Science.gov

Sample records for catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation

  1. Quadriceps fatigue caused by catchlike-inducing trains is not altered in old age.

    PubMed

    Allman, Brian L; Cheng, Arthur J; Rice, Charles L

    2004-12-01

    The relative loss of peak force from electrical stimulation protocols has provided inconsistent results when used to compare muscle fatigability between young and old adults. In addition to the effect of task on these comparisons, age-related alterations in the development and relaxation of force are possible factors that have not been considered. The purposes of this study were to compare the fatigability of the quadriceps of young (26.7 +/- 1.0 years) and old men (78.3 +/- 1.3 years), as assessed by changes in peak force, force time integral (FTI), and half-relaxation time (HRT), during intermittent electrical stimulation protocols, and to determine whether manipulation of the activation frequency affected the comparisons. Fatigue was caused by constant-frequency (CF), and catchlike-inducing (CI) train protocols, both of which consisted of intermittent trains (6 pulses on: 650 ms off) of stimulation. After each protocol, the force-generating capacity of the fatigued muscle was assessed with three trains of stimuli: a CF train, a CI train and a 1-s 50-HZ train. There was no effect of age on the loss of peak force or the development of low-frequency fatigue induced by either protocol. Conversely, irrespective of the protocol, the FTI was better maintained by approximately 9% in the old than young men. Because peak force did not differ between groups during fatigue, it is likely that the FTI was preserved by the exacerbated slowing of HRT in the quadriceps of the old men. The results confirm an apparent paradox between muscle fatigue and stimulation with CI trains: a single CI train produces greater force than a CF train in a fatigued muscle, but there is greater fatigue induced by repetitive CI than CF train stimulation. Old age did not affect this fatigue paradox.

  2. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  3. Electrical stimulation to restore respiration.

    PubMed

    Creasey, G; Elefteriades, J; DiMarco, A; Talonen, P; Bijak, M; Girsch, W; Kantor, C

    1996-04-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for over 25 years to restore breathing to patients with high quadriplegia causing respiratory paralysis and patients with central alveolar hypoventilation. Three groups have developed electrical pacing systems for long-term support of respiration in humans. These systems consist of electrodes implanted on the phrenic nerves, connected by leads to a stimulator implanted under the skin, and powered and controlled from a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. The systems differ principally in the electrode design and stimulation waveform. Approximately 1,000 people worldwide have received one of the three phrenic pacing devices, most with strongly positive results: reduced risk of tracheal problems and chronic infection, the ability to speak and smell more normally, reduced risk of accidental interruption of respiration, greater independence, and reduced costs and time for ventilatory care. For patients with partial lesions of the phrenic nerves, intercostal muscle stimulation may supplement respiration.

  4. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES) are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications. Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES) are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favor of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG) signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm. PMID:27471448

  5. Electrical stimulation of mechanoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique, A. M.; Graffigna, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Within the field of Rehabilitation Engineering, this work is aimed at identifying the optimal parameters of electric current stimulus which activate the nervous axons of mecanoreceptors found in the fingertip, allowing, this way, to resemble tactile senses. These sensorial feelings can be used by aiding technological means, namely, the sensorial substitution technology, in an attempt to render information to blind people through the tactile sense. The physical pressure on sensorial areas (fingertips) used for reading activities through the Braille System is the main effect that is imitated and studied in this research work. An experimental aiding prototype for Braille reading research has been developed and tested with blinds and reduced vision people, with highly satisfactory results.

  6. The Electrical Stimulation Modifies the Cerebral Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luisa Lilia; López-Meraz, María Leonor; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Neri-Bazán., Leticia

    2002-08-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for therapeuthic purposes. In this review, we present the clinical and scientific bases for using electrical stimulation as a treatment for pharmacological refractory epilepsy. We also describe results in receptors of inhibitory neurotransmitters obtained in rat brain with or without epilepsy, undergoing brain stimulation. Brain electrical stimulation may improve our understanding of brain function and neuroplasticity.

  7. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    PubMed

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  8. Single well electric oil stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Th. K.

    1985-06-11

    A single well method and apparatus for electrically applying heat and stimulating is comprised of a relatively lower surface area formation electrode and relatively high surface area overburden electrode extending downward into the borehole past low resistivity water zones. This long overburden electrode may be formed of nonmagnetic metal to reduce hysteresis losses in the electrode. This improved single well system causes most of power to be dissipated in the oil pay zone and thereby renders single well production economical.

  9. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Barbara M; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle.

  10. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

  11. Neuroprosthetic applications of electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Grill, W M; Kirsch, R F

    2000-01-01

    Neural prostheses are a developing technology that use electrical activation of the nervous system to restore function to individuals with neurological impairment. Neural prostheses function by electrical initiation of action potentials in nerve fibers that carry the signal to an endpoint where chemical neurotransmitters are released, either to affect an end organ or another neuron. Thus, in principle, any end organ under neural control is a candidate for neural prosthetic control. Applications have included stimulation in both the sensory and motor systems and range in scope from experimental trials with single individuals to commercially available devices. Outcomes of motor system neural prostheses include restoration of hand grasp and release in quadriplegia, restoration of standing and stepping in paraplegia, restoration of bladder function (continence, micturition) following spinal cord injury, and electrophrenic respiration in high-level quadriplegia. Neural prostheses restore function and provide greater independence to individuals with disability.

  12. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  13. Electrical Stimulation Enhances Reinnervation After Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrical muscle stimulation following peripheral nerve injury has been a controversial method of treatment due primarily to the inconsistent literature surrounding it. In this presentation transcript I outline ongoing experiments investigating a clinically translatable daily muscle stimulation paradigm in rats following nerve injury. Results show that reinnervation of muscle and functional behavioural metrics are enhanced with daily stimulation with upregulation of intramuscular neurotrophic factors as a potential mechanism. In addition, the impact of stimulation on terminal sprouting, a mentioned negative aspect of electrical muscle stimulation, was a minor contributor to long term functional reinnervation of stimulated muscles in our studies. PMID:26913163

  14. Electrical stimulation and muscle strengthening.

    PubMed

    Dehail, P; Duclos, C; Barat, M

    2008-07-01

    To identify the effects of application methods and indications of direct muscle electrostimulation on strength gain. Literature review and analysis of articles from Medline database with the following entries: muscular or neuromuscular, electromyostimulation, electrical stimulation, strengthening, strength training, immobilization, muscle dystrophy, bed-rest, bed-bound, knee or hip surgery, postoperative phase, cachexia, sarcopenia, and their French equivalent. Because of its specific muscle recruitment order, different from that of voluntary contraction, direct muscle electrostimulation is theoretically a complementary tool for muscle strengthening. It can be used in healthy subjects and in several affections associated with muscle function loss. Its interest seems well-established for post-traumatic or postsurgery lower-limb immobilizations but too few controlled studies have clearly shown the overall benefits of its application in other indications. Whatever the indication, superimposed or combined electrostimulation techniques are generally more efficient than electrostimulation alone. Even though widely used, the level of evidence for the efficiency of electromyostimulation is still low. For strength gains, it yielded no higher benefits than traditional strengthening methods. Its interest should be tested in medical affections leading to major muscle deconditioning or in sarcopenia.

  15. Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

  16. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Gaurav; Lafontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2013-09-16

    There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction.

  17. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

  18. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2011-02-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  19. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Accelerates Human Sleep Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C.

    2013-01-01

    The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep. PMID:23459152

  20. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep.

  1. Electrical Cerebral Stimulation Modifies Inhibitory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuéllar-Herrera, M.; Rocha, L.

    2003-09-01

    Electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue has been proposed as a method to treat some neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. Epileptic seizures result from excessive, synchronous, abnormal firing patterns of neurons that are located predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Many people with epilepsy continue presenting seizures even though they are under regimens of antiepileptic medications. An alternative therapy for treatment resistant epilepsy is cerebral electrical stimulation. The present study is focused to review the effects of different types of electrical stimulation and specifically changes in amino acids.

  2. Electrical brain stimulation for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S; Velasco, Ana Luisa

    2014-05-01

    Neurostimulation enables adjustable and reversible modulation of disease symptoms, including those of epilepsy. Two types of brain neuromodulation, comprising anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation at seizure foci, are supported by Class I evidence of effectiveness, and many other sites in the brain have been targeted in small trials of neurostimulation therapy for seizures. Animal studies have mainly assisted in the identification of potential neurostimulation sites and parameters, but much of the clinical work is only loosely based on fundamental principles derived from the laboratory, and the mechanisms by which brain neurostimulation reduces seizures remain poorly understood. The benefits of stimulation tend to increase over time, with maximal effect seen typically 1-2 years after implantation. Typical reductions of seizure frequency are approximately 40% acutely, and 50-69% after several years. Seizure intensity might also be reduced. Complications from brain neurostimulation are mainly associated with the implantation procedure and hardware, including stimulation-related paraesthesias, stimulation-site infections, electrode mistargeting and, in some patients, triggered seizures or even status epilepticus. Further preclinical and clinical experience with brain stimulation surgery should lead to improved outcomes by increasing our understanding of the optimal surgical candidates, sites and parameters.

  3. Pitch discrimination of patterned electric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbin; Ishihara, Yumi Christine; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-07-01

    One reason for the poor pitch performance in current cochlear-implant users may be the highly synchronized neural firing in electric hearing that lacks stochastic properties of neural firing in normal acoustic hearing. This study used three different electric stimulation patterns, jittered, probabilistic, and auditory-model-generated pulses, to mimic some aspects of the normal neural firing pattern in acoustic hearing. Pitch discrimination was measured at standard frequencies of 100, 250, 500, and 1000 Hz on three Nucleus-24 cochlear-implant users. To test the utility of the autocorrelation pitch perception model in electric hearing, one, two, and four electrodes were stimulated independently with the same patterned electric stimulation. Results showed no improvement in performance with any experimental pattern compared to the fixed-rate control. Pitch discrimination was actually worsened with the jittered pattern at low frequencies (125 and 250 Hz) than that of the control, suggesting that externally introduced stochastic properties do not improve pitch perception in electric stimulation. The multiple-electrode stimulation did not improve performance but did not degrade performance either. The present results suggest that both ``the right time and the right place'' may be needed to restore normal pitch perception in cochlear-implant users.

  4. Electrical stimulation of upper airway musculature.

    PubMed

    Smith, P L; Eisele, D W; Podszus, T; Penzel, T; Grote, L; Peter, J H; Schwartz, A R

    1996-12-01

    Investigators have postulated that pharyngeal collapse during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be alleviated by stimulating the genioglossus. The effect of electrical stimulation (ES) of the genioglossus on pharyngeal patency was examined in an isolated feline upper airway preparation and in apneic humans during sleep. We found that stimulation of the genioglossus (n = 8) and of the hypoglossal nerve (n = 1) increased maximum airflow through the isolated feline upper airway in humans during sleep. Additional findings in the isolated feline upper airway suggest that such increases in airflow were due to decreases in pharyngeal collapsibility. The evidence suggests that improvements in airflow dynamics with electrical stimulation are due to selective recruitment of the genioglossus, rather than due to nonspecific activation of the pharyngeal musculature or arousal from sleep. The implications of these results for future therapy with ES are discussed.

  5. Binaural hearing with electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation is becoming a standard of care in many clinics. While much benefit has been shown through bilateral implantation, patients who have bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) still do not perform as well as normal hearing listeners in sound localization and understanding speech in noisy environments. This difference in performance can arise from a number of different factors, including the areas of hardware and engineering, surgical precision and pathology of the auditory system in deaf persons. While surgical precision and individual pathology are factors that are beyond careful control, improvements can be made in the areas of clinical practice and the engineering of binaural speech processors. These improvements should be grounded in a good understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to the acoustic binaural cues that are important to normal hearing listeners for sound localization and speech in noise understanding. To this end, we review the current state-of-the-art in the understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to binaural cues in electric hearing, and highlight the important issues and challenges as they relate to clinical practice and the development of new binaural processing strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Binaural hearing with electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation is becoming a standard of care in many clinics. While much benefit has been shown through bilateral implantation, patients who have bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) still do not perform as well as normal hearing listeners in sound localization and understanding speech in noisy environments. This difference in performance can arise from a number of different factors, including the areas of hardware and engineering, surgical precision and pathology of the auditory system in deaf persons. While surgical precision and individual pathology are factors that are beyond careful control, improvements can be made in the areas of clinical practice and the engineering of binaural speech processors. These improvements should be grounded in a good understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to the acoustic binaural cues that are important to normal hearing listeners for sound localization and speech in noise understanding. To this end, we review the current state-of-the-art in the understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to binaural cues in electric hearing, and highlight the important issues and challenges as they relate to clinical practice and the development of new binaural processing strategies. PMID:25193553

  7. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Florene Carnicelli

    Currently, research is being performed in the area of nonsurgical and nonchemical means for influencing the body's threshold for pain. Today, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is being widely used for this purpose. Application of this treatment can be confusing, however, because determining such things as selection of the proper…

  8. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Florene Carnicelli

    Currently, research is being performed in the area of nonsurgical and nonchemical means for influencing the body's threshold for pain. Today, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is being widely used for this purpose. Application of this treatment can be confusing, however, because determining such things as selection of the proper…

  9. Electrical Stimulation as an Aid to Speechreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Richard S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This paper, discussing use of electrical stimulation by postlingually deafened adults to supplement speechreading, focuses on: information conveyed by vision, acoustic information needed to resolve visual confusions, basic psychophysical abilities of cochlear implant patients, auditory-alone and audiovisual perception by cochlear-implant patients,…

  10. 21 CFR 882.1870 - Evoked response electrical stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evoked response electrical stimulator. 882.1870... electrical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response electrical stimulator is a device used to apply an electrical stimulus to a patient by means of skin electrodes for the purpose of measuring the...

  11. 21 CFR 882.1870 - Evoked response electrical stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evoked response electrical stimulator. 882.1870... electrical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response electrical stimulator is a device used to apply an electrical stimulus to a patient by means of skin electrodes for the purpose of measuring the...

  12. 21 CFR 882.1870 - Evoked response electrical stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evoked response electrical stimulator. 882.1870... electrical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response electrical stimulator is a device used to apply an electrical stimulus to a patient by means of skin electrodes for the purpose of measuring...

  13. 21 CFR 882.1870 - Evoked response electrical stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evoked response electrical stimulator. 882.1870... electrical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response electrical stimulator is a device used to apply an electrical stimulus to a patient by means of skin electrodes for the purpose of measuring...

  14. Metallic Taste from Electrical and Chemical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, Harry T.; Stevens, David A.; Chapman, Kathryn W.; Kurtz, Anne

    2005-01-01

    A series of three experiments investigated the nature of metallic taste reports after stimulation with solutions of metal salts and after stimulation with metals and electric currents. To stimulate with electricity, a device was fabricated consisting of a small battery affixed to a plastic handle with the anode side exposed for placement on the tongue or oral tissues. Intensity of taste from metals and batteries was dependent upon the voltage and was more robust in areas dense in fungiform papillae. Metallic taste was reported from stimulation with ferrous sulfate solutions, from metals and from electric stimuli. However, reports of metallic taste were more frequent when the word ‘metallic’ was presented embedded in a list of choices, as opposed to simple free-choice labeling. Intensity decreased for ferrous sulfate when the nose was occluded, consistent with a decrease in retronasal smell, as previously reported. Intensity of taste evoked by copper metal, bimetallic stimuli (zinc/copper) or small batteries (1.5-3 V) was not affected by nasal occlusion. This difference suggests two distinct mechanisms for evocation of metallic taste reports, one dependent upon retronasal smell and a second mediated by oral chemoreceptors. PMID:15741603

  15. Mechanisms of electrical stimulation with neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Rattay, F; Resatz, S; Lutter, P; Minassian, K; Jilge, B; Dimitrijevic, M R

    2003-01-01

    Individual electric and geometric characteristics of neural substructures can have surprising effects on artificially controlled neural signaling. A rule of thumb approved for the stimulation of long peripheral axons may not hold when the central nervous system is involved. This is demonstrated here with a comparison of results from the electrically stimulated cochlea, retina, and spinal cord. A generalized form of the activating function together with accurate modeling of the neural membrane dynamics are the tools to analyze the excitation mechanisms initiated by neural prostheses. Analysis is sometimes possible with a linear theory, in other cases, simulation of internal calcium concentration or ion channel current fluctuations is needed to see irregularities in spike trains. Spike initiation site can easily change within a single target neuron under constant stimulation conditions of a cochlear implant. Poor myelinization in the soma region of the human cochlear neurons causes firing characteristics different from any animal data. Retinal ganglion cells also generate propagating spikes within the dendritic tree. Bipolar cells in the retina are expected to respond with neurotransmitter release before a spike is generated in the ganglion cell, even when they are far away from the electrode. Epidural stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord predominantly stimulates large sensory axons in the dorsal roots which induce muscle reflex responses. Analysis with the generalized activating function, computer simulations of the nonlinear neural membrane behavior together with experimental and clinical data analysis enlighten our understanding of artificial firing patterns influenced by neural prostheses.

  16. Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cogan, Stuart F; Ludwig, Kip A; Welle, Cristin G; Takmakov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. Approach In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation. Main results For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely occurrence of tissue damage, the analysis is limited by the experimental parameters of the original studies. Tissue damage is influenced by factors not explicitly incorporated into the Shannon equation, including pulse frequency, duty cycle, current density, and electrode size. Microelectrodes in particular do not follow the charge per phase and charge density co-dependence reflected in the Shannon equation. The relevance of these factors to tissue damage is framed in the context of available reports from modeling and in vivo studies. Significance It is apparent that emerging applications, especially with microelectrodes, will require clinical charge densities that exceed traditional damage thresholds. Experimental data show that stimulation at higher charge densities can be achieved without causing tissue damage, suggesting that safety parameters for microelectrodes might be distinct from those defined for macroelectrodes. However, these increased charge densities may need to be justified by bench, non-clinical or clinical testing to provide evidence of device safety

  17. Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ludwig, Kip A.; Welle, Cristin G.; Takmakov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. Approach. In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation. Main results. For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely occurrence of tissue damage, the analysis is limited by the experimental parameters of the original studies. Tissue damage is influenced by factors not explicitly incorporated into the Shannon equation, including pulse frequency, duty cycle, current density, and electrode size. Microelectrodes in particular do not follow the charge per phase and charge density co-dependence reflected in the Shannon equation. The relevance of these factors to tissue damage is framed in the context of available reports from modeling and in vivo studies. Significance. It is apparent that emerging applications, especially with microelectrodes, will require clinical charge densities that exceed traditional damage thresholds. Experimental data show that stimulation at higher charge densities can be achieved without causing tissue damage, suggesting that safety parameters for microelectrodes might be distinct from those defined for macroelectrodes. However, these increased charge densities may need to be justified by bench, non-clinical or clinical testing to provide evidence of device

  18. Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Stuart F; Ludwig, Kip A; Welle, Cristin G; Takmakov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation. For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely occurrence of tissue damage, the analysis is limited by the experimental parameters of the original studies. Tissue damage is influenced by factors not explicitly incorporated into the Shannon equation, including pulse frequency, duty cycle, current density, and electrode size. Microelectrodes in particular do not follow the charge per phase and charge density co-dependence reflected in the Shannon equation. The relevance of these factors to tissue damage is framed in the context of available reports from modeling and in vivo studies. It is apparent that emerging applications, especially with microelectrodes, will require clinical charge densities that exceed traditional damage thresholds. Experimental data show that stimulation at higher charge densities can be achieved without causing tissue damage, suggesting that safety parameters for microelectrodes might be distinct from those defined for macroelectrodes. However, these increased charge densities may need to be justified by bench, non-clinical or clinical testing to provide evidence of device safety.

  19. Electric Brain Stimulation No Better Than Meds for Depression: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166920.html Electric Brain Stimulation No Better Than Meds For Depression: Study ... depression and can't find relief, stimulating the brain with electric impulses may help. But a new ...

  20. Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures.

  1. Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087

  2. Electrical Stimulation Technologies for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Luther C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the physiological bases for using exogenously applied electric field (EF) energy to enhance wound healing with conductive electrical stimulation (ES) devices. Approach: To describe the types of electrical currents that have been reported to enhance chronic wound-healing rate and closure. Results: Commercial ES devices that generate direct current (DC), and mono and biphasic pulsed current waveforms represent the principal ES technologies which are reported to enhance wound healing. Innovation: Wafer-thin, disposable ES technologies (wound dressings) that utilize mini or micro-batteries to deliver low-level DC for wound healing and antibacterial wound-treatment purposes are commercially available. Microfluidic wound-healing chips are currently being used with greater accuracy to investigate the EF effects on cellular electrotaxis. Conclusion: Numerous clinical trials described in subsequent sections of this issue have demonstrated that ES used adjunctively with standard wound care (SWC), enhances wound healing rate faster than SWC alone. PMID:24761348

  3. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  4. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  5. A microprocessor-based multichannel subsensory stochastic resonance electrical stimulator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gwo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic resonance electrical stimulation is a novel intervention which provides potential benefits for improving postural control ability in the elderly, those with diabetic neuropathy, and stroke patients. In this paper, a microprocessor-based subsensory white noise electrical stimulator for the applications of stochastic resonance stimulation is developed. The proposed stimulator provides four independent programmable stimulation channels with constant-current output, possesses linear voltage-to-current relationship, and has two types of stimulation modes, pulse amplitude and width modulation.

  6. Exploring the effect of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation on voice.

    PubMed

    Gorham-Rowan, M; Morris, R

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to explore the potential use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tension dysphonia. Voice data and ratings of fatigue and soreness were obtained for two experiments. Experiment one examined the vocal effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the neck for 15 minutes. Experiment two examined the recovery effect of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation following a vocal loading task among normophonic women. No significant differences in vocal function following 15 minutes of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation were found. Six of 11 participants receiving laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation exhibited improved recovery following the vocal loading task. A short session of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be beneficial in reducing muscle fatigue for some individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the applicability of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation in voice therapy.

  7. Functional electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry: patient perceptions.

    PubMed

    Sipski, M L; Delisa, J A; Schweer, S

    1989-06-01

    Forty-seven patients who had participated in a clinical electrical stimulation ergometry program were administered a questionnaire to determine their perceptions of the therapy. Improved endurance was reported by 62% of paraplegics and 65% of quadriplegics. Sixty-two percent of paraplegics and 56% of quadriplegics reported improved self-image, while 54% of paraplegics and 77% of quadriplegics perceived their appearance was better. Thirty-nine percent of paraplegics and 24% of quadriplegics noted decreased lower extremity edema with training. Six out of nine patients with a previous history of neurogenic pain noted an increase in pain, which caused them to leave the program.

  8. Electrical Stimulation for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, A; Bowen, JM

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults and children. Data Sources A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 2007 until December 2012. Review Methods Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies (in the absence of RCTs) of adults or children were included. DBS studies were included if they specified that the anterior nucleus of thalamus was the area of the brain stimulated. Outcomes of interest were seizure frequency, health resource utilization, and safety. A cost analysis was also performed. Results The search identified 6 studies that assessed changes in seizure frequency after electrical stimulation: 1 RCT on DBS in adults, 4 RCTs on VNS in adults, and 1 RCT on VNS in children. The studies of DBS and VNS in adults found significantly improved rates of seizure frequency, but the study of VNS in children did not find a significant difference in seizure frequency between the high and low stimulation groups. Significant reductions in hospitalizations and emergency department visits were found for adults and children who received VNS. No studies addressed the use of health resources for patients undergoing DBS. Five studies reported on adverse events, which ranged from serious to transient for both procedures in adults and were mostly transient in the 1 study of VNS in children. Limitations We found no evidence on DBS in children or on health care use related to DBS. The measurement of seizure frequency is self-reported and is therefore subject to bias and issues of compliance. Conclusions Based on evidence of low to moderate quality, both DBS and VNS seemed to reduce seizure frequency in adults. In children, VNS did not appear to be as

  9. Electrical stimulation for the relief of pain.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, J.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical stimulation can relieve some severe and otherwise persisting pains. At its best it can be associated with either a gradual reduction in the pain or an increased ability by the patient to control his suffering. It seems particularly appropriate for use in the field of benign persistent pain. Equipment design and materials, particularly for implantable circuits, are not perfect. Movement towards percutaneous implantation, obviating the need for open operation, seems progressively more popular. Any unit or group using this form of treatment, must be prepared to provide major technical facilities, both in the form of people and equipment in order to cater for the many purely technical problems that occur. A great deal of knowledge both neurophysiological and neurochemical seems to be accruing from the clinical use of electrical stimulation. We would do well to take advantage of this opportunity, in the hope that it might lead us to a better understanding of the functioning of the nervous system. This consideration remarkably parallels an observation made by John Hunter in his presentation to the Royal Society in 1773 (13) which anticipated the realisation of the part played by electricity in the function of nerves. Following his description of the extraordinary innervation of the electric organs of the Torpedo fish, he wrote: 'How far this may be connected with the power of the nerves in general, or how far it may lead to an explanation of their operations, time and future discoveries alone can fully determine.' Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6608312

  10. A Systematic Review of Electric-Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear implant systems that combine electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear are now commercially available and the number of patients using these devices is steadily increasing. In particular, electric-acoustic stimulation is an option for patients with severe, high frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. There have been a range of approaches to combining electric stimulation and acoustic hearing in the same ear. To develop a better understanding of fitting practices for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation, we conducted a systematic review addressing three clinical questions: what is the range of acoustic hearing in the implanted ear that can be effectively preserved for an electric-acoustic fitting?; what benefits are provided by combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation?; and what clinical fitting practices have been developed for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation? A search of the literature was conducted and 27 articles that met the strict evaluation criteria adopted for the review were identified for detailed analysis. The range of auditory thresholds in the implanted ear that can be successfully used for an electric-acoustic application is quite broad. The effectiveness of combined electric and acoustic stimulation as compared with electric stimulation alone was consistently demonstrated, highlighting the potential value of preservation and utilization of low frequency hearing in the implanted ear. However, clinical procedures for best fitting of electric-acoustic devices were varied. This clearly identified a need for further investigation of fitting procedures aimed at maximizing outcomes for recipients of electric-acoustic devices. PMID:23539259

  11. Deep Brain Electrical Stimulation in Epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luisa L.

    2008-11-01

    The deep brain electrical stimulation has been used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, depression and epilepsy. Studies carried out in human brain indicate that the application of high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz in limbic structures of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy abolished clinical seizures and significantly decreased the number of interictal spikes at focus. The anticonvulsant effects of HFS seem to be more effective in patients with less severe epilepsy, an effect associated with a high GABA tissue content and a low rate of cell loss. In addition, experiments using models of epilepsy indicate that HFS (pulses of 60 μs width at 130 Hz at subthreshold current intensity) of specific brain areas avoids the acquisition of generalized seizures and enhances the postictal seizure suppression. HFS is also able to modify the status epilepticus. It is concluded that the effects of HFS may be a good strategy to reduce or avoid the epileptic activity.

  12. Electrical neuromuscular stimulation in dysphagia: current status.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Christy L

    2010-06-01

    To assess current information regarding the physiological effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) on the neck and current evidence regarding the clinical effects of adding TES to dysphagia rehabilitation. Physiological studies have demonstrated that when electrical stimulation is applied on the throat it will lower the hyo-laryngeal complex and resist elevation needed for airway protection during swallowing. Submental TES has not been found to effectively elevate the hyo-laryngeal complex. Recent controlled clinical trials have had mixed results. Most indicate that TES is beneficial in the treatment of dysphagia; however, studies differ on whether these effects are greater than, equal to, or less than traditional therapy alone for the rehabilitation of swallowing. Currently TES for dysphagia is one of several tools available to the clinician for the rehabilitation of dysphagia. The two controlled clinical trials demonstrate that use of TES in dysphagia therapy is equivalent to traditional dysphagia therapy and of greater benefit only on one of several measures in one study. TES should be used only in patients who can overcome the resistive lowering of the hyo-laryngeal complex induced by TES which could place severely affected patients at greater risk of penetration.

  13. [Therapeutic and functional electrical stimulation for paraplegics].

    PubMed

    Kagaya, H

    1994-09-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the cross-sectional areas of muscles and muscle force before and after 6 months of therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) by using computed tomography (CT), Cybex II, a strain-gauge, and manual muscle test (MMT) in 5 complete paraplegics. The stimulation parameters were a frequency of 20 Hz, a pulse width of 0.2 ms, and an output voltage of -15V. The cross-sectional areas of muscle, the CT numbers, and both the muscle torque and the muscle force increased after TES, but the initial muscle force need to have been greater than a poor-minus level on MMT in order to achieve practical benefits from TES. Therefore TES should be started as early as possible after the onset of paraplegia in order to maintain and improve muscle quality. The second objective of this study was to re-chart the electrical stimulation used for reconstructing the standing-up motion in paraplegics. Twelve healthy subjects were monitored during two different kinds of standing-up motion: 1) standing-up while the arms remained crossed in front of the chest, and 2) hands-assisted standing-up using parallel bars. The electromyogram, joint angle, and the vertical component of the floor reaction force were synchronized with time, and investigated. The main muscles for standing-up are the quadriceps, the tibialis anterior, and the paraspinal muscles. Comparing 1) and 2), the hands-assisted standing-up was performed with less muscle activity except for the rectus femoris and the iliopsoas muscle, and with less maximum vertical floor reaction force. A T6 paraplegic patient could stand-up smoothly from a wheel-chair using the parallel bars after electrical stimulation based on data from the hands-assisted standing-up study on healthy subjects. In comparison with healthy subjects, the knee joints initially flexed before extending, and the ankle joints were more dorsiflexed in the paraplegic patient. The maximum vertical floor reaction force was also less.

  14. A continuum model of retinal electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joarder, Saiful A.; Abramian, Miganoosh; Suaning, Gregg J.; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates

    2011-10-01

    A continuum mathematical model of retinal electrical stimulation is described. The model is represented by a passive vitreous domain, a thin layer of active retinal ganglion cell (RGC) tissue adjacent to deeper passive neural layers of the retina, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and choroid thus ending at the sclera. To validate the model, in vitro epiretinal responses to stimuli from 50 µm disk electrodes, arranged in a hexagonal mosaic, were recorded from rabbit retinas. 100 µs/phase anodic-first biphasic current pulses were delivered to the retinal surface in both the mathematical model and experiments. RGC responses were simulated and recorded using extracellular microelectrodes. The model's epiretinal thresholds compared favorably with the in vitro data. In addition, simulations showed that single-return bipolar electrodes recruited a larger area of the retina than twin-return or six-return electrodes arranged in a hexagonal layout in which a central stimulating electrode is surrounded by six, eqi-spaced returns. Simulations were also undertaken to investigate the patterns of RGC activation in an anatomically-accurate model of the retina, as well as RGC activation patterns for subretinal and suprachoroidal bipolar stimulation. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip.

  15. Direct current electrical stimulation chamber for treating cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Sahba; Leppik, Liudmila; Barker, John H

    2016-02-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote healing and regeneration in skin, bone, muscle, and nerve tissues in clinical studies. Recently, studies applying electrical stimulation to influence cell behavior associated with proliferation, differentiation, and migration have provided a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electrical stimulation-based clinical treatments and improved tissue-engineered products through electro-bioreactor technologies. Here, we present a novel device for delivering direct current (DC) electrical stimulation (ES) to cultivated cells in vitro. Our simplified electro-bioreactor is customized for applying DC electrical current simultaneously in six individual tissue culture wells. The design overcomes previous experimental replicate limitations, thus reducing experimental time and cost.

  16. [Magneto-electrical stimulation (MES)--compared with percutaneous electrical stimulation (PES)].

    PubMed

    Ugawa, Y; Kohara, N; Shimpo, T; Mannen, T

    1989-01-01

    The central motor conduction was studied in 30 normal volunteers using a recently developed magneto-electrical stimulation technique (MES). The results were compared with those obtained by percutaneous electrical stimulation technique (PES) described previously. We made a magnetic stimulator similar to that of Barker et al. To stimulate the motor cortex, the magnetic coil was placed over the head. It was placed over the seventh cervical spinous process (C7) for cervical stimulation, and the first lumbar spinous process (L1) for lumbar stimulation. Cortical stimulation was performed when the subjects were at rest, and also at during weak voluntary contraction in some of them. Recordings were made from the deltoid (Del), biceps brachii (Bi), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), thenar, quadriceps femoris (Quad), tibialis anterior (TA) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) muscles with a pair of surface electrodes. The cortical and spinal latent periods (Lcor and Lsp, respectively) were measured. The central conduction time (CCT) was obtained by subtracting Lsp from Lcor for each muscle. In all subjects, responses were readily obtained by cortical, cervical and lumbar stimulations without discomfort in all the muscles examined. The cortical responses with amplitudes of more than 1mV could be recorded even in the lower limb muscles. There were no significant differences in Lsp and CCT between MES and PES, in all the upper limb muscles examined. The Lcors of the lower limb muscles obtained by MES were not different from those obtained by PES. However, the Lsps obtained by MES were significantly shorter than those by PES in the Quad and TA muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Functional Electrical Stimulation and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chester H.; Triolo, Ronald J.; Elias, Anastasia L.; Kilgore, Kevin L.; DiMarco, Anthony F.; Bogie, Kath; Vette, Albert H.; Audu, Musa; Kobetic, Rudi; Chang, Sarah R.; Chan, K. Ming; Dukelow, Sean; Bourbeau, Dennis J.; Brose, Steven W.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Kiss, Zelma; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Spinal cord injuries (SCI) can disrupt communications between the brain and the body, leading to a loss of control over otherwise intact neuromuscular systems. The use of electrical stimulation (ES) of the central and peripheral nervous system can take advantage of these intact neuromuscular systems to provide therapeutic exercise options, to allow functional restoration, and even to manage or prevent many medical complications following SCI. The use of ES for the restoration of upper extremity, lower extremity and truncal functions can make many activities of daily living a potential reality for individuals with SCI. Restoring bladder and respiratory functions and preventing pressure ulcers may significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality following SCI. Many of the ES devices are already commercially available and should be considered by all SCI clinicians routinely as part of the lifelong rehabilitation care plan for all eligible individuals with SCI. PMID:25064792

  18. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    PubMed

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  19. Colon emptying induced by sequential electrical stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevcencu, Cristian; Rijkhoff, Nico J M; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Electrical stimulation could be used to induce colon emptying. The present experiments were performed to establish a stimulation pattern to optimize the stimulation parameters and to test neural involvement in propulsion induced by electrical stimulation. Colon segments were sequentially stimulated using rectangular pulses. The resulting propulsive activity displaced intraluminal content in consecutive propulsion steps. The propulsion steps differed in displacement latency, distance, and velocity along the stimulated colon. Increasing the pulse duration or amplitude resulted in a decrease of the latency. Increasing the stimulation amplitude doubled the displacement distance. The frequencies tested in the present study did not affect propulsion. Inhibition of cholinergic and nitrergic pathways inhibited propulsion. Electrical stimulation can induce colonic propulsion. Motor differences are present along the descending colon. The most suitable combination of pulse parameters regarding colon stimulation is 0.3 ms, 5 mA, 10 Hz. Neural circuits are involved in propulsion when using these values.

  20. New controller for functional electrical stimulation systems.

    PubMed

    Fisekovic, N; Popovic, D B

    2001-07-01

    A novel, self-contained controller for functional electrical stimulation systems has been designed. The development was motivated by the need to have a general purpose, easy to use controller capable of stimulating many muscle groups, thus restoring complex motor functions (e.g. standing, walking, reaching, and grasping). The designed controller can regulate the frequency, pulse duration, and charge balance on up to 16 channels, and execute pre-programmed and sensory-driven control operations. The controller supports up to eight analog and six digital sensors, and comprises a memory block for including history of the sensory data (time series). Five independent timers provide the basis for the multi-modal and multi-level control of movement. The PC compatible interface is realised via an IR serial communication channel. The PC based software is user friendly and fully menu driven. This paper also presents a case study where the controller was implemented to restore walking in a paraplegic subject. The assistive system comprised the novel controller, the power and output stages of an eight-channel FES system (IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng, TRE-2 (1994) 234), ankle-foot orthoses, and a rolling walker. Stimulation was applied with surface electrodes positioned over the motoneurons that innervate muscles responsible for the hip and knee flexion and extension. The sensory system included goniometers at knee and hip joints, force-sensing resistors built in the shoe insoles, and digital accelerometers at the hips. A rule-based control algorithm was generated following a two-step procedure: (1) simulation and (2) machine learning as described in earlier studies (IEEE Trans Rehab Eng, TRE-7 (1999) 69). The paraplegic subject walked faster, and with less physiological effort, when automatic control was applied as compared to hand-control. This case study, as well as a previous one for assisting grasping (The design and testing of a new programmable electronic stimulator. N

  1. High-frequency and brief-pulse stimulation pulses terminate cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yong-Jie; Yu, Tao; Ni, Duan-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Du, Wei; Piao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xia

    2017-06-01

    Brief-pulse stimulation at 50 Hz has been shown to terminate afterdischarges observed in epilepsy patients. However, the optimal pulse stimulation parameters for terminating cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of different brief-pulse stimulation frequencies (5, 50 and 100 Hz) on cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges in 10 patients with refractory epilepsy. Results demonstrated that brief-pulse stimulation could terminate cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges in refractory epilepsy patients. In conclusion, (1) a brief-pulse stimulation was more effective when the afterdischarge did not extend to the surrounding brain area. (2) A higher brief-pulse stimulation frequency (especially 100 Hz) was more likely to terminate an afterdischarge. (3) A low current intensity of brief-pulse stimulation was more likely to terminate an afterdischarge.

  2. Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Jovičić, Nenad S; Saranovac, Lazar V; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-08-09

    The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype's software. The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.

  3. Modulation of auditory percepts by transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ueberfuhr, Margarete Anna; Braun, Amalia; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Drexl, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18th century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse. The present study examines the effect of transcutaneous, electrical stimulation of the human auditory periphery employing evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and several psychoacoustic measures. In particular, level growth functions of distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded during electrical stimulation with alternating currents (2 Hz, 1-4 mA in 1 mA-steps). In addition, the level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were followed before, during, and after electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1-4 mA). To explore the effect of electrical stimulation on the retrocochlear level (i.e. on the ascending auditory pathway beyond the cochlea), psychoacoustic experiments were carried out. Specifically, participants indicated whether electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 2 and 3 mA) induced amplitude modulations of the perception of a pure tone, and of auditory illusions after presentation of either an intense, low-frequency sound (Bounce tinnitus) or a faint band-stop noise (Zwicker tone). These three psychoacoustic measures revealed significant perceived amplitude modulations during electrical stimulation in the majority of participants. However, no significant changes of evoked and

  4. Bipolar surface electrical stimulation of the vertebrate retina.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M; Propst, R; de Juan, E; McCormick, K; Hickingbotham, D

    1994-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa with attendant photoreceptor loss can cause a profound visual handicap. We have postulated that an intraocular prosthesis that could electrically stimulate the inner retina might provide vision to some of these patients. For such a prosthesis to be feasible, electrical stimulation of the inner retina must elicit a focal retinal response. The stimulating current densities required to elicit such a response must not result in irreversible toxic reactions at the electrode-tissue interface. To test the feasibility of this approach, we used bipolar platinum wire electrodes to electrically stimulate the inner retinal surface in bullfrog eyecup preparations and, using similar methods, we electrically stimulated rabbit eyes after injecting intravenous sodium iodate (40 mg/kg), a retinal pigment epithelial toxin with secondary effects on the photoreceptors. Surface electrical stimulation of the inner retina in normal eyes and in eyes with outer retinal degeneration can elicit a localized retinal response. The threshold stimulating currents resulted in charge densities of 2.98 microcoulombs per square centimeter (bullfrog), 8.92 microC/cm2 (normal rabbit), and 11.9 microC/cm2 (rabbit retinas with outer retinal degenerations). These charge densities are within the previously delineated safe limits for long-term electrical stimulation of neural tissue using platinum microelectrodes (100 microC/cm2). Multifocal electrical stimulation of the retina might be a viable approach to provide some vision to patients who have profound visual loss due to outer retinal degenerations.

  5. Knee Osteoarthritis: Does Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Work?

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; McElroy, Mark J; Johnson, Aaron J; Bhave, Anil; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment for osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of a novel transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device compared with those of other standard nonoperative modalities for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee.

  6. Electrical stimulation in the management of spastic deformity.

    PubMed

    Scheker, Luis R; Ozer, Kagan

    2003-11-01

    This article outlines a nonsurgical approach that includes neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dynamic bracing for the management of spastic deformity in cerebral palsy. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is used commonly for lower extremity spasticity. Its clinical application in upper extremity spasticity, together with dynamic bracing, is a new entity providing predictable and quick short-term results with significant improvement in quality of life.

  7. Physiological Mechanisms in Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mika; Baumhoff, Peter; Tillein, Jochen; Kral, Andrej

    2017-09-01

    Electrical stimulation is normally performed on ears that have no hearing function, i.e., lack functional hair cells. The properties of electrically-evoked responses in these cochleae were investigated in several previous studies. Recent clinical developments have introduced cochlear implantation (CI) in residually-hearing ears to improve speech understanding in noise. The present study documents the known physiological differences between electrical stimulation of hair cells and of spiral ganglion cells, respectively, and reviews the mechanisms of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in the hearing ears. Literature review from 1971 to 2016. Compared with pure electrical stimulation the combined electroacoustic stimulation provides additional low-frequency information and expands the dynamic range of the input. Physiological studies document a weaker synchronization of the evoked activity in electrically stimulated hearing ears compared with deaf ears that reduces the hypersynchronization of electrically-evoked activity. The findings suggest the possibility of balancing the information provided by acoustic and electric input using stimulus intensity. Absence of distorting acoustic-electric interactions allows exploiting these clinical benefits of electroacoustic stimulation.

  8. Electrical Stimulation Counteracts Muscle Decline in Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Helmut; Barberi, Laura; Löfler, Stefan; Sbardella, Simona; Burggraf, Samantha; Fruhmann, Hannah; Carraro, Ugo; Mosole, Simone; Sarabon, Nejc; Vogelauer, Michael; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Cvecka, Jan; Romanello, Vanina; Pietrangelo, Laura; Protasi, Feliciano; Sandri, Marco; Zampieri, Sandra; Musaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are hallmarks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise. We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES) is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function. We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity. ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF-1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis. Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging. PMID:25104935

  9. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2011-10-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there is substantial evidence to suggest that EST modifies the excitability of specific neural paths and such adaptations contribute to the increases in MVC force. Similar to strength training with voluntary contractions, EST increases MVC force after only a few sessions with some changes in muscle biochemistry but without overt muscle hypertrophy. There is some mixed evidence for spinal neural adaptations in the form of an increase in the amplitude of the interpolated twitch and in the amplitude of the volitional wave, with less evidence for changes in spinal excitability. Cross-sectional and exercise studies also suggest that the barrage of sensory and nociceptive inputs acts at the cortical level and can modify the motor cortical output and interhemispheric paths. The data suggest that neural adaptations mediate initial increases in MVC force after short-term EST.

  10. Electrical stimulation counteracts muscle decline in seniors.

    PubMed

    Kern, Helmut; Barberi, Laura; Löfler, Stefan; Sbardella, Simona; Burggraf, Samantha; Fruhmann, Hannah; Carraro, Ugo; Mosole, Simone; Sarabon, Nejc; Vogelauer, Michael; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Cvecka, Jan; Romanello, Vanina; Pietrangelo, Laura; Protasi, Feliciano; Sandri, Marco; Zampieri, Sandra; Musaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are hallmarks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise. We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES) is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function. We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity. ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF-1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis. Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

  11. Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Spinal Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul; Lau, Darryl; Brodt, Erika D.; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions Compared with no stimulation, does electrical stimulation promote bone fusion after lumbar spinal fusion procedures? Does the effect differ based on the type of electrical stimulation used? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to October 15, 2013, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of electrical stimulation to no electrical stimulation on fusion rates after lumbar spinal fusion for the treatment of degenerative disease. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Results Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The following types of electrical stimulation were investigated: direct current (three studies), pulsed electromagnetic field (three studies), and capacitive coupling (one study). The control groups consisted of no stimulation (two studies) or placebo (four studies). Marked heterogeneity in study populations, characteristics, and design prevented a meta-analysis. Regardless of the type of electrical stimulation used, cumulative incidences of fusion varied widely across the RCTs, ranging from 35.4 to 90.6% in the intervention groups and from 33.3 to 81.9% in the control groups across 9 to 24 months of follow-up. Similarly, when stratified by the type of electrical stimulation used, fusion outcomes from individual studies varied, leading to inconsistent and conflicting results. Conclusion Given the inconsistency in study results, possibly due to heterogeneity in study populations/characteristics and quality, we are unable to conclude that electrical stimulation results in better fusion outcomes compared with no stimulation. The overall strength of evidence for the conclusions is low. PMID:25278882

  12. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  13. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  14. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  15. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  16. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  17. Muscle damage induced by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, Kazunori; Aldayel, Abdulaziz; Jubeau, Marc; Chen, Trevor C

    2011-10-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) induces muscle damage that is characterised by histological alterations of muscle fibres and connective tissue, increases in circulating creatine kinase (CK) activity, decreases in muscle strength and development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage is induced not only by eccentric contractions with ES but also by isometric contractions evoked by ES. Muscle damage profile following 40 isometric contractions of the knee extensors is similar between pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 μs) and alternating current (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 μs) ES for similar force output. When comparing maximal voluntary and ES-evoked (75 Hz, 200 μs) 50 isometric contractions of the elbow flexors, ES results in greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction strength, increases in plasma CK activity and DOMS. It appears that the magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES-evoked isometric contractions is comparable to that induced by maximal voluntary eccentric contractions, although the volume of affected muscles in ES is not as large as that of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. It seems likely that the muscle damage in ES is associated with high mechanical stress on the activated muscle fibres due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment (i.e., non-selective, synchronous and spatially fixed manner). The magnitude of muscle damage induced by ES is significantly reduced when the second ES bout is performed 2-4 weeks later. It is possible to attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage by "pre-conditioning" muscles, so that muscle damage should not limit the use of ES in training and rehabilitation.

  18. A figure of merit for neural electrical stimulation circuits.

    PubMed

    Kolbl, Florian; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulators are widely used in neuro-prostheses. Many different implementations exist. However, no quantitative ranking criterion is available to allow meaningful comparison of the various stimulation circuits and systems to aid the designer. This paper presents a novel Figure of Merit (FOM) dedicated to stimulation circuits and systems. The proposed optimization performance metric takes into account tissue safety conditions and energy efficiency which can be evaluated by measurement. The FOM is used to rank several stimulator circuits and systems.

  19. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control

    PubMed Central

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Gluckman, Bruce; Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is emerging as a viable alternative for epilepsy patients whose seizures are not alleviated by drugs or surgery. Its attractions are temporal and spatial specificity of action, flexibility of waveform parameters and timing, and the perception that its effects are reversible unlike resective surgery. However, despite significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of neural electrical stimulation, clinical electrotherapy for seizures relies heavily on empirical tuning of parameters and protocols. We highlight concurrent treatment goals with potentially conflicting design constraints that must be resolved when formulating rational strategies for epilepsy electrotherapy: namely seizure reduction versus cognitive impairment, stimulation efficacy versus tissue safety, and mechanistic insight versus clinical pragmatism. First, treatment markers, objectives, and metrics relevant to electrical stimulation for epilepsy are discussed from a clinical perspective. Then the experimental perspective is presented, with the biophysical mechanisms and modalities of open-loop electrical stimulation, and the potential benefits of closed-loop control for epilepsy. PMID:19926525

  20. Vascular effects of free radicals generated by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, F.S.; Webb, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    Electrical field stimulation (9 V, 1.0 ms, 4 Hz) of isolated segments of rat tail arteries and dog coronary arteries inhibits contractile response to exogenous norephinephrine and elevated potassium concentration. This inhibitory effect of electrical stimulation is blocked by various agents that alter oxygen metabolism: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, ascorbate, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observations suggest that the inhibitory effect is due to an action of oxygen free radical metabolites that are generated by the electrical stimulation of the oxygen-rich buffer. These free radical metabolites have two actions: 1) they oxidize drugs in the experimental system, and 2) they exert a direct inhbitory action on vascular smooth muscle.

  1. Design of electrical stimulation bioreactors for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tandon, N; Marsano, A; Cannizzaro, C; Voldman, J; Vunjak-Novakovic, G

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown to improve functional assembly of cardiomyocytes in vitro for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes were found in past studies to have the best current injection characteristics. The goal of this study was to develop rational experimental design principles for the electrodes and stimulation regime, in particular electrode configuration, electrode ageing, and stimulation amplitude. Carbon rod electrodes were compared via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and we identified a safety range of 0 to 8 V/cm by comparing excitation thresholds and maximum capture rates for neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured with electrical stimulation. We conclude with recommendations for studies involving carbon electrodes for cardiac tissue engineering.

  2. Design of Electrical Stimulation Bioreactors for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, N.; Marsano, A.; Cannizzaro, C.; Voldman, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown to improve functional assembly of cardiomyocytes in vitro for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes were found in past studies to have the best current injection characteristics. The goal of this study was to develop rational experimental design principles for the electrodes and stimulation regime, in particular electrode configuration, electrode ageing, and stimulation amplitude. Carbon rod electrodes were compared via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and we identified a safety range of 0 to 8 V/cm by comparing excitation thresholds and maximum capture rates for neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured with electrical stimulation. We conclude with recommendations for studies involving carbon electrodes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:19163486

  3. Frequency overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation and speech-perception benefit in patients with combined electric and acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Spahr, Anthony J.; Dorman, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess, for patients with a cochlear implant in one ear and low-frequency acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear, whether reducing the overlap in frequencies conveyed in the acoustic signal and those analyzed by the cochlear implant speech processor would improve speech recognition. Design The recognition of monosyllabic words in quiet and sentences in noise was evaluated in three listening configurations: electric stimulation alone, acoustic stimulation alone, and combined electric and acoustic stimulation. The acoustic stimuli were either unfiltered or low-pass (LP) filtered at 250 Hz, 500 Hz, or 750 Hz. The electric stimuli were either unfiltered or high-pass (HP) filtered at 250 Hz, 500 Hz or 750 Hz. In the combined condition the unfiltered acoustic signal was paired with the unfiltered electric signal, the 250 LP acoustic signal was paired with the 250 Hz HP electric signal, the 500 Hz LP acoustic signal was paired with the 500 Hz HP electric signal and the 750 Hz LP acoustic signal was paired with the 750 Hz HP electric signal. Results For both acoustic and electric signals performance increased as the bandwith increased. The highest level of performance in the combined condition was observed in the unfiltered acoustic plus unfiltered electric condition. Conclusions Reducing the overlap in frequency representation between acoustic and electric stimulation does not increase speech understanding scores for patients who have residual hearing in the ear contralateral to the implant. We find that acoustic information below 250 Hz significantly improves performance for patients who combine electric and acoustic stimulation and accounts for the majority of the speech-perception benefit when acoustic stimulation is combined with electric stimulation. PMID:19915474

  4. A CONTINUED INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes three experiments performed by Southern Research Institute under a cooperative agreement with EPA. First was a demonstration of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) used to collect particulate matter (PM) from fossil fuel electrical power pl...

  5. A CONTINUED INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes three experiments performed by Southern Research Institute under a cooperative agreement with EPA. First was a demonstration of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) used to collect particulate matter (PM) from fossil fuel electrical power pl...

  6. Optimization of Electrical Stimulation Parameters for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nina; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wan, Leo; Park, Hyoungshin; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In vitro application of pulsatile electrical stimulation to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured on polymer scaffolds has been shown to improve the functional assembly of cells into contractile cardiac tissue constrcuts. However, to date, the conditions of electrical stimulation have not been optimized. We have systematically varied the electrode material, amplitude and frequency of stimulation, to determine the conditions that are optimal for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes, exhibiting the highest charge-injection capacity and producing cardiac tissues with the best structural and contractile properties, and were thus used in tissue engineering studies. Cardiac tissues stimulated at 3V/cm amplitude and 3Hz frequency had the highest tissue density, the highest concentrations of cardiac troponin-I and connexin-43, and the best developed contractile behavior. These findings contribute to defining bioreactor design specifications and electrical stimulation regime for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21604379

  7. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuwang; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ + α)/(α + β) and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. PMID:25254242

  8. Optimization of electrical stimulation parameters for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Nina; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wan, Leo; Park, Hyoungshin; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2011-06-01

    In vitro application of pulsatile electrical stimulation to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured on polymer scaffolds has been shown to improve the functional assembly of cells into contractile engineered cardiac tissues. However, to date, the conditions of electrical stimulation have not been optimized. We have systematically varied the electrode material, amplitude and frequency of stimulation to determine the conditions that are optimal for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes, exhibiting the highest charge-injection capacity and producing cardiac tissues with the best structural and contractile properties, were thus used in tissue engineering studies. Engineered cardiac tissues stimulated at 3 V/cm amplitude and 3 Hz frequency had the highest tissue density, the highest concentrations of cardiac troponin-I and connexin-43 and the best-developed contractile behaviour. These findings contribute to defining bioreactor design specifications and electrical stimulation regime for cardiac tissue engineering.

