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Sample records for catechin-based model wines

  1. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  2. Aroma compound sorption by oak wood in a model wine.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, G; Lubbers, S; Charpentier, C; Feuillat, M; Voilley, A; Chassagne, D

    2001-08-01

    Oak wood used for wine barrels was immersed into a model wine containing eight aroma compounds (e.g., aromatic and terpene alcohols, ethyl esters, and aldehyde), for which activity coefficients in water and model wine were determined using the mutual solubility measurement. A mass balance of these volatiles considering their reactivity in model wine was established. For most of the studied aroma compounds, and mainly for linalool and ethyl octanoate, a sorption behavior into wood was reported for the first time. This phenomenon was selective and could not be related to the solubilities in model wine and hydrophobicities of the studied aroma compounds, suggesting that acid-base and polar characteristics of wood were more involved in this sorption mechanism. This study has also shown that the level of sorption is a function of the ratio of wood surface area/solution volume.

  3. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of model of port wine stains.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaihua; Yuan, Yi; Gu, Ying; Gao, Jianhua; Xing, Da

    2012-01-01

    Port wine stains are categorized as a benign capillary vascular malformation, which is hard to cure. In this paper, a photoacoustic microscopy system, which integrated a two-dimensional scanning galvanometer, an objective lens and a focused ultrasound transducer, was designed for noninvasive imaging of blood vessels of port wine stains model in vivo. Cock comb was chosen as the port wine stains model in the experiment. The blood vessels in x-y plane and x-z plane were imaged clearly. Experimental results demonstrate that photoacoustic microscopy can image the blood vessels of port wine stains model in vivo with high contrast and high resolution. It has the potential for clinical applications in detecting the blood vessels in port wine stains skin.

  4. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-hui; Martín, Juan Francisco García; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radicals. Spin adducts of hydroxyl free radicals were detected in DMPO aqueous solution after sonication while 1-hydroxylethyl free radical adducts were observed in ultrasound-processed red wine and model wine. The latter radical arose from ethanol oxidation via the hydroxyl radical generated by ultrasound in water, thus providing the first direct evidence of the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl free radical in red wine exposed to ultrasound. Finally, the effects of ultrasound frequency, ultrasound power, temperature and ultrasound exposure time were assessed on the intensity of 1-hydroxylethyl radical spin adducts in model wine.

  5. Red wine and oenological extracts display antimicrobial effects in an oral bacteria biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Irene; Thurnheer, Thomas; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2014-05-21

    The antimicrobial effects of red wine and its inherent components on oral microbiota were studied by using a 5-species biofilm model of the supragingival plaque that includes Actinomyces oris, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar. Microbiological analysis (CFU counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy) of the biofilms after the application of red wine, dealcoholized red wine, and red wine extract solutions spiked or not with grape seed and inactive dry yeast extracts showed that the solutions spiked with seed extract were effective against F. nucleatum, S. oralis and A. oris. Also, red wine and dealcoholized wine had an antimicrobial effect against F. nucleatum and S. oralis. Additional experiments showed almost complete and early degradation of flavan-3-ol precursors [(+)-catechin and procyanidin B2] when incubating biofilms with the red wine extract. To our knowledge, this is the first study of antimicrobial properties of wine in an oral biofilm model.

  6. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  7. Structural and ultrastructural changes in yeast cells during autolysis in a model wine system and in sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, A J; Polo, M C; Carrascosa, A V

    2001-12-04

    This study shows the changes that occur during the autolysis of yeast in a model wine medium and in a sparkling wine after 12 months of aging, using Nomarsky Light Microscopy and Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM). The size of the yeasts after 24 h of autolysis in a model medium is much smaller than when they are in the growth stage. With LTSEM. a large number of folds can be observed on the surface of the yeast and practically empty cells. Greater morphological changes, both structural and ultrastructural, can be observed in the yeast after 12 months of aging in wine than in the yeast after 24 h of induced autolysis. However, less of the cytoplasmic content of the yeast that has undergone autolysis in the wine was solubilized than that of the yeast after 24 h of autolysis in the model wine system. These findings indicate that autolysis of yeast in wine is a long-lasting process, which continues for at least 12 months.

  8. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context.

    PubMed

    Vukatana, Kreshnik; Sevrani, Kozeta; Hoxha, Elira

    2016-02-17

    Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer.

  9. Wine Traceability: A Data Model and Prototype in Albanian Context

    PubMed Central

    Vukatana, Kreshnik; Sevrani, Kozeta; Hoxha, Elira

    2016-01-01

    Vine traceability is a critical issue that has gained interest internationally. Quality control programs and schemes are mandatory in many countries including EU members and the USA. Albania has transformed most of the EU regulations on food into laws. Regarding the vine sector, the obligation of wine producers to keep traceability data is part of the legislation. The analysis on the interviews conducted with Albanian winemakers show that these data are actually recorded only in hard copy. Another fact that emerges from the interviews is that only two producers have implemented the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards on food. The purpose of this paper is to develop an agile and automated traceability system based on these standards. We propose a data model and system prototype that are described in the second and third section of this work. The data model is an adaption along the lines of the GS1 (Global Standards One) specifications for a wine supply chain. The proposed prototype has a key component that is mobile access to the information about wine through barcode technology. By using this mechanism the consumer obtains transparency on his expectations concerning the quality criteria. Another important component of the proposed system in this paper is a real-time notification module that works as an alert system when a risk is identified. This can help producers and authorities to have a rapid identification of a contaminated product. It is important in cases when recalling the product from the market or preventing it from reaching the consumer. PMID:28231105

  10. Degradation Kinetics of Grape Skin and Seed Proanthocyanidins in a Model Wine System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 degrees C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catechol. ...

  11. Impact of Fluorescent Lighting on Oxidation of Model Wine Solutions Containing Organic Acids and Iron.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-22

    Previous studies have provided evidence that light exposure can increase oxygen consumption in wine and that the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate could contribute to this process. In the present study, model wine solutions containing iron(III) and various organic acids, either alone or combined, were stored in sealed clear glass wine bottles and exposed to light from fluorescent lamps. Dissolved oxygen was monitored, and afterward the organic acid degradation products were determined and the capacity of the solutions to bind sulfur dioxide, the main wine preservative, was assessed. In the dark controls, little or no dissolved oxygen was consumed and the organic acids were stable. In the irradiated solutions, dissolved oxygen was consumed at a rate that was dependent on the specific organic acid present, and the latter were oxidized to various carbonyl compounds. For the solutions containing tartaric acid, malic acid, and/or citric acid, irradiation increased their sulfur dioxide-binding capacity.

  12. Gas chromatographic quantitative analysis of methanol in wine: operative conditions, optimization and calibration model choice.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosario; Gambino, Grazia Laura; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2011-12-01

    The influence of the wine distillation process on methanol content has been determined by quantitative analysis using gas chromatographic flame ionization (GC-FID) detection. A comparative study between direct injection of diluted wine and injection of distilled wine was performed. The distillation process does not affect methanol quantification in wines in proportions higher than 10%. While quantification performed on distilled samples gives more reliable results, a screening method for wine injection after a 1:5 water dilution could be employed. The proposed technique was found to be a compromise between the time consuming distillation process and direct wine injection. In the studied calibration range, the stability of the volatile compounds in the reference solution is concentration-dependent. The stability is higher in the less concentrated reference solution. To shorten the operation time, a stronger temperature ramp and carrier flow rate was employed. With these conditions, helium consumption and column thermal stress were increased. However, detection limits, calibration limits, and analytical method performances are not affected substantially by changing from normal to forced GC conditions. Statistical data evaluation were made using both ordinary (OLS) and bivariate least squares (BLS) calibration models. Further confirmation was obtained that limit of detection (LOD) values, calculated according to the 3sigma approach, are lower than the respective Hubaux-Vos (H-V) calculation method. H-V LOD depends upon background noise, calibration parameters and the number of reference standard solutions employed in producing the calibration curve. These remarks are confirmed by both calibration models used.

  13. Characterization of the nitrogen compounds released during yeast autolysis in a model wine system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, A J; Polo, M C

    2000-04-01

    The nitrogen composition of wines aged with yeast for a long period of time, as in the case of sparkling wines, depends on the composition of the base wine and on the compounds released by the yeast. In this paper, the release of the different classes of nitrogen compounds during autolysis of one of the strains of yeast used in the manufacture of sparkling wines has been studied. The yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus, was suspended in a model wine buffer, pH 3.0 and 10% ethanol, and incubated at 30 degrees C. Samples of the autolysate were taken after 4, 24, 48, 72, 168, and 360 h of autolysis. An electrophoretic and chromatographic study was conducted of the proteins, peptides with molecular weights higher and lower than 700 Da, and amino acids released during the autolysis. Using SDS-PAGE, it was observed that it was predominantly polypeptides with molecular weights lower than 10 000 that were released. Through HPLC of the fraction lower than 10 000 Da, it was observed that it is polypeptides with molecular weights of between 10 000 and 700 Da that are released first and that these later break up to give rise to peptides with molecular weights lower than 700 Da, which in turn break down into amino acids. This indicates that the nature of the nitrogen compounds present in wines aged with yeast depends on the aging time, being less polymerized as the aging time increases.

  14. Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-limited conditions on model wine composition and aroma.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When conditions are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-limited conditions favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-limited conditions. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium.

  15. Model aging and oxidation effects on varietal, fermentative, and sulfur compounds in a dry botrytized red wine.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Bruno; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Finato, Fabio; Tosi, Emanuele; Turri, Arianna; Azzolini, Michela; Versini, Giuseppe

    2011-03-09

    From harvest until wine arrives to the consumer, oxygen plays a crucial role in the definition of the final aroma. In the present research, the effect of the model oxidative aging on a dry red Botrytis wine, such as Italian Amarone, was considered. Amarone wine was submitted to model oxidative aging and then analyzed with two different approaches (SPE-GC-MS and HS-SPME/GC-MS). The same sampling plan was adopted to study the model aging of the same Amarone wine in anaerobic conditions. The HS-SPME/GC-MS method was applied to investigate for the first time the effect of the oxidative aging on a vast number of fermentative sulfur compounds. This research highlighted peculiar evolutions for several volatile compounds. In particular, benzaldehyde showed a sensitive increment during the oxidative aging, with a rate much higher than that reported for non-Botrytis red wines. On the other hand, several sulfides (dimethyl sulfide, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, etc.) disappeared after just 15 days of oxidative aging. A wine oxidation marker such as 3-(methylthio)-propanal was not found in any of the oxidized wines; conversely methionol-S-oxide was tentatively identified. This evidence has not been mentioned in the literature. A possible involvement of grape withering process and Botrytis in these mechanisms was supposed: a dry red wine, produced from the same but without any grape withering process and Botrytis infection (e.g., Bardolino wine), was submitted to oxidative aging and analysis. This red wine showed an evolution similar to those reported in the literature for dry red wines but significantly different from the Amarone wine.

  16. Modeling the Antioxidant Capacity of Red Wine from Different Production Years and Sources under Censoring

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Sestraş, Radu E.; Bolboacă, Sorana D.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefit of drinking wine, expressed as capacity to defend the human organism from the free radicals action and thus reducing the oxidative stress, has already been demonstrated, and the results had been published in scientific literature. The aim of our study was to develop and assess a model able to estimate the antioxidant capacity (AC) of several samples of Romanian wines and to evaluate the AC dependency on the vintage (defined as the year in which wine was produced) and grape variety under presence of censored data. A contingency of two grape varieties from two different vineyards in Romania and five production years, with some missing experimental data, was used to conduct the analysis. The analysis showed that the antioxidant capacity of the investigated wines is linearly dependent on the vintage. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm was developed and applied to obtain the coefficients of the model and to estimate the missing experimental value. The contribution of wine source to the antioxidant capacity proved equal to 11%. PMID:24260039

  17. Green Tea Catechin-Based Complex Micelles Combined with Doxorubicin to Overcome Cardiotoxicity and Multidrug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tangjian; Liu, Jinjian; Ren, Jie; Huang, Fan; Ou, Hanlin; Ding, Yuxun; Zhang, Yumin; Ma, Rujiang; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment has been demonstrated to cause some side effects on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of the tumor cells, which greatly limits therapeutic efficacy. To address these limitations and achieve better therapeutic efficacy, combination therapy based on nanoparticle platforms provides a promising approach through delivering different agents simultaneously to the same destination with synergistic effect. In this study, a novel green tea catechin-based polyion complex (PIC) micelle loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was constructed through electrostatic interaction and phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lysine-co-lysine-phenylboronic acid) (PEG-PLys/PBA) and EGCG. DOX was co-loaded in the PIC micelles through π-π stacking interaction with EGCG. The phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction endowed the PIC micelles with high stability under physiological condition. Moreover, acid cleavability of phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction in the micelle core has significant benefits for delivering EGCG and DOX to same destination with synergistic effects. In addition, benefiting from the oxygen free radicals scavenging activity of EGCG, combination therapy with EGCG and DOX in the micelle core could protect the cardiomyocytes from DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity according to the histopathologic analysis of hearts. Attributed to modulation of EGCG on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, this kind of PIC micelles could effectively reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These results suggested that EGCG based PIC micelles could effectively overcome DOX induced cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance. PMID:27375779

  18. Acid-base chemistry of white wine: analytical characterisation and chemical modelling.

    PubMed

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic "wine" especially adapted for testing.

  19. Relevance of the Lin's and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield and wine quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Pellegrini, S.; Bucelli, P.; Storchi, P.; Vignozzi, N.; Barbetti, R.; Campagnolo, S.

    2009-09-01

    The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture could be greatly enhanced by the diffusion of straightforward and easy to be applied hydropedological models, able to predict the spatial variability of available soil water. The Lin's and Host hydropedological models were applied to standard soil series descriptions and hillslope position, to predict the distribution of hydrological functional units in two vineyard and their relevance for grape yield and wine quality. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (Central Italy) on Sangiovese. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soil spatial variability was deeply affected by earth movement carried out before vine plantation. Six plots were selected in the different hydrological functional units of the two vineyards, that is, at summit, backslope and footslope morphological positions, to monitor soil hydrology, grape production and wine quality. Plot selection was based upon a cluster analysis of local slope, topographic wetness index (TWI), and cumulative moisture up to the root limiting layer, appreciated by means of a detailed combined geophysical survey. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, as well as yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing. The results demonstrated that the combined application of the two hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As correctly foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water (TSW) during the growing season differed

  20. NMR and molecular modeling: application to wine ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, C.; Pianet, I.; Laguerre, M.; Glories, Y.

    1998-02-01

    Red wine contains polyphenols called tannins which are very important for its taste and longevity. These polymers consist in repeating units of catechin and its epimer epicatechin. During ageing, slow condensation reactions take place which lead to new chemical structures. Among the possible reactions, we have focused our attention on acetaldehyde cross-linking. Catechin was used as a model for the production of polymers with acetaldehyde. Two reaction product fractions have been isolated by liquid chromatography. Mass measurement indicated that these fractions contain dimers. NMR (1D and 2D) and molecular modelling were then used to study the structure and conformations of these products. The first product consist in a pure dimer with the two catechin moieties connected with an ethyl bridge on the carbon 6 and 8. The second fraction was a mixture of two dimers (50/50). NMR measurements showed that it could be two symmetrical dimers involving the same carbon for each catechin moiety (6 or8). Le vin rouge contient des polyphénols appelés tanins qui sont très importants pour son goût et sa longévité. Il s'agit principalement de polymères de catéchine et d'épicatéchine. Durant le vieillissement du vin, des réactions de condensation interviennent lentement et conduisent à de nouvelles structures. Parmi les réactions possibles, nous avons plus spécialement étudié la polymérisation par pontage avec l'éthanal. La catéchine a été utilisée comme modèle de tannin et mise en présence d'éthanal en milieu acide proche du vin. Deux fractions de produits de réaction ont été isolées par chromatographie liquide. La spectrométrie de masse a révélé la présence de dimères. La RMN (1D et 2D) et la modélisation moléculaire ont ensuite été utilisées pour déterminer la structure et la conformation de ces produits. La première fraction a été identifiée comme étant un dimère de deux unités catéchines reliées par un pont éthyle par leur

  1. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-02-12

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the low molecular weight fraction (<3 kDa permeate) isolated from the IDYs, avoiding the interaction of aroma compounds with other yeast components. An exhaustive chemical characterization of both IDY permeates was carried out by using targeted and nontargeted metabolomics approaches using CE-MS and FT-ICR-MS analytical platforms. The findings suggest that the addition of <3 kDa permeate isolated from any of the IDYs employed decreases the loss of typical wine terpenes in model wines submitted to accelerated aging conditions. The g-IDY preparation did indeed release reduced GSH into the model wines, although this compound did not seem exclusively related to the protective effect on some aroma compounds determined in both model wines. The presence of other sulfur-containing compounds from yeast origin in g-IDY, and also the presence of small yeast peptides, such as methionine/tryptophan/tyrosine-containing tripeptide in both types of IDYs, seemed to be related to the antioxidant activity determined in the two permeates and to the minor loss of some terpenes in the model wines spiked with them.

