabolic syndrome” represents a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and its complications increase health-care utilization and medical expenses. Early diagnosis and intervention through preemptive approach is in need, and the new International Diabetes Federation definition of MS serves as the universally accepted diagnostic tool that is accessible in clinical settings. In veterinary populations, especially in cats, similar pathophysiological path and disease progression to the development of MS, such as adipokine dysregulations, chronic inflammation, lipotoxicity, are expected. The aim of this manuscript is twofold. First of all, it presents our preliminary feline obesity study that serves as the basis for discussion of obesity and its metabolic impact on feline population. In this study, we observed the effects of weight gain on energy metabolism using metabolome markers, such as adiponectin (ADN) and proinflammatory cytokines, in correlation with other common biochemical parameters in 14 clinically healthy cats of varying weight status. Further, we evaluated the visceral fat accumulation in three subjects of varying Body Condition Scores via computed tomography imaging and laparoscopic examination, and assessed the adipocyte type and size histologically. Mutually antagonizing changes in ADN and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) reflected the pathophysiological derangements leading to MS earlier than the common biochemical predictors such as glucose, liver values, and lipid markers. Second, it proposes the

  19. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  20. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  1. Miller Fisher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye muscles, and absence of the tendon reflexes. Like Guillain-Barré syndrome, symptoms may be preceded ... the eye muscles, and absence of the tendon reflexes. Like Guillain-Barré syndrome, symptoms may be preceded ...

  2. Eye Accommodation, Personality, and Autonomic Balance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    cervical ganglia and serve to connect the spinal cord and the muscles in the head and neck) in cats and dogs and found a resultant flattening or negative...Mobney, Morgan, Olmsted, and Wagman (1942) replicated the 1-D shift outward during stimulation of cats, dogs , and rhesus monkeys. Olmsted and Morgan...sympathetic nervous system in man, dog , monKey, cat, and rabbit causes a decrease in the total refractive power of the eye while stimulation of the

  3. Design and optimization of a novel implantation technology in contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Shaikh, Anjum A; Lakdawala, Dhara H; Desai, Ankita R; Pandya, Mihir M; Singhania, Sulabh S; Vaidya, Rutvi J; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-01-25

    Contact lenses are widely used for ophthalmic drug delivery, but incorporation of drug or formulation in the contact lenses affects its optical and physical property. In the present study, we have designed a novel hyaluronic acid (HA)-laden ring implant contact lenses (modified cast moulding method), to circumvent the changes in critical lens property. The objective was to improve the ocular residence time of HA, by providing sustained ocular HA delivery through implant contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Optimization of HA-implant was carried out using 3(2) factorial design by tailoring the amount of cross linker and thickness of implant, to achieve sustained HA release with constraint on effective ion diffusivity. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbit tear fluid showed sustained HA release up to 15days, by fabricating implant (80μgHA loading) with 78.4μm thickness (total thickness of lens=100μm) using 0.925% of cross linker, with effective ion diffusivity>1.5×10(-6)mm(2)/min. In vivo efficacy study in benzalkonium chloride induced dry eye syndrome rabbits showed faster healing with implant contact lenses in comparison to positive control group. The study demonstrated the promising potential of implantation technology to deliver hyaluronic acid without compromising optical and physical properties of contact lens.

  4. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M.; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S. Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain–hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl−/− mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl−/− mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl−/− mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. PMID:20921407

  5. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-10-19

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain-hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl(-/-) mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl(-/-) mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl(-/-) mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep.

  6. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the cat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-08-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a syndrome caused by an insufficient amount of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the small intestine. Clinical signs most commonly reported in cats with EPI are weight loss, loose and voluminous stools, steatorrhea, polyphagia, and in some cases a greasy soiling of the hair coat in the perianal region. Serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity concentration is the diagnostic test of choice for the diagnosis of affected cats. Treatment of cats with EPI consists of enzyme supplementation with either a powdered pancreatic extract or raw pancreas. Most cats with EPI also have severely decreased serum cobalamin concentrations and may require lifelong parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Most cats respond well to therapy and can have a normal life expectancy and quality of life.

  7. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  8. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  9. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  10. Watery eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of excess tearing is dry eyes . Drying causes the eyes to become uncomfortable, which stimulates the body to produce too many tears. One of the main tests for tearing is to check whether the eyes ...

  11. Proper balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplements with topical cyclosporine attenuated contact lens-related dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Chen, Xi; Hao, Jingfang; Yang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Essential fatty acids had been applied in the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES), but the effects of different combinations of fatty acids have not been investigated. 360 long-term contact lens wearers were included in this double-blinded study. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were combined in different ratios and supplied to the participants that were randomly divided into six groups, and the effects of different essential fatty acids mixture on DES with or without topical cyclosporine were investigated. More than half of long-term contact lens wearers suffered from DES, which were found to be attenuated by oral supplement of properly balanced O3FA and O6FA fatty acid. The topical cyclosporine treatment considerably inhibited the production of cytokines compared to the cyclosporine negative groups, which further relieved DES. Proper balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid combination significantly alleviated contact lens-related DES.

  12. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment on Dry Eyes in Subjects with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028). PMID:27366013

  13. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment on Dry Eyes in Subjects with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: a Double-Blind Randomized Control Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-07-01

    The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028).

  14. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Duane retraction syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Isolated Duane retraction syndrome is a disorder of eye movement. This condition prevents outward movement of the eye ( ... and in some cases may also limit inward eye movement (toward the nose). As the eye moves inward, ...

  15. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  16. Joubert's syndrome with retinal dysplasia: neonatal tachypnoea as the clue to a genetic brain-eye malformation.

    PubMed Central

    King, M D; Dudgeon, J; Stephenson, J B

    1984-01-01

    Five children with features of Joubert's syndrome and Leber's amaurosis are described. The presenting symptoms were panting tachypnoea in the newborn, prolonged apnoeic attacks in the neonatal period (in both of identical twins), global developmental delay, and failure to develop vision. Three children had multiple hemifacial spasms, such as have been seen in Joubert's syndrome, and the same three had cystic dysplasia of the kidneys. Necropsy confirmed the retinal and renal pathology, together with agenesis of the vermis and brainstem dysgenesis in the identical twins. It is concluded that a gene for Leber's amaurosis may commonly manifest itself as the specific hind brain malformation underlying Joubert's syndrome. In infants with respiratory irregularities (especially rapid panting), hemifacial spasms, or developmental delay, absence of the cerebellar vermis should be specifically sought by ultrasound and computed tomography, and the electroretinogram measured, whether or not impaired vision is clinically evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6476867

  17. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  18. Route-Learning Strategies in Typical and Atypical Development; Eye Tracking Reveals Atypical Landmark Selection in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farran, E. K.; Formby, S.; Daniyal, F.; Holmes, T.; Van Herwegen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful navigation is crucial to everyday life. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have impaired spatial abilities. This includes a deficit in spatial navigation abilities such as learning the route from A to B. To-date, to determine whether participants attend to landmarks when learning a route, landmark recall tasks have been…

  19. Frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies syndrome with a partial 21q22.3 deletion.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

    2012-07-01

    We describe a girl with a phenotype characterized by frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies who presents a 46,XX,r(21) karyotype. Array-comparative genomic hybridization using the Afflymetrix 100K DNA oligoarray set showed an interstitial deletion 21q22.3 of approximately 219 kb. Conventional karyotype of both parents was normal, and it was not possible to perform the molecular studies. In this report we raise the hypothesis that the deleted genes located at 21q22.3 could account to the phenotype.

  20. Restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and hypersomnia in patients with two parkin mutations.

    PubMed

    Limousin, Nadège; Konofal, Eric; Karroum, Elias; Lohmann, Ebba; Theodorou, Ioannis; Dürr, Alexandra; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2009-10-15

    Parkin gene mutations cause a juvenile parkinsonism. Patients with these mutations may commonly exhibit REM sleep behaviour disorders, but other sleep problems (insomnia, sleepiness, restless legs syndrome) have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sleep-wake phenotype in patients with two parkin mutations, compared with patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). Sleep interview and overnight video-polysomnography, followed by multiple sleep latency tests, were assessed in 11 consecutive patients with two parkin mutations (aged 35-60 years, from seven families) and 11 sex-matched patients with iPD (aged 51-65 years). Sleep complaints in the parkin group included insomnia (73% patients versus 45% in the iPD group), restless legs syndrome (45%, versus none in the iPD group, P = 0.04), and daytime sleepiness (45%, versus 54% in the iPD group). Of the parkin patients, 45% had REM sleep without atonia, but only 9% had a definite REM sleep behavior disorder. All sleep measures were similar in the parkin and iPD groups. Two parkin siblings had a central hypersomnia, characterized by mean daytime sleep latencies of 3 min, no sleep onset REM periods, and normal nighttime sleep. Although the patients with two parkin mutations were young, their sleep phenotype paralleled the clinical and polygraphic sleep recording abnormalities reported in iPD, except that restless legs syndrome was more prevalent and secondary narcolepsy was absent.

  1. Effects of unilateral topical administration of 0.5% tropicamide on anterior segment morphology and intraocular pressure in normal cats and cats with primary congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Filipe Espinheira; Bentley, Ellison; Lin, Ting-Li; McLellan, Gillian J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide on anterior segment morphology (ASM) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal and glaucomatous cats. Animals used Normal cats and cats with inherited primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Procedures Control IOP curves were performed in untreated normal and PCG cats. In the first experiment, tropicamide was applied OD in eight normal and nine PCG cats. IOP and pupillary diameter (PD) were measured at 0, 30, and 60 min, then hourly until 8 h post-treatment. In a second experiment, six normal and seven PCG cats received tropicamide OD. High-resolution ultrasound images were obtained at 0, 1, 5, and 10 h post-treatment to measure ASM changes. IOP and PD were measured OD at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 h. Results In untreated normal cats IOP OU decreased throughout the day. In PCG cats IOP OU had wide fluctuations over time. In normal cats IOP response varied in the treated eye but did not change significantly in untreated eyes. IOP significantly increased from baseline in both eyes of all treated PCG cats. Increases in IOP were associated with some ASM changes. Cats with PCG had a significantly smaller angle recess areas, diminished ciliary clefts and decreased iris-lens contact. ASM changes were not strongly correlated with IOP in all cats. Conclusions The ASM of PCG cats is markedly different from normal cats, and clinically significant increases in IOP OU occur in cats with PCG after tropicamide treatment. The mechanism for this increase remains unclear. PMID:21923827

  2. Orbital Prosthetic Rehabilitation in “ADAM Complex” Multiple Orofacial-Cleft Disruption Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barabde, Aparna; Barabde, Shailesh M.; Bhagat, Ashish; Thakare, Amar