  9. Modulation of fear extinction processes using transcranial electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Abend, R; Jalon, I; Gurevitch, G; Sar-el, R; Shechner, T; Pine, D S; Hendler, T; Bar-Haim, Y

    2016-01-01

    Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2). Participants were randomly assigned to three stimulation conditions: direct-current (DC) stimulation, aimed at enhancing extinction-learning; low-frequency alternating-current (AC) stimulation, aimed at interfering with reconsolidation of the activated fear memory; and sham stimulation. The effect of stimulation on these processes was assessed in the subsequent extinction recall phase (Day 3), using skin conductance response and self-reports. Results indicate that AC stimulation potentiated the expression of fear response, whereas DC stimulation led to overgeneralization of fear response to non-reinforced stimuli. The current study demonstrates the capability of electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex to modulate fear extinction processes. However, the stimulation parameters tested here yielded effects opposite to those anticipated and could be clinically detrimental. These results highlight the potential capacity of stimulation to manipulate processes relevant for treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders, but also emphasize the need for additional research to identify delivery parameters to enable its translation into clinical practice. Clinical trial identifiers: Modulation of Fear Extinction Processes Using Transcranial Electrical Stimulation; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02723188; NCT02723188 NCT02723188. PMID:27727241

  10. Differential stimulation of the retina with subretinally injected exogenous neurotransmitter: A biomimetic alternative to electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Corey M.; Inayat, Samsoon; Troy, John B.; Saggere, Laxman

    2016-12-01

    Subretinal stimulation of the retina with neurotransmitters, the normal means of conveying visual information, is a potentially better alternative to electrical stimulation widely used in current retinal prostheses for treating blindness from photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Yet, no subretinal electrical or chemical stimulation study has stimulated the OFF and ON pathways differentially through inner retinal activation. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of differentially stimulating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through the inner nuclear layer of the retina with glutamate, a primary neurotransmitter chemical, in a biomimetic way. We show that controlled pulsatile delivery of glutamate into the subsurface of explanted wild-type rat retinas elicits highly localized simultaneous inhibitory and excitatory spike rate responses in OFF and ON RGCs. We also present the spatiotemporal characteristics of RGC responses to subretinally injected glutamate and the therapeutic stimulation parameters. Our findings could pave the way for future development of a neurotransmitter-based subretinal prosthesis offering more naturalistic vision and better visual acuity than electrical prostheses.

  11. Selective Activation of Neuronal Targets With Sinusoidal Electric Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Eddington, Donald K.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Electric stimulation of the CNS is being evaluated as a treatment modality for a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and sensory disorders. Despite considerable success in some applications, existing stimulation techniques offer little control over which cell types or neuronal substructures are activated by stimulation. The ability to more precisely control neuronal activation would likely improve the clinical outcomes associated with these applications. Here, we show that specific frequencies of sinusoidal stimulation can be used to preferentially activate certain retinal cell types: photoreceptors are activated at 5 Hz, bipolar cells at 25 Hz, and ganglion cells at 100 Hz. In addition, low-frequency stimulation (≤25 Hz) did not activate passing axons but still elicited robust synaptically mediated responses in ganglion cells; therefore, elicited neural activity is confined to within a focal region around the stimulating electrode. Our results suggest that sinusoidal stimulation provides significantly improved control over elicited neural activity relative to conventional pulsatile stimulation. PMID:20810683

  12. Pain complaint: comparison of electrical stimulation with conventional isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Currier, D; Mann, R

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the pain experiences of 17 healthy subjects who trained with isometric exercise, electrical stimulation, and the combination of isometric exercise and electrical stimulation. The McGill Pain Questionnaire was administered during posttest sessions upon termination of 5 weeks of training. Results indicated that subjects who received the electrical stimulation mode of training experienced similar torque gains but less muscle soreness than those who used conventional isometric exercise. Most subjects of the exercise and electrical stimulation groups experienced pain at the medial aspect of their knee, The pain was predominantly expressed as a sensory rather than an effective or an evaluative quality. Of all the trained subjects, those who received electrical stimulation described the greatest amount of transient discomfort. Electrical stimulation does not appear to increase the risk of discomfort more than volitional resistive exercise for achieving similar force-developing capacity of muscle in healthy subjects.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1984;5(6):318-323.

  13. Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-10-01

    The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

  14. Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathon; Konrad, Peter; Kao, Chris; Jansen, E. Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Transient optical neural stimulation has previously been shown to elicit highly controlled, artifact-free potentials within the nervous system in a non-contact fashion without resulting in damage to tissue. This paper presents the physiologic validity of elicited nerve and muscle potentials from pulsed laser induced stimulation of the peripheral nerve in a comparative study with the standard method of electrically evoked potentials. Herein, the fundamental physical properties underlying the two techniques are contrasted. Key laser parameters for efficient optical stimulation of the peripheral nerve are detailed. Strength response curves are shown to be linear for each stimulation modality, although fewer axons can be recruited with optically evoked potentials. Results compare the relative transient energy requirements for stimulation using each technique and demonstrate that optical methods can selectively excite functional nerve stimulation. Adjacent stimulation and recording of compound nerve potentials in their entirety from optical and electrical stimulation are presented, with optical responses shown to be free of any stimulation artifact. Thus, use of a pulsed laser exhibits some advantages when compared to standard electrical means for excitation of muscle potentials in the peripheral nerve in the research domain and possibly for clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:17537515

  15. [Impact of the Overlap Region Between Acoustic and Electric Stimulation].

    PubMed

    Baumann, Uwe; Mocka, Moritz

    2017-02-08

    Patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies and ski-slope hearing loss with partial deafness at medium and high frequencies receive a cochlear implant treatment with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS, "hybrid" stimulation). In the border region between electric and acoustic stimulation a superposition of the 2 types of stimulation is expected. The area of overlap is determined by the insertion depth of the stimulating electrode and the lower starting point of signal transmission provided by the CI speech processor. The study examined the influence of the variation of the electric-acoustic overlap area on speech perception in noise, whereby the width of the "transmission gap" between the 2 different stimulus modalities was varied by 2 different methods. The results derived from 9 experienced users of the MED-EL Duet 2 speech processor show that the electric-acoustic overlapping area and with it the crossover frequency between the acoustic part and the CI should be adjusted individually. Overall, speech reception thresholds (SRT) showed a wide variation of results in between subjects. Further studies shall investigate whether generalized procedures about the setting of the overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation are reasonable, whereby an increased number of subjects and a longer period of acclimatization prior to the conduction of hearing tests deemed necessary.

  16. Does electrical stimulation enhance post-exercise performance recovery?

    PubMed

    Babault, Nicolas; Cometti, Carole; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Deley, Gaëlle

    2011-10-01

    Elite sport requires high-volume and high-intensity training that inevitably induces neuromuscular fatigue detrimental for physical performance. Improving recovery processes is, therefore, fundamental and to this, a wide variety of recovery modalities could be proposed. Among them, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is largely adopted particularly by endurance-type and team sport athletes. This type of solicitation, when used with low stimulation frequencies, induces contractions of short duration and low intensity comparable to active recovery. This might be of interest to favour muscle blood flow and therefore metabolites washout to accelerate recovery kinetics during and after fatiguing exercises, training sessions or competition. However, although electrical stimulation is often used for recovery, limited evidence exists regarding its effects for an improvement of most physiological variables or reduced subjective rating of muscle soreness. Therefore, the main aim of this brief review is to present recent results from the literature to clarify the effectiveness of electrical stimulation as a recovery modality.

  17. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of injured oculomotor nerves in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lei; Yang, Min; Wan, Liang; Wang, Xu-hui; Li, Shi-ting

    2016-01-01

    Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz) were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks. Analysis of the results showed that electrophysiological and morphological recovery of the injured oculomotor nerve was enhanced, indicating that electrical stimulation improved neural regeneration. Thus, this therapy has the potential to promote the recovery of oculomotor nerve dysfunction. PMID:27904500

  18. Therapeutic electrical stimulation for spasticity: quantitative gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Pease, W S

    1998-01-01

    Improvement in motor function following electrical stimulation is related to strengthening of the stimulated spastic muscle and inhibition of the antagonist. A 26-year-old man with familial spastic paraparesis presented with gait dysfunction and bilateral lower limb spastic muscle tone. Clinically, muscle strength and sensation were normal. He was considered appropriate for a trial of therapeutic electrical stimulation following failed trials of physical therapy and baclofen. No other treatment was used concurrent with the electrical stimulation. Before treatment, quantitative gait analysis revealed 63% of normal velocity and a crouched gait pattern, associated with excessive electromyographic activity in the hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles. Based on these findings, bilateral stimulation of the quadriceps and anterior compartment musculature was performed two to three times per week for three months. Repeat gait analysis was conducted three weeks after the cessation of stimulation treatment. A 27% increase in velocity was noted associated with an increase in both cadence and right step length. Right hip and bilateral knee stance motion returned to normal (rather than "crouched"). No change in the timing of dynamic electromyographic activity was seen. These findings suggest a role for the use of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of spasticity. The specific mechanism of this improvement remains uncertain.

  19. Interphase gap decreases electrical stimulation threshold of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Weitz, A C; Behrend, M R; Humayun, M S; Chow, R H; Weiland, J D

    2011-01-01

    The most common electrical stimulation pulse used in retinal implants is a symmetric biphasic current pulse. Prior electrophysiological studies in peripheral nerve have shown that adding an interphase gap (IPG) between the two phases makes stimulation more efficient. We investigated the effect of IPG duration on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) electrical threshold. We used calcium imaging to measure the activity of RGCs in isolated retina in response to electrical stimulation. By varying IPG duration, we were able to examine the effect of duration on threshold. We further studied this effect by simulating RGC behavior with a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model. Our results indicate that the threshold for electrical activation of RGCs can be reduced by increasing the length of the IPG.

  20. Electric-field-stimulated protein mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hekstra, Doeke R; White, K Ian; Socolich, Michael A; Henning, Robert W; Šrajer, Vukica; Ranganathan, Rama

    2016-12-15

    The internal mechanics of proteins-the coordinated motions of amino acids and the pattern of forces constraining these motions-connects protein structure to function. Here we describe a new method combining the application of strong electric field pulses to protein crystals with time-resolved X-ray crystallography to observe conformational changes in spatial and temporal detail. Using a human PDZ domain (LNX2(PDZ2)) as a model system, we show that protein crystals tolerate electric field pulses strong enough to drive concerted motions on the sub-microsecond timescale. The induced motions are subtle, involve diverse physical mechanisms, and occur throughout the protein structure. The global pattern of electric-field-induced motions is consistent with both local and allosteric conformational changes naturally induced by ligand binding, including at conserved functional sites in the PDZ domain family. This work lays the foundation for comprehensive experimental study of the mechanical basis of protein function.

  1. Efficacy of Electrical Pudendal Nerve Stimulation versus Transvaginal Electrical Stimulation in Treating Female Idiopathic Urgency Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyou; Lv, Jianwei; Feng, Xiaoming; Lv, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    We compared the efficacy of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation vs transvaginal electrical stimulation to treat female idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence. A total of 120 female patients with idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence refractory to medication were randomized at a ratio of 2:1 to group 1 of 80 patients and group 2 of 40. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with electrical pudendal nerve stimulation and transvaginal electrical stimulation, respectively. To perform electrical pudendal nerve stimulation long acupuncture needles were deeply inserted into 4 sacrococcygeal points and electrified to stimulate pudendal nerves. Outcome measures were the 24-hour pad test and a questionnaire to measure the severity of symptoms and quality of life in women with urgency urinary incontinence. The median severity of symptoms and quality of life score on the urgency urinary incontinence questionnaire (urgency urinary incontinence total score) was 13 (range 7 to 18.75) in group 1 and 11 (range 8 to 16) in group 2 before treatment, which decreased to 2 (range 0 to 6.75) in group 1 and 6.5 (range 3.25 to 10.75) in group 2 (both p <0.01) after the completion of treatment. At the end of treatment in group 1 complete symptom resolution was noted in 34 patients (42.5%), with a 50% or greater symptom improvement rate in 70.1%. In group 2 complete symptom resolution was noted in 1 patient (2.5%) with a 50% or greater symptom improvement rate in 45.0%. The posttreatment urgency urinary incontinence total score was lower and the therapeutic effect was better in group 1 than in group 2 (both p <0.01). Electrical pudendal nerve stimulation is more effective than transvaginal electrical stimulation in treating drug refractory, female idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MK-801 protects against neuronal injury induced by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Agnew, W F; McCreery, D B; Yuen, T G; Bullara, L A

    1993-01-01

    The ability of MK-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, to protect neurons in the cerebral cortex from injury induced by prolonged electrical stimulation was assessed in cats. Platinum disc electrodes 8.0 mm in diameter and with a surface area of 0.5 cm2 were implanted in the subdural space over the parietal cortex. Ten days after implantation of the electrodes, all animals received continuous stimulation for 7 h using charge-balanced, cathodic-first, controlled current pulses with a charge density of 20 microC/cm2 and a charge/phase of 10 microC/phase. They received either no MK-801, or 0.33 or 5.0 mg/kg (i.v.) administered intravenously, just before the start of the stimulation. Immediately following the stimulation, the animals were perfused and the cerebral cortex examined by light microscopy at eight sites beneath the electrodes. Neuronal damage in the form of shrunken, hyperchromic neurons and perineuronal halos was present only beneath the stimulating electrodes; damage was moderate to severe in stimulated animals that had not received MK-801, slight in animals receiving 0.33 mg/kg, and none to slight in animals receiving 5.0 mg/kg. These results indicate that MK-801, in an apparently dose-dependent fashion, provides substantial but not complete protection against neuronal injury induced by prolonged electrical stimulation. Thus prolonged electrical stimulation can be added to the list of neuropathologic conditions which involve glutamate-induced excitotoxic damage via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The results also support the hypothesis of neuronal hyperactivity as a principal cause of electrically-induced injury in the central nervous system. The implications for design of protocols for functional electrical stimulation are discussed.

  3. Modeling extracellular electrical stimulation: II. Computational validation and numerical results.

    PubMed

    Tahayori, Bahman; Meffin, Hamish; Dokos, Socrates; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B

    2012-12-01

    The validity of approximate equations describing the membrane potential under extracellular electrical stimulation (Meffin et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065005) is investigated through finite element analysis in this paper. To this end, the finite element method is used to simulate a cylindrical neurite under extracellular stimulation. Laplace's equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically in three dimensions and the results are compared to the approximate analytic solutions. Simulation results are in agreement with the approximate analytic expressions for longitudinal and transverse modes of stimulation. The range of validity of the equations describing the membrane potential for different values of stimulation and neurite parameters are presented as well. The results indicate that the analytic approach can be used to model extracellular electrical stimulation for realistic physiological parameters with a high level of accuracy.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  5. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Warrell, G. R.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-15

    We have investigated the impact of strong (∼10{sup 4} V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  6. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  7. Mimosa pudica: Electrical and mechanical stimulation of plant movements.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Ashby, Talitha A; Walker, Ronald K; Johnson, Jon A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-02-01

    Thigmonastic movements in the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica L., associated with fast responses to environmental stimuli, appear to be regulated through electrical and chemical signal transductions. The thigmonastic responses of M. pudica can be considered in three stages: stimulus perception, electrical signal transmission and induction of mechanical, hydrodynamical and biochemical responses. We investigated the mechanical movements of the pinnae and petioles in M. pudica induced by the electrical stimulation of a pulvinus, petiole, secondary pulvinus or pinna by a low electrical voltage and charge. The threshold value was 1.3-1.5 V of applied voltage and 2 to 10 microC of charge for the closing of the pinnules. Both voltage and electrical charge are responsible for the electro-stimulated closing of a leaf. The mechanism behind closing the leaf in M. pudica is discussed. The hydroelastic curvature mechanism closely describes the kinetics of M. pudica leaf movements.

  8. Electrical stimulation of a small brain area reversibly disrupts consciousness.

    PubMed

    Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Beltagy, Abdelrahman; Picard, Fabienne

    2014-08-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie consciousness are not fully understood. We describe a region in the human brain where electrical stimulation reproducibly disrupted consciousness. A 54-year-old woman with intractable epilepsy underwent depth electrode implantation and electrical stimulation mapping. The electrode whose stimulation disrupted consciousness was between the left claustrum and anterior-dorsal insula. Stimulation of electrodes within 5mm did not affect consciousness. We studied the interdependencies among depth recording signals as a function of time by nonlinear regression analysis (h(2) coefficient) during stimulations that altered consciousness and stimulations of the same electrode at lower current intensities that were asymptomatic. Stimulation of the claustral electrode reproducibly resulted in a complete arrest of volitional behavior, unresponsiveness, and amnesia without negative motor symptoms or mere aphasia. The disruption of consciousness did not outlast the stimulation and occurred without any epileptiform discharges. We found a significant increase in correlation for interactions affecting medial parietal and posterior frontal channels during stimulations that disrupted consciousness compared with those that did not. Our findings suggest that the left claustrum/anterior insula is an important part of a network that subserves consciousness and that disruption of consciousness is related to increased EEG signal synchrony within frontal-parietal networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The immediate effectiveness of electrical nerve stimulation and electrical muscle stimulation on myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, T C; Cheng, P T; Kuan, T S; Hong, C Z

    1997-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate the immediate effectiveness of electrotherapy on myofascial trigger points of upper trapezius muscle. Sixty patients (25 males and 35 females) who had myofascial trigger points in one side of the upper trapezius muscles were studied. The involved upper trapezius muscles were treated with three different methods according to a random assignment: group A muscles (n = 18) were given placebo treatment (control group); group B muscles (n = 20) were treated with electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) therapy; and group C muscles (n = 22) were given electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) therapy. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by conducting three measurements on each muscle before and immediately after treatment: subjective pain intensity [(PI) with a visual analog scale], pressure pain threshold [(PT) with algometry], and range of motion [(ROM) with a goniometer] of upper trapezius muscle (lateral bending of cervical spine to the opposite side). When the effectiveness of treatment was compared with that of the placebo group (group A), there was significant improvement in PI and PT in group B (P < 0.01) but not in group C (P > 0.05). The improvement of ROM was significantly more in group C (P < 0.01) as compared with that in group A or group B. When each group was divided into two additional subgroups based on the initial PI, it was found that ENS could reduce PI and increase PT significantly (P < 0.05), but did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve ROM, as compared with the placebo group for both subgroups. EMS could significantly (P < 0.05) improve ROM, but not PT, better than the placebo groups, for either subgroup. It could reduce PI significantly more (P < 0.05) than placebo controls only for the subgroup with mild to moderate pain, but not with severe pain. For pain relief, ENS was significantly better (P < 0.05) than EMS; but for the improvement of ROM, EMS was significantly better (P < 0.05) than ENS. It is concluded that

  10. Electrical stimulation therapy for dysphagia: descriptive results of two surveys.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Faunce, Allison

    2007-07-01

    Given the paucity of objective information on neuromuscular electrical stimulation approaches to dysphagia therapy, and the expanding utilization of this clinical approach, we designed and conducted two surveys to gather large-scale information regarding reported practice patterns, outcomes, complications, and professional perceptions associated with electrical stimulation approaches to dysphagia therapy. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 1000 randomly selected speech-language pathologists in each of two groups: (1) clinicians who had completed a formal electrical stimulation training course and were actively using these techniques, and (2) clinicians who were members of Special Interest Division 13 of the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association. Survey responses were anonymous and no incentive to respond was included. Acceptable response rates were achieved for both surveys (47% and 48%). Both groups of respondents were demographically similar and reported similar practice patterns. Stroke was the most common etiology of dysphagia treated with this approach. The majority of respondents identified no specific dysphagia criteria for application of electrical stimulation, used varied behavioral treatment methods, and did not follow patients beyond therapy. Clinicians reported positive outcomes with no treatment-related complications. Satisfaction with this approach was reported to be high among patients and professionals. Clinicians who did not report using these techniques indicated that they were waiting for more objective information on clinical outcomes and safety. Results of these surveys form an initial description of practice patterns and outcomes associated with electrical stimulation approaches to dysphagia therapy.

  11. Gastric Electrical Stimulation with the Enterra System: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Nikhil; Livemore, Sam; Dunne, Declan; Khan, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is a surgically implanted treatment option for refractory gastroparesis. Aim. To systematically appraise the current evidence for the use of gastric electrical stimulation and suggest a method of standardisation of assessment and follow-up in these patients. Methods. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, DISCOVER, and Cochrane Library was conducted using the keywords including gastric electrical stimulation, gastroparesis, nausea, and vomiting and neuromodulation, stomach, central nervous system, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, and gastrointestinal. Results. 1139 potentially relevant articles were identified, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria and were included. The quality of studies was variable. There was a variation in outcome measures and follow-up methodology. Included studies suggested significant reductions in symptom severity reporting over the study period, but improvements in gastric emptying time were variable and rarely correlated with symptom improvement. Conclusion. The evidence in support of gastric electrical stimulation is limited and heterogeneous in quality. While current evidence has shown a degree of efficacy in these patients, high-quality, large clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this therapy and to identify the patients for whom this therapy is inappropriate. A consensus view on essential preoperative assessment and postoperative measurement is needed. PMID:26246804

  12. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin

    2015-01-01

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes. PMID:26193273

  13. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin

    2015-07-16

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  14. Electrical stimulation and electrode properties. Part 2: pure metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Matthew; Baylor, Kelly; Netherton, Brett L; Stecker, Mark M

    2010-12-01

    Electrical stimulation can cause significant damage to clinical electrodes as well as patient injury. In this study, the effects of stimulation on pure metal electrodes were investigated without the complexities introduced by the multiple elements that make up the clinical electrode. As with the clinical electrodes, there was significant decomposition of pure stainless steel anodes with no associated significant changes in the cathodes when stimulation employed long pulse durations. Effects of stimulation were greater when the anode and cathode were closer under constant voltage stimulation but were distance independent under constant current stimulation. High ionic content of the solution also increased the degree of damage to the anode as did the presence of chloride in the solution. Electrode composition also influenced the amount damage to the anode. Platinum and platinum-iridium electrodes showed no damage with any stimulus while stainless steel showed the lowest resistance to corrosion for direct current (DC) stimulation. Tungsten electrodes behaved very differently than stainless steel, decomposing with pulse stimulation and resisting decomposition during DC stimulation because of the formation of surface protective layers. Because platinum was able to maintain high levels of current over time, prolonged stimulation produced dramatic increases in the temperature of the solution; however, even short periods of stimulation were sufficient to produce dramatic changes in pH in the neighborhood of the electrode.

  15. When is electrical cortical stimulation more likely to produce afterdischarges?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Webber, W R S; Crone, Nathan; Miglioretti, Diana L; Lesser, Ronald P

    2010-01-01

    To study when afterdischarges (ADs) are more likely to occur during cortical stimulation. We examined 6250 electrical stimulation trials in 13 patients with subdural electrodes, studying whether AD occurrence during a trial was influenced by electrode pair stimulated or AD occurrence during the previous trial. In total 545 electrodes were stimulated, 119 frontal (pre-perirolandic), 289 perirolandic, 36 parietal (post-perirolandic), 95 temporal, and 6 occipital. When the same electrode pair was stimulated as the prior trial, 19% produced ADs compared to 5% of trials when a different electrodes pair was stimulated (p<0.0001). When trials showed ADs, and the next trial stimulated the same electrode pair, ADs occurred in 46% of cases, compared to 13% of trials following trials without ADs (p<0.0001). AD probability decreased with increased inter-trial interval length only when the prior trial was at the same electrode pair and had produced an AD (p=0.001). AD probability increased with stimulation duration, whether the trial followed a trial with (p<0.001) or without (p<0.0001) an AD. ADs were more likely to occur when an electrode pair showed ADs and was stimulated again, especially when stimulating after short inter-trial intervals or for longer duration. When ADs occur, waiting about a minute before resuming stimulation might lessen the likelihood of AD recurrence. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. When Is Electrical Cortical Stimulation More Likely To Produce Afterdischarges?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Webber, W.R.S.; Crone, Nathan; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lesser, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study when afterdischarges (ADs) are more likely to occur during cortical stimulation. Methods We examined 6,250 electrical stimulation trials in 13 patients with subdural electrodes, studying whether AD occurrence during a trial was influenced by electrode pair stimulated or AD occurrence during the previous trial. In total 545 electrodes were stimulated, 119 frontal (pre-perirolandic), 289 perirolandic, 36 parietal (post-perirolandic), 95 temporal, and 6 occipital. Results When the same electrode pair was stimulated as the prior trial, 19% produced ADs compared to 5% of trials when a different electrodes pair was stimulated (p<0.0001). When trials showed ADs, and the next trial stimulated the same electrode pair, ADs occurred in 46% of cases, compared to 13% of trials following trials without ADs (p<0.0001). AD probability decreased with increased inter-trial interval length only when the prior trial was at the same electrode pair and had produced an AD (p=0.001). AD probability increased with stimulation duration, whether the trial followed a trial with (p<0.001) or without (p<0.0001) an AD. Conclusions ADs were more likely to occur when an electrode pair showed ADs and was stimulated again, especially when stimulating after short inter-trial intervals or for longer duration. Significance When ADs occur, waiting about a minute before resuming stimulation might lessen the likelihood of AD recurrence. PMID:19900841

  17. Non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions: an educational review.

    PubMed

    Schuhfried, Othmar; Crevenna, Richard; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this educational review is to provide an overview of the clinical application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the extremities in patients with upper motor neurone lesions. In general two methods of electrical stimulation can be distinguished: (i) therapeutic electrical stimulation, and (ii) functional electrical stimulation. Therapeutic electrical stimulation improves neuromuscular functional condition by strengthening muscles, increasing motor control, reducing spasticity, decreasing pain and increasing range of motion. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may be used for neuromuscular electrical stimulation inducing repetitive muscle contraction, electromyography-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation, position-triggered electrical stimulation and subsensory or sensory transcutaneous electric stimulation. Functional electrical stimulation provokes muscle contraction and thereby produces a functionally useful movement during stimulation. In patients with spinal cord injuries or stroke, electrical upper limb neuroprostheses are applied to enhance upper limb and hand function, and electrical lower limb neuroprostheses are applied for restoration of standing and walking. For example, a dropped foot stimulator is used to trigger ankle dorsiflexion to restore gait function. A review of the literature and clinical experience of the use of therapeutic electrical stimulation as well as of functional electrical stimulation in combination with botulinum toxin, exercise therapy and/or splinting are presented. Although the evidence is limited we conclude that neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality to improve function, and that combination with other treatments has an additive therapeutic effect.

  18. Concurrent electrical cervicomedullary stimulation and cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation result in a stimulus interaction.

    PubMed

    Dongés, Siobhan C; Bai, Siwei; Taylor, Janet L

    2017-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? We previously showed that the motor pathway is not modified after cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied using anterior-posterior electrodes. Here, we examine the motor pathway during stimulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that electrically elicited muscle responses to cervicomedullary stimulation are modified during tsDCS, whereas magnetically elicited responses are not. Modelling reveals electrical field modifications during concurrent tsDCS and electrical cervicomedullary stimulation. Changes in muscle response probably result from electrical field modifications rather than physiological changes. Care should be taken when applying electrical stimuli simultaneously. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) can modulate neuronal excitability within the human spinal cord; however, few studies have used tsDCS at a cervical level. This study aimed to characterize cervical tsDCS further by observing its acute effects on motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation and cervicomedullary stimulation. In both studies 1 and 2, participants (study 1, n = 8, four female; and study 2, n = 8, three female) received two periods of 10 min, 3 mA cervical tsDCS on the same day through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck; one period with the cathode posterior (c-tsDCS) and the other with the anode posterior (a-tsDCS). In study 1, electrically elicited cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (eCMEPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis before, during and after each tsDCS period. In study 2, eCMEPs and magnetically elicited CMEPs (mCMEPs) were measured before, during and after each tsDCS period. For study 3, computational modelling was used to observe possible interactions of cervical tsDCS and electrical

  19. Edema and pain reduction using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation treatment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on the edema and pain when applying transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven patients who were diagnosed with lymphedema were selected as the subjects of the study. The experimental group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation treatment on edema regions three times per week for four weeks. Surface tape measurement was used to measure changes in lower extremity edema. Pain intensity was measured using the visual analog scale. [Results] The edema decrements in the experimental group were significantly larger than those in the control group. The pain decrements in the experimental group were significantly larger than those in the control group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was confirmed to be effective in reducing edema and pain. PMID:27942125

  20. Why intra-epidermal electrical stimulation achieves stimulation of small fibres selectively: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motogi, Jun; Sugiyama, Yukiya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Inui, Koji; Tamura, Manabu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The in situ electric field in the peripheral nerve of the skin is investigated to discuss the selective stimulation of nerve fibres. Coaxial planar electrodes with and without intra-epidermal needle tip were considered as electrodes of a stimulator. From electromagnetic analysis, the tip depth of the intra-epidermal electrode should be larger than the thickness of the stratum corneum, the electrical conductivity of which is much lower than the remaining tissue. The effect of different radii of the outer ring electrode on the in situ electric field is marginal. The minimum threshold in situ electric field (rheobase) for free nerve endings is estimated to be 6.3 kV m-1. The possible volume for electrostimulation, which can be obtained from the in situ electric field distribution, becomes deeper and narrower with increasing needle depth, suggesting that possible stimulation sites may be controlled by changing the needle depth. The injection current amplitude should be adjusted when changing the needle depth because the peak field strength also changes. This study shows that intra-epidermal electrical stimulation can achieve stimulation of small fibres selectively, because Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-fibre terminals are located at different depths in the skin.

  1. Electrically stimulated contractions of Vorticella convallaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantha, Deependra; van Winkle, David

    2009-03-01

    The contraction of Vorticella convallaria was triggered by applying a voltage pulse in its host culturing medium. The 50V, 1ms wide pulse was applied across platinum wires separated by 0.7 cm on a microscope slide. The contractions were recorded as cines (image sequences) by a Phantom V5 camera (Vision Research) on a bright field microscope with 20X objective, with the image size of 256 pixels x 128 pixels at 7352 pictures per second. The starting time of the cines was synchronized with the starting of the electrical pulse. We recorded five contractions of each of 12 organisms. The cines were analyzed to obtain the initiation time, defined as the difference in time between the leading edge of the electrical pulse and the first frame showing zooid movement. From multiple contractions of same organism, we found the initiation time is reproducible. In comparing different organisms, we found the average initiation time of 1.73 ms with a standard deviation of 0.63 ms. This research is supported by the state of Florida (MARTECH) and Research Corporation.

  2. Safe neuromuscular electrical stimulator designed for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Matthias; Haller, Michael; Bijak, Manfred; Unger, Ewald; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried

    2011-03-01

    A stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was designed, especially suiting the requirements of elderly people with reduced cognitive abilities and diminished fine motor skills. The aging of skeletal muscle is characterized by a progressive decline in muscle mass, force, and condition. Muscle training with NMES reduces the degradation process. The discussed system is intended for evoked muscle training of the anterior and posterior thigh. The core of the stimulator is based on a microcontroller with two modular output stages. The system has two charge-balanced biphasic voltage-controlled stimulation channels. Additionally, the evoked myoelectric signal (M-wave) and the myokinematic signal (surface acceleration) are measured. A central controller unit allows using the stimulator as a stand-alone device. To set up the training sequences and to evaluate the compliance data, a personal computer is connected to the stimulator via a universal serial bus. To help elderly people handle the stimulator by themselves, the user interface is kept very simple. For safety reasons, the electrode impedance is monitored during stimulation. A comprehensive compliance management with included measurements of muscle activity and stimulation intensity enables a scientific use of the stimulator in clinical trials. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p < 0.001, n = 27 across six cats) or bilateral intermittent SR stimulation (25 ± 23%, p < 0.005, n = 4 across two cats). After bilateral transection of the nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  4. Phase properties of transcranial electrical stimulation artifacts in electrophysiological recordings.

    PubMed

    Noury, Nima; Siegel, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring brain activity during transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is an attractive approach for causally studying healthy and diseased brain activity. Yet, stimulation artifacts complicate electrophysiological recordings during tES. Design and evaluation of artifact removal methods require a through characterization of artifact features, i.e. characterization of the transfer function that defines the relationship between the tES stimulation current and tES artifacts. Here we characterize the phase relationship between stimulation current and tES artifacts in EEG and MEG. We show that stimulation artifacts are not pure in-phase or anti-phase signals, but that non-linear mechanisms induce steady phase deflections relative to the stimulation current. Furthermore, phase deflections of stimulation artifacts are slightly modulated by each heartbeat and respiration. For commonly used stimulation amplitudes, artifact phase deflections correspond to signals several times bigger than normal brain signal. Moreover, the strength of phase deflections varies with stimulation frequency. These phase effects should be accounted for during artifact removal and when comparing recordings with different stimulation frequencies. We summarize our findings in a mathematical model of tES artifacts and discuss how this model can be used in simulations to design and evaluate artifact rejection techniques. To facilitate this research, all raw data of this study is made freely available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Harris, Robert T.; Woodard, Daniel; Dudley, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of muscle contractile activity elicited by electromyostimulation (EMS) was mapped and compared to the contractile-activity pattern produced by voluntary effort. This was done by examining the patterns and the extent of contrast shift, as indicated by T2 values, im magnetic resonance (MR) images after isometric activity of the left m. quadriceps of human subjects was elicited by EMS (1-sec train of 500-microsec sine wave pulses at 50 Hz) or voluntary effort. The results suggest that, whereas EMS stimulates the same fibers repeatedly, thereby increasing the metabolic demand and T2 values, the voluntary efforts are performed by more diffuse asynchronous activation of skeletal muscle even at forces up to 75 percent of maximal to maintain performance.

  6. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Harris, Robert T.; Woodard, Daniel; Dudley, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of muscle contractile activity elicited by electromyostimulation (EMS) was mapped and compared to the contractile-activity pattern produced by voluntary effort. This was done by examining the patterns and the extent of contrast shift, as indicated by T2 values, im magnetic resonance (MR) images after isometric activity of the left m. quadriceps of human subjects was elicited by EMS (1-sec train of 500-microsec sine wave pulses at 50 Hz) or voluntary effort. The results suggest that, whereas EMS stimulates the same fibers repeatedly, thereby increasing the metabolic demand and T2 values, the voluntary efforts are performed by more diffuse asynchronous activation of skeletal muscle even at forces up to 75 percent of maximal to maintain performance.

  7. Soft Encapsulation of Flexible Electrical Stimulation Implant: Challenges and Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Debelle, Adrien; Hermans, Laura; Bosquet, Maxime; Dehaeck, Sam; Lonys, Laurent; Scheid, Benoit; Nonclercq, Antoine; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this document we discuss the main challenges encountered when producing flexible electrical stimulation implants, and present our approach to solving them for prototype production. We include a study of the optimization of the flexible PCB design, the selection of additive manufacturing materials for the mold, and the chemical compatibility of the different materials. Our approach was tested on a flexible gastro-stimulator as part of the ENDOGES research program. PMID:28078073

  8. Prediction and control of neural responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Luke J.; Sly, David James; O'Leary, Stephen John

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to predict and control the probability of firing of a neuron in response to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the type delivered by neural prostheses such as the cochlear implant, bionic eye or in deep brain stimulation. Using the cochlear implant as a model, we developed an efficient computational model that predicts the responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation and evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the model output with pooled responses from a group of guinea pig auditory nerve fibers. It was found that the model accurately predicted the changes in neural firing probability over time to constant and variable amplitude electrical pulse trains, including speech-derived signals, delivered at rates up to 889 pulses s-1. A simplified version of the model that did not incorporate adaptation was used to adaptively predict, within its limitations, the pulsatile electrical stimulus required to cause a desired response from neurons up to 250 pulses s-1. Future stimulation strategies for cochlear implants and other neural prostheses may be enhanced using similar models that account for the way that neural responses are altered by previous stimulation.

  9. Prediction and control of neural responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Luke J; Sly, David James; O'Leary, Stephen John

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to predict and control the probability of firing of a neuron in response to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the type delivered by neural prostheses such as the cochlear implant, bionic eye or in deep brain stimulation. Using the cochlear implant as a model, we developed an efficient computational model that predicts the responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation and evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the model output with pooled responses from a group of guinea pig auditory nerve fibers. It was found that the model accurately predicted the changes in neural firing probability over time to constant and variable amplitude electrical pulse trains, including speech-derived signals, delivered at rates up to 889 pulses s(-1). A simplified version of the model that did not incorporate adaptation was used to adaptively predict, within its limitations, the pulsatile electrical stimulus required to cause a desired response from neurons up to 250 pulses s(-1). Future stimulation strategies for cochlear implants and other neural prostheses may be enhanced using similar models that account for the way that neural responses are altered by previous stimulation.

  10. Electrical stimulation of the motor cortex: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Grandori, F; Rossini, P

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a theoretical analysis of the intracranial fields produced by electrical stimulation of the unexposed motor cortex with surface electrodes in humans. Simulations of a first approximation model of the head indicate that the intensity and the spatial configuration of the intracranial fields can be controlled, to a great extent, by proper choice of the location and of the number of the stimulating electrodes. Fields are shown to be reasonably insensitive to changes of some crucial parameters, like the number of the stimulating electrodes and the ratio between the conductivity of the skull and that of the other tissues.

  11. Exploring Selective Neural Electrical Stimulation for Upper Limb Function Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Tigra, Wafa; Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Coulet, Bertrand; Gelis, Anthony; Fattal, Charles; Maciejasz, Pawel; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Teissier, Jacques; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach of selective neural electrical stimulation of the upper limb nerves. Median and radial nerves of individuals with tetraplegia are stimulated via a multipolar cuff electrode to elicit movements of wrist and hand in acute conditions during a surgical intervention. Various configurations corresponding to various combinations of a 12-poles cuff electrode contacts are tested. Video recording and electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded via sterile surface electrodes are used to evaluate the selectivity of each stimulation configuration in terms of activated muscles. In this abstract we introduce the protocol and preliminary results will be presented during the conference. PMID:27478571

  12. The usefulness of electrical stimulation for assessing pedicle screw placements.

    PubMed

    Toleikis, J R; Skelly, J P; Carlvin, A O; Toleikis, S C; Bernard, T N; Burkus, J K; Burr, M E; Dorchak, J D; Goldman, M S; Walsh, T R

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further establish the efficacy of pedicle screw stimulation as a monitoring technique to avoid nerve root injury during screw placement. The study population consisted of 662 patients in whom 3,409 pedicle screws were placed and tested by electrical stimulation. If stimulation resulted in a myogenic response at a stimulation intensity of 10 mA or less, the placement of the screw was inspected. Inspection was necessary for 3.9% of the screw placements in 15.4% of the study population. None of the patients in the study experienced any new postoperative neurologic deficits. These findings provide guidelines for the interpretation of stimulation data and support the use of this technique as an easy, inexpensive, and quick method to reliably assess screw placements and protecting neurological function.

  13. Hearing suppression induced by electrical stimulation of human auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fenoy, Albert J.; Severson, Meryl A.; Volkov, Igor O.; Brugge, John F.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    In the course of performing electrical stimulation functional mapping (ESFM) in neurosurgery patients we identified three subjects who experienced a hearing suppression effect following stimulation of sites within the superior temporal gyrus (STG). One of these patients has long standing tinnitus that affects both ears. In all subjects, auditory event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from chronically implanted intracranial electrodes and the results were used to localize auditory cortex fields within the STG. Hearing suppression sites were identified within anterior lateral Heschl’s gyrus (HG) and posterior lateral STG, in what are likely belt and parabelt fields. Cortical stimulation suppressed hearing in both ears, and persisted beyond the period of electrical stimulation. Subjects experienced other stimulation evoked perceptions at some of these same sites, including symptoms of vestibular system activation and alteration of audio-visual speech processing. In contrast, stimulation of presumed core auditory cortex within posterior medial HG evoked sound perceptions, or in one case an increase in perceived tinnitus intensity, that affected the contralateral ear and did not persist beyond the period of stimulation. The current results provide confirmation of a rarely reported experimental observation, and for the first time correlate the brain sites associated with hearing suppression with anatomically and physiologically identified auditory cortex fields. PMID:16979144

  14. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10–15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements. PMID:24848463

  15. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M; Thomas, Christine K

    2014-08-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10-15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements.

  16. Investigation of electrical responses to acupuncture stimulation: the effect of electrical grounding and insulation conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Heum; Ryu, Yeon-Hang; Jung, Byungjo

    2009-03-01

    Acupuncture in Oriental medicine has been widely used as a core therapeutic method due to its minimal side-effects and therapeutic efficacy. However, the electrical response to acupuncture stimulation (ERAS) has not been clearly studied under acupuncture conditions that might affect the efficacy of acupuncture therapy. In this study, the ERAS was objectively investigated by measuring meridian electric potentials (MEPs) when the electrical grounding conditions of the operator and subject were varied, and when the insulation conditions of acupuncture needle were varied. MEPs between Sang-geoheo (ST37) and Ha-geoheo (ST39) of the Stomach Meridian (ST) were measured by stimulating Jok-samni (ST36) with an acupuncture needle. For non-insulated acupuncture stimulation (NIAS), the average MEP peak was 148.6 +/- 20.6 when neither the operator nor the subject were electrically grounded, 23.1 +/- 8.8 when the subject only was electrically grounded, 348 +/- 76.8 when the operator only was electrically grounded, and 19.9 +/- 4.7 when both the operator and the subject were electrically grounded. The MEPs presented various magnitudes and patterns depending on the electrical grounding conditions. The MEP pattern was very similar to that of the charge and discharge of a capacitor. For insulated acupuncture stimulation (IAS), the average MEP peak was 20 +/- 4 in all electrical grounding conditions, which is not a significant electric response for acupuncture stimulation. In terms of electricity, this study verified that acupuncture therapy might be affected by acupuncture conditions such as (1) the electrical grounding condition of the operator and the subject and (2) the insulation condition of the acupuncture needle.

  17. Acetylation mediates Cx43 reduction caused by electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Azzimato, Valerio; Colussi, Claudia; Florio, Maria Cristina; Binda, Anna; Panariti, Alice; Qanud, Khaled; Suffredini, Silvia; Gennaccaro, Laura; Miragoli, Michele; Barbuti, Andrea; Lampe, Paul D.; Gaetano, Carlo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Pompilio, Giulio; Rivolta, Ilaria; Rossini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Communication between cardiomyocytes depends upon Gap Junctions (GJ). Previous studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation induces GJ remodeling and modifies histone acetylases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) activities, although these two results have not been linked. The aim of this work was to establish whether electrical stimulation modulates GJ-mediated cardiac cell-cell communication by acetylation-dependent mechanisms. Field stimulation of HL-1 cardiomyocytes at 0.5 Hz for 24 hours significantly reduced Connexin43 (Cx43) expression and cell-cell communication. HDAC activity was down-regulated whereas HAT activity was not modified resulting in increased acetylation of Cx43. Consistent with a post-translational mechanism, we did not observe a reduction in Cx43 mRNA in electrically stimulated cells, while the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 maintained Cx43 expression. Further, the treatment of paced cells with the HAT inhibitor Anacardic Acid maintained both the levels of Cx43 and cell-cell communication. Finally, we observed increased acetylation of Cx43 in the left ventricles of dogs subjected to chronic tachypacing as a model of abnormal ventricular activation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that altered electrical activity can regulate cardiomyocyte communication by influencing the acetylation status of Cx43. PMID:26264759

  18. Electrical and mechanical stimulation of cardiac cells and tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Stoppel, Whitney L; Kaplan, David L; Black, Lauren D

    2016-01-15

    The field of cardiac tissue engineering has made significant strides over the last few decades, highlighted by the development of human cell derived constructs that have shown increasing functional maturity over time, particularly using bioreactor systems to stimulate the constructs. However, the functionality of these tissues is still unable to match that of native cardiac tissue and many of the stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes display an immature, fetal like phenotype. In this review, we seek to elucidate the biological underpinnings of both mechanical and electrical signaling, as identified via studies related to cardiac development and those related to an evaluation of cardiac disease progression. Next, we review the different types of bioreactors developed to individually deliver electrical and mechanical stimulation to cardiomyocytes in vitro in both two and three-dimensional tissue platforms. Reactors and culture conditions that promote functional cardiomyogenesis in vitro are also highlighted. We then cover the more recent work in the development of bioreactors that combine electrical and mechanical stimulation in order to mimic the complex signaling environment present in vivo. We conclude by offering our impressions on the important next steps for physiologically relevant mechanical and electrical stimulation of cardiac cells and engineered tissue in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor unit recruitment during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Dean, Jesse C

    2011-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in clinical settings to activate skeletal muscle in an effort to mimic voluntary contractions and enhance the rehabilitation of human skeletal muscles. It is also used as a tool in research to assess muscle performance and/or neuromuscular activation levels. However, there are fundamental differences between voluntary- and artificial-activation of motor units that need to be appreciated before NMES protocol design can be most effective. The unique effects of NMES have been attributed to several mechanisms, most notably, a reversal of the voluntary recruitment pattern that is known to occur during voluntary muscle contractions. This review outlines the assertion that electrical stimulation recruits motor units in a nonselective, spatially fixed, and temporally synchronous pattern. Additionally, it synthesizes the evidence that supports the contention that this recruitment pattern contributes to increased muscle fatigue when compared with voluntary actions and provides some commentary on the parameters of electrical stimulation as well as emerging technologies being developed to facilitate NMES implementation. A greater understanding of how electrical stimulation recruits motor units, as well as the benefits and limitations of its use, is highly relevant when using this tool for testing and training in rehabilitation, exercise, and/or research.

  20. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Motor Restoration in Hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Jayme S.; Fu, Michael J.; Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews the most common therapeutic and neuroprosthetic applications of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for upper and lower extremity stroke rehabilitation. Fundamental NMES principles and purposes in stroke rehabilitation are explained. NMES modalities used for upper and lower limb rehabilitation are described and efficacy studies are summarized. The evidence for peripheral and central mechanisms of action is also summarized. PMID:26522909

  1. Clinical Trials of Bions for Therapeutic Electrical Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    rehabilitation ," Dis. Rehab., vol. 19, no. 2, pp.: 47-55, 1997. [7] P.D. Faghri, M.M. Rodger, R.M. Glaser, J.G. Bors, C. Ho, and P. Akuthota, "The effects... hemiplegia treated by intramuscular electrical stimulation," Proceedings of RESNA, pp. 217-219, 1998.

  2. 21 CFR 882.1870 - Evoked response electrical stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evoked response electrical stimulator. 882.1870 Section 882.1870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1870 Evoked...

  3. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Motor Restoration in Hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Jayme S; Fu, Michael J; Sheffler, Lynne R; Chae, John

    2015-11-01

    This article reviews the most common therapeutic and neuroprosthetic applications of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for upper and lower extremity stroke rehabilitation. Fundamental NMES principles and purposes in stroke rehabilitation are explained. NMES modalities used for upper and lower limb rehabilitation are described, and efficacy studies are summarized. The evidence for peripheral and central mechanisms of action is also summarized.

  4. Electric Stimulation with Sinusoids and White Noise for Neural Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Rizzo, Joseph F.; Fried, Shelley I.

    2010-01-01

    We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell's spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with a peak response that occurs 25 ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS. PMID:20582268

  5. Closing of venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Adesina, Tejumade; Jovanov, Emil

    2007-05-01

    Electrical signaling and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since XIX century, but the exact mechanism of Venus flytrap closure is still unknown. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap leaf by activating motor cells without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells is 0.3 s, the same as mechanically induced closing. The mean electrical charge required for the closure of the Venus flytrap leaf is 13.6 microC. Ion channel blockers such as Ba(2+), TEACl as well as uncouplers such as FCCP, 2,4-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol dramatically decrease the speed of the trap closing. Using an ultra-fast data acquisition system with measurements in real time, we found that the action potential in the Venus flytrap has a duration time of about 1.5 ms. Our results demonstrate that electrical stimulation can be used to study mechanisms of fast activity in motor cells of the plant kingdom.

  6. Closing of Venus Flytrap by Electrical Stimulation of Motor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adesina, Tejumade; Jovanov, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Electrical signaling and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since XIX century, but the exact mechanism of Venus flytrap closure is still unknown. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap leaf by activating motor cells without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation of motor cells is 0.3 s, the same as mechanically induced closing. The mean electrical charge required for the closure of the Venus flytrap leaf is 13.6 µC. Ion channel blockers such as Ba2+, TEACl as well as uncouplers such as FCCP, 2,4-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol dramatically decrease the speed of the trap closing. Using an ultra-fast data acquisition system with measurements in real time, we found that the action potential in the Venus flytrap has a duration time of about 1.5 ms. Our results demonstrate that electrical stimulation can be used to study mechanisms of fast activity in motor cells of the plant kingdom. PMID:19516982

  7. Feedback control of electrode offset voltage during functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Shon, Ahnsei; Han, Sungmin; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan

    2013-08-15

    Control of the electrode offset voltage is an important issue related to the processes of functional electrical stimulation because excess charge accumulation over time damages both the tissue and the electrodes. This paper proposes a new feedback control scheme to regulate the electrode offset voltage to a predetermined reference value. The electrode offset voltage was continuously monitored using a sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit during stimulation and non-stimulation periods. The stimulation current was subsequently adjusted using a proportional-integral (PI) controller to minimise the error between the reference value and the electrode offset voltage. During the stimulation period, the electrode offset voltage was maintained through the S/H circuit, and the PI controller did not affect the amplitude of the stimulation current. In contrast, during the non-stimulation period, the electrode offset voltage was sampled through the S/H circuit and rapidly regulated through the PI controller. The experimental results obtained using a nerve cuff electrode showed that the electrode offset voltage was successfully controlled in terms of the performance specifications, such as the steady- and transient-state responses and the constraint of the controller output. Therefore, the proposed control scheme can potentially be used in various nerve stimulation devices and applications requiring control of the electrode offset voltage.

  8. The science of electrical stimulation therapy for fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Kuzyk, Paul RT; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2009-01-01

    This article is a brief review of the basic science research conducted in the field of electrical stimulation for fracture healing. Direct electrical current, capacitive coupling, and inductive coupling have been studied as potential techniques to enhance fracture healing through the proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic cells. These techniques are particularly appealing as they offer a potential minimally invasive solution to the difficult clinical problem of delayed fracture healing and nonunion. Basic science studies have shown conclusively that electrical stimulation techniques lead to bone cell proliferation and have attempted to elucidate the intracellular processes by which this bone cell proliferation occurs. Further basic science and clinical research is required to enhance the effectiveness of this therapy for the treatment of fracture nonunions. PMID:19838360

  9. Differential stimulation of the retina with subretinally injected exogenous neurotransmitter: A biomimetic alternative to electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Rountree, Corey M.; Inayat, Samsoon; Troy, John B.; Saggere, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    Subretinal stimulation of the retina with neurotransmitters, the normal means of conveying visual information, is a potentially better alternative to electrical stimulation widely used in current retinal prostheses for treating blindness from photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Yet, no subretinal electrical or chemical stimulation study has stimulated the OFF and ON pathways differentially through inner retinal activation. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of differentially stimulating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through the inner nuclear layer of the retina with glutamate, a primary neurotransmitter chemical, in a biomimetic way. We show that controlled pulsatile delivery of glutamate into the subsurface of explanted wild-type rat retinas elicits highly localized simultaneous inhibitory and excitatory spike rate responses in OFF and ON RGCs. We also present the spatiotemporal characteristics of RGC responses to subretinally injected glutamate and the therapeutic stimulation parameters. Our findings could pave the way for future development of a neurotransmitter-based subretinal prosthesis offering more naturalistic vision and better visual acuity than electrical prostheses. PMID:27929043

  10. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator...

  15. Electrical Stimulation of the Retina to Produce Artificial Vision.

    PubMed

    Weiland, James D; Walston, Steven T; Humayun, Mark S

    2016-10-14

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore vision to blind individuals suffering from retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. These devices function by electrically stimulating surviving retinal neurons, whose activation is interpreted by the brain as a visual percept. Many prostheses are currently under development. They are categorized as epiretinal, subretinal, and suprachoroidal prostheses on the basis of the placement of the stimulating microelectrode array. Each can activate ganglion cells through direct or indirect stimulation. The response of retinal neurons to these modes of stimulation are discussed in detail and are placed in context of the visual percept they are likely to evoke. This article further reviews challenges faced by retinal prosthesis and discusses potential solutions to address them.