  2. Monitoring peroxides generation during model wine fermentation by FOX-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Bridi, Raquel; González, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Aspée, Alexis; Diethelm, Benjamin; Lissi, Eduardo; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Versari, Andrea

    2015-05-15

    The quality of wine is mainly determined during the alcoholic fermentation that gradually transforms the grape juice into wine. Along this process the yeast goes through several stressful stages which can affect its fermentative ability and industrial performance, affecting wine quality. Based on their actual application on industrial winemaking, commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118, QA23, VIN7 and VL3) were used. They were inoculated in batch laboratory fermentations in a model wine solution for evaluating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the yeast's alcoholic fermentation. For first time total hydroperoxides were determined by FOX-1 assay to follow ROS generation. The total hydroperoxides accumulated along the 10 days of fermentation peaked up to 10.0 μM in yeast EC1118, of which 1.3 μM was hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The FOX-1 based analytical approach herein presented is a valuable tool for the quantification of ROS oxidative damage during winemaking.

  3. Experimental and modeling studies of ultrasound-assisted release of phenolics from oak chips into model wine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-09-01

    The enhancement of release of oak-related compounds from oak chips during wine aging with oak chips may interest the winemaking industry. In this study, the 25-kHz ultrasound waves were used to intensify the mass transfer of phenolics from oak chips into a model wine. The influences of acoustic energy density (6.3-25.8 W/L) and temperature (15-25 °C) on the release kinetics of total phenolics were investigated systematically. The results exhibited that the total phenolic yield released was not affected by acoustic energy density significantly whereas it increased with the increase of temperature during sonication. Furthermore, to describe the mechanism of mass transfer of phenolics in model wine under ultrasonic field, the release kinetics of total phenolics was simulated by both a second-order kinetic model and a diffusion model. The modeling results revealed that the equilibrium concentration of total phenolics in model wine, the initial release rate and effective diffusivity of total phenolics generally increased with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, temperature had a negative effect on the second-order release rate constant whereas acoustic energy density had an opposite effect.

  4. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing. PMID:22566762

  5. Modelling and optimisation of enzymatic extrusion pretreatment of broken rice for rice wine manufacture.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Wei, Benxi; Wu, Chunsen; Zhang, Bao; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-05-01

    The manufacture of Chinese rice wine involves an uneconomical, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly pretreatment process. In this study, the enzymatic extrusion of broken rice was applied to the brewing of rice wine. The response surface methodology was used to study the effects of the barrel temperature (BT), moisture content (MC), and amylase concentration (AC) on the alcohol yield. A second-order polynomial model had a good fit to the experimental data and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.9879. According to the model, the optimal parameters required to obtain the highest alcoholic degree of 17.94% were: BT=100.14°C, MC=43%, and AC=1.45‰. Under these optimal conditions, the alcoholic degree actually reached 18.3%, which was close to the value predicted by the model. Enzymatic extrusion improved the yeast growth and alcohol yield during the fermentation process. The fermentation recovery and efficiency of processed rice wine were 38.07% and 94.66%, respectively.

  6. Optimization of grapevine yield by applying mathematical models to obtain quality wine products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alina, Dobrei; Alin, Dobrei; Eleonora, Nistor; Teodor, Cristea; Marius, Boldea; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Relationship between the crop load and the grape yield and quality is a dynamic process, specific for wine cultivars and for fresh consumption varieties. Modeling these relations is important for the improvement of technological works. This study evaluated the interrelationship of crop load (B - buds number) and several production parameters (Y - yield; S - sugar; A - acidity; GaI - Glucoacidimetric index; AP - alcoholic potential; F - flavorings, WA - wine alcohol; SR - sugar residue, in Muscat Ottonel wine cultivar and Y - yield; S - sugar; A - acidity; GaI - Glucoacidimetric Index; CP - commercial production; BS - berries size in the Victoria table grape cultivar). In both varieties have been identified correlations between the independent variable (B - buds number as a result of pruning and training practices) and quality parameters analyzed (r = -0.699 for B vsY relationship; r = 0.961 for the relationship B vs S; r = -0.959 for B vs AP relationship; r = 0.743 for the relationship Y vs S, p <0.01, in the Muscat Ottonel cultivar, respectively r = -0.907 for relationship B vs Y; r = -0.975 for B vs CP relationship; r = -0.971 for relationship B vs BS; r = 0.990 for CP vs BS relationship in the Victoria cultivar. Through regression analysis were obtained models that describe the variation concerning production and quality parameters in relation to the independent variable (B - buds number) with statistical significance results.

  7. Delaying effect of a wine Lactobacillus plantarum strain on the coloration and xanthylium pigment formation occurring in (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin wine model solutions.

    PubMed

    Curiel, José Antonio; Muñoz, Rosario; López de Felipe, Félix

    2010-11-10

    This article reports for the first time on the capacity of a wine Lactobacillus plantarum strain to alter the oxidative coloration of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin hydroethanolic wine model solutions in the presence of Fe(2+) as catalyst. The time course of color development and pigment formation in the solutions was tracked over 42 days. The pigments formed were characterized as xanthylium structures regardless of the flavanol isomer present in the solution. The solutions supplied with Lactobacillus plantarum RM71 were oxidized at a slower rate, and consequently, its final color was less than that in the controls. The formation of both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin-derived xanthylium pigments was also delayed over time in the presence of the bacterium compared to their respective cell-free controls. The delaying effects provided by L. plantarum on the oxidative coloration and the generation of xanthylium-derived pigments were more pronounced for the (-)-epicatechin than for the (+)-catechin model solutions. In view of these results and given that L. plantarum is naturally present in winemaking and generally recognized as a safe microorganism, the potential application of this bacterium as an antibrowning agent for wine is now opened.

  8. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; John, Amalraj; Marican, Adolfo; Santos, Leonardo S; Laurie, V Felipe

    2015-08-05

    Volatile phenols, such as 4-ethyphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), are responsible for the "Brett character" found in wines contaminated with Brettanomyces yeast (i.e., barnyard, animal, spicy and smoky aromas). In these trials, we explore the effectiveness of polyaniline-based compounds (polyaniline emeraldin salt (PANI-ES) and polyanaline emeraldin base (PANI-EB)), for the removal of 4-EP and 4-EG from acidic model solutions and red wine. First, a screening study, performed in an acidified 12% ethanol solution, was used to optimize parameters such as contact time and the amount of polymers required to remove 4-EP and 4-EG. Then, the trapping ability of PANI agents towards 4-EP and 4-EG was evaluated in a model solution containing other wine phenolics that could potentially be trapped by PANI (i.e., gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol). The results of this trial showed that both PANI compounds were capable of removing 4-EP, 4-EG, regardless of the presence of other phenolic compounds present at a much higher concentration. Finally, the capturing ability of PANI was evaluated in a red wine sample containing 5 mg·L-1 of 4-EP, 5 mg·L-1 of 4-EG and 2.03 ± 0.02 g·L-1 of total phenolics. The results showed that PANI-EB removed significantly more 4-EP and 4-EG than PANI-ES. For instance, a treatment with 10 mg·mL-1 of PANI-EB produced a 67.8% reduction of 4-EP, 50% reduction of 4-EG and 41.38% decrease in total phenols.

  9. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  10. Effect of metal chelators on the oxidative stability of model wine.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Gal Y; Cantu, Annegret; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Elias, Ryan J

    2013-10-02

    Oxidation is a major problem with respect to wine quality, and winemakers have few tools at their disposal to control it. In this study, the effect of exogenous Fe(II) (bipyridine; Ferrozine) and Fe(III) chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; phytic acid) on nonenzymatic wine oxidation was examined. The ability of these chelators to affect the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals (1-HER) and acetaldehyde was measured using a spin trapping technique with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and by HPLC-PDA, respectively. The chelators were then investigated for their ability to prevent the oxidative loss of an important aroma-active thiol, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH). The Fe(II)-specific chelators were more effective than the Fe(III) chelators with respect to 1-HER inhibition during the early stages of oxidation and significantly reduced oxidation markers compared to a control during the study. However, although the addition of Fe(III) chelators was less effective or even showed an initial pro-oxidant activity, the Fe(III) chelators proved to be more effective antioxidants compared to Fe(II) chelators after 8 days of accelerated oxidation. In addition, it is shown for the first time that Fe(II) and Fe(III) chelators can significantly inhibit the oxidative loss of 3MH in model wine.

  11. Bioactive peptides released from Saccharomyces cerevisiae under accelerated autolysis in a wine model system.

    PubMed

    Alcaide-Hidalgo, J M; Pueyo, E; Polo, M C; Martínez-Rodríguez, A J

    2007-09-01

    The ACE inhibitory activity (IACE) and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC-FL) values of yeast peptides isolated from a model wine during accelerated autolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. Samples were taken at 6, 24, 48, 121, and 144 h of autolysis. Peptide concentration increased throughout autolysis process. Peptides were fractionated into 2 fractions: F1, constituted by hydrophilic peptides, and F2, containing hydrophobic peptides. Both IACE activity and ORAC-FL values increased during 121 h of autolysis, then decreased afterward. Peptide fraction F2 was the main fraction involved in IACE activity and ORAC-FL.

  12. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    PubMed

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  13. Exclusion of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii from a wine model system mediated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F Noé; Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the competition and potential hybrid generation between the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in a wine-model environment. Our main goal was to understand why S. kudriavzevii has not been found in wine fermentations whilst their hybrids are present. Auxotrophic mutants (Ura(-) and Lys(-)) were used to favour the selection of hybrids and to specifically differentiate the two species in mixed fermentations carried out at different temperatures (17 °C, 24 °C and 31 °C). Both yeasts showed a reduction in their maximum specific growth rates in mixed fermentations, indicating a clear antagonistic effect between the two microorganisms. Temperature played an important role in this competition. In this way, S. kudriavzevii was less affected at 17 °C, but S. cerevisiae was clearly the best competitor at 31 °C, preventing the growth of S. kudriavzevii. Population levels of S. kudriavzevii always significantly decreased in the presence of S. cerevisiae. Ethanol was measured throughout the fermentations and in all cases S. kudriavzevii growth was arrested when ethanol levels were < 5 g/l, indicating that this compound did not influence the competitive exclusion of S. kudriavzevii. Killer factors were also discarded due to the K(-) R(-) phenotype of both strains. Finally, no prototrophic interspecific hybrids were isolated in small-scale fermentations at any temperature assayed. Our results show that the lack of competitiveness exhibited by S. kudriavzevii, especially at high temperatures, explains the absence of this species in wine fermentations, suggesting that natural S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids most likely originated in wild environments rather than in industrial fermentations.

  14. Statistical modelling of grapevine yield in the Port Wine region under present and future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João A.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2011-03-01

    The impact of projected climate change on wine production was analysed for the Demarcated Region of Douro, Portugal. A statistical grapevine yield model (GYM) was developed using climate parameters as predictors. Statistically significant correlations were identified between annual yield and monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals during the growing cycle. These atmospheric factors control grapevine yield in the region, with the GYM explaining 50.4% of the total variance in the yield time series in recent decades. Anomalously high March rainfall (during budburst, shoot and inflorescence development) favours yield, as well as anomalously high temperatures and low precipitation amounts in May and June (May: flowering and June: berry development). The GYM was applied to a regional climate model output, which was shown to realistically reproduce the GYM predictors. Finally, using ensemble simulations under the A1B emission scenario, projections for GYM-derived yield in the Douro Region, and for the whole of the twenty-first century, were analysed. A slight upward trend in yield is projected to occur until about 2050, followed by a steep and continuous increase until the end of the twenty-first century, when yield is projected to be about 800 kg/ha above current values. While this estimate is based on meteorological parameters alone, changes due to elevated CO2 may further enhance this effect. In spite of the associated uncertainties, it can be stated that projected climate change may significantly benefit wine yield in the Douro Valley.

  15. Sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered.

  16. Effect of yeast strain and some nutritional factors on tannin composition and potential astringency of model wines.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Aponte, Maria; Moio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, isolated from different sources, were tested for their ability to reduce tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, and potentially responsible for wine astringency. Strains were preliminary genetically characterized and evaluated for physiological features of technological interest. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed in three synthetic media: CT) containing enological grape tannin; CTP) CT supplemented with organic nitrogen sources; CTPV) CTP supplemented with vitamins. Adsorption of total tannins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins, yellow pigments, phenolics having antioxidant activity, and total phenols, characterizing the enological tannin, was determined by spectrophotometric methods after fermentation. The presence of vitamins and peptones in musts greatly influenced the adsorption of tannins reactive towards salivary proteins (4.24 g/L gallic acid equivalent), thus promoting the reduction of the potential astringency of model wines. With reference to the different phenolic classes, yeast strains showed different adsorption abilities. From a technological point of view, the yeast choice proved to be crucial in determining changes in gustative and mouthfeel profile of red wines and may assist winemakers to modulate colour and astringency of wine.

  17. Reaction Mechanisms of Metals with Hydrogen Sulfide and Thiols in Model Wine. Part 1: Copper-Catalyzed Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Gal Y; Danilewicz, John C; Jeffery, David W; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-05-25

    Sulfidic off-odors as a result of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and low-molecular-weight thiols are commonly encountered in wine production. These odors are usually removed by the process of Cu(II) fining, a process that remains poorly understood. The present study aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which Cu(II) interacts with H2S and thiol compounds (RSH) under wine-like conditions. Copper complex formation was monitored along with H2S, thiol, oxygen, and acetaldehyde concentrations after the addition of Cu(II) (50 or 100 μM) to air-saturated model wine solutions containing H2S, cysteine, 6-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, or 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (300 μM each). The presence of H2S and thiols in excess to Cu(II) led to the rapid formation of ∼1.4:1 H2S/Cu and ∼2:1 thiol/Cu complexes, resulting in the oxidation of H2S and thiols and reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I), which reacted with oxygen. H2S was observed to initially oxidize rather than form insoluble copper sulfide. The proposed reaction mechanisms provide insight into the extent to which H2S can be selectively removed in the presence of thiols in wine.

  18. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine.

  19. Reaction Mechanisms of Metals with Hydrogen Sulfide and Thiols in Model Wine. Part 2: Iron- and Copper-Catalyzed Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Gal Y; Danilewicz, John C; Jeffery, David W; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-05-25

    Sulfidic off-odors arising during wine production are frequently removed by Cu(II) fining. In part 1 of this study ( 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00641 ), the reaction of H2S and thiols with Cu(II) was examined; however, the interaction of iron and copper is also known to play an important synergistic role in mediating non-enzymatic wine oxidation. The interaction of these two metals in the oxidation of H2S and thiols (cysteine, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 6-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) was therefore examined under wine-like conditions. H2S and thiols (300 μM) were reacted with Fe(III) (100 or 200 μM) alone and in combination with Cu(II) (25 or 50 μM), and concentrations of H2S and thiols, oxygen, and acetaldehyde were monitored over time. H2S and thiols were shown to be slowly oxidized in the presence of Fe(III) alone and were not bound to Fe(III) under model wine conditions. However, Cu(II) added to model wine containing Fe(III) was quickly reduced by H2S and thiols to form Cu(I) complexes, which then rapidly reduced Fe(III) to Fe(II). Oxidation of Fe(II) in the presence of oxygen regenerated Fe(III) and completed the iron redox cycle. In addition, sulfur-derived oxidation products were observed, and the formation of organic polysulfanes was demonstrated.

  20. Effects of aging and heat treatment on whole yeast cells and yeast cell walls and on adsorption of ochratoxin A in a wine model system.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Y P; Pueyo, E; Carrascosa, A V; Martínez-Rodríguez, A J

    2008-07-01

    A wine model was evaluated to determine the influence of aging on the ability of whole yeast cells (WY) and yeast cell walls (YCW) to remove ochratoxin A (OTA). Aging and autolysis were monitored for 214 h in the model wine. The original concentration of OTA in the model wine was 10 microg/liter, and WY and YCW were added at a final concentration of 1 g/liter. YCW mannoproteins were involved in the removal of OTA from the model wine through adsorption mechanisms. Aging affected the capacity of WY to remove OTA, but YCW removal capacity remained constant during aging. A previous heat treatment (85 degrees C for 10 min) of WY and YCW increased their removal capacity and increased the efficiency of the decontamination process.