    2013-01-01

    To be human is great; to look human is wonderful! It is nature's greatest gift! Mother nature's womb is the safest place on earth for any life, but the calamity strikes and no one knows how Hence, Treasure your exceptions!, since nature seems nowhere accustomed more openly to display, its secret mysteries than in cases where it shows traces of its workings apart from the beaten path. A dismorphological pattern of congenital oro-craniofacial and limb defects which is a rare form of amniotic rupture sequence required persistent coordinated efforts of multiple disciplines and had manifested as bizarre orofacial clefting, cat eye syndrome with an ectopic eye, and aberrant tissue band lesions on limb. The challenge was to meet the child's clamour for functional demands on premature exposure to open world and was overcome through a phased treatment implementation. Anophthalmos resulting from multiple ophthalmic surgeries for aberrant ectopic left eye and cat eye syndrome of right eye required a staged sequential preemptive planning for a successful outcome. Every phase of fabrication of orbital prosthesis comes with an impending challenge. Thus, a well-defined technique eliminating the common errors and creating a natural looking prosthesis, in the face of limitations, is imperative. PMID:23762737

  3. Orbital Prosthetic Rehabilitation in "ADAM Complex" Multiple Orofacial-Cleft Disruption Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barabde, Aparna; Barabde, Shailesh M; Bhagat, Ashish; Thakare, Amar

    2013-01-01

    To be human is great; to look human is wonderful! It is nature's greatest gift! Mother nature's womb is the safest place on earth for any life, but the calamity strikes and no one knows how Hence, Treasure your exceptions!, since nature seems nowhere accustomed more openly to display, its secret mysteries than in cases where it shows traces of its workings apart from the beaten path. A dismorphological pattern of congenital oro-craniofacial and limb defects which is a rare form of amniotic rupture sequence required persistent coordinated efforts of multiple disciplines and had manifested as bizarre orofacial clefting, cat eye syndrome with an ectopic eye, and aberrant tissue band lesions on limb. The challenge was to meet the child's clamour for functional demands on premature exposure to open world and was overcome through a phased treatment implementation. Anophthalmos resulting from multiple ophthalmic surgeries for aberrant ectopic left eye and cat eye syndrome of right eye required a staged sequential preemptive planning for a successful outcome. Every phase of fabrication of orbital prosthesis comes with an impending challenge. Thus, a well-defined technique eliminating the common errors and creating a natural looking prosthesis, in the face of limitations, is imperative.

  4. Treatment of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, D A

    2001-02-01

    Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by Bartonella henselae, a fastidious gram-negative bacillus acquired from exposure to an infected kitten or cat. The most common manifestation of human disease is lymphadenitis. Atypical forms of infection include Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, stellate neuroretinitis, persistent fever without localizing signs, hepatosplenic infection, encephalopathy, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals with B. hensalae infection may develop bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, and relapsing bacteremia with fever syndrome. The bacillus is susceptible to several antibacterial agents in vitro, including penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, and rifampin. Greatest clinical efficacy has been observed following treatment with rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. In one placebo-controlled study, azithromycin therapy was associated with more rapid diminution in size of infected lymph nodes. The majority of cases of cat-scratch disease occurring in normal hosts do not require anti-infective therapy for resolution of infection.

  5. More than meets the eye: The evolving phenotype of Weill-Marchesani syndrome-diagnostic confusion with geleophysic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Allen L; Wilcox, William R; Reinstein, Eyal

    2013-12-01

    The criteria for diagnosing and distinguishing between Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) and geleophysic dysplasia (GD) are inexact and often overlap. We report the clinical findings and evolving phenotype for a period of 18 years in a patient whose diagnosis, and distinguishing characteristics, transformed from GD to WMS. Molecular testing demonstrated novel mutations in the ADAMTS10 gene confirming a diagnosis of autosomal recessive WMS in the proposita. We further report on phenotypic features not classically linked to WMS. These findings indicate that the Weill-Marchesani phenotype may be developed and is not always apparent in early childhood.

  6. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  7. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  8. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  9. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue covering the front of the eye. Dust, sand, and other debris can easily enter the eye. ... clear itself of tiny objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. If not, don't ...

  10. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  11. Cat-scratch disease: unusual perivascular chorioretinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation.

  12. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is usually a temporary condition associated with seasonal allergies. You can get eye allergies from pet dander, ... Privacy Policy Related Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Eye ...

  13. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  14. Delineation of a spatial working memory profile using a non-verbal eye-tracking paradigm in young children with autism and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Peter A J; Hocking, Darren R; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-02-09

    Working memory deficits profoundly inhibit children's ability to learn. While deficits have been identified in disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS), findings are equivocal, and very little is known about the nature of these deficits early in development. A major barrier to advances in this area is the availability of tasks suitable for young children with neurodevelopmental disorders who experience difficulties with following verbal instructions or who are distressed by formal testing demands. To address these issues, a novel eye-tracking paradigm was designed based on an adaptation of the classic A not B paradigm in order to examine the early foundations of spatial working memory capabilities in 26 developmentally delayed preschool children with ASD, 18 age- and IQ-matched children with WS, and 19 age-matched typically-developing (TD) children. The results revealed evidence that foundational spatial working memory performance in ASD and WS was comparable with that of TD children. Performance was associated with intellectual ability in the ASD and TD groups, but not in the WS group. Performance was not associated with adaptive behavior in any group. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research that has been largely limited to older and substantially less developmentally delayed children with these neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes may occur. Other symptoms include increased head circumference, bulging at the back of the skull, abnormal breathing problems, and problems with the nerves that control the eyes, face and neck. Dandy-Walker Syndrome is sometimes associated with disorders ...

  16. Locked-In Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body except for those that control eye movement. It may result from traumatic brain injury, diseases ... and paralyzed. Communication may be possible with blinking eye movements × Definition Locked-in syndrome is a rare neurological ...

  17. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a condition in which your body's connective tissue is abnormal. Connective tissue helps support all parts of your body. It ... and develops. Marfan syndrome most often affects the connective tissue of the heart and blood vessels, eyes, bones, ...

  18. Marfan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue. This is the tissue that strengthens the body's structures. Disorders of connective tissue affect the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes, and ...

  19. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye muscles. In Duane syndrome, the sixth cranial nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle ... abnormal innervation of a branch from the third cranial nerve, which normally controls the medial rectus muscle (the ...

  20. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to developing cavities if your mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much more likely to develop oral thrush, a yeast infection in the mouth. Vision problems. Dry eyes ...

  1. Binocular behavior of split-brain cats which have previously learned monocularly opposite visual discriminations.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, G G

    1998-04-10

    Twelve adult split-brain cats were tested binocularly in visual tasks which had been previously learned monocularly in a two-choice paradigm. Eight experimental cats learned two opposite tasks with two eyes because contingencies of reinforcement changed with the open eye. Four control cats learned the same tasks but contingencies of reinforcement did not change with the open eye and therefore they learned the same problems with the two eyes. Thereafter, cats were submitted binocularly to the same tasks but in a free-choice paradigm. Experimental cats showed extinction of the discriminative response in 12 out of 16 binocular testings; in four the extinction criterion was not reached. In control cats no extinction behavior was observed in seven out of eight testings. It is suggested that extinction of the discriminative response in experimental cats could be caused by an inhibitory effect build-up because the two hemispheres attempted to control binocular behavior in opposite ways. Alternatively, these cats may develop a response alternative to discrimination in which one hemisphere takes the control of subcortical motor and/or attentional centers. In four testings no extinction was recorded for experimental cats and it is likely that control of those centers shifted from one hemisphere to the other every few trials.

  2. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the intestinal tracts of many animals, particularly cats. Infectious organisms are shed in cat feces, and are introduced into the body by ... is prudent for pregnant women to avoid handling cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects ...

  3. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  4. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  5. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  6. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    OF COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY Paragraph 1.1 ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND MARKET OF CAT Paragraph 1.2 EQUIPMENT Chapter 2 OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE OF A CT...DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY 1.1 Origin, development and marketing of the CAT The origin of the CAT goes back to 1961 when...count on wide commercial possibilities, in the international market . In particular, EMI entered, very forcefully, the American market , always

  7. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  8. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Eye Infections in Infants & Children Page Content ​​​If the ... must be treated early to prevent serious complications. Eye infections that occur after the newborn period: These ...

  9. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sense combinations of light waves that enable our eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones ... the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  10. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  11. B group short-arm deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sedano, H O; Look, R A; Carter, C; Cohen, M M

    1971-06-01

    Three cases of the cat-cry syndrome are reported and the literature on Bp- syndromes is reviewed. Although the 4p- and 5p- syndromes have many overlapping features, the cleft lip-palate, seizures, iris coloboma, and other features of the 4p- syndrome, as well as absent cat-cry, are frequently sufficient to distinguish between the 4p- and 5p- syndromes.

  12. Interocular transfer of extinction of visual pattern discriminations in split-chiasm and split-brain cats.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, G G; Arriagada, J R

    1988-08-01

    The interocular transfer of the extinction of visual pattern discrimination was studied in cats with either section of optic chiasm (split-chiasm cats) or combined sections of chiasm and forebrain commissures (split-brain cats). Visual pattern discriminations were monocularly learned and their interocular transfer was assessed through the opposite eye. Then, learning was unilaterally extinguished and interocular transfer of extinction was tested on the other side. In split-chiasm cats, the total number of trials to extinction criterion (EC) was significantly lower with the second eye than with the first eye, indicating a successful interocular transfer. In split-brain cats, EC with the second eye was attained faster than with the first in some performances; it was similar with both eyes in other tasks, and with the second eye was higher than with the first in still other tasks. Statistical analysis applied to this group of split-brain cats pointed out that extinction performances with the two eyes were not significantly different. These findings suggest that interocular transfer of extinction was abolished in split-brain cats and that memory for extinction was unilaterally established in the absence of forebrain commissures.

  13. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  14. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  15. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  16. An Eight-Eyed Version of Hawkins and Shohet's Clinical Supervision Model: The Addition of the Cognitive Analytic Therapy Concept of the "Observing Eye/I" as the "Observing Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…

  17. Development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    1994-09-01

    Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2012-08-30

    Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium. Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration. In particular, a conserved, transcription-factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye.

  19. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  20. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats.