  16. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering under electric field stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, Erwan; Ould Moussa, Nawel; Louot, Christophe; Lefort, Claire; Pagnoux, Dominique; Duclère, Jean-René; Kaneyasu, Junya F.; Kano, Hideaki; Duponchel, Ludovic; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    We introduce an experiment using electro-CARS, an electro-optical method based on the combination of ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (M-CARS) spectroscopy and electric field stimulation. We demonstrate that this method can effectively discriminate the resonant CARS signal from the nonresonant background owing to a phenomenon of molecular orientation in the sample medium. Such molecular orientation is intrinsically related to the induction of an electric dipole moment by the applied static electric field. Evidence of the electro-CARS effect is obtained with a solution of n -alkanes (CnH2 n +2 , 15 ≤n ≤40 ), for which an enhancement of the CARS signal-to-noise ratio is achieved in the case of CH2 and CH3 symmetric/asymmetric stretching vibrations. Additionally, an electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation experiment is performed in order to corroborate the orientational organization of molecules due to the electric field excitation. Finally, we use a simple mathematical approach to compare the vibrational information extracted from electro-CARS measurements with spontaneous Raman data and to highlight the impact of electric stimulation on the vibrational signal.

  17. Assessment of Neuromuscular Function Using Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rozand, Vianney; Grosprêtre, Sidney; Stapley, Paul J; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-09-13

    Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is a non-invasive method commonly used to evaluate neuromuscular function from brain to muscle (supra-spinal, spinal and peripheral levels). The present protocol describes how this method can be used to stimulate the posterior tibial nerve that activates plantar flexor muscles. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation consists of inducing an electrical stimulus to a motor nerve to evoke a muscular response. Direct (M-wave) and/or indirect (H-reflex) electrophysiological responses can be recorded at rest using surface electromyography. Mechanical (twitch torque) responses can be quantified with a force/torque ergometer. M-wave and twitch torque reflect neuromuscular transmission and excitation-contraction coupling, whereas H-reflex provides an index of spinal excitability. EMG activity and mechanical (superimposed twitch) responses can also be recorded during maximal voluntary contractions to evaluate voluntary activation level. Percutaneous nerve stimulation provides an assessment of neuromuscular function in humans, and is highly beneficial especially for studies evaluating neuromuscular plasticity following acute (fatigue) or chronic (training/detraining) exercise.

  18. Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Liu, Anli A; Lafon, Belen; Friedman, Daniel; Dayan, Michael; Wang, Xiuyuan; Bikson, Marom; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-02-07

    Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. We measured electric potentials intracranially in ten epilepsy patients and estimate electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. When stimulating at 2 mA, cortical electric fields reach 0.4 V/m, the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual whole-head anatomy is considered, the predicted electric field magnitudes correlate with the recorded values in cortical (r=0.89) and depth (r=0.84) electrodes. Accurate models require adjustment of tissue conductivity values reported in the literature, but accuracy is not improved when incorporating white matter anisotropy or different skull compartments. This is the first study to validate and calibrate current-flow models with in vivo intracranial recordings in humans, providing a solid foundation to target stimulation and interpret clinical trials.

  19. Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Liu, Anli A; Lafon, Belen; Friedman, Daniel; Dayan, Michael; Wang, Xiuyuan; Bikson, Marom; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. We measured electric potentials intracranially in ten epilepsy patients and estimated electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. When stimulating at 2 mA, cortical electric fields reach 0.4 V/m, the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual whole-head anatomy is considered, the predicted electric field magnitudes correlate with the recorded values in cortical (r = 0.89) and depth (r = 0.84) electrodes. Accurate models require adjustment of tissue conductivity values reported in the literature, but accuracy is not improved when incorporating white matter anisotropy or different skull compartments. This is the first study to validate and calibrate current-flow models with in vivo intracranial recordings in humans, providing a solid foundation to target stimulation and interpret clinical trials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18834.001 PMID:28169833

  20. Electrical Stimulation of Coleopteran Muscle for Initiating Flight

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Hao Yu; Li, Yao; Cao, Feng; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Some researchers have long been interested in reconstructing natural insects into steerable robots or vehicles. However, until recently, these so-called cyborg insects, biobots, or living machines existed only in science fiction. Owing to recent advances in nano/micro manufacturing, data processing, and anatomical and physiological biology, we can now stimulate living insects to induce user-desired motor actions and behaviors. To improve the practicality and applicability of airborne cyborg insects, a reliable and controllable flight initiation protocol is required. This study demonstrates an electrical stimulation protocol that initiates flight in a beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata, Coleoptera). A reliable stimulation protocol was determined by analyzing a pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), flight muscles that oscillate the wings. DLM stimulation has achieved with a high success rate (> 90%), rapid response time (< 1.0 s), and small variation (< 0.33 s; indicating little habituation). Notably, the stimulation of DLMs caused no crucial damage to the free flight ability. In contrast, stimulation of optic lobes, which was earlier demonstrated as a successful flight initiation protocol, destabilized the beetle in flight. Thus, DLM stimulation is a promising secure protocol for inducing flight in cyborg insects or biobots. PMID:27050093

  1. Immunocytochemical analysis of retinal neurons under electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Aditi; Colodetti, Leonardo; Weiland, James D.; Hinton, David R.; Humayun, Mark S.; Lee, Eun-Jin

    2009-01-01

    To function successfully, a retinal prosthesis needs to provide effective stimulation in a safe manner. To date, most studies have been dedicated to assessing proper stimulation parameters, for example, determining stimulus threshold. Few studies have looked at the effects of prolonged stimulation on retinal morphology. One previous study did show gross morphological changes in the rat retina due to mechanical pressure, with and without electrical stimulation (Colodetti et al., 2007). Here, we used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of the same experimental conditions on neuronal structure in finer detail. For this purpose, we first defined four experimental groups. In Group 1, the stimulating electrode was near but did not contact the retina, and we did not apply current pulses. In Group 2, the electrode also did not contact the retina, but we applied current pulses of 0.09 μC/phase. In Group 3, the stimulating electrode directly contacted the retina, but we did not apply current pulses. In Group 4, the stimulating electrode directly contacted the retina, and we applied current pulses of 0.09 μC/phase. We found neural damage only in the outer retina, including a disturbance of synaptic vesicle proteins in the photoreceptor terminals and a remodeling of horizontal and rod bipolar cells’ processes. These results show that, although gross morphological changes are mainly concentrated around the area of electrode contact, immunocytochemistry can reveal changes in adjacent areas as well. PMID:19103179

  2. Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Leonel E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Incorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanisms of high-frequency TES remain largely unexplored. We investigated the properties of TES with frequencies beyond those typically used in neural stimulation. Approach We implemented a multilayer volume conductor model including dispersion and capacitive effects, coupled to a cable model of a nerve fiber. We simulated voltage- and current-controlled transcutaneous stimulation, and quantified the effects of frequency on the distribution of potentials and fiber excitation. We also quantified the effects of a novel transdermal amplitude modulated signal (TAMS) consisting of a non-zero offset sinusoidal carrier modulated by a square-pulse train. Main results The model revealed that high-frequency signals generated larger potentials at depth than did low frequencies, but this did not translate into lower stimulation thresholds. Both TAMS and conventional rectangular pulses activated more superficial fibers in addition to the deeper, target fibers, and at no frequency did we observe an inversion of the strength-distance relationship. Current regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by fiber depth, whereas voltage regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by skin thickness. Finally, our model reproduced the threshold-frequency relationship of experimentally measured motor thresholds. Significance The model may be used for prediction of motor thresholds in TES, and contributes to the understanding of high-frequency TES. PMID:25380254

  3. Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Leonel E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Incorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanisms of high-frequency TES remain largely unexplored. We investigated the properties of TES with frequencies beyond those typically used in neural stimulation. Approach. We implemented a multilayer volume conductor model including dispersion and capacitive effects, coupled to a cable model of a nerve fiber. We simulated voltage- and current-controlled transcutaneous stimulation, and quantified the effects of frequency on the distribution of potentials and fiber excitation. We also quantified the effects of a novel transdermal amplitude modulated signal (TAMS) consisting of a non-zero offset sinusoidal carrier modulated by a square-pulse train. Main results. The model revealed that high-frequency signals generated larger potentials at depth than did low frequencies, but this did not translate into lower stimulation thresholds. Both TAMS and conventional rectangular pulses activated more superficial fibers in addition to the deeper, target fibers, and at no frequency did we observe an inversion of the strength-distance relationship. Current regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by fiber depth, whereas voltage regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by skin thickness. Finally, our model reproduced the threshold-frequency relationship of experimentally measured motor thresholds. Significance. The model may be used for prediction of motor thresholds in TES, and contributes to the understanding of high-frequency TES.

  4. Electrical Stimulation of Coleopteran Muscle for Initiating Flight.

    PubMed

    Choo, Hao Yu; Li, Yao; Cao, Feng; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Some researchers have long been interested in reconstructing natural insects into steerable robots or vehicles. However, until recently, these so-called cyborg insects, biobots, or living machines existed only in science fiction. Owing to recent advances in nano/micro manufacturing, data processing, and anatomical and physiological biology, we can now stimulate living insects to induce user-desired motor actions and behaviors. To improve the practicality and applicability of airborne cyborg insects, a reliable and controllable flight initiation protocol is required. This study demonstrates an electrical stimulation protocol that initiates flight in a beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata, Coleoptera). A reliable stimulation protocol was determined by analyzing a pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), flight muscles that oscillate the wings. DLM stimulation has achieved with a high success rate (> 90%), rapid response time (< 1.0 s), and small variation (< 0.33 s; indicating little habituation). Notably, the stimulation of DLMs caused no crucial damage to the free flight ability. In contrast, stimulation of optic lobes, which was earlier demonstrated as a successful flight initiation protocol, destabilized the beetle in flight. Thus, DLM stimulation is a promising secure protocol for inducing flight in cyborg insects or biobots.

  5. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Bikson, Marom; Chou, Li-Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Khadka, Niranjan; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-03-03

    It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity. The explicit role of the power in these harmonics in determining the outcome of stimulation has not previously been analyzed. In this study, we adopted an animal model of peripheral electrical stimulation that includes an amplitude-adapted pulse train which induces force enhancements with a corticospinal contribution. We report that the electrical-stimulation-induced force enhancements were correlated with the amplitude of stimulation power harmonics during the amplitude-adapted pulse train. In an exploratory analysis, different levels of correlation were observed between force enhancement and power harmonics of 20-80 Hz (r = 0.4247, p = 0.0243), 100-180 Hz (r = 0.5894, p = 0.0001), 200-280 Hz (r = 0.7002, p < 0.0001), 300-380 Hz (r = 0.7449, p < 0.0001), 400-480 Hz (r = 0.7906, p < 0.0001), 500-600 Hz (r = 0.7717, p < 0.0001), indicating a trend of increasing correlation, specifically at higher order frequency power harmonics. This is a pilot, but important first demonstration that power at high order harmonics in the frequency spectrum of electrical stimulation pulses may contribute to neuromodulation, thus warrant explicit attention in therapy design and analysis.

  6. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Bikson, Marom; Chou, Li-Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Khadka, Niranjan; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity. The explicit role of the power in these harmonics in determining the outcome of stimulation has not previously been analyzed. In this study, we adopted an animal model of peripheral electrical stimulation that includes an amplitude-adapted pulse train which induces force enhancements with a corticospinal contribution. We report that the electrical-stimulation-induced force enhancements were correlated with the amplitude of stimulation power harmonics during the amplitude-adapted pulse train. In an exploratory analysis, different levels of correlation were observed between force enhancement and power harmonics of 20–80 Hz (r = 0.4247, p = 0.0243), 100–180 Hz (r = 0.5894, p = 0.0001), 200–280 Hz (r = 0.7002, p < 0.0001), 300–380 Hz (r = 0.7449, p < 0.0001), 400–480 Hz (r = 0.7906, p < 0.0001), 500–600 Hz (r = 0.7717, p < 0.0001), indicating a trend of increasing correlation, specifically at higher order frequency power harmonics. This is a pilot, but important first demonstration that power at high order harmonics in the frequency spectrum of electrical stimulation pulses may contribute to neuromodulation, thus warrant explicit attention in therapy design and analysis. PMID:28256638

  7. Promontory electrical stimulation to elicit vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs).

    PubMed

    Park, Jonas J-H; Shen, Anmin; Westhofen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) provoked electrically at the promontory provide a feasible method to record vestibular responses in awake patients. Electrically evoked VEMP testing has been performed by galvanic stimulation at the mastoid so far. The present study examined an electrical stimulation mode close to the otolith organs at the promontory. Fourteen cochlear implant candidates who were planned for clinical routine promontory stimulation testing (PST) to assess auditory nerve function underwent promontory VEMP testing. After testing the cochlear nerve function during PST promontory cervical VEMPs (p-c-VEMPs) and promontory ocular VEMPs (p-o-VEMPs) were recorded during subsequent transtympanic electrical stimulation at the promontory. Promontory VEMP testing was well tolerated by the patients. Mean latencies for p-c-VEMPs were 10.30 ± 2.23 ms (p1) and 17.86 ± 3.83 ms (n1). Mean latencies for p-o-VEMPs were 7.64 ± 1.24 ms (n1) and 11.2 ± 1.81 ms (p1). The stimulation threshold level was measured at 0.15 ± 0.07 mA for p-c-VEMPs and at 0.19 ± 0.11 mA for p-o-VEMPs. The discomfort level was found to be at 0.78 ± 0.29 mA for p-c-VEMPs and at 0.69 ± 0.25 mA for p-oVEMPs. Mean p1-n1 amplitude in p-c-VEMPs was 124.78 ± 56.55 µV and p-o-VEMPs showed a mean n1-p1 amplitude of 30.94 ± 18.98 µV.

  8. Ownership of an artificial limb induced by electrical brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kelly L.; Cronin, Jeneva; Olson, Jared D.; Ehrsson, H. Henrik; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Replacing the function of a missing or paralyzed limb with a prosthetic device that acts and feels like one’s own limb is a major goal in applied neuroscience. Recent studies in nonhuman primates have shown that motor control and sensory feedback can be achieved by connecting sensors in a robotic arm to electrodes implanted in the brain. However, it remains unknown whether electrical brain stimulation can be used to create a sense of ownership of an artificial limb. In this study on two human subjects, we show that ownership of an artificial hand can be induced via the electrical stimulation of the hand section of the somatosensory (SI) cortex in synchrony with touches applied to a rubber hand. Importantly, the illusion was not elicited when the electrical stimulation was delivered asynchronously or to a portion of the SI cortex representing a body part other than the hand, suggesting that multisensory integration according to basic spatial and temporal congruence rules is the underlying mechanism of the illusion. These findings show that the brain is capable of integrating “natural” visual input and direct cortical-somatosensory stimulation to create the multisensory perception that an artificial limb belongs to one’s own body. Thus, they serve as a proof of concept that electrical brain stimulation can be used to “bypass” the peripheral nervous system to induce multisensory illusions and ownership of artificial body parts, which has important implications for patients who lack peripheral sensory input due to spinal cord or nerve lesions. PMID:27994147

  9. Determinants of the electric field during transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Alexander; Paulus, Walter; Will, Susanne; Antunes, Andre; Thielscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) causes a complex spatial distribution of the electric current flow in the head which hampers the accurate localization of the stimulated brain areas. In this study we show how various anatomical features systematically shape the electric field distribution in the brain during tDCS. We constructed anatomically realistic finite element (FEM) models of two individual heads including conductivity anisotropy and different skull layers. We simulated a widely employed electrode montage to induce motor cortex plasticity and moved the stimulating electrode over the motor cortex in small steps to examine the resulting changes of the electric field distribution in the underlying cortex. We examined the effect of skull thickness and composition on the passing currents showing that thinner skull regions lead to higher electric field strengths. This effect is counteracted by a larger proportion of higher conducting spongy bone in thicker regions leading to a more homogenous current over the skull. Using a multiple regression model we could identify key factors that determine the field distribution to a significant extent, namely the thicknesses of the cerebrospinal fluid and the skull, the gyral depth and the distance to the anode and cathode. These factors account for up to 50% of the spatial variation of the electric field strength. Further, we demonstrate that individual anatomical factors can lead to stimulation "hotspots" which are partly resistant to electrode positioning. Our results give valuable novel insights in the biophysical foundation of tDCS and highlight the importance to account for individual anatomical factors when choosing an electrode montage.

  10. Neural Responses to Electrical Stimulation on Patterned Silk Films

    PubMed Central

    Hronik-Tupaj, Marie; Raja, Waseem Khan; Tang-Schomer, Min; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a critical issue for trauma patients. Following injury, incomplete axon regeneration or misguided axon innervation into tissue will result in loss of sensory and motor functions. The objective of this study was to examine axon outgrowth and axon alignment in response to surface patterning and electrical stimulation. To accomplish our objective, metal electrodes with dimensions of 1.5 mm × 4 cm, were sputter coated onto micropatterned silk protein films, with surface grooves 3.5 μm wide × 500 nm deep. P19 neurons were seeded on the patterned electronic silk films and stimulated at 120 mV, 1 kHz, for 45 minutes each day for 7 days. Responses were compared to neurons on flat electronic silk films, patterned silk films without stimulation, and flat silk films without stimulation. Significant alignment was found on the patterned film groups compared to the flat film groups. Axon outgrowth was greater (p < 0.05) on electronic films on day 5 and day 7 compared to the unstimulated groups. In conclusion, electrical stimulation, at 120 mV, 1 kHz, for 45 minutes daily, in addition to surface patterning, of 3.5 μm wide × 500 nm deep grooves, offered control of nerve axon outgrowth and alignment. PMID:23401351

  11. Neural responses to electrical stimulation on patterned silk films.

    PubMed

    Hronik-Tupaj, Marie; Raja, Waseem Khan; Tang-Schomer, Min; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2013-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a critical issue for patients with trauma. Following injury, incomplete axon regeneration or misguided axon innervation into tissue will result in loss of sensory and motor functions. The objective of this study was to examine axon outgrowth and axon alignment in response to surface patterning and electrical stimulation. To accomplish our objective, metal electrodes with dimensions of 1.5 mm × 4 cm, were sputter coated onto micropatterned silk protein films, with surface grooves 3.5 μm wide × 500 nm deep. P19 neurons were seeded on the patterned electronic silk films and stimulated at 120 mV, 1 kHz, for 45 min each day for 7 days. Responses were compared with neurons on flat electronic silk films, patterned silk films without stimulation, and flat silk films without stimulation. Significant alignment was found on the patterned film groups compared with the flat film groups. Axon outgrowth was greater (p < 0.05) on electronic films on days 5 and 7 compared with the unstimulated groups. In conclusion, electrical stimulation, at 120 mV, 1 kHz, for 45 min daily, in addition to surface patterning, of 3.5 μm wide × 500 nm deep grooves, offered control of nerve axon outgrowth and alignment.

  12. Toward an implantable functional electrical stimulation device to correct strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Federico G.; Isobe, Jun; Zealear, David; Judy, Jack W.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Patnode, Stephanie; Lee, Hyowon; Hahn, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the feasibility of electrically stimulating the lateral rectus muscle to recover its physiologic abduction ability in cases of complete sixth cranial (abducens) nerve palsy. METHODS In the feline lateral rectus muscle model, the effects of a charge-balanced, biphasic, current-controlled stimulus on the movement of the eye were investigated while stimulation frequency, amplitude, and pulse duration was varied. Eye deflection was measured with a force transducer. Denervated conditions were simulated by injection of botulinum toxin A. RESULTS Three chemically denervated and 4 control lateral rectus muscles were analyzed. In control lateral rectus muscles, the minimum fusion frequency was approximately 170 Hz, and the maximum evoked abduction was 27°. The minimum fusion frequency was unchanged after 4 weeks of chemical denervation. Stimulation of chemically denervated lateral rectus muscle resulted in 17° of abduction. For both innervated and chemically denervated lateral rectus muscle, frequencies greater than 175 Hz yielded very little increase in abduction. Modulating amplitude produced noticeable movement throughout the tested range (0.2 to 9 mA). CONCLUSIONS Results from the feline lateral rectus muscle showed that electrical stimulation is a feasible approach to evoke a contraction from a denervated lateral rectus muscle. The degree of denervation of the feline lateral rectus muscle was indeterminate. Varying the stimulation amplitude allowed greater eye movement. It is very likely that both frequency and amplitude must be modulated for finer control of static eye position. PMID:19375369

  13. Analysis of electric field stimulation of single cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, L; Borderies, J R

    1992-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of cardiac cells by imposed extracellular electric fields results in a transmembrane potential which is highly nonuniform, with one end of the cell depolarized and the other end hyperpolarized along the field direction. To date, the implications of the close proximity of oppositely polarized membranes on excitability have not been explored. In this work we compare the biophysical basis for field stimulation of cells at rest with that for intracellular current injection, using three Luo-Rudy type membrane patches coupled together as a lumped model to represent the cell membrane. Our model shows that cell excitation is a function of the temporal and spatial distribution of ionic currents and transmembrane potential. The extracellular and intracellular forms of stimulation were compared in greater detail for monophasic and symmetric biphasic rectangular pulses, with duration ranging from 0.5 to 10 ms. Strength-duration curves derived for field stimulation show that over a wide range of pulse durations, biphasic waveforms can recruit and activate membrane patches about as effectively as can monophasic waveforms having the same total pulse duration. We find that excitation with biphasic stimulation results from a synergistic, temporal summation of inward currents through the sodium channel in membrane patches at opposite ends of the cell. Furthermore, with both waveform types, a net inward current through the inwardly rectifying potassium channel contributes to initial membrane depolarization. In contrast, models of stimulation by intracellular current injection do not account for the nonuniformity of transmembrane potential and produce substantially different (even contradictory) results for the case of stimulation from rest. PMID:1420884

  14. Exploring the tolerability of spatiotemporally complex electrical stimulation paradigms.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy S; Suhr, Courtney L; Lai, Alan; Halliday, Amy J; Freestone, Dean R; McLean, Karen J; Burkitt, Anthony N; Cook, Mark J

    2011-10-01

    A modified cortical stimulation model was used to investigate the effects of varying the synchronicity and periodicity of electrical stimuli delivered to multiple pairs of electrodes on seizure initiation. In this model, electrical stimulation of the motor cortex of rats, along four pairs of a microwire electrode array, results in an observable seizure with quantifiable electrographic duration and behavioural severity. Periodic stimuli had a constant inter-stimulus intervals across the two-second stimulus duration, whilst synchronous stimuli consisted of singular biphasic, bipolar pulses delivered to the four pairs of electrodes at precisely the same time for the entire two second stimulation period. In this way four combinations of stimulation were possible; periodic/synchronous (P/S), periodic/asynchronous (P/As), aperiodic/synchronous (Ap/S) and aperiodic/asynchronous (Ap/As). All stimulation types were designed with equal pulse width, current intensity and mean frequency of stimulation (60 Hz), standardizing net charge transfer. It was expected that the periodicity of the stimulus would be the primary determinant of seizure initiation and therefore severity and electrographic duration. However, the results showed that significant differences in both severity and duration only occurred when the synchronicity was altered. For periodic stimuli, synchronous delivery increased median seizure duration from 5 s to 13 s and increased median Racine severity from 1 to 3. In the aperiodic case, synchronous stimulus delivery increased median duration from 5.5 s to 11s and resulted in seizures of median severity 3 vs. 0 in the asynchronous case. These findings may have implications for the design of future neurostimulation waveform designs as higher numbers of electrodes and stimulator output channels become available in next generation implants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treating a pressure ulcer with bio-electric stimulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie; Collins, Fiona

    Mr Jones lived independently until he developed necrotic pressure ulcers over his heels and could no longer mobilize to care for himself. He was transferred to a nursing home where he lived for 18 months and where the nurses could care for his wounds. The wound had been on his right heel without changing over the 18 months and, although attempts to hydrate the eschar had been somewhat successful, the necrotic tissue proved stubborn creating large quantity of fibrous slough. Mr Jones was initially assessed by the tissue viability consultant on 14 March 2005 and agreed to the application of bio-electric stimulation therapy (POSiFEC). The wound change was immediate and was fully healed by 16 June 2005, 12 weeks after his initial assessment. This article outlines his care and the background to bio-electrical stimulation in wounds.

  16. Characterization of electrical stimulation electrodes for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Chris; Figallo, Elisa; Voldman, Joel; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown to improve functional assembly of cardiomyocytes in vitro for cardiac tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to assess the conditions of electrical stimulation with respect to the electrode geometry, material properties and charge-transfer characteristics at the electrode-electrolyte interface. We compared various biocompatible materials, including nanoporous carbon, stainless steel, titanium and titanium nitride, for use in cardiac tissue engineering bioreactors. The faradaic and non-faradaic charge transfer mechanisms were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), studying current injection characteristics, and examining surface properties of electrodes with scanning electron microscopy. Carbon electrodes were found to have the best current injection characteristics. However, these electrodes require careful handling because of their limited mechanical strength. The efficacy of various electrodes for use in 2-D and 3-D cardiac tissue engineering systems with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is being determined by assessing cell viability, amplitude of contractions, excitation thresholds, maximum capture rate, and tissue morphology.

  17. Control of seizure activity by electrical stimulation: effect of frequency.

    PubMed

    Durand, Dominique M

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a devastating disease of the central nervous system, affecting approximately 1% of the world's population. Drug therapy is effective in many patients, but 25% of the patients do not respond to anticonvulsants. Surgical resection can be an effective treatment but is associated with serious complications that can remove it as an option. Electrical stimulation has been successful to control abnormal activity such as motor disorders and current research is aimed at determining the efficacy of this method for seizure control. Several electrical stimulation frequencies and waveforms have been developed to control seizure activity. The purpose of this presentation is to review these various approaches, and to discuss their underlying mechanisms and their potential for clinical implementation.

  18. Fibromyalgia benefits from massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, W; Field, T M; Quintino, O; Fierro, K; Kuhn, C; Burman, I; Schanberg, S

    1996-02-01

    Thirty adult fibromyalgia syndrome subjects were randomly assigned to a massage therapy, a transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS), or a transcutaneous electrical stimulation no-current group (Sham TENS) for 30-minute treatment sessions two times per week for 5 weeks. The massage therapy subjects reported lower anxiety and depression, and their cortisol levels were lower immediately after the therapy sessions on the first and last days of the study. The TENS group showed similar changes, but only after therapy on the last day of the study. The massage therapy group improved on the dolorimeter measure of pain. They also reported less pain the last week, less stiffness and fatigue, and fewer nights of difficult sleeping. Thus, massage therapy was the most effective therapy with these fibromyalgia patients.

  19. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bogie, K M; Reger, S I; Levine, S P; Sahgal, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of therapeutic electrical stimulation (ES) specific to wound healing and pressure sore prevention. The application of ES for wound healing has been found to increase the rate of healing by more than 50%. Furthermore, the total number of wounds healed is also increased. However, optimal delivery techniques for ES therapy have not been established to date. A study of stimulation current effects on wound healing in a pig model has shown that direct current (DC) stimulation is most effective in wound area reduction and alternating current (AC) stimulation for wound volume reduction at current densities of 127 microA/cm2 and 1,125 microA/cm2, respectively. Preliminary studies have been carried out at two research centers to assess the role of ES in pressure sore prevention. Surface stimulation studies have shown that ES can produce positive short-term changes in tissue health variables such as regional blood flow and pressure distribution. The use of an implanted stimulation system consisting of intramuscular electrodes with percutaneous leads has been found to produce additional long-term changes. Specifically, gluteal muscle thickness increased by 50% with regular long-term ES application concurrent with a 20% decrease in regional interface pressures and increased tissue oxygen levels. These findings indicate that an implantable ES system may have great potential for pressure sore prevention, particularly for individuals who lack sensation or who are physically unable to perform regular independent pressure relief.

  20. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Mobility Support of Elderly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly is not very complicated, but for application within “MOBIL” we have some additional demands to fulfill. First we have specific safety issues for this user group. A powerful compliance management system is crucial not only to guide daily application, but for creating hard data for the scientific outcome. We also need to assure easy handling of the stimulator, because the subjects are generally not able to cope with too difficult and complex motor skills. So, we developed five generations of stimulators and optimizing solutions after field tests. We are already planning the sixth generation with wireless control of the stimulation units by the central main handheld control unit. In a prototype, we have implemented a newly available high capacity memory, a breakthrough in “compliance data storage” as they offer the necessary high storage capacity and fast data handling for an affordable prize. The circuit also contains a 3D accelerometer sensor which acts as a further important safety features: if the control unit drops, this event is detected automatically by the sensor and activates an emergency switch-off that disables the stimulation to avoid associated risks. Further, we have implemented a hardware emergence shutdown and other safety measures. Finally, in the last example muscle torque measurements are referenced with compliance data. In the study normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and maximum stimulation induced contraction (MSC) were assessed in regular check-ups along the training period. With additional consideration of adjusted stimulation intensity for training out of the compliance data records we are able to estimate the induced contraction strength, which turned out to amount in average 11% of MVC. This value may seem on a first sight rather low, and ought to be considered in relation to the results at the end of the training period. Therefore the

  1. Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on paralyzed expiratory muscles

    PubMed Central

    DiMarco, Anthony F.; Kowalski, Krzysztof E.

    2013-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury, the expiratory muscles develop significant disuse atrophy characterized by reductions in their weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and force-generating capacity. We determined the extent to which these physiological alterations can be prevented with electrical stimulation. Because a critical function of the expiratory muscles is cough generation, an important goal was the maintenance of maximal force production. In a cat model of spinal cord injury, short periods of high-frequency lower thoracic electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) at the T10 level (50 Hz, 15 min, twice/day, 5 days/wk) were initiated 2 wk following spinalization and continued for a 6-mo period. Airway pressure (P)-generating capacity was determined by SCS. Five acute, spinalized animals served as controls. Compared with controls, initial P fell from 43.9 ± 1.0 to 41.8 ± 0.7 cmH2O (not significant) in the chronic animals. There were small reductions in the weight of the external oblique, internal oblique, transverses abdominis, internal intercostal, and rectus abdominis muscles (not significant for each). There were no significant changes in the population of fast muscle fibers. Because prior studies (Kowalski KE, Romaniuk JR, DiMarco AF. J Appl Physiol 102: 1422-1428, 2007) have demonstrated significant atrophy following spinalization in this model, these results indicate that expiratory muscle atrophy can be prevented by the application of short periods of daily high-frequency stimulation. Because the frequency of stimulation is similar to the expected pattern of clinical use for cough generation, the daily application of electrical stimulation could potentially serve the dual purpose of maintenance of expiratory muscle function and airway clearance. PMID:18403449

  2. Treatment of symptomatic abnormal skin scars with electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Perry, D; Colthurst, J; Giddings, P; McGrouther, D A; Morris, J; Bayat, A

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of non-invasive biofeedback electrical stimulation on symptomatic abnormal skin scars. Thirty patients with over 140 scars with long-term pain and itch were recruited into the study. Patients monitored the intensity of symptoms (pain and itching) on a numerical rating scale. In addition, a modified Manchester scar scale was used to objectively assess digital photographs of each scar in terms of colour, contour, distortion and texture, while a non-invasive spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis was used to monitor the scars' physical characteristics. The electrical stimulation device resulted in a clinically and statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of symptoms and scar scores. Pain and itch scores were both reduced to a median score of 0 by 2 months, from a baseline of 7 and 6 respectively. Scar scores were reduced from a baseline of 14 to a median score of 11 by 2 months. These results give a preliminary indication of the potential role of non-invasive biofeedback electrical stimulation in the management of chronic scar pain and itch. However, further large scale controlled studies are warranted to elucidate its overall efficacy and mechanistic action. Funding was provided from Fenzian Ltd for this study.

  3. Neuromuscular electric stimulation in patellofemoral dysfunction: literature review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ricardo Lucas; Souza, Márcia Leal São Pedro; dos Santos, Fernanda Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Patellofemoral dysfunction is a fairly common deficiency among young individuals that primarily affects females and may be characterized by pain, swelling and retropatellar crepitation. The purpose of this review of literature from the period between 2005 and 2011 was to systematize knowledge in relation to the increase in quadriceps muscle strength and pain relief in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction, using neuromuscular electrical stimulation and resistance exercises. The inclusion criteria were intervention articles from the past six years, in English, Spanish and Portuguese, which used muscle strengthening and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for rehabilitation obtained through searches in the electronic databases Medline and Lilacs and in the Bireme library. The bibliographic search yielded 28 references, of which nine were excluded in accordance with the aims and inclusion criteria while 16 articles were selected for reading of the abstracts and subsequent analysis. Mediumfrequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) can be used in association with resistance exercises as an adjuvant in the treatment of patellofemoral dysfunction (PFD), both to achieve muscle rebalance and for pain relief. PMID:24453645

  4. Practical aspects of cardiac tissue engineering with electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Christopher; Tandon, Nina; Figallo, Elisa; Park, Hyoungshin; Gerecht, Sharon; Radisic, Milica; Elvassore, Nicola; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease is a leading cause of death in western society. Despite the success of heart transplantation, a chronic shortage of donor organs, along with the associated immunological complications of this approach, demands that alternative treatments be found. One such option is to repair, rather than replace, the heart with engineered cardiac tissue. Multiple studies have shown that to attain functional tissue, assembly signaling cues must be recapitulated in vitro. In their native environment, cardiomyocytes are directed to beat in synchrony by propagation of pacing current through the tissue. Recently, we have shown that electrical stimulation directs neonatal cardiomyocytes to assemble into native-like tissue in vitro. This chapter provides detailed methods we have employed in taking this "biomimetic" approach. After an initial discussion on how electric field stimulation can influence cell behavior, we examine the practical aspects of cardiac tissue engineering with electrical stimulation, such as electrode selection and cell seeding protocols, and conclude with what we feel are the remaining challenges to be overcome.

  5. Clinical application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation induced cardiovascular exercise.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Crowe, Louis; Coughlan, Garrett; Minogue, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological response consistent with cardiovascular exercise. Work to date has indicated that this is best achieved by using a stimulation protocol that results in rapid rhythmical isometric contractions of the large leg muscle groups at sub tetanic frequencies. Studies completed by our group indicate that this technique can serve as a viable alternative to voluntary cardiovascular exercise. Apart from being able to induce a cardiovascular exercise effect in patient populations (e.g. heart failure, COPD, spinal cord injury, obesity), this approach may also have value in promotion of exercise activity in a microgravity environment.

  6. Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in Eigenmannia: evoked interruptions in the electric organ discharge.

    PubMed

    Wong, C J

    2000-01-01

    The functional role of the basal forebrain and preoptic regions in modulating the normally regular electric organ discharge was determined by focal brain stimulation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The rostral preoptic area, which is connected with the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus, was examined physiologically by electrical stimulation in a curarized fish. Electrical stimulation of the most rostral region of the preoptic area with trains of relatively low intensity current elicits discrete bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions in contrast to other forebrain loci. These responses were observed primarily as after-responses following the termination of the stimulus train and were relatively immune to variations in the stimulus parameters. As the duration and rate of these preoptic-evoked bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions (approximately 100 ms at 2 per s) are similar to duration and rate of natural interruptions, it is proposed that these bursts might be precursors to natural interruptions. These data suggest that the preoptic area, consistent with its role in controlling reproductive behaviors in vertebrates, may be influencing the occurrence of electric organ discharge courtship signals by either direct actions on the prepacemaker nucleus or through other regions that are connected with the diencephalic pre-pacemaker nucleus.

  7. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth using an electrically conducting polymer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christine E.; Shastri, Venkatram R.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Langer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves often cannot be repaired by the juxtaposition of the severed nerve ends. Surgeons have typically used autologous nerve grafts, which have several drawbacks including the need for multiple surgical procedures and loss of function at the donor site. As an alternative, the use of nerve guidance channels to bridge the gap between severed nerve ends is being explored. In this paper, the electrically conductive polymer—oxidized polypyrrole (PP)—has been evaluated for use as a substrate to enhance nerve cell interactions in culture as a first step toward potentially using such polymers to stimulate in vivo nerve regeneration. Image analysis demonstrates that PC-12 cells and primary chicken sciatic nerve explants attached and extended neurites equally well on both PP films and tissue culture polystyrene in the absence of electrical stimulation. In contrast, PC-12 cells interacted poorly with indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) surfaces. However, PC-12 cells cultured on PP films and subjected to an electrical stimulus through the film showed a significant increase in neurite lengths compared with ones that were not subjected to electrical stimulation through the film and tissue culture polystyrene controls. The median neurite length for PC-12 cells grown on PP and subjected to an electrical stimulus was 18.14 μm (n = 5643) compared with 9.5 μm (n = 4440) for controls. Furthermore, animal implantation studies reveal that PP invokes little adverse tissue response compared with poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). PMID:9256415

  8. Stimulation of Neurite Outgrowth Using an Electrically Conducting Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christine E.; Shastri, Venkatram R.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Langer, Robert

    1997-08-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves often cannot be repaired by the juxtaposition of the severed nerve ends. Surgeons have typically used autologous nerve grafts, which have several drawbacks including the need for multiple surgical procedures and loss of function at the donor site. As an alternative, the use of nerve guidance channels to bridge the gap between severed nerve ends is being explored. In this paper, the electrically conductive polymer--oxidized polypyrrole (PP)--has been evaluated for use as a substrate to enhance nerve cell interactions in culture as a first step toward potentially using such polymers to stimulate in vivo nerve regeneration. Image analysis demonstrates that PC-12 cells and primary chicken sciatic nerve explants attached and extended neurites equally well on both PP films and tissue culture polystyrene in the absence of electrical stimulation. In contrast, PC-12 cells interacted poorly with indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(lactic acid-coglycolic acid) surfaces. However, PC-12 cells cultured on PP films and subjected to an electrical stimulus through the film showed a significant increase in neurite lengths compared with ones that were not subjected to electrical stimulation through the film and tissue culture polystyrene controls. The median neurite length for PC-12 cells grown on PP and subjected to an electrical stimulus was 18.14 μ m (n = 5643) compared with 9.5 μ m (n = 4440) for controls. Furthermore, animal implantation studies reveal that PP invokes little adverse tissue response compared with poly(lactic acid-coglycolic acid).

  9. NEURAL RESPONSES ELICITED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Jen; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Roizenblatt, Roberto; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To study electrically elicited responses (EERs) that are produced by epiretinal stimulation of normal and degenerated retina. Methods Three biological models of retinal degeneration are compared: normal and rd1 mouse, normal and RCD1 dog, and human with retinitis pigmentosa. In mouse, epiretinal stimulation was accomplished by means of a wire inserted in the vitreous cavity, and single-unit activity was recorded in visual cortex. In dog and human, an implantable retinal stimulator was used to stimulate the retina, and evoked potentials were recorded from the cortical surface (dog) or scalp (human). Results Analysis of EERs revealed distinct early (less than 10 ms) and late (greater than 50 ms) responses. Synaptic blockers abolished the late response but not the early response. For eliciting the early response in normal and rd mice, a square pulse stimulus was more efficient than the sine wave or pulse train. In normal and degenerate canine retina, electrically elicited responses also exhibited early and late phases. EERs in a retinal prosthesis test subject (with retinitis pigmentosa) showed latency similar to the canine, but no evidence of an early response, possibly due to the lack of sensitivity in scalp (human) vs cortical surface (canine) electrode placement. Conclusion EERs could be elicited from both normal and degenerated retina. Mouse, dog, and human EERs showed common characteristics. PMID:17471346

  10. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    PubMed

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New algorithm to control a cycle ergometer using electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S

    2003-01-01

    Data were collected from four male subjects to determine the relationships between load, speed and muscle use during cycle ergometry. These data were then used to construct equations to govern the stimulation of muscle in paralysed individuals, during cycle ergometry induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the quadriceps, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles. The algorithm was tested on four subjects who were paralysed owing to a complete spinal cord injury between T4 and T11. Using the multivariate equation, the control of movement was improved, and work was accomplished that was double (2940 Nm min(-1) compared with 5880 Nm min(-1)) that of traditional FES cycle ergometry, when muscle stimulation was also controlled by electrical stimulation. Stress on the body, assessed by cardiac output, was increased almost two-fold during maximum work with the new algorithm (81 min(-1) compared with 15 l min(-1) with the new algorithm). These data support the concept that the limitation to workload that a person can achieve on FES cycle ergometry is in the control equations and not in the paralysed muscle.

  12. Self-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Theresa A.; Mann, Eric A.; Stoklosa, Joseph B.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Hyolaryngeal elevation is essential for airway protection during swallowing and is mainly a reflexive response to oropharyngeal sensory stimulation. Targeted intramuscular electrical stimulation can elevate the resting larynx and, if applied during swallowing, may improve airway protection in dysphagic patients with inadequate hyolaryngeal motion. To be beneficial, patients must synchronize functional electrical stimulation (FES) with their reflexive swallowing and not adapt to FES by reducing the amplitude or duration of their own muscle activity. We evaluated the ability of nine healthy adults to manually synchronize FES with hyolaryngeal muscle activity during discrete swallows, and tested for motor adaptation. Hooked-wire electrodes were placed into the mylo- and thyrohyoid muscles to record electromyographic activity from one side of the neck and deliver monopolar FES for hyolaryngeal elevation to the other side. After performing baseline swallows, volunteers were instructed to trigger FES with a thumb switch in synchrony with their swallows for a series of trials. An experimenter surreptitiously disabled the thumb switch during the final attempt, creating a foil. From the outset, volunteers synchronized FES with the onset of swallow-related thyrohyoid activity (~225 ms after mylohyoid activity onset), preserving the normal sequence of muscle activation. A comparison between average baseline and foil swallows failed to show significant adaptive changes in the amplitude, duration, or relative timing of activity for either muscle, indicating that the central pattern generator for hyolaryngeal elevation is immutable with short term stimulation that augments laryngeal elevation during the reflexive, pharyngeal phase of swallowing. PMID:16107520

  13. Realistic Electric Field Mapping of Anisotropic Muscle During Electrical Stimulation Using a Combination of Water Diffusion Tensor and Electrical Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bup Kyung; Oh, Tong In; Sajib, Saurav Zk; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2017-04-01

    To realistically map the electric fields of biological tissues using a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT) method to estimate tissue response during electrical stimulation. Imaging experiments were performed using chunks of bovine muscle. Two silver wire electrodes were positioned inside the muscle tissue for electrical stimulation. Electric pulses were applied with a 100-V amplitude and 100-μs width using a voltage stimulator. During electrical stimulation, we collected DT-MREIT data from a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We adopted the projected current density method to calculate the electric field. Based on the relation between the water diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor, we computed the position-dependent scale factor using the measured magnetic flux density data. Then, a final conductivity tensor map was reconstructed using the multiplication of the water diffusion tensor and the scale factor. The current density images from DT-MREIT data represent the internal current flows that exist not only in the electrodes but also in surrounding regions. The reconstructed electric filed map from our anisotropic conductivity tensor with the projected current density shows coverage that is more than 2 times as wide, and higher signals in both the electrodes and surrounding tissues, than the previous isotropic method owing to the consideration of tissue anisotropy. An electric field map obtained by an anisotropic reconstruction method showed different patterns from the results of the previous isotropic reconstruction method. Since accurate electric field mapping is important to correctly estimate the coverage of the electrical treatment, future studies should include more rigorous validations of the new method through in vivo and in situ experiments.

  14. Realistic Electric Field Mapping of Anisotropic Muscle During Electrical Stimulation Using a Combination of Water Diffusion Tensor and Electrical Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To realistically map the electric fields of biological tissues using a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (DT-MREIT) method to estimate tissue response during electrical stimulation. Methods Imaging experiments were performed using chunks of bovine muscle. Two silver wire electrodes were positioned inside the muscle tissue for electrical stimulation. Electric pulses were applied with a 100-V amplitude and 100-μs width using a voltage stimulator. During electrical stimulation, we collected DT-MREIT data from a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We adopted the projected current density method to calculate the electric field. Based on the relation between the water diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor, we computed the position-dependent scale factor using the measured magnetic flux density data. Then, a final conductivity tensor map was reconstructed using the multiplication of the water diffusion tensor and the scale factor. Results The current density images from DT-MREIT data represent the internal current flows that exist not only in the electrodes but also in surrounding regions. The reconstructed electric filed map from our anisotropic conductivity tensor with the projected current density shows coverage that is more than 2 times as wide, and higher signals in both the electrodes and surrounding tissues, than the previous isotropic method owing to the consideration of tissue anisotropy. Conclusions An electric field map obtained by an anisotropic reconstruction method showed different patterns from the results of the previous isotropic reconstruction method. Since accurate electric field mapping is important to correctly estimate the coverage of the electrical treatment, future studies should include more rigorous validations of the new method through in vivo and in situ experiments. PMID:28446015

  15. A systematic review investigating the relationship between efficacy and stimulation parameters when using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Beckwée, David; Bautmans, Ivan; Swinnen, Eva; Vermet, Yorick; Lefeber, Nina; Lievens, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of postoperative knee arthroplasty pain and to relate these results to the stimulation parameters used. Data Sources: PubMed, Pedro and Web of Knowledge were systematically screened for studies investigating effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on postoperative knee arthroplasty pain. Review Methods: Studies were screened for their methodological and therapeutical quality. We appraised the influence of the stimulation settings used and indicated whether or not a neurophysiological and/or mechanistic rationale was given for these stimulation settings. Results: A total of 5 articles met the inclusion criteria. In total, 347 patients were investigated. The number of patients who received some form of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation was 117, and 54 patients received sham transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. Pain was the primary outcome in all studies. The stimulation settings used in the studies (n = 2) that reported significant effects differed from the others as they implemented a submaximal stimulation intensity. Stimulation parameters were heterogeneous, and only one study provided a rationale for them. Conclusion: This review reveals that an effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation might have been missed due to low methodological and therapeutical quality. Justifying the choice of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation parameters may improve therapeutical quality. PMID:26770730

  16. A systematic review investigating the relationship between efficacy and stimulation parameters when using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Beckwée, David; Bautmans, Ivan; Swinnen, Eva; Vermet, Yorick; Lefeber, Nina; Lievens, Pierre; Vaes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of postoperative knee arthroplasty pain and to relate these results to the stimulation parameters used. PubMed, Pedro and Web of Knowledge were systematically screened for studies investigating effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on postoperative knee arthroplasty pain. Studies were screened for their methodological and therapeutical quality. We appraised the influence of the stimulation settings used and indicated whether or not a neurophysiological and/or mechanistic rationale was given for these stimulation settings. A total of 5 articles met the inclusion criteria. In total, 347 patients were investigated. The number of patients who received some form of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation was 117, and 54 patients received sham transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. Pain was the primary outcome in all studies. The stimulation settings used in the studies (n = 2) that reported significant effects differed from the others as they implemented a submaximal stimulation intensity. Stimulation parameters were heterogeneous, and only one study provided a rationale for them. This review reveals that an effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation might have been missed due to low methodological and therapeutical quality. Justifying the choice of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation parameters may improve therapeutical quality.

  17. The facilitation of motor actions by acoustic and electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Milford, Magdalene; Carroll, Timothy; Riek, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    The presentation of a loud acoustic stimulus during the preparation of motor actions can both speed movement initiation and increase response vigor. Several recent studies have explored this phenomenon as a means to investigate the mechanisms and neural correlates of movement preparation. Here, we sought to determine the generality of this effect across sensory modalities, and in particular whether unexpected somatosensory stimulation can facilitate movements in a manner similar to loud sounds. We show that electric and acoustic stimuli can be similarly effective in inducing the early release of motor actions, in both reaction time and anticipatory timing tasks. Consistent with recent response activation models of motor preparation, we also demonstrate that increasing the intensity of electric stimuli induces both progressive decreases in reaction time and increases in response vigor. Additionally, we show that the early release of motor actions can be induced by electric stimuli targeting predominantly either muscle afferents or skin afferents. Finally, we show that simultaneous acoustic and electric stimulation leads to earlier releases of anticipatory actions than either unimodal stimulus. These findings may lead to new avenues for experimental and clinical exploitation of the effects of accessory sensory information on movement preparation and initiation.

  18. [Research progress in reanimation of peripheral facial paralysis by use of functional electrical stimulation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Simin; Shen, Guofang

    2010-08-01

    With the development of electronics and information technology, the application of functional electrical stimulation in the medical field has been expanding. However, the use of functional electrical stimulation to treat patients with peripheral facial paralysis is still in its infancy. The main problems include: (1) Finding in the signals which could fire the stimulator; (2) Exploring the parameters for the stimulator; (3) The effects on the muscle attributed to the electrical stimulation. A review on these problems is presented.

  19. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834.

  20. Spatially distributed sequential stimulation reduces muscle fatigue during neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2013-01-01

    A critical limitation with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions, which results in the muscle force decay and slowing of muscle contractile properties. In our previous study, we demonstrated that spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) show a drastically greater fatigue-reducing ability compared to a conventional, single active electrode stimulation (SES) with an individual with spinal cord injury when applied for plantar flexors. The purpose of the present study is to explore the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for major lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population as well as individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through four active electrodes applied to the muscle of interest, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. For comparison, SES was delivered through one active electrode. For both modes of stimulation, the resultant frequency to the muscle as a whole was 40 Hz. Using corresponding protocols for the fatiguing stimulation, we demonstrated the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS by higher fatigue indices as compared with single active electrode setup for major leg muscles in both subject groups. The present work verifies and extends reported findings on the effectiveness of using spatially distributed sequential stimulation in the leg muscles to reduce muscle fatigue. Application of this technique can improve the usefulness of NMES during functional movements in the clinical setup.

  1. Repetitive electric brain stimulation reduces food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Kistenmacher, Alina; Herzog, Nina; Schwarz, Marianka; Schweiger, Ulrich; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2014-10-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in appetite and food intake regulation. Because previous data revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC reduces food cravings, we hypothesized that repetitive electric stimulation of the right DLPFC would lower food intake behavior in humans. In a single-blind, code-based, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, randomized crossover experiment, 14 healthy young men with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 20 to 25 were examined during 8 d of daily tDCS or a sham stimulation. After tDCS or sham stimulation on the first and the last day of both experimental conditions, participants consumed food ad libitum from a standardized test buffet. One week of daily anodal tDCS reduced overall caloric intake by 14% in comparison with sham stimulation. Moreover, repetitive tDCS diminished self-reported appetite scores. Our study implies that the application of anodal direct currents to the right DLPFC represents a promising option for reducing both caloric intake and appetite in humans. This trial was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (www.germanctr.de) as DRKS00005811. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Electrical stimulation of microbial PCB degradation in sediment.

    PubMed

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B; Sowers, Kevin R; May, Harold D

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5-3.0 V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40-60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O(2) was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O(2). Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  3. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/ degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5 to 3.0V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40–60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O2 was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O2. Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  4. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Sánchez, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10(-4)) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10(-4)). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  5. Tinnitus suppression by electric stimulation of the auditory nerve

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Janice E.; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant (CI) has been observed to suppress tinnitus, but parameters of an effective electric stimulus remain unexplored. Here we used CI research processors to systematically vary pulse rate, electrode place, and current amplitude of electric stimuli, and measure their effects on tinnitus loudness and stimulus loudness as a function of stimulus duration. Thirteen tinnitus subjects who used CIs were tested, with nine (70%) being “Responders” who achieved greater than 30% tinnitus loudness reduction in response to at least one stimulation condition and the remaining four (30%) being “Non-Responders” who had less than 30% tinnitus loudness reduction in response to any stimulus condition tested. Despite large individual variability, several interesting observations were made between stimulation parameters, tinnitus characteristics, and tinnitus suppression. If a subject's tinnitus was suppressed by one stimulus, then it was more likely to be suppressed by another stimulus. If the tinnitus contained a “pulsating” component, then it would be more likely suppressed by a given combination of stimulus parameters than tinnitus without these components. There was also a disassociation between the subjects' clinical speech processor and our research processor in terms of their effectiveness in tinnitus suppression. Finally, an interesting dichotomy was observed between loudness adaptation to electric stimuli and their effects on tinnitus loudness, with the Responders exhibiting higher degrees of loudness adaptation than the Non-Responders. Although the mechanisms underlying these observations remain to be resolved, their clinical implications are clear. When using a CI to manage tinnitus, the clinical processor that is optimized for speech perception needs to be customized for optimal tinnitus suppression. PMID:22479238

  6. Effects of functional electrical stimulation in rehabilitation with hemiparesis patients.

    PubMed

    Tanovic, Edina

    2009-02-01

    Cerebrovascular accident is a focal neurological deficiency occurring suddenly and lasting for more than 24 hours. The purpose of our work is to determine the role of the functional electrical simulation (FES) in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiparesis, which occurred as a consequence of a cerebrovascular accident. This study includes the analysis of two groups of 40 patients with hemiparesis (20 patients with deep hemiparesis and 20 patients with light hemiparesis), a control group which was only treated with kinesiotherapy and a tested group which was treated with kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation. Both groups of patients were analyzed in respect to their sex and age. Additional analysis of the walking function was completed in accordance with the BI and RAP index. The analysis of the basic demographical data demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the control and tested group. The patients of both groups are equal in respect of age and sex. After 4 weeks of rehabilitation of patients with deep and light hemiparesis there were no statistically significant differences between the groups after evaluation by the BI index. However, a statistically significant difference was noted between the groups by the RAP index among patients with deep hemiparesis. After 8 weeks of rehabilitation the group of patients who were treated with kinesiotherapy and functional electrical stimulation showed better statistically significant results of rehabilitation in respect to the control group with both the BI index and the RAP index (p<0,001). In conclusion, we can state that the patients in rehabilitation after a cerebrovascular accident require rehabilitation longer than 4 weeks. Walking rehabilitation after stroke is faster and more successful if we used functional electrical stimulation, in combination with kinesiotherapy, in patients with disabled extremities.