  1. Modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices with pattern recognition algorithms for classification of Argentine white wines according grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Alcaraz, Mirta R; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário C; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the modeling of excitation-emission matrices for classification of Argentinean white wines according to the grape variety employing chemometric tools for pattern recognition. The discriminative power of the data was first investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). The score plots showed strong overlapping between classes. A forty-one samples set was partitioned into training and test sets by the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The algorithms evaluated were SIMCA, N- and U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA. The fit of the implemented models was assessed by mean of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These models were then used to assign the type of grape of the wines corresponding to the twenty samples test set. The best results were obtained for U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA with 76% and 80% accuracy.

  2. Release of nitrogen compounds to the extracellular medium by three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during induced autolysis in a model wine system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Polo, M C

    2001-08-15

    To detect differences among three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the manufacture of sparkling wines and to study the changes in nitrogen compounds during autolysis, a model wine system was used. Significant differences were observed between the mean values of the autolytic capacity of the three strains. The amount of nitrogen (total, protein, peptide and amino) present in the autolysates and the concentration of most free amino acids was significantly affected by the strain. These findings suggest that the strain of yeast used in the manufacture of sparkling wines can play an important role in the aging process and can affect final composition.

  3. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  4. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  5. Production of fermentation aroma compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts: effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen on two model strains.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Francisco M; Medina, Karina; Farina, Laura; Boido, Eduardo; Henschke, Paul A; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of yeast fermentation metabolites to the aromatic profile of wine is well documented; however, the biotechnological application of this knowledge, apart from strain selection, is still rather limited and often contradictory. Understanding and modeling the relationship between nutrient availability and the production of desirable aroma compounds by different strains must be one of the main objectives in the selection of industrial yeasts for the beverage and food industry. In order to overcome the variability in the composition of grape juices, we have used a chemically defined model medium for studying yeast physiological behavior and metabolite production in response to nitrogen supplementation so as to identify an appropriate yeast assimilable nitrogen level for strain differentiation. At low initial nitrogen concentrations, strain KU1 produced higher quantities of esters and fatty acids whereas M522 produced higher concentrations of isoacids, gamma-butyrolactone, higher alcohols and 3-methylthio-1-propanol. We propose that although strains KU1 and M522 have a similar nitrogen consumption profile, they represent useful models for the chemical characterization of wine strains in relation to wine quality. The differential production of aroma compounds by the two strains is discussed in relation to their capacity for nitrogen usage and their impact on winemaking. The results obtained here will help to develop targeted metabolic footprinting methods for the discrimination of industrial yeasts.

  6. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  7. Characterization of commercial inactive dry yeast preparations for enological use based on their ability to release soluble compounds and their behavior toward aroma compounds in model wines.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Andujar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2009-11-25

    The characterization of commercial enological inactive dry yeast (IDY) with different applications in wine production has been carried out. This study was based on the yeast's ability to release soluble compounds (high molecular weight nitrogen, free amino nitrogen, peptidic nitrogen, free amino acids, and polysaccharides) into model wines and on its behavior toward the volatility of seven wine aroma compounds. Important differences in soluble compounds released into the model wines supplemented with commercial IDY were found, with the free amino acids being among the most released. The volatility of most of the aroma compounds was affected by the addition of IDY preparations at a concentration usually employed during winemaking. The extent of this effect was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma compound and on the length of time the IDY preparations remained in contact with the model wines. Whereas shorter contact times (2, 4, and 6 days) mainly promoted a "salting-out" effect, longer exposure (9 and 13 days) provoked a retention effect, with the consequent reduction of aroma compounds in the headspace. The use of different commercial preparations also promoted different effects toward the aroma compounds that may be at least in part due to differences in their ability to release soluble compounds of yeast origin into the wines.

  8. Oxygen consumption by oak chips in a model wine solution; Influence of the botanical origin, toast level and ellagitannin content.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Giordanengo, Thomas; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-05-15

    The botanical origin, toast level and ellagitannin content of oak chips in a model wine solution have been studied in terms of their influence on oxygen consumption. French oak chips released significantly higher amounts of ellagitannins than American oak chips at any toast level. The release of ellagitannins by oak chips decreased as the toast level increased in the French oak but this trend was not so clear in American oak. Oxygen consumption rate was clearly related to the level of released ellagitannins. Therefore, oak chips should be chosen for their potential to release ellagitannins release should be considered, not only because they can have a direct impact on the flavor and body of the wine, but also because they can protect against oxidation.

  9. Metabolic engineering of the regulators in nitrogen catabolite repression to reduce the production of ethyl carbamate in a model rice wine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production.

  10. Metabolic Engineering of the Regulators in Nitrogen Catabolite Repression To Reduce the Production of Ethyl Carbamate in a Model Rice Wine System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production. PMID:24185848

  11. Pineapple stem bromelain immobilized on different supports: catalytic properties in model wine.

    PubMed

    Ilaria, Benucci; Marco, Esti; Katia, Liburdi; Maria Vittoria, Garzillo Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain from pineapple stem has been covalently immobilized on different supports to select the more efficient biocatalyst that should be applied toward unstable proteins in real white wine. In this preliminary study, catalytic properties of different immobilized bromelain forms were compared under wine-like conditions, against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA).Covalent immobilization affected protease kinetic properties, even if all immobilized forms presented both a better substrate affinity and higher half-life (with the exception of a few procedures) with respect to the free enzyme. Stem bromelain was successfully immobilized on chitosan beads without glutaraldehyde thus yielding a food-safe and promising biocatalyst for unstable real wine future application.

  12. Multi-model projections of premium wine grape temperature suitability in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    We explore the potential to improve the understanding of the processes that shape the response of the climate system to changes in radiative forcing by directly targeting climate model analyses at specific indicators of climate change impact. Given its temperature sensitivity and cultural and economic importance, suitability of premium winegrape cultivation provides an interesting test case for climate change impact studies. In the current analysis, we employ a multi-model framework with realizations from three different, high- and low-resolution ensembles (NARCCAP, CMIP3 and a 5-member, physically uniform ensemble of RegCM3 simulations), which allow us to explore different forms of uncertainty in the projected climate change impact, including the influence of climate model biases on the model spread. We find that the three ensembles produce the same broad pattern of late 20th century temperature suitability in the continental U.S., with high suitability over the Pacific Coast and over a mid-latitude belt of the eastern U.S. In response to the mid-21st century climate, the temperature suitability decreases in all ensembles in the areas in which most of the premium US wine is currently produced. More specifically, the number of suitable years in the present production areas in California and the Columbia Valley are projected to decrease by up to 80 and 50%. The main causes for the increasingly limited suitability in these two areas are the rise in the mean growing season temperature and the rise in the number of severe hot days during the growing season. Our results suggest that the multi-model spread in projected mid-21st century changes in temperature suitability is mostly due to model formulation, with the spread due to natural variability being substantially smaller. Comparison of the available high-resolution and low-resolution model realizations suggests that the uncertainty arising from the model formulation of fine-scale climate processes is similar to the

  13. Prediction of Frost Risks and Plagues using WRF model: a Port Wine region case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M. A.; Rocha, A.; Monteiro, A.; Quénol, H.; de Freitas, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    In viticulture where the quality of the wine, the selection of the grapevines or even the characteristics of the farming soil, also depending from local soil features like topography, proximity of a river or water body, will act locally on the weather. Frosts are of significant concern to growers of many cultures crops such as winegrapes. Because of their high latitude and some altitude, the vineyards of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) are subjected to the frost, which cause serious damages. But the hazards of vineyard don't confine to the incidents of the fortuitous and meteorological character. The illnesses and plagues affect frequently the vineyards of Demarcated Douro Region due, namely to the weather, to the high power of the regional stocks, to the dense vegetation badly drained and favourable to the setting of numberless fungi, viruses and/or poisonous insects. In the case of DDR it is worth noticing the meteorological conditions due to the weather characteristics. Although there are several illnesses and plagues the most important enemies for the vine in the DDR are the mildew, oidium, grey rottenness, grape moth,. . . , if the climatic conditions favour their appearance and development. For this study, we selected some months for different periods, at the 16 weather stations of the Region of Douro. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to study and possibly predict the occurrence of risk and plagues (mildew) episodes. The model is first validated with the meteorological data obtained at the weather stations. The knowledge of frost and plagues occurrence allows one to decrease its risks not only by selecting the cultural species and varieties but also the places of growth and the planting and sowing dates.

  14. Talking About Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  15. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  16. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples.

  17. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePlus

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  18. Using historical data for bioprocess optimization: modeling wine characteristics using artificial neural networks and archived process information.

    PubMed

    Vlassides, S; Ferrier, J G; Block, D E

    2001-04-05

    Optimization of fermentation processes is a difficult task that relies on an understanding of the complex effects of processing inputs on productivity and quality outputs. Because of the complexity of these biological systems, traditional optimization methods utilizing mathematical models and statistically designed experiments are less effective, especially on a production scale. At the same time, information is being collected on a regular basis during the course of normal manufacturing and process development that is rarely fully utilized. We are developing an optimization method in which historical process data is used to train an artificial neural network for correlation of processing inputs and outputs. Subsequently, an optimization routine is used in conjunction with the trained neural network to find optimal processing conditions given the desired product characteristics and any constraints on inputs. Wine processing is being used as a case study for this work. Using data from wine produced in our pilot winery over the past 3 years, we have demonstrated that trained neural networks can be used successfully to predict the yeast-fermentation kinetics, as well as chemical and sensory properties of the finished wine, based solely on the properties of the grapes and the intended processing. To accomplish this, a hybrid neural network training method, Stop Training with Validation (STV), has been developed to find the most desirable neural network architecture and training level. As industrial historical data will not be evenly spaced over the entire possible search space, we have also investigated the ability of the trained neural networks to interpolate and extrapolate with data not used during training. Because a company will utilize its own existing process data for this method, the result of this work will be a general fermentation optimization method that can be applied to fermentation processes to improve quality and productivity.

  19. Comparative study of the enological potential of different winemaking byproducts: implications in the antioxidant activity and color expression of red wine anthocyanins in a model solution.

    PubMed

    Jara-Palacios, M José; Gordillo, Belén; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Hernanz, Dolores; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    Different white winemaking byproducts (pomace, skins, seeds, and stems) were compared as natural sources of phenolic compounds having biological and sensory properties of enological interest. Antioxidant and copigmentation effects of these byproducts were studied in a wine-like model solution. RRLC-DAD was used to establish differences in the phenolic composition, and the ABTS method was used to compare the antioxidant activities. Spectrophotometric and colorimetric analyses were performed to assess the magnitude of copigmentation and the changes induced in the color expression of red wine anthocyanins. Antioxidant and copigmentation properties significantly varied depending on the type of byproduct, which was related to their qualitative and quantitative phenolic composition. Seeds and pomace showed the highest antioxidant potential, whereas skins and pomace led to the strongest and visually perceptible color effects on red wine anthocyanins by multiple copigmentation (darker, more saturated, and vivid bluish colors). Results open the possibility of technological applications for the wine industry based on reusing winemaking byproducts to improve the biological value and color characteristics of red wines.

  20. Study of quinones reactions with wine nucleophiles by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla M; Barros, António S; Ferreira, António C S; Silva, Artur M S

    2016-11-15

    Quinones are electrophilic species which can react with various nucleophiles, like wine antioxidants, such as sulfur dioxide or ascorbic acid, thiols, amino acids, and numerous polyphenols. These reactions are very important in wine aging because they mediate oxygen reactions during both production and bottle aging phases. In this work, the major challenge was to determine the interaction between ortho-quinones and wine nucleophiles (amino acids, thiols, and the antioxidants SO2 and ascorbic acid), by cyclic voltammetry. Wine-model solutions with gallic acid, caffeic acid, or (+)-catechin and nucleophilic compounds were used. To understand the effect of nucleophilic addition in wine, a white wine with the same added nucleophiles was also analysed. Cyclic voltammograms were taken with glassy carbon electrode or screen-printed carbon electrodes, respectively, for wine-model and white wines solutions, in the absence and in the presence of nucleophiles. A nucleophilic order profile related to the cathodic current intensity decrease was observed.

  1. Simwe model application on susceptibility analysis to linear erosion: a case study in Alto Douro wine region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joana; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura; Faria, Ana; Moura, Rui; Gonçalves, José

    2016-04-01

    The wine production in Alto Douro Wine Region - one of the world's oldest regulated and demarcated wine region - is based on a slope system organized in agricultural terraces once supported exclusively by dry stone walls. It has been undergoing the necessary changes for the introduction of technological innovations partially associated to the mechanization of vineyards work. In this sense, different forms of terrain framing have been implemented, namely the substitution of stone walls by earth embankments. This evolution raises a group of problems related to the hydric soil erosion and landscape preservation, since Alto Douro Wine Region is classified as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. The study area is mostly occupied by vineyards planted in the agriculture terraces without continuous vegetation, the flow proceeds superficially influenced by the weak infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, because of this conditioning factor the erosive features present non-significant depth, and the length thereof is limited essentially by the slope of the land, where was registered 64 gullies and 78 rills This paper focuses on the evaluation of susceptibility to linear erosion, through the application of SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion), (Mitas and Mitasova, 1998), using a digital elevation model, with pixel of one square meter of spatial resolution, created through detail aerial photographs, (side pixel of 50 cm), submitted to automatic stereo-correlation procedures in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The results provided by the model are compared with hydrological characteristics of the soil, (infiltration capacity, and hydraulic conductivity), soil texture, and soil structure parameters (identified by electrical resistivity measurement) where obtained from field monitoring. This approach demonstrates an association between the spatial distribution of erosive features with high values of soil saturation, and reduced water discharge (10-110 cm3/s), that are

  2. Tears of Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  3. Probabilistic model for the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis as a function of pH, ethanol and free SO2 using time as a dummy variable.

    PubMed

    Sturm, M E; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A; Querol, A; Mercado, L A; Ramirez, M L; Combina, M

    2014-01-17

    The present study uses a probabilistic model to determine the growth/no growth interfaces of the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CH29 as a function of ethanol (10-15%, v/v), pH (3.4-4.0) and free SO2 (0-50 mg/l) using time (7, 14, 21 and 30 days) as a dummy variable. The model, built with a total of 756 growth/no growth data obtained in a simile wine medium, could have application in the winery industry to determine the wine conditions needed to inhibit the growth of this species. Thereby, at 12.5% of ethanol and pH 3.7 for a growth probability of 0.01, it is necessary to add 30 mg/l of free SO2 to inhibit yeast growth for 7 days. However, the concentration of free SO2 should be raised to 48 mg/l to achieve a probability of no growth of 0.99 for 30 days under the same wine conditions. Other combinations of environmental variables can also be determined using the mathematical model depending on the needs of the industry.

  4. Changes in polyphenol profiles and color composition of freshly fermented model wine due to pulsed electric field, enzymes and thermovinification pretreatments.

    PubMed

    El Darra, Nada; Turk, Mohammad F; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-03-01

    This work compares the effects of three pretreatments techniques: pulsed electric fields (PEFs), enzymes treatment (ET) and thermovinification (TV) on the improving of extraction of main phenolic compounds, color characteristics (L(∗)a(∗)b(∗)), and composition (copigmentation, non-discolored pigments) of freshly fermented model wine from Cabernet Sauvignon variety. The pretreatments produced differences in the wines, with the color of the freshly fermented model wine obtained from PEF and TV pretreated musts being the most different with an increase of 56% and 62%, respectively, compared to the control, while the color only increased by 22% for ET. At the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the contents of anthocyanins for all the pretreatments were not statistically different. However, for the content of total phenolics and total flavonols, PEF and TV were statistically different, but ET was not statistically different. The contents of flavonols in musts pretreated by PEF and TV were significantly higher comparing to the control. An increase of 48% and 97% was noted respectively, and only 4% for ET. A similar result was observed for the total phenolics with an increase by 18% and 32% respectively for PEF and TV, and only 3% for ET comparing to the control. The results suggest that the higher intensity and the difference of color composition between the control and pretreated freshly fermented model wines were not related only to a higher content of residual native polyphenols in these freshly fermented model wines. Other phenomena such as copigmentation and formation of derived pigments may be favored by these pretreatments.