    PubMed

    Aboutboul, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. This paper summarizes homeopathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

  1. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  2. Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  3. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  4. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  5. Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical

  6. Abnormal erythroid cell proliferation and myelofibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tomoko; Miura, Naoki; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Endo, Yasuyuki; Momoi, Yasuyuki

    2012-07-01

    A cat was presented with severe progressive anemia despite marked erythroblastosis. The cat was negative for feline leukemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody. Bone marrow cytology revealed an excess of erythroid cells with a predominance of prorubricytes and basophilic rubricytes. No response to immunosuppressive therapy was obtained, and a tentative diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome was made. The cat showed a partial response to low-dose cytarabine (20 mg/m(2) subcutaneously q24) but died 51 days after the 1st admission. Histopathological examination revealed fibrosis in the bone marrow and marked infiltration of erythroid cells into other organs.

  7. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  8. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  9. Cat-scratch disease: ocular manifestations and visual outcome.

    PubMed

    Curi, André L L; Machado, Danuza; Heringer, Gustavo; Campos, Wesley Ribeiro; Lamas, Cristiane; Rozental, Tatiana; Gutierres, Alexandro; Orefice, Fernando; Lemos, Elba

    2010-10-01

    To describe the intra-ocular manifestations of cat-scratch disease (CSD) found at two uveitis reference centers in Brazil. Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with CSD in the Uveitis Department of São Geraldo Hospital and the Ophthalmology Department of the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-FIOCRUZ, from 2001 to 2008. In the 8-year period, 24 patients with the diagnosis of CSD were identified. Twelve patients were male and 12 female. The mean age was 27.04 years (range 7-56). Sixteen patients (66.6%) presented with a history of a cat scratch and all patients reported cat exposure. Visual acuity ranged from counting fingers to 1.0 in the affected eye. Thirteen patients presented with bilateral disease. Sixteen (66.6%) patients complained of systemic symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, liver and spleen enlargement and rash. All patients presented with serum antibodies (IgG) to Bartonella henselae. Thirty-seven eyes were affected. The most common findings were small areas of retinal infiltrates which occurred in 11 eyes (29.7%) and angiomatous lesions which occurred in nine eyes (24.3%). Neuroretinitis occurred in only six eyes (16.2%). The most common findings of CSD in our study were retinal infiltrates and angiomatous lesions. CSD patients may present with significant visual loss. Patients may benefit from systemic treatment with antibiotics.

  10. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  11. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters.

  12. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  13. Reversal of visual discrimination and visual acute extinction in cats with poor or limited early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Zernicki, B

    1997-01-01

    Transformation of visual instrumental conditioned reflexes rewarded with food was compared in cats binocularly deprived of pattern vision in the early period of life (BD cats), control cats reared also in the laboratory but with open eyes (C cats) and cats reared in normal environment (N cats). In Expt. I the cats were given 4 sequential reversal trainings of cross vs. disc discrimination and in Expt. II a response to a gate marked with a cross or a disc was submitted to 4 sequential acute extinctions and restorations. The results show that both visual deprivation and rearing in monotonous laboratory environment moderately affect transformation of associations between visual stimuli and hunger drive and instrumental responses. However, in BD cats transformation learning is less impaired than previously studied visual discrimination learning.

  14. Parinaud's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D; Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Stefanko, S Z

    1983-02-01

    Five cases of a tumour in the quadrigeminal area have been described, 4 of which could be verified by autopsy. In 2 cases with a metastasis in the tegmentum of the mesencephalon, a Parinaud syndrome was present. In 2 other cases, however, with extensive destruction of the quadrigeminal plate and of the posterior commissure this syndrome was not present. In the 5th case, with a big vascular tumour of the pineal area, disturbances of eye movements and pupils were also lacking. From these observations we may conclude that (1) destruction of the quadrigeminal plate has no influence upon vertical eye movements. (2) destruction of the posterior commissure, in combination with the quadrigeminal plate, is not always followed by disturbances of vertical eye movements. In man it is still not clear which structures are responsible for the performance of vertical eye movements.

  15. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  16. Therapy of corneal erosions and 'dry eye' with Solcoseryl and Vitasic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Krannig, H M; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl eye drops versus Vitasic eye drops has been carried out under controlled conditions (randomized and double-blind) on a total of 94 patients. 52 had corneal erosion, 30 had dry eye syndrome, 8 cases could not be evaluated. In addition, 2 eyes with photophthalmia were treated with Vitasic and 2 showing keratitis with Solcoseryl. There were no adverse reactions other than 2 instances of stinging with Solcoseryl and 1 case of severe irritation after Vitasic. The patients were examined on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. Results showed a consistent superiority of Solcoseryl eye drops in respect to speed of healing of corneal erosions and moistening of the cornea in the 'dry eye' syndrome which reached statistical significance in some parameters.

  17. Association of Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivostomatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Dowers, Kristy L; Hawley, Jennifer R; Brewer, Melissa M; Morris, Arianne K; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

    2010-04-01

    Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is a common syndrome in cats; feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species are common differential diagnoses. In this study, blood from 70 cats with FGS and 61 healthy control cats was tested for Bartonella species antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay and DNA in blood using a conventional polymerase chain reaction assay. Additionally, fresh oral biopsies from cats with FGS (n=42) and 19 healthy controls were tested for FCV RNA, FHV-1 DNA and Bartonella species DNA. The prevalence rates for Bartonella species antibodies and DNA in the blood and the tissues did not differ between the two groups. FHV-1 DNA was also not significantly different between groups. Only FCV RNA was present in significantly more cats with FGS (40.5%) than control cats (0%). The results suggest that FCV was associated with FGS in some of the cats.

  18. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  19. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  20. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  1. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  2. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  3. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  4. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran ...

  5. Eye Involvement in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  7. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  8. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  9. About the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  10. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids > Sports and Your Eyes All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Duane-radial ray syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition is characterized by a particular problem with eye movement called Duane anomaly (also known as Duane syndrome). ... the improper development of certain nerves that control eye movement. Duane anomaly limits outward eye movement (toward the ...

  12. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  13. Rapid eye movement latency in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mason, Thornton B A; Teoh, Laurel; Calabro, Kristen; Traylor, Joel; Karamessinis, Laurie; Schultz, Brian; Samuel, John; Gallagher, Paul R; Marcus, Carole L

    2008-09-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep distribution changes during development, but little is known about rapid eye movement latency variation in childhood by age, sex, or pathologic sleep states. We hypothesized that: (1) rapid eye movement latency would differ in normal children by age, with a younger cohort (1-10 years) demonstrating shorter rapid eye movement latency than an older group (>10-18 years); (2) rapid eye movement latency in children would differ from typical adult rapid eye movement latency; and (3) intrinsic sleep disorders (narcolepsy, pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) would disrupt normal developmental patterns of rapid eye movement latency. A retrospective chart review included data from clinic visits and of rapid eye movement latency and other parameters measured by overnight polysomnography. Participants included 98 control children, 90 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 13 children with narcolepsy. There were no statistically significant main effects of age category or sex on rapid eye movement latency. Rapid eye movement latency, however, exhibited a significant inverse correlation with age within the older control children. Healthy children exhibited rapid eye movement latencies significantly longer than adults. Normal control patients demonstrated significantly longer rapid eye movement latency than obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy patients.

  14. The eye and the heart

    PubMed Central

    Flammer, Josef; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Bruno, Rosa M.; Virdis, Agostino; Flammer, Andreas J.; Taddei, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The vasculature of the eye and the heart share several common characteristics. The easily accessible vessels of the eye are therefore—to some extent—a window to the heart. There is interplay between cardiovascular functions and risk factors and the occurrence and progression of many eye diseases. In particular, arteriovenous nipping, narrowing of retinal arteries, and the dilatation of retinal veins are important signs of increased cardiovascular risk. The pressure in the dilated veins is often markedly increased due to a dysregulation of venous outflow from the eye. Besides such morphological criteria, functional alterations might be even more relevant and may play an important role in future diagnostics. Via neurovascular coupling, flickering light dilates capillaries and small arterioles, thus inducing endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilation of larger retinal vessels. Risk factors for arteriosclerosis, such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, or systemic hypertension, are also risk factors for eye diseases such as retinal arterial or retinal vein occlusions, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and increases in intraocular pressure (IOP). Functional alterations of blood flow are particularly relevant to the eye. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome (PVD), which often includes systemic hypotension, is associated with disturbed autoregulation of ocular blood flow (OBF). Fluctuation of IOP on a high level or blood pressure on a low level leads to instable OBF and oxygen supply and therefore to oxidative stress, which is particularly involved in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neuropathy. Vascular dysregulation also leads to a barrier dysfunction and thereby to small retinal haemorrhages. PMID:23401492

  15. Presumptive sialadenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boydell, P; Pike, R; Crossley, D

    2000-12-01

    A cat was presented with signs associated with enlargement of the mandibular salivary glands. Histological findings were normal, consistent with a diagnosis of sialadenosis, and the cat responded to symptomatic treatment with oral phenobarbitone.

  16. Effects of stressors on the behavior and physiology of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Stella, Judi; Croney, Candace; Buffington, Tony

    2013-01-31

    Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium. All cats were housed in enriched cages for at least one year prior to the experiment. Cats had daily play time and socialization outside of the cage, food treats and auditory enrichment. The daily husbandry schedule was maintained at a consistent time of day and cats were cared for by two familiar caretakers. During the test days, cats were exposed to multiple unpredictable stressors which included exposure to multiple unfamiliar caretakers, an inconsistent husbandry schedule, and discontinuation of play time, socialization, food treats, and auditory enrichment. Sickness behaviors (SB), including vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia or decreased food and water intake, fever, lethargy, somnolence, enhanced pain-like behaviors, decreased general activity, body care activities (grooming), and social interactions, were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning, before and after the stress period, for measurement of serum cortisol concentration, leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil: lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and mRNA for the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Overall, the short term stressors led to a significant increase in SB in both healthy cats and cats with FIC, whereas lymphopenia and N:L changes occurred only in FIC cats. Daily monitoring of cats for SB may be a noninvasive and reliable way to assess stress responses and overall welfare of cats housed in cages.

  17. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  18. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  19. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  20. [Facial and eye pain - Neurological differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kastrup, O; Diener, H-C; Gaul, C

    2011-12-01

    Head and facial pain are common in neurological practice and the pain often arises in the orbit or is referred into the eye. This is due to the autonomic innervation of the eye and orbit. There are acute and chronic pain syndromes. This review gives an overview of the differential diagnosis and treatment. Idiopathic headache syndromes, such as migraine and cluster headache are the most frequent and are often debilitating conditions. Trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias (SUNCT and SUNA) have to be taken into account, as well as trigeminal neuralgia. Trigemino-autonomic headache after eye operations can be puzzling and often responds well to triptans. Every new facial pain not fitting these categories must be considered symptomatic and a thorough investigation is mandatory including magnetic resonance imaging. Infiltrative and neoplastic conditions frequently lead to orbital pain. As a differential diagnosis Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and Raeder syndrome are inflammatory conditions sometimes mimicking neoplasms. Infections, such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus are extremely painful and require rapid therapy. It is important to consider carotid artery dissection as a cause for acute eye and neck pain in conjunction with Horner's syndrome and bear in mind that vascular oculomotor palsy is often painful. All of the above named conditions should be diagnosed by a neurologist with special experience in pain syndromes and many require an interdisciplinary approach.