  7. Dynamic range of safe electrical stimulation of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterwick, Alexander F.; Vankov, Alexander; Huie, Phil; Palanker, Daniel V.

    2006-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses represent a potentially effective approach for restoring some degree of sight in blind patients with retinal degeneration. However, levels of safe electrical stimulation and the underlying mechanisms of cellular damage are largely unknown. We measured the threshold of cellular damage as a function of pulse duration, electrode size, and number of pulses to determine the safe range of stimulation. Measurements were performed in-vitro on embryonic chicken retina with saline-filled glass pipettes for stimulation electrodes. Cellular damage was detected using Propidium Iodide fluorescent staining. Electrode size varied from 115μm to 1mm, pulse duration from 6μs to 6ms, and number of pulses from 1 to 7,500. The threshold current density was independent of electrode sizes exceeding 400μm. With smaller electrodes the current density was scaling reciprocal to the square of the pipette diameter, i.e. acting as a point source so that the damage threshold was determined by the total current in this regime. The damage threshold current measured with large electrodes (1mm) scaled with pulse duration as t -0.5, which is characteristic of electroporation. For repeated electrical pulsed exposure on the retina the threshold current density varied between 0.059 A/cm2 at 6ms to 1.3 A/cm2 at 6μs. The dynamic range of safe stimulation, i.e. the ratio of damage threshold to stimulation threshold was found to be duration-dependent, and varied from 10 to 100 at pulse durations varying between 10μs to 10ms. Maximal dynamic range of 100 was observed near 1ms pulse durations.

  8. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure.

  9. Electro-acoustic stimulation. Acoustic and electric pitch comparisons.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Hugh; Sucher, Catherine; Simpson, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    For simultaneous acoustic and electric stimulation to be perceived as complementary, it may be beneficial for hearing aids and cochlear implants (CI) to be adjusted to provide compatible pitch sensations. To this end, estimates of the pitch perceived for a set of acoustic and electric stimuli were obtained from 14 CI users who had usable low-frequency hearing, either in the non-implanted ear or in both ears. The subjects assigned numerical pitch estimates to each of 5 acoustic pure tones and 5 single-electrode electric pulse trains. On average, the acoustic frequency that corresponded in pitch to stimulation on the most apical electrode was approximately 480 Hz. This was about 1 octave lower than the frequency expected from Greenwood's frequency-place function applied to estimates of the electrode insertion angle based on X-ray images. Furthermore, evidence was found suggesting that pitch decreased with increasing duration of CI use. Pitch estimates from 5 subjects who completed the experiment before experiencing any other sounds through their CI were generally close to the values expected from a recently published frequency map for the cochlear spiral ganglion. Taken together, these findings suggest that some perceptual adaptation may occur that would compensate in part for the apparent mismatch between the intracochlear position of the electrodes and the acoustic frequencies assigned to them in the sound processor.

  10. Generation of Electrical Power from Stimulated Muscle Contractions Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David B.

    2004-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Project, part of the NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program of the Aerospace Technology Enterprise, and Case Western Reserve University's Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Center. The RAC Project foresees implantable power requirements for future applications such as organically based sensor platforms and robotics that can interface with the human senses. One of the goals of the FES Center is to develop a totally implantable neural prosthesis. This goal is based on feedback from patients who would prefer a system with an internal power source over the currently used system with an external power source. The conversion system under investigation would transform the energy produced from a stimulated muscle contraction into electrical energy. We hypothesize that the output power of the system will be greater than the input power necessary to initiate, sustain, and control the electrical conversion system because of the stored potential energy of the muscle. If the system can be made biocompatible, durable, and with the potential for sustained use, then the biological power source will be a viable solution.

  11. Visualizing Simulated Electrical Fields from Electroencephalography and Transcranial Electric Brain Stimulation: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knösche, Thomas R.; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2014-01-01

    Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques. PMID:24821532

  12. Visualizing simulated electrical fields from electroencephalography and transcranial electric brain stimulation: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eichelbaum, Sebastian; Dannhauer, Moritz; Hlawitschka, Mario; Brooks, Dana; Knösche, Thomas R; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2014-11-01

    Electrical activity of neuronal populations is a crucial aspect of brain activity. This activity is not measured directly but recorded as electrical potential changes using head surface electrodes (electroencephalogram - EEG). Head surface electrodes can also be deployed to inject electrical currents in order to modulate brain activity (transcranial electric stimulation techniques) for therapeutic and neuroscientific purposes. In electroencephalography and noninvasive electric brain stimulation, electrical fields mediate between electrical signal sources and regions of interest (ROI). These fields can be very complicated in structure, and are influenced in a complex way by the conductivity profile of the human head. Visualization techniques play a central role to grasp the nature of those fields because such techniques allow for an effective conveyance of complex data and enable quick qualitative and quantitative assessments. The examination of volume conduction effects of particular head model parameterizations (e.g., skull thickness and layering), of brain anomalies (e.g., holes in the skull, tumors), location and extent of active brain areas (e.g., high concentrations of current densities) and around current injecting electrodes can be investigated using visualization. Here, we evaluate a number of widely used visualization techniques, based on either the potential distribution or on the current-flow. In particular, we focus on the extractability of quantitative and qualitative information from the obtained images, their effective integration of anatomical context information, and their interaction. We present illustrative examples from clinically and neuroscientifically relevant cases and discuss the pros and cons of the various visualization techniques.

  13. Transcranial Electric Stimulation for Precision Medicine: A Spatiomechanistic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Fatemeh; Nitsche, Michael A.; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    During recent years, non-invasive brain stimulation, including transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) in general, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in particular, have created new hopes for treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Despite promising primary results in some brain disorders, a more widespread application of tES is hindered by the unsolved question of determining optimum stimulation protocols to receive meaningful therapeutic effects. tES has a large parameter space including various montages and stimulation parameters. Moreover, inter- and intra-individual differences in responding to stimulation protocols have to be taken into account. These factors contribute to the complexity of selecting potentially effective protocols for each disorder, different clusters of each disorder, and even each single patient. Expanding knowledge in different dimensions of basic and clinical neuroscience could help researchers and clinicians to select potentially effective protocols based on tES modulatory mechanisms for future clinical studies. In this article, we propose a heuristic spatiomechanistic framework which contains nine levels to address tES effects on brain functions. Three levels refer to the spatial resolution (local, small-scale networks and large-scale networks) and three levels of tES modulatory effects based on its mechanisms of action (neurochemical, neuroelectrical and oscillatory modulations). At the group level, this framework could be helpful to enable an informed and systematic exploration of various possible protocols for targeting a brain disorder or its neuroscience-based clusters. Considering recent advances in exploration of neurodiversity at the individual level with different brain mapping technologies, the proposed framework might also be used in combination with personal data to design individualized protocols for tES in the context of precision medicine in the future. PMID:28450832

  14. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Increases Rectal Activity in Children.

    PubMed

    Moeller Joensson, Iben; Hagstroem, Soren; Siggaard, Charlotte; Bower, Wendy; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Neurostimulation is increasingly used in treating bladder and bowel dysfunction, but its effect on rectal motility is obscure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on rectal motility in children with overactive bladder (OAB). In this double-blind placebo-controlled study in 20 children with OAB (mean age 8.6 ± 1.8 years; 7 girls), 48-hour urodynamic monitoring including rectal manometry was performed. After 24-hours of baseline investigation without stimulation the children were randomised to either active TENS (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). Surface electrodes were placed over the sacral bone. The exterior of active and placebo stimulators was identical. Starting in the morning, the children received either continuous TENS stimulation or placebo until bedtime. Rectal contractions were defined as pressure runs exceeding 5 cm H2O and lasting ≥3 minutes. At baseline there was no significant difference in proportion of time with rectal contractions in the 2 groups (TENS group median 31% [range 12%-66%] vs placebo group median 31% [range 10%-66%]; P = 0.75); however, on the day of stimulation there was more time with rectal contractions in the group receiving TENS (median 51% [range 25%-78%]) compared with placebo (median 32% [range 4%-68%]; P = 0.02). Also, there was an increase in time with rectal contractions in the TENS group (P = 0.007) but not in the placebo group (P = 0.39). The night after the TENS was disabled, rectal activity in both groups returned to baseline level. TENS acutely increases time with rectal contractions in children undergoing urodynamic investigation. The effect disappears when the stimulator is turned off.

  15. Modulating Human Auditory Processing by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Heimrath, Kai; Fiene, Marina; Rufener, Katharina S.; Zaehle, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has become a valuable research tool for the investigation of neurophysiological processes underlying human action and cognition. In recent years, striking evidence for the neuromodulatory effects of transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation, and transcranial random noise stimulation has emerged. While the wealth of knowledge has been gained about tES in the motor domain and, to a lesser extent, about its ability to modulate human cognition, surprisingly little is known about its impact on perceptual processing, particularly in the auditory domain. Moreover, while only a few studies systematically investigated the impact of auditory tES, it has already been applied in a large number of clinical trials, leading to a remarkable imbalance between basic and clinical research on auditory tES. Here, we review the state of the art of tES application in the auditory domain focussing on the impact of neuromodulation on acoustic perception and its potential for clinical application in the treatment of auditory related disorders. PMID:27013969

  16. Development of functional electrical stimulators utilizing cochlear implant technology.

    PubMed

    Davis, R; Patrick, J; Barriskill, A

    2001-01-01

    In 1983, R. Davis proposed the development of a functional electrical stimulator, based on multi-channel cochlear implant technology, for the restoration of function in spinal cord injured paraplegic subjects. In 1984, the US Veteran Administration funded the initial investigations including animal experiments and purchase of a FES stimulator based on the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant. In 1987, the US Food and Drug Administration approved an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE# G870142) for this FES project. In 1991, the first stimulator was implanted in a 21-year old male paraplegic subject (complete thoracic spinal cord lesion at level #10), who was subsequently able to stand and to perform one-handed tasks for up to 1h. In 1996-1997 development started on a new multi-function FES system. In 1998, a stimulator was implanted in a 35-year-old male paraplegic subject (complete thoracic spinal cord lesion at level #10). After 8 months of use providing multiple functions including bladder voiding, the implant's internal antenna wire broke. A modified implant (FES 24-B) is due to be implanted in July 2001.

  17. [Mechanisms and applications of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in analgesia].

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Yu; Wang, Hui-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Lei; Tang, Yi; Peng, Wei-Wei; Hu, Li

    2017-06-25

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), as a non-pharmacological and non-invasive analgesic therapy with low-cost, has been widely used to relieve pain in various clinical applications, by delivering current pulses to the skin area to activate the peripheral nerve fibers. Nevertheless, analgesia induced by TENS varied in the clinical practice, which could be caused by the fact that TENS with different stimulus parameters has different biological mechanisms in relieving pain. Therefore, to advance our understanding of TENS in various basic and clinical studies, we discussed (1) neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms of TENS-induced analgesia; (2) relevant factors that may influence analgesic effects of TENS from the perspectives of stimulus parameters, including stimulated position, pulse parameters (current intensity, frequency, and pulse width), stimulus duration and used times in each day; and (3) applications of TENS in relieving clinical pain, including post-operative pain, chronic low back pain and labor pain. Finally, we propose that TENS may involve multiple and complex psychological neurophysiological mechanisms, and suggest that different analgesic effects of TENS with different stimulus parameters should be taken into consideration in clinical applications. In addition, to optimize analgesic effect, we recommend that individual-based TENS stimulation parameters should be designed by considering individual differences among patients, e.g., adaptively adjusting the stimulation parameters based on the dynamic ratings of patients' pain.

  18. Modulation of Illusory Auditory Perception by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Prete, Giulia; D'Anselmo, Anita; Tommasi, Luca; Brancucci, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether transcranial electrical stimulation can modulate illusory perception in the auditory domain. In two separate experiments we applied transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (anodal/cathodal tDCS, 2 mA; N = 60) and high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS, 1.5 mA, offset 0; N = 45) on the temporal cortex during the presentation of the stimuli eliciting the Deutsch's illusion. The illusion arises when two sine tones spaced one octave apart (400 and 800 Hz) are presented dichotically in alternation, one in the left and the other in the right ear, so that when the right ear receives the high tone, the left ear receives the low tone, and vice versa. The majority of the population perceives one high-pitched tone in one ear alternating with one low-pitched tone in the other ear. The results revealed that neither anodal nor cathodal tDCS applied over the left/right temporal cortex modulated the perception of the illusion, whereas hf-tRNS applied bilaterally on the temporal cortex reduced the number of times the sequence of sounds is perceived as the Deutsch's illusion with respect to the sham control condition. The stimulation time before the beginning of the task (5 or 15 min) did not influence the perceptual outcome. In accordance with previous findings, we conclude that hf-tRNS can modulate auditory perception more efficiently than tDCS.

  19. Yawning induced by focal electrical stimulation in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sweta; Bayat, Arezou; Gagnon, Linda; Shields, Donald C; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2017-01-01

    The primary function of yawning is not fully understood. We report a case in which electrical stimulation of the putamen in the human brain consistently elicited yawning. A 46-year-old woman with intractable epilepsy had invasive depth electrode monitoring and cortical stimulation mapping as part of her presurgical epilepsy evaluation. The first two contacts of a depth electrode that was intended to sample the left insula were in contact with the putamen. Stimulation of these contacts at 6mA and 8mA consistently elicited yawning on two separate days. Engagement in arithmetic and motor tasks during stimulation did not result in yawning. When considering the role of the putamen in motor control and its extensive connectivity to cortical and brainstem regions, our findings suggest that it plays a key role in the execution of motor movements necessitated by yawning. Furthermore, given the role of the anterior insula in attention and focused tasks, activation of this area while engaged in arithmetic and motor tasks could inhibit the putaminal processing necessary for yawning. Many have hypothesized the function of yawning; however, it remains debatable whether yawning serves a primarily physiological or communicative function or perhaps both. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electric stimulation of periventricular heterotopia: participation in higher cerebral functions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jan; Elger, Christian E; Urbach, Horst; Bien, Christian G

    2009-02-01

    Gray matter heterotopia are a common cause of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Recently, several case studies have addressed the question of whether heterotopia can contribute to physiological cerebral functions. We describe two cases that demonstrate a functional role for periventricular heterotopia in higher cognitive processes. During presurgical diagnostics, two patients underwent electric stimulation of both the periventricular heterotopia and the overlying cortex. This revealed a functional role of periventricular heterotopia in higher cerebral functions such as language and complex visual and acoustic processing. Furthermore, stimulation of the overlying cortex led to unusually intense positive phenomena, including complex acoustic and gustatory hallucinations and language production. These cases illustrate that periventricular heterotopic neurons can contribute to higher cerebral functions. Interestingly, the anterior-to-posterior representation of these functions is comparable to the normal anterior-to-posterior representation in a normal neocortex (similar to a periventricular "minicortex" in early developmental stages).

  1. Bio-robots automatic navigation with electrical reward stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Xinlu; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Bio-robots that controlled by outer stimulation through brain computer interface (BCI) suffer from the dependence on realtime guidance of human operators. Current automatic navigation methods for bio-robots focus on the controlling rules to force animals to obey man-made commands, with animals' intelligence ignored. This paper proposes a new method to realize the automatic navigation for bio-robots with electrical micro-stimulation as real-time rewards. Due to the reward-seeking instinct and trial-and-error capability, bio-robot can be steered to keep walking along the right route with rewards and correct its direction spontaneously when rewards are deprived. In navigation experiments, rat-robots learn the controlling methods in short time. The results show that our method simplifies the controlling logic and realizes the automatic navigation for rat-robots successfully. Our work might have significant implication for the further development of bio-robots with hybrid intelligence.

  2. Technical Rebuilding of Movement Function Using Functional Electrical Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gföhler, Margit

    To rebuild lost movement functions, neuroprostheses based on functional electrical stimulation (FES) artificially activate skeletal muscles in corresponding sequences, using both residual body functions and artificial signals for control. Besides the functional gain, FES training also brings physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord-injured subjects. In this chapter, current stimulation technology and the main components of FES-based neuroprostheses including enhanced control systems are presented. Technology and application of FES cycling and rowing, both approaches that enable spinal cord-injured subjects to participate in mainstream activities and improve their health and fitness by exercising like able-bodied subjects, are discussed in detail, and an overview of neuroprostheses that aim at restoring movement functions for daily life as walking or grasping is given.

  3. Calcium Activation Profile In Electrically Stimulated Intact Rat Heart Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, Hugo; Nuydens, Rony; Ver Donck, Luc; Nuyens, Roger; De Brabander, Marc; Borgers, Marcel

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in fluorescent probe technology and image processing equipment have made available the measurement of calcium in living systems on a real-time basis. We present the use of the calcium indicator Fura-2 in intact normally stimulated rat heart cells for the spatial and dynamic measurement of the calcium excitation profile. After electric stimulation (1 Hz), the activation proceeds from the center of the myocyte toward the periphery. Within two frame times (80 ms), the whole cell is activated. The activation is slightly faster in the center of the cell than in the periphery. The mean recovery time is 200-400 ms. There is no difference along the cell's long axis. The effect of a beta-agonist and of a calcium antagonist is described.

  4. Restoration of movement using functional electrical stimulation and Bayes' theorem.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Heather M; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2002-11-01

    Various computational approaches have been applied to predict aspects of animal behavior from the recorded activity of populations of neurons. Here we invert this process to predict the requisite neuromuscular activity associated with specified motor behaviors. A probabilistic method based on Bayes' theorem was used to predict the patterns of muscular activity needed to produce various types of desired finger movements. The profiles of predicted activity were then used to drive frequency-modulated muscle stimulators to evoke multijoint finger movements. Comparison of movements generated by electrical stimulation with desired movements yielded root mean squared errors between approximately 18 and 26%. This reasonable correspondence between desired and evoked movements suggests that this approach might serve as a useful strategy to control neuroprosthetic systems that aim to restore movement to paralyzed individuals.

  5. Nonparametric Model of Smooth Muscle Force Production During Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marc; Eikenberry, Steffen; Kato, Takahide; Sandler, Roman A; Yamashiro, Stanley M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z

    2017-03-01

    A nonparametric model of smooth muscle tension response to electrical stimulation was estimated using the Laguerre expansion technique of nonlinear system kernel estimation. The experimental data consisted of force responses of smooth muscle to energy-matched alternating single pulse and burst current stimuli. The burst stimuli led to at least a 10-fold increase in peak force in smooth muscle from Mytilus edulis, despite the constant energy constraint. A linear model did not fit the data. However, a second-order model fit the data accurately, so the higher-order models were not required to fit the data. Results showed that smooth muscle force response is not linearly related to the stimulation power.

  6. Photoacoustic microscopy of microvascular responses to cortical electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Hu, Song; Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin; Barbour, Dennis L.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-07-01

    Advances in the functional imaging of cortical hemodynamics have greatly facilitated the understanding of neurovascular coupling. In this study, label-free optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) was used to monitor microvascular responses to direct electrical stimulations of the mouse somatosensory cortex through a cranial opening. The responses appeared in two forms: vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. The transition between these two forms of response was observed in single vessels by varying the stimulation intensity. Marked correlation was found between the current-dependent responses of two daughter vessels bifurcating from the same parent vessel. Statistical analysis of twenty-seven vessels from three different animals further characterized the spatial-temporal features and the current dependence of the microvascular response. Our results demonstrate that OR-PAM is a valuable tool to study neurovascular coupling at the microscopic level.

  7. Right Median Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Acute Traumatic Coma Patients.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin; Wang, Lei; Gao, Guoyi; Cooper, Edwin; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-10-15

    The right median nerve as a peripheral portal to the central nervous system can be electrically stimulated to help coma arousal after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study set out to examine the efficacy and safety of right median nerve electrical stimulation (RMNS) in a cohort of 437 comatose patients after severe TBI from August 2005 to December 2011. The patients were enrolled 2 weeks after their injury and assigned to the RMNS group (n=221) receiving electrical stimulation for 2 weeks or the control group (n = 216) treated by standard management according to the date of birth in the month. The baseline data were similar. After the 2-week treatment, the RMNS-treated patients demonstrated a more rapid increase of the mean Glasgow Coma Score, although statistical significance was not reached (8.43 ± 4.98 vs. 7.47 ± 5.37, p = 0.0532). The follow-up data at 6-month post-injury showed a significantly higher proportion of patients who regained consciousness (59.8% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.0073). There was a lower proportion of vegetative persons in the RMNS group than in the control group (17.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0012). For persons regaining consciousness, the functional independence measurement (FIM) score was higher among the RMNS group patients (91.45 ± 8.65 vs. 76.23 ± 11.02, p < 0.001). There were no unique complications associated with the RMNS treatment. The current study, although with some limitations, showed that RMNS may serve as an easy, effective, and noninvasive technique to promote the recovery of traumatic coma in the early phase.

  8. Safety measures implemented for modular functioning electrical stimulators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Chen, Shih-Wei; Lin, Yin-Tsong; Kuo, Te-Son

    2009-01-01

    The modular architecture allows for greater flexibility in the building of neural prostheses with a variety of channels but may result in unpredictable accidents under circumstances such as sensor displacements, improper coordination of the connected modules and malfunction of any individual module. A novel fail-safe interface is offered as a solution that puts in place the necessary safety measures when building a module based functional electrical stimulator. By using a single reference line in the interconnecting bus of the modules, various commands would immediately be directed to each module so that proper actions may be taken.

  9. Effects of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points on blood pressure☆

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, John; Ng, Derek; Sau, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Arterial hypertension is considered a major contributor to coronary arterial disease. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of Hans electrical stimulation of acupuncture points on blood pressure. Methods Subjects with normal and elevated blood pressure were recruited and randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Only the experimental subjects received active Hans electrical stimulation on 2 acupuncture points for 30 minutes each session, twice a week for 5 weeks. Results Twenty-seven subjects (17 male) were recruited and completed the study. The average age of the subjects was 25 ± 5 years. The youngest subject was 20 years old and the oldest was 36 years old. After using the Hans electrical stimulation on acupuncture points for 5 weeks, the systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the experimental group with active treatment. The mean systolic blood pressure was 117.8 ± 4.2 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 110.8 ± 5.5 mm Hg (P < .05) in the third week and to 110.1 ± 5.8 mm Hg in the fifth week (P < .05). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 78.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 77.4 ± 4.3 mm Hg (P > .05) in the third week and to 74.8 ± 4.3 mm Hg (P > .05) in the fifth week, but both did not reach statistically significant levels. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the control group did not show statistically significant changes. The mean systolic blood pressure was 115.6 ± 13.3 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 113.0 ± 12.6 mm Hg (P > 0.05) in the third week and to 112.2 ± 10.3 mm Hg in the fifth week (P > .05). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 76.4 ± 7.9 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 76.5 ± 6.9 mm Hg (P > .05) in the third week and to 73.9 ± 5.4 mm Hg (P > .05) in the fifth week. Conclusion It was concluded that Hans electrical stimulation of acupuncture points reduced systolic blood pressure but not the diastolic blood

  10. Neuronal excitability level transition induced by electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florence, G.; Kurths, J.; Machado, B. S.; Fonoff, E. T.; Cerdeira, H. A.; Teixeira, M. J.; Sameshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    In experimental studies, electrical stimulation (ES) has been applied to induce neuronal activity or to disrupt pathological patterns. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of these activity pattern transitions are not clear. To study these phenomena, we simulated a model of the hippocampal region CA1. The computational simulations using different amplitude levels and duration of ES revealed three states of neuronal excitability: burst-firing mode, depolarization block and spreading depression wave. We used the bifurcation theory to analyse the interference of ES in the cellular excitability and the neuronal dynamics. Understanding this process would help to improve the ES techniques to control some neurological disorders.

  11. Effects of electrical stimulation of acupuncture points on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John; Ng, Derek; Sau, Amy

    2009-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is considered a major contributor to coronary arterial disease. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of Hans electrical stimulation of acupuncture points on blood pressure. Subjects with normal and elevated blood pressure were recruited and randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Only the experimental subjects received active Hans electrical stimulation on 2 acupuncture points for 30 minutes each session, twice a week for 5 weeks. Twenty-seven subjects (17 male) were recruited and completed the study. The average age of the subjects was 25 +/- 5 years. The youngest subject was 20 years old and the oldest was 36 years old. After using the Hans electrical stimulation on acupuncture points for 5 weeks, the systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the experimental group with active treatment. The mean systolic blood pressure was 117.8 +/- 4.2 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 110.8 +/- 5.5 mm Hg (P < .05) in the third week and to 110.1 +/- 5.8 mm Hg in the fifth week (P < .05). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 78.1 +/- 5.0 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 77.4 +/- 4.3 mm Hg (P > .05) in the third week and to 74.8 +/- 4.3 mm Hg (P > .05) in the fifth week, but both did not reach statistically significant levels. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the control group did not show statistically significant changes. The mean systolic blood pressure was 115.6 +/- 13.3 mm Hg before the treatment and was reduced to 113.0 +/- 12.6 mm Hg (P > 0.05) in the third week and to 112.2 +/- 10.3 mm Hg in the fifth week (P > .05). The mean diastolic blood pressure was 76.4 +/- 7.9 mm Hg before treatment and was reduced to 76.5 +/- 6.9 mm Hg (P > .05) in the third week and to 73.9 +/- 5.4 mm Hg (P > .05) in the fifth week. It was concluded that Hans electrical stimulation of acupuncture points reduced systolic blood pressure but not the diastolic blood pressure in the current subject

  12. New Perspectives in Edema Control via Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Frank C.; Fish, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    Clinicians commonly use electrical stimulation (ES) to control acute edema. But, except for anecdotal reports, there is little evidence to support that practice. We recently conducted a series of controlled, blinded studies on several nonhuman animal models to determine the efficacy of several forms of ES, but high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC) in particular, in controlling acute posttraumatic edema. We observed that acute posttraumatic edema is curbed by HVPC when certain protocols are used. Results of these studies suggest to us that wave form, polarity, treatment schedule, intensity and frequency of pulses all influence ES, and that clinical protocols need revision. PMID:16558209

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the relief of primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Lewers, D; Clelland, J A; Jackson, J R; Varner, R E; Bergman, J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Twenty-one women with dysmenorrhea received a placebo pill or 30 minutes of acupuncture-like TENS. All subjects completed two pain questionnaires before treatment; immediately posttreatment; 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes posttreatment; and the next morning upon awakening. Each woman also participated in a separate study measuring electrical resistance at four auricular acupuncture points before and immediately after treatment. The data were analyzed with a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, which revealed statistical significance over time but not for group or interaction between group and time. Results revealed an average pain relief of at least 50% immediately posttreatment, indicating that acupuncture-like TENS may be useful for dysmenorrheic pain. This study also suggests that auriculotherapy via acupressure may relieve the pain of primary dysmenorrhea.

  14. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS. PMID:25674327

  15. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    PubMed

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  16. Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Agnella D; Suh, Eul; Pathria, Jyoti; Walsh, Joseph T; Whitlon, Donna S; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed, mid-infrared lasers were recently investigated as a method to stimulate neural activity. There are significant benefits of optically stimulating nerves over electrically stimulating, in particular the application of more spatially confined neural stimulation. We report results from experiments in which the gerbil auditory system was stimulated by optical radiation, acoustic tones, or electric current. Immunohistochemical staining for the protein c-FOS revealed the spread of excitation. We demonstrate a spatially selective activation of neurons using a laser; only neurons in the direct optical path are stimulated. This pattern of c-FOS labeling is in contrast to that after electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation leads to a large, more spatially extended population of labeled, activated neurons. In the auditory system, optical stimulation of nerves could have a significant impact on the performance of cochlear implants, which can be limited by the electric current spread.

  17. [About optimized designs and circuits of autonomous electric stimulators for the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Glushchuk, S F

    2004-01-01

    Described in the paper are the key principles of designing of autonomous electrodes for the gastrointestinal tract (AE GT) as well as circuits of stimulating-pulse generators. A shape for the electric-stimulator frame, its geometric dimensions and choice of a material for electrodes are substantiated. The electric- and trauma-safety of AE GT is discussed. The main stimulating current parameters, as well as the flowchart and design of the electric stimulator are presented.

  18. Transcranial electric stimulation entrains cortical neuronal populations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozen, Simal; Sirota, Anton; Belluscio, Mariano A.; Anastassiou, Costas A.; Stark, Eran; Koch, Christof; Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Low intensity electric fields have been suggested to affect the ongoing neuronal activity in vitro and in human studies. However, the physiological mechanism of how weak electrical fields affect and interact with intact brain activity is not well understood. We performed in vivo extracellular and intracellular recordings from the neocortex and hippocampus of anaesthetized rats and extracellular recordings in behaving rats. Electric fields were generated by sinusoid patterns at slow frequency (0.8, 1.25 or 1.7 Hz) via electrodes placed on the surface of the skull or the dura. Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) reliably entrained neurons in widespread cortical areas, including the hippocampus. The percentage of TES phase-locked neurons increased with stimulus intensity and depended on the behavioral state of the animal. TES-induced voltage gradient, as low as 1 mV/mm at the recording sites, was sufficient to phase-bias neuronal spiking. Intracellular recordings showed that both spiking and subthreshold activity were under the combined influence of TES forced fields and network activity. We suggest that TES in chronic preparations may be used for experimental and therapeutic control of brain activity. PMID:20739569

  19. Contralaterally Controlled Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Recovery of Ankle Dorsiflexion

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Jayme S.; Hansen, Kristine; Nagy, Jennifer; Bailey, Stephanie N.; Gunzler, Douglas D.; Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Compare the effects of contralaterally controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation (CCNMES) versus cyclic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on lower extremity impairment, functional ambulation, and gait characteristics. Design Twenty-six stroke survivors with chronic (≥6mo) footdrop during ambulation were randomly assigned to six weeks of CCNMES or cyclic NMES. Both groups had ten sessions per week of self-administered home application of either CCNMES or cyclic NMES plus two sessions per week of gait training with a physical therapist. Primary outcomes included lower extremity Fugl-Meyer score, modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, and gait velocity. Assessments were made at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Results There were no significant differences between groups in the outcome trajectories for any of the measures. With data from both groups pooled, there were significant but modest and sustained improvements in the Fugl-Meyer score and the modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, but not in gait velocity. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that gait training combined with either CCNMES or cyclic NMES reduces lower extremity impairment and functional ambulation, but do not support the hypothesis that CCNMES is more effective than cyclic NMES in chronic patients. PMID:23867888

  20. Electrical stimulation delays reinnervation in denervated rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro-Dardis, Clara M; Erbereli, Bruna T; Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Castro, Paula A T S; Russo, Thiago L

    2017-01-24

    It is not clear if electrical stimulation (ES) can affect muscle reinnervation. This study aimed to verify if ES affects neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. Denervated muscles were electrically stimulated daily for 6 or 14 days. Neuromuscular performance and excitability, and muscle morphology were determined. Muscle trophism markers (atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myoD), as well as neuromuscular junction (NMJ) organization (muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase [MuSK], cytoplasmic protein downstream of kinase-7 [Dok-7], nicotinic ACh receptor [nAChR], and neural cell adhesion molecule [N-CAM]) were assessed. ES impaired neuromuscular recovery at day 14 postdenervation. Muscle hypoexcitability was accentuated by ES at 6 and 14 days postdenervation. Although ES reduced the accumulation of atrogin-1, MuRF1, and myoD mRNAs, it increased muscle atrophy. Gene expression of MuSK, Dok-7, nAChR, and the content of N-CAM protein were altered by ES. ES can delay the reinnervation process by modulating factors related to NMJ stability and organization, and inducing dysfunction, hypoexcitability, and muscle atrophy. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Programmable and on-demand drug release using electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Y. T.; Sun, J. Y.; Lu, Y. W.; Liao, Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancement in microfabrication has enabled the implementation of implantable drug delivery devices with precise drug administration and fast release rates at specific locations. This article presents a membrane-based drug delivery device, which can be electrically stimulated to release drugs on demand with a fast release rate. Hydrogels with ionic model drugs are sealed in a cylindrical reservoir with a separation membrane. Electrokinetic forces are then utilized to drive ionic drug molecules from the hydrogels into surrounding bulk solutions. The drug release profiles of a model drug show that release rates from the device can be electrically controlled by adjusting the stimulated voltage. When a square voltage wave is applied, the device can be quickly switched between on and off to achieve pulsatile release. The drug dose released is then determined by the duration and amplitude of the applied voltages. In addition, successive on/off cycles can be programmed in the voltage waveforms to generate consistent and repeatable drug release pulses for on-demand drug delivery. PMID:25825612

  2. BCI-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Chin, Cesar; Marquis, Aaron; Popovic, Milos R.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the integration of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) technology with functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore voluntary function. The system was tested with a single man with chronic (6 years) severe left hemiplegia resulting from a stroke. The BCI, implemented as a simple “brain-switch” activated by power decreases in the 18 Hz – 28 Hz frequency range of the participant’s electroencephalograpic signals, triggered a neuroprosthesis designed to facilitate forward reaching, reaching to the mouth, and lateral reaching movements. After 40 90-minute sessions in which the participant attempted the reaching tasks repeatedly, with the movements assisted by the BCI-triggered neuroprosthesis, the participant’s arm function showed a clinically significant six point increase in the Fugl-Meyer Asessment Upper Extermity Sub-Score. These initial results suggest that the combined use of BCI and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary reaching function in individuals with chronic severe hemiplegia for whom the rehabilitation alternatives are very limited. PMID:27990247

  3. Prolonged electrical stimulation causes no damage to sacral nerve roots in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Weidong; Tan, Yunbing

    2014-06-15

    Previous studies have shown that, anode block electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve root can produce physiological urination and reconstruct urinary bladder function in rabbits. However, whether long-term anode block electrical stimulation causes damage to the sacral nerve root remains unclear, and needs further investigation. In this study, a complete spinal cord injury model was established in New Zealand white rabbits through T9-10 segment transection. Rabbits were given continuous electrical stimulation for a short period and then chronic stimulation for a longer period. Results showed that compared with normal rabbits, the structure of nerve cells in the anterior sacral nerve roots was unchanged in spinal cord injury rabbits after electrical stimulation. There was no significant difference in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2. Experimental findings indicate that neurons in the rabbit sacral nerve roots tolerate electrical stimulation, even after long-term anode block electrical stimulation.

  4. Prolonged electrical stimulation causes no damage to sacral nerve roots in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Peng; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Weidong; Tan, Yunbing

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, anode block electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve root can produce physiological urination and reconstruct urinary bladder function in rabbits. However, whether long-term anode block electrical stimulation causes damage to the sacral nerve root remains unclear, and needs further investigation. In this study, a complete spinal cord injury model was established in New Zealand white rabbits through T9–10 segment transection. Rabbits were given continuous electrical stimulation for a short period and then chronic stimulation for a longer period. Results showed that compared with normal rabbits, the structure of nerve cells in the anterior sacral nerve roots was unchanged in spinal cord injury rabbits after electrical stimulation. There was no significant difference in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2. Experimental findings indicate that neurons in the rabbit sacral nerve roots tolerate electrical stimulation, even after long-term anode block electrical stimulation. PMID:25206785

  5. Electrical Stimulation Therapy and Wound Healing: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed Central

    Isseroff, R. Rivkah; Dahle, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Healing chronic wounds is an ongoing challenge for clinicians and poses a serious public health burden. Electrical stimulation (ES), broadly defined as the application of electrical current via electrodes placed on the skin adjacent to or directly within the wound, has been proposed as a therapeutic modality over a century ago, and recent advances in understanding the biology of electrical phenomena in the skin have rekindled an interest in this modality. The Problem Despite evidence that has shown ES to be effective for wound healing, it has been slow to gain acceptance in the United States. Also, there has been no consensus in terms of standardization of parameters to devise a systematic protocol for implementation of this technology. Basic/Clinical Science Advances The epidermis maintains a “skin battery” that generates an endogenous electric field and current flow when wounded. Experimental models have demonstrated that most of the cell types within the wound can sense an electric field in the range of that endogenously generated in the wound, and respond with a variety of biological and functional responses that can contribute to healing. Multiple animal wound models have demonstrated enhancement of a number of parameters of healing when ES is exogenously supplied. Clinical Care Relevance Clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of multiple forms of ES for improving healing in a wide variety of human chronic wounds. In 2002 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services approved reimbursement for use of ES in a clinical setting for certain chronic wounds. Conclusion There remain many voids in our knowledge base: clinical evidence is limited by deficiencies in the design of many of the trials, a multiplicity of ES application modes and waveforms used in trials prevent selection of an optimal modality, and lack of uniformity in reporting ES dosages leave us not much advanced from our clinical knowledge base a decade ago. PMID:24527312

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for spasticity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tenorio, E; Serrano-Muñoz, D; Avendaño-Coy, J; Gómez-Soriano, J

    2016-07-26

    Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has traditionally been used to treat pain, some studies have observed decreased spasticity after use of this technique. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited. Our purpose was twofold: to determine whether TENS is effective for treating spasticity or associated symptoms in patients with neurological involvement, and to determine which stimulation parameters exert the greatest effect on variables associated with spasticity. Two independent reviewers used PubMed, PEDro, and Cochrane databases to search for randomised clinical trials addressing TENS and spasticity published before 12 May 2015, and selected the articles that met the inclusion criteria. Of the initial 96 articles, 86 were excluded. The remaining 10 articles present results from 207 patients with a cerebrovascular accident, 84 with multiple sclerosis, and 39 with spinal cord lesions. In light of our results, we recommend TENS as a treatment for spasticity due to its low cost, ease of use, and absence of adverse reactions. However, the great variability in the types of stimulation used in the studies, and the differences in parameters and variables, make it difficult to assess and compare any results that might objectively determine the effectiveness of this technique and show how to optimise parameters. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical stimulation to optimize cardioprotective exosomes from cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C R; Berman, A E; Weintraub, N L; Tang, Y L

    2016-03-01

    Injured or ischemic cardiac tissue has limited intrinsic capacity for regeneration. While stem cell transplantation is a promising approach to stimulating cardiac repair, its success in humans has thus far been limited. Harnessing the therapeutic benefits of stem cells requires a better understanding of their mechanisms of action and methods to optimize their function. Cardiac stem cells (CSC) represent a particularly effective cellular source for cardiac repair, and pre-conditioning CSC with electrical stimulation (EleS) was demonstrated to further enhance their function, although the mechanisms are unknown. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells primarily exert their effects through communicating with endogenous tissues via the release of exosomes containing cardioprotective molecules such as miRNAs, which upon uptake by recipient cells may stimulate survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Exosomes are also effective therapeutic agents in isolation and may provide a feasible alternative to stem cell transplantation. We hypothesize that EleS enhances CSC-mediated cardiac repair through its beneficial effects on production of cardioprotective exosomes. Moreover, we hypothesize that the beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure may in part result from EleS-induced preconditioning of endogenous CSC to promote cardiac repair. With future research, our hypothesis may provide applications to optimize stem cell therapy and augment current pacing protocols, which may significantly advance the treatment of patients with heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Pengo, Martino F; Steier, Joerg

    2015-08-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA.

  9. Emerging technology: electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of the upper airway (UAW) dilator muscles for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been used for several decades, but in recent years research in this field has experienced a renaissance; the results of several studies have triggered a steady rise in the interest in this topic. Prospective trials, although still lacking a sham-controlled and randomised approach, have revealed the potential of ES. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) leads to a significant reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index and the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). There are similar results published from feasibility studies for transcutaneous ES. A limitation of HNS remains the invasive procedure, the costs involved and severe adverse events, while for the non-invasive approach complications are rare and limited. The limiting step for transcutaneous ES is to deliver a sufficient current without causing arousal from sleep. Despite the progress up to date, numerous variables including optimal stimulation settings, different devices and procedures remain to be further defined for the invasive and the non-invasive method. Further studies are required to identify which patients respond to this treatment. ES of the UAW dilator muscles in OSA has the potential to develop into a clinical alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. It could benefit selected patients who fail standard therapy due to poor long-term compliance. It is likely that international societies will need to review and update their existing guidance on the use of ES in OSA. PMID:26380757

  10. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  11. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8-89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata.

  12. Spatiotemporal structure of intracranial electric fields induced by transcranial electric stimulation in humans and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Alexander; Falchier, Arnaud; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yeagle, Erin M; Linn, Gary S; Megevand, Pierre; Thielscher, Axel; Deborah A, Ross; Milham, Michael P; Mehta, Ashesh D; Schroeder, Charles E

    2016-08-18

    Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an emerging technique, developed to non-invasively modulate brain function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of the intracranial electric fields induced by TES remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how much current actually reaches the brain, and how it distributes across the brain. Lack of this basic information precludes a firm mechanistic understanding of TES effects. In this study we directly measure the spatial and temporal characteristics of the electric field generated by TES using stereotactic EEG (s-EEG) electrode arrays implanted in cebus monkeys and surgical epilepsy patients. We found a small frequency dependent decrease (10%) in magnitudes of TES induced potentials and negligible phase shifts over space. Electric field strengths were strongest in superficial brain regions with maximum values of about 0.5 mV/mm. Our results provide crucial information of the underlying biophysics in TES applications in humans and the optimization and design of TES stimulation protocols. In addition, our findings have broad implications concerning electric field propagation in non-invasive recording techniques such as EEG/MEG.

  13. Spatiotemporal structure of intracranial electric fields induced by transcranial electric stimulation in humans and nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Alexander; Falchier, Arnaud; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yeagle, Erin M.; Linn, Gary S.; Megevand, Pierre; Thielscher, Axel; Deborah A., Ross; Milham, Michael P.; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an emerging technique, developed to non-invasively modulate brain function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of the intracranial electric fields induced by TES remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how much current actually reaches the brain, and how it distributes across the brain. Lack of this basic information precludes a firm mechanistic understanding of TES effects. In this study we directly measure the spatial and temporal characteristics of the electric field generated by TES using stereotactic EEG (s-EEG) electrode arrays implanted in cebus monkeys and surgical epilepsy patients. We found a small frequency dependent decrease (10%) in magnitudes of TES induced potentials and negligible phase shifts over space. Electric field strengths were strongest in superficial brain regions with maximum values of about 0.5 mV/mm. Our results provide crucial information of the underlying biophysics in TES applications in humans and the optimization and design of TES stimulation protocols. In addition, our findings have broad implications concerning electric field propagation in non-invasive recording techniques such as EEG/MEG. PMID:27535462

  14. Electrically conductive biodegradable polymer composite for nerve regeneration: electricity-stimulated neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Wang, Zhaoxu; Roberge, Christophe; Shi, Guixin; Roche, Phillippe; Li, Jiangming; Dao, Lê H

    2007-01-01

    Normal and electrically stimulated PC12 cell cultures and the implantation of nerve guidance channels were performed to evaluate newly developed electrically conductive biodegradable polymer composites. Polypyrrole (PPy) doped by butane sulfonic acid showed a significantly higher number of viable cells compared with PPy doped by polystyrenesulfonate after a 6-day culture. The PC12 cells were left to proliferate for 6 days, and the PPy-coated membranes, showing less initial cell adherence, recorded the same proliferation rate as did the noncoated membranes. Direct current electricity at various intensities was applied to the PC12 cell-cultured conductive membranes. After 7 days, the greatest number of neurites appeared on the membranes with a current intensity approximating 1.7-8.4 microA/cm. Nerve guidance channels made of conductive biodegradable composite were implanted into rats to replace 8 mm of sciatic nerve. The implants were harvested after 2 months and analyzed with immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The regenerated nerve tissue displayed myelinated axons and Schwann cells that were similar to those in the native nerve. Electrical stimulation applied through the electrically conductive biodegradable polymers therefore enhanced neurite outgrowth in a current-dependent fashion. The conductive polymers also supported sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

  15. Electrical nerve stimulation to promote micturition in spinal cord injury patients: A review of current attempts.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian; Chew, Daniel J; Biers, Suzanne; Thiruchelvam, Nikesh

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we focus on the current attempts of electrical nerve stimulation for micturition in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. A literature search was performed through PubMed using "spinal cord injury," "electrical nerve stimulation AND bladder," "sacral anterior root stimulation/stimulator" and "Brindley stimulator" from January 1975 to January 2014. Twenty studies were selected for this review. Electrical nerve stimulation is a clinical option for promoting micturition in SCI patients. Well-designed, randomized and controlled studies are essential for further investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Use of electrical or magnetic stimulation for generating hip flexion torque.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomotaka; Tsubahara, Akio; Watanabe, Susumu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the most suitable site and method to effectively generate isometric hip flexion torque (torque value) using transcutaneous electrical or magnetic stimulation. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent torque value and pain degree measurements during magnetic stimulation of the iliopsoas using three coil placements. After that, the peak torque values generated under three conditions of electrical stimulation of the sartorius, the tensor fasciae latae, and the rectus femoris or that generated by magnetic stimulation of the iliopsoas were recorded at maximum tolerance intensity. No significant differences in torque values were observed among the three coil placements. Magnetic stimulation of the point below the inguinal ligament caused significantly more pain than the other points. Magnetic stimulation of the iliopsoas generated significantly higher torque values than did the electrical stimulation of the two hip flexor muscles together. The hip joint was one of the most suitable regions for application of magnetic stimulation as an alternative method to electrical stimulation.

  17. Organ of Corti Micromechanics with Local Electrical Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Zheng, Jiefu; Choudhury, Niloy; Jaques, Steve; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2009-02-01

    Optical low coherence interferometry is able to both image and measure the vibration of the cellular and non-cellular structures of the organ of Corti in vivo. In this study we applied an electric current to the basal turn from a pair of electrodes, one in scala tympani and the other in scala vestibuli, at the location corresponding to ~17 kHz when interferometry measurements were made. The coherence gate of the interferometer was positioned 1) at the basilar membrane (BM) near the radial location of the outer hair cells (OHCs) (approximately 1/2 the width of the BM) and 2) at the reticular lamina (RL) where the OHCs are located. We confirmed that electrical stimulation with a frequency sweep (12 kHz -25 kHz) caused a mechanical BM displacement with a peak and a traveling wave-like phase delay as we reported previously using laser Doppler velocimetry and reflective beads on the BM. Reflective beads were not used in the current study. The vibration of the RL had little or no phase delay that would characterize a traveling wave. These data suggest a very high compliance system for the electrically activated cellular structure of the organ.

  18. Evaluation of unintended electrical stimulation from MR gradient fields.

    PubMed

    Bassen, Howard I; Angelone, Leonardo M

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of patients with active implants (e.g. cardiac pacemakers and neurostimulators) to magnetic gradient fields (kHz range) during magnetic resonance imaging presents safety issues, such as unintended stimulation. Magnetically induced electric fields generate currents along the implant's lead, especially high at the distal tip. Experimental evaluation of the induced electric field was previously conducted. This study aimed to perform the same evaluation by means of computational methods, using two commercially available software packages (SemcadX and COMSOL Multiphysics). Electric field values were analyzed 1-3 mm from the distal tip. The effect of the two-electrode experimental probe was evaluated. The results were compared with previously published experimental data with reasonable agreement at locations more than 2-3 mm from the distal tip of the lead. The results were affected by the computational mesh size, with up to one order of magnitude difference for SEMCAD (resolution of 0.1 mm) compared to COMSOL (resolution of 0.5 mm). The results were also affected by the dimensions of the two-electrode probe, suggesting careful selection of the probe dimensions during experimental studies.

  19. Electrical stimulation: a novel tool for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Balint, Richard; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2013-02-01

    New advances in tissue engineering are being made through the application of different types of electrical stimuli to influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Developments made in the last decade have allowed us to improve the structure and functionality of tissue-engineered products through the use of growth factors, hormones, drugs, physical stimuli, bioreactor use, and two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) artificial extracellular matrices (with various material properties and topography). Another potential type of stimulus is electricity, which is important in the physiology and development of the majority of all human tissues. Despite its great potential, its role in tissue regeneration and its ability to influence cell migration, orientation, proliferation, and differentiation has rarely been considered in tissue engineering. This review highlights the importance of endogenous electrical stimulation, gathering the current knowledge on its natural occurrence and role in vivo, discussing the novel methods of delivering this stimulus and examining its cellular and tissue level effects, while evaluating how the technique could benefit the tissue engineering discipline in the future.

  20. A Murine Model of Muscle Training by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Ferrari, Ricardo; Distefano, Giovanna; Carvell, George

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a common clinical modality that is widely used to restore1, maintain2 or enhance3-5 muscle functional capacity. Transcutaneous surface stimulation of skeletal muscle involves a current flow between a cathode and an anode, thereby inducing excitement of the motor unit and the surrounding muscle fibers. NMES is an attractive modality to evaluate skeletal muscle adaptive responses for several reasons. First, it provides a reproducible experimental model in which physiological adaptations, such as myofiber hypertophy and muscle strengthening6, angiogenesis7-9, growth factor secretion9-11, and muscle precursor cell activation12 are well documented. Such physiological responses may be carefully titrated using different parameters of stimulation (for Cochrane review, see 13). In addition, NMES recruits motor units non-selectively, and in a spatially fixed and temporally synchronous manner14, offering the advantage of exerting a treatment effect on all fibers, regardless of fiber type. Although there are specified contraindications to NMES in clinical populations, including peripheral venous disorders or malignancy, for example, NMES is safe and feasible, even for those who are ill and/or bedridden and for populations in which rigorous exercise may be challenging. Here, we demonstrate the protocol for adapting commercially available electrodes and performing a NMES protocol using a murine model. This animal model has the advantage of utilizing a clinically available device and providing instant feedback regarding positioning of the electrode to elicit the desired muscle contractile effect. For the purpose of this manuscript, we will describe the protocol for muscle stimulation of the anterior compartment muscles of a mouse hindlimb. PMID:22617846

  1. A murine model of muscle training by neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Ferrari, Ricardo; Distefano, Giovanna; Carvell, George

    2012-05-09

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a common clinical modality that is widely used to restore (1), maintain (2) or enhance (3-5) muscle functional capacity. Transcutaneous surface stimulation of skeletal muscle involves a current flow between a cathode and an anode, thereby inducing excitement of the motor unit and the surrounding muscle fibers. NMES is an attractive modality to evaluate skeletal muscle adaptive responses for several reasons. First, it provides a reproducible experimental model in which physiological adaptations, such as myofiber hypertophy and muscle strengthening (6), angiogenesis (7-9), growth factor secretion (9-11), and muscle precursor cell activation (12) are well documented. Such physiological responses may be carefully titrated using different parameters of stimulation (for Cochrane review, see (13)). In addition, NMES recruits motor units non-selectively, and in a spatially fixed and temporally synchronous manner (14), offering the advantage of exerting a treatment effect on all fibers, regardless of fiber type. Although there are specified contraindications to NMES in clinical populations, including peripheral venous disorders or malignancy, for example, NMES is safe and feasible, even for those who are ill and/or bedridden and for populations in which rigorous exercise may be challenging. Here, we demonstrate the protocol for adapting commercially available electrodes and performing a NMES protocol using a murine model. This animal model has the advantage of utilizing a clinically available device and providing instant feedback regarding positioning of the electrode to elicit the desired muscle contractile effect. For the purpose of this manuscript, we will describe the protocol for muscle stimulation of the anterior compartment muscles of a mouse hindlimb.