  5. Removal of fumonisin B1 and B2 from model solutions and red wine using polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; Kreitman, Gal Y; Folch-Cano, Christian; Elias, Ryan J; Laurie, V Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins found in various foods whose consumption is known to be harmful for human health. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three polymers (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP; a resin of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triallyl isocyanurate, PVP-DEGMA-TAIC; and poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol-dimethacrylate), PA-EGDMA) to remove fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) from model solutions and red wine. Various polymer concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgmL(-1)) and contact times (2, 8 and 24h) were tested, with all polymers exhibiting fumonisin removal capacities (monitored by LC-MS). The impact of all polymers on polyphenol removal was also assessed. PA-EGDMA showed to be the most promising polymer, removing 71% and 95% of FB1, and FB2, respectively, with only a 22.2% reduction in total phenolics.

  6. ``Oenodynamic'': hydrodynamic of wine swirling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reclari, Martino; Dreyer, Matthieu; Tissot, Stephanie; Obreschkow, Danail; Wurm, Florian; Farhat, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step in wine tasting is the so called ``swirling,'' necessary to release the bouquet of the wine: a gentle circular movement of the glass generates a wave propagating along the glass walls, enhancing oxygenation and mixing. Although being used in a large variety of other applications (e.g. cells cultures in orbital shaken bioreactors) this motion is not yet well understood. Using a simplified model we experimentally investigated the shape of the free surface and the mixing, and we identified a group of dimensionless parameters governing the flow. SNSF Grant CRSII2_125444.

  7. Nibbling Tears of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristoff, Jeff; Bush, John

    2006-11-01

    The meniscus of an alcohol-rich solution is known to climb upwards due to an evaporation-induced Marangoni stress, thus initiating the tears of wine phenomenon. Rather than merging directly, the tears may bob up and down when they make contact with the underlying reservoir, appearing to nibble at its edge. We present a qualitative description of this flow and propose a simple theoretical model for this behavior. We thus rationalize the observed dependence of the nibbling frequency on the system parameters.

  8. Scalping of light volatile sulfur compounds by wine closures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria A; Jourdes, Michaël; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-11-07

    Closures have an important influence on wine quality during aging in a bottle. Closures have a direct impact on oxygen exposure and on volatiles scavenging in wine. Model wine solution soaking assays of several types of closures (i.e., natural and technical cork stoppers, synthetic closures, screw caps) with two important wine volatile sulfur compounds led to a considerable reduction in their levels. After 25 days, cork closures and synthetic closures, to a lesser extent, have significantly scavenged hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. These compounds have a determinant impact on wine aging bouquet, being largely responsible for "reduced off-flavors". Hydrogen sulfide levels are often not well correlated with the exposure of wine to oxygen or with the permeability of the closure. Its preferential sorption by some types of closures may explain that behavior. Scalping phenomenon should be taken into account when studying wine post-bottling development.

  9. Rapid fingerprinting of white wine oxidizable fraction and classification of white wines using disposable screen printed sensors and derivative voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the application of disposable screen printed carbon paste sensors for the analysis of the main white wine oxidizable compounds as well as for the rapid fingerprinting and classification of white wines from different grape varieties. The response of individual white wine antioxidants such as flavanols, flavanol derivatives, phenolic acids, SO2 and ascorbic acid was first assessed in model wine. Analysis of commercial white wines gave voltammograms featuring two unresolved anodic waves corresponding to the oxidation of different compounds, mostly phenolic antioxidants. Calculation of the first order derivative of measured current vs. applied potential allowed resolving these two waves, highlighting the occurrence of several electrode processes corresponding to the oxidation of individual wine components. Through the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), derivative voltammograms were used to discriminate among wines of different varieties.

  10. Selective proapoptotic activity of polyphenols from red wine on teratocarcinoma cell, a model of cancer stem-like cell.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Tanveer; Auger, Cyril; Bronner, Christian; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Klein, Thibaut; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Fuhrmann, Guy

    2011-04-01

    Cancer stem cells are expected to be responsible for tumor initiation and metastasis. These cells are therefore potential targets for innovative anticancer therapies. However, the absence of bona fide cancer stem cell lines is a real problem for the development of such approaches. Since teratocarcinoma cells are totipotent stem cells with a high degree of malignancy, we used them as a model of cancer stem cells in order to evaluate the anticancer chemopreventive activity of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) and to determine the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We therefore investigated the effects of RWPs on the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line P19 which was grown in the same culture conditions as the most appropriate normal cell line counterpart, the pluripotent embryonic fibroblast cell line NIH/3T3. The present study indicates that RWPs selectively inhibited the proliferation of P19 EC cells and induced G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, RWPs treatment specifically triggered apoptosis of P19 EC cells in association with a dramatic upregulation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and caspase-3 activation. Our findings suggest that the chemopreventive activity of RWPs on tumor initiation and development is related to a growth inhibition and a p53-dependent induction of apoptosis in teratocarcinoma cells. In addition, this study also shows that the EC cell line is a convenient source for studying the responses of cancer stem cells to new potential anticancer agents.

  11. Red wine consumption and prevention of atherosclerosis: an in vitro model using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Magrone, T; Tafaro, A; Jirillo, F; Panaro, M A; Cuzzuol, P; Cuzzuol, A C; Pugliese, V; Amati, L; Jirillo, E; Covelli, V

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has been provided that red wine possesses antiatherogenic activities in virtue of its content in polyphenols (flavonoids and non-flavonoids substances). Here, some red wines (Negroamaro, Primitivo and Lambrusco) were tested for their ability to trigger nitric oxide (NO) production from human healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Negroamaro was the strongest inducer of NO from PBMC and deprivation of polyphenols did not influence its NO generation capacity. This fact supports the involvement of polyphenols in the NO production even in the absence of alcohol, which also per se does not exert any significant activity. These results are also corroborated by the evidence that PBMC inducible-nitric oxide synthase expression occurred by the effect of samples containing polyphenols but this expression was very weak when polyphenols were removed from the whole Negroamaro. In synthesis, flavonoids and resveratrol, major constituents of red wine, once absorbed at intestinal level, enter circulation and trigger monocytes for NO production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a direct effect of red wine on monocytes for NO release to occur. On the other hand, also the macrophage contingent from gut-associated lymphoid tissue can contribute to NO generation, besides the aliquot produced by endothelial cells, as previously demonstrated by various authors. Taken together, these results support the concept that moderate intake of red wine can prevent atherosclerosis via production of NO, a potent vasodilator of terminal vessels.

  12. Kaempferol as Selective Human MAO-A Inhibitor: Analytical Detection in Calabrian Red Wines, Biological and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Astorino, Christian; Petzer, Anél; Carradori, Simone; Alcaro, Francesca; Costa, Giosuè; Artese, Anna; Rafele, Giancarlo; Russo, Francesco M; Petzer, Jacobus P; Alcaro, Stefano

    2016-02-17

    The purpose of this work was to determine the kaempferol content in three red wines of Calabria, a southern Italian region with a great number of certified food products. Considering that wine cultivar, climate, and soil influence the qualitative and quantitative composition in flavonoids of Vitis vinifera L. berries, the three analyzed samples were taken from the 2013 vintage. Moreover, the Gaglioppo samples, with assigned Controlled Origin Denomination (DOC), were also investigated in the production of years 2008, 2010, and 2011. In addition to the analysis of kaempferol, which is present in higher concentration than in other Italian wines, in vitro assays were performed to evaluate, for the first time, the inhibition of the human monoamine oxidases (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). Molecular recognition studies were also carried out to provide insight into the binding mode of kaempferol and selectivity of inhibition of the hMAO-A isoform.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolics from wine lees: modeling, optimization and stability of extracts during storage.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Qing-An; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-03-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction process of phenolics including anthocyanins from wine lees was modeled and optimized in this research. An ultrasound bath system with the frequency of 40 kHz was used and the acoustic energy density during extraction was identified to 48 W/L. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and the solvent composition on the extraction yields of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were taken into account. The extraction process was simulated and optimized by means of artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA). The constructed ANN models were accurate to predict the extraction yields of both total phenolics and total anthocyanins according to the statistical analysis. Meanwhile, the input space of the ANN models was optimized by GA, so as to maximize the extraction yields. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental yields of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were 58.76 and 6.69 mg/g, respectively, which agreed with the predicted values. Furthermore, more amounts of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were extracted by ultrasound at the optimal conditions than by conventional maceration. On the other hand, the stability of phenolics in the liquid extracts obtained from ultrasound-assisted extraction during storage was evaluated. After 30-day storage, the total phenolic contents in extracts stored at 4 °C and 20 °C decreased by 12.5% and 12.1%, respectively. Moreover, anthocyanins were more stable at 4 °C while tartaric esters and flavonols exhibited a better stability at 20 °C. Overall, the loss of phenolics during storage found in this study could be acceptable.

  14. Assessment of the ARW-WRF model over complex terrain: the case of the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanzadeh, Iman; Bonnardot, Valérie; Sturman, Andrew; Quénol, Hervé; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has implications for thermal stress for grapevines during ripening, so that wine producers need to adapt their viticultural practices to ensure optimum physiological response to environmental conditions in order to maintain wine quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to accurately represent atmospheric processes at high resolution (500 m) during two events during the grapevine ripening period in the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa. Two case studies were selected to identify areas of potentially high daytime heat stress when grapevine photosynthesis and grape composition were expected to be affected. The results of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations were compared to observations obtained from an automatic weather station (AWS) network in the vineyard region. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ability of the WRF model to reproduce spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters at 500-m resolution. The model represented the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological variables very well, with an average model air temperature bias of 0.1 °C, while that for relative humidity was -5.0 % and that for wind speed 0.6 m s-1. Variation in model performance varied between AWS and with time of day, as WRF was not always able to accurately represent effects of nocturnal cooling within the complex terrain. Variations in performance between the two case studies resulted from effects of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain under the influence of the different synoptic conditions prevailing during the two periods.

  15. Trends in wine microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  16. Application of the two-source energy balance model to partition evapotranspiration in an arid wine vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kool, Dilia; Kustas, William P.; Agam, Nurit

    2016-04-01

    The partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T), a productive water use, and soil water evaporation (E), which is generally considered a water loss, is highly relevant to agriculture in the light of increasing desertification and water scarcity. This task is challenged by the complexity of soil and plant interactions, coupled with changes in atmospheric and soil water content conditions. Many of the processes controlling water/energy exchange are not adequately modeled. The two-source energy balance model (TSEB) was evaluated and adapted for independent E and T estimations in an isolated drip-irrigated wine vineyard in the arid Negev desert. The TSEB model estimates ET by computing vegetation and soil energy fluxes using remotely sensed composite surface temperature, local weather data (solar radiation, air temperature and humidity, and wind speed), and vegetation metrics (row spacing, canopy height and width, and leaf area). The soil and vegetation energy fluxes are computed numerically using a system of temperature gradient and resistance equations; where soil and canopy temperatures are derived from the composite surface temperature. For estimation of ET, the TSEB model has been shown to perform well for various agricultural crops under a wide range of environmental conditions, but validation of T and E fluxes is limited to one study in a well-watered cotton crop. Extending the TSEB approach to water-limited vineyards demands careful consideration regarding how the complex canopy structure of vineyards will influence the accuracy of the partitioning between E and T. Data for evaluation of the TSEB model were collected over a season (bud break till harvest). Composite, canopy, and soil surface temperatures were measured using infrared thermometers. The composite vegetation and soil surface energy fluxes were assessed using independent measurements of net radiation, and soil, sensible and latent heat flux. The below canopy energy balance was

  17. Chemosensory characterization of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base wines of Champagne. Two very different varieties for a common product.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar; Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Chatin, Amelie; Chaperon, Vincent; Litoux-Desrues, François; Escudero, Ana

    2016-09-15

    Five different methodologies were applied for the quantitative analysis of 86 volatile molecules in 32 Chardonnay and 30 Pinot Noir Champagne white base wines. Sensory characterization was carried out by descriptive analysis. Pinot Noir wines had more constitutive compounds while Chardonnay wines had more discriminant compounds. Only four compounds predominated in Chardonnay wines: 4-vinylphenol, guaiacol, sotolon and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone. Correlation studies and PLSR models were calculated with sensory and chemical variables. For Pinot Noir wines, they were not as revealing as for Chardonnay base wines. Sulfur-related compounds were suggested to be involved in tropical fruit, dried fruit and citric sensory notes. This family of compounds seemed to be responsible for discriminant sensory terms in Champagne base wines. Fermentative compounds (aromatic buffer) were found at significantly higher levels in Pinot Noir wines, which would explain the fact that these wines were more difficult to describe in comparison with Chardonnay base wines.

  18. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  19. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  20. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  1. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  2. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  3. Microoxidation in wine production.

    PubMed

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area.

  4. Growing for wine style

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  5. Understanding Micro-Oxygenation Technique and the Oxidation of Grape/Wine Polyphenolics. Year 1.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was initiated to understand the evolution of polyphenolics in red wine by monitoring wine polyphenolics with analytical methods that have been developed or modified by our laboratories. In conjunction with the industrial scale winemaking experiments, model wine oxidation experiments are b...

  6. Distribution and organoleptic impact of sotolon enantiomers in dry white wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Landais, Yannick; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-12

    The enantiomers of sotolon, a flavor compound typical of oxidized white wines, were separated by preparative HPLC to determine their perception thresholds and distribution in wines. The enantiomeric ratios of chiral sotolon were evaluated in several dry white wines using gas chromatography and a chiral column (beta-cyclodextrin) connected to a 2 m precolumn (BP20). The perception threshold of (S)-sotolon (0.8 microg/L) in model wine solution was 100 times lower than that of the (R) form (89 microg/L), indicating that (S)-sotolon contributes to the characteristic aroma of prematurely aged dry white wines. Both enantiomers are detected in white wines. Analysis of commercial dry white wines from various vintages and origins revealed three types of distribution patterns: the racemic form, an excess of R, and an excess of S. The proportions found in these wines may be partially explained by the slow racemization kinetics (20 months) of optically active sotolon.

  7. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines.

  8. Wine matrix compounds affect perception of wine aromas.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Remedios R; Ross, Carolyn F

    2013-01-01

    Wine is a complex alcoholic beverage. The wine matrix or the components that are present in the wine play an important role in the perceived aroma and flavor of the wine. The wine matrix is composed of two fractions, the nonvolatile fraction, which includes ethanol (in liquid phase), polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and carbohydrates, and the volatile fraction, which incorporates flavor and aroma compounds. Interactions among these compounds may arise through various mechanisms, thus affecting the sensory and chemical properties of the wine. The main focus of this review is to highlight recent research on wine component interactions and their effects on perceived aroma in the wine. An overview of the wine impact odorants and their determination using sensory and chemical methods is also provided in this paper.

  9. Mold-filling experiments for validation of modeling encapsulation. Part 1, "wine glass" mold.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Altobelli, Stephen A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2005-06-01

    The C6 project 'Encapsulation Processes' has been designed to obtain experimental measurements for discovery of phenomena critical to improving these processes, as well as data required in the verification and validation plan (Rao et al. 2001) for model validation of flow in progressively complex geometries. We have observed and recorded the flow of clear, Newtonian liquids and opaque, rheologically complex suspensions in two mold geometries. The first geometry is a simple wineglass geometry in a cylinder and is reported here in Part 1. The results in a more realistic encapsulation geometry are reported in Part 2.

  10. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  11. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  12. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  13. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  14. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  15. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  16. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  17. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  18. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  19. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  20. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  1. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  2. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  3. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  4. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  5. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  6. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  7. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  8. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  9. Calcium isotopes in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  10. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... in healing and help prevent infection. Helping Kids Cope As with any birthmark, port-wine stains (especially ... these situations and take cues about how to cope with others' reactions. Practice responses so your child ...

  11. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... their own, they can be treated. In fact, laser therapies can make many port-wine stains much ... mark might be. The good news is that lasers (highly concentrated light energy) can make many port- ...