  1. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery.

  2. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  3. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1998-03-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  4. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  5. Noonan's Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterhus, Per; Aarskog, Dagfinn

    1973-01-01

    Thyroid abnormalities were studies in seven boys and three girls, 4- to 17-years-old, with Noonan's syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, ocular anomalies (wide spaced eyes, drooped eye lids, or strabismus), heart lesions, characteristics of Turner's syndrome, and normal karyotypes (chromosome arrangement). (MC)

  6. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes.

  7. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  8. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  9. Palpebral slant - eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... and syndromes. The most common of these is Down syndrome. People with Down syndrome often also have an epicanthal fold in the ... in some cases, it may be due to: Down syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Certain genetic disorders

  10. The Axenfeld syndrome and the Rieger syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, N; Kaback, M

    1978-01-01

    A family is reported in which both the syndrome of Axenfeld and the eye malformations of the syndrome of Rieger occur, indicating that both may be expressions of the same gene. We also review the associated anomalies already reported, emphasise their high incidence, suggest that these are not accidental associations, and propose some possible explanations for the high incidence. Images PMID:416212

  11. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common inherited disorders of connective tissue. It is an autosomal dominant condition occurring once ... with the most notable occurring in eye, skeleton, connective tissue and cardiovascular systems. Marfan syndrome is caused by ...

  12. Retrobulbar lymphoma associated with a ballistic foreign body in a cat.

    PubMed

    Robat, C; Bemelmans, I; Marescaux, L

    2016-04-01

    A seven-year-old domestic shorthair cat, adopted 5 years previously with a corneal perforation of the left eye, was presented for investigation of a left orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a metallic foreign body within a contrast-enhancing, heterogeneous orbital mass. Large cell lymphoma was diagnosed from a fine needle aspirate. The cat staged negatively and was treated with L-asparaginase, prednisolone and three fractions of radiation therapy. A rapid clinical remission was obtained and the cat remained in remission for 3 years after therapy. This is the first report of large cell lymphoma likely occurring secondary to a foreign body.

  13. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the world. Learn more Video: Next-Generation Eye Imaging Tools Learn about how the NEI Audacious ... eyeGENE® International Research 3-D Retina Organoid Challenge Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

  14. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  15. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread of ... return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria ...

  16. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this ... prevent them from getting worse. You Need Regular eye Exams Every year, you should have an eye ...

  17. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  18. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they are new. FDA has an Import Alert in effect for cosmetics -- including eye cosmetics -- contaminated ... in the area of the eye. An import alert for cosmetics containing illegal colors lists several eye ...

  19. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  20. Serum eye drop preparation in Australia: Current manufacturing practice.

    PubMed

    Marks, Denese C; Fisher, Jenny; Mondy, Phillip; Segatchian, Jerard; Dennington, Peta M

    2015-08-01

    Serum eye drops are used to treat diseases such as dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), a disease of the surface of the eye that results in an unstable tear film. Patients are referred to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service by ophthalmologists for autologous serum eye drops when other therapies such as artificial tears or topical immunosuppressive agents have failed. In order to manufacture autologous serum eye drops, whole blood is collected from the patients using standard blood collection procedures. The blood is then allowed to clot to produce serum and processed into 20% serum eye drops, which are then returned to the patient for their own use. The eye drops are packaged into a long length of tubing, which is then heat-sealed to produce single-use segments. The demand for serum eye drops in Australia is increasing every year, with a 30% increase in the past 12 months.

  1. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  2. Congenital reduplication of the lacrimal punctum and canaliculus in a patient with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Bair, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Yi-Yu; Lin, Jane-Ming

    2004-01-01

    A healthy 60-year-old woman presented with bilateral dry eye syndrome that was more pronounced in the right eye than in the left eye. Two patent independent supernumerary puncta and canaliculi were found in the right upper eyelid. This condition may explain the more severe dryness in her right eye. Successful punctum occlusion was accompanied by marked resolution of symptoms in both eyes.

  3. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  4. [Eye and lymph drainage].

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, J; Schicha, H; Huth, F

    1979-06-01

    Up to now lymphatics in the eye could not be pointed out. An ocular lymph drainage is denied. Földi succeeded in producing experimentally the syndrome of "lymphostatic encephalopathy and ophthalmopathy" by operative blockade of the cervical lymphatics in animals. In the first part of the present paper a historical view considering the subject "Eye and lymphatic system" is given. In the second part it is entered into the particulars of own experimental studies. As to our own investigations, rabbits have been injected 99mTc-sulfur-colloid, 99mTc-microcolloid, 99mTc-Albumin and 198Au-colloid into the retrobulbar space, anterior chamber, vitreous body and subconjuctival space of one eye. Measurements of the activity's distribution have been made in vivo with an Anger type camera (pho-Gamma-IV Hp, Searle Nuclear Chicago) and in vitro after section with a sodium iodine crystal well counter (Clinimat-200, Picker). In some animals the investigation has been combined with a bilateral dissection of the cervical lymph nodes. After injection in the retrobulbar space a significant concentration of the activity could be observed for the most part in the equilateral Lymphonodulus cervicalis profundus. By the cervical lymph blockade the removal of lymphoctopic substances from the retrobulbar space was largely inhibited. After injection in the anterior chamber a significant concentration could be observed for the most part in the equilateral Lymphonodulus cervicalis superficialis. After intravitreal injection a drainage to the bilateral deep cervical lymph nodes could be observed. After injection into the subconjunctival space a significant accumulation of activity could be registered in the equilateral Lymphonoduli mandibulares and cervicales superficiales. The data substantiate a segmental lymph drainage from the eye: vitreous body and retrobulbar space for the most part into the Lymphonoduli cervicales profundi, anterior chamber and subconjunctival space for the most part into

  5. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  6. Raccoonpox in a Canadian cat.

    PubMed

    Yager, Julie A; Hutchison, Lisa; Barrett, John W

    2006-12-01

    Poxvirus infections affecting the skin of cats are extremely rare in North America, in contrast to Europe where cowpox virus is well recognized as an accidental pathogen in cats that hunt small rodents. The virus or viruses responsible for the anecdotal cases in North America have never been characterized. This paper reports a case of raccoonpox infection in a Canadian cat. Biopsy of the initial ulcerative lesion on the forepaw revealed ballooning degeneration of surface and follicular keratinoctyes. Infected cells contained large eosinophilic type A inclusions. Electron microscopic examination revealed virions of an orthopoxvirus, subsequently identified as raccoonpox by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. The cat made a full recovery.

  7. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  8. [The role of the autonomic nervous system in regulating the hydrodynamics of the intact eye].

    PubMed

    Kibiakov, A V; Razumovskiĭ, M I; Shutko, A N

    1976-05-01

    In cats, the low-molecular indicator: radioactive phosphorus, and the tonography revealed that the local application of acetylcholine accelerates the fluid exchange in the intact eye, considerably facilitating the outflow. Noradrenaline and the threshold stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve slow down the intraeye fluid exchange, decreasing the outflow. The data obtained suggest that the neural regulation of the eye hydrodynamics involves, mainly, a direct effect of the vegetative innervation on the eye drainage system.

  9. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  10. Cholesterol granuloma associated with otitis media in a cat.

    PubMed

    Ilha, Marcia R S; Wisell, Carie

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old, male neutered Siamese cat was presented with Horner syndrome and right head tilt. A soft tissue mass was observed in the right tympanic cavity, and bulla osteotomy was performed. Tissue samples retrieved from the tympanic cavity were sent for histology, and a middle ear fluid swab was sent for bacterial culture and sensitivity. Histologic diagnosis was of otitis media associated with cholesterol granuloma (CG). Bacterial culture yielded Pasteurella multocida and Leifsonia (Corynebacterium) aquaticum. Middle ear CG is frequently seen in human beings and is associated with a variety of middle ear diseases including otitis media. Cholesterol granuloma of the middle ear has been experimentally induced in cats. The clinical and pathological findings of a spontaneous case of CG in the tympanic cavity of a cat with otitis media are described herein.

  11. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  12. Systemic cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Min; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin; Wang, Nieu-Lu; Chen, Be-Fong

    2006-08-01

    Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD) is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitish-tan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  13. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  14. Phenotypic expansion of the supernumerary derivative (22) chromosome syndrome: VACTERL and Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Juan C; Garcia, Nilda M; Elder, Frederick F; Zinn, Andrew R; Baker, Linda A

    2007-11-01

    Phenotypically healthy carriers of the balanced 11;22 translocation, the most frequent non-Robertsonian constitutional translocation known in human beings, are at risk of having a progeny with supernumerary derivative (22)t(11;22) syndrome [der(22) syndrome]. We present the cases of 2 male patients with supernumerary der(22) syndrome [47,XY,+der(22)t(11;22)(q23;q11.2)mat], yielding partial trisomy for 22pter-q11 and 11q23-qter. These cases expand the phenotype of the der(22) syndrome, with the first case highlighting the phenotypic overlap of VACTERL and the second adding Hirschsprung's disease and intestinal malrotation to the list of associated anorectal anomalies. Because der(22) syndrome and cat eye syndrome (partial tetrasomy of 22q11) share a similar region of extra dosage on 22q11 and both typically manifest an anorectal phenotype, a dosage-sensitive gene for anorectal anomalies may be present in this locus.

  15. Hypertensive retinopathy in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Van Boxtel, Sherry A.

    2003-01-01

    A 12-year-old cat presented for sudden blindness was diagnosed with hypertensive retinopathy on the basis of ophthalmologic and ultrasonic examination. Renal failure due to a large intranephric cyst obstructing the right ureter and renal artery was the suggested cause of the systemic hypertension. The cat died 8 hours after unilateral nephrectomy. PMID:12650046

  16. Oral masses in two cats.

    PubMed

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.