  2. Comparison of electrical nerve stimulation, electrical muscle stimulation and magnetic nerve stimulation to assess the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Neyroud, Daria; Temesi, John; Millet, Guillaume Y; Verges, Samuel; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    As it might lead to less discomfort, magnetic nerve stimulation (MNS) is increasingly used as an alternative to electrical stimulation methods. Yet, MNS and electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) have not been formally compared for the evaluation of plantar flexor neuromuscular function. We quantified plantar flexor neuromuscular function with ENS, EMS and MNS in 10 volunteers in fresh and fatigued muscles. Central alterations were assessed through changes in voluntary activation level (VAL) and peripheral function through changes in M-wave, twitch and doublet (PS100) amplitudes. Discomfort associated with 100-Hz paired stimuli delivered with each method was evaluated on a 10-cm visual analog scale. VAL, agonist and antagonist M-wave amplitudes and PS100 were similar between the different methods in both fresh and fatigued states. Potentiated peak twitch was lower in EMS compared to ENS, whereas no difference was found between ENS and MNS for any parameter. Discomfort associated with MNS (1.5 ± 1.4 cm) was significantly less compared to ENS (5.5 ± 1.9 cm) and EMS (4.2 ± 2.6 cm) (p < 0.05). When PS100 is used to evaluate neuromuscular properties, MNS, EMS and ENS can be used interchangeably for plantar flexor neuromuscular function assessment as they provide similar evaluation of central and peripheral factors in unfatigued and fatigued states. Importantly, electrical current spread to antagonist muscles was similar between the three methods while discomfort from MNS was much less compared to ENS and EMS. MNS may be potentially employed to assess neuromuscular function of plantar flexor muscles in fragile populations.

  3. Electrical stimulation: Its role in growth, repair and remodeling of the musculoskeletal system

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the increasingly popular field of electrical stimulation of lesions of the musculoskeletal system, exploring its use in both research and treatment. The book describes clinical experience with electrical stimulation in orthopedic, neuro- and plastic surgery, biological sources of electrical signals, and electromechanical characterization of tissues. Contents include: growth; remodeling and repair; electricity and magnetism; electrical properties of tissues; natural electrical signals in the musculoskeletal system; methods for stimulating tissues; cell, tissue and organ culture; animal studies; clinical applications; overview and a glossary.

  4. A Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation System Based on Transcutaneous Power Transmission Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bingquan; Wang, Yongbing; Yan, Guozheng; Jiang, Pingping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been suggested as a possible treatment for various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). This paper presents a transcutaneous power supplied implantable electrical stimulation system. This technology solves the problem of supplying extended power to an implanted electrical stimulator. After implantation, the stimulation parameters can be reprogrammed by the external controller and then transmitted to the implanted stimulator. This would enable parametric studies to investigate the efficacy of various stimulation parameters in promoting gastrointestinal contractions. A pressure detector in the internal stimulator can provide real-time feedback about variations in the gastrointestinal tract. An optimal stimulation protocol leading to cecal contractions has been proposed: stimulation bursts of 3 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, and 20 s duration. The animal experiment demonstrated the functionality of the system and validated the effects of different stimulation parameters on cecal contractions. PMID:25053939

  5. Feasibility of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Segers, Johan; Hermans, Greet; Bruyninckx, Frans; Meyfroidt, Geert; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik

    2014-12-01

    Critically ill patients often develop intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Reduction in muscle mass and muscle strength occurs early after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although early active muscle training could attenuate this intensive care unit-acquired weakness, in the early phase of critical illness, a large proportion of patients are unable to participate in any active mobilization. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could be an alternative strategy for muscle training. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of NMES in critically ill patients. This is an observational study. The setting is in the medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary referral university hospital. Fifty patients with a prognosticated prolonged stay of at least 6 days were included on day 3 to 5 of their ICU stay. Patients with preexisting neuromuscular disorders and patients with musculoskeletal conditions limiting quadriceps contraction were excluded. Twenty-five minutes of simultaneous bilateral NMES of the quadriceps femoris muscle. This intervention was performed 5 days per week (Monday-Friday). Effective muscle stimulation was defined as a palpable and visible contraction (partial or full muscle bulk). The following parameters, potentially affecting contraction upon NMES, were assessed: functional status before admission to the ICU (Barthel index), type and severity of illness (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II score and sepsis), treatments possibly influencing the muscle contraction (corticosteroids, vasopressors, inotropes, aminoglycosides, and neuromuscular blocking agents), level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale, score on 5 standardized questions evaluating awakening, and sedation agitation scale), characteristics of stimulation (intensity of the NMES, number of sessions per patient, and edema), and neuromuscular electrophysiologic characteristics. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation

  6. The influence of antagonist muscle electrical stimulation on maximal hip adduction force

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle decreases voluntary maximum resistance to passive abduction motion in participants without disease of the central nervous system. [Subjects] The participants were 16 healthy men. [Methods] The hip joint was moved from 10° adduction to 0° adduction with an angular velocity of 7°/s. During the passive leg motion, the subject was asked to resist the motion with maximum force. Two experimental conditions were prepared: (1) electrical stimulation provided to the tensor fascia lata muscle during the passive motion; and (2) no electrical stimulation provided. [Results] The force was 10.2 ± 3.5 kgf with electrical stimulation and 12.2 ± 3.8 kgf without electrical stimulation. [Conclusion] The results suggested that the maximum hip adduction force decreased in participants because of electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. PMID:26957742

  7. A personal user's view of functional electrical stimulation cycling.

    PubMed

    Fitzwater, Roger

    2002-03-01

    Two years of functional electrical stimulation cycling (FESC) as a researcher and subject have given me an insight into the direction that future FESC should take as well as providing me with significant health benefits and an enjoyable and functional ability to cycle. If FESC is to benefit spinal cord injured persons (SCIPs), researchers must turn their attention to making the activity convenient and enjoyable. What follows is a personal view and will be less scientifically rigorous than other presentations but hopefully still of value. It calls upon my experience as a general medical practitioner with a special interest in the value of exercise, a human powered vehicle enthusiast, an amateur FES researcher, but most importantly, an SCIP and FES cyclist.

  8. Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha. PMID:23935663

  9. Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on auricular points.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha.

  10. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Dysphagia Caused by Wilson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Yang, Hee Seung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Jeung, Hae Won; Park, Young Ok

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal copper metabolism. Although dysphagia is a common complaint of patients with Wilson's disease and pneumonia is an important cause of death in these patients, management of swallowing function has rarely been reported in the context of Wilson's disease. Hence, we report a case of Wilson's disease presenting with dysphagia. A 33-year-old man visited our hospital with a complaint of difficulty in swallowing, since about last 7 years and which had worsened since the last 2-3 months. He was diagnosed with Wilson's disease about 13 years ago. On the initial VFSS, reduced hyoid bone movement, impaired epiglottic movement and moderate amount of residue in the valleculae during the pharyngeal phase were noted. After 10 sessions of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for 1 hour per day, decreased amount of residue was observed in the valleculae during the pharyngeal phase on the follow-up VFSS. PMID:22837979

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle wasting in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Masakazu; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Anker, Markus; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen

    2016-12-15

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) seems to be safe and beneficial in improvement in functional capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life when compared with conventional aerobic exercise, while the change in muscle fiber composition and muscle size was conflicting in patients with heart failure (HF). Moreover, NMES studies seem to have beneficial effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine, oxidative enzyme activity, and protein anabolic and catabolic metabolism that are the key molecular mechanism of muscle wasting in patients with HF. We review specific issues related to the effects of NMES on muscle wasting in patients with HF, whether NMES seems to be an alternative exercise modality preventing or improving in muscle wasting for HF patients who are unable or unwilling to engage in conventional exercise training; however no established strategies currently exist to focus on the patients with HF accompanied by muscle wasting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative source localization of electrically and pressure-stimulated multichannel somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kawohl, Wolfram; Waberski, Till Dino; Darvas, Felix; Norra, Christine; Gobbelé, René; Buchner, Helmut

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if there is a difference in the determination of the cortical hand area by dipole source estimation after artificial and natural stimuli. In principle, there are advantages of both methods: pressure stimulation is less invasive and compatible to fMRI, whereas electrical stimulation can be applied with higher stimulus rates and elicits sharper waveforms. Electrical and pressure stimulation was performed simultaneously on the thumb and fifth finger on eight healthy volunteers. The somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation showed sharper peaks and higher amplitudes than the pressure stimulated potentials. For the two stimulus qualities, cortical source positions of thumb and fifth finger separated significantly in the vertical z-axis. Both methods deliver reliable stimulation and therefore allow separate source localization of thumb and fifth finger. For cortical plasticity studies, peripheral somatosensory stimulation is of great importance. According to these findings, the choice of method, electrical or mechanical stimulation, may depend on practical criteria.

  13. Tuning face perception with electrical stimulation of the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Keller, Corey J; Davidesco, Ido; Megevand, Pierre; Lado, Fred A; Malach, Rafael; Mehta, Ashesh D

    2017-03-27

    The fusiform gyrus (FG) is an important node in the face processing network, but knowledge of its causal role in face perception is currently limited. Recent work demonstrated that high frequency stimulation applied to the FG distorts the perception of faces in human subjects (Parvizi et al. []: J Neurosci 32:14915-14920). However, the timing of this process in the FG relative to stimulus onset and the spatial extent of FG's role in face perception are unknown. Here, we investigate the causal role of the FG in face perception by applying precise, event-related electrical stimulation (ES) to higher order visual areas including the FG in six human subjects undergoing intracranial monitoring for epilepsy. We compared the effects of single brief (100 μs) electrical pulses to the FG and non-face-selective visual areas on the speed and accuracy of detecting distorted faces. Brief ES applied to face-selective sites did not affect accuracy but significantly increased the reaction time (RT) of detecting face distortions. Importantly, RT was altered only when ES was applied 100ms after visual onset and in face-selective but not place-selective sites. Furthermore, ES applied to face-selective areas decreased the amplitude of visual evoked potentials and high gamma power over this time window. Together, these results suggest that ES of face-selective regions within a critical time window induces a delay in face perception. These findings support a temporally and spatially specific causal role of face-selective areas and signify an important link between electrophysiology and behavior in face perception. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Implantable electrical stimulation in high-risk hindfoot fusions.

    PubMed

    Donley, Brian G; Ward, Daniel M

    2002-01-01

    The risk of nonunion in both the ankle and subtalar joints has been reported as high as 41% and 16%, respectively. Several factors have been reported to significantly increase the incidence of nonunion: smoking, previous nonunion, osteonecrosis, history of infection, fracture type, and major medical problems. A single surgeon's experience is retrospectively reviewed. Thirteen patients who were identified as high risk for non-union had an implantable electrical stimulator placed at the time of their ankle or hindfoot fusion along with bone grafting. Three ankle, two subtalar, six tibiotalocalcaneal, and two tibiocalcaneal fusions were performed. All 13 patients had a minimum of two major risk factors for non-union. Of the 13 patients, 11 were active smokers and five of 13 had three or more major risk factors. At a minimum of one year follow-up (average, 24.6 months), successful fusion was achieved in 12 of 13 (92%) patients. Pain scores improved from a mean of 8.5 points preoperatively (range, 7 to 10) to a mean of 1.9 points postoperatively (range, 1 to 6), while the preoperative mean modified AOFAS score of 31.2 points (range, 15 to 55) improved to 85.4 points (range, 45 to 100) postoperatively. The improvement was statistically significant at p<0.01. Eleven of 13 patients (85%) ranked their pain as a 1 or 2 out of 10, and achieved a modified AOFAS score of 80 or better. No additional procedures were done to achieve fusion. Four patients developed superficial wound infections requiring local wound care. The subcutaneous battery pack was bothersome to eight of 13 patients, painful to one, and removed in four patients. The results suggest that electrical implantable stimulation may be a useful adjunct to rigid internal fixation and bone grafting for ankle and hindfoot fusions in high-risk patients.

  15. Chronic Stress Decreases Cerebrovascular Responses During Rat Hindlimb Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sohee; Kang, Bok-Man; Shin, Min-Kyoo; Min, Jiwoong; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Yubu; Baeg, Eunha; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Repeated stress is one of the major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke, and vascular dementia. However, the functional alterations in the cerebral hemodynamic response induced by chronic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the in vivo cerebral hemodynamic changes and accompanying cellular and molecular changes in chronically stressed rats. After 3 weeks of restraint stress, the elicitation of stress was verified by behavioral despair in the forced swimming test and by physical indicators of stress. The evoked changes in the cerebral blood volume and pial artery responses following hindpaw electrical stimulation were measured using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We observed that, compared to the control group, animals under chronic restraint stress exhibited a decreased hemodynamic response, with a smaller pial arterial dilation in the somatosensory cortex during hindpaw electrical stimulation. The effect of chronic restraint stress on vasomodulator enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), was assessed in the somatosensory cortex. Chronic restraint stress downregulated nNOS and HO-2 compared to the control group. In addition, we examined the subtypes of cells that can explain the environmental changes due to the decreased vasomodulators. The expression of parvalbumin in GABAergic interneurons and glutamate receptor-1 in neurons were decreased, whereas the microglial activation was increased. Our results suggest that the chronic stress-induced alterations in cerebral vascular function and the modulations of the cellular expression in the neuro-vasomodulatory system may be crucial contributing factors in the development of various vascular-induced conditions in the brain. PMID:26778944

  16. Individual differences in transcranial electrical stimulation current density

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael J; Goodman, Theodore; Pierson, Ronald; Shepherd, Shane; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Wiley, David F

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) is effective in treating many conditions, but it has not been possible to accurately forecast current density within the complex anatomy of a given subject's head. We sought to predict and verify TCES current densities and determine the variability of these current distributions in patient-specific models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment estimated conductivity from MRIs and compared the current density results against actual measurements from the scalp surface of 3 subjects. In the second experiment, virtual electrodes were placed on the scalps of 18 subjects to model simulated current densities with 2 mA of virtually applied stimulation. This procedure was repeated for 4 electrode locations. Current densities were then calculated for 75 brain regions. Comparison of modeled and measured external current in experiment 1 yielded a correlation of r = .93. In experiment 2, modeled individual differences were greatest near the electrodes (ten-fold differences were common), but simulated current was found in all regions of the brain. Sites that were distant from the electrodes (e.g. hypothalamus) typically showed two-fold individual differences. MRI-based modeling can effectively predict current densities in individual brains. Significant variation occurs between subjects with the same applied electrode configuration. Individualized MRI-based modeling should be considered in place of the 10-20 system when accurate TCES is needed. PMID:24285948

  17. Highly Flexible Silicone Coated Neural Array for Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, P.; Van Beek-King, J.; Sharpe, A.; Crawford, J.; Tridandapani, S.; McKinnon, B.; Blake, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present an effective method for tailoring the flexibility of a commercial thin-film polymer electrode array for intracochlear electrical stimulation. Using a pneumatically driven dispensing system, an average 232 ± 64 μm (mean ± SD) thickness layer of silicone adhesive coating was applied to stiffen the underside of polyimide multisite arrays. Additional silicone was applied to the tip to protect neural tissue during insertion and along the array to improve surgical handling. Each array supported 20 platinum sites (180 μm dia., 250 μm pitch), spanning nearly 28 mm in length and 400 μm in width. We report an average intracochlear stimulating current threshold of 170 ± 93 μA to evoke an auditory brainstem response in 7 acutely deafened felines. A total of 10 arrays were each inserted through a round window approach into the cochlea's basal turn of eight felines with one delamination occurring upon insertion (preliminary results of the in vivo data presented at the 48th Annual Meeting American Neurotology Society, Orlando, FL, April 2013, and reported in Van Beek-King 2014). Using microcomputed tomography imaging (50 μm resolution), distances ranging from 100 to 565 μm from the cochlea's central modiolus were measured. Our method combines the utility of readily available commercial devices with a straightforward postprocessing step on the order of 24 hours. PMID:26236714

  18. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary exercise is the traditional way of improving performance of the human body in both the healthy and unhealthy states. Physiological responses to voluntary exercise are well documented. It benefits the functions of bone, joints, connective tissue, and muscle. In recent years, research has shown that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) simulates voluntary exercise in many ways. Generically, NMES can perform three major functions: suppression of pain, improve healing of soft tissues, and produce muscle contractions. Low frequency NMES may gate or disrupt the sensory input to the central nervous system which results in masking or control of pain. At the same time NMES may contribute to the activation of endorphins, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, and ACTH which control pain and may even cause improved athletic performances. Soft tissue conditions such as wounds and inflammations have responded very favorably to NMES. NMES of various amplitudes can induce muscle contractions ranging from weak to intense levels. NMES seems to have made its greatest gains in rehabilitation where directed muscle contractions may improve joint ranges of motion correct joint contractures that result from shortening muscles; control abnormal movements through facilitating recruitment or excitation into the alpha motoneuron in orthopedically, neurologically, or healthy subjects with intense sensory, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive information; provide a conservative approach to management of spasticity in neurological patients; by stimulation of the antagonist muscle to a spastic muscle stimulation of the agonist muscle, and sensory habituation; serve as an orthotic substitute to conventional bracing used with stroke patients in lieu of dorsiflexor muscles in preventing step page gait and for shoulder muscles to maintain glenohumeral alignment to prevent subluxation; and of course NMES is used in maintaining or improving the performance or torque producing

  19. Transcutaneous electrical spinal-cord stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, Yury; Gorodnichev, Ruslan; Moshonkina, Tatiana; Sayenko, Dimitry; Gad, Parag; Reggie Edgerton, V

    2015-09-01

    Locomotor behavior is controlled by specific neural circuits called central pattern generators primarily located at the lumbosacral spinal cord. These locomotor-related neuronal circuits have a high level of automaticity; that is, they can produce a "stepping" movement pattern also seen on electromyography (EMG) in the absence of supraspinal and/or peripheral afferent inputs. These circuits can be modulated by epidural spinal-cord stimulation and/or pharmacological intervention. Such interventions have been used to neuromodulate the neuronal circuits in patients with motor-complete spinal-cord injury (SCI) to facilitate postural and locomotor adjustments and to regain voluntary motor control. Here, we describe a novel non-invasive stimulation strategy of painless transcutaneous electrical enabling motor control (pcEmc) to neuromodulate the physiological state of the spinal cord. The technique can facilitate a stepping performance in non-injured subjects with legs placed in a gravity-neutral position. The stepping movements were induced more effectively with multi-site than single-site spinal-cord stimulation. From these results, a multielectrode surface array technology was developed. Our preliminary data indicate that use of the multielectrode surface array can fine-tune the control of the locomotor behavior. As well, the pcEmc strategy combined with exoskeleton technology is effective for improving motor function in paralyzed patients with SCI. The potential impact of using pcEmc to neuromodulate the spinal circuitry has significant implications for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms controlling locomotion and for rehabilitating sensorimotor function even after severe SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing muscle fatigue due to functional electrical stimulation using random modulation of stimulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Adam; Graham, Geoffrey M; Popovic, Milos R

    2005-06-01

    A major limitation of many functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications is that muscles tend to fatigue very rapidly. It was hypothesized that FES-induced muscle fatigue could be reduced by randomly modulating the pulse frequency, amplitude, and pulse width in a range of +/-15%. Seven subjects with spinal-cord injuries participated in this study. FES was applied to quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles using surface electrodes. Isometric force was measured, and the time for the force to drop by 3 dB (fatigue time) was compared between trials. Four different modes of FES were applied in random order: constant stimulation, randomized frequency, randomized amplitude, and randomized pulse width. There was no significant difference between the fatigue-time measurements for the four modes of stimulation (P=0.329). Therefore, random modulation appeared to have no effect. Based on an observed correlation between maximum force measurements and trial order, we concluded that having 10-min rest periods between trials was insufficient.

  1. Loudness of time-varying stimuli with electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Innes-Brown, Hamish; McDermott, Hugh J; McKay, Colette M

    2014-06-01

    McKay, Henshall, Farrell, and McDermott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2054-2063 (2003)] developed a practical method to estimate the loudness of periodic electrical signals presented through a cochlear implant. In the present work, this method was extended to time-varying sounds based on two models of time-varying loudness for normal listeners. To fit the model parameters, loudness balancing data was collected with six cochlear implant listeners. The pulse rate of a modulated pulse train was adjusted to equalize its loudness to a reference stimulus. The stimuli were single-electrode time-limited pulse bursts, repeated at a rate of 50 Hz, with on-times varying between 2 and 20 ms. The parameters of two different models of time-varying loudness were fitted to the results. For each model, parameters defining the time windows over which the electrical pulses contribute to instantaneous loudness were optimized. In each case, a good fit was obtained with the loudness balancing results. Therefore, the practical method was successfully extended to time-varying sounds by combining it with existing models of time-varying loudness for acoustic stimulation.

  2. Numerical simulation of electrically stimulated osteogenesis in dental implants.

    PubMed

    Vanegas-Acosta, J C; Garzón-Alvarado, D A; Lancellotti, V

    2014-04-01

    Cell behavior and tissue formation are influenced by a static electric field (EF). Several protocols for EF exposure are aimed at increasing the rate of tissue recovery and reducing the healing times in wounds. However, the underlying mechanisms of the EF action on cells and tissues are still a matter of research. In this work we introduce a mathematical model for electrically stimulated osteogenesis at the bone-dental implant interface. The model describes the influence of the EF in the most critical biological processes leading to bone formation at the bone-dental implant interface. The numerical solution is able to reproduce the distribution of spatial-temporal patterns describing the influence of EF during blood clotting, osteogenic cell migration, granulation tissue formation, displacements of the fibrillar matrix, and formation of new bone. In addition, the model describes the EF-mediated cell behavior and tissue formation which lead to an increased osteogenesis in both smooth and rough implant surfaces. Since numerical results compare favorably with experimental evidence, the model can be used to predict the outcome of using electrostimulation in other types of wounds and tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical Stimulation Increases Random Migration of Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Sarah; DeJulius, Carlisle; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2017-05-09

    Exogenous electrical stimulation (ES) has been investigated as a therapy for chronic wounds, as the skin produces currents and electrical fields (EFs) during wound healing. ES therapies operate by applying small EFs to the skin to mimic the transepithelial potentials that occur during the granulation phase of wound healing. Here, we investigated the effect of short duration (10 min) ES on the migration of HDFs using various magnitudes of physiologically relevant EFs. We modeled cutaneous injury by culturing HDFs in custom chambers that allowed the application of ES and then performed timelapse microscopy on a standard wound model. Using MATLAB to process cell coordinate data, we determined that the cells were migrating randomly and fit mean squared displacement data to the persistent random walk equation using nonlinear least squares regression analysis. Results indicated that application of 25-100 mV/mm DC EFs to HDFs on either uncoated or FN-coated surfaces demonstrated no significant changes in viability or proliferation. Of significance is that the HDFs increased random migration behavior under some ES conditions even after 10 min, providing a mechanism to enhance wound healing.

  4. Interleaved neuromuscular electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Austin J; Wiest, Matheus J; Okuma, Yoshino; Collins, David F

    2017-02-28

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) over a muscle belly (mNMES) recruits superficial motor units (MUs) preferentially, whereas NMES over a nerve trunk (nNMES) recruits MUs evenly throughout the muscle. We performed tests to determine whether "interleaving" pulses between the mNMES and nNMES sites (iNMES) reduces the fatigability of contractions for people experiencing paralysis because of chronic spinal cord injury. Plantar flexion torque and soleus electromyography (M-waves) were recorded from 8 participants. A fatigue protocol (75 contractions; 2 s on/2 s off for 5 min) was delivered by iNMES. The results were compared with previously published data collected with mNMES and nNMES in the same 8 participants. Torque declined ∼40% more during mNMES than during nNMES or iNMES. M-waves declined during mNMES but not during nNMES or iNMES. To reduce fatigability of electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed plantar flexors, iNMES is equivalent to nNMES, and both are superior to mNMES. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inhibition of stimulated dopamine release and hemodynamic response in the brain through electrical stimulation of rat forepaw.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y Iris; Ren, Jiaqian; Wang, Fu-Nien; Xu, Haibo; Mandeville, Joseph B; Kim, Young; Rosen, Bruce R; Jenkins, Bruce G; Hui, Kathleen KS; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2008-01-01

    The subcortical response to peripheral somatosensory stimulation is not well studied. Prior literature suggests that somatosensory stimulation can affect dopaminergic tone. We studied the effects of electrical stimulation near the median nerve on the response to an amphetamine induced increase in synaptic dopamine. We applied the electrical stimulation close to the median nerve 20 minutes after administration of 3mg/kg amphetamine. We used fMRI and microdialysis to measure markers of DA release, together with the release of associated neurotransmitters of striatal Glutamate (Glu) and GABA. Result 1) Changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), a marker used in fMRI, indicate that electrical stimulation significantly attenuated increased DA release (due to AMPH) in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal and cingulate cortices. 2) Microdialysis showed that electrical stimulation increased Glu and GABA release and attenuated the AMPH-enhanced DA release. The striatal DA dynamics correlated with the CBV response. Conclusion These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation near the median nerve activates Glu/GABA release which subsequently attenuate excess striatal DA release. These data provide evidence for physiologic modulation caused by electroacupuncture at points near the median nerve. PMID:18178315

  6. Electrical stimulation (ES) in the management of sexual pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Ferdeghini, Francesea; Abbiati, Ileana; Vercesi, Claudia; Farina, Claudio; Polatti, Franco

    2003-01-01

    We performed an open study to investigate the use of electrical stimulation (ES) on the vestibular area and vaginal introitus in women with sexual pain disorders. We recruited 29 women (age range 20-45 years) from among the patients at our Reproductive Psychobiology Unit to participate in the present study. They each experienced vestibular pain, inducing dyspareunia and vaginism. We performed ES with an ECL43400 apparatus (Elite, EssediEsse srl, Milan, Italy) once a week for 10 weeks. To evaluate the muscular activity of the perineal floor and sexual function, we employed the same apparatus with a vaginal probe for recording myoelectrical activity (muV), we employed a VAS scale for evaluating pain, and we administered the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) before and after the study protocol. We analyzed data by parametric and nonparametric comparisons and correlations, as appropriate. Our major findings were as follows: (a) the contractile ability of pelvic floor muscles (p < 0.001), as well as the resting ability (p < 0.001), significantly improved following ES; (b) the current intensity tolerated significantly increased (p < 0.001) throughout the study, from 41.3 +/- 7.4 mA at the start of the study to 50 +/- 7.4 mA at the end of the stimulation protocol; (c) the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) for pain significantly declined (p < 0.001), whereas FSFI pain scores (p < 0.001) and full scale scores (p < 0.001) significantly improved following ES, and 4 out of 9 women with vaginism went back to coital activity; (d) FSFI pain score and the current intensity tolerated, both before (R = .59; p < 0.006) and at the end (R = .53; p < 0.02) of the stimulation protocol, positively correlated. ES may be effective in the management of sexual pain disorders. Further controlled studies are necessary to standardize stimulation protocols according to the severity of pain and to better clarify the long-term clinical effects of ES.

  7. Effects of a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system on hemiplegic gait and muscle forces

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-guang; Rong, Ke; Qian, Zhenyun; Wen, Chen; Zhang, Songning

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern. PMID:26696734

  8. Electrical stimulation of anal sphincter or pudendal nerve improves anal sphincter pressure.

    PubMed

    Damaser, Margot S; Salcedo, Levilester; Wang, Guangjian; Zaszczurynski, Paul; Cruz, Michelle A; Butler, Robert S; Jiang, Hai-Hong; Zutshi, Massarat

    2012-12-01

    Stimulation of the pudendal nerve or the anal sphincter could provide therapeutic options for fecal incontinence with little involvement of other organs. The goal of this project was to assess the effects of pudendal nerve and anal sphincter stimulation on bladder and anal pressures. Ten virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated to control (n = 2), perianal stimulation (n = 4), and pudendal nerve stimulation (n = 4) groups. A monopolar electrode was hooked to the pudendal nerve or placed on the anal sphincter. Aballoon catheter was inserted into the anus to measure anal pressure, and a catheter was inserted into the bladder via the urethra to measure bladder pressure. Bladder and anal pressures were measured with different electrical stimulation parameters and different timing of electrical stimulation relative to spontaneous anal sphincter contractions. Increasing stimulation current had the most dramatic effect on both anal and bladder pressures. An immediate increase in anal pressure was observed when stimulating either the anal sphincter or the pudendal nerve at stimulation values of 1 mA or 2 mA. No increase in anal pressure was observed for lower current values. Bladder pressure increased at high current during anal sphincter stimulation, but not as much as during pudendal nerve stimulation. Increased bladder pressure during anal sphincter stimulation was due to contraction of the abdominal muscles. Electrical stimulation caused an increase in anal pressures with bladder involvement only at high current. These initial results suggest that electrical stimulation can increase anal sphincter pressure, enhancing continence control.

  9. Muscle motor point identification is essential for optimizing neuromuscular electrical stimulation use.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Massimiliano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Orizio, Claudio; Minetto, Marco A

    2014-02-25

    Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied in clinical settings is currently characterized by a wide heterogeneity of stimulation protocols and modalities. Practitioners usually refer to anatomic charts (often provided with the user manuals of commercially available stimulators) for electrode positioning, which may lead to inconsistent outcomes, poor tolerance by the patients, and adverse reactions. Recent evidence has highlighted the crucial importance of stimulating over the muscle motor points to improve the effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Nevertheless, the correct electrophysiological definition of muscle motor point and its practical significance are not always fully comprehended by therapists and researchers in the field. The commentary describes a straightforward and quick electrophysiological procedure for muscle motor point identification. It consists in muscle surface mapping by using a stimulation pen-electrode and it is aimed at identifying the skin area above the muscle where the motor threshold is the lowest for a given electrical input, that is the skin area most responsive to electrical stimulation. After the motor point mapping procedure, a proper placement of the stimulation electrode(s) allows neuromuscular electrical stimulation to maximize the evoked tension, while minimizing the dose of the injected current and the level of discomfort. If routinely applied, we expect this procedure to improve both stimulation effectiveness and patient adherence to the treatment.The aims of this clinical commentary are to present an optimized procedure for the application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and to highlight the clinical implications related to its use.

  10. Electric Field Model of Transcranial Electric Stimulation in Nonhuman Primates: Correspondence to Individual Motor Threshold.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V

    2015-09-01

    To develop a pipeline for realistic head models of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for simulations of noninvasive brain stimulation, and use these models together with empirical threshold measurements to demonstrate that the models capture individual anatomical variability. Based on structural MRI data, we created models of the electric field (E-field) induced by right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in four rhesus macaques. Individual motor threshold (MT) was measured with transcranial electric stimulation (TES) administered through the RUL electrodes in the same subjects. The interindividual anatomical differences resulted in 57% variation in median E-field strength in the brain at fixed stimulus current amplitude. Individualization of the stimulus current by MT reduced the E-field variation in the target motor area by 27%. There was significant correlation between the measured MT and the ratio of simulated electrode current and E-field strength (r(2) = 0.95, p = 0.026). Exploratory analysis revealed significant correlations of this ratio with anatomical parameters including of the superior electrode-to-cortex distance, vertex-to-cortex distance, and brain volume (r(2) > 0.96, p < 0.02). The neural activation threshold was estimated to be 0.45 ±0.07 V/cm for 0.2-ms stimulus pulse width. These results suggest that our individual-specific NHP E-field models appropriately capture individual anatomical variability relevant to the dosing of TES/ECT. These findings are exploratory due to the small number of subjects. This study can contribute insight in NHP studies of ECT and other brain stimulation interventions, help link the results to clinical studies, and ultimately lead to more rational brain stimulation dosing paradigms.

  11. Electric Field Model of Transcranial Electric Stimulation in Nonhuman Primates: Correspondence to Individual Motor Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Laine, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a pipeline for realistic head models of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for simulations of noninvasive brain stimulation, and use these models together with empirical threshold measurements to demonstrate that the models capture individual anatomical variability. Methods Based on structural MRI data, we created models of the electric field (E-field) induced by right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in four rhesus macaques. Individual motor threshold (MT) was measured with transcranial electric stimulation (TES) administered through the RUL electrodes in the same subjects. Results The interindividual anatomical differences resulted in 57% variation in median E-field strength in the brain at fixed stimulus current amplitude. Individualization of the stimulus current by MT reduced the E-field variation in the target motor area by 27%. There was significant correlation between the measured MT and the ratio of simulated electrode current and E-field strength (r2 = 0.95, p = 0.026). Exploratory analysis revealed significant correlations of this ratio with anatomical parameters including of the superior electrode-to-cortex distance, vertex-to-cortex distance, and brain volume (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.02). The neural activation threshold was estimated to be 0.45 ± 0.07 V/cm for 0.2 ms stimulus pulse width. Conclusion These results suggest that our individual-specific NHP E-field models appropriately capture individual anatomical variability relevant to the dosing of TES/ECT. These findings are exploratory due to the small number of subjects. Significance This work can contribute insight in NHP studies of ECT and other brain stimulation interventions, help link the results to clinical studies, and ultimately lead to more rational brain stimulation dosing paradigms. PMID:25910001

  12. Spatial changes in the transmembrane potential during extracellular electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Knisley, S B; Smith, W M; Rollins, D; Pollard, A E; Ideker, R E

    1998-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial changes in the transmembrane potential caused by extracellular electric field stimulation. The transmembrane potential was recorded in 10 guinea pig papillary muscles in a tissue bath using a double-barrel microelectrode. After 20 S1 stimuli, a 10-ms square wave S2 shock field with a 30-ms S1-S2 coupling interval was given via patch shock electrodes 1 cm on either side of the tissue during the action potential plateau. Two shock strengths (2.1+/-0.2 and 6.5+/-0.6 V/cm) were tested with both shock polarities. The recording site was moved across the tissue along fibers with either 200 micrometer (macroscopic group [n=5], 12 consecutive recording sites over a 2. 2-mm tissue length in each muscle) or 20 micrometer (microscopic group [n=5], 21 consecutive recording sites over a 0.4-mm tissue length in each muscle) between adjacent recording sites. In the macroscopic group, the portion of the tissue toward the anode was hyperpolarized, whereas the portion toward the cathode was depolarized, with 1 zero-potential crossing from hyperpolarization to depolarization present near the center of the tissue. In the microscopic group, only 1 zero-potential crossing was observed in the center region of the tissue, whereas, away from the center, only hyperpolarization was observed toward the anode and depolarization toward the cathode. Although these results are consistent with predictions from field stimulation of continuous representations of myocardial structure, ie, the bidomain and cable equation models, they are not consistent with the prediction of depolarization-hyperpolarization oscillation from representations based on cellular-level resistive discontinuities associated with gap junctions, ie, the sawtooth model.

  13. Surgical outcomes after gastric electric stimulator placement for refractory gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Deborah S; Parkman, Henry P; Boucek, Daniel O; Sankineni, Abhinav; Meilahn, John E; Gaughan, John P; Harbison, Sean

    2013-04-01

    Gastric electric stimulation (GES) is used for refractory gastroparesis symptoms. Although symptomatic improvement has been reported with GES, few studies describe the need for additional surgery after placement. Our goal was to evaluate the outcomes of a large series of GES at a single institution. A retrospective review was performed for patients undergoing Enterra GES (Medtronic, Inc.) placement for refractory gastroparesis from October 2000 to October 2011. The main outcome measures were the need/indications for additional procedures and symptom improvement. A total of 266 patients had a GES implanted; 233 had complete records and were included in the analysis. Fifty-eight percent (n = 135) required an additional procedure after GES placement. Nutrition access (45 patients requiring 77 procedures) and subcutaneous pocket issues (n = 21) were the most common indications for subsequent procedures. Twelve percent (n = 29) had the GES explanted, mainly for continued gastroparetic symptoms (n = 11), mechanical issues (n = 9), or infection (n = 4). Ninety patients had subsequent hospitalizations, mainly for gastroparetic flares. Mortality during the follow-up period was 2.1 %. BMI was predictive of additional surgical procedure: when overweight, the risk of pocket revision increased 4.45 times (OR = 4.452). Of 74 most recent patients with prospective long-term outcome data, 70 % reported improved symptoms of pain, bloating, and nausea. Although most patients reported symptomatic improvement after GES implantation, there is often a need for additional surgical procedures as well as associated complications after GES placement. Additional procedures were most frequent for surgical nutrition and subcutaneous pocket issues; pocket revisions were more frequent in obese patients. From our results, we amended our practice to add a jejunostomy tube in malnourished patients and suture the stimulator to the subcutaneous pocket fascia. Further

  14. Neural drive preservation after detraining following neuromuscular electrical stimulation training.

    PubMed

    Gondin, Julien; Duclay, Julien; Martin, Alain

    2006-12-06

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the behaviour of the central nervous system when 5 weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training was followed by 5 weeks of detraining. Nineteen males were divided into the neuromuscular electrostimulated group (EG, n=12) and the control group (CG, n=7). The training program consisted of 15 sessions of isometric NMES over a 5-week period. The EG subjects were tested before training (PRE), after 5 weeks of NMES training (POST) and after 5 weeks of detraining (DE) while CG subjects were only tested at PRE and at POST. Soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemii (GAS) maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). SOL and GAS V-wave were recorded by supramaximal stimulation delivered during MVC. SOL and GAS electromyographic (EMG) activity as well as muscle activation were also assessed during MVC. After training, plantar flexor MVC increased significantly by 22% (P<0.001). Torque gains were associated with an increase in muscle activation (P<0.05), SOL and GAS normalized EMG activity (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and V/M(sup) ratios (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). No significant changes occurred in any of these parameters between POST and DE. H(max)/M(max) and H(sup)/M(sup) ratios for both muscles were unchanged after both the training and detraining periods. In conclusion, the NMES training-induced neural adaptations were maintained after detraining, suggesting that neural changes are long-lasting and did not affect the elements of H-reflex pathways.

  15. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling. PMID:24818076

  16. Somatopy of perceptual threshold to cutaneous electrical stimulation in man.

    PubMed

    Davey, N J; Nowicky, A V; Zaman, R

    2001-01-01

    Neurological testing tools for measuring and monitoring somatosensory function lack resolution and are often dependent on the clinician testing. In this study we have measured perceptual threshold (PT) to electrical stimulation of the skin and compared it with two-point discriminative ability (TPDA) in 12 control subjects. Tests were made on both sides of the body at American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) key points on seven spinal dermatomes (C3 (neck), C4 (shoulder), C5 (upper arm), C6 (thumb), T8 (abdomen), L3 (knee), L5 (foot)) and in the mandibular (chin) and maxillary (cheek) fields of the trigeminal (V) nerve. Electrical stimulation (0.5 ms pulse width; 3 Hz) was applied via a self-adhesive cathode and an anode strapped to the wrist or ankle. The stimulus intensity was adjusted and PT was recorded as the lowest current at which the subject reported sensation. Sites were tested in random order. Indices for both TPDA and PT differed according to the dermatome tested but there was no correlation between TPDA and PT for any dermatome. There was good correlation between results from equivalent dermatomes on left and right sides for both PT and TPDA. Women frequently had lower mean (+/- S.E.) PTs and better TPDA than men; differences were significant (P < 0.05) for PT on the knee (women, 1.31 +/- 0.15 mA; men, 2.05 +/- 0.26 mA) and the foot (women, 2.90 +/- 0.19 mA; men, 4.13 +/- 0.28 mA) and for TPDA on the thumb (women, 3.8 +/- 0.2 mm; men, 7.8 +/- 1.3 mm) and the knee (women, 17.8 +/- 1.6 mm; men, 27.1 +/- 4.0 mm). Four subjects repeated the experiment on another day and the results correlated well with the first test for PT (r2, 0.62) and TPDA (r2, 0.48). PT differs between dermatomes in a predictable way but does not relate to TPDA. PT is easy to measure and may be a useful assessment tool with which to monitor recovery or deterioration in neuropathies, neurotrauma or after surgery.

  17. Tenderness enhancement of beef from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle following electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gursansky, B; O'Halloran, J M; Egan, A; Devine, C E

    2010-11-01

    High voltage electrical stimulation (1130 V peak, 14.28 bidirectional half sinusoidal pulses/s) or low voltage stimulation (45 V peak, 36 alternating square wave pulses/s) was used on cattle: (1) low voltage stimulation applied for 10 or 40 s with fast and slow chilling or high voltage stimulation for 60 s with normal chilling, applied to 100% Bos taurus cattle, (2) low voltage stimulation (40 s) and high voltage stimulation (60 s) with normal chilling applied to mixed Bos indicus and B.taurus cattle, (3) high voltage stimulation (54 s) with normal chilling applied to B. taurus and B. indicus cattle of 0-100% B. indicus composition, and (4) high voltage stimulation (60 s) applied to 100% B. taurus and 100% B. indicus cattle. All stimulation parameters enhanced the tenderness of steaks from M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) aged at 1°C up to 28 days compared with non stimulated LTL. Short low voltage stimulation of 10s was marginally more effective than no stimulation and longer durations of 40s were very effective and high voltage stimulation was most effective. The shear force values for non stimulated B. indicus LTL are much greater than for B. taurus, but following high voltage stimulation LTL of B. indicus were similar to B. taurus and all had lower shear force values than from non stimulated carcasses. Thus adequate electrical stimulation removes any toughness of LTL related to B. indicus genetic composition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Electrical stimulation for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Meredith J.; Amundsen, Cindy L.; Grill, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation for bladder control is an alternative to traditional methods of treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, we systematically discuss the neurophysiology of bladder dysfunction following SCI and the applications of electrical stimulation for bladder control following SCI, spanning from historic clinical approaches to recent pre-clinical studies that offer promising new strategies that may improve the feasibility and success of electrical stimulation therapy in patients with SCI. Electrical stimulation provides a unique opportunity to control bladder function by exploiting neural control mechanisms. Our understanding of the applications and limitations of electrical stimulation for bladder control has improved due to many pre-clinical studies performed in animals and translational clinical studies. Techniques that have emerged as possible opportunities to control bladder function include pudendal nerve stimulation and novel methods of stimulation, such as high frequency nerve block. Further development of novel applications of electrical stimulation will drive progress towards effective therapy for SCI. The optimal solution for restoration of bladder control may encompass a combination of efficient, targeted electrical stimulation, possibly at multiple locations, and pharmacological treatment to enhance symptom control. PMID:25582564

  19. Electrical stimulation for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McGee, Meredith J; Amundsen, Cindy L; Grill, Warren M

    2015-03-01

    Electrical stimulation for bladder control is an alternative to traditional methods of treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, we systematically discuss the neurophysiology of bladder dysfunction following SCI and the applications of electrical stimulation for bladder control following SCI, spanning from historic clinical approaches to recent pre-clinical studies that offer promising new strategies that may improve the feasibility and success of electrical stimulation therapy in patients with SCI. Electrical stimulation provides a unique opportunity to control bladder function by exploiting neural control mechanisms. Our understanding of the applications and limitations of electrical stimulation for bladder control has improved due to many pre-clinical studies performed in animals and translational clinical studies. Techniques that have emerged as possible opportunities to control bladder function include pudendal nerve stimulation and novel methods of stimulation, such as high frequency nerve block. Further development of novel applications of electrical stimulation will drive progress towards effective therapy for SCI. The optimal solution for restoration of bladder control may encompass a combination of efficient, targeted electrical stimulation, possibly at multiple locations, and pharmacological treatment to enhance symptom control.

  20. 9 CFR 307.7 - Safety requirements for electrical stimulating (EST) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety requirements for electrical stimulating (EST) equipment. 307.7 Section 307.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION.../or slaughter animals or to facilitate hide removal. Electrical stimulating equipment consists of two...

  1. [Transesophageal electric stimulation of the left atrium in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Liakishev, A A; Kozlov, S G; Grosu, A A; Kulikova, T V; Sidorenko, B A

    1984-10-01

    The clinical picture and the results of bicycle ergometry and selective coronarography were compared with the findings of electrical stimulation of the left atrium in 24 patients. It was demonstrated that transesophagus electric stimulation of the left atrium may serve as a diagnostic method in coronary heart disease.

  2. Electrical Stimulation Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Damián; Millard, Rodney; Sivakumaran, Priyadharshini; Wong, Raymond C. B.; Crombie, Duncan E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Liang, Helena; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Pébay, Alice; Shepherd, Robert K.; Dusting, Gregory J.; Lim, Shiang Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an attractive source of cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to determine whether acute electrical stimulation of human iPSCs can promote their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Methods. Human iPSCs were differentiated to cardiac cells by forming embryoid bodies (EBs) for 5 days. EBs were then subjected to brief electrical stimulation and plated down for 14 days. Results. In iPS(Foreskin)-2 cell line, brief electrical stimulation at 65 mV/mm or 200 mV/mm for 5 min significantly increased the percentage of beating EBs present by day 14 after plating. Acute electrical stimulation also significantly increased the cardiac gene expression of ACTC1, TNNT2, MYH7, and MYL7. However, the cardiogenic effect of electrical stimulation was not reproducible in another iPS cell line, CERA007c6. Beating EBs from control and electrically stimulated groups expressed various cardiac-specific transcription factors and contractile muscle markers. Beating EBs were also shown to cycle calcium and were responsive to the chronotropic agents, isoproterenol and carbamylcholine, in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that brief electrical stimulation can promote cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells. The cardiogenic effect of brief electrical stimulation is dependent on the cell line used. PMID:26788064

  3. Tinnitus treatment with precise and optimal electric stimulation: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Djalilian, Hamid; Lin, Harrison

    2015-10-01

    Electric stimulation is a potent means of neuromodulation that has been used to restore hearing and minimize tremor, but its application on tinnitus symptoms has been limited. We examine recent evidence to identify the knowledge gaps in the use of electric stimulation for tinnitus treatment. Recent studies using electric stimulation to suppress tinnitus in humans are categorized according to their points of attacks. First, noninvasive, direct current stimulation uses an active electrode in the ear canal, tympanic membrane, or temporal scalp. Second, inner ear stimulation uses charge-balanced biphasic stimulation by placing an active electrode on the promontory or round window, or a cochlear implant array in the cochlea. Third, intraneural implants can provide targeted stimulation of specific sites along the auditory pathway. Although these studies demonstrated some success in tinnitus suppression, none established a link between tinnitus suppression efficacy and tinnitus-generating mechanisms. Electric stimulation provides a unique opportunity to suppress tinnitus. Challenges include matching electric stimulation sites and patterns to tinnitus locus and type, meeting the oftentimes-contradictory demands between tinnitus suppression and other indications, such as speech understanding, and justifying the costs and risks of electric stimulation for tinnitus symptoms.

  4. Tinnitus Treatment with Precise and Optimal Electric Stimulation: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Djalilian, Hamid; Lin, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Electric stimulation is a potent means of neuromodulation that has been used to restore hearing and minimize tremor, but its application on tinnitus symptoms has been limited. We examine recent evidence to identify the knowledge gaps in the use of electric stimulation for tinnitus treatment. Recent findings Recent studies using electric stimulation to suppress tinnitus in humans are categorized according to their points of attacks. First, non-invasive, direct-current stimulation uses an active electrode in the ear canal, tympanic membrane or temporal scalp. Second, inner ear stimulation uses charge-balanced biphasic stimulation by placing an active electrode on the promontory or round window, or a cochlear implant array in the cochlea. Third, intraneural implants can provide targeted stimulation of specific sites along the auditory pathway. Although these studies demonstrated some success in tinnitus suppression, none established a link between tinnitus suppression efficacy and tinnitus-generating mechanisms. Summary Electric stimulation provides a unique opportunity to suppress tinnitus. Challenges include matching electric stimulation sites and patterns to tinnitus locus and type, meeting the oftentimes-contradictory demands between tinnitus suppression and other indications, such as speech understanding, and justifying the costs and risks of electric stimulation for tinnitus symptoms. PMID:26208122

  5. Switched Tracking Control of the Lower Limb During Asynchronous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation: Theory and Experiments.

    PubMed

    Downey, Ryan J; Cheng, Teng-Hu; Bellman, Matthew J; Dixon, Warren E

    2017-05-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) induces muscle contractions via electrical stimuli. NMES can be used for rehabilitation and to enable functional movements; however, a fundamental limitation is the early onset of fatigue. Asynchronous stimulation is a method that can reduce fatigue by utilizing multiple stimulation channels to segregate and switch between different sets of recruited motor units. However, switching between stimulation channels is challenging due to each channel's differing response to stimulation. To address this challenge, a switched systems analysis is used in the present work to design a controller that allows for instantaneous switching between stimulation channels. The developed controller yields semi-global exponential tracking of a desired angular trajectory for a person's knee-joint. Experiments were conducted in six able-bodied individuals. Compared to conventional stimulation, the results indicate that asynchronous stimulation with the developed controller yields longer durations of successful tracking despite different responses between the stimulation channels.

  6. Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ali, Basma Mourad; Hegab, Doaa Salah; El Saadany, Hanan Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus is a distressing symptom in many dermatological as well as systemic conditions, and it is sometimes very chronic and relapsing. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an inexpensive form of analgesia that could also ameliorate itching. This study aimed to evaluate TENS efficacy in patients with pruritus due to some types of chronic eczema, and in patients with chronic hepatic disease. Ten patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), 20 patients with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), and 16 patients with chronic liver disease having chronic distressing pruritus received three sessions of TENS weekly for 12 sessions, and the effect on the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores was recorded after 2 weeks of therapy, at treatment end, and after an additional month for follow up. There was a statistically significant decline in the mean VAS score for studied groups at weeks 2 and 4 of therapy compared to baseline, but the improvement was more significant in patients with AD, and LSC (p < 0.001 for both) than in those with chronic liver disease (p < 0.01) who also showed an early re-elevation of VAS score on follow up. TENS therapy holds promise as a palliative, alternative, safe and inexpensive treatment for patients with some chronic pruritic conditions.

  7. Electrical stimulation for difficult wounds: only an alternative procedure?

    PubMed

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Salomone, Marco; Zingarelli, Enrico M; Rivarossa, Filippo; Bruschi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    In the wound healing research, the exact mechanism of action of different modalities of electrical stimulation (ES) remains controversial and unresolved. In this study we discuss a particular ES, with a different type of waveform, corresponding to the principle of stochastic resonance. Between July 2008 and May 2010, 32 patients were enrolled and ES was applied to wounds using the bioelectrical signal therapy (BST) device (LifeWave, Petach Tiqwa, Israel). The outcome evaluated in group 1 (n = 21) was wound healing, while group 2 (n = 11) was evaluated for wound-related pain [Visual Number Scale (VNS) pain scale] during treatment. In group 1, 87% of the wounds closed in an average time of 97 days (range 10-150 days); three patients were lost to follow-up. In group 2, 45% of the patients experienced a complete pain disappearance after 7 days of treatment; 36% reported a reduction in VNS from 9·3 to 3·2 in 7 days; 19% stopped morphine-like painkillers after 2 weeks. The clinical application of the stochastic resonance enables the usage of easy-to-use, non-invasive, painless and pain-relief treatment. Our experience with ES has demonstrated the BST device to be a very good alternative in cases of small size defects, compared with other therapies such as surgery, dressing and negative pressure devices. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microcurrent Electrical Nerve Stimulation Facilitates Regrowth of Mouse Soleus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshitaka; Fujiya, Hiroto; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Nishiura, Yuka; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) has been used to facilitate recovery from skeletal muscle injury. However, the effects of MENS on unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle remain unclear. Effects of MENS on the regrowing process of unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (10-week old) were randomly assigned to untreated normal recovery (C) and MENS-treated (M) groups. Mice of both groups are subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 7 days of ambulation recovery. Mice in M group were treated with MENS for 60 min 1, 3, and 5 days following HS, respectively, under anesthesia. The intensity, the frequency, and the pulse width of MENS were set at 10 μA, 0.3 Hz, and 250 msec, respectively. Soleus muscles were dissected before and immediately after, 1, 3 and 7 days after HS. Soleus muscle wet weight and protein content were decreased by HS. The regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in M group was faster than that in C group. Decrease in the reloading-induced necrosis of atrophied soleus was facilitated by MENS. Significant increases in phosphorylated levels of p70 S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) in M group were observed, compared with C group. These observations are consistent with that MENS facilitated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle. MENS may be a potential extracellular stimulus to activate the intracellular signals involved in protein synthesis. PMID:23983587

  9. Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation facilitates regrowth of mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshitaka; Fujiya, Hiroto; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Nishiura, Yuka; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) has been used to facilitate recovery from skeletal muscle injury. However, the effects of MENS on unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle remain unclear. Effects of MENS on the regrowing process of unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (10-week old) were randomly assigned to untreated normal recovery (C) and MENS-treated (M) groups. Mice of both groups are subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 7 days of ambulation recovery. Mice in M group were treated with MENS for 60 min 1, 3, and 5 days following HS, respectively, under anesthesia. The intensity, the frequency, and the pulse width of MENS were set at 10 μA, 0.3 Hz, and 250 msec, respectively. Soleus muscles were dissected before and immediately after, 1, 3 and 7 days after HS. Soleus muscle wet weight and protein content were decreased by HS. The regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in M group was faster than that in C group. Decrease in the reloading-induced necrosis of atrophied soleus was facilitated by MENS. Significant increases in phosphorylated levels of p70 S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) in M group were observed, compared with C group. These observations are consistent with that MENS facilitated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle. MENS may be a potential extracellular stimulus to activate the intracellular signals involved in protein synthesis.