  12. [SVM-based qualitative analysis of Muscat Hamburg wine produced in Tianjin region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Fang; Wei, Ji-Ping; Li, Chang-Wen; Yang, Hua; Shao, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Fu-Qing; Yin, Ji-Tai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to achieve the identification of Muscat Hamburg wines produced in Tianjin region through scanning and analyzing dry white wine samples of different grape varieties and regions by infrared spectroscopy technology. A support vector machine (SVM) based method was introduced to analyze infrared spectra of dry white wines. The pretreatment processes of the IR spectra were also elaborated, including baseline adjustment, noise Elimination, standard normalization and eliminating the main component of abnormal sample points. The authors selected great quantity of dry white wine samples of different grape regions including 511 Muscat Hamburg wine samples, 438 Italian Riesling wine samples, 307 Chardonnay wine samples, 29 Ugni Blanc wine samples, 44 Rkatsiteli wine samples, 31 longan wine samples and 79 ZeHong wine samples. According to different classification problems, 80% of IR spectra of the wine samples were used to establish discrimination models with SVM-based method, and the remaining 20% of IR spectra were used for the validation of the discrimination models. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is effective, since high classification accuracy, identification rate and rejecting rate were achieved: over 97% for the white wine samples of different grape varieties, meanwhile over 98% for the Muscat Hamburg wine samples produced in different regions. So the method developed in this paper played a good role in the qualitative classification and discrimination of Muscat Hamburg wines produced in Tianjin region. This novel method has a considerable potential and a rosy application future due to the expeditiousness, stability and easy-operation of FTIR method, as well as the veracity and credibility of SVM method.

  13. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  14. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry. PMID:27125240

  15. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  16. Measuring protection of aromatic wine thiols from oxidation by competitive reactions vs wine preservatives with ortho-quinones.

    PubMed

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Magiatis, Prokopios; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2014-11-15

    Quinones are central intermediates in wine oxidation that can degrade the quality of wine by reactions with varietal thiols, such as 3-sulfanylhexanol, decreasing desirable aroma. Protection by wine preservatives (sulphur dioxide, glutathione, ascorbic acid and model tannin, phloroglucinol) was assessed by competitive sacrificial reactions with 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone, quantifying products and ratios by HPLC-UV-MS. Regioselectivity was assessed by product isolation and identification by NMR spectroscopy. Nucleophilic addition reactions compete with two electron reduction of quinones by sulphur dioxide or ascorbic acid, and both routes serve as effective quenching pathways, but minor secondary products from coupled redox reactions between the products and reactants are also observed. The wine preservatives were all highly reactive and thus all very protective against 3-sulfanylhexanol loss to the quinone, but showed only additive antioxidant effects. Confirmation of these reaction rates and pathways in wine is needed to assess the actual protective action of each tested preservative.

  17. Evaluation of neural network modeling to predict non-water-stressed leaf temperature in wine grape for calculation of crop water stress index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision irrigation management in wine grape production is hindered by the lack of a reliable method to easily quantify and monitor vine water status. Mild to moderate water stress is desirable in wine grape for controlling vine vigor and optimizing fruit yield and quality. A crop water stress ind...

  18. Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2009-08-12

    Aroma release from wines and model ethanolic solutions during dynamic headspace dilution was measured in real time using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Model ethanolic solutions maintained the headspace concentration of volatile compounds close to equilibrium values during gas phase dilution over 10 min. Wine samples (with the same ethanol content) did not maintain the headspace concentration of volatiles to the same extent. Wine components and acidity ((+)-catechin, glycerol; pH 3.6) in model ethanolic solutions (120 mL/L) had no effect on the volatile headspace concentration during dynamic headspace dilution. However, in the presence of certain proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, bovine serum albumin), the model ethanolic solutions failed to maintain their volatile headspace concentration upon headspace dilution, but other proteins (thaumatin, mucin, lysozyme) had no effect. Thermal imaging of the model ethanolic samples (with and without beta-casein) under dynamic headspace dilution conditions showed differences in surface temperatures. This observation suggested perturbation of the ethanol monolayer at the air-liquid interface and disruption of the Marangoni effect, which causes bulk convection within ethanolic solutions. Convection carries volatile compounds and warm liquid from the bulk phase to the air-liquid interface, thus replenishing the interfacial concentration and maintaining the gas phase concentration and interfacial surface temperature during headspace dilution. It is postulated that certain proteins may exert a similar effect in wine.

  19. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  20. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, J.

    2009-05-23

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  1. A systems biology perspective of wine fermentations.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Francisco; Vargas, Felipe A; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial microorganism. Nowadays, it is being used as a cell factory for the production of pharmaceuticals such as insulin, although this yeast has long been utilized in the bakery to raise dough, and in the production of alcoholic beverages, fermenting the sugars derived from rice, wheat, barley, corn and grape juice. S. cerevisiae has also been extensively used as a model eukaryotic system. In the last decade, genomic techniques have revealed important features of its molecular biology. For example, DNA array technologies are routinely used for determining gene expression levels in cells under different physiological conditions or environmental stimuli. Laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae are different from wine strains. For instance, laboratory yeasts are unable to completely transform all the sugar in the grape must into ethanol under winemaking conditions. In fact, standard culture conditions are usually very different from winemaking conditions, where multiple stresses occur simultaneously and sequentially throughout the fermentation. The response of wine yeasts to these stimuli differs in some aspects from laboratory strains, as suggested by the increasing number of studies in functional genomics being conducted on wine strains. In this paper we review the most recent applications of post-genomic techniques to understand yeast physiology in the wine industry. We also report recent advances in wine yeast strain improvement and propose a reference framework for integration of genomic information, bioinformatic tools and molecular biology techniques for cellular and metabolic engineering. Finally, we discuss the current state and future perspectives for using 'modern' biotechnology in the wine industry.

  2. Wine flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  3. Identification of a sotolon pathway in dry white wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Landais, Yannick; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2010-06-23

    Sotolon (3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone) is a chiral furanone, an aroma compound known to be responsible for premature-aging flavor in dry white wines. Sotolon generally results from mild oxygenation during bottle aging, and until now, its formation pathways had not been elucidated. The ability of the main precursors described in the literature under very different experimental conditions to produce sotolon was tested. In model wine solution maintained at 40 degrees C for 6 months, sotolon was produced by the oxidative degradation of ascorbic acid. By use of GC-MS, 2-ketobutyric acid, produced by the oxidative degradation of the ascorbic acid in the model wine solution, was identified as a potent precursor of sotolon in this pathway. Ascorbic acid is an exogenous compound, added before bottling, but 2-ketobutyric acid was found even in white wines that had not been supplemented. Consequently, this sotolon formation pathway is also valid in white wines with no added ascorbic acid. In addition, we showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were capable of producing variable concentrations of this ketone during alcoholic fermentation. In model wine solution, certain yeast strains released large quantities of 2-ketobutyric acid, similar to those found in oxidized dry white wines. In view of these results, the role of yeast strains in this premature-aging phenomenon of dry white wines is discussed. Finally, these investigations revealed that one chemical mechanism responsible for the low concentrations of sotolon found in prematurely aged white wines made from various grape varieties was an aldol condensation between 2-ketobutyric acid and acetaldehyde.

  4. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  5. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  6. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  7. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  8. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  9. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  10. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  11. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  12. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  13. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  14. A Laboratory Classroom Where ?Wining? Is Encouraged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope

    2004-01-01

    A wine analysis for most is: take a sip, and either like it or don't. Not so for the students taking wine analysis courses at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, California. In the college's new Wine Analysis Laboratory, students learn how to run chemical analyses of wines and compare chemical profiles of wines. Professor…

  15. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292....292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax... wine for export will be in accordance with the procedures in part 28 of this chapter. (b) Return...

  16. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  17. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    Early-stage port-wine stains are usually flat and pink. As the child gets older, the color may deepen to a dark red or purplish color. They occur most often on the face, but can appear anywhere on the body. Over time, ...

  18. Growing for wine style

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    My talk will present an overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and...

  19. Assisting Wine Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Ames Research Center to assist wine growers in the Napa valley in their fight against a root parasite which is destroying millions of dollars worth of grape crops. NASA researchers are using airborne scanners and remote sensing equipment to detect the parasite before it becomes entrenched, so that growers can treat the harvest to resist infestation.

  20. Butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, Manuel; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa

    2002-04-24

    Butyltin compounds are widespread contaminants that have also been found in some wines. The purpose of the present work was to make a survey of butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. Forty-three table wines and 14 Port wines were analyzed for butyltin contents by using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In 14% of the analyzed wine samples, measurable dibutyltin (DBT) was found at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 microg/L as Sn. Monobutyltin (MBT) was also observed (0.05 microg/L as Sn) in just a single wine. A search for the possible sources of DBT residues found in the wines was carried out. Therefore, some plastics and oak wood used in the process of wine-making, which have been directly in contact with the musts or the wines, were studied to check their possible release of butyltins. The eventual presence of DBT was also tested directly along the vinification process, from the must to the finished product. The results suggest that high-density polyethylene containers used in the transfer of wine in an early stage of the vinification process may be the main sources of these contaminants. Therefore, it is recommendable that plastic materials to be used in wineries be previously tested for the release of butyltin compounds.

  1. NMR and molecular modeling of wine tannins binding to saliva proteins: revisiting astringency from molecular and colloidal prospects.

    PubMed

    Cala, Olivier; Pinaud, Noël; Simon, Cécile; Fouquet, Eric; Laguerre, Michel; Dufourc, Erick J; Pianet, Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    In organoleptic science, the association of tannins to saliva proteins leads to the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. To decipher this interaction at molecular and colloidal levels, the binding of 4 procyanidin dimers (B1-4) and 1 trimer (C2) to a human saliva proline-rich peptide, IB7(14), was studied. Interactions have been characterized by measuring dissociation constants, sizes of complexes, number, and nature of binding sites using NMR (chemical shift variations, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, and saturation transfer diffusion). The binding sites were identified using molecular mechanics, and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the interactions was resolved by calculating the molecular lipophilicity potential within the complexes. The following comprehensive scheme can be proposed: 1) below the tannin critical micelle concentration (CMC), interaction is specific, and the procyanidin anchorage always occurs on the same three IB7(14) sites. The tannin 3-dimensional structure plays a key role in the binding force and in the tannin's ability to act as a bidentate ligand: tannins adopting an extended conformation exhibit higher affinity toward protein and initiate the formation of a network. 2) Above the CMC, after the first specific hydrophilic interaction has taken place, a random hydrophobic stacking occurs between tannins and proteins. The whole process is discussed in the general frame of wine tannins eliciting astringency.

  2. Study of rheological behaviour of wines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trávníček, Petr; Burg, Patrik; Krakowiak-Bal, Anna; Junga, Petr; Vítěz, Tomáš; Ziemiańczyk, Urszula

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with rheological properties of various wine varieties. Samples of the following wines were used for this experiment: André, Cabernet Moravia, Laurot, Saint Laurent, Gruner Veltliner, Pinot Blanc, Müller Thurgau, and Riesling Italico. These samples were obtained from wine produced from the grapes collected in the Czech Republic (Morava region, subregion Velke Pavlovice). In the first phase, the chemical composition of the samples was determined. The following chemical parameters were determined: total acidity, pH, content of the alcohol, reduced sugars, free SO2, total SO2, and volatile acids. In the second phase of the study, the physical properties of the samples were determined and the samples of the wines were subjected to rheological tests. These tests consisted in determination of apparent viscosity in relation to temperature, hysteresis loop tests, and apparent viscosity related to time. The dependence of the shear rate on the shear stress was described with the Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. The experiment yielded the following findings: seven out of the eight samples behaved as non-Newtonian fluids at low temperature (5°C); non-Newtonian behaviour was changed into Newtonian at the temperature higher than 10°C; non-Newtonian behaviour was characterised as thixotropic behaviour; the degree of thixotropy is relatively small and reaches 1.85 Pa s-1 ml-1.

  3. Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Thorngate, John H.; Richardson, Paul M.; Mills, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Wine grapes present a unique biogeography model, wherein microbial biodiversity patterns across viticultural zones not only answer questions of dispersal and community maintenance, they are also an inherent component of the quality, consumer acceptance, and economic appreciation of a culturally important food product. On their journey from the vineyard to the wine bottle, grapes are transformed to wine through microbial activity, with indisputable consequences for wine quality parameters. Wine grapes harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the surrounding environment, many of which are recognized for their role in grapevine health and wine quality. However, determinants of regional wine characteristics have not been identified, but are frequently assumed to stem from viticultural or geological factors alone. This study used a high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing approach to demonstrate that regional, site-specific, and grape-variety factors shape the fungal and bacterial consortia inhabiting wine-grape surfaces. Furthermore, these microbial assemblages are correlated to specific climatic features, suggesting a link between vineyard environmental conditions and microbial inhabitation patterns. Taken together, these factors shape the unique microbial inputs to regional wine fermentations, posing the existence of nonrandom “microbial terroir” as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes. PMID:24277822

  4. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Cardoso, Remy; Custódio, Valéria; Fernandes, Joana; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines. PMID

  5. Tears of wine: new insights on an old phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Venerus, David C.; Nieto Simavilla, David

    2015-01-01

    Anyone who has enjoyed a glass of wine has undoubtedly noticed the regular pattern of liquid beads that fall along the inside of the glass, or ‘tears of wine.’ The phenomenon is the result of a flow against gravity along the liquid film on the glass, which is induced by an interfacial tension gradient. It is generally accepted that the interfacial tension gradient is due to a composition gradient resulting from the evaporation of ethanol. We re-examine the tears of wine phenomenon and investigate the importance of thermal effects, which previously have been ignored. Using a novel experiment and simple model we find that evaporative cooling contributes significantly to the flow responsible for wine tears, and that this phenomenon occurs primarily because of the thermodynamic behavior of ethanol-water mixtures. Also, the regular pattern of tear formation is identified as a well-known hydrodynamic instability. PMID:26548566

  6. Tears of wine: new insights on an old phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venerus, David C.; Nieto Simavilla, David

    2015-11-01

    Anyone who has enjoyed a glass of wine has undoubtedly noticed the regular pattern of liquid beads that fall along the inside of the glass, or ‘tears of wine.’ The phenomenon is the result of a flow against gravity along the liquid film on the glass, which is induced by an interfacial tension gradient. It is generally accepted that the interfacial tension gradient is due to a composition gradient resulting from the evaporation of ethanol. We re-examine the tears of wine phenomenon and investigate the importance of thermal effects, which previously have been ignored. Using a novel experiment and simple model we find that evaporative cooling contributes significantly to the flow responsible for wine tears, and that this phenomenon occurs primarily because of the thermodynamic behavior of ethanol-water mixtures. Also, the regular pattern of tear formation is identified as a well-known hydrodynamic instability.

  7. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  8. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  9. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  10. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  11. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process...

  12. Role of major wine constituents in the foam properties of white and rosé sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of sparkling wines is directly related to their foam quality, but the compounds responsible are not yet completely established. This work aims at identifying the contribution of the different wine compounds to the foaming properties of white and rosé sparkling wines. Our results demonstrated the positive contribution of anthocyanins and amino acids to the foamability parameters HM (maximum height reached by foam after CO2 injection) and HS (foam stability height during CO2 injection), and the negative contribution of proanthocyanidins. Mannoproteins and polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose (PRAG) were poor foam formers but good foam stabilizers. The different forms of malvidin showed the highest influence on the HM and HS parameters, followed by amino acid compounds, mainly β-alanine. The model to explain foam stability was only predicted by polysaccharides from grapes, concretely PRAG. To our knowledge, this is the first time these correlations in sparkling wines have been described.

  13. Mutant Potential Ubiquitination Sites in Dur3p Enhance the Urea and Ethyl Carbamate Reduction in a Model Rice Wine System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Guocheng; Zou, Huijun; Xie, Guangfa; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhongping; Zhou, Jingwen

    2017-03-01

    Ubiquitination can significantly affect the endocytosis and degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Here, the ubiquitination of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae urea plasma membrane transporter (Dur3p) was altered. Two potential ubiquitination sites, lysine residues K556 and K571, of Dur3p were predicted and replaced by arginine, and the effects of these mutations on urea utilization and formation under different nitrogen conditions were investigated. Compared with Dur3p, the Dur3pK556R mutant showed a 20.1% decrease in ubiquitination level in yeast nitrogen base medium containing urea and glutamine. It also exhibited a >75.8% decrease in urea formation in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium and 41.3 and 55.4% decreases in urea and ethyl carbamate formation (a known carcinogen), respectively, in a model rice wine system. The results presented here show that the mutation of Dur3p ubiquitination sites could significantly affect urea utilization and formation. Modifying the ubiquitination of specific transporters might have promising applications in rationally engineering S. cerevisiae strains to efficiently use specific nitrogen sources.

  14. Determination of polyphenolic compounds of red wines by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics tools.