  17. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  18. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  19. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes and their correlation with specific syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Ghahfarokhi, Hamideh; Moradi-Chaleshtori, Maryam; Liehr, Thomas; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Teimori, Hossein; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam

    2015-01-01

    A small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) is a structurally abnormal chromosome. It is an additional chromosome smaller than one chromosome most often lacking a distinct banding pattern and is rarely identifiable by conventional banding cytogenetic analysis. The origin and composition of an sSMC is recognizable by molecular cytogenetic analysis. These sSMCs are seen in different shapes, including the ring, centric minute, and inverted duplication shapes. The effects of sSMCs on the phenotype depend on factors such as size, genetic content, and the level of the mosaicism. The presence of an sSMC causes partial tris- or tetrasomy, and 70% of the sSMC carriers are clinically normal, while 30% are abnormal in some way. In 70% of the cases the sSMC is de novo, in 20% it is inherited from the mother, and in 10% it is inherited from the father. An sSMC can be causative for specific syndromes such as Emanuel, Pallister-Killian, or cat eye syndromes. There may be more specific sSMC-related syndromes, which may be identified by further investigation. These 10 syndromes can be useful for genetic counseling after further study. PMID:26322288

  20. Early recognition of apical ballooning syndrome by global longitudinal strain using speckle tracking imaging--the evil eye pattern, a case series.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Sualy; Banchs, Jose

    2015-07-01

    We report 4 cases of patients diagnosed with stress-induced cardiomyopathy and the pattern of typical apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), who presented to our institution with chest pain, mildly elevated cardiac enzymes and ischemic electrocardiographic changes, found to have severe hypokinesis or akinesis of the mid to apical segments with dynamic basal segments on two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography along with a global longitudinal strain (GLS) pattern markedly different from the typical left anterior descending artery (LAD) myocardial infarction pattern. All of them had a similar GLS pattern on presentation, which was easy to recognize on the polar map the day of the event. Three of the patients underwent left heart catheterization and found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We discuss the usefulness of early recognition of ABS using GLS images.

  1. A serologically proven case of cat-scratch disease presenting with neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Benjamin C Y; Tam, Victor T Y

    2009-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a clinical syndrome that usually presents as a self-limiting illness featuring regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and small skin lesions in association with a cat scratch or bite. It is caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Bartonella henselae, which commonly affects children and young adults. Ocular bartonellosis is the most common atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. It can present with a wide spectrum of ocular diseases including neuroretinitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, and other forms of intra-ocular inflammation. This case report describes cat-scratch disease neuroretinitis in a 10-year-old girl who presented with typical signs, including optic disc swelling and a macular star, preceded by pyrexia of unknown origin and cervical lymphadenopathy.

  2. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  3. Morbihan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Veraldi, Stefano; Persico, Maria Chiara; Francia, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face) in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks). PMID:23741671

  4. Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.

    2006-08-01

    This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

  5. Delivery of systemic regular insulin via the ocular route in cats.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R V

    1995-01-01

    Regular porcine insulin was administered as eye drops to eighty healthy, euglycemic cats. Insulin was applied alone and in combination with four different permeation enhancers. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for four hours following the eye drops. Significant changes in both serum glucose and insulin occurred when the insulin was administered with 0.5% saponin, 0.5% Brij-78, 1% BL-9 and 2% BL-9. Insulin delivered alone and in the presence of Brij-99 did not significantly alter glucose and insulin concentrations. While effective as an absorption enhancer, 0.5% saponin caused transient ocular irritation in all the test subjects. Brij-99 was also irritating to some of the cats. Solutions containing Brij-78 and BL-9 were well tolerated. This study demonstrated that short-acting insulin is systemically absorbed in cats via the ocular route when applied with certain emulsants.

  6. How cats lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  7. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length.

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C; Aton, Sara J; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G

    2015-07-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain.

  9. Diagnostic x-ray exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Linton, K L; Franke, T

    1993-01-01

    The Beaver Dam Eye Study is a population-based study of common age-related eye diseases. During the standardized medical history, the 4926 subjects were asked whether they had ever had a chest x-ray, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan of the head, other x-rays of the head, x-rays of the abdomen, or other diagnostic x-rays. The eye examination included photographs of the lenses of the eyes, which were subsequently graded according to protocol. Nuclear sclerosis and posterior subcapsular opacity were significantly associated with CAT scans. If these relationships are causal, it would highlight the importance of minimizing such exposure to the lens of the eye. PMID:8460743

  10. Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical plasticity in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin Bridi, Michelle C.; Aton, Sara J.; Seibt, Julie; Renouard, Leslie; Coleman, Tammi; Frank, Marcos G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is maximal during early life, but its function in the developing brain is unknown. We investigated the role of rapid eye movement sleep in a canonical model of developmental plasticity in vivo (ocular dominance plasticity in the cat) induced by monocular deprivation. Preventing rapid eye movement sleep after monocular deprivation reduced ocular dominance plasticity and inhibited activation of a kinase critical for this plasticity (extracellular signal–regulated kinase). Chronic single-neuron recording in freely behaving cats further revealed that cortical activity during rapid eye movement sleep resembled activity present during monocular deprivation. This corresponded to times of maximal extracellular signal–regulated kinase activation. These findings indicate that rapid eye movement sleep promotes molecular and network adaptations that consolidate waking experience in the developing brain. PMID:26601213

  11. Ascarid infections of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J C

    1987-11-01

    The ascarids Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxascaris leonina are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in small animal practice. Both T. canis and T. cati can cause serious disease in kittens and puppies; T. leonina is generally less pathogenic. Prenatal transmission assures that virtually all puppies are born infected with T. canis. Transmammary transmission is probably the major route of infection for kittens with T. cati. In addition, all three species of worm produce resistant eggs and use paratenic hosts to facilitate transmission. Much is now known about the complex biology and life history of T. canis. However, many questions, such as those concerning the mechanisms of larval survival within host tissues and of larval reactivation and migration during pregnancy, await further study. The mechanism of resistance to ascarid infections in cats and dogs has not been clearly defined. Ascariasis is traditionally thought to be a disease of young animals, with older animals being considered immune. However, at least in the case of T. canis, adult dogs can be repeatedly infected. A wide range of anthelmintics is available with extremely high efficacy against patent ascarid infections. The problem of prenatal infection with T. canis may be overcome by strategic use of the newer benzimidazole-carbamates, and the production of ascarid-free puppies now seems possible. However, complete larvicidal activity against somatic stages has not been convincingly demonstrated. Visceral larva migrans-like syndromes are now being recognized in dogs and cats. In addition, visceral larva migrans in children due to T. canis continues to be a significant zoonotic disease in North America and underscores the need for the veterinary profession to control ascarid infections in cats and dogs at every opportunity.

  12. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  13. Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat.

    PubMed

    Kofod, H

    1993-01-16

    The author's cat started to develop the signs of pemphigus foliaceus one month after he returned home after six months absence. The initial signs included dry coughing and difficulty with purring and swallowing, followed by typical changes of the skin. The cat was treated by a combination of chrysotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid injections, and remained free of clinical signs for one and a half years. The cat then relapsed and showed the initial signs except that coughing was not observed. It was treated as before but after a second relapse and the same treatment it slowly developed a general weakness and was euthanased.

  14. First Demonstration of Ocular Refractive Change Using Blue-IRIS in Live Cats

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Daniel E.; Brooks, Daniel R.; DeMagistris, Margaret; Xu, Lisen; MacRae, Scott; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Knox, Wayne H.; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of intratissue refractive index shaping (IRIS) using 400-nm femtosecond laser pulses (blue light) for writing refractive structures directly into live cat corneas in vivo, and to assess the longevity of these structures in the eyes of living cats. Methods. Four eyes from two adult cats underwent Blue-IRIS. Light at 400 nm with 100-femtosecond (fs) pulses were tightly focused into the corneal stroma of each eye at an 80-MHz repetition rate. These pulses locally increased the refractive index of the corneal stroma via an endogenous, two-photon absorption process and were used to inscribe three-layered, gradient index patterns into the cat corneas. The optical effects of the patterns were then tracked using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. Results. Blue-IRIS patterns locally changed ocular cylinder by −1.4 ± 0.3 diopters (D), defocus by −2.0 ± 0.5 D, and higher-order root mean square (HORMS) by 0.31 ± 0.04 μm at 1 month post-IRIS, without significant changes in corneal thickness or curvature. Refractive changes were maintained for the duration they were tracked, 12 months post-IRIS in one eye, and just more than 3 months in the remaining three eyes. Conclusions. Blue-IRIS can be used to inscribe refractive structures into live cat cornea in vivo that are stable for at least 12 months, and are not associated with significant alterations in corneal thicknesses or radii of curvature. This result is a critical step toward establishing Blue-IRIS as a promising technique for noninvasive vision correction. PMID:24985471

  15. Dry eye after laser in-situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Raoof, Duna; Pineda, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is one of the most commonly performed refractive procedures with excellent visual outcomes. Dry eye syndrome is one of the most frequently seen complications after LASIK, with most patients developing at least some mild dry eye symptoms postoperatively. To achieve improved visual outcomes and greater patient satisfaction, it is essential to identify patients prone to dry eyes preoperatively, and initiate treatment early in the course. Enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of post-LASIK dry eye will help advance our approach to its management.

  16. Validation of the TonoVet® rebound tonometer in normal and glaucomatous cats.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Gillian J; Kemmerling, Jeremy P; Kiland, Julie A

    2013-03-01

    Objective  To validate intraocular pressure (IOP) readings obtained in cats with the TonoVet(®) tonometer. Animals studied  IOP readings obtained with the TonoVet(®) were compared to IOP readings determined by manometry and by the Tono-Pen XL(™) in 1 normal cat and two glaucomatous cats. TonoVet(®) and Tono-Pen XL(™) readings were also compared in a further six normal and nine glaucomatous cats. Procedures  The anterior chambers of both eyes of three anesthetized cats were cannulated and IOP was varied manometrically, first increasing from 5 to 70 mmHg in 5 mmHg increments, then decreasing from 70 to 10 mmHg in 10 mmHg decrements. At each point, two observers obtained three readings each from both eyes, with both the TonoVet(®) and Tono-Pen XL(™) . IOP was measured weekly for 8 weeks with both tonometers in six normal and nine glaucomatous unsedated cats. Data were analyzed by linear regression. Comparisons between tonometers and observers were made by paired student t-test. Results  The TonoVet(®) was significantly more accurate than the Tono-Pen XL(™) (P = 0.001), correlating much more strongly with manometric IOP. In the clinical setting, the Tono-Pen XL(™) underestimated IOP when compared with the TonoVet(®) . Conclusions  Both the TonoVet(®) and Tono-Pen XL(™) provide reproducible IOP measurements in cats; however, the TonoVet(®) provides readings much closer to the true IOP than the Tono-Pen XL(™) . The TonoVet(®) is superior in accuracy to the Tono-Pen XL(™) for the detection of ocular hypertension and/or glaucoma in cats in a clinical setting.

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye protectors. Some very-high-risk sports are boxing, wrestling and contact martial arts.What are the ... eye problems or if you have a family history of retinal problems. If so, you should be ...