  10. Revealing humans’ sensorimotor functions with electrical cortical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Desmurget, Michel; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the human brain has been used by neurosurgeons for almost a century. Although this procedure serves only clinical purposes, it generates data that have a great scientific interest. Had DES not been employed, our comprehension of the organization of the sensorimotor systems involved in movement execution, language production, the emergence of action intentionality or the subjective feeling of movement awareness would have been greatly undermined. This does not mean, of course, that DES is a gold standard devoid of limitations and that other approaches are not of primary importance, including electrophysiology, modelling, neuroimaging or psychophysics in patients and healthy subjects. Rather, this indicates that the contribution of DES cannot be restricted, in humans, to the ubiquitous concepts of homunculus and somatotopy. DES is a fundamental tool in our attempt to understand the human brain because it represents a unique method for mapping sensorimotor pathways and interfering with the functioning of localized neural populations during the performance of well-defined behavioural tasks. PMID:26240422

  11. Functional electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury respiratory care.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Renata; Littlepage, Meagan M; Creasey, Graham; McKenna, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    The management of chronic respiratory insufficiency and/or long-term inability to breathe independently has traditionally been via positive-pressure ventilation through a mechanical ventilator. Although life-sustaining, it is associated with limitations of function, lack of independence, decreased quality of life, sleep disturbance, and increased risk for infections. In addition, its mechanical and electronic complexity requires full understanding of the possible malfunctions by patients and caregivers. Ventilator-associated pneumonia, tracheal injury, and equipment malfunction account for common complications of prolonged ventilation, and respiratory infections are the most common cause of death in spinal cord-injured patients. The development of functional electric stimulation (FES) as an alternative to mechanical ventilation has been motivated by a goal to improve the quality of life of affected individuals. In this article, we will review the physiology, types, characteristics, risks and benefits, surgical techniques, and complications of the 2 commercially available FES strategies - phrenic nerve pacing (PNP) and diaphragm motor point pacing (DMPP).

  12. Electrical stimulation therapy improves sleep respiratory parameters in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie-wen; Qi, Wei-wei; Ye, Rui-xin; Wu, Yuan-yuan

    2013-10-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that electrical stimulation has beneficial effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy for OSAS with a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of all relative studies was performed through searching international literature, including PUBMED, CNKI, and EMBASE databases. This literature analysis compared all patients undergoing electrical stimulation therapy with respect to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and changes in sleep structure. Six studies were selected involving a total of 91 patients. The meta-analysis indicated that electrical stimulation therapy reduced RDI, longest apnea time, and improved the minimum SaO2. Based on the evidence found, electrical stimulation may be a potential therapy for OSAS, warranting further clinical trials.

  13. Electrical stimulation vs. pulsed and continuous-wave optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves, in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, William C.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Identification and preservation of the cavernous nerves (CNs) during prostate cancer surgery is critical for post-operative sexual function. Electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) mapping has previously been tested as an intraoperative tool for CN identification, but was found to be unreliable. ENS is limited by the need for electrode-tissue contact, poor spatial precision from electrical current spreading, and stimulation artifacts interfering with detection. Alternatively, optical nerve stimulation (ONS) provides noncontact stimulation, improved spatial selectivity, and elimination of stimulation artifacts. This study compares ENS to pulsed/CW ONS to explore the ONS mechanism. A total of eighty stimulations were performed in 5 rats, in vivo. ENS (4 V, 5 ms, 10 Hz) was compared to ONS using a pulsed diode laser nerve stimulator (1873 nm, 5 ms, 10 Hz) or CW diode laser nerve stimulator (1455 nm). Intracavernous pressure (ICP) response and nerve compound action potentials (nCAPs) were measured. All three stimulation modes (ENS, ONS-CW, ONS-P) produced comparable ICP magnitudes. However, ENS demonstrated more rapid ICP response times and well defined nCAPs compared to unmeasurable nCAPs for ONS. Further experiments measuring single action potentials during ENS and ONS are warranted to further understand differences in the ENS and ONS mechanisms.

  14. [Efficacy observation of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation].

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling; He, Peng-Lan; Zhou, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Yan-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To observe the impacts on the recovery of swallowing function in patients of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation. Seventy-four patients were randomized into an acupuncture plus electric stimulation group (38 cases) and an electric stimulation group (36 cases). The functional electric stimulator was used in the two groups. The electric pads were placed on the hyoid bone, the upper part of thyroid cartilage, the masseter muscle and the mandibular joint. The treatment lasted for 30 mm each time. In the acupuncture plus electric stimulation group, acupuncture was supplemented at motor area of Jiao's scalp acupuncture, lower 2/5 of sensory area, Baihui (CV 20), Lianquan (CV 23), Jinjin (EX-HN 12) and Yuye (EX-HN 13), 30 mm each time. The treatment was given once a day, 6 treatments for one session and there was 1 day at interval between the sessions, 4 sessions were required totally in the two groups. The dysphagia scale was adopted for efficacy evaluation before treatment and after 4 sessions of treatment in the two groups. The removal rate of nasal feeding tube was observed after treatment. The dysphagia score was increased apparently after treatment compared with that before treatment in the two groups (both P < 0.05). After treatment, in the acupuncture plus electric stimulation group, the dysphagia score was increased much more apparently than that in the electric stimulation group (8.01 +/- 1.25 vs 6.73 +/- 1.36, P < 0.05). The remarkably effective rate was 84.2% (32/38) in the acupuncture plus electric stimulation group, better than 58.3% (21/36) in the electric stimulation group (P < 0.05). The removal rate of nasal feeding tube was 89.5% (34/38) in the acupuncture plus electric stimulation group, which was higher than 50. 0% (18/36) in the electric stimulation group (P < 0.05). Acupuncture combined with electric stimulation achieves the much better efficacy on dysphagia after acute stroke and promotes the

  15. Microprocessor controlled movement of liquid gastric content using sequential neural electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Mintchev, M; Sanmiguel, C; Otto, S; Bowes, K

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gastric electrical stimulation has been attempted for several years with little success. 
Aims—To determine whether movement of liquid gastric content could be achieved using microprocessor controlled sequential electrical stimulation. 
Methods—Eight anaesthetised dogs underwent laparotomy and implantation of four sets of bipolar stainless steel wire electrodes. Each set consisted of two to six electrodes (10×0.25 mm, 3 cm apart) implanted circumferentially. The stomach was filled with water and the process of gastric emptying was monitored. Artificial contractions were produced using microprocessor controlled phase locked bipolar four second trains of 50 Hz, 14 V (peak to peak) rectangular voltage. In four of the dogs four force transducers were implanted close to each circumferential electrode set. In one gastroparetic patient the effect of direct electrical stimulation was determined at laparotomy. 
Results—Using the above stimulating parameters circumferential gastric contractions were produced which were artificially propagated distally by phase locking the stimulating voltage. Averaged stimulated gastric emptying times were significantly shorter than spontaneus emptying times (t1/2 6.7 (3.0) versus 25.3 (12.9) minutes, p<0.01). Gastric electrical stimulation of the gastroparetic patient at operation produced circumferential contractions. 
Conclusions—Microprocessor controlled electrical stimulation produced artificial peristalsis and notably accelerated the movement of liquid gastric content. 

 Keywords: gastric electrical stimulation; gastric motility PMID:9824339

  16. Simulation of the electrically stimulated cochlear neuron: modeling adaptation to trains of electric pulses.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jihwan; Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J

    2009-05-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model does not simulate the significant changes in auditory nerve fiber (ANF) responses to sustained stimulation that are associated with neural adaptation. Given that the electric stimuli used by cochlear prostheses can result in adapted responses, a computational model incorporating an adaptation process is warranted if such models are to remain relevant and contribute to related research efforts. In this paper, we describe the development of a modified HH single-node model that includes potassium ion ( K(+)) concentration changes in response to each action potential. This activity-related change results in an altered resting potential, and hence, excitability. Our implementation of K(+)-related changes uses a phenomenological approach based upon K(+) accumulation and dissipation time constants. Modeled spike times were computed using repeated presentations of modeled pulse-train stimuli. Spike-rate adaptation was characterized by rate decrements and time constants and compared against ANF data from animal experiments. Responses to relatively low (250 pulse/s) and high rate (5000 pulse/s) trains were evaluated and the novel adaptation model results were compared against model results obtained without the adaptation mechanism. In addition to spike-rate changes, jitter and spike intervals were evaluated and found to change with the addition of modeled adaptation. These results provide one means of incorporating a heretofore neglected (although important) aspect of ANF responses to electric stimuli. Future studies could include evaluation of alternative versions of the adaptation model elements and broadening the model to simulate a complete axon, and eventually, a spatially realistic model of the electrically stimulated nerve within extracochlear tissues.

  17. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dauben, Thomas Josef; Ziebart, Josefin; Bender, Thomas; Zaatreh, Sarah; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Bader, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2VRMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2VRMS and 1.4VRMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation.

  18. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zaatreh, Sarah; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4V RMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2V RMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4V RMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2V RMS and 1.4V RMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation. PMID:28044132

  19. Fundamentals of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation dose: definition, selection, and reporting practices.

    PubMed

    Peterchev, Angel V; Wagner, Timothy A; Miranda, Pedro C; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Lisanby, Sarah H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Bikson, Marom

    2012-10-01

    The growing use of transcranial electric and magnetic (EM) brain stimulation in basic research and in clinical applications necessitates a clear understanding of what constitutes the dose of EM stimulation and how it should be reported. This paper provides fundamental definitions and principles for reporting of dose that encompass any transcranial EM brain stimulation protocol. The biologic effects of EM stimulation are mediated through an electromagnetic field injected (via electric stimulation) or induced (via magnetic stimulation) in the body. Therefore, transcranial EM stimulation dose ought to be defined by all parameters of the stimulation device that affect the electromagnetic field generated in the body, including the stimulation electrode or coil configuration parameters: shape, size, position, and electrical properties, as well as the electrode or coil current (or voltage) waveform parameters: pulse shape, amplitude, width, polarity, and repetition frequency; duration of and interval between bursts or trains of pulses; total number of pulses; and interval between stimulation sessions and total number of sessions. Knowledge of the electromagnetic field generated in the body may not be sufficient but is necessary to understand the biologic effects of EM stimulation. We believe that reporting of EM stimulation dose should be guided by the principle of reproducibility: sufficient information about the stimulation parameters should be provided so that the dose can be replicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamentals of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation Dose: Definition, Selection, and Reporting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Peterchev, Angel V.; Wagner, Timothy A.; Miranda, Pedro C.; Nitsche, Michael A.; Paulus, Walter; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Bikson, Marom

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of transcranial electric and magnetic (EM) brain stimulation in basic research and in clinical applications necessitates a clear understanding of what constitutes the dose of EM stimulation and how it should be reported. The biological effects of EM stimulation are mediated through an electromagnetic field injected (via electric stimulation) or induced (via magnetic stimulation) in the body. Therefore, transcranial EM stimulation dose ought to be defined by all parameters of the stimulation device that affect the electromagnetic field generated in the body, including the stimulation electrode or coil configuration parameters: shape, size, position, and electrical properties, as well as the electrode or coil current (or voltage) waveform parameters: pulse shape, amplitude, width, polarity, and repetition frequency; duration of and interval between bursts or trains of pulses; total number of pulses; and interval between stimulation sessions and total number of sessions. Knowledge of the electromagnetic field generated in the body may not be sufficient but is necessary to understand the biological effects of EM stimulation. We believe that reporting of EM stimulation dose should be guided by the principle of reproducibility: sufficient information about the stimulation parameters should be provided so that the dose can be replicated. This paper provides fundamental definition and principles for reporting of dose that encompass any transcranial EM brain stimulation protocol. PMID:22305345

  1. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  2. Probing the physiology of ASH neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans using electric current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Trushal Vijaykumar; Bazopoulou, Daphne; Chronis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been widely used to modulate and study the in vitro and in vivo functionality of the nervous system. Here, we characterized the effect of electrical stimulation on ASH neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans and employed it to probe the neuron’s age dependent properties. We utilized an automated microfluidic-based platform and characterized the ASH neuronal activity in response to an electric current applied to the worm’s body. The electrically induced ASH neuronal response was observed to be dependent on the magnitude, polarity, and spatial location of the electrical stimulus as well as on the age of the worm. PMID:21886270

  3. [Electrical failure with nerve stimulation: cases report and check list for prevention].

    PubMed

    Choquet, O; Feugeas, J-L; Capdevila, X; Manelli, J-C

    2007-03-01

    Functionality of the nerve stimulator and integrity of the electrical circuit should be verified and confirmed before performing peripheral nerve blockade. The clinical cases reported here demonstrate that electrical disconnection or malfunction during nerve localization can unpredictably occur and a checklist is described to prevent the unknown electrical circuit failure.

  4. Corticospinal excitability is dependent on the parameters of peripheral electric stimulation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chipchase, Lucy S; Schabrun, Siobhan M; Hodges, Paul W

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of 6 electric stimulation paradigms on corticospinal excitability. Using a same subject pre-post test design, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to measure the responsiveness of corticomotor pathway to biceps and triceps brachii muscles before and after 30 minutes of electric stimulation over the biceps brachii. Six different electric stimulation paradigms were applied in random order, at least 3 days apart. Motor control research laboratory. Healthy subjects (N=10; 5 women, 5 men; mean age ± SD, 26 ± 3.6y). Six different electric stimulation paradigms with varied stimulus amplitude, frequency, and ramp settings. Amplitudes of TMS-induced motor evoked potentials at biceps and triceps brachii normalized to maximal M-wave amplitudes. Electric stimulation delivered at stimulus amplitude sufficient to evoke a sensory response at both 10 Hz and 100 Hz, and stimulus amplitude to create a noxious response at 10 Hz decreased corticomotor responsiveness (all P<0.01). Stimulation sufficient to induce a motor contraction (30 Hz) applied in a ramped pattern to mimic a voluntary activation increased corticomotor responsiveness (P=0.002), whereas constant low- and high-intensity motor stimulation at 10 Hz did not. Corticomotor excitability changes were similar for both the stimulated muscle and its antagonist. Stimulus amplitude (intensity) and the nature (muscle flicker vs contraction) of motor stimulation have a significant impact on changes in corticospinal excitability induced by electric stimulation. Here, we demonstrate that peripheral electric stimulation at stimulus amplitude to create a sensory response reduces corticomotor responsiveness. Conversely, stimulus amplitude to create a motor response increases corticomotor responsiveness, but only the parameters that create a motor response that mimics a voluntary muscle contraction. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Improves Exercise Tolerance in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, F P; Chiappa, G; Maldaner da Silva, V; Lucena da Silva, M; Lima, A S C G B; Arena, R; Bottaro, M; Cipriano, G

    2015-07-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) increases peripheral blood flow by attenuation of the muscle metaboreflex, improving oxygen supply to working muscles. We tested the hypothesis that application of TENS at ganglion improves exercise performance. 11 subjects underwent constant-work rate tests (CWR) to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) while receiving TENS or placebo. Oxygen uptake (V.O2), carbon dioxide (V.CO2), minute ventilation (V.E), ventilatory equivalent (V.E/V.CO2), heart rate (HR) and oxygen pulse (V.O2/HR) were analyzed at isotime separated by percentile and Tlim. V.O2 was lower and V.CO2 was higher at 100% of isotime during TENS, while there were no differences in V.E and V.E/V.CO2. HR was lower during exercise with TENS, and V.O2/HR increased at peak exercise (17.96±1.9 vs. 20.38±1 ml/min/bpm, P<0.05). TENS increased mechanical efficiency at isotime and Tlim (4.10±0.50 vs. 3.39±0.52%, P<0.05 and 3.95±0.67 vs. 3.77±0.45%, P<0.05) and exercise tolerance compared to P-TENS (390±41 vs. 321±41 s; P<0.05). Our data shows that the application of TENS can potentially increase exercise tolerance and oxygen supply in healthy subjects.

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-09-14

    Neuropathic pain, which is due to nerve disease or damage, represents a significant burden on people and society. It can be particularly unpleasant and achieving adequate symptom control can be difficult. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment are often employed by people with neuropathic pain and may include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). This review supersedes one Cochrane Review 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain' (Nnoaham 2014) and one withdrawn protocol 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults' (Claydon 2014). This review replaces the original protocol for neuropathic pain that was withdrawn. To determine the analgesic effectiveness of TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, PEDro, LILACS (up to September 2016) and various clinical trials registries. We also searched bibliographies of included studies for further relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials where TENS was evaluated in the treatment of central or peripheral neuropathic pain. We included studies if they investigated the following: TENS versus placebo (sham) TENS, TENS versus usual care, TENS versus no treatment and TENS in addition to usual care versus usual care alone in the management of neuropathic pain in adults. Two review authors independently screened all database search results and identified papers requiring full-text assessment. Subsequently, two review authors independently applied inclusion/exclusion criteria to these studies. The same review authors then independently extracted data, assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane standard tool and rated the quality of evidence using GRADE. We included 15 studies with 724 participants. We found a

  7. Principles of electrical stimulation and dorsal column mapping as it relates to spinal cord stimulation: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Chitra; Flagg, Artemus; Williams, Kayode

    2013-02-01

    The last 30 years have witnessed the growth of spinal cord stimulation as a treatment modality for an increasing number of chronic pain conditions. In spite of this growth, one of the greatest criticisms is the lack of concrete evidence for the mechanism of action. With the ever increasing enlightenment with regards to the neurophysiology of pain, and the development of more dynamic neuroimaging techniques, the opportunity to better define the mechanism of action of the spinal cord stimulator will continue to expand. In the interim, clinicians will benefit from the consolidation of the available knowledge that will enhance the effective use of the device. This review serves to provide an overview of the key principles of electrical stimulation and dorsal column mapping as it relates to spinal cord stimulation. We aim at enhancing the understanding regarding the basis for successful placement of leads and manipulation of electrical parameters.

  8. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-05-05

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  9. Pain and soreness associated with a percutaneous electrical stimulation muscle cramping protocol.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C; Knight, Kenneth L

    2007-11-01

    Muscle cramps are difficult to study scientifically because of their spontaneity and unpredictability. Various laboratory techniques to induce muscle cramps have been explored but the best technique for inducing cramps is unclear. Electrical stimulation appears to be the most reliable, but there is a perception that it is extremely painful. Data to support this perception are lacking. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation is a tolerable method of inducing cramps with few side effects. We measured cramp frequency (HZ), pain during electrical stimulation, and soreness before, at 5 s, and 30, 60, and 90 min after cramp induction using a 100-mm visual analog scale. Group 1 received tibial nerve stimulation on 5 consecutive days; Group 2 received it on alternate days for five total treatments. Pain and soreness were mild. The highest ratings occurred on Day 1 and decreased thereafter. Intersession reliability was high. Our study showed that electrical stimulation causes little pain or soreness and is a reliable method for inducing cramps.

  10. Enhanced chondrocyte densities on carbon nanotube composites: the combined role of nanosurface roughness and electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Khang, Dongwoo; Park, Grace E; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-07-01

    Simultaneous incorporation of intrinsic nanosurface roughness and external electrical stimulation may maximize the regeneration of articular cartilage tissue more than on nanosmooth, electrically nonstimulated biomaterials. Here, we report enhanced functions of chondrocytes (cartilage synthesizing cells) on electrically and nonelectrically stimulated highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polycarbonate urethane (PCU) compared to, respectively, stimulated pure PCU. Specifically, compared to conventional longitudinal (or vertical) electrical stimulation of chondrocytes on conducting surfaces which require high voltage, we developed a lateral electrical stimulation across CNT/PCU composite films of low voltage that enhanced chondrocyte functions. Chondrocyte adhesion and long-term cell densities (up to 2 days) were enhanced (more than 50%) on CNT/PCU composites compared to PCU alone without electrical stimulation. This study further explained why by measuring greater amounts of initial fibronectin adsorption (a key protein that mediates chondrocyte adhesion) on CNT/PCU composites which were more hydrophilic (than pure PCU) due to greater nanometer roughness. Importantly, the same trend was observed and was even significantly enhanced when chondrocytes were subjected to electrical stimulation (more than 200%) compared to nonstimulated CNT/PCU. For this reason, this study provided direct evidence of the positive role that conductive CNT/PCU films can play in promoting functions of chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration.

  11. Different Movement of Hyolaryngeal Structures by Various Application of Electrical Stimulation in Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Hyun; Oh, Byung-Mo; Han, Tae Ryun; Jeong, Ho Joong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the differences in the movement of the hyoid bone and the vocal cord with and without electrical stimulation in normal subjects. Methods Two-dimensional motion analysis using a videofluoroscopic swallowing study with and without electrical stimulation was performed. Surface electrical stimulation was applied during swallowing using electrodes placed at three different locations on each subject. All subjects were analyzed three times using the following electrode placements: with one pair of electrodes on the suprahyoid muscles and a second pair on the infrahyoid muscles (SI); with placement of the electrode pairs on only the infrahyoid muscles (IO); and with the electrode pairs placed vertically on the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles (SIV). Results The main outcomes of this study demonstrated an initial downward displacement as well as different movements of the hyoid bone with the three electrode placements used for electrical stimulation. The initial positions of the hyoid bone with the SI and IO placements resulted in an inferior and anterior displaced position. During swallowing, the hyoid bone moved in a more superior and less anterior direction, resulting in almost the same peak position compared with no electrical stimulation. Conclusion These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation caused an initial depression of the hyoid bone, which had nearly the same peak position during swallowing. Electrical stimulation during swallowing was not dependent on the position of the electrode on the neck, such as on the infrahyoid or on both the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles. PMID:26361589

  12. Electrical Stimulation as an Adjunctive Treatment of Painful and Sensory Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Gaurav; Kim, Paul J.; LaFontaine, Javier; Menzies, Robert; Najafi, Bijan; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this review is to evaluate the use of electrical stimulation to treat diabetic neuropathy. Application of electrical stimulation may provide a novel treatment option for large and small fiber neuropathy in persons with diabetes. Large and small nerve neuropathy alters pain, proprioception, touch perception, and motor function, which cause burning foot pain and serve as protective mechanisms from ulcerations. Methods A content search for clinical trials involving electrical stimulation, neuropathy, and diabetes was conducted through PubMed. Randomized clinical trials and prospective studies with outcome measures affecting the lower extremity function were selected for review. Results We identified eight studies in which electrical stimulation was used to treat diabetic neuropathy. Six studies evaluated small fiber neuropathy. Two studies evaluated patients with both small and large fiber neuropathy and reported significant improvement in vibration and monofilament testing and reduction in symptoms in the electrical stimulation treatment group. Six of the eight painful neuropathy studies identified significant improvement in symptoms. There were no studies that evaluated electrical stimulation to treated diabetic motor neuropathy, fall prevention or postural instability. Conclusions Electrical stimulation may be an effective alternative and adjunctive therapy to current interventions for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24124947

  13. Model study of combined electrical and near-infrared neural stimulation on the bullfrog sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    You, Mengxian; Mou, Zongxia

    2017-07-01

    This paper implemented a model study of combined electrical and near-infrared (808 nm) neural stimulation (NINS) on the bullfrog sciatic nerve. The model includes a COMSOL model to calculate the electric-field distribution of the surrounding area of the nerve, a Monte Carlo model to simulate light transport and absorption in the bullfrog sciatic nerve during NINS, and a NEURON model to simulate the neural electrophysiology changes under electrical stimulus and laser irradiation. The optical thermal effect is considered the main mechanism during NINS. Therefore, thermal change during laser irradiation was calculated by the Monte Carlo method, and the temperature distribution was then transferred to the NEURON model to stimulate the sciatic nerve. The effects on thermal response by adjusting the laser spot size, energy of the beam, and the absorption coefficient of the nerve are analyzed. The effect of the ambient temperature on the electrical stimulation or laser stimulation and the interaction between laser irradiation and electrical stimulation are also studied. The results indicate that the needed stimulus threshold for neural activation or inhibition is reduced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the needed laser energy for blocking the action potential is reduced by electrical stimulus. Both electrical and laser stimulation are affected by the ambient temperature. These results provide references for subsequent animal experiments and could be of great help to future basic and applied studies of infrared neural stimulation (INS).

  14. Effect of Fixed Versus Adjusted Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Amplitude on Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Elserty, Noha; Kattabei, Omaima; Elhafez, Hytham

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of adjusting pulse amplitude of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus fixed pulse amplitude in treatment of chronic mechanical low back pain. Randomized clinical trial. El-sahel Teaching Hospital, Egypt. Forty-five patients with chronic low back pain assigned to three equal groups. Their ages ranged from 20 to 50 years. The three groups received the same exercise program. Group A received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with fixed pulse amplitude for 40 minutes. Group B received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with adjusted pulse amplitude for 40 minutes, with the pulse amplitude adjusted every 5 minutes. Group C received exercises only. Treatment sessions were applied three times per week for 4 weeks for the three groups. A visual analogue scale was used to assess pain severity, the Oswestry Disability Index was used to assess functional level, and a dual inclinometer was used to measure lumbar range of motion. Evaluations were performed before and after treatment. Visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and back range of motion significantly differed between the two groups that received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and the control group and did not significantly differ between fixed and adjusted pulse amplitude of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Adjusting pulse amplitude of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does not produce a difference in the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation used to treat chronic low back pain.

  15. Electrical stimulation enhances cell migration and integrative repair in the meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been applied towards the repair of articular tissues in the laboratory and clinical settings for over seventy years. We focus on healing of the meniscus, a tissue essential to knee function with limited innate repair potential, which has been largely unexplored in the context of electrical stimulation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that electrical stimulation enhances meniscus cell migration and integrative tissue repair. We optimize pulsatile direct current electrical stimulation parameters on cells at the micro-scale, and apply these to healing of full-thickness defects in explants at the macro-scale. We report increased expression of the adenosine A2b receptor in meniscus cells after stimulation at the micro- and macro-scale, and propose a role for A2bR in meniscus electrotransduction. Taken together, these findings advance our understanding of the effects of electrical signals and their mechanisms of action, and contribute to developing electrotherapeutic strategies for meniscus repair.

  16. Delay-Dependent Response in Weakly Electric Fish under Closed-Loop Pulse Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Forlim, Caroline Garcia; Pinto, Reynaldo Daniel; Varona, Pablo; Rodríguez, Francisco B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a real time activity-dependent protocol to study how freely swimming weakly electric fish produce and process the timing of their own electric signals. Specifically, we address this study in the elephant fish, Gnathonemus petersii, an animal that uses weak discharges to locate obstacles or food while navigating, as well as for electro-communication with conspecifics. To investigate how the inter pulse intervals vary in response to external stimuli, we compare the response to a simple closed-loop stimulation protocol and the signals generated without electrical stimulation. The activity-dependent stimulation protocol explores different stimulus delivery delays relative to the fish's own electric discharges. We show that there is a critical time delay in this closed-loop interaction, as the largest changes in inter pulse intervals occur when the stimulation delay is below 100 ms. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the context of information processing in weakly electric fish.

  17. A computational model of electrical stimulation of the retinal ganglion cell.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R J; Velte, T J; Humayun, M S; Scarlatis, G N; de Juan, E

    1999-05-01

    Localized retinal electrical stimulation in blind volunteers results in discrete round visual percepts corresponding to the location of the stimulating electrode. The success of such an approach to provide useful vision depends on elucidating the neuronal target of surface electrical stimulation. To determine if electrodes preferentially stimulate ganglion cells directly below them or passing fibers from distant ganglion cells, we developed a compartmental model for electric field stimulation of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC). In this model a RGC is stimulated by extracellular electrical fields with active channels and realistic cell morphology derived directly from a neuronal tracing. Three membrane models were applied: a linear passive model, a Hodgkin-Huxley model with passive dendrites (HH), and a model composed of all active compartments (FCM) with five nonlinear ion channels. Idealized monopolar point and disk stimulating electrodes were positioned above the cell. For the HH and FCM models, the position of lowest cathodal threshold to propagate an action potential was over the soma. Brief (100 microseconds) cathodic stimuli were 20% (HH with disk electrode) to 73% (FCM with point-source) more effective over the soma than over the axon. In the passive model, the axon is preferentially stimulated versus the soma. Although it may be possible to electrically stimulate RGC's near their cell body at lower thresholds than at their axon, these differences are relatively small. Alternative explanations should be sought to explain the focal perceptions observed in previously reported patient trials.

  18. Electrophysiological and morphological maturation of murine fetal cardiomyocytes during electrical stimulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Sven; Halbach, Marcel; Krausgrill, Benjamin; Maass, Martina; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Sahito, Raja Ghazanfar Ali; Peinkofer, Gabriel; Nguemo, Filomain; Müller-Ehmsen, Jochen; Hescheler, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous electrical stimulation affects electrophysiological properties and cell morphology of fetal cardiomyocytes (FCMs) in culture. Fetal cardiomyocytes at day 14.5 post coitum were harvested from murine hearts and electrically stimulated for 6 days in culture using a custom-made stimulation chamber. Subsequently, action potentials of FCM were recorded with glass microelectrodes. Immunostainings of α-Actinin, connexin 43, and vinculin were performed. Expression of ion channel subunits Kcnd2, Slc8a1, Cacna1, Kcnh2, and Kcnb1 was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Action potential duration to 50% and 90% repolarization (APD50 and APD90) of electrically stimulated FCMs were significantly decreased when compared to nonstimulated control FCM. Alignment of cells was significantly higher in stimulated FCM when compared to control FCM. The expression of connexin 43 was significantly increased in stimulated FCM when compared to control FCM. The ratio between cell length and cell width of the stimulated FCM was significantly higher than in control FCM. Kcnh2 and Kcnd2 were upregulated in stimulated FCM when compared to control FCM. Expression of Slc8a1, Cacna1c, and Kcnb1 was not different in stimulated and control FCMs. The decrease in APD50 observed after electrical stimulation of FCM in vitro corresponds to the electrophysiological maturation of FCM in vivo. Expression levels of ion channels suggest that some important but not all aspects of the complex process of electrophysiological maturation are promoted by electrical stimulation. Parallel alignment, increased connexin 43 expression, and elongation of FCM are signs of a morphological maturation induced by electrical stimulation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The electrical stimulation of tibial osteotomies. Double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mammi, G I; Rocchi, R; Cadossi, R; Massari, L; Traina, G C

    1993-03-01

    The effect of electromagnetic field stimulation was investigated in a group of 40 consecutive patients treated with valgus tibial osteotomy for degenerative arthrosis of the knee. All patients were operated on by the same author and followed the same postoperative program. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to a control group (dummy stimulators) or to a stimulated one (active stimulators). Four orthopedic surgeons, unaware of the experimental conditions, were asked to evaluate the roentgenograms taken 60 days postoperatively and to rate the osteotomy healing according to four categories (the fourth category being the most advanced stage of healing). In the control group, 73.6% of the patients were included in the first and second category. In the stimulated group, 72.2% of the patients were included in the third and fourth category. On a homogeneous group of patients, electromagnetic field stimulation had positive effects on the healing of tibial osteotomies.

  20. Electric stimulation approaches to the restoration and rehabilitation of swallowing: a review.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Thrasher, Adam T; Popovic, Milos R

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of interest in the use of electric stimulation for the treatment of swallowing disorders. This review explores both the rationale and existing evidence for electric stimulation approaches to swallowing rehabilitation. Although this is an exciting area of research which holds promise for future clinically relevant technology and/or therapy, a critical analysis of the existing literature will be presented to support the argument that implementation of electric stimulation in clinical swallowing rehabilitation settings still remains pre-mature.

  1. Observation of pressure stimulated voltages in rocks using an electric potential sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Harland, C. J.

    2009-09-21

    Recent interest in the electrical activity in rock and the use of electric field transients as candidates for earthquake precursors has led to studies of pressure stimulated currents in laboratory samples. In this paper, an electric field sensor is used to measure directly the voltages associated with these currents. Stress was applied as uniaxial compression to marble and granite at an approximately constant rate. In contrast with the small pressure stimulated currents previously measured, large voltage signals are reported. Polarity reversal of the signal was observed immediately before fracture for the marble, in agreement with previous pressure stimulated current studies.

  2. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living. To date, there has been only one systematic review in 2012 which included TENS, amongst other treatments, for fibromyalgia, and the authors concluded that TENS was not effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS alone or added to usual care (including exercise) compared with placebo (sham) TENS; no treatment; exercise alone; or other treatment including medication, electroacupuncture, warmth therapy, or hydrotherapy for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 18 January 2017: CENTRAL (CRSO); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS; PEDRO; Web of Science (ISI); AMED (Ovid); and SPORTDiscus (EBSCO). We also searched three trial registries. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised trials of TENS treatment for pain associated with fibromyalgia in adults. We included cross-over and parallel-group trial designs. We included studies that evaluated TENS administered using non-invasive techniques at intensities that produced perceptible TENS sensations during stimulation at either the site of pain or over nerve bundles proximal (or near) to the site of pain. We included TENS administered as a sole treatment or TENS in combination with other treatments, and TENS given as a single treatment or as a course of treatments. Two review authors independently determined study eligibility by assessing each record and

  3. Electrical stimulation promotes sensory neuron regeneration and growth-associated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Nicole M; Gordon, Tessa; Brushart, Thomas M; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Verge, Valerie M K

    2007-06-01

    Brief electrical stimulation enhances the regenerative ability of axotomized motor [Nix, W.A., Hopf, H.C., 1983. Electrical stimulation of regenerating nerve and its effect on motor recovery. Brain Res. 272, 21-25; Al-Majed, A.A., Neumann, C.M., Brushart, T.M., Gordon, T., 2000. Brief electrical stimulation promotes the speed and accuracy of motor axonal regeneration. J. Neurosci. 20, 2602-2608] and sensory [Brushart, T.M., Jari, R., Verge, V., Rohde, C., Gordon, T., 2005. Electrical stimulation restores the specificity of sensory axon regeneration. Exp. Neurol. 194, 221-229] neurons. Here we examined the parameter of duration of stimulation on regenerative capacity, including the intrinsic growth programs, of sensory neurons. The effect of 20 Hz continuous electrical stimulation on the number of DRG sensory neurons that regenerate their axons was evaluated following transection and surgical repair of the femoral nerve trunk. Stimulation was applied proximal to the repair site for 1 h, 3 h, 1 day, 7 days or 14 days at the time of nerve repair. Following a 21-day regeneration period, DRG neurons that regenerated axons into the muscle and cutaneous sensory nerve branches were retrogradely identified. Stimulation of 1 h led to a significant increase in DRG neurons regenerating into cutaneous and muscle branches when compared to 0 h (sham) stimulation or longer periods of stimulation. Stimulation for 1 h also significantly increased the numbers of neurons that regenerated axons beyond the repair site 4 days after lesion and was correlated with a significant increase in expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) mRNA in the regenerating neurons at 2 days post-repair. An additional indicator of heightened plasticity following 1 h stimulation was elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effect of brief stimulation on enhancing sensory and motoneuron regeneration holds promise for inducing improved peripheral nerve repair in the

  4. [Localization of peripheral nerves. Success and safety with electrical nerve stimulation].

    PubMed

    Neuburger, M; Schwemmer, U; Volk, T; Gogarten, W; Kessler, P; Steinfeldt, T

    2014-05-01

    Peripheral electrical nerve stimulation is one of the standard applications in peripheral regional anesthesia in addition to the ultrasound technique. Among other findings, the visualization of needle and nerve during ultrasound-guided blockade caused a change in clinical practice of peripheral nerve stimulation in the last decade. In the present article old and new aspects of principles and clinical practice of the nerve stimulation technique are presented and summarized in a total clinical concept in order to achieve safe and successful peripheral regional anesthesia using electrical peripheral nerve stimulation.

  5. Audio-Visual Stimulation in Conjunction with Functional Electrical Stimulation to Address Upper Limb and Lower Limb Movement Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepesh; Verma, Sunny; Bhattacharya, Sutapa; Lahiri, Uttama

    2016-06-13

    Neurological disorders often manifest themselves in the form of movement deficit on the part of the patient. Conventional rehabilitation often used to address these deficits, though powerful are often monotonous in nature. Adequate audio-visual stimulation can prove to be motivational. In the research presented here we indicate the applicability of audio-visual stimulation to rehabilitation exercises to address at least some of the movement deficits for upper and lower limbs. Added to the audio-visual stimulation, we also use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). In our presented research we also show the applicability of FES in conjunction with audio-visual stimulation delivered through VR-based platform for grasping skills of patients with movement disorder.

  6. Bioreactor for modulation of cardiac microtissue phenotype by combined static stretch and electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Miklas, Jason W; Nunes, Sara S; Sofla, Aarash; Reis, Lewis A; Pahnke, Aric; Xiao, Yun; Laschinger, Carol; Radisic, Milica

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a bioreactor capable of simultaneously applying mechanical and electrical field stimulation in conjunction with static strain and on-line force of contraction measurements. It consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue chamber and a pneumatically driven stretch platform. The chamber contained eight tissue microwells (8.05 mm in length and 2.5 mm in width) with a pair of posts (2.78 mm in height and 0.8 mm in diameter) in each well to serve as fixation points and for measurements of contraction force. Carbon rods, stimulating electrodes, were placed into the PDMS chamber such that one pair stimulated four microwells. For feasibility studies, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were seeded in collagen gels into the microwells. Following three days of gel compaction, electrical field stimulation at 3–4 V/cm and 1Hz, mechanical stimulation of 5% static strain or electromechanical stimulation (field stimulation at 3–4 V/cm, 1Hz and 5% static strain) were applied for 3 days. Cardiac microtissues subjected to electromechanical stimulation exhibited elevated amplitude of contraction and improved sarcomere structure as evidenced by sarcomeric α-actinin, actin and troponin T staining compared to microtissues subjected to electrical or mechanical stimulation alone or non-stimulated controls. The expression of atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide was also elevated in the electromechanically stimulated group. PMID:24876342

  7. Semiconditional electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents stimulation to manage neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon; Im, Hyung Tae; Lee, Kye-Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hur, Dong Min

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of semiconditional electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve afferents for the neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury. Forty patients (36 males, 4 males) with spinal cord injury who had urinary incontinence and frequency, as well as felt bladder contraction with bladder filling sense or autonomic dysreflexic symptom participated in this study. Patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity were subdivided into complete injury and incomplete injury groups by ASIA classification and subdivided into tetraplegia and paraplegia groups by neurologic level of injury. Bladder function, such as bladder volumes infused to the bladder until the first occurrence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (V(ini)) and the last contraction suppressed by electrical stimulation (V(max)) was measured by water cystometry (CMG) and compared with the results of each subgroup. Among the 40 subjects, 35 patients showed neurogenic detrusor overactivity in the CMG study. Among these 35 patients, detrusor overactivity was suppressed effectively by pudendal nerve afferent electrical stimulation in 32 patients. The infusion volume until the occurrence of the first reflex contraction (V(ini)) was 99.4±80.3 ml. The volume of saline infused to the bladder until the last contraction suppressed by semiconditional pudendal nerve stimulation (V(max)) was 274.3±93.2 ml, which was significantly greater than V(ini). In patients with good response to the pudendal nerve afferent stimulation, the bladder volume significantly increased by stimulation in all the patients. In this study, semiconditional electrical stimulation on the dorsal penile afferent nerve could effectively inhibit neurogenic detrusor overactivity and increase bladder volume in patients with spinal cord injury.

  8. Pregabalin and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for postherpetic neuralgia treatment.

    PubMed

    Barbarisi, Manlio; Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Maisto, Massimo; Mazzariello, Luigi; Pota, Vincenzo; Aurilio, Caterina

    2010-09-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is responsible for one of the most common types of neuropathic pain, described as a burning pain that shakes, hits, and tightens and includes allodynia and paresthesia. To evaluate the efficacy of Pregabalin when used during transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with PHN and to analyze any changes in physical activity and sleep quality. Patients aged 50 to 80 years were included in this randomized study. We enrolled 15 male (average age 65+/-8.6 y) and 15 female patients (average age 64+/-8.2 y). The male patients had a history of neuropathic pain lasting 15.6+/-8.8 months whereas the female patients had a history of neuropathic pain lasting about 14.9+/-8.6 months. We began with 1 week of patient screening followed by a week of Pregabalin titration. Then, we established the dose of Pregabalin for each patient to obtain visual analog scale (VAS) of less than 60 mm. The eligible patients were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving Pregabalin + TENS or Pregabalin+TENS placebo for the following 4 weeks. Patients underwent 8 outpatient visits during which they completed VAS, SF-McGill Pain Questionnaire, and sleep interference questionnaire. The resulting data showed that Pregabalin administration associated with TENS reduced pain in patients with PHN. At the end of the treatment, all the observed groups presented a reduction of mean VAS. The group treated with Pregabalin 300 (P300)+TENS had a reduction of pain of 30% and the group treated with Pregabalin 600 (P600)+TENS had a reduction of pain of 40%. The comparison between group P300+TENS versus group P300+TENS placebo showed a statistically significant reduction of VAS (P300+TENS 25+/-0.67 vs. P300+TENS placebo 39+/-1.19 P<0.02). Moreover, the comparison between group P600+TENS versus group P600+TENS placebo has shown a statistically significant reduction of VAS (P600+TENS 23+/-0.78 vs. P600+TENS placebo 32+/-0.81 P<0.02). At the end of the study, all groups

  9. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Robb, Karen A; Bennett, Michael I; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen J; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2008-07-16

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominately used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role for a significant number of patients but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases (11/04/08). Only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults were included. The search strategy identified 37 possible published studies which were divided between two pairs of review authors that decided on study selection. A study eligibility form was used to screen each abstract and where study eligibility could not be determined from the abstract, the full paper was obtained and assessed by one pair of review authors. A standardised data extraction sheet was used to collect information on the studies and the quality of the studies was assessed independently by two review authors using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. Final scores were discussed and agreed between all four review authors. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the two included studies prevented meta-analysis. Only two RCTs met the eligibility criteria (64 participants). These studies were heterogenous with respect to study population, sample size, study design, methodological quality, mode of TENS, treatment duration, method of administration and outcome measures used. In one RCT, there were no significant differences between TENS and placebo in women with chronic pain secondary to breast cancer treatment. In the other RCT, there were no significant differences between acupuncture-type TENS and sham in palliative care

  10. Tissue heterogeneity as a mechanism for localized neural stimulation by applied electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. C.; Correia, L.; Salvador, R.; Basser, P. J.

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the heterogeneity of electrical conductivity as a new mechanism to stimulate excitable tissues via applied electric fields. In particular, we show that stimulation of axons crossing internal boundaries can occur at boundaries where the electric conductivity of the volume conductor changes abruptly. The effectiveness of this and other stimulation mechanisms was compared by means of models and computer simulations in the context of transcranial magnetic stimulation. While, for a given stimulation intensity, the largest membrane depolarization occurred where an axon terminates or bends sharply in a high electric field region, a slightly smaller membrane depolarization, still sufficient to generate action potentials, also occurred at an internal boundary where the conductivity jumped from 0.143 S m-1 to 0.333 S m-1, simulating a white-matter-grey-matter interface. Tissue heterogeneity can also give rise to local electric field gradients that are considerably stronger and more focal than those impressed by the stimulation coil and that can affect the membrane potential, albeit to a lesser extent than the two mechanisms mentioned above. Tissue heterogeneity may play an important role in electric and magnetic 'far-field' stimulation.

  11. Subcellular electrical stimulation of neurons enhances the myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Ung; Blasiak, Agata; Agrawal, Devansh R.; Loong, Daniel Teh Boon; Thakor, Nitish V.; All, Angelo H.; Ho, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Myelin formation has been identified as a modulator of neural plasticity. New tools are required to investigate the mechanisms by which environmental inputs and neural activity regulate myelination patterns. In this study, we demonstrate a microfluidic compartmentalized culture system with integrated electrical stimulation capabilities that can induce neural activity by whole cell and focal stimulation. A set of electric field simulations was performed to confirm spatial restriction of the electrical input in the compartmentalized culture system. We further demonstrate that electrode localization is a key consideration for generating uniform the stimulation of neuron and oligodendrocytes within the compartments. Using three configurations of the electrodes we tested the effects of subcellular activation of neural activity on distal axon myelination with oligodendrocytes. We further investigated if oligodendrocytes have to be exposed to the electrical field to induce axon myelination. An isolated stimulation of cell bodies and proximal axons had the same effect as an isolated stimulation of distal axons co-cultured with oligodendrocytes, and the two modes had a non-different result than whole cell stimulation. Our platform enabled the demonstration that electrical stimulation enhances oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin formation independent of the input localization and oligodendrocyte exposure to the electrical field. PMID:28671962

  12. Subcellular electrical stimulation of neurons enhances the myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Ung; Blasiak, Agata; Agrawal, Devansh R; Loong, Daniel Teh Boon; Thakor, Nitish V; All, Angelo H; Ho, John S; Yang, In Hong

    2017-01-01

    Myelin formation has been identified as a modulator of neural plasticity. New tools are required to investigate the mechanisms by which environmental inputs and neural activity regulate myelination patterns. In this study, we demonstrate a microfluidic compartmentalized culture system with integrated electrical stimulation capabilities that can induce neural activity by whole cell and focal stimulation. A set of electric field simulations was performed to confirm spatial restriction of the electrical input in the compartmentalized culture system. We further demonstrate that electrode localization is a key consideration for generating uniform the stimulation of neuron and oligodendrocytes within the compartments. Using three configurations of the electrodes we tested the effects of subcellular activation of neural activity on distal axon myelination with oligodendrocytes. We further investigated if oligodendrocytes have to be exposed to the electrical field to induce axon myelination. An isolated stimulation of cell bodies and proximal axons had the same effect as an isolated stimulation of distal axons co-cultured with oligodendrocytes, and the two modes had a non-different result than whole cell stimulation. Our platform enabled the demonstration that electrical stimulation enhances oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin formation independent of the input localization and oligodendrocyte exposure to the electrical field.

  13. [Ocular electrical stimulation: Therapeutic application and active retinal implants for hereditary retinal degenerations].

    PubMed

    Gekeler, F; Zrenner, E; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2015-09-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history in ophthalmology. Subthreshold electrical stimulation can have beneficial therapeutic effects on hereditary degenerative retinal diseases. Suprathreshold stimulation is able to elicit visual perceptions and, if multielectrode fields are arranged as an array, usable pictures can be perceived by blind patients. This is a review article on the current situation and studies on therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation. Moreover, the challenges, surgical concepts and visual results of active retinal implants are discussed. This article gives an overview on transcorneal electrical stimulation and active retinal implants based on published results, with special emphasis on the clinical application. The results of initial controlled studies on therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation in hereditary retinal diseases were very promising. The largest controlled study so far in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has yielded many positive trends and some significant improvements in electrophysiological data. Currently, two retinal implants have regulatory approval, the Argus II retinal prosthesis system® (SecondSight®) and the Alpha-IMS© (Retina Implant AG). Both systems can be used to improve visual perception and under test conditions can achieve visual acuities of 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In-depth analyses and follow-up studies in larger patient groups are currently planned to definitively clarify the potential of therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation in RP patients. The challenges of currently available active retinal implants are the technical biostability and the limited spatial resolution.

  14. Optimal electrode placement for noninvasive electrical stimulation of human abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Lim, Julianne; Gorman, Robert B; Saboisky, Julian P; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2007-04-01

    Abdominal muscles are the most important expiratory muscles for coughing. Spinal cord-injured patients have respiratory complications because of abdominal muscle weakness and paralysis and impaired ability to cough. We aimed to determine the optimal positioning of stimulating electrodes on the trunk for the noninvasive electrical activation of the abdominal muscles. In six healthy subjects, we compared twitch pressures produced by a single electrical pulse through surface electrodes placed either posterolaterally or anteriorly on the trunk with twitch pressures produced by magnetic stimulation of nerve roots at the T(10) level. A gastroesophageal catheter measured gastric pressure (Pga) and esophageal pressure (Pes). Twitches were recorded at increasing stimulus intensities at functional residual capacity (FRC) in the seated posture. The maximal intensity used was also delivered at total lung capacity (TLC). At FRC, twitch pressures were greatest with electrical stimulation posterolaterally and magnetic stimulation at T(10) and smallest at the anterior site (Pga, 30 +/- 3 and 33 +/- 6 cm H(2)O vs. 12 +/- 3 cm H(2)O; Pes 8 +/- 2 and 11 +/- 3 cm H(2)O vs. 5 +/- 1 cm H(2)O; means +/- SE). At TLC, twitch pressures were larger. The values for posterolateral electrical stimulation were comparable to those evoked by thoracic magnetic stimulation. The posterolateral stimulation site is the optimal site for generating gastric and esophageal twitch pressures with electrical stimulation.

  15. Optogenetic versus electrical stimulation of dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens reveals local modulation of presynaptic release

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, James R.; Ferris, Mark J.; Stuber, Garret D.; Riddle, David R.; Jones, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is highly heterogeneous, integrating regionally distinct afferent projections and accumbal interneurons, resulting in diverse local microenvironments. Dopamine (DA) neuron terminals similarly express a heterogeneous collection of terminal receptors that modulate DA signaling. Cyclic voltammetry is often used to probe DA terminal dynamics in brain slice preparations; however, this method traditionally requires electrical stimulation to induce DA release. Electrical stimulation excites all of the neuronal processes in the stimulation field, potentially introducing simultaneous, multi-synaptic modulation of DA terminal release. We used optogenetics to selectively stimulate DA terminals and used voltammetry to compare DA responses from electrical and optical stimulation of the same area of tissue around a recording electrode. We found that with multiple pulse stimulation trains, optically stimulated DA release increasingly exceeded that of electrical stimulation. Furthermore, electrical stimulation produced inhibition of DA release across longer duration stimulations. The GABAB antagonist, CGP 55845, increased electrically stimulated DA release significantly more than light stimulated release. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide, inhibited single pulse electrically stimulated DA release while having no effect on optically stimulated DA release. Our results demonstrate that electrical stimulation introduces local multi-synaptic modulation of DA release that is absent with optogenetically targeted stimulation. PMID:26011081

  16. Stimulating Music: The Pleasures and Dangers of "Electric Music," 1750-1900.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, James

    2011-01-01

    Far from being a purely modern idea, the notion of "electric music" was already common in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The shift in thinking about music from cosmic harmony to nervous stimulation made metaphors and speculative theories relating music and electricity irresistible. This essay considers the development of the idea of electric music, looking at its associations with a sexual "body electric." It will then examine how this conception of music went from being the subject of sympathy to becoming part of a medical critique of music as a dangerous stimulant, with echoes in music criticism and beyond.

  17. Stimulating Music: The Pleasures and Dangers of “Electric Music,” 1750–1900

    PubMed Central

    Kennaway, James

    2014-01-01

    Far from being a purely modern idea, the notion of “electric music” was already common in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The shift in thinking about music from cosmic harmony to nervous stimulation made metaphors and speculative theories relating music and electricity irresistible. This essay considers the development of the idea of electric music, looking at its associations with a sexual “body electric.” It will then examine how this conception of music went from being the subject of sympathy to becoming part of a medical critique of music as a dangerous stimulant, with echoes in music criticism and beyond. PMID:24587689

  18. Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Blood Flow Velocity and Vessel Size

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hee-Kyung; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Cho, Sung-Hyoun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interferential current electrical stimulation alters blood flow velocity and vessel size. We aimed to investigate the changes in the autonomic nervous system depending on electrical stimulation parameters. Forty-five healthy adult male and female subjects were studied. Bipolar adhesive pad electrodes were used to stimulate the autonomic nervous system at the thoracic vertebrae 1-4 levels for 20 min. Using Doppler ultrasonography, blood flow was measured to determine velocity and vessel size before, immediately after, and 30 min after electrical stimulation. Changes in blood flow velocity were significantly different immediately and 30 min after stimulation. The interaction between intervention periods and groups was significantly different between the exercise and pain stimulation groups immediately after stimulation (p<0.05). The vessel size was significantly different before and 30 min after stimulation (p<0.05). Imbalances in the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates balance throughout the body, may present with various symptoms. Therefore, in the clinical practice, the parameters of electrical stimulation should be selectively applied in accordance with various conditions and changes in form. PMID:28401194

  19. [Description of conditioned reflex elaboration in cats in response to electric stimulation of the hippocampal formation].

    PubMed

    Fomin, B A

    1981-01-01

    In six cats with chronically implanted brain electrodes conditioned running to the feeding trough was elaborated in response to electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampal formation (VHF), which at first produced inhibition of running. The stages of conditioning were as follows: 1) inhibition of conditioned activity; 2) replacement of inhibition by more frequent runnings--generalization of the conditioned reflex; 3) enhancement of signal significance of VHF electrical stimulation and subsequent decrease of intersignal reactions. Conditioned reflex to electrical stimulation of CA1 field was elaborated slower than that to electrical stimulation of other VHF points. At the beginning of conditioning a periodic decrease of probability of conditioned reactions manifestation was observed, which is estimated as an additional characteristic of the hippocampus activity.