    PubMed

    Martelo-Vidal, M J; Vázquez, M

    2014-09-01

    Spectral analysis is a quick and non-destructive method to analyse wine. In this work, trans-resveratrol, oenin, malvin, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and syringic acid were determined in commercial red wines from DO Rías Baixas and DO Ribeira Sacra (Spain) by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. Calibration models were developed using principal component regression (PCR) or partial least squares (PLS) regression. HPLC was used as reference method. The results showed that reliable PLS models were obtained to quantify all polyphenols for Rías Baixas wines. For Ribeira Sacra, feasible models were obtained to determine quercetin, epicatechin, oenin and syringic acid. PCR calibration models showed worst reliable of prediction than PLS models. For red wines from mencía grapes, feasible models were obtained for catechin and oenin, regardless the geographical origin. The results obtained demonstrate that UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine individual polyphenolic compounds in red wines.

  15. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec....

  16. Tear-ducts in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John W. M.

    1999-11-01

    We examine the radial spoke pattern evident in the meniscus region in glasses of strong alcoholic beverages exhibiting the `tears-in-wine' phenomenon. We demonstrate that the pattern results from ridge-like elevations of the free surface which are supported by evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection in the meniscus region. Vortices associated with the convective motions are aligned in the radial direction by the surface tension gradient responsible for the generation of tears. The radial flow is focussed into the ridges, which thus serve as the principal conduits of fluid for the tears; consequently, we refer to the ridges as `tear-ducts'. The phenomenon is examined experimentally, and a numerical model of evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection is developed which reproduces the salient features of the tear-duct phenomenon.

  17. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  18. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant.

  19. Odorant Screening and Quantitation of Thiols in Carmenere Red Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry and Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    PubMed

    Pavez, Carolina; Agosin, Eduardo; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-05-04

    The sensory impact of thiols in Vitis vinifera 'Carmenere' red wines was evaluated. For this purpose, aroma extract dilution analysis was applied to the thiols isolated from a Carmenere red wine by affinity chromatography with a mercurated agarose gel. Results revealed the presence of four odorants, identified as 2-furanylmethanethiol, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, and 2-methyl-3-sulfanyl-1-butanol, with the latter being described here for the first time in Carmenere red wines. Quantitation of the four thiols in the Carmenere wine screened by aroma extract dilution analysis and in three additional Carmenere wines by stable isotope dilution assays resulted in concentrations above the respective orthonasal odor detection threshold values. Triangle tests applied to wine model solutions with and without the addition of the four thiols showed significant differences, thus suggesting that the compounds do have the potential to influence the overall aroma of red wine.

  20. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  1. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  2. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  3. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...

  5. FORWINE - Statistical Downscaling of Seasonal forecasts for wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The most renowned viticulture regions in the Iberian Peninsula have a long standing tradition in winemaking and are considered world-class grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) producing regions. Portugal is the 11th wine producer in the world, with internationally acclaimed wines, such as Port wine, and vineyards across the whole territory. Climate is widely acknowledged of one of the most important factors for grapevine development and growth (Fraga et al. 2014a and b; Jackson et al. 1993; Keller 2010). During the growing season (April-October in the Northern Hemisphere) of this perennial and deciduous crop, the climatic conditions are responsible for numerous morphologically and physiological changes. Anomalously low February-March mean temperature, anomalously high May mean temperature and anomalously high March precipitation tend to be favourable to wine production in the Douro Valley. Seasonal forecast of precipitation and temperature tailored to fit critical thresholds, for crucial seasons, can be used to inform management practices (viz. phytosanitary measures, land operations, marketing campaigns) and develop a wine production forecast. Statistical downscaling of precipitation, maximum, minimum temperatures is used to model wine production following Santos et al. (2013) and to calculate bioclimatic indices. The skill of the ensemble forecast is evaluated through anomaly correlation, ROC area, spread-error ratio and CRPS

  6. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent.

  7. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p < 0.05). These results indicate that not only malic and lactic acid but also bitter and astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  8. Instrumental measurement of bitter taste in red wine using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Muller, Nina; Legin, Andrey; du Toit, Maret; Bauer, Florian F

    2010-08-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors was assessed as a rapid tool for the quantification of bitterness in red wines. A set of 39 single cultivar Pinotage wines comprising 13 samples with medium to high bitterness was obtained from the producers in West Cape, South Africa. Samples were analysed with respect to a set of routine wine parameters and major phenolic compounds using Fourier transform infrared-multiple internal reflection spectroscopy (WineScan) and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A trained sensory panel assessed the bitterness intensity of 15 wines, 13 of which had a bitter taste of medium to high intensity. Thirty-one wine samples including seven bitter-tasting ones were measured by the ET. Influence of the chemical composition of wine on the occurrence of the bitter taste was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. It was found that bitter-tasting wines had higher concentrations of phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, gallic and caffeic acids and quercetin) than non-bitter wines. Sensitivity of the sensors of the array to the phenolic compounds related to the bitterness was studied at different pH levels. Sensors displayed sensitivity to all studied compounds at pH 7, but only to quercetin at pH 3.5. Based on these findings, the pH of wine was adjusted to 7 prior to measurements. Calibration models for classification of wine samples according to the presence of the bitter taste and quantification of the bitterness intensity were calculated by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) regression. Statistical significance of the classification results was confirmed by the permutation test. Both ET and chemical analysis data could discriminate between bitter and control wines with the correct classification rates of 94% and 91%, respectively. Prediction of the bitterness intensity with good accuracy (root mean square error of 2 and mean relative error of 6% in validation) was

  9. [Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.

  10. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history.

  11. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  12. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    PubMed

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation.

  13. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  14. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  15. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  16. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  17. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  18. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  19. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  20. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  1. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  2. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  3. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  4. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  5. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  6. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  7. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  8. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  9. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  10. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  11. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  12. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  13. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  14. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  15. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  16. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  17. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  18. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises...

  19. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  20. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  1. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  2. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  3. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  4. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  5. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  6. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  7. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  8. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-01-23

    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  9. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide.

  10. New methodology for removing carbonyl compounds from sweet wines.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Mélanie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Maillard, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis; Deleuze, Hervé

    2007-12-12

    Sweet white wines from botrytized grapes present high SO2 levels because of their high sulfur dioxide binding power. The objective of this work was to develop a new method for reducing this binding power by partially eliminating the carbonyl compounds naturally present in these wines that are responsible for this phenomenon. A selective liquid-solid removal technique was developed. Phenylsulfonylhydrazine was selected as the best candidate for removing carbonyl compounds. Its reactivity in the presence or absence of sulfur dioxide was verified in model media containing acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid, some of the main carbonyl compounds responsible for the SO2 binding power of sweet wines. The scavenging function was grafted on porous polymer supports, and its efficiency was evaluated in model wines. Dependent upon the supports used, different quantities of carbonyl compounds (over 90% in some cases) were removed in a few days. The presence of sulfur dioxide delayed removal without changing its quality. The results obtained showed that the method removed carbonyl compounds efficiently and was applicable to wines at any stage in winemaking.

  11. Characteristics of traditional Chinese shanlan wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongsheng; Luo, Xianqun; Wang, Xinguang

    2014-02-01

    Shanlan rice wine is made by a unique method by removing the saccharified liquid from wine mash constantly since it appeared during saccharification and fermentation. The objective of this study is to find the advantages of this technique of wine making by analyzing data of shanlan wine fermentation. Since the liquid was removed, the mash (rice) bed was fluffier than immersed in the saccharified liquid, under ambient condition constantly and it is favorable for starch degradation. This technique made shanlan rice wine tasted sweet and slightly acidic, lower content of alcohol and higher alcohol than in other non-distilled rice wines.

  12. [Determination of wine original regions using information fusion of NIR and MIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ling-Li; Li, Meng-Hua; Li, Jing-Mingz; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Da; Zhao, Long-Lian

    2014-10-01

    Geographical origins of wine grapes are significant factors affecting wine quality and wine prices. Tasters' evaluation is a good method but has some limitations. It is important to discriminate different wine original regions quickly and accurately. The present paper proposed a method to determine wine original regions based on Bayesian information fusion that fused near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectra information and mid-infrared (MIR) ATR spectra information of wines. This method improved the determination results by expanding the sources of analysis information. NIR spectra and MIR spectra of 153 wine samples from four different regions of grape growing were collected by near-infrared and mid-infrared Fourier transform spe trometer separately. These four different regions are Huailai, Yantai, Gansu and Changli, which areall typical geographical originals for Chinese wines. NIR and MIR discriminant models for wine regions were established using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on NIR spectra and MIR spectra separately. In PLS-DA, the regions of wine samples are presented in group of binary code. There are four wine regions in this paper, thereby using four nodes standing for categorical variables. The output nodes values for each sample in NIR and MIR models were normalized first. These values stand for the probabilities of each sample belonging to each category. They seemed as the input to the Bayesian discriminant formula as a priori probability value. The probabilities were substituteed into the Bayesian formula to get posterior probabilities, by which we can judge the new class characteristics of these samples. Considering the stability of PLS-DA models, all the wine samples were divided into calibration sets and validation sets randomly for ten times. The results of NIR and MIR discriminant models of four wine regions were as follows: the average accuracy rates of calibration sets were 78.21% (NIR) and 82.57% (MIR), and the

  13. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  14. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  15. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  16. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  17. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  18. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine §...

  19. Role of melatonin, melatonin receptors and STAT3 in the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of red wine.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Kim; Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Adam, Tasneem; Thomas, D Paul; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2015-10-02

    We have recently discovered that melatonin, given acutely and directly to the isolated heart at the concentration found in wine, confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). However, whether the presence of melatonin in wine contributes to the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of wine and its signalling mechanisms of protection are unknown. We therefore used both in vivo and in vitro models of I/R to investigate whether the presence of melatonin in red wine may contribute to the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of red wine. Wistar rats and C57black6 mice (WT) received drinking water supplemented daily with a moderate amount of red wine or melatonin given at the concentration found in the red wine. Rats were also pretreated with luzindole, a specific inhibitor of melatonin receptors 1 and 2 (2.3 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or prazosin, a specific inhibitor of melatonin receptor type 3 (2.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). After 14 days, hearts were subjected to I/R in vivo or ex vivo. Red wine reduced the infarct size in both rats and WT mice (p < 0.001). Luzindole did not affect wine-induced cardioprotection, while prazosin reduced the infarct sparing effect of red wine (p < 0.05). Furthermore, red wine or melatonin failed to protect tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) receptor 2 knockout or cardiomyocyte specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficient mice (n.s. vs. control). Our novel findings suggest that the presence of melatonin in red wine contributes to the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of red wine against lethal I/R injuries. This effect is most likely mediated, at least in part, via melatonin receptor 3 and the activation of TNF and STAT3, both key players of the prosurvival and well described SAFE pathway.

  20. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine. PMID:22163879

  1. Metagenomic sequencing reveals the relationship between microbiota composition and quality of Chinese Rice Wine

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xutao; Chen, Jing; Liu, Lin; Wu, Huan; Tan, Haiqin; Xie, Guangfa; Xu, Qian; Zou, Huijun; Yu, Wenjing; Wang, Lan; Qin, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Rice Wine (CRW) is a common alcoholic beverage in China. To investigate the influence of microbial composition on the quality of CRW, high throughput sequencing was performed for 110 wine samples on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer II (ITS2). Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that the quality of yeast starter and final wine correlated with microbial taxonomic composition, which was exemplified by our finding that wine spoilage resulted from a high proportion of genus Lactobacillus. Subsequently, based on Lactobacillus abundance of an early stage, a model was constructed to predict final wine quality. In addition, three batches of 20 representative wine samples selected from a pool of 110 samples were further analyzed in metagenomics. The results revealed that wine spoilage was due to rapid growth of Lactobacillus brevis at the early stage of fermentation. Gene functional analysis indicated the importance of some pathways such as synthesis of biotin, malolactic fermentation and production of short-chain fatty acid. These results led to a conclusion that metabolisms of microbes influence the wine quality. Thus, nurturing of beneficial microbes and inhibition of undesired ones are both important for the mechanized brewery. PMID:27241862

  2. A population genomics insight into the Mediterranean origins of wine yeast domestication.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Zalar, Polona; Imanishi, Yumi; Shimizu, Kiminori; Turchetti, Benedetta; Legras, Jean-Luc; Serra, Marta; Dequin, Sylvie; Couloux, Arnaud; Guy, Julie; Bensasson, Douda; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thought to be contemporary with the development and expansion of viticulture along the Mediterranean basin. Until now, the unavailability of wild lineages prevented the identification of the closest wild relatives of wine yeasts. Here, we enlarge the collection of natural lineages and employ whole-genome data of oak-associated wild isolates to study a balanced number of anthropic and natural S. cerevisiae strains. We identified industrial variants and new geographically delimited populations, including a novel Mediterranean oak population. This population is the closest relative of the wine lineage as shown by a weak population structure and further supported by genomewide population analyses. A coalescent model considering partial isolation with asymmetrical migration, mostly from the wild group into the Wine group, and population growth, was found to be best supported by the data. Importantly, divergence time estimates between the two populations agree with historical evidence for winemaking. We show that three horizontally transmitted regions, previously described to contain genes relevant to wine fermentation, are present in the Wine group but not in the Mediterranean oak group. This represents a major discontinuity between the two populations and is likely to denote a domestication fingerprint in wine yeasts. Taken together, these results indicate that Mediterranean oaks harbour the wild genetic stock of domesticated wine yeasts.

  3. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation.

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimized using response surface modeling for the quantitation of fungal off-flavors in grapes and wine.

    PubMed

    Sadoughi, Navideh; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Antalick, Guillaume; Blackman, John W; Steel, Christopher C

    2015-03-25

    An optimized method for the quantitation of volatile compounds responsible for off-aromas, such as earthy odors, found in wine and grapes was developed. The method involved a fast and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) for simultaneous determination of 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 3-octanone, fenchone, 1-octen-3-one, trans-2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-methylisoborneol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, geosmin, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, and pentachloroanisole. The extraction of the temperature and time were optimized using response surface methodology in both wine base (WB) and grape base (GB). Low limits of detection (0.1-5 ng/L in WB and 0.05-1.6 in GB) and quantitation (0.3-17 in WB and 0.2-6.2 in GB) with good recoveries (83-131%) and repeatability [4.3-9.8% coefficient of variation (CV) in WB and 5.1-11.1% CV in GB] and reproducibility (3.6-10.2 in WB and 1.9-10.9 in GB) indicate that the method has excellent sensitivity and is suitable for the analysis of these off-flavor compounds in wine and grape juice samples.

  5. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  6. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  7. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  8. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations of phenolic acids in white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Castet, Frédéric; Fritsch, Alain; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Jourdes, Michael; Guillaume, François

    2017-04-15

    Model solutions of white wines containing phenolic acids have been investigated by means of UV-vis, laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In order to interpret the spectra, density functional theory calculations of phenolic acids have been performed. This work demonstrates that only hydroxynamic acids are in resonance with a laser excitation line with 325nm wavelength and are therefore at the origin of the strong enhancement of the Raman light scattering. Real white wines also display such resonance Raman scattering so that their content in hydroxycinnamic acids may be quite precisely determined. The analysis of the Raman spectrum of a real dry white wine reveals qualitatively the preponderance in its composition of p-coumaric and caftaric acids.

  9. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  10. Changes in Wine Ethanol Content Due to Evaporation from Wine Glasses and Implications for Sensory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wollan, David; Pham, Duc-Truc; Wilkinson, Kerry Leigh

    2016-10-12

    The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence the perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions while in wine glasses was monitored over time. No change in wine ethanol content was observed where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but where glasses were not covered, evaporation had a significant impact on wine ethanol content, with losses from 0.9 to 1.9% alcohol by volume observed for wines that received direct exposure to airflow for 2 h. Evaporation also resulted in decreases in the concentration of some fermentation volatiles (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and a perceptible change in wine aroma. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by exposure to airflow (i.e., from the laboratory air-conditioning unit), together with certain glass shape and wine parameters; glass headspace in particular. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant potential for ethanol evaporation from wine in wine glasses. Research findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties; in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice.