  18. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  20. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness. Macular edema. Blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  1. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical exam before the procedure Orthoptic measurements (eye movement measurements) Always tell your child's health care provider: ... D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and alignment. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  2. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  3. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  4. Eye Safety at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  5. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  6. Eye Safety at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  7. Bags Under Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home and lifestyle treatments may help reduce or eliminate puffy eyes. Medical and surgical treatments are available ... The following tips can help you reduce or eliminate bags under eyes: Use a cool compress. Wet ...

  8. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Allergic Conjunctivitis (Video) Overview of the Eyes (News) Stem Cells ... and covers the white of the eye. Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an ...

  9. LASIK Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your cornea, which could lead to inaccurate measurements and a poor surgical outcome. Your doctor will ... of your eye. Theoretically, the more detailed the measurements, the more accurate your eye doctor can be ...

  10. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit HHS USAJobs Home > Diabetic Eye Disease Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  11. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  12. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Infrared (IR) Eye was developed with support from the National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS), in view of improving the efficiency of...airborne search-and rescue operations. The IR Eye concept is based on the human eye and uses simultaneously two fields of view to optimize area coverage and...within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye -tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown

  13. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  14. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  15. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  16. Survival of a feline isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus in water, cat urine, cat food and cat litter.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S

    2012-04-30

    Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Joubert syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Joubert syndrome have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy, which evolves into difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia) in ... episodes of unusually fast or slow breathing in infancy and abnormal eye movements. Most affected individuals have ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (5 links) Encyclopedia: Congenital Cataract Encyclopedia: Fanconi Syndrome Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: Eye Diseases Health Topic: Kidney Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  19. Flammer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  20. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  2. On the Trail of a Cosmic Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of the vast cloud known as the Cat's Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, and is heavily obscured by intervening dust clouds. Few objects in the sky have been as well named as the Cat's Paw Nebula, a glowing gas cloud resembling the gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. British astronomer John Herschel first recorded NGC 6334 in 1837 during his stay in South Africa. Despite using one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time, Herschel seems to have only noted the brightest part of the cloud, seen here towards the lower left. NGC 6334 lies about 5500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Scorpius (the Scorpion) and covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. The nebula appears red because its blue and green light are scattered and absorbed more efficiently by material between the nebula and Earth. The red light comes predominantly from hydrogen gas glowing under the intense glare of hot young stars. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy and has been extensively studied by astronomers. The nebula conceals freshly minted brilliant blue stars - each nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and born in the last few million years. The region is also home to many baby stars that are buried deep in the dust, making them difficult to study. In total, the Cat's Paw Nebula could contain several tens of thousands of stars. Particularly striking is the red, intricate bubble in the lower right part of the image. This is most likely either a star expelling large amount of matter at high speed as it nears the end of its life or the remnant of a star that already has exploded. This new portrait of the Cat's Paw Nebula was created from images taken with the Wide Field

  3. Genome-wide association and linkage analyses localize a progressive retinal atrophy locus in Persian cats.

    PubMed

    Alhaddad, Hasan; Gandolfi, Barbara; Grahn, Robert A; Rah, Hyung-Chul; Peterson, Carlyn B; Maggs, David J; Good, Kathryn L; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary eye diseases of animals serve as excellent models of human ocular disorders and assist in the development of gene and drug therapies for inherited forms of blindness. Several primary hereditary eye conditions affecting various ocular tissues and having different rates of progression have been documented in domestic cats. Gene therapy for canine retinopathies has been successful, thus the cat could be a gene therapy candidate for other forms of retinal degenerations. The current study investigates a hereditary, autosomal recessive, retinal degeneration specific to Persian cats. A multi-generational pedigree segregating for this progressive retinal atrophy was genotyped using a 63 K SNP array and analyzed via genome-wide linkage and association methods. A multi-point parametric linkage analysis localized the blindness phenotype to a ~1.75 Mb region with significant LOD scores (Z ≈ 14, θ = 0.00) on cat chromosome E1. Genome-wide TDT, sib-TDT, and case-control analyses also consistently supported significant association within the same region on chromosome E1, which is homologous to human chromosome 17. Using haplotype analysis, a ~1.3 Mb region was identified as highly associated for progressive retinal atrophy in Persian cats. Several candidate genes within the region are reasonable candidates as a potential causative gene and should be considered for molecular analyses.

  4. Training the Eyes for Competition: Fighting Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Darrell; Bradford, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Fencers should be taught to discipline their eyes to focus on the opponent's hand. The rationale for this strategy as well as drills to develop "hand watching" skills are presented in this article. (IAH)

  5. Intraocular pressure in cats is lowered by drops of hornet venom.

    PubMed

    Kam, J; Waron, M; Barishak, Y R; Schachner, E; Ishay, J S

    1989-01-01

    1. Nine cats were given an intravenous injection of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae; Hymenoptera) venom sac extract (VSE) and seven cats had the same VSE administered as eye drops. 2. When injected intravenously, the hornet VSE decreased the intraocular pressure in both eyes sharply during the first 20 min and with a slower rate later on until the end of the 3 hr experiment. The intraocular pressure dropped to zero in some cases. 3. VSE eye drops decreased the intraocular pressure only in the treated eye, while in the second eye (left as a control) the intraocular pressure remained the same throughout the experiment. 4. The decrease in the intraocular pressure was sharp during the first 20 min and slowed down afterwards until the end of the experiment. 5. The intraocular pressure did not reduce to zero. 6. This study shows that the active components of the hornet venom which caused a decrease in the intraocular pressure can cross the cornea and exert a hypotensive effect in the eye.

  6. Locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Locked-in syndrome is a rare neuropsychological disorder. Its primary features are quadriplegia and paralysis of the cranial nerves except for those responsible for vertical eye movements. The differential diagnosis includes persistent vegetative state, brain death, minimally conscious states, C3 transection of the spinal cord, and conversion locked-in syndrome. Etiologies of locked-in syndrome include hemorrhagic and thrombotic events, tumors affecting the ventral pons, infectious agents, iatrogenic causes, trauma, metabolic abnormalities, and other miscellaneous causes. The clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, neuropsychological assessment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of patients with locked-in syndrome are discussed.

  7. Corneal thickness in dry eyes in an Iraqi population

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Noora Mauwafak; Hamied, Furkaan M; Farhood, Qasim K

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye disorder is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in discomfort and visual disturbance. Corneal pachymetry becomes increasingly important in refractive surgery, for the accurate assessment of intraocular pressure, and in the preoperative assessment of other ocular surgeries. Purpose To assess the effect of dry eye disorder on the central corneal thickness (CCT) by comparing with CCT of normal eyes of age-matched individuals. Patients and methods The total number of eyes examined was 280 (140 dry eyes from 70 patients and 140 normal eyes from 70 individuals). Pentacam (Scheimpflug imaging system) was used for measuring the CCT of all eyes. Results Patients with dry eye syndrome had significantly lower CCT compared to the control group (P<0.01). Its mean was 536.5 versus 561.3, respectively. Conclusion CCT of dry eyes was significantly reduced when compared with age- and gender-matched population. This result can be attributed to chronic desiccation by the inflammatory mediators in dry eyes, leading to corneal thinning. PMID:28260857

  8. Four cats with fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.

  9. Grooming and control of fleas in cats.

    PubMed

    Eckstein; Hart

    2000-05-10

    Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars) which prevented grooming were fitted on nine cats in a flea-infested household and 3 weeks later, flea numbers on these cats were compared with nine control cats in the same household. Flea numbers dropped in the control cats reflecting an apparent drop in adult fleas in the environment, but in the E-collar cats, flea numbers did not drop, and were about twice as numerous as in control cats. The significantly greater number of fleas on the E-collar cats was attributed to their inability to groom off fleas. In Experiment 2, videotaping of nine different cats from the flea-infested household revealed that these cats groomed at about twice the rate of 10 similarly videotaped control cats from a flea-free colony. These results reveal that flea exposure can increase grooming rate in cats and that grooming is effective in removing fleas.

  10. Glaucoma associated with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in 203 Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Premanand; Rao, Harsha L.; Mandal, Anil K.; Choudhari, Nikhil S.; Garudadri, Chandra S.; Senthil, Sirisha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report the demographic profile, clinical features, and prevalence of glaucoma and its management in patients with Iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome. Methods Retrospective review of 203 consecutive subjects with ICE syndrome at a tertiary eye care centre between January 1988 and June 2013. Results ICE syndrome was present in 223 eyes of 203 subjects, 124 (61%) were female and 79 (39%) were male. The median age at presentation was 43 years (1st (Q1) and 3rd (Q3) quartile; 34, 51 years). ICE syndrome was unilateral in 183 (90%) subjects, and bilateral in 20 (10%) subjects. The most common clinical variant was progressive iris atrophy (PIA, 115; 52% eyes), followed by Chandler syndrome (CS, 87; 39% eyes) and Cogan-Reese syndrome (CRS, 21; 9% eyes). Glaucoma was found in 156 eyes (70%) at presentation and the median (Q1, Q3) intraocular pressure in eyes with glaucoma was 24 (16, 38) mm Hg. Seven eyes developed glaucoma during the follow-up period, increasing the percentage of eyes with glaucoma to 73%. Intraocular pressure was managed medically in 81 eyes (50%) and the other 82 eyes (50%) required surgical intervention. Corneal edema was present in 124 eyes (56%) of which, 32 eyes (14%) required keratoplasty. Conclusions In our study on ICE syndrome in Indian population, the presentation was predominantly uniocular and more common in middle aged women. Progressive iris atrophy was the most common clinical variant. ICE syndrome was associated with glaucoma in over 70% of the eyes and half of the eyes had corneal edema. PMID:28282413

  11. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  12. Early-Onset Progressive Retinal Atrophy Associated with an IQCB1 Variant in African Black-Footed Cats (Felis nigripes)

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Annie; Pearce, Jacqueline W.; Gandolfi, Barbara; Creighton, Erica K.; Suedmeyer, William K.; Selig, Michael; Bosiack, Ann P.; Castaner, Leilani J.; Whiting, Rebecca E. H.; Belknap, Ellen B.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Aderdein, Danielle; Alves, Paulo C.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Beale, Holly C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Castelhano, Marta G.; Chan, Patricia; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Garrick, Dorian J.; Helps, Christopher R.; Kaelin, Christopher B.; Leeb, Tosso; Lohi, Hannes; Longeri, Maria; Malik, Richard; Montague, Michael J.; Munday, John S.; Murphy, William J.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Rothschild, Max F.; Swanson, William F.; Terio, Karen A.; Todhunter, Rory J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2017-01-01