  20. Luteinizing hormone releasing factor in rat hypophysial portal blood collected during electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G. W.; Ruf, K. B.

    1970-01-01

    1. Ovulation was induced in Nembutal-blocked pro-oestrous rats by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus. 2. The same type of electrical stimulation was applied during the collection of hypophysial portal blood. 3. Pooled hypophysial portal plasma from donors in pro-oestrus, oestrus and met-oestrus was assayed for ovarian ascorbic acid depleting (OAAD) activity. 4. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus increased the OAAD activity, believed to be due to luteinizing hormone releasing factor (LRF), in pro-oestrus and met-oestrus, but not in oestrus. 5. It is concluded that the hypothalamic nerve fibres responsible for releasing LRF into the hypophysial portal vessels are depleted of their store of this releasing factor, or are refractory to electrical stimulation, during oestrus. PMID:5499765

  1. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the outcomes enabled by the neuromuscular electric stimulation in critically ill patients in intensive care unit assisted. A systematic review of the literature by means of clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and PEDro using the descriptors "intensive care unit", "physical therapy", "physiotherapy", "electric stimulation" and "randomized controlled trials". We included four trials. The sample size varied between 8 to 33 individuals of both genders, with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years, undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Of the articles analyzed, three showed significant benefits of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients, such as improvement in peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, functionality, or loss of thickness of the muscle layer. The application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation promotes a beneficial response in critically patients in intensive care.

  2. Biophysical Stimuli: A Review of Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation in Hyaline Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vaca-González, Juan J; Guevara, Johana M; Moncayo, Miguel A; Castro-Abril, Hector; Hata, Yoshie; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A

    2017-09-01

    Objective Hyaline cartilage degenerative pathologies induce morphologic and biomechanical changes resulting in cartilage tissue damage. In pursuit of therapeutic options, electrical and mechanical stimulation have been proposed for improving tissue engineering approaches for cartilage repair. The purpose of this review was to highlight the effect of electrical stimulation and mechanical stimuli in chondrocyte behavior. Design Different information sources and the MEDLINE database were systematically revised to summarize the different contributions for the past 40 years. Results It has been shown that electric stimulation may increase cell proliferation and stimulate the synthesis of molecules associated with the extracellular matrix of the articular cartilage, such as collagen type II, aggrecan and glycosaminoglycans, while mechanical loads trigger anabolic and catabolic responses in chondrocytes. Conclusion The biophysical stimuli can increase cell proliferation and stimulate molecules associated with hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix maintenance.

  3. Cochlear dead regions constrain the benefit of combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Dorman, Michael F; Gifford, Rene; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) detect the presence and edge frequency (fe) of a cochlear dead region in the ear with residual acoustic hearing for bimodal cochlear implant users, and (2) determine whether amplification based on the presence or absence of a dead region would improve speech understanding and sound quality. Twenty-two listeners with a cochlear implant in one ear and residual acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear were tested. Eleven listeners had a cochlear dead region in the acoustic-hearing ear and 11 did not. Dead regions were assessed with the threshold-equalizing noise (TEN) and the sweeping noise, psychophysical tuning curve tests. Speech understanding was assessed with monosyllabic words and the AzBio sentences at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Speech- and music-quality judgments were obtained with the Judgment of Sound Quality questionnaire. Using shifted tips of the psychophysical tuning curve as a basis for diagnosis, the TEN had high sensitivity (0.91) and poor specificity (0.55) for this population. The value of fe was lower when estimated with the sweeping noise, psychophysical tuning curve test than with the TEN test. For the listeners with cochlear dead regions, speech understanding, speech quality and music quality were best when no amplification was applied for frequencies within the dead region. For listeners without dead regions, speech understanding was best with full-bandwidth amplification and was reduced when amplification was not applied when the audiometric threshold exceeded 80 dB HL. The data from this study suggest that, to improve bimodal benefit for listeners who combine electric and acoustic stimulation, audiologists should routinely test for the presence of cochlear dead regions and determine amplification bandwidth accordingly.

  4. Cochlear dead regions constrain the benefit of combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Dorman, Michael F.; Gifford, Rene; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to (i) detect the presence and edge frequency (fe) of a cochlear dead region in the ear with residual acoustic hearing for bimodal cochlear implant (CI) users, and (ii) determine whether amplification based on the presence or absence of a dead region would improve speech understanding and sound quality. Design Twenty two listeners with a CI in one ear and residual acoustic hearing in the non-implanted ear were tested. Eleven listeners had a cochlear dead region in the acoustic-hearing ear and eleven did not. Dead regions were assessed with the threshold equalizing noise (TEN) and the sweeping noise, psychophysical tuning curve (SWPTC) tests. Speech understanding was assessed with monosyllabic words and the AzBio sentences at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Speech and music quality judgments were obtained with the Judgment of Sound Quality questionnaire. Results For this population, using shifted tips of the PTCs as a basis for diagnosis, the TEN had high sensitivity (0.91) and poor specificity (0.55). The value of fe was lower when estimated with the SWPTC test than with the TEN test. For the listeners with cochlear dead regions, speech understanding, speech quality and music quality were best when no amplification was applied for frequencies within the dead region. For listeners without dead regions, speech understanding was best with full-bandwidth amplification and was reduced when amplification was not applied when the audiometric threshold exceeded 80 dB HL. Conclusion Our data suggest that, to improve bimodal benefit for listeners who combine electric and acoustic stimulation, audiologists should routinely test for the presence of cochlear dead regions and determine amplification bandwidth accordingly. PMID:24950254

  5. Hypoalgesia in response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) depends on stimulation intensity.

    PubMed

    Moran, Fidelma; Leonard, Tracey; Hawthorne, Stephanie; Hughes, Ciara M; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Johnson, Mark I; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M

    2011-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an electrophysical modality used for pain management. This study investigated the dose response of different TENS intensities on experimentally induced pressure pain. One hundred and thirty TENS naïve healthy individuals (18-64 years old; 65 males, 65 females) were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 26 per group): Strong Non Painful TENS; Sensory Threshold TENS; Below Sensory Threshold TENS; No Current Placebo TENS; and Transient Placebo TENS. Active TENS (80 Hz) was applied to the forearm for 30 minutes. Transient Placebo TENS was applied for 42 seconds after which the current amplitude automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded from 2 points on the hand and forearm before and after TENS to measure hypoalgesia. There were significant differences between groups at both the hand and forearm (ANOVA; P = .005 and .002). At 30 minutes, there was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the Strong Non Painful TENS group compared to: Below Sensory Threshold TENS, No Current Placebo TENS and Transient Placebo TENS groups (P < .0001) at the forearm; Transient Placebo TENS and No Current Placebo TENS groups at the hand (P = .001). There was no significant difference between Strong Non Painful TENS and Sensory Threshold TENS groups. The area under the curve for the changes in PPT significantly correlated with the current amplitude (r(2) = .33, P = .003). These data therefore show that there is a dose-response effect of TENS with the largest effect occurring with the highest current amplitudes. This study shows a dose response for the intensity of TENS for pain relief with the strongest intensities showing the greatest effect; thus, we suggest that TENS intensity should be titrated to achieve the strongest possible intensity to achieve maximum pain relief. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface Electrical Stimulation for Treating Swallowing Disorders after Stroke: A Review of the Stimulation Intensity Levels and the Electrode Placements

    PubMed Central

    Poorjavad, Marziyeh; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Daemi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for treating dysphagia is a relatively new therapeutic method. There is a paucity of evidence about the use of NMES in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke. The present review aimed to introduce and discuss studies that have evaluated the efficacy of this method amongst dysphagic patients following stroke with emphasis on the intensity of stimulation (sensory or motor level) and the method of electrode placement on the neck. The majority of the reviewed studies describe some positive effects of the NMES on the neck musculature in the swallowing performance of poststroke dysphagic patients, especially when the intensity of the stimulus is adjusted at the sensory level or when the motor electrical stimulation is applied on the infrahyoid muscles during swallowing. PMID:24804147

  7. Selectivity and resolution of surface electrical stimulation for grasp and release.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Ard J; Schouten, Alfred C; Veltink, Peter H; van der Kooij, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of arm and hand muscles can be a functional tool for patients with motor dysfunction. Sufficient stimulation of finger and thumb musculature can support natural grasping function. Yet it remains unclear how different grasping movements can be selectively supported by electrical stimulation. The goal of this study is to determine to what extent activation of individual fingers is possible with surface electrical stimulation for the purpose of rehabilitation following stroke. The extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle, flexor pollicis longus (FPL) muscle, and the thenar muscle group, all involved in grasp and release, were selected for stimulation. The evoked forces in individual fingers were measured. Stimulation thresholds and selective ranges were determined for each subject. Electrode locations where the highest selective range occurred were compared between subjects and influences of different isometric wrist positions were assessed. In all subjects selective stimulation of middle finger extension and thumb flexion was possible. In addition, selective stimulation of index and ring finger extension was possible in most cases. In nine out of the ten EDC subjects we were able to stimulate three or all four fingers selectively. However, large variability in electrode locations for high selectivity was observed between the subjects. Within the designs of grasping prostheses and grasping rehabilitation devices, the variability of electrode locations should be taken into account. The results of our study facilitate the optimization of such designs and favour a design which allows individualized stimulation locations.

  8. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-04-01

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  9. The relief of microtherm inhibition for p-fluoronitrobenzene mineralization using electrical stimulation at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqin; Feng, Huajun; Liang, Yuxiang; Zhao, Zhiqing; Long, Yuyang; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Meizhen; Yin, Jun; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-05-01

    Low temperature aggravates biological treatment of refractory p-fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) because of microtherm inhibition of microbial activity. Considering the potential characterization of energy supply for microbial metabolism and spurring microbial activity by electrical stimulation, a bioelectrochemical system (BES) was established to provide sustaining electrical stimulation for p-FNB mineralization at a low temperature. Electrical stimulation facilitated p-FNB treatment and bioelectrochemical reaction rate constants for the removal and defluorination of p-FNB at 10 °C were 0.0931 and 0.0054 h(-1), which were higher than the sums of the rates found using a biological system and an electrocatalytic system by 62.8 and 64.8%, respectively. At a low temperature, microbial activity in terms of dehydrogenase and ATPase was found to be higher with electrical stimulation, being 121.1 and 100.1% more active than that in the biological system. Moreover, stronger antioxidant ability was observed in the BES, which implied a better cold-resistance and relief of microtherm inhibition by electrical stimulation. Bacterial diversity analysis revealed a significant evolution of microbial community by electrical stimulation, and Clostridia was uniquely enriched. One bacterial sequence close to Pseudomonas became uniquely predominant, which appeared to be crucial for excellent p-FNB treatment performance in the BES at a low temperature. Economic evaluation revealed that the energy required to mineralize an extra mole of p-FNB was found to be 247 times higher by heating the system than by application of electrical stimulation. These results indicated that application of electrical stimulation is extremely promising for treating refractory waste at low temperatures.

  10. Electric Field Stimulation Enhances Healing of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0591 TITLE: Electric Field Stimulation Enhances Healing of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritic Cartilage PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 – 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electric Field Stimulation Enhances Healing of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritic Cartilage...instability, among other traumatic affections of joints, and occupations or sports that subject joints to high levels of impact and torsional loading

  11. Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Function Using Electrical Stimulation and Block after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0132 TITLE: Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Function Using Electrical Stimulation and Block after Spinal Cord Injury... currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES...COVERED 29 Sep 2015 - 28 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Function Using Electrical Stimulation and Block after Spinal

  12. Vastus medialis electrical stimulation to improve lower extremity function following a lateral patellar retinacular release.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Valma J; Ward, Alex R

    2002-09-01

    A single-case study design. To examine the effect of electrical stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle on stiffness, pain and function for a patient with delayed functional progress following a lateral patellar retinacular release. Five months after an arthroscopic lateral patellar retinacular release, the patient, although highly motivated, had made little progress using routine exercises and taping. An electrical stimulation program producing approximately 300 contractions daily of the vastus medialis muscle was implemented. The electrical stimulation applied for 33 of the 36 days was a rectangular and balanced biphasic pulse of 625-micros duration, 70-Hz frequency, 8-second peak on-time, 3-second off-time, 1-second ramp-up, and 0.5-second ramp-down. Objective measures of stair climbing and hopping, together with the subjective measure of therapist-palpated superomedial patella displacement force, were recorded for each treatment visit. Other subjective measures were the patient's daily recordings of knee pain and stiffness. Patient-reported stiffness reduced rapidly as the actual and cumulative number of daily contractions of the vastus medialis muscle increased. After 8 days of electrical stimulation, the patient was able to ascend stairs unassisted and after another 21 days to hop unsupported. Stiffness rapidly reduced and function started to improve once the electrical stimulation program was implemented. Recovery during the 36 days of treatment with electrical stimulation was greater than during the previous 5 months using other methods. Compliance was not an issue, nor was muscle soreness.

  13. Mechanical power of ankle plantar flexion and subjective pain by monophasic electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuto; Watanabe, Takashi; Saura, Ryuichi; Uchiyama, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical power of the ankle plantar flexion. The investigated power of the ankle plantar flexion would help to improve effectively the FES walking system using the ankle plantar flexion for patients and aged people in slow walking. The subjective pain by electrical stimulation sometimes becomes the burden to use the FES system. We also investigated the relationship between the mechanical power in ankle plantar flexion by electrical stimulation and the subjective pain. We developed the device to measure the ankle movement by electrical stimulation against load resistance torque. The device consisted of pads to support a single lower leg, a rotational footplate with a large pulley and a vertical weight to generate the load resistance torque, and a monophasic electrical stimulator via surface electrodes. Our results showed the proportional relationship between the mechanical power of the ankle plantar flexion and the subjective pain by electrical stimulation. To generate the same level in the ankle plantar flexor power 2.75 W under the maximum voluntary exertion, the subjective pain by electrical stimulation exceeded 70, which means the feeling of crying at the Face Pain Scale. This result would help the better design of the FES walking system using the ankle plantar flexion for patients and aged people.

  14. Chronic transcutaneous electrical stimulation of calf muscles improves functional capacity without inducing systemic inflammation in claudicants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S I; Whatling, P; Hudlicka, O; Gosling, P; Simms, M; Brown, M D

    2004-02-01

    To assess whether electrical stimulation of ischaemic calf muscles in claudicants causes a systemic inflammatory response and to evaluate effects of its chronic application on muscle function and walking ability. Prospective randomised controlled trial of calf muscle stimulation. Stable claudicants were randomised to receive either active chronic low frequency (6 Hz) motor stimulation (n=15) or, as a control treatment, submotor transcutaneous electrical nerve (TENS) stimulation (n=15) of calf muscles in one leg, 3 x 20 min per day for four weeks. Leucocyte activation was quantified by changes in cell morphology, vascular permeability by urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR), calf muscle function by isometric twitch contractions and walking ability by treadmill performance pre- and post-intervention. Acute active muscle stimulation activated leucocytes less (28% increase) than a standard treadmill test (81% increase) and did not increase ACR. Chronic calf muscle stimulation significantly increased pain-free walking distance by 35 m (95% CI 17, 52, P<0.001) and maximum walking distance by 39 m (95% CI 7, 70, P<0.05) while control treatment had no effect. Active stimulation prevented fatigue of calf muscles during isometric electrically evoked contractions by abolishing the slowing of relaxation that was responsible for loss of force. Chronic electrical muscle stimulation is an effective treatment for alleviating intermittent claudication which, by targeted activation of a small muscle mass, does not engender a significant systemic inflammatory response.

  15. 9 CFR 307.7 - Safety requirements for electrical stimulating (EST) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipment that provides electric shock treatment to carcasses for the purpose of accelerating rigor mortis... traveling with the carcass, or any other acceptable method. (b) Safety requirements—(1) Circuits, grounding... stimulating enclosure to the service ground, or the secondary voltage (stimulating circuit) shall be insulated...

  16. 9 CFR 307.7 - Safety requirements for electrical stimulating (EST) equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment that provides electric shock treatment to carcasses for the purpose of accelerating rigor mortis... traveling with the carcass, or any other acceptable method. (b) Safety requirements—(1) Circuits, grounding... stimulating enclosure to the service ground, or the secondary voltage (stimulating circuit) shall be insulated...

  17. Modeling binaural responses in the auditory brainstem to electric stimulation of the auditory nerve.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoojin; Delgutte, Bertrand; Colburn, H Steven

    2015-02-01

    Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) provide improvements in sound localization and speech perception in noise over unilateral CIs. However, the benefits arise mainly from the perception of interaural level differences, while bilateral CI listeners' sensitivity to interaural time difference (ITD) is poorer than normal. To help understand this limitation, a set of ITD-sensitive neural models was developed to study binaural responses to electric stimulation. Our working hypothesis was that central auditory processing is normal with bilateral CIs so that the abnormality in the response to electric stimulation at the level of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) is the source of the limited ITD sensitivity. A descriptive model of ANF response to both acoustic and electric stimulation was implemented and used to drive a simplified biophysical model of neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO). The model's ITD sensitivity was found to depend strongly on the specific configurations of membrane and synaptic parameters for different stimulation rates. Specifically, stronger excitatory synaptic inputs and faster membrane responses were required for the model neurons to be ITD-sensitive at high stimulation rates, whereas weaker excitatory synaptic input and slower membrane responses were necessary at low stimulation rates, for both electric and acoustic stimulation. This finding raises the possibility of frequency-dependent differences in neural mechanisms of binaural processing; limitations in ITD sensitivity with bilateral CIs may be due to a mismatch between stimulation rate and cell parameters in ITD-sensitive neurons.

  18. 42 CFR 414.232 - Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nerve stimulators (TENS). 414.232 Section 414.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS). (a) General payment rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payment for TENS is made on a purchase basis...

  19. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  20. Electrical stimulation partly reverses the muscle insulin resistance caused by tenotomy.

    PubMed

    Langfort, J; Czarnowski, D; Budohoski, L; Górski, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Nazar, K

    1993-01-04

    It was shown that 15-min electrical stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve greatly increases the in vitro measured sensitivity of lactate formation, glucose transport, and glycogen synthesis to insulin, impaired by previous tenotomy. The insulin sensitivity of all these processes was, however, still below that found in the stimulated intact soleus muscle. Extending the stimulation up to 30 min did not cause any further changes in insulin sensitivity either in tenotomized or in intact muscles.

  1. Chemical brain stimulation as a means to circumvent electrical stimulation artefacts in single-unit recording studies of evoked vocalization.

    PubMed

    Kirzinger, A; Jürgens, U

    1990-08-01

    This study describes a combined single-unit recording/chemical brain stimulation technique that proved to be helpful in cases in which the behavior pattern to be studied electrophysiologically is difficult to elicit repetitively by external stimuli, but is easily obtained by brain stimulation. The advantage of this technique over electrical elicitation of the behavior is the avoidance of periodic stimulation artefacts that make detailed analyses of pattern-correlated neuronal activity often impracticable. Out of a number of substances tested for chemical brain stimulation, kainic acid proved to be the most effective one. With a single injection of 50 ng (in 200 nl water) into the periaqueductal gray of the squirrel monkey up to 6480 vocalizations could be obtained over a period of 65 min. Up to 22 injections could be made at this dose before a site became unresponsive.

  2. Right median nerve electrical stimulation for acute traumatic coma (the Asia Coma Electrical Stimulation trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Junfeng; Mao, Qing; Gao, Guoyi; Jiang, Jiyao

    2017-07-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the most common cause of death and disability in persons between 15 and 30 years of age, and about 10-15% of patients affected by TBI will end up in a coma. Coma caused by TBI presents a significant challenge to neuroscientists. Right median nerve electrical stimulation has been reported as a simple, inexpensive, non-invasive technique to speed recovery and improve outcomes for traumatic comatose patients. This multicentre, prospective, randomised (1:1) controlled trial aims to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of electrical right median nerve stimulation (RMNS) in both accelerating emergence from coma and promoting long-term outcomes. This trial aims to enrol 380 TBI comatose patients to partake in either an electrical stimulation group or a non-stimulation group. Patients assigned to the stimulation group will receive RMNS in addition to standard treatment at an amplitude of 15-20 mA with a pulse width of 300 μs at 40 Hz ON for 20 s and OFF for 40 s. The electrical treatment will last for 8 h per day for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint will be the percentage of patients regaining consciousness 6 months after injury. The secondary endpoints will be Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and Disability Rating Scale scores at 28 days, 3 months and 6 months after injury; Glasgow Coma Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Part and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness scale scores on day 1 and day 7 after enrolment and 28 days, 3 months and 6 months after injury; duration of unconsciousness and mechanical ventilation; length of intensive care unit and hospital stays; and incidence of adverse events. Right median nerve electrical stimulation has been used as a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive therapy for neuroresuscitation of coma patients for more than two decades, yet no trial has robustly proven the efficacy and safety of this treatment. The Asia Coma Electrical Stimulation (ACES) trial has the

  3. Amplitude Modulation-based Electrical Stimulation for Encoding Multipixel Spatiotemporal Visual Information in Retinal Neural Activities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sang Baek; Choi, Jeong Woo; Ahn, Kun No; Goo, Yong Sook; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Retinal implants have been developed as a promising way to restore partial vision for the blind. The observation and analysis of neural activities can offer valuable insights for successful prosthetic electrical stimulation. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activities have been investigated to provide knowledge on the requirements for electrical stimulation, such as threshold current and the effect of stimulation waveforms. To develop a detailed 'stimulation strategy' for faithful delivery of spatiotemporal visual information to the brain, it is essential to examine both the temporal and spatial characteristics of RGC responses, whereas previous studies were mainly focused on one or the other. In this study, we investigate whether the spatiotemporal visual information can be decoded from the RGC network activity evoked by patterned electrical stimulation. Along with a thorough characterization of spatial spreading of stimulation current and temporal information encoding, we demonstrated that multipixel spatiotemporal visual information can be accurately decoded from the population activities of RGCs stimulated by amplitude-modulated pulse trains. We also found that the details of stimulation, such as pulse amplitude range and pulse rate, were crucial for accurate decoding. Overall, the results suggest that useful visual function may be restored by amplitude modulation-based retinal stimulation. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. Modeling and simulation of the bending behavior of electrically-stimulated cantilevered hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaran, Abdolhamid; Brummund, Jörg; Wallmersperger, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A systematic development of a chemo-electro-mechanical continuum model—for the application of electrically-stimulated cantilevered hydrogels—and its numerical implementation are presented in this work. The governing equations are derived within the framework of the continuum mechanics of mixtures. The finite element method is then utilized for the numerical treatment of the model. For the numerical simulation a cantilevered strip of an anionic hydrogel immersed in a NaCl solution bath is considered. An electric field is applied to electrically stimulate the aforementioned hydrogel. The application of the electric field alters the initial concentrations of the ionic species due to the chemo-electrical coupling. The gradual increase in the applied electric field leads to the bending movement of the hydrogel. Concluding, the presented multi-field continuum model is capable of simulating hydrogel bending actuators and also more complex systems e.g. gel finger grippers.

  5. On the Cause and Control of Residual Voltage Generated by Electrical Stimulation of Neural Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ashwati; Kelly, Shawn K.

    2016-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation of neural tissue is traditionally performed with symmetric cathodic-first biphasic pulses of current through an electrode/electrolyte interface. When the interface is modeled by a series R-C circuit, as is sometimes done for stimulator circuit design, the appearance of a net residual voltage across the electrode cannot be explained. Residual voltage can cause polarization of the electrode and pose a problem for safe electrical stimulation. This paper aims to (1) theoretically explain one reason for the residual voltage, which is the inclusion of the Faradaic impedance (2) suggest a simple dynamic feedback mechanism to eliminate residual voltage. PMID:23366780

  6. [Effects of transliquoral electrical brain stimulation on the wakefulness-sleep cycle in rats].

    PubMed

    Vataev, S I; Oganesian, G A; Klimash, A V; Kondakov, E N

    2009-06-01

    Peculiarities of natural behavior in unanesthesired Wistar strain rats, and their electrogram patterns under the liquor brainstem electrical stimulation were in the focus of present study. Analysis of the electrogram specters of somatosensory and auditory areas of the cortex, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray and fastigial cerebellar nucleus revealed authentic increasing of teta-waves most significantly during slow-wave sleep period under the electrostimulation. The increasing of complete wakefulness-sleep cycles was found after multiple (15-20 per hour) stimulations. Possible homeostatic effect of the liquor brainstem electrical stimulation on somnogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Intrusive Thoughts Elicited by Direct Electrical Stimulation during Stereo-Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Irina; Donos, Cristian; Barborica, Andrei; Opris, Ioan; Mălîia, Mihai Dragoş; Ene, Mirela; Ciurea, Jean; Mîndruţă, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Cortical direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a method of brain mapping used during invasive presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. Intellectual auras like intrusive thoughts, also known as forced thinking (FT), have been reported during frontal seizures. However, there are few reports on FT obtained during DES in frontal cortex. We report three cases in which we obtained intrusive thoughts while stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the white matter in the prefrontal region. In order to highlight the effective connectivity that might explain this clinical response, we have analyzed cortico-cortical potentials evoked by single pulse electrical stimulation. PMID:27486431

  8. Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials from lumbosacral dermatomes: airpuff versus electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schimsheimer, R J; Boejharat, K R; van der Sluijs, J C; Stijnen, T; Gryz, E

    1995-01-01

    Cortical potentials were elicited by airpuff stimulation of the L5 and S1 dermatome in a group of 24 healthy volunteers. The results were compared with the SEPs obtained by conventional electrical stimulation. Both stimulus modalities produce stable and good reproducible cortical responses of similar waveform. The most stable second negative peak, labeled N2, was used in this study. Mean latencies (in msec) were: N2 L5 air = 67.1 +/- 3.3, N2 L5 electr. = 55.7 +/- 3.7 N2 S1 air = 67.2 +/- 3.9, and N2 S1 electr. = 55.1 +/- 2.9 The maximum R/L difference (mean + 3 SD) was 5.7 msec, 5.9 msec, 7.2 msec and 7.2 msec for respectively N2 L5 air, N2 L5 electrical, N2 S1 air and N2 S1 electrical. Single regression analysis showed a significant influence of height, but not age upon all latencies. Multiple regression analysis with height and age as independent variables showed a significant influence of height and age together upon the latencies of the electrical SEP (both L5 and S1). For the airpuff SEP only height was significant. Gender had no effect on the cortical components. The amplitude of peak N2 after electrical stimulation of the S1 dermatome was significant higher than after airpuff stimulation, 2.9 and 1.7 microvolt respectively. For the L5 dermatome both types of stimuli produced responses of nearly equal amplitude, 2.5 and 2.1 microvolt for electrical and airpuff stimulation respectively. Airpuff SEPs may provide a good alternative for electrical stimulation.

  9. Conditional and continuous electrical stimulation increase cystometric capacity in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Eric E; Yoo, Paul B; Amundsen, Cindy L; Webster, George D; Grill, Warren M

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) causing high intravesicle pressures and incontinence. The first aim was to measure changes in maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve (DGN) delivered either continuously or conditionally (only during bladder contractions) in persons with SCI. The second aim was to use the external anal sphincter electromyogram (EMG(EAS)) for real-time control of conditional stimulation. Serial filling cystometries were performed in nine volunteers with complete or incomplete supra-sacral SCI. Conditional stimulation was delivered automatically when detrusor pressure increased to 8-12 cmH(2)O above baseline. MCCs were measured for each treatment (continuous, conditional, and no stimulation) and compared using post-ANOVA Tukey HSD paired comparisons. Additional treatments in two subjects used the EMG(EAS) for automatic control of conditional stimulation. Continuous and conditional stimulation increased MCC by 63 +/- 73 ml (36 +/- 24%) and 74 +/- 71 ml (51 +/- 37%), respectively (P < 0.05), compared to no stimulation. There was no significant difference between MCCs for conditional and continuous stimulation, but conditional stimulation significantly reduced stimulation time (174 +/- 154 sec, or 27 +/- 17% of total time) as compared to continuous stimulation (469 +/- 269 sec, 100% of total time, P < 0.001). The EMG(EAS) algorithm provided reliable detection of bladder contractions (six of six contractions over four trials) and reduced stimulation time (21 +/- 8% of total time). Conditional stimulation generates increases in bladder capacity while substantially reducing stimulation time. Furthermore, EMG(EAS) was successfully used as a real-time feedback signal to control conditional electrical stimulation in a laboratory setting. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Direct cortical stimulation but not transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials detect brain ischemia during brain tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Deshaies, Eric M; Allott, Geoffrey; Canute, Gregory; Gorji, Reza

    2011-09-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by both direct cortical stimulation (DCS) and transcranial electrical stimulation are used during brain tumor resection. Parallel use of direct cortical stimulation motor evoked potentials (DCS-MEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TCeMEPs) has been practiced during brain tumor resection. We report that DCS-MEPs elicited by direct subdural grid stimulation, but not TCeMEPs, detected brain ischemia during brain tumor resection. Following resection of a brainstem high-grade glioma in a 21-year-old, the threshold of cortical motor-evoked-potentials (cMEPs) increased from 13 mA to 20 mA while amplitudes decreased. No changes were noted in transcranial motor evoked potentials (TCMEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), anesthetics, or hemodynamic parameters. Our case showed the loss of cMEPs and SSEPs, but not TCeMEPs. Permanent loss of DCS-MEPs and SSEPs was correlated with permanent left hemiplegia in our patient even when appropriate action was taken. Parallel use of DCS- and TCeMEPs with SSEPs improves sensitivity of intraoperative detection of motor impairment. DCS may be superior to TCeMEPs during brain tumor resection.

  11. Sulfonated polyaniline-based organic electrodes for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Yong; Yang, Yanyin; Poojari, Yadagiri; Liu, Yidong; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Hansford, Derek J; Epstein, Arthur J

    2013-06-10

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) were found to stimulate various cell types such as neurons, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the utility of CPs in stimulation of cancer or tumor cells in the literature. Here we report a facile fabrication method of self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)-based interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Increased degree of sulfonation was found to increase the SPAN conductivity, which in turn improved the cell attachment and cell growth without electrical stimulation. However, an enhanced cell growth was observed under controlled electrical (AC) stimulation at low applied voltage and frequency (≤800 mV and ≤1 kHz). The cell growth reached a maximum threshold at an applied voltage or frequency and beyond which pronounced cell death was observed. We believe that these organic electrodes may find utility in electrical stimulation of cancer or tumor cells for therapy and research and may also provide an alternative to the conventional metal-based electrodes.

  12. Electrical Stimulation Able to Trigger Locomotor Spinal Circuits Also Induces Dorsal Horn Activity.

    PubMed

    Dingu, Nejada; Deumens, Ronald; Taccola, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Investigate whether electrical stimulation of the spinal cord adapted to trigger locomotor patterns additionally influences dorsal horn networks. An in vitro model of isolated neonatal rat spinal cord was used to repetitively deliver electrical stimuli to lumbar dorsal roots and record from homolateral lumbar dorsal roots and ventral roots. Repetitive electrical lumbar dorsal root stimulation can affect both locomotor rhythms derived from ventral neuronal circuits and activity from dorsal neuronal circuits. These data suggest that neuro-electrostimulation protocols can simultaneously activate functionally distinct spinal neuronal circuits. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Regeneration of the radial nerve in a dog influenced by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rozman, J; Zorko, B; Seliskar, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of biphasic electric fields on nerve regeneration that follows injury to the left radial nerve of a dog was examined using electromyography (EMG). The left and right radial nerves were crushed with a serrated hemostat and the stimulating electrodes were positioned proximally and distally relative to the site of the injury. The left nerves received rectangular, biphasic current pulses (30 microA, 0.5 Hz) through the lesion for two months. The right radial nerves were treated as controls and regenerated without electrical stimulation. EMG activity was recorded intramuscularly from left and right musculus extensor digitorum (from Medical dictionary) communis (MEDC). Results obtained at the end of the two-month stimulation period showed a significant difference between the EMG activity of the stimulated and the unstimulated MEDC suggesting that the electrical treatment enhanced the nerve regeneration.

  14. Regeneration of the radial nerve in a dog influenced by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rozman, J; Zorko, B; Seliškar, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of biphasic electric fields on nerve regeneration that follows injury to the left radial nerve of a dog was examined using electromyography (EMG). The left and right radial nerves were crushed with a serrated hemostat and the stimulating electrodes were positioned proximally and distally relative to the site of the injury. The left nerves received rectangular, biphasic current pulses (30μA, 0.5Hz) through the lesion for two months. The right radial nerves were treated as controls and regenerated without electrical stimulation. EMG activity was recorded intramuscularly from left and right musculus extensor digitorum (from Medical dictionary) communis (MEDC). Results obtained at the end of the two-month stimulation period showed a significant difference between the EMG activity of the stimulated and the unstimulated MEDC suggesting that the electrical treatment enhanced the nerve regeneration.

  15. The benefits of combining acoustic and electric stimulation for the recognition of speech, voice and melodies.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Michael F; Gifford, Rene H; Spahr, Anthony J; McKarns, Sharon A

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen patients fit with a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the other ear were presented with tests of speech and melody recognition and voice discrimination under conditions of electric (E) stimulation, acoustic (A) stimulation and combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). When acoustic information was added to electrically stimulated information performance increased by 17-23 percentage points on tests of word and sentence recognition in quiet and sentence recognition in noise. On average, the EAS patients achieved higher scores on CNC words than patients fit with a unilateral cochlear implant. While the best EAS patients did not outperform the best patients fit with a unilateral cochlear implant, proportionally more EAS patients achieved very high scores on tests of speech recognition than unilateral cochlear implant patients. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Subthreshold electrical stimulation reduces motor unit discharge variability and decreases the force fluctuations of plantar flexion.

    PubMed

    Kouzaki, Motoki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Moritani, Toshio

    2012-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of subthreshold electrical stimulation on the force fluctuations and motor-unit discharge variability during low-level, steady contraction of the plantar flexor muscles. Seven subjects performed a force-matching task of isometric plantar flexion at 5% of maximal voluntary contraction with and without random electrical stimulation applied to the tibial nerve. During the task, the motor unit action potential was continuously recorded with fine-wire electrodes, and the inter-spike intervals of a single motor unit were calculated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the force fluctuations and the inter-spike intervals of the motor unit discharge were significantly decreased by the intervention of subthreshold electrical stimulation, although there were no changes in the mean values. These results suggest that subthreshold stimulation reduced the motor-unit discharge variability, which in turn, increased the steadiness of the force.

  17. [Interest of EEG recording during direct electrical stimulation for brain mapping function in surgery].

    PubMed

    Trebuchon, A; Guye, M; Tcherniack, V; Tramoni, E; Bruder, N; Metellus, P

    2012-06-01

    Brain tumor surgery is at risk when lesions are located in eloquent areas. The interindividual anatomo-functional variability of the central nervous system implies that brain surgery within eloquent regions may induce neurological sequelae. Brain mapping using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation in awake patients has been for long validated as the standard for functional brain mapping. Direct electrical stimulation inducing a local transient electrical and functional disorganization is considered positive if the task performed by the patient is disturbed. The brain area stimulated is then considered as essential for the function tested. However, the exactitude of the information provided by this technique is cautious because the actual impact of cortical direct electrical stimulation is not known. Indeed, the possibility of false negative (insufficient intensity of the stimulation due to the heterogeneity of excitability threshold of different cortical areas) or false positive (current spread, interregional signal propagation responsible for remote effects, which make difficult the interpretation of positive or negative behavioural effects) constitute a limitation of this technique. To improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique, we used an electrocorticographic recording system allowing a real time visualization of the local. We provide here evidence that direct cortical stimulation combined with electrocorticographic recording could be useful to detect remote after discharge and to adjust stimulation parameters. In addition this technique offers new perspective to better assess connectivity of cerebral networks.

  18. Chronic effects of low-frequency low-intensity electrical stimulation of stretched human muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenkman, Boris S.; Lyubaeva, Ekaterina V.; Popov, Daniil V.; Netreba, Aleksey I.; Bravy, Yan R.; Tarakin, Pavel P.; Lemesheva, Yulia S.; Vinogradova, Olga L.

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation, which is currently considered to be a possible countermeasure for long-duration spaceflights, with and without stretch were evaluated. Twelve young male volunteers were randomly distributed into two groups. In one group anterior thigh muscles—knee extensors of both legs were stimulated with frequency of 15 Hz for 4.5 wks, six times a week; each session was 6-h long. In the other group, electrical stimulation with the same parameters was applied to stretched knee extensors. Following stimulation the subjects exhibited an increase in fatigue resistance, and in the succinate dehydrogenase activity and a 10% gain in the percentage of muscle fibers with slow myosin heavy chain isoforms. In a stimulated group the peak voluntary strength went down significantly, the CSA of fast muscle fibers in m. quadriceps femoris became slightly less in size (10%). Electrical stimulation of the stretched muscles induced an insignificant decline in their strength and an increase of cross-sectional area of muscle fibers of both types. Thus chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation may be proposed as a candidate countermeasure against muscle strength and mass loss if it is combined with stretch.

  19. Biphasic Electrical Field Stimulation Aids in Tissue Engineering of Multicell-Type Cardiac Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Loraine L.Y.; Iyer, Rohin K.; King, John-Paul

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of current work were (1) to compare the effects of monophasic or biphasic electrical field stimulation on structure and function of engineered cardiac organoids based on enriched cardiomyocytes (CM) and (2) to determine if electrical field stimulation will enhance electrical excitability of cardiac organoids based on multiple cell types. Organoids resembling cardiac myofibers were cultivated in Matrigel-coated microchannels fabricated of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate. We found that field stimulation using symmetric biphasic square pulses at 2.5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 1 ms (per pulse phase) was an improved stimulation protocol, as compared to no stimulation and stimulation using monophasic square pulses of identical total amplitude and duration (5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 2 ms). This was supported by the highest success rate for synchronous contractions, low excitation threshold, the highest cell density, and the highest expression of Connexin-43 in the biphasic group. Subsequently, enriched CM were seeded on the networks of (1) cardiac fibroblasts (FB), (2) D4T endothelial cells (EC), or (3) a mixture of FB and EC that were precultured for 2 days prior to the addition of enriched CM. Biphasic field stimulation was also effective at improving electrical excitability of these cardiac organoids by improving the three-dimensional organization of the cells, increasing cellular elongation and enhancing Connexin-43 presence. PMID:18783322

  20. Biphasic electrical field stimulation aids in tissue engineering of multicell-type cardiac organoids.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Loraine L Y; Iyer, Rohin K; King, John-Paul; Radisic, Milica

    2011-06-01

    The main objectives of current work were (1) to compare the effects of monophasic or biphasic electrical field stimulation on structure and function of engineered cardiac organoids based on enriched cardiomyocytes (CM) and (2) to determine if electrical field stimulation will enhance electrical excitability of cardiac organoids based on multiple cell types. Organoids resembling cardiac myofibers were cultivated in Matrigel-coated microchannels fabricated of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate. We found that field stimulation using symmetric biphasic square pulses at 2.5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 1 ms (per pulse phase) was an improved stimulation protocol, as compared to no stimulation and stimulation using monophasic square pulses of identical total amplitude and duration (5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 2 ms). This was supported by the highest success rate for synchronous contractions, low excitation threshold, the highest cell density, and the highest expression of Connexin-43 in the biphasic group. Subsequently, enriched CM were seeded on the networks of (1) cardiac fibroblasts (FB), (2) D4T endothelial cells (EC), or (3) a mixture of FB and EC that were precultured for 2 days prior to the addition of enriched CM. Biphasic field stimulation was also effective at improving electrical excitability of these cardiac organoids by improving the three-dimensional organization of the cells, increasing cellular elongation and enhancing Connexin-43 presence.

  1. Modifications of baropodograms after transcutaneous electric stimulation of the abductor hallucis muscle in humans standing erect.

    PubMed

    Gaillet, Jean-Claude; Biraud, Jean-Claude; Bessou, Monique; Bessou, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Objective data on abductor hallucis muscle biomechanical function in the loaded foot (subject standing erect on both legs) are unavailable. To evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation of the abductor hallucis muscle in the loaded foot on the change of plantar pressures, as measured by digital baropodograms. Six indices were defined to compare baropodograms. The abductor hallucis muscle in 1 foot was subjected to transcutaneous electrical stimulation (20 min) while the subject was standing erect on the floor. Baropodograms were recorded before, immediately thereafter, then 15 days and 2 months later. Differences between baropodogram indices were subjected to one-way anova. Electrical abductor hallucis muscle stimulation induced, on the stimulation side, a post-contraction state easily detected on baropodograms as the increased plantar pressure on the anterior-medial part of the sole, and lateral displacements of the anterior maximal pressure point and the foot thrust center. These mechanical signs, consistent with foot inversion, induce external rotation of the leg and pelvic rotation on the stimulated side, leading to contralateral plantar-pressure changes: decreased maximal pressure point and thrust in the posterior part of the footprint and lateral displacement of the foot thrust center. Electrical stimulation of the abductor hallucis muscle in the loaded foot induces immediate specific changes in baropodogram indices, some of which persist 2 months later. The mechanical effect of abductor hallucis muscle stimulation (foot inversion) and its post-contraction state could be useful in podiatric and postural rehabilitation.

  2. Differential fiber-specific block of nerve conduction in mammalian peripheral nerves using kilohertz electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogi A; Butera, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) has been shown to induce repeatable and reversible nerve conduction block in animal models. In this study, we characterized the ability of KES stimuli to selectively block specific components of stimulated nerve activity using in vivo preparations of the rat sciatic and vagus nerves. KES stimuli in the frequency range of 5-70 kHz and amplitudes of 0.1-3.0 mA were applied. Compound action potentials were evoked using either electrical or sensory stimulation, and block of components was assessed through direct nerve recordings and muscle force measurements. Distinct observable components of the compound action potential had unique conduction block thresholds as a function of frequency of KES. The fast component, which includes motor activity, had a monotonically increasing block threshold as a function of the KES frequency. The slow component, which includes sensory activity, showed a nonmonotonic block threshold relationship with increasing KES frequency. The distinct trends with frequency of the two components enabled selective block of one component with an appropriate choice of frequency and amplitude. These trends in threshold of the two components were similar when studying electrical stimulation and responses of the sciatic nerve, electrical stimulation and responses of the vagus nerve, and sensorimotor stimulation and responses of the sciatic nerve. This differential blocking effect of KES on specific fibers can extend the applications of KES conduction block to selective block and stimulation of neural signals for neuromodulation as well as selective control of neural circuits underlying sensorimotor function.

  3. Platelet activation using electric pulse stimulation: growth factor profile and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Garner, Allen L; Klopman, Steve; LaPlante, Nicole; Morton, Christine; Conway, Kenneth; Michelson, Alan D; Frelinger, Andrew L; Neculaes, V Bogdan

    2014-09-01

    Autologous platelet gel therapy using platelet-rich plasma has emerged as a promising alternative for chronic wound healing, hemostasis, and wound infection control. A critical step for this therapeutic approach is platelet activation, typically performed using bovine thrombin (BT) and calcium chloride. However, exposure of humans to BT can stimulate antibody formation, potentially resulting in severe hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. Electric pulse stimulation using nanosecond PEFs (pulse electric fields) is an alternative, nonbiochemical platelet activation method, thereby avoiding exposure to xenogeneic thrombin and associated risks. In this study, we identified specific requirements for a clinically relevant activator instrument by dynamically measuring current, voltage, and electric impedance for platelet-rich plasma samples. From these samples, we investigated the profile of growth factors released from human platelets with electric pulse stimulation versus BT, specifically platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor β, and epidermal growth factor, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Electric pulse stimulation triggers growth factor release from platelet α-granules at the same or higher level compared with BT. Electric pulse stimulation is a fast, inexpensive, easy-to-use platelet activation method for autologous platelet gel therapy.

  4. Electrical stimulation of nerve cells using conductive nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-11-01

    Fabrication of scaffolds with suitable chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties is critical for the success of nerve tissue engineering. Electrical stimulation was directly applied to electrospun conductive nanofibrous scaffolds to enhance the nerve regeneration process. In the present study, electrospun conductive nanofibers were prepared by mixing 10 and 15 wt% doped polyaniline (PANI) with poly (epsilon-caprolactone)/gelatin (PG) (70:30) solution (PANI/PG) by electrospinning. The fiber diameter, pore size, hydrophilicity, tensile properties, conductivity, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of nanofibers were determined, and the in vitro biodegradability of the different nanofibrous scaffolds was also evaluated. Nanofibrous scaffolds containing 15% PANI was found to exhibit the most balanced properties to meet all the required specifications for electrical stimulation for its enhanced conductivity and is used for in vitro culture and electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and scanning electron microscopy results showed that conductive nanofibrous scaffolds are suitable substrates for the attachment and proliferation of nerve stem cells. Electrical stimulation through conductive nanofibrous PANI/PG scaffolds showed enhanced cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth compared to the PANI/PG scaffolds that were not subjected to electrical stimulation.

  5. Electrical stimulation by enzymatic biofuel cell to promote proliferation, migration and differentiation of muscle precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a very important biophysical cue for skeletal muscle maintenance and myotube formation. The absence of electrical signals from motor neurons causes denervated muscles to atrophy. Herein, we investigate for the first time the utility of an enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) as a promising means for mimicking native electrical stimulation. EBFC was set up using two different enzymes: one was glucose oxidase (GOX) used for the generation of anodic current followed by the oxidation of glucose; the other was Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) for the generation of cathodic current followed by the reduction of oxygen. We studied the behaviors of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) in terms of proliferation, migration and differentiation under different electrical conditions. The EBFC electrical stimulations significantly increased cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, the electrical stimulations promoted the differentiation of cells into myotube formation based on expressions at the gene and protein levels. The EBFC set up, with its free forms adjustable to any implant design, was subsequently applied to the nanofiber scaffolding system. The MPCs were demonstrated to be stimulated in a similar manner as the 2D culture conditions, suggesting potential applications of the EBFC system for muscle repair and regeneration.

  6. Sensitivity to electrical stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and MAGIC-5 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To determine the sensitivities to low electrical potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its target cells, HIV-1 and MAGIC-5 cells were directly stimulated with a constant direct current potential of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). HIV-1 was incubated for 3 h at 37°C on a poly-L-lysine-coated indium-tin oxide electrode, and then stimulated by an electrical potential. MAGIC-5 cells were seeded onto the electrically stimulated HIV-1 and cultured for 3 days at 37°C. HIV-1-infected cells were measured by multinuclear activation via a galactosidase indicator assay. MAGIC-5 cells were also stimulated by an electrical potential of 1.0 V; cell damage, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by trypan blue staining, cell counting and in situ apoptosis detection, respectively. HIV-1 was found to be damaged to a greater extent by electrical stimulation than the cells. In particular, after application of a 1.0-V potential for 3 min, HIV-1LAI and HIV-1KMT infection were inhibited by about 90%, but changes in cell damage, proliferation and apoptosis were virtually undetectable. These results suggested that HIV-1 is significantly more susceptible to low electrical potential than cells. This finding could form the basis of a novel therapeutic strategy against HIV-1 infection. PMID:21906386

  7. Physiological recruitment of motor units by high-frequency electrical stimulation of afferent pathways.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Muceli, Silvia; Dosen, Strahinja; Laine, Christopher M; Farina, Dario

    2015-02-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation, but electrically evoked muscle activation is in several ways different from voluntary muscle contractions. These differences lead to challenges in the use of NMES for restoring muscle function. We investigated the use of low-current, high-frequency nerve stimulation to activate the muscle via the spinal motoneuron (MN) pool to achieve more natural activation patterns. Using a novel stimulation protocol, the H-reflex responses to individual stimuli in a train of stimulation pulses at 100 Hz were reliably estimated with surface EMG during low-level contractions. Furthermore, single motor unit recruitment by afferent stimulation was analyzed with intramuscular EMG. The results showed that substantially elevated H-reflex responses were obtained during 100-Hz stimulation with respect to a lower stimulation frequency. Furthermore, motor unit recruitment using 100-Hz stimulation was not fully synchronized, as it occurs in classic NMES, and the discharge rates differed among motor units because each unit was activated only after a specific number of stimuli. The most likely mechanism behind these observations is the temporal summation of subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials from Ia fibers to the MNs. These findings and their interpretation were also verified by a realistic simulation model of afferent stimulation of a MN population. These results suggest that the proposed stimulation strategy may allow generation of considerable levels of muscle activation by motor unit recruitment that resembles the physiological conditions.

  8. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the outcomes enabled by the neuromuscular electric stimulation in critically ill patients in intensive care unit assisted. Methods A systematic review of the literature by means of clinical trials published between 2002 and 2012 in the databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and PEDro using the descriptors “intensive care unit”, “physical therapy”, “physiotherapy”, “electric stimulation” and “randomized controlled trials”. Results We included four trials. The sample size varied between 8 to 33 individuals of both genders, with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years, undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Of the articles analyzed, three showed significant benefits of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill patients, such as improvement in peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, functionality, or loss of thickness of the muscle layer. Conclusion The application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation promotes a beneficial response in critically patients in intensive care. PMID:25295458

  9. Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yong-Soon; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Eun-Sil; Lee, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group. Methods Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm2 using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked. Results SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group. Conclusion ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity. PMID:26161348

  10. Local Suppression of Epileptiform Activity by Electrical Stimulation in Rat Hippocampus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jun; Bikson, Marom; Sciortino, Christopher; Stacey, William C; Durand, Dominique M

    2003-01-01

    High frequency electrical stimulation of deep brain structures (DBS) has been effective at controlling abnormal neuronal activity in Parkinson's patients and is now being applied for the treatment of pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of DBS are unknown. In particular, the effect of the electrical stimulation on neuronal firing remains poorly understood. Previous reports have showed that uniform electric fields with both AC (continuous sinusoidal) or DC waveforms could suppress epileptiform activity in vitro. In the present study, we tested the effects of monopolar electrode stimulation and low-duty cycle AC stimulation protocols, which more closely approximate those used clinically, on three in vitro epilepsy models. Continuous sinusoidal stimulation, 50 % duty-cycle sinusoidal stimulation, and low (1.68 %) duty-cycle pulsed stimulation (120 μs, 140 Hz) could completely suppress spontaneous low-Ca2+ epileptiform activity with average thresholds of 71.11 ± 26.16 μA, 93.33 ± 12.58 μA and 300 ± 100 μA, respectively. Continuous sinusoidal stimulation could also completely suppress picrotoxin- and high-K+-induced epileptiform activity with either uniform or localized fields. The suppression generated by the monopolar electrode was localized to a region surrounding the stimulation electrode. Potassium concentration and transmembrane potential recordings showed that AC stimulation was associated with an increase in extracellular potassium concentration and neuronal depolarization block; AC stimulation efficacy was not orientation-selective. In contrast, DC stimulation blocked activity by membrane hyperpolarization and was orientation-selective, but had a lower threshold for suppression. PMID:12562909

  11. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Bradley C.; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M.; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S.

    2013-01-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of βII-tubulin expression after injury. In this study, female rats underwent selective pudendal nerve motor branch (PNMB) stimulation after simulated childbirth injury or sham injury to determine whether such stimulation affects bladder and anal function after injury and whether the stimulation increases BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus after injury. Rats received 4 h of VD followed by bilateral PNC and 1 h of subthreshold electrical stimulation of the left PNMB and sham stimulation of the right PNMB. Rats underwent filling cystometry and anal pressure recording before, during, and after the stimulation. Bladder and anal contractile function were partially disrupted after injury. PNMB stimulation temporarily inhibited bladder contraction after injury. Two days and 1 wk after injury, BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased compared with the sham-stimulated side, whereas βII-tubulin expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased only 1 wk after injury. Acute electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve proximal to the crush site upregulates BDNF and βII-tubulin in Onuf's nucleus after simulated childbirth injury, which could be a potential preventive option for SUI after childbirth injury. PMID:23152293

  12. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Gill, Bradley C; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S

    2013-02-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of β(II)-tubulin expression after injury. In this study, female rats underwent selective pudendal nerve motor branch (PNMB) stimulation after simulated childbirth injury or sham injury to determine whether such stimulation affects bladder and anal function after injury and whether the stimulation increases BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus after injury. Rats received 4 h of VD followed by bilateral PNC and 1 h of subthreshold electrical stimulation of the left PNMB and sham stimulation of the right PNMB. Rats underwent filling cystometry and anal pressure recording before, during, and after the stimulation. Bladder and anal contractile function were partially disrupted after injury. PNMB stimulation temporarily inhibited bladder contraction after injury. Two days and 1 wk after injury, BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased compared with the sham-stimulated side, whereas β(II)-tubulin expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased only 1 wk after injury. Acute electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve proximal to the crush site upregulates BDNF and β(II)-tubulin in Onuf's nucleus after simulated childbirth injury, which could be a potential preventive option for SUI after childbirth injury.