  11. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  12. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  13. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  14. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  15. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  16. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  17. Port wine oxidation management: a multiparametric kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui Costa; Monforte, Ana Rita; Silva Ferreira, António

    2013-06-05

    Port wine is a flagship fortified wine of Portugal, which undergoes a particularly long aging period, developing a dynamic sensory profile over time, responsible for several wine categories, which is dependent upon the type of aging (bottle or barrel). Therefore, the quality of the product is dependent upon the chemical mechanisms occurring during the aging process, such as oxidation or Maillard reactions. To attain the desired quality management, it is necessary to understand how technological parameters, such as temperature or oxygen exposure, affect the kinetics of the formation of key odorants, such as sotolon. There is a lack of information about the impact of the storage conditions (oxygen and temperature) on Port wine quality. In this study, the effect of these two parameters were investigated to increase the knowledge database concerning aging management of Port wines. It was found that sotolon formation is highly dependent upon oxygen and temperature. There is however a synergistic effect between these two parameters that could significantly increase the concentration. The kinetic parameters of oxygen, sotolon, and other compounds related to Port aging (cis- and trans-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,3-dioxan, 2-furfural, 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural, and 5-methyl-furfural) are also reported. Kinetic models with Monte Carlo simulations, where the oxygen permeability dispersion and temperature are the parameters under evaluation, were applied. On the basis of the modeling predictions, it would seem that the temperature of a cellar would have a more significant impact on the Port wines stored in containers where the oxygen intake is higher (barrels) when compared to containers with low oxygen permeability (bottles using cork stoppers).

  18. Engineering volatile thiol release in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved wine aroma.

    PubMed

    Swiegers, Jan H; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Elsey, Gordon M; Sefton, Mark A; Francis, I Leigh; Pretorius, Isak S

    2007-07-01

    Volatile thiols, such as 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), are among the most potent aroma compounds found in wine and can have a significant effect on wine quality and consumer preferences. At optimal concentrations in wine, these compounds impart flavours of passionfruit, grapefruit, gooseberry, blackcurrant, lychee, guava and box hedge. The enzymatic release of aromatic thiols from grape-derived, non-volatile cysteinylated precursors (Cys-4MMP and Cys-3MH) and the further modification thereof (conversion of 3MH into 3MHA) during fermentation, enhance the varietal characters of wines such as Sauvignon Blanc. Wine yeast strains have limited and varying capacities to produce aroma-enhancing thiols from their non-volatile counterparts in grape juice. Even under optimal fermentation conditions, the most efficient thiol-releasing Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain known realizes less than 5% of the thiol-related flavour potential of grape juice. The objective of this study was to develop a wine yeast able to unleash the untapped thiol aromas in grape juice during winemaking. To achieve this goal, the Escherichia coli tnaA gene, encoding a tryptophanase with strong cysteine-beta-lyase activity, was cloned and overexpressed in a commercial wine yeast strain under the control of the regulatory sequences of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase I gene (PGK1). This modified strain expressing carbon-sulphur lyase activity released up to 25 times more 4MMP and 3MH in model ferments than the control host strain. Wines produced with the engineered strain displayed an intense passionfruit aroma. This yeast offers the potential to enhance the varietal aromas of wines to predetermined market specifications.

  19. Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events. Methods Human NSCLC adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by thymidine incorporation. Clonogenic assays were used to assess cell survival. Immunoblotting was used to examine total and phosphorylated levels of Akt, Erk and p53. Results In A549 cells red wine inhibited cell proliferation and reduced clonogenic survival at doses as low as 0.02%. Red wine significantly reduced basal and EGF-stimulated Akt and Erk phosphorylation while it increased the levels of total and phosphorylated p53 (Ser15). Control experiments indicated that the anti-proliferative effects of wine were not mediated by the associated contents of ethanol or the polyphenol resveratrol and were independent of glucose transport into cancer cells. White wine also inhibited clonogenic survival, albeit at a higher doses (0.5-2%), and reduced Akt phosphorylation. The effects of both red and white wine on Akt phosphorylation were also verified in H1299 cells. Conclusions Red wine inhibits proliferation of lung cancer cells and blocks clonogenic survival at low concentrations. This is associated with inhibition of basal and EGF-stimulated Akt and Erk signals and enhancement of total and phosphorylated levels of p53. White wine mediates similar effects albeit at higher concentrations. Our data suggest that wine may have considerable anti-tumour and chemoprevention properties in lung cancer and deserves further

  20. Role of tartaric and malic acids in wine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Danilewicz, John C

    2014-06-04

    Tartaric acid determines the reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. Therefore, it is proposed that it determines the ability of Fe to catalyze wine oxidation. The importance of tartaric acid was demonstrated by comparing the aerial oxidation of 4-methylcatechol (4-MeC) in model wine made up with tartaric and acetic acids at pH 3.6. Acetic acid, as a weaker Fe(III) ligand, should raise the reduction potential of the Fe couple. 4-MeC was oxidized in both systems, but the mechanisms were found to differ. Fe(II) readily reduced oxygen in tartrate model wine, but Fe(III) alone failed to oxidize the catechol, requiring sulfite assistance. In acetate model wine the reverse was found to operate. These observations should have broad application to model systems designed to study the oxidative process in foods and other beverages. Consideration should be given to the reduction potential of metal couples by the inclusion of appropriate ligands.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp](y1) ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%.

  3. Lower risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis in wine drinkers.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2002-04-01

    Although there is a well-known relationship between total alcohol intake and future risk for cirrhosis, other factors such as the type of alcohol consumed are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine compared with other types of alcoholic beverages on risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In 3 prospective studies, 30,630 participants from the Copenhagen area were followed-up for a total observation time of 417,325 person-years. Information on weekly intake of beer, wine, and spirits, and sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and education was obtained from questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were first admission or death, with alcohol-induced cirrhosis obtained from death certificates and from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed by means of multiplicative Poisson regression models. We confirmed the increasing risk for cirrhosis with increasing alcohol intake. Individuals who drank more than 5 drinks per day had a relative risk of 14 to 20 for developing cirrhosis compared with non- or light drinkers. However, compared with individuals who drank no wine (relative risk set at 1.0), individuals drinking 16% to 30% wine of their total intake had a relative risk of 0.4 (95% confidence limits, 0.3-0.6) and those drinking 51% or more of wine had a relative risk of 0.3 (95% confidence limits, 0.2-0.5) for developing cirrhosis. In conclusion, the results suggest that a high intake of all 3 types of alcohol conveys an increased risk for cirrhosis, but wine drinkers are at a lower risk than beer and spirits drinkers.

  4. Feasibility study of FT-MIR spectroscopy and PLS-R for the fast determination of anthocyanins in wine.

    PubMed

    Romera-Fernández, M; Berrueta, L A; Garmón-Lobato, S; Gallo, B; Vicente, F; Moreda, J M

    2012-01-15

    The feasibility of using Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-MIR) combined with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) for the determination of 12 anthocyanins (3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin, as well as acetic acid esters and p-coumaric acid esters of petunidin, peonidin and malvidin and caffeic acid ester of malvidin) and three sums (sum of non-acylated anthocyanins, sum of acetylated anthocyanins and sum of coumaroylated anthocyanins), in red wines has been tested. Reference values of anthocyanin concentrations by reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) were used to calibrate the models. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to these reference values and a differentiation of wine samples by wine type (young wines of 2005, young wines of 2004 and crianza and reserva wines) has been possible. A calibration model using PLS-R was built with 153 samples of Rioja wines and the prediction of the anthocyanin concentrations using this model was evaluated by internal and external validation sample sets. Most of the anthocyanins and their sums have been predicted with a Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) of 15-30% for young wines recently bottled. However, for young wines after one year of being bottled, and for crianza and reserva wines, these errors were unacceptable. The obtained results suggest that the model built for FT-IR instrument calibration is a useful tool for a quick determination of the anthocyanin content of young wines of the current vintage, but a careful robust external validated calibration of the technique is necessary in order to maintain the prediction errors within controlled limits.

  5. Stuck fermentation: development of a synthetic stuck wine and study of a restart procedure.

    PubMed

    Maisonnave, Pierre; Sanchez, Isabelle; Moine, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2013-05-15

    Stuck fermentation is a major problem in winemaking, resulting in large losses in the wine industry. Specific starter yeasts are used to restart stuck fermentations in conditions determined essentially on the basis of empirical know-how. We have developed a model synthetic stuck wine and an industrial process-based procedure for restarting fermentations, for studies of the conditions required to restart stuck fermentations. We used a basic medium containing 13.5% v/v ethanol and 16 g/L fructose, pH 3.3, to test the effect of various nutrients (vitamins, amino acids, minerals, oligoelements), with the aim of developing a representative and discriminative stuck fermentation model. Cell growth appeared to be a key factor for the efficient restarting of stuck fermentations. Micronutrients, such as vitamins, also strongly affected the efficiency of the restart procedure. For the validation of this medium, we compared the performances of three wine yeast strains in the synthetic stuck fermentation and three naturally stuck wine fermentations. Strain performance was ranked similar in the synthetic medium and in the "Malbec" and "Sauvignon" natural stuck wines. However, two strains were ranked differently in the "Gros Manseng" stuck wine. Nutrient content seemed to be a crucial factor in fermentation restart conditions, generating differences between yeast strains. However, the specific sensitivity of yeast strains to the composition of the wine may also have had an effect.

  6. What Gives a Wine Its Strong Red Color? Main Correlations Affecting Copigmentation.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, Jesus; Díaz-Romero, Carlos; Darias-Martín, Jacinto

    2016-08-31

    Copigmentation and enological parameters were studied in a collection of 250 red wines. Although several copigmentation studies have been performed with model solutions, little is known about the actual consequences directly in wine of anthocyanin interactions. To date, some studies have considered relationships between copigmentation and natural wine constituents, but none correlates copigmentation measurements with the real wide concentration in wine. In this work, published hypotheses based on model solutions such as phenolic acid copigmentation ability or the influence of copigmentation factors such as flavonols are empirically evaluated in a large sample of wines for the first time. The study confirms previous results obtained from solutions, whereas other factors suggested as being relevant seem to be unrelated to the studied effect at the concentration range naturally occurring in the wines studied. For instance, the important role of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids has been ratified, whereas ethanol, gallic acid, and some metals show significant inverse correlations with copigmentation. Unexpectedly, magnesium content in wine correlates with color, whereas the concentration of traditional copigments, such as quercetin, does not show any correlation with copigmentation.

  7. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  8. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  9. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet...

  10. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  11. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  12. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet...

  13. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  14. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  15. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  16. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet...

  17. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet...

  18. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  19. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  20. 27 CFR 19.256 - Tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.256... § 19.256 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. All wine (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and compounds sold as wine) produced in or imported into or brought into the United States...

  1. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.257 Labeling wine containers. (a) The proprietor must label each bottle or...

  2. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  3. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet...

  4. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  5. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  6. 27 CFR 19.256 - Tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.256... § 19.256 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. All wine (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and compounds sold as wine) produced in or imported into or brought into the United States...

  7. 27 CFR 19.256 - Tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.256... § 19.256 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. All wine (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and compounds sold as wine) produced in or imported into or brought into the United States...

  8. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.257 Labeling wine containers. (a) The proprietor must label each bottle or...

  9. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.257 Labeling wine containers. (a) The proprietor must label each bottle or...

  10. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  11. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.257 Labeling wine containers. (a) The proprietor must label each bottle or...

  12. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  13. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  14. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  15. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  16. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  17. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.257 Labeling wine containers. (a) The proprietor must label each bottle or...

  18. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain...

  19. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  20. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of...

  1. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or...

  2. 27 CFR 19.256 - Tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.256... § 19.256 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. All wine (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and compounds sold as wine) produced in or imported into or brought into the United States...

  3. Portuguese wine regions under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João A.; Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Jones, Gregory V.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Viticulture and wine production are among the most important sectors of the Portuguese economy. However, as grapevines are strongly affected by weather and climate, climate change may represent an important threat to wine production. The current (1950-2000) and future (2041-2070) bioclimatic conditions in Portugal are discussed by analyzing a number of indices suitable for viticultural zoning, including a categorized bioclimatic index. A two-step method of spatial pattern downscaling is applied in order to achieve a very high spatial resolution (of approximately 1 km) throughout Portugal. Future projections are based on an ensemble of 13 climate model transient experiments, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario. Results for the recent past are in clear agreement with the current distribution of vineyards and of the established Denomination of Origin regions. Furthermore, the typical climatic conditions associated with each grapevine variety that are currently grown in Portugal are assessed. Under future scenarios, nevertheless, the current conditions are projected to change significantly towards a lower bioclimatic diversity. This can be explained by the projected warming and drying in future decades. The resulting changes in varietal suitability and wine characteristics of each region may thereby bring important challenges for the Portuguese winemaking sector. As such, new measures need to be timely implemented to adapt to these climate change projections and to mitigate their likely detrimental impacts on the Portuguese economy. Acknowledgments: this work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project ClimVineSafe (PTDC/AGR-ALI/110877/2009).

  4. Environmentally friendly synthesis of p-doped reduced graphene oxide with high dispersion stability by using red table wine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Joon; Lee, Jang Mi; Kumer, Roy Arup; Park, Sung Young; Kim, Sang Chun; In, Insik

    2015-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with high dispersion stability and p-type semiconducting property was synthesized by using environmentally friendly mussel-inspired chemistry with red table wine. (+)-Catechin and tannic acid, polyphenolic model compounds present in wine, were selected and successfully utilized for the synthesis of soluble polycatechol-functionalized rGO.

  5. 27 CFR 19.421 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.421 Section 19.421 Alcohol....421 Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax for transfer to a bonded wine cellar for use in...

  6. 27 CFR 19.421 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.421 Section 19.421 Alcohol....421 Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax for transfer to a bonded wine cellar for use in...

  7. 27 CFR 19.421 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.421 Section 19.421 Alcohol....421 Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax for transfer to a bonded wine cellar for use in...

  8. 27 CFR 19.421 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.421 Section 19.421 Alcohol....421 Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax for transfer to a bonded wine cellar for use in...

  9. Prediction of the wine sensory properties related to grape variety from dynamic-headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry data.

    PubMed

    Campo, Eva; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan

    2005-07-13

    Wine extracts obtained by a dynamic headspace sampling technique were studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) to determine the aroma profiles of six young monovarietal Spanish white wines. A partial least-square regression study was carried out to look for models relating wine aroma properties with GC-O scores. Models were validated by sensory analysis. Four out of the five most important sensory descriptors were satisfactorily described by a model, and sensory tests confirmed most of the predictions. The main aroma differences between these wines are due to the ratio linalool/3-mercaptohexyl acetate. Floral, sweet, and muscat are positively related to the concentration of linalool and negatively to that of 3-mercaptohexyl acetate. Tropical fruit is related to the wine content in this last odorant. 2-Phenyl acetate, reinforced by other acetates, can also contribute to floral and sweet notes. Alkyl-methoxypyrazines lessen the tropical fruit note, and acetic acid lessens the muscat nuance.

  10. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R2 > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L−1 of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg−1) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L−1) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages. PMID:25473493

  11. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-07-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages.

  12. Dealcoholated red wine induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in an osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, I; Russo, M; Bilotto, S; Spagnuolo, C; Scognamiglio, A; Palumbo, R; Nappo, A; Iacomino, G; Moio, L; Russo, G L

    2013-10-01

    Until recently, the supposed preventive effects of red wine against cardiovascular diseases, the so-called "French Paradox", has been associated to its antioxidant properties. The interest in the anticancer capacity of polyphenols present in red wine strongly increased consequently to the enormous number of studies on resveratrol. In this study, using lyophilized red wine, we present evidence that its anticancer effect in a cellular model is mediated by apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Using a human osteosarcoma cell line, U2Os, we found that the lyophilized red wine was cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum effect in the range of 100-200 μg/ml equivalents of gallic acid. A mixed phenotype of types I/II cell death was evidenced by means of specific assays following treatment of U2Os with lyophilized red wine, e.g., autophagy and apoptosis. We found that cell death induced by lyophilized red wine proceeded through a mechanism independent from its anti-oxidant activity and involving the inhibition of PI3K/Akt kinase signaling. Considering the relative low concentration of each single bioactive compound in lyophilized red wine, our study suggests the activation of synergistic mechanism able to inhibit growth in malignant cells.

  13. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2017-01-24

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer's preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production of high quality wines are astounding. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the impact of microorganisms in wine aroma and flavour, and the biochemical reactions and pathways in which they participate, therefore contributing to both the quality and acceptability of wine. In this context, an overview of genetic and transcriptional studies to explain and interpret these effects is included, and new directions are proposed. It also considers the contribution of human oral microbiota to wine aroma conversion and perception during wine consumption. The potential use of wine yeasts and lactic acid bacteria as biological tools to enhance wine quality and the advent of promising advice allowed by pioneering -omics technologies on wine research are also discussed.