    African black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) are endangered wild felids. One male and full-sibling female African black-footed cat developed vision deficits and mydriasis as early as 3 months of age. The diagnosis of early-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) was supported by reduced direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes, phenotypic presence of retinal degeneration, and a non-recordable electroretinogram with negligible amplitudes in both eyes. Whole genome sequencing, conducted on two unaffected parents and one affected offspring was compared to a variant database from 51 domestic cats and a Pallas cat, revealed 50 candidate variants that segregated concordantly with the PRA phenotype. Testing in additional affected cats confirmed that cats homozygous for a 2 base pair (bp) deletion within IQ calmodulin-binding motif-containing protein-1 (IQCB1), the gene that encodes for nephrocystin-5 (NPHP5), had vision loss. The variant segregated concordantly in other related individuals within the pedigree supporting the identification of a recessively inherited early-onset feline PRA. Analysis of the black-footed cat studbook suggests additional captive cats are at risk. Genetic testing for IQCB1 and avoidance of matings between carriers should be added to the species survival plan for captive management. PMID:28322220

  13. [Cat scratch disease associated neuroretinitis: clinical report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pérez G, Jorge; Munita S, José M; Araos B, Rafael; López G, Juan P; Stevenson A, Ricardo; González A, Patricia; Pérez C, Daniel; Noriega R, Luis M

    2010-10-01

    Cat scratch disease is the main clinical presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. However, ocular manifestations of bartonellosis occur in about 5 to 10% of the patients, mainly presenting as neuroretinitis, choroiditis or oculoglandular syndrome of Parinaud. We describe two patients with documented B. henselae infection and typical ocular compromise. Both patients were treated and had a favorable visual outcome.

  14. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  15. Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in three cats.

    PubMed

    Tomsa, Kamil; Glaus, Tony M; Zimmer, Cindy; Greene, Craig E

    2003-05-15

    Localized infection of the nasal or paranasal cavities caused by Aspergillus spp or Penicillium spp was diagnosed in 3 cats. Clinical signs included chronic mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis, and mandibular lymphadenopathy. Rhinoscopic and diagnostic imaging findings were compatible with severe inflammation of the nasal mucosa and destruction of the turbinates. Fungal plaques were observed rhinoscopically in 2 cats, and histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed fungal colonies with surrounding inflammatory infiltrates in all 3. Results of fungal culture were negative for all 3 cats. Results of serum immunoelectrophoresis for antibodies against Aspergillus spp were positive in 2 cats. Treatment with itraconazole was effective in controlling clinical signs in 1 cat, but hepatotoxicosis developed. A single intranasal infusion of clotrimazole subsequently led to long-term resolution of clinical signs in this cat. Localized aspergillosis-penicilliosis is clinically indistinguishable from other pathologic conditions of the nasal and paranasal cavities in cats and should be considered when examining cats with chronic nasal discharge.

  16. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

  17. Sacculo-ocular reflex connectivity in cats.

    PubMed

    Isu, N; Graf, W; Sato, H; Kushiro, K; Zakir, M; Imagawa, M; Uchino, Y

    2000-04-01

    The otolith system contributes to the vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) when the head moves linearly in the horizontal plane or tilts relative to gravity. The saccules are thought to detect predominantly accelerations along the gravity vector. Otolith-induced vertical eye movements following vertical linear accelerations are attributed to the saccules. However, information on the neural circuits of the sacculo-ocular system is limited, and the effects of saccular inputs on extraocular motoneurons remain unclear. In the present study, synaptic responses to saccular-nerve stimulation were recorded intracellularly from identified motoneurons of all twelve extraocular muscles. Experiments were successfully performed in eleven cats. Individual motoneurons of the twelve extraocular muscles--the bilateral superior recti (SR), inferior recti (IR), superior obliques (SO), inferior obliques (IO), lateral recti (LR), and medial recti (MR) were identified antidromically following bipolar stimulation of their respective nerves. The saccular nerve was selectively stimulated by a pair of tungsten electrodes after removing the utricular nerve and the ampullary nerves of the semicircular canals. Stimulus intensities were determined from the stimulus-response curves of vestibular N1 field potentials in order to avoid current spread. Intracellular recordings were performed from 129 extraocular motoneurons. The majority of the neurons showed no response to saccular-nerve stimulation. In 17 (30%) of 56 extraocular motoneurons related to vertical eye movements (bilateral SR and IR), depolarizing and/or hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) were observed in response to saccular-nerve stimulation. The latencies of PSPs ranged from 2.3 to 8.9 ms, indicating that the extraocular motoneurons received neither monosynaptic nor disynaptic inputs from saccular afferents. The majority of the latencies of the depolarization, including depolarization-hyperpolarization, were in the range of 2

  18. Dry Eye in Pediatric Contact Lens Wearers

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Katie L.; Walline, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether children who wear contact lenses truly have fewer dry eye complaints than adults. Methods Ninety-four pediatric contact lens wearers, ages 8 to 14 years, were recruited and given the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ) short form. The survey is designed to diagnose dry eye syndrome by obtaining information on the frequency of dryness and light sensitivity and their corresponding intensity levels within the first two hours of putting in the lenses, in the middle of the day, and at the end of the day. The responses were scored by multiplying the frequency by the average intensity and a constant. A composite score was calculated by subtracting the photophobia score from the dryness score, and the results were compared to adult samples from the literature. The questionnaire also asked whether the subject thought he/she had dry eyes while wearing contact lenses. Subjects that thought they had dry eyes and had a CLDEQ composite score >0.03 were diagnosed with dry eye. Subjects who were unsure if they dry eye or said they did not have dry eye but scored >1.29 were also diagnosed with dry eye. Results The average (± SD) age of the sample was 11.7 ± 1.5 years, 56.4% were female, 59.6% were white, and 19.1% were black. The mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 0.25 ±0.50 (range= -1.20 to 1.45). In the literature, the adult mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 1.02 ±0.80 (range= -0.74 to 4.50). Of the 94 surveys collected, 4.3% of children were categorized with dry eye compared to 56.2% of adults who completed the CLDEQ survey in the adult study. Conclusions Pediatric contact lens wearers have fewer complaints about dry eyes than adult contact lens wearers, which may be due to improved tear film, differences in reporting of symptoms, or modality of contact lens wear. PMID:21060258

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene containing WD40 repeats from the region deleted in velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome on chromosome 22q11.

    PubMed

    Funke, B; Pandita, R K; Morrow, B E

    2001-05-01

    Three congenital disorders, cat-eye syndrome (CES), der(22) syndrome, and velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), result from tetrasomy, trisomy, and monosomy, respectively, of part of 22q11. They share a 1.5-Mb region of overlap, which contains 24 known genes. Although the region has been sequenced and extensively analyzed, it is expected to contain additional genes, which have thus far escaped identification. To understand completely the molecular etiology of VCFS/DGS, der(22) syndrome, and CES, it is essential to isolate all genes in the interval. We have identified and characterized a novel human gene, located within the 1.5-Mb region deleted in VCFS/DGS, trisomic in der(22) syndrome and tetrasomic in CES. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human gene and its mouse homologue contain several WD40 repeats, but lack homology to known proteins. We termed this gene WDR14 (WD40 repeat-containing gene deleted in VCFS). It is expressed in a variety of human and mouse adult and fetal tissues with substantial expression levels in the adult thymus, an organ hypoplastic in VCFS/DGS.

  20. [Contribution to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fuxa, G; Brandt, H P

    1975-02-01

    A case of Ehler-Danlos syndrome with the rare complication of ablatio retinae without myopia is described. The alterations of the eye be Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, which are available in literature are demonstrated.

  1. Strabismus genetics across a spectrum of eye misalignment disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ye, XC; Pegado, V; Patel, MS; Wasserman, WW

    2014-01-01

    Eye misalignment, called strabismus, is amongst the most common phenotypes observed, occurring in up to 5% of individuals in a studied population. While misalignment is frequently observed in rare complex syndromes, the majority of strabismus cases are non-syndromic. Over the past decade, genes and pathways associated with syndromic forms of strabismus have emerged, but the genes contributing to non-syndromic strabismus remain elusive. Genetic testing for strabismus risk may allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as decreased frequency of surgery. We review human and model organism literature describing non-syndromic strabismus, including family, twin, linkage, and gene expression studies. Recent advances in the genetics of Duane retraction syndrome are considered, as relatives of those impacted show elevated familial rates of non-syndromic strabismus. As whole genome sequencing efforts are advancing for the discovery of the elusive strabismus genes, this overview is intended to support the interpretation of the new findings. PMID:24579652

  2. [Lameness of the hindlimbs of the cat].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V

    1989-08-01

    About six to seven per cent of cats presented at the clinic show neurological signs. The largest group consists of traumatized cats. A complete neurological examination is essential for localizing the lesion and establishing a prognosis. Differential diagnosis for paraparesis/paraplegia of pelvic limbs in cats are discussed. Cats are demonstrated which had spinal cord trauma, disc protrusion, aortic thromboembolism and lumbosacral stenosis and the importance of the evaluation of x-rays, cerebrospinal fluid examination and myelography is stressed.

  3. Four-Month-Old Infants' Visual Investigation of Cats and Dogs: Relations with Pet Experience and Attentional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; McMurray, Bob; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the eye-movements of 4-month-old infants (N = 38) as they visually inspected pairs of images of cats or dogs. In general, infants who had previous experience with pets exhibited more sophisticated inspection than did infants without pet experience, both directing more visual attention to the informative head regions of the animals,…

  4. Cryosurgery of eosinophilic ulcers in cats.

    PubMed

    Willemse, A; Lubberink, A A

    1978-10-15

    The use of cryosurgery in treatment of eosinophilic granuloma in cats is described. Satisfactory results were obtained in 14 of 19 cats and 4 of the 5 cats which did not respond favorably, had multiple lesions. The simplicity of the technique and the rapidity of healing make cryosurgery a useful alternative to previous methods of treatment.

  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  6. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  7. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  8. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-10

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... (day-to-night) changes in cloud and aerosol effects from space by observing the same spot on Earth at different times each day. ...

  9. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs. PMID:16048015

  10. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  11. [Poxvirus infection in a cat].

    PubMed

    Ballauf, B; Linckh, S; Lechner, J

    1989-01-01

    For the first time, a poxvirus infection was diagnosed as an etiologic agent of dermal disease in a living domestic cat in Germany. A literature survey, the clinical symptoms of the infection and the diagnostic procedures are described. Poxvirus infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis in feline dermatologic problems.