  13. Dynamic Impedance Model of the Skin-Electrode Interface for Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Luna, José Luis; Krenn, Matthias; Cortés Ramírez, Jorge Armando; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation can depolarize nerve or muscle cells applying impulses through electrodes attached on the skin. For these applications, the electrode-skin impedance is an important factor which influences effectiveness. Various models describe the interface using constant or current-depending resistive-capacitive equivalent circuit. Here, we develop a dynamic impedance model valid for a wide range stimulation intensities. The model considers electroporation and charge-dependent effects to describe the impedance variation, which allows to describe high-charge pulses. The parameters were adjusted based on rectangular, biphasic stimulation pulses generated by a stimulator, providing optionally current or voltage-controlled impulses, and applied through electrodes of different sizes. Both control methods deliver a different electrical field to the tissue, which is constant throughout the impulse duration for current-controlled mode or have a very current peak for voltage-controlled. The results show a predominant dependence in the current intensity in the case of both stimulation techniques that allows to keep a simple model. A verification simulation using the proposed dynamic model shows coefficient of determination of around 0.99 in both stimulation types. The presented method for fitting electrode-skin impedance can be simple extended to other stimulation waveforms and electrode configuration. Therefore, it can be embedded in optimization algorithms for designing electrical stimulation applications even for pulses with high charges and high current spikes. PMID:25942010

  14. Vestibular implantation and longitudinal electrical stimulation of the semicircular canal afferents in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse; Phillips, Christopher M.; Nowack, Amy L.; Golub, Justin S.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments and limited data in humans suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organs could be used to treat loss of vestibular function. In this paper we demonstrate that canal-specific two-dimensionally (2D) measured eye velocities are elicited from intermittent brief 2 s biphasic pulse electrical stimulation in four human subjects implanted with a vestibular prosthesis. The 2D measured direction of the slow phase eye movements changed with the canal stimulated. Increasing pulse current over a 0–400 μA range typically produced a monotonic increase in slow phase eye velocity. The responses decremented or in some cases fluctuated over time in most implanted canals but could be partially restored by changing the return path of the stimulation current. Implantation of the device in Meniere's patients produced hearing and vestibular loss in the implanted ear. Electrical stimulation was well tolerated, producing no sensation of pain, nausea, or auditory percept with stimulation that elicited robust eye movements. There were changes in slow phase eye velocity with current and over time, and changes in electrically evoked compound action potentials produced by stimulation and recorded with the implanted device. Perceived rotation in subjects was consistent with the slow phase eye movements in direction and scaled with stimulation current in magnitude. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organ in human subjects provided controlled vestibular inputs over time, but in Meniere's patients this apparently came at the cost of hearing and vestibular function in the implanted ear. PMID:25652917

  15. Effects of different three-dimensional electrodes on epiretinal electrical stimulation by modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xun; Sui, Xiaohong; Lyu, Qing; Li, Liming; Chai, Xinyu

    2015-08-28

    Epiretinal prostheses have been greatly successful in helping restore the vision of patients blinded by retinal degenerative diseases. The design of stimulating electrodes plays a crucial role in the performance of epiretinal prostheses. The objective of this study was to investigate, through computational modeling analysis, the effects on the excitation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) when different three-dimensional (3-D) electrodes were placed in the epiretinal space. 3-D finite element models of retinal electrical stimulation were created in COMSOL using a platinum microelectrode, a vitreous body, multi-layered retinal tissue, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Disk and non-planar electrodes with different 3-D structures were used in the epiretinal electrical stimulation. In addition, a multi-RGC model including ionic mechanisms was constructed in NEURON to study the excitability of RGCs in response to epiretinal electrical stimulation by different types of electrodes. Threshold current, threshold charge density, and the activated RGC area were the three key factors used to evaluate the stimulating electrode's performance. As the electrode-retina distance increased, both threshold current and threshold charge density showed an approximately linear relationship. Increasing the disk electrode's diameter resulted in an increase in threshold current and a decrease in threshold charge density. Non-planar electrodes evoked different activation responses in RGCs than the disk electrode. Concave electrodes produced superior stimulation localization and electrode safety while convex electrodes performed relatively poorly. Investigation of epiretinal electrical stimulation using different 3-D electrodes would further the optimization of electrode design and help improve the performance of epiretinal prostheses. The combination of finite element analysis in COMSOL and NEURON software provides an efficient way to evaluate the influences of various 3-D electrodes on

  16. Magnetic versus electrical stimulation in the interpolation twitch technique of elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulou, Sofia I; Nowicky, Alexander V; Marston, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study compared peripheral magnetic with electrical stimulation of the biceps brachii m. (BB) in the single pulse Interpolation Twitch Technique (ITT). 14 healthy participants (31±7 years) participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures design study. Single, constant-current electrical and magnetic stimuli were delivered over the motor point of BB with supramaximal intensity (20% above maximum) at rest and at various levels of voluntary contraction. Force measurements from right elbow isometric flexion and muscle electromyograms (EMG) from the BB, the triceps brachii m. (TB) and the abductor pollicis brevis m. (APB) were obtained. The twitch forces at rest and maximal contractions, the twitch force-voluntary force relationship, the M-waves and the voluntary activation (VA) of BB between magnetic and electrical stimulation were compared. The mean amplitude of the twitches evoked at MVC was not significantly different between electrical (0.62 ± 0.49 N) and magnetic (0.81 ± 0.49 N) stimulation (p > 0.05), and the maximum VA of BB was comparable between electrical (95%) and magnetic (93%) stimulation (p > 0. 05). No differences (p >0.05) were revealed in the BB M-waves between electrical (13.47 ± 0.49 mV.ms) and magnetic (12.61 ± 0.58 mV.ms) stimulation. The TB M-waves were also similar (p > 0.05) but electrically evoked APB M-waves were significantly larger than those evoked by magnetic stimulation (p < 0.05). The twitch-voluntary force relationship over the range of MVCs was best described by non-linear functions for both electrical and magnetic stimulation. The electrically evoked resting twitches were consistently larger in amplitude than the magnetically evoked ones (mean difference 3.1 ± 3.34 N, p < 0.05). Reduction of the inter-electrodes distance reduced the twitch amplitude by 6.5 ± 6.2 N (p < 0.05). The fundamental similarities in voluntary activation assessment of BB with peripheral electrical and magnetic stimulation point towards a promising

  17. Role of Cortical Cell Type and Morphology in Sub- and Suprathreshold Uniform Electric Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Radman, Thomas; Ramos, Raddy L; Brumberg, Joshua C; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Background The neocortex is the most common target of sub-dural electrotherapy and non-invasive brain stimulation modalities including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current simulation (TCS). Specific neuronal elements targeted by cortical stimulation are considered to underlie therapeutic effects, but the exact cell-type(s) affected by these methods remains poorly understood. Objective We determined if neuronal morphology or cell type predicted responses to sub- and suprathreshold uniform electric fields. Methods We characterized the effects of sub- and supra-threshold electrical stimulation on identified cortical neurons in vitro. Uniform electric fields were applied to rat motor cortex brain slices, while recording from interneurons and pyramidal cells across cortical layers, using whole cell patch clamp. Neuron morphology was reconstructed following intracellular dialysis of biocytin. Based solely on volume-weighted morphology, we developed a parsimonious model of neuronal soma polarization by sub-threshold electric fields. Results We found that neuronal morphology correlated with somatic sub-threshold polarization. Based on neuronal morphology, we predict layer V pyramidal neuronal soma to be the most sensitive to polarization by optimally oriented sub-threshold fields. Supra-threshold electric field action potential threshold was shown to reflect both direct cell polarization and synaptic (network) activation. Layer V/VI neuron absolute electric field action potential thresholds were lower than Layer II/III pyramidal neurons and interneurons. Compared to somatic current injection, electric fields promoted burst firing and modulated action potential firing times. PMID:20161507

  18. Neurite outgrowth on electrospun PLLA fibers is enhanced by exogenous electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Koppes, A N; Zaccor, N W; Rivet, C J; Williams, L A; Piselli, J M; Gilbert, R J; Thompson, D M

    2014-08-01

    Both electrical stimuli (endogenous and exogenous) and topographical cues are instructive to axonal extension. This report, for the first time, investigated the relative dominance of directional topographical guidance cues and directional electrical cues to enhance and/or direct primary neurite extension. We hypothesized the combination of electrical stimulation with electrospun fiber topography would induce longer neurite extension from dorsal root ganglia neurons than the presence of electrical stimulation or aligned topography alone. To test the hypothesis, neurite outgrowth was examined on laminin-coated poly-L-lactide films or electrospun fibers (2 µm in diameter) in the presence or absence of electrical stimulation. Immunostained neurons were semi-automatically traced using Neurolucida software and morphology was evaluated. Neurite extension increased 74% on the aligned fibers compared to film controls. Stimulation alone increased outgrowth by 32% on films or fibers relative to unstimulated film controls. The co-presentation of topographical (fibers) with biophysical (electrical stimulation) cues resulted in a synergistic 126% increase in outgrowth relative to unstimulated film controls. Field polarity had no influence on the directionality of neurites, indicating topographical cues are responsible for guiding neurite extension. Both cues (electrical stimulation and fiber geometry) are modular in nature and can be synergistically applied in conjunction with other common methods in regenerative medicine such as controlled release of growth factors to further influence axonal growth in vivo. The combined application of electrical and aligned fiber topographical guidance cues described herein, if translated in vivo, could provide a more supportive environment for directed and robust axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  19. Neurite outgrowth on electrospun PLLA fibers is enhanced by exogenous electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, A. N.; Zaccor, N. W.; Rivet, C. J.; Williams, L. A.; Piselli, J. M.; Gilbert, R. J.; Thompson, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Both electrical stimuli (endogenous and exogenous) and topographical cues are instructive to axonal extension. This report, for the first time, investigated the relative dominance of directional topographical guidance cues and directional electrical cues to enhance and/or direct primary neurite extension. We hypothesized the combination of electrical stimulation with electrospun fiber topography would induce longer neurite extension from dorsal root ganglia neurons than the presence of electrical stimulation or aligned topography alone. Approach. To test the hypothesis, neurite outgrowth was examined on laminin-coated poly-L-lactide films or electrospun fibers (2 µm in diameter) in the presence or absence of electrical stimulation. Immunostained neurons were semi-automatically traced using Neurolucida software and morphology was evaluated. Main Results. Neurite extension increased 74% on the aligned fibers compared to film controls. Stimulation alone increased outgrowth by 32% on films or fibers relative to unstimulated film controls. The co-presentation of topographical (fibers) with biophysical (electrical stimulation) cues resulted in a synergistic 126% increase in outgrowth relative to unstimulated film controls. Field polarity had no influence on the directionality of neurites, indicating topographical cues are responsible for guiding neurite extension. Significance. Both cues (electrical stimulation and fiber geometry) are modular in nature and can be synergistically applied in conjunction with other common methods in regenerative medicine such as controlled release of growth factors to further influence axonal growth in vivo. The combined application of electrical and aligned fiber topographical guidance cues described herein, if translated in vivo, could provide a more supportive environment for directed and robust axonal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-05-01

    Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lateral geniculate body evoked potentials elicited by visual and electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Wook; Kim, Pan Sang; Shin, Sun Ae; Yang, Ji Yeon; Yang, Yun Sik

    2014-08-01

    Blind individuals who have photoreceptor loss are known to perceive phosphenes with electrical stimulation of their remaining retinal ganglion cells. We proposed that implantable lateral geniculate body (LGB) stimulus electrode arrays could be used to generate phosphene vision. We attempted to refine the basic reference of the electrical evoked potentials (EEPs) elicited by microelectrical stimulations of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB of a domestic pig, and then compared it to visual evoked potentials (VEPs) elicited by short-flash stimuli. For visual function measurement, VEPs in response to short-flash stimuli on the left eye of the domestic pig were assessed over the visual cortex at position Oz with the reference electrode at Fz. After anesthesia, linearly configured platinum wire electrodes were inserted into the optic nerve, optic track and LGB. To determine the optimal stimulus current, EEPs were recorded repeatedly with controlling the pulse and power. The threshold of current and charge density to elicit EEPs at 0.3 ms pulse duration was about ±10 µA. Our experimental results showed that visual cortex activity can be effectively evoked by stimulation of the optic nerve, optic tract and LGB using penetrating electrodes. The latency of P1 was more shortened as the electrical stimulation was closer to LGB. The EEPs of two-channel in the visual cortex demonstrated a similar pattern with stimulation of different spots of the stimulating electrodes. We found that the LGB-stimulated EEP pattern was very similar to the simultaneously generated VEP on the control side, although implicit time deferred. EEPs and VEPs derived from visual-system stimulation were compared. The LGB-stimulated EEP wave demonstrated a similar pattern to the VEP waveform except implicit time, indicating prosthetic-based electrical stimulation of the LGB could be utilized for the blind to perceive vision of phosphenes.

  2. An electric stimulation system for electrokinetic particle manipulation in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-de la Fuente, M. S.; Moncada-Hernandez, H.; Perez-Gonzalez, V. H.; Lapizco-Encinas, B. H.; Martinez-Chapa, S. O.

    2013-03-01

    Microfluidic devices have grown significantly in the number of applications. Microfabrication techniques have evolved considerably; however, electric stimulation systems for microdevices have not advanced at the same pace. Electric stimulation of micro-fluidic devices is an important element in particle manipulation research. A flexible stimulation instrument is desired to perform configurable, repeatable, automated, and reliable experiments by allowing users to select the stimulation parameters. The instrument presented here is a configurable and programmable stimulation system for electrokinetic-driven microfluidic devices; it consists of a processor, a memory system, and a user interface to deliver several types of waveforms and stimulation patterns. It has been designed to be a flexible, highly configurable, low power instrument capable of delivering sine, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms with one single frequency or two superimposed frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 40 kHz, and an output voltage of up to 30 Vpp. A specific stimulation pattern can be delivered over a single time period or as a sequence of different signals for different time periods. This stimulation system can be applied as a research tool where manipulation of particles suspended in liquid media is involved, such as biology, medicine, environment, embryology, and genetics. This system has the potential to lead to new schemes for laboratory procedures by allowing application specific and user defined electric stimulation. The development of this device is a step towards portable and programmable instrumentation for electric stimulation on electrokinetic-based microfluidic devices, which are meant to be integrated with lab-on-a-chip devices.

  3. An electric stimulation system for electrokinetic particle manipulation in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Lopez-de la Fuente, M S; Moncada-Hernandez, H; Perez-Gonzalez, V H; Lapizco-Encinas, B H; Martinez-Chapa, S O

    2013-03-01

    Microfluidic devices have grown significantly in the number of applications. Microfabrication techniques have evolved considerably; however, electric stimulation systems for microdevices have not advanced at the same pace. Electric stimulation of micro-fluidic devices is an important element in particle manipulation research. A flexible stimulation instrument is desired to perform configurable, repeatable, automated, and reliable experiments by allowing users to select the stimulation parameters. The instrument presented here is a configurable and programmable stimulation system for electrokinetic-driven microfluidic devices; it consists of a processor, a memory system, and a user interface to deliver several types of waveforms and stimulation patterns. It has been designed to be a flexible, highly configurable, low power instrument capable of delivering sine, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms with one single frequency or two superimposed frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 40 kHz, and an output voltage of up to 30 Vpp. A specific stimulation pattern can be delivered over a single time period or as a sequence of different signals for different time periods. This stimulation system can be applied as a research tool where manipulation of particles suspended in liquid media is involved, such as biology, medicine, environment, embryology, and genetics. This system has the potential to lead to new schemes for laboratory procedures by allowing application specific and user defined electric stimulation. The development of this device is a step towards portable and programmable instrumentation for electric stimulation on electrokinetic-based microfluidic devices, which are meant to be integrated with lab-on-a-chip devices.

  4. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  5. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with facial palsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with facial palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Nine subjects received the electrical stimulation and traditional dysphagia therapy. Electrical stimulation was applied to stimulate each subject’s facial muscles 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. [Results] Subjects showed significant improvement in cheek and lip strength and oral function after the intervention. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that electrical stimulation improves facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with dysphagia. PMID:27799689

  6. Current threshold for nerve stimulation depends on electrical impedance of the tissue: a study of ultrasound-guided electrical nerve stimulation of the median nerve.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Axel R; Dodgson, Michael S; Kalvøy, Håvard; Grimnes, Sverre; Stubhaug, Audun; Klaastad, Oivind

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms causing variation in current thresholds for electrical nerve stimulation may improve the safety and success rate of peripheral nerve blocks. Electrical impedance of the tissue surrounding a nerve may affect the response to nerve stimulation. In this volunteer study, we investigated the relationship between impedance and current threshold needed to obtain a neuromuscular response. Electrical nerve stimulation and impedance measurements were performed for the median nerve in the axilla and at the elbow in 29 volunteers. The needletip was positioned at a distance of 5, 2.5, and 0 mm from the nerve as judged by ultrasound. Impulse widths of 0.1 and 0.3 ms were used for nerve stimulation. A significant inverse relationship between impedance and current threshold was found at the elbow, at nerve-to-needle distances of 5 and 2.5 mm (P = 0.001 and P = 0.036). Impedance values were significantly lower in the axilla (mean 21.1, sd 9.7 kohm) than at the elbow (mean 36.6, sd 13.4 kohm) (P < 0.001). Conversely, current thresholds for nerve stimulation were significantly higher in the axilla than at the elbow (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.024). A mean ratio of 1.82 was found for the measurements of current thresholds with 0.1 versus 0.3 ms impulse duration. Our results demonstrate an inverse relationship between impedance measurements and current thresholds and suggest that current settings used for nerve stimulation may require adjustment based on the tissue type. Further studies should be performed to investigate the clinical impact of our findings.

  7. [Exploration Research of Treatment Effect Improvement of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Using Parameter-changing Chaotic Signal].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jincun; Zhang, Hui; Qin, Binyi; Wang, Hai; Nie, Guochao; Chen, Tiejun

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a transcutaneous electric stimulator that is based on chaotic signal. Firstly, we in the study used the MATLAB platform in the PC to generate chaotic signal through the chaos equation, and then we transferred the signal out by data acquisition equipment of USB-6251 manufactured by NI Company. In order to obtain high-power signal for transcutaneous electric stimulator, we used the chip of LM3886 to amplify the signal. Finally, we used the power-amplified chaotic signal to stimulate the internal nerve of human through the electrodes fixed on the skin. We obtained different stimulation effects of transcutaneous electric stimulator by changing the parameters of chaotic model. The preliminary test showed that the randomness of chaotic signals improved the applicability of electrical stimulation and the rules of chaos ensured that the stimulation was comfort. The method reported in this paper provides a new way for the design of transcutaneous electric stimulator.

  8. Activation of SC during electrical stimulation of LGN: retinal antidromic stimulation or corticocollicular activation?

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yusuke; Augath, Mark; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2011-12-01

    We have recently used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) increases the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex receiving input from that site, but suppresses it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. Intracortical injection experiments showed that such suppression is due to synaptic inhibition. During these experiments, we have consistently observed activation of superior colliculus (SC) following LGN stimulation. Since LGN does not directly project to SC, the current study investigated the origin of SC activation. By examining experimental manipulations inactivating the primary visual cortex, we present here evidence that the robust SC activation, which follows the stimulation of LGN, is due to the activation of corticocollicular pathway.

  9. Chronic Spinal Cord Electrical Stimulation Protects Against 6-hydroxydopamine Lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amol P.; Fuentes, Romulo; Zhang, Hao; Vinholo, Thais; Wang, Chi-Han; Freire, Marco Aurelio M.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Although L-dopa continues to be the gold standard for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), it presents long-term complications. Deep brain stimulation is effective, but only a small percentage of idiopathic PD patients are eligible. Based on results in animal models and a handful of patients, dorsal column stimulation (DCS) has been proposed as a potential therapy for PD. To date, the long-term effects of DCS in animal models have not been quantified. Here, we report that DCS applied twice a week in rats treated with bilateral 6-OHDA striatal infusions led to a significant improvement in symptoms. DCS-treated rats exhibited a higher density of dopaminergic innervation in the striatum and higher neuronal cell count in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to a control group. These results suggest that DCS has a chronic therapeutical and neuroprotective effect, increasing its potential as a new clinical option for treating PD patients.

  10. Electrical potentials from the eye and optic nerve of Strombus: effects of electrical stimulation of the optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Gillary, H L

    1977-02-01

    1. Photic stimulation of the mature eye of Strombus can evoke in the optic nerve 'on' activity in numerous small afferent fibres and repetitive 'off' bursts of afferent impulses in a smaller number of larger fibres. 2. Synchronous invasion of the eye by electrically evoked impulses in small optic nerve fibres (apparently the 'on' afferents, antidromically activated) can evoke a burst of impulses in the larger 'off' fibres which propagate away from the eye. Invasion of the eye via one branch of optic nerve can evoke an answering burst in another branch. 3. Such electrically evoked bursts are similar to light-evoked 'off' bursts with respect to their impulse composition, their ability to be inhibited by illumination of the eye, and their susceptibility to MgCl2 anaesthesia. 4. Invasion of the eye by a train of repetitive electrically evoked impulses in the absence of photic stimulation can give rise to repetitive 'off' bursts as well as concomitant oscillatory potentials in the eye which are similar to those normally evoked by cessation of a photic stimulus. 5. The electrically evoked 'off' bursts appear to be caused by an excitatory rebound following the cessation of inhibitory synaptic input from photoreceptors which can be antidromically activated by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve. 6. The experimental results suggest that the rhythmic discharge of the 'off' fibres evoked by the cessation of a photic stimulus is mediated by the abrupt decrease of inhibitory synaptic input from the receptors.

  11. A trail of artificial vestibular stimulation: electricity, heat, and magnet.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G

    2012-07-01

    The interaction between the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine and ion currents within the inner-ear endolymph results in a Lorentz force. This force produces a pressure that pushes on the cupula within the semicircular canals causing nystagmus and vertigo. Here I discuss several implications of this unique and noninvasive way to stimulate the vestibular system in experimental neurophysiology and clinical neurology.

  12. Electrical stimulation and ultra-rapid chilling of pork.

    PubMed

    Gigiel, A J; James, S J

    1984-01-01

    Six pigs were stimulated at 5 min post mortem and six remained unstimulated. All the pigs were split hot and one side from each pig was rapidly chilled in two stages (air at -40°C and 1 m/s for 80 min followed by 0°C and 0·5 m/s for 130 min) and the other side was conventionally chilled (air at 0°C and 1 m/s for 24 h). The weight loss from rapidly chilled sides was approximately 1% less than that from conventionally chilled controls. Cooked samples of Longissimus dorsi were tougher from unstimulated rapidly chilled sides (0·23 J) than from unstimulated conventionally chilled sides (0·18 J), whilst samples from both stimulated treatments were significantly more tender (0·15 J). These differences in toughness are thought to be due to a combination of cold shortening and lack of conditioning. The average pH in the longissimus dorsi of both rapidly and conventionally chilled stimulated sides at 50 min post mortem was 5·57 and samples from these muscles were slightly paler and more watery than the unstimulated controls. Copyright © 1984. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. What does chronic electrical stimulation teach us about muscle plasticity?

    PubMed

    Pette, D; Vrbová, G

    1999-06-01

    The model of chronic low-frequency stimulation for the study of muscle plasticity was developed over 30 years ago. This protocol leads to a transformation of fast, fatigable muscles toward slower, fatigue-resistant ones. It involves qualitative and quantitative changes of all elements of the muscle fiber studied so far. The multitude of stimulation-induced changes makes it possible to establish the full adaptive potential of skeletal muscle. Both functional and structural alterations are caused by orchestrated exchanges of fast protein isoforms with their slow counterparts, as well as by altered levels of expression. This remodeling of the muscle fiber encompasses the major, myofibrillar proteins, membrane-bound and soluble proteins involved in Ca2+ dynamics, and mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes of energy metabolism. Most transitions occur in a coordinated, time-dependent manner and result from altered gene expression, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. This review summarizes the advantages of chronic low-frequency stimulation for studying activity-induced changes in phenotype, and its potential for investigating regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. The potential clinical relevance or utility of the technique is also considered.

  14. Epilepsia partialis continua responsive to neocortical electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Antonio; Ughratdar, Ismail; Cheserem, Beverly; Morris, Robert; Selway, Richard; Alarcon, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), defined as a syndrome of continuous focal jerking, is a rare form of focal status epilepticus that usually affects a distal limb, and when prolonged, can produce long-lasting deficits in limb function. Substantial electrophysiologic evidence links the origin of EPC to the motor cortex; thus surgical resection carries the risk of significant handicap. We present two patients with focal, drug-resistant EPC, who were admitted for intracranial video-electroencephalography monitoring to elucidate the location of the epileptogenic focus and identification of eloquent motor cortex with functional mapping. In both cases, the focus resided at or near eloquent motor cortex and therefore precluded resective surgery. Chronic cortical stimulation delivered through subdural strips at the seizure focus (continuous stimulation at 60-130 Hz, 2-3 mA) resulted in >90% reduction in seizures and abolition of the EPC after a follow-up of 22 months in both patients. Following permanent implantation of cortical stimulators, no adverse effects were noted. EPC restarted when intensity was reduced or batteries depleted. Battery replacement restored previous improvement. This two-case report opens up avenues for the treatment of this debilitating condition. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Ex Vivo Assay of Electrical Stimulation to Rat Sciatic Nerves: Cell Behaviors and Growth Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyong; Bondarenko, Olexandr; Wang, Dingkun; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Zhang, Ze

    2016-06-01

    Neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration are known to benefit from electrical stimulation. However, how neuritis and their surroundings react to electrical field is difficult to replicate by monolayer cell culture. In this work freshly harvested rat sciatic nerves were cultured and exposed to two types of electrical field, after which time the nerve tissues were immunohistologically stained and the expression of neurotrophic factors and cytokines were evaluated. ELISA assay was used to confirm the production of specific proteins. All cell populations survived the 48 h culture with little necrosis. Electrical stimulation was found to accelerate Wallerian degeneration and help Schwann cells to switch into migratory phenotype. Inductive electrical stimulation was shown to upregulate the secretion of multiple neurotrophic factors. Cellular distribution in nerve tissue was altered upon the application of an electrical field. This work thus presents an ex vivo model to study denervated axon in well controlled electrical field, bridging monolayer cell culture and animal experiment. It also demonstrated the critical role of electrical field distribution in regulating cellular activities.

  16. High and low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation inhibits nociceptive responses induced by CO2 laser stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Fiore, Pietro; Camporeale, Alfonso; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Losito, Luciana; Megna, Marisa; Puca, Francomichele; Megna, Gianfranco

    2003-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) on CO(2) laser evoked potentials (LEPs) in 16 normal subjects. The volar side of the forearm was stimulated by 10 Hz TENS in eight subjects and by 100 Hz TENS in the remainder; the skin of the forearm was stimulated by CO(2) laser and the LEPs were recorded in basal conditions and soon after and 15 min after TENS. Both low and high frequency TENS significantly reduced the subjective rating of heat stimuli and the LEPs amplitude, although high frequency TENS appeared more efficacious. TENS seemed to exert a mild inhibition of the perception and processing of pain induced by laser Adelta fibres activation; the implications of these effects in the clinical employment of TENS remain to be clarified.

  17. Chronic electrical stimulation with a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis: a preclinical safety and efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, David A X; Williams, Richard A; Allen, Penelope J; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Luu, Chi D; Salinas-LaRosa, Cesar M; Finch, Sue; Ayton, Lauren N; Saunders, Alexia L; McPhedran, Michelle; McGowan, Ceara; Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B; Wise, Andrew K; Yeoh, Jonathan; Xu, Jin; Feng, Helen; Millard, Rodney; McWade, Melanie; Thien, Patrick C; Williams, Chris E; Shepherd, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of chronic electrical stimulation of the retina with a suprachoroidal visual prosthesis. Seven normally-sighted feline subjects were implanted for 96-143 days with a suprachoroidal electrode array and six were chronically stimulated for 70-105 days at levels that activated the visual cortex. Charge balanced, biphasic, current pulses were delivered to platinum electrodes in a monopolar stimulation mode. Retinal integrity/function and the mechanical stability of the implant were assessed monthly using electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus photography. Electrode impedances were measured weekly and electrically-evoked visual cortex potentials (eEVCPs) were measured monthly to verify that chronic stimuli were suprathreshold. At the end of the chronic stimulation period, thresholds were confirmed with multi-unit recordings from the visual cortex. Randomized, blinded histological assessments were performed by two pathologists to compare the stimulated and non-stimulated retina and adjacent tissue. All subjects tolerated the surgical and stimulation procedure with no evidence of discomfort or unexpected adverse outcomes. After an initial post-operative settling period, electrode arrays were mechanically stable. Mean electrode impedances were stable between 11-15 kΩ during the implantation period. Visually-evoked ERGs & OCT were normal, and mean eEVCP thresholds did not substantially differ over time. In 81 of 84 electrode-adjacent tissue samples examined, there were no discernible histopathological differences between stimulated and unstimulated tissue. In the remaining three tissue samples there were minor focal fibroblastic and acute inflammatory responses. Chronic suprathreshold electrical stimulation of the retina using a suprachoroidal electrode array evoked a minimal tissue response and no adverse clinical or histological findings. Moreover, thresholds and electrode impedance remained stable for

  18. Chronic Electrical Stimulation with a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis: A Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, David A. X.; Williams, Richard A.; Allen, Penelope J.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Luu, Chi D.; Salinas-LaRosa, Cesar M.; Finch, Sue; Ayton, Lauren N.; Saunders, Alexia L.; McPhedran, Michelle; McGowan, Ceara; Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B.; Wise, Andrew K.; Yeoh, Jonathan; Xu, Jin; Feng, Helen; Millard, Rodney; McWade, Melanie; Thien, Patrick C.; Williams, Chris E.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of chronic electrical stimulation of the retina with a suprachoroidal visual prosthesis. Methods Seven normally-sighted feline subjects were implanted for 96–143 days with a suprachoroidal electrode array and six were chronically stimulated for 70–105 days at levels that activated the visual cortex. Charge balanced, biphasic, current pulses were delivered to platinum electrodes in a monopolar stimulation mode. Retinal integrity/function and the mechanical stability of the implant were assessed monthly using electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus photography. Electrode impedances were measured weekly and electrically-evoked visual cortex potentials (eEVCPs) were measured monthly to verify that chronic stimuli were suprathreshold. At the end of the chronic stimulation period, thresholds were confirmed with multi-unit recordings from the visual cortex. Randomized, blinded histological assessments were performed by two pathologists to compare the stimulated and non-stimulated retina and adjacent tissue. Results All subjects tolerated the surgical and stimulation procedure with no evidence of discomfort or unexpected adverse outcomes. After an initial post-operative settling period, electrode arrays were mechanically stable. Mean electrode impedances were stable between 11–15 kΩ during the implantation period. Visually-evoked ERGs & OCT were normal, and mean eEVCP thresholds did not substantially differ over time. In 81 of 84 electrode-adjacent tissue samples examined, there were no discernible histopathological differences between stimulated and unstimulated tissue. In the remaining three tissue samples there were minor focal fibroblastic and acute inflammatory responses. Conclusions Chronic suprathreshold electrical stimulation of the retina using a suprachoroidal electrode array evoked a minimal tissue response and no adverse clinical or histological findings. Moreover, thresholds and

  19. Prediction of cortical responses to simultaneous electrical stimulation of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halupka, Kerry J.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Grayden, David B.; Wong, Yan T.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; Meffin, Hamish

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Simultaneous electrical stimulation of multiple electrodes has shown promise in diversifying the responses that can be elicited by retinal prostheses compared to interleaved single electrode stimulation. However, the effects of interactions between electrodes are not well understood and clinical trials with simultaneous stimulation have produced inconsistent results. We investigated the effects of multiple electrode stimulation of the retina by developing a model of cortical responses to retinal stimulation. Approach. Electrical stimuli consisting of temporally sparse, biphasic current pulses, with amplitudes sampled from a bi-dimensional Gaussian distribution, were simultaneously delivered to the retina across a 42-channel electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of anesthetized cats. Visual cortex activity was recorded using penetrating microelectrode arrays. These data were used to identify a linear-nonlinear model of cortical responses to retinal stimulation. The ability of the model to generalize was tested by predicting responses to non-white patterned stimuli. Main results. The model accurately predicted two cortical activity measures: multi-unit neural responses and evoked potential responses to white noise stimuli. The model also provides information about electrical receptive fields, including the relative effects of each stimulating electrode on every recording site. Significance. We have demonstrated a simple model that accurately describes cortical responses to simultaneous stimulation of a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Overall, our results demonstrate that cortical responses to simultaneous multi-electrode stimulation of the retina are repeatable and predictable, and that interactions between electrodes during simultaneous stimulation are predominantly linear. The model shows promise for determining optimal stimulation paradigms for exploiting interactions between electrodes to shape neural activity, thereby improving

  20. Manual stimulation, but not acute electrical stimulation prior to reconstructive surgery, improves functional recovery after facial nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Skouras, Emmanouil; Merkel, Daniel; Grosheva, Maria; Angelova, Srebrina K; Schiffer, Gereon; Thelen, Ulrich; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Sinis, Nektarios; Igelmund, Peter; Dunlop, Sarah A; Pavlov, Stoyan; Irintchev, Andrey; Angelov, Doychin N

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of peripheral nerve injuries requiring surgical repair is poor. Recent work suggested that electrical stimulation (ES) of the proximal nerve stump to produce repeated discharges of the parent motoneurons for one hour could be a beneficial therapy if delivered immediately prior to reconstructive surgery of mixed peripheral nerves. We tested whether ES has a positive influence on functional recovery after repair of a purely motor nerve, the facial nerve. Electrical stimulation (20 Hz) was delivered to the proximal nerve stump of the transected facial nerve for 1 hour prior to nerve reconstruction by end-to-end suture (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA). For manual stimulation (MS), animals received daily rhythmic stroking of the whisker pads. Restoration of vibrissal motor performance following ES or MS was evaluated using video-based motion analysis. We also assessed the degree of collateral axonal branching at the lesion site, by counting motoneuronal perikarya after triple retrograde labeling, and estimated the quality of motor end-plate reinnervation in the target musculature. Outcomes at 4 months were compared to animals receiving sham stimulation (SS) or MS. Neither protocol reduced the degree of collateral sprouting. ES did not improve functional outcome and failed to reduce the proportion of polyinnervated motor end-plates. By contrast, MS restored normal whisking function and reduced polyinnervation. Whereas acute ES is not beneficial for facial nerve repair, MS provides long-term benefits.

  1. The effect of electric cortical stimulation after focal traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yong-Soon; Yu, Ki Pi; Kim, Hyojoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl; Kwak, Soo Hyun; Kim, Bong Ok

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of electric cortical stimulation in the experimentally induced focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat model on motor recovery and plasticity of the injured brain. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-trained on a single pellet reaching task (SPRT) and on a Rotarod task (RRT) for 14 days. Then, the TBI model was induced by a weight drop device (40 g in weight, 25 cm in height) on the dominant motor cortex, and the electrode was implanted over the perilesional cortical surface. All rats were divided into two groups as follows: Electrical stimulation (ES) group with anodal continuous stimulation (50 Hz and 194 µs duration) or Sham-operated control (SOC) group with no electrical stimulation. The rats were trained SPRT and RRT for 14 days for rehabilitation and measured Garcia's neurologic examination. Histopathological and immunostaining evaluations were performed after the experiment. There were no differences in the slice number in the histological analysis. Garcia's neurologic scores & SPRT were significantly increased in the ES group (p<0.05), yet, there was no difference in RRT in both groups. The ES group showed more expression of c-Fos around the brain injured area than the SOC group. Electric cortical stimulation with rehabilitation is considered to be one of the trial methods for motor recovery in TBI. However, more studies should be conducted for the TBI model in order to establish better stimulation methods.

  2. The Effect of Electric Cortical Stimulation after Focal Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yong-Soon; Yu, Ki Pi; Kim, Hyojoon; Kim, Hyoung-ihl; Kim, Bong Ok

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of electric cortical stimulation in the experimentally induced focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat model on motor recovery and plasticity of the injured brain. Method Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-trained on a single pellet reaching task (SPRT) and on a Rotarod task (RRT) for 14 days. Then, the TBI model was induced by a weight drop device (40 g in weight, 25 cm in height) on the dominant motor cortex, and the electrode was implanted over the perilesional cortical surface. All rats were divided into two groups as follows: Electrical stimulation (ES) group with anodal continuous stimulation (50 Hz and 194 µs duration) or Sham-operated control (SOC) group with no electrical stimulation. The rats were trained SPRT and RRT for 14 days for rehabilitation and measured Garcia's neurologic examination. Histopathological and immunostaining evaluations were performed after the experiment. Results There were no differences in the slice number in the histological analysis. Garcia's neurologic scores & SPRT were significantly increased in the ES group (p<0.05), yet, there was no difference in RRT in both groups. The ES group showed more expression of c-Fos around the brain injured area than the SOC group. Conclusion Electric cortical stimulation with rehabilitation is considered to be one of the trial methods for motor recovery in TBI. However, more studies should be conducted for the TBI model in order to establish better stimulation methods. PMID:23185723

  3. The Neural Correlates of Long-Term Carryover following Functional Electrical Stimulation for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gandolla, Marta; Ward, Nick S.; Molteni, Franco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neurorehabilitation effective delivery for stroke is likely to be improved by establishing a mechanistic understanding of how to enhance adaptive plasticity. Functional electrical stimulation is effective at reducing poststroke foot drop; in some patients, the effect persists after therapy has finished with an unknown mechanism. We used fMRI to examine neural correlates of functional electrical stimulation key elements, volitional intent to move and concurrent stimulation, in a group of chronic stroke patients receiving functional electrical stimulation for foot-drop correction. Patients exhibited task-related activation in a complex network, sharing bilateral sensorimotor and supplementary motor activation with age-matched controls. We observed consistent separation of patients with and without carryover effect on the basis of brain responses. Patients who experienced the carryover effect had responses in supplementary motor area that correspond to healthy controls; the interaction between experimental factors in contralateral angular gyrus was seen only in those without carryover. We suggest that the functional electrical stimulation carryover mechanism of action is based on movement prediction and sense of agency/body ownership—the ability of a patient to plan the movement and to perceive the stimulation as a part of his/her own control loop is important for carryover effect to take place. PMID:27073701

  4. Electrically stimulated osteogenesis on Ti-PPy/PLGA constructs prepared by laser-assisted processes.

    PubMed

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Stokker-Cheregi, Flavian; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Ion, Valentin; Zamfirescu, Marian; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Mihailescu, Mona; Dinescu, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This work describes a versatile laser-based protocol for fabricating micro-patterned, electrically conductive titanium-polypyrrole/poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (Ti-PPy/PLGA) constructs for electrically stimulated (ES) osteogenesis. Ti supports were patterned using fs laser ablation in order to create high spatial resolution microstructures meant to provide mechanical resistance and physical cues for cell growth. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) was used to coat the patterned Ti supports with PPy/PLGA layers acting as biocompatible surfaces having chemical and electrical properties suitable for cell differentiation and mineralization. In vitro biological assays on osteoblast-like MG63 cells showed that the constructs maintained cell viability without cytotoxicity. At 24 h after cell seeding, electrical stimulation with currents of 200 μA was applied for 4 h. This treatment was shown to promote earlier onset of osteogenesis. More specifically, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the stimulated cultures reached the maximum before that of the non-stimulated ones, i.e. controls, indicating faster cell differentiation. Moreover, mineralization was found to occur at an earlier stage in the stimulated cultures, as compared to the controls, starting with Day 6 of cell culture. At later stages, calcium levels in the stimulated cultures were higher than those in control samples by about 70%, with Ca/P ratios similar to those of natural bone. In all, the laser-based protocol emerges as an efficient alternative to existing fabrication technologies.

  5. The effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, C; Choi, J B; Lee, Y-S; Chang, H-S; Shin, C S; Kim, S; Han, D W

    2015-04-01

    Posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy is common because full neck extension is required during the procedure. We evaluated the effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative neck pain in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups; 50 patients received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle and 50 patients acted as controls. Postoperative posterior neck pain and anterior wound pain were evaluated using an 11-point numerical rating scale at 30 min, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h following surgery. The numerical rating scale for posterior neck pain was significantly lower in the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group compared with the control group at all time points (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the numerical rating scale for anterior wound pain at any time point. No adverse effects related to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation were observed. We conclude that intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle reduced posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy.

  6. Percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianggang; Xu, Xiaomei; Gong, Yongsheng; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Liangxing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zeng, Yanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of stimulation of the genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses on patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The experiment was conducted in 22 patients clinically diagnosed with OSAS. The patients were monitored with polysomnography (PSG) in the trial. When the sleep apnea was detected, the genioglossus was stimulated with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses that were automatically regulated by a microcontroller to achieve the optimal effect. The percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation caused contraction of the genioglossus, forward movement of the tongue, and relieving of the glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. The SaO2, apnea time, hypoxemia time, and change of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were compared in patients with treatment and without treatment. With percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation of the genioglossus, the OSAS patients showed apnea time decreased (P < 0.01), RDI decreased (P < 0.01), and SaO2 increased (P < 0.01). No tissue injury or major discomfort was noticed during the trial. The stimulation of genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical current pulse is an effective method for treating OSAS.

  7. Does preoperative electrical stimulation of the skin alter the healing process?

    PubMed

    Borba, Graziela C; Hochman, Bernardo; Liebano, Richard E; Enokihara, Milvia M S S; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2011-04-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that electrical current may affect fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of collagen fibers. In humans, the application of electrical current by positioning the positive electrode on skin wounds resulted in thinner hypertrophic scars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative electrical stimulation on cutaneous wound healing in rats. Forty rats were divided into two groups of 20 animals each. In the control group, an incision was made on the back of the animals. In the stimulation group, a preoperative electrical stimulation was applied using a rectangular pulse current at a frequency of 7.7 Hz, and intensity of 8 mA, for 30 min, with the positive electrode placed on the back of the animal, and the negative electrode placed on the abdominal wall. Following, an incision was made on their back. Biopsy was carried out on postoperative day 7 and 14, and histologic analysis was performed. The number of newly formed vessels, fibroblasts, and type III collagen fibers in the stimulation group on postoperative day 7 were greater than those in the control group. Preoperative positive-polarity electrical stimulation positively affects angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Structural discontinuity in the spinal cord after injury results in a disruption in the impulse conduction resulting in loss of various bodily functions depending upon the level of injury. This article presents a summary of the scientific research employing electrical stimulation as a means for anatomical or functional recovery for patients suffering from spinal cord injury. Electrical stimulation in the form of functional electrical stimulation (FES) can help facilitate and improve upper/lower limb mobility along with other body functions lost due to injury e.g. respiratory, sexual, bladder or bowel functions by applying a controlled electrical stimulus to generate contractions and functional movement in the paralysed muscles. The available rehabilitative techniques based on FES technology and various Food and Drug Administration, USA approved neuroprosthetic devices that are in use are discussed. The second part of the article summarises the experimental work done in the past 2 decades to study the effects of weakly applied direct current fields in promoting regeneration of neurites towards the cathode and the new emerging technique of oscillating field stimulation which has shown to promote bidirectional regeneration in the injured nerve fibres. The present article is not intended to be an exhaustive review but rather a summary aiming to highlight these two applications of electrical stimulation and the degree of anatomical/functional recovery associated with these in the field of spinal cord injury research. PMID:18677518

  9. Synergy of substrate conductivity and intermittent electrical stimulation towards osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, K; Boda, Sunil Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2017-08-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem cells (hMSCs) have the unique potential to differentiate into multiple cell types. Depending on the cellular microenvironment (physical and biochemical cues), hMSCs can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and adipogenic lineages. Among the strategies available to direct stem cell fate processes, electrical stimulation based approach has been extensively investigated in recent studies. In the present study, the conducting Hydroxyapatite-CaTiO3 (HA-CT) composites are used as electroconductive platforms to support the differentiation of hMSCs, in vitro. During culture without osteogenic supplements, intermittent electrical stimulation is provided every 24h over a period of 4weeks through parallel plate electrodes separated by a distance of 15mm and maintained at a static potential of 15V for 10min. In addition to cell morphological changes, the differentiation behavior of hMSCs after electrical stimulation is evaluated by mRNA expression analysis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Importantly, specific bone markers, in particular ALP, Col IA and Osteocalcin are expressed more significantly due to electrical stimulation, which also enhances the extent of extracellular matrix mineralization. Taken together, this study establishes the effectiveness of electroconductive HA-CT composites together with intermittent electrical stimulation to direct osteogenesis of hMSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of electrical stimulation on rat limb regeneration, a new look at an old model

    PubMed Central

    Leppik, Liudmila P.; Froemel, Dara; Slavici, Andrei; Ovadia, Zachri N.; Hudak, Lukasz; Henrich, Dirk; Marzi, Ingo; Barker, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Limb loss is a devastating disability and while current treatments provide aesthetic and functional restoration, they are associated with complications and risks. The optimal solution would be to harness the body’s regenerative capabilities to regrow new limbs. Several methods have been tried to regrow limbs in mammals, but none have succeeded. One such attempt, in the early 1970s, used electrical stimulation and demonstrated partial limb regeneration. Several researchers reproduced these findings, applying low voltage DC electrical stimulation to the stumps of amputated rat forelimbs reporting “blastema, and new bone, bone marrow, cartilage, nerve, skin, muscle and epiphyseal plate formation”. In spite of these encouraging results this research was discontinued. Recently there has been renewed interest in studying electrical stimulation, primarily at a cellular and subcellular level, and studies have demonstrated changes in stem cell behavior with increased proliferation, differentiation, matrix formation and migration, all important in tissue regeneration. We applied electrical stimulation, in vivo, to the stumps of amputated rat limbs and observed significant new bone, cartilage and vessel formation and prevention of neuroma formation. These findings demonstrate that electricity stimulates tissue regeneration and form the basis for further research leading to possible new treatments for regenerating limbs. PMID:26678416

  11. Electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy improve the recovery of injured sciatic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; He, Wei; Zhang, Yingze; Tian, Dehu; Zhao, Hongfang; Yu, Kunlun; Bai, Jiangbo

    2013-01-01

    Drug treatment, electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy have been shown to promote the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nerves at the injured site. This study prepared a Mackinnon's model of rat sciatic nerve compression. Electric stimulation was given immediately after neurolysis, and decimeter wave radiation was performed at 1 and 12 weeks post-operation. Histological observation revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy could improve the local blood circulation of repaired sites, alleviate hypoxia of compressed nerves, and lessen adhesion of compressed nerves, thereby decreasing the formation of new entrapments and enhancing compressed nerve regeneration through an improved microenvironment for regeneration. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave could promote the expression of S-100 protein. Motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and sciatic functional index were significantly increased in the treated rats. These results verified that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy contributed to the regeneration and the recovery of the functions in the compressed nerves. PMID:25206506

  12. Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Samar; Hayek, Ray

    2008-09-01

    Structural discontinuity in the spinal cord after injury results in a disruption in the impulse conduction resulting in loss of various bodily functions depending upon the level of injury. This article presents a summary of the scientific research employing electrical stimulation as a means for anatomical or functional recovery for patients suffering from spinal cord injury. Electrical stimulation in the form of functional electrical stimulation (FES) can help facilitate and improve upper/lower limb mobility along with other body functions lost due to injury e.g. respiratory, sexual, bladder or bowel functions by applying a controlled electrical stimulus to generate contractions and functional movement in the paralysed muscles. The available rehabilitative techniques based on FES technology and various Food and Drug Administration, USA approved neuroprosthetic devices that are in use are discussed. The second part of the article summarises the experimental work done in the past 2 decades to study the effects of weakly applied direct current fields in promoting regeneration of neurites towards the cathode and the new emerging technique of oscillating field stimulation which has shown to promote bidirectional regeneration in the injured nerve fibres. The present article is not intended to be an exhaustive review but rather a summary aiming to highlight these two applications of electrical stimulation and the degree of anatomical/functional recovery associated with these in the field of spinal cord injury research.

  13. Effects of an abdominal binder and electrical stimulation on cough in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, K H; Lai, Y L; Wu, H D; Wang, T Q; Wang, Y H

    1998-04-01

    We explored the effect of an abdominal binder, with or without electrical stimulation, on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in 12 paraplegics with complete thoracic cord (T2-T12) injury (mean age 36.0 +/- 1.5 yr) and 12 quadriplegics with complete cervical cord (C4-C8) injury (mean age 36.2 +/- 1.9 yr). The cough was assessed by measuring the PEFR during forceful expiration in a sitting position. The subjects underwent the following experimental maneuvers in a random order with a 10-minute interval between any two maneuvers: 1) voluntary coughing, 2) voluntary coughing with an abdominal binder, and 3) voluntary coughing with an abdominal binder and electrical stimulation. The electrical stimulator (50 Hz with 300 microseconds pulse width) was applied to the abdominal wall. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures. The abdominal binder did not significantly increase PEFR in either paraplegics or quadriplegics; the abdominal binder combined with electrical stimulation significantly increased PEFR by 15% in the paraplegics and 18% in the quadriplegics. These results indicate that electrical stimulation combined with an abdominal binder improves the cough ability in patients with cervical or thoracic spinal cord injury.

  14. Assessment of deep tissue hyperalgesia in the groin - a method comparison of electrical vs. pressure stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2014-09-01

    Deep pain complaints are more frequent than cutaneous in post-surgical patients, and a prevalent finding in quantitative sensory testing studies. However, the preferred assessment method - pressure algometry - is indirect and tissue unspecific, hindering advances in treatment and preventive strategies. Thus, there is a need for development of methods with direct stimulation of suspected hyperalgesic tissues to identify the peripheral origin of nociceptive input. We compared the reliability of an ultrasound-guided needle stimulation protocol of electrical detection and pain thresholds to pressure algometry, by performing identical test-retest sequences 10 days apart, in deep tissues in the groin region. Electrical stimulation was performed by five up-and-down staircase series of single impulses of 0.04 ms duration, starting from 0 mA in increments of 0.2 mA until a threshold was reached and descending until sensation was lost. Method reliability was assessed by Bland-Altman plots, descriptive statistics, coefficients of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients. The electrical stimulation method was comparable to pressure algometry regarding 10 days test-retest repeatability, but with superior same-day reliability for electrical stimulation (P < 0.05). Between-subject variance rather than within-subject variance was the main source for test variation. There were no systematic differences in electrical thresholds across tissues and locations (P > 0.05). The presented tissue-specific direct deep tissue electrical stimulation technique has equal or superior reliability compared with the indirect tissue-unspecific stimulation by pressure algometry. This method may facilitate advances in mechanism based preventive and treatment strategies in acute and chronic post-surgical pain states. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities during gluteal neuromuscular stimulation in spinal cord injury: a comparison of sacral nerve root stimulation with surface functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang Qin; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To compare the magnitude of interface pressure changes during gluteal maximus contraction by stimulating sacral nerve roots with surface electrical stimulations in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Pilot interventional study. Spinal injury research laboratory. Adults (N=18) with suprasacral complete SCI. Sacral nerve root stimulation (SNRS) via a functional magnetic stimulator (FMS) or a sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS) implant; and surface functional electrical stimulation (FES). Interface pressure under the ischial tuberosity (IT) defined as peak pressure, gradient at peak pressure, and average pressure. With optimal FMS, a 29% average reduction of IT peak pressure was achieved during FMS (mean ± SD: 160.1±24.3mmHg at rest vs 114.7±18.0mmHg during FMS, t5=6.3, P=.002). A 30% average reduction of peak pressure during stimulation via an SARS implant (143.2±31.7mmHg at rest vs 98.5±21.5mmHg during SARS, t5=4.4, P=.007) and a 22% average decrease of IT peak pressure during FES stimulation (153.7±34.8mmHg at rest vs 120.5±26.1mmHg during FES, t5=5.3, P=.003) were obtained. In 4 participants who completed both the FMS and FES studies, the percentage of peak pressure reduction with FMS was slightly greater than with FES (mean difference, 7.8%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-14.0; P=.04). SNRS or surface FES can induce sufficient gluteus maximus contraction and significantly reduce ischial pressure. SNRS via an SARS implant may be more convenient and efficient for frequently activating the gluteus maximus. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzi, M.; Vaz, C. A. F.; Raabe, J.; Nolting, F.

    2015-08-15

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic ma