  14. Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Red wine and something in red wine called resveratrol might be heart healthy. Find out the facts, ... antioxidants, such as flavonoids or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits. Red wine seems to ...

  15. Antioxidant and Vasodilatory Effects of Blackberry and Grape Wines

    PubMed Central

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  16. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint.

  17. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  18. Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, Nadine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-06

    After isolation from red wine by means of ultrafiltration and gel adsorption chromatography, the composition of the highly astringent tasting high-molecular weight polymers was analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-UV/vis, and ion chromatography after thiolytic, alkaline, and acidic depolymerization and, on the basis of the quantitative data obtained as well as model incubation experiments, key structural features of the red wine polymers were proposed. The structural backbone of the polymers seems to be comprised of a procyanidin chain with (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate units as extension and terminal units as well as (-)-epigallocatechin as extension units. In addition, acetaldehyde was shown to link different procyanidins at the A-ring via an 1,1-ethylene bridge and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins were found to be linked to the procyanidin backbone via a C-C-linkage at position C(6) or C(8), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated the polymeric procyanidins to be esterified with various organic acids and phenolic acids, respectively. In addition, the major part of the polysaccharides present in the red wine polymeric fraction were found not to be covalently linked to procyanidins. Interestingly, sensory evaluation of individual fractions of the red wine polymers did not show any significant difference in the astringent threshold concentrations, nor in the astringency intensity in supra-threshold concentrations and demonstrated the mean degree of polymerization as well as the galloylation degree not to have an significant influence on the astringency perception.

  19. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  20. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  1. Investigation of Phenolic Components of Hungarian Wines

    PubMed Central

    Avar, Péter; Pour Nikfardjam, Martin S.; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Montskó, Gergely; Szabó, Zoltán; Böddi, Katalin; Ohmacht, Róbert; Márk, László

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two wines from the southernmost wine-producing region in Hungary (Villány) were analyzed for their polyphenolic content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our results show that wine variety or vintage year could not be distinguished based on polyphenol content, but winery origin could be. Resveratrol concentration is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. The “human factor” (i.e., winemaking style and technology) seems to be more decisive for the polyphenolic composition of red wines than other factors, such as variety and vintage year.

  2. Evidence for protein degradation by Botrytis cinerea and relationships with alteration of synthetic wine foaming properties.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Richard; Warchol, Magda; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2006-07-12

    Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal pathogen particularly dreaded in the cool climate vineyard. It is responsible for important damage, especially the decrease in foamability of sparkling wines, such as Champagne. Different studies have shown that proteins are largely involved in the stabilization of Champagne foam despite their low concentration. Other works demonstrated changes in the electrophoretic characteristics of must proteins originating from botrytized grapes, although the cause of such alterations was never explained. In the first part of this study, results showed the release by B. cinerea of 3.5 mg/L total proteins in a synthetic liquid medium. Among these proteins, the presence of a protease activity on bovine serum albumin (BSA) and must proteins was demonstrated by using a colorimetric method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the model wine, the Bradford method showed a BSA loss of 66% after 24 h and a loss of 96% after 120 h. In the same model wine, the soluble must protein concentration decreased by 35% after 1 week and by 53% after 2 weeks while the control showed no protein loss. B. cinerea proteases were then able to degrade BSA and must proteins and were above all active at must and wine pH and in the presence of ethanol and SO(2). The second part of this work was dedicated to the relationship between the presence of B. cinerea proteases and its effects on the synthetic wine foaming properties. The addition of a B. cinerea culture medium (1/33 v/v) to the synthetic wine containing 21 mg/L soluble grape proteins induced a decrease in foamability by 60% after 1 week. For BSA in the model wine, the foamability decreased by 32% after 24 h and by 95% after 120 h, as shown by the colorimetric method. These experiments demonstrate for the first time the relationship between B. cinerea protease activity and the decrease in wine foaming properties.

  3. Detection of copper, lead, cadmium and iron in wine using electronic tongue sensor system.

    PubMed

    Simões da Costa, A M; Delgadillo, I; Rudnitskaya, A

    2014-11-01

    An array of 10 potentiometric chemical sensors has been applied to the detection of total Fe, Cu, Pb and Cd content in digested wine. As digestion of organic matter of wine is necessary prior to the trace metal detection using potentiometric sensors, sample preparation procedures have been optimized. Different variants of wet and microwave digestion and dry ashing, 14 conditions in total, have been tested. Decomposition of organic matter was assessed using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and total phenolic content. Dry ashing was found to be the most effective method of wine digestion. Measurements with sensors in individual solutions of Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) prepared on different backgrounds have shown that their detection limits were below typical concentration levels of these metals in wines and, in the case of Cu, Pb and Cd below maximum allowed concentrations. Detection of Fe in digested wine samples was possible using discrete iron-sensitive sensors with chalcogenide glass membranes with RMSEP of 0.05 mmol L(-1) in the concentration range from 0.0786 to 0.472 mmol L(-1). Low concentration levels of Cu, Pb and Cd in wine and cross-sensitivity of respective sensors resulted in the non-linearity of their responses, requiring back-propagation neural network for the calibration. Calibration models have been calculated using measurements in the model mixed solutions containing all three metals and a set of digested wine sample. RMSEP values for Cu, Pb and Cd were 3.9, 39 and 1.2 μmol L(-1) in model solutions and 2, 150 and 1 μmol L(-1) in digested wine samples.

  4. Rationale for Haze Formation after Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) Addition to Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Stephan; Dickescheid, Christian; Harbertson, James F; Fischer, Ulrich; Cohen, Seth D

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to identify the source of haze formation in red wine after the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and to characterize the dynamics of precipitation. Ninety commercial wines representing eight grape varieties were collected, tested with two commercial CMC products, and analyzed for susceptibility to haze formation. Seventy-four of these wines showed a precipitation within 14 days independent of the CMC product used. The precipitates of four representative samples were further analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS analysis) and solubility under different conditions to determine the nature of the solids. All of the precipitates were composed of approximately 50% proteins and 50% CMC and polyphenols. It was determined that the interactions between CMC and bovine serum albumin are pH dependent in wine-like model solution. Furthermore, it was found that the color loss associated with CMC additions required the presence of proteins and cannot be observed with CMC and anthocyanins alone.

  5. Influence of Pre-Fermentation Treatments on Wine Volatile and Sensory Profile of the New Disease Tolerant Cultivar Solaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-12-03

    Solaris is a new disease tolerant cultivar increasingly cultivated in cool climate regions. In order to explore the winemaking processes' potential to make different styles of Solaris wines, the effects of different pre-fermentation treatments (direct press after crushing, whole cluster press, cold maceration, and skin fermentation) on the volatile profile, chemical, and sensory properties of Solaris wines were investigated. Cold maceration treatment for 24 h and fermentation on skin led to wines with lower acidity and higher glycerol and total polyphenol indexes. Sensory analysis showed that cold maceration enhanced "apricot" and "apple" flavor while skin fermentation gave rise to increased "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. The PLS regression model revealed that fruity flavor of cold macerated wines was related to a combination of esters while β-damascenone and linalool were correlated to the "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. This study provides information about pre-fermentation techniques that allowed the possibility of obtaining wines with different styles.

  6. Toward a Molecular Understanding of the Typicality of Chardonnay Wines: Identification of Powerful Aromatic Compounds Reminiscent of Hazelnut.

    PubMed

    Gros, Jacques; Lavigne, Valérie; Thibaud, Fannie; Gammacurta, Marine; Moine, Virginie; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe; Marchal, Axel

    2017-02-08

    Chardonnay wines impart a unique complex aroma characterized by its buttery, yellow stone fruit, melon, bready, and woody notes. Among the terms used in the sensory analysis of these wines, this study investigated hazelnut-like attributes. Multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry identified five pyrroles reminiscent of hazelnut: 1-ethylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1H-pyrrole, 2-acetyl-1H-pyrrole (first identification in wine), 1-methylpyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde. Quantitative analyses demonstrated their significantly higher abundance in Chardonnay wines. However, they proved irrelevant in sensory terms, given the low amounts measured in wine compared to their olfactory detection threshold. Nevertheless, the presence of methanethiol derivatives from these pyrroles was investigated in wine. 1-Methylpyrrole-2-methanethiol and 1-ethylpyrrole-2-methanethiol were identified and exhibited hazelnut-like aroma. These compounds, which have not been observed in natural products to date, are potent volatile compounds with detection thresholds of 0.7 and 1.4 ng/L, respectively, in model wine. These findings open up promising perspectives concerning the interpretation of the typical aromatic nuances of some Chardonnay wines.

  7. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed.

  8. Instant wine recognition on mobile devices: Delectable, the social wine app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Paes-Leme, Cassio; Wild, Jevon; Farrell, Kevin; Kang, Derick

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a wine social app Delectable. Delectable provides a social platform for users to capture, rate, comment, and research wine using their mobile devices. We implement a system to automatically recognize wine when users take a picture of the wine label. We address some of the difficulties of label recognition, such as the light condition, viewing angles and similarities among the same wine producers. As a recognition system that demands high accuracy, our system is integrated with both machine recognition and human crowd sourced recognition. We give an overview of the recognition system and illustrate the user experience.

  9. Transgenic wine yeast technology comes of age: is it time for transgenic wine?

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2007-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main yeast responsible for alcoholic fermentation of grape juice during wine making. This makes wine strains of this species perfect targets for the improvement of wine technology and quality. Progress in winemaking has been achieved through the use of selected yeast strains, as well as genetic improvement of wine yeast strains through the sexual and pararexual cycles, random mutagenesis and genetic engineering. Development of genetically engineered wine yeasts, their potential application, and factors affecting their commercial viability will be discussed in this review.

  10. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  11. Use of dehydrated waste grape skins as a natural additive for producing rosé wines: study of extraction conditions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Miguel Angel; Carmona, Manuel; Salinas, Maria Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya

    2011-10-26

    Dehydrated waste grape skins from the juice industry were used as an additive to produce rosé wines. Maceration time, particle size, dosage, alcoholic content, and maceration temperature were first studied in model wine solutions using two different dehydrated waste grape skins. Full factorial experimental designs together with Factor Analysis and Multifactor ANOVA allowed for the evaluation of each parameter according to the composition of color and phenolic and aroma compounds. Higher maceration time favored the extraction of anthocyanins; phenolic compound release was influenced by dosage independent from other factors studied. Rosé wines were produced by direct addition of dehydrated waste grape skins, according to selected parameters in two different white wines, achieving characteristics equivalent to commercial rosé wines. After three months of storage, rosé wine composition was stable.

  12. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  13. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  14. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects.

  15. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  16. A grapevine cytochrome P450 generates the precursor of wine lactone, a key odorant in wine.

    PubMed

    Ilc, Tina; Halter, David; Miesch, Laurence; Lauvoisard, Florian; Kriegshauser, Lucie; Ilg, Andrea; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Hugueney, Philippe; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Duchêne, Eric; Navrot, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Monoterpenes are important constituents of the aromas of food and beverages, including wine. Among monoterpenes in wines, wine lactone has the most potent odor. It was proposed to form via acid-catalyzed cyclization of (E)-8-carboxylinalool during wine maturation. It only reaches very low concentrations in wine but its extremely low odor detection threshold makes it an important aroma compound. Using LC-MS/MS, we show here that the (E)-8-carboxylinalool content in wines correlates with their wine lactone content and estimate the kinetic constant for the very slow formation of wine lactone from (E)-8-carboxylinalool. We show that (E)-8-carboxylinalool is accumulated as a glycoside in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries and that one of the cytochrome P450 enzymes most highly expressed in maturing berries, CYP76F14, efficiently oxidizes linalool to (E)-8-carboxylinalool. Our analysis of (E)-8-carboxylinalool in Riesling × Gewurztraminer grapevine progeny established that the CYP76F14 gene co-locates with a quantitative trait locus for (E)-8-carboxylinalool content in grape berries. Our data support the role of CYP76F14 as the major (E)-8-carboxylinalool synthase in grape berries and the role of (E)-8-carboxylinalool as a precursor to wine lactone in wine, providing new insights into wine and grape aroma metabolism, and new methods for food and aroma research and production.

  17. Linking wine lactic acid bacteria diversity with wine aroma and flavour.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Maria Stella; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Logrieco, Antonio; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2017-02-21

    In the last two decades knowledge on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with wine has increased considerably. Investigations on genetic and biochemistry of species involved in malolactic fermentation, such as Oenococcus oeni and of Lactobacillus have enabled a better understand of their role in aroma modification and microbial stability of wine. In particular, the use of molecular techniques has provided evidence on the high diversity at species and strain level, thus improving the knowledge on wine LAB taxonomy and ecology. These tools demonstrated to also be useful to detect strains with potential desirable or undesirable traits for winemaking purposes. At the same time, advances on the enzymatic properties of wine LAB responsible for the development of wine aroma molecules have been undertaken. Interestingly, it has highlighted the high intraspecific variability of enzymatic activities such as glucosidase, esterase, proteases and those related to citrate metabolism within the wine LAB species. This genetic and biochemistry diversity that characterizes wine LAB populations can generate a wide spectrum of wine sensory outcomes. This review examines some of these interesting aspects as a way to elucidate the link between LAB diversity with wine aroma and flavour. In particular, the correlation between inter- and intra-species diversity and bacterial metabolic traits that affect the organoleptic properties of wines is highlighted with emphasis on the importance of enzymatic potential of bacteria for the selection of starter cultures to control MLF and to enhance wine aroma.

  18. The effect of polysaccharide-degrading wine yeast transformants on the efficiency of wine processing and wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Louw, C; La Grange, D; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2006-10-01

    Commercial polysaccharase preparations are applied to winemaking to improve wine processing and quality. Expression of polysaccharase-encoding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows for the recombinant strains to degrade polysaccharides that traditional commercial yeast strains cannot. In this study, we constructed recombinant wine yeast strains that were able to degrade the problem-causing grape polysaccharides, glucan and xylan, by separately integrating the Trichoderma reesei XYN2 xylanase gene construct and the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens END1 glucanase gene cassette into the genome of the commercial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae VIN13. These genes were also combined in S. cerevisiae VIN13 under the control of different promoters. The strains that were constructed were compared under winemaking conditions with each other and with a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene cassette (END1) from B. fibrisolvens and the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene cassette (XYN4) from Aspergillus niger, a recombinant strain expressing the pectate lyase gene cassette (PEL5) from Erwinia chrysanthemi and the polygalacturonase-encoding gene cassette (PEH1) from Erwinia carotovora. Wine was made with the recombinant strains using different grape cultivars. Fermentations with the recombinant VIN13 strains resulted in significant increases in free-flow wine when Ruby Cabernet must was fermented. After 6 months of bottle ageing significant differences in colour intensity and colour stability could be detected in Pinot Noir and Ruby Cabernet wines fermented with different recombinant strains. After this period the volatile composition of Muscat d'Alexandria, Ruby Cabernet and Pinot Noir wines fermented with different recombinant strains also showed significant differences. The Pinot Noir wines were also sensorial evaluated and the tasting panel preferred the wines fermented with the recombinant strains.

  19. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  20. The quest for lower alcoholic wines.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Antonio; Segura, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Wine industry is engaged in finding technological ways to decrease alcohol concentration in wines without spoiling their organoleptic properties. Such challenge requires, among other strategies, modification of the yeast strains carrying out the fermentation. In this issue of Microb. Biotechnol., Goold and colleagues have reviewed one of the most straightforward yeast modification, altering its metabolism to produce glycerol instead of alcohol.

  1. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  2. Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, Maria C; Puertas, Belén; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

  3. Another Look at the Wine Butler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeerd, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent article, Iain MacInnes analyzed the static equilibrium of a system consisting of a wine bottle and a wine butler. After discussing that composite system, students can be asked to consider only the bottle (and its contents) as the system. An interesting challenge for them is to describe the forces on the bottle in static equilibrium.

  4. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  5. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  6. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  7. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  8. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  9. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  10. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  11. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  12. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  13. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  14. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  15. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  16. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  17. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  18. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  19. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  20. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  1. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  2. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  3. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  4. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  5. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  6. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  7. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  8. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  9. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  10. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  11. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  12. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  13. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  14. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  15. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  16. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  17. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  18. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  19. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  20. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  1. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  2. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  3. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  4. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  5. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  6. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  7. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  8. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  9. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  10. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  11. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  12. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  13. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses...

  14. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  15. Geographic classification of spanish and Australian tempranillo red wines by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Cozzolino, D; Cynkar