  12. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  13. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you…

  14. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-06-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  15. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  16. Current Approach to Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça; de Sousa, Jacqueline Martins; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Belfort, Rubens

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that causes tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. The prevalence of dry eye in the world population ranges from 6 to 34 %. It is more common in those aged over 50, and affects mainly women. Since the introduction of the Schirmer's test in 1903, other tests have been developed to evaluate dry eye, such as biomicroscopy, the tear film breakup time (BUT), vital dyes (lissamine green and rose bengal), fluorescein, leaf fern test, corneal sensitivity test, conjunctiva impression cytology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and tear osmolarity measurement. Although there is no gold standard, it is advisable to combine at least two tests. Strategies for treating DED have recently been modified and include patient education, tear substitute, corticosteroids, secretagogues, fatty acids, immunomodulators, occlusion of lacrimal puncta surgery and, tarsorrhaphy. Biological therapy and new topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus, tofacitinib and IL-1 receptor inhibitor are being tested. In this review, the evaluation tests for dry eye are compared and the main studies on treatment are presented, with emphasis on studies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The authors propose an approach for the management of dry eye.

  17. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  18. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  19. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  20. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking Care of Your Skin Taking Care of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ...

  1. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  2. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  3. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Trevor J.; Sirota, Mikhail G.; Guttentag, Andrew I.; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri A.; Shah, Neet A.; Beloozerova, Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5 m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body’s speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats’ gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62–84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior “gaze stepping”. Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75–80 cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7–1.2 s and 1.1–1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5–21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  4. The questionably dry eye.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, I. A.; Seal, D. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate matter in the unstained tear film is associated with low tear lysozyme concentration. Tear flow and tear lysozyme are not necessarily interrelated, but a low lysozyme concentration (tear lysozyme ratio < 1.0) is associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The Schirmer I test can produce false positive results, and we have suggested a modification to overcome this. This modified test will detect the eye with severely depleted lysozyme secretion, but it is unreliable for detecting the eye with moderately depleted secretion. We find that its lowest normal limit should be considered as 6 mm. Images PMID:7448154

  5. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  6. [The antiallergic eye drops "polynadyme": development, experimental and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Maĭchuk, Iu F; Pozdniakov, V I; Pozdniakova, V V; Iakushina, L N

    2006-01-01

    The antiallergic eye drops "Polynadyme", proposed by the Helmgolz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, have been prepared by the "Sintez" PJSC (Kurgan). The drops exert a combination of antihistaminic and vasoconstrictive effects and, for better tolerability, contain a low-toxic preserving complex. The drops are polymer-based, which ensures a long action and an artificial tear effect. Preclinical rabbit trials have shown the safety of the "Polynadyme" eye drops, their specific activity in preventing an allergic reaction, and their antiallergic effect on a model of allergic conjunctivitis. Comparative clinical trials covering 150 patients have yielded excellent and good results in 93% of cases. In acute allergic reactions, hyperemia, itch, and burning diminished just 5 minutes after administration. The "Polynadyme" eye drops are effective in treating pollinous conjunctivitis, spring (vernal) keratoconjunctivitis, allergic reactions when wearing contact lenses, the dry eye syndrome, drug-induced and toxicoallergic conjunctivitis, and other ocular allergic reactions.

  7. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions.

    PubMed

    Gersh, M; Goodart, S A; Pasztor, L M; Harris, D J; Weiss, L; Overhauser, J

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmid clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis.

  8. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 When an eye injury does occur, ... Fireworks Eye Safety Jun 10, 2016 Protective Eyewear Mar 01, 2016 Scleritis Symptoms Mar 01, 2015 What ...

  10. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  11. Feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis: a retrospective study of 45 cases (56 eyes).

    PubMed

    Dean, Eric; Meunier, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    The medical records of 45 cases (56 eyes) of feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed. Cats were included if a clinical diagnosis of EKC was recorded and eosinophils were found on corneal cytology. Median age at presentation was 5 years (interquartiles 5-9 years) for both males and females. Domestic shorthair was the predominant breed, accounting for 77.8% of the cats. The condition was unilateral in 75.6% of cases, with the superotemporal quadrant of the cornea the most frequently affected position (76.8% of eyes). A history of corneal ulceration was recorded in 37.8% of cases, and corneal ulcers were present at or before diagnosis in 66.7% of the cats. Eosinophils were found in 92.0% of conjunctival scrapings. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) for 33/45 cats. Viral DNA was detected in 54.5% of these cats. FHV-1 DNA was detected by PCR in 66.7% of cats with a history and/or presence of a corneal ulcer at first presentation, which is significantly more than those with no corneal ulcer at any time (22.2% FHV-1 DNA detected). Our findings suggest that a corneal ulcer can be present prior to the development of eosinophilic keratitis. Further studies are mandatory to explore the role that FHV-1 could play in EKC-associated corneal ulceration.

  12. Lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease in six cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.

  13. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism in a cat following a short therapeutic course of methylprednisolone acetate.

    PubMed

    Ferasin, L

    2001-06-01

    Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism (or iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome) is an adrenal disorder that may result from long-term administration of glucocorticoids for therapeutic purposes, most often given to treat allergic or immune-mediated disorders. Prolonged treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids can suppress hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), thus causing a functional inactivity of the adrenal cortex. The result is a clinical syndrome of hyperadrenocorticism but with basal and ACTH-stimulated plasma cortisol concentrations that are consistent with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease). Whilst iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism is relatively frequent in dogs, the diagnosis of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism in cats is very uncommon because this species has been found to be remarkably resistant to prolonged administration of glucocorticoids. To the author's knowledge, there are only two published clinical cases of feline iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. This report describes a case of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism in a cat, and shows how normalisation of the adrenal function was achieved with supportive treatment and withdrawal of glucocorticoid administration.

  14. Cyanoacrylate Adhesives in Eye Wounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EYE, *WOUNDS AND INJURIES), (*ADHESIVES, EYE), (*ACRYLIC RESINS, ADHESIVES), CORNEA , HEALING, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), NECROSIS, SURGICAL SUPPLIES, STRENGTH(PHYSIOLOGY), SURGERY, THERAPY

  15. Advocacy for eye care.

    PubMed

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  16. [Diplopia in Wallenberg's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Shimazu, Tomokazu; Takei, Kazuo; Sugawara, Kayoko; Araki, Nobuo; Tamura, Naotoshi; Shimazu, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    The incidence and mechanism of diplopia were investigated in 31 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome resulting from acute dorsolateral medullary infarction. Diplopia was found in 10 of 31 patients (32%), with 5 patients reporting vertical diplopia alone and 5 reporting vertical and horizontal diplopia. Diplopia in Wallenberg's syndrome is considered to be caused by a lesion involving the otolith-ocular system. Vertical diplopia is simply explained by ocular skew deviation due to a lesion involving the vestibular nucleus; in which the affected eye becomes deviated inferiorly. In this situation, rotation of the eye due to ocular tilt reaction also occurs. Concomitant horizontal diplopia may require involvement of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), which produces skew deviation in mirror image; the unaffected eye becomes deviated inferiorly. When downward deviation of the eye affected by dysfunction of the vestibular nucleus and that due to MLF dysfunction affecting the other eye are comparable, only horizontal diplopia becomes apparent. MLF syndrome may be accompanied by paralytic pontine exotropia (PPE) or non-paralytic pontine exotropia (NPPE), both of which may also participate in the appearance of horizontal diplopia.

  17. Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Read, A P; Newton, V E

    1997-01-01

    Auditory-pigmentary syndromes are caused by physical absence of melanocytes from the skin, hair, eyes, or the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Dominantly inherited examples with patchy depigmentation are usually labelled Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Type I WS, characterised by dystopia canthorum, is caused by loss of function mutations in the PAX3 gene. Type III WS (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome, with abnormalities of the arms) is an extreme presentation of type I; some but not all patients are homozygotes. Type IV WS (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome with Hirschsprung disease) can be caused by mutations in the genes for endothelin-3 or one of its receptors, EDNRB. Type II WS is a heterogeneous group, about 15% of whom are heterozygous for mutations in the MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) gene. All these forms show marked variability even within families, and at present it is not possible to predict the severity, even when a mutation is detected. Characterising the genes is helping to unravel important developmental pathways in the neural crest and its derivatives. Images PMID:9279758

  18. Isolation of Tritrichomonas foetus from cats sampled at a cat clinic, cat shows and a humane society in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Ansarah; Kruth, Stephen A; Pearl, David L; Richardson, Danielle; Maggs, Jocelyn C; Peach, Hillary A; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2013-08-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been associated with chronic diarrhea in cats. This study aimed to determine (i) the prevalence of T foetus shedding in cats from three different populations in southern Ontario, and (ii) associations between the presence of T foetus and potential cat management, health and demographic risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 140 cats from a cat clinic in Guelph, 46 cats from a humane society in Guelph and 55 cats from two cat shows. Risk factor information was assessed through a questionnaire. The InPouch TF (feline) culture method was used to determine the presence of T foetus in all samples. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on all samples positive by the InPouch TF, as well as 132 negative samples. The assays were interpreted in series and the prevalence of T foetus shedding and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated at 0.7% (95% CI: 0.0-3.9%; n = 140) from the cat clinic, 0% (95% CI: 0.0-7.7%; n = 46) from the humane society and 23.6% (95% CI: 13.2-37.0%; n = 55) from the cat shows. 'Attendance at cat shows' was the only variable significant in both the univariable and multivariable analyses (P <0.05). No significant association was found between the presence of T foetus and diarrhea at the time of sampling or having a history of diarrhea in the past 6 months. The prevalence of T foetus was highly variable among populations of cats in southern Ontario, with shedding being most common in show cats.

  19. Concurrent somatotroph and plurihormonal pituitary adenomas in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Mellora; FitzGerald, Louise; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old, male neutered, domestic longhair cat was referred for investigation of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. Routine haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis (including culture), total T4 and urine creatinine:cortisol ratio were unremarkable, but markedly increased insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was identified and a pituitary mass was subsequently documented. The cat was treated conservatively with the dopamine agonist L-deprenyl and was re-presented 16 months later for worsening polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, marked lumbar muscle atrophy, development of a pendulous abdomen and marked thinning of the abdominal skin. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasonography, dexamethasone suppression testing and endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The cat was treated with trilostane (30 mg q24h PO) and showed some clinical improvement, but developed an opportunistic fungal infection and skin fragility syndrome 4.5 months after commencing treatment, and was euthanased. A double-pituitary adenoma comprising a discrete somatotroph adenoma and a separate plurihormonal adenoma (positive immunoreactivity for ACTH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) was identified on post-mortem examination. These two pituitary adenomas were suspected to have arisen as independent neoplastic entities with the plurihormonal tumour either being clinically silent at the initial presentation or having developed over the subsequent 16 months.

  20. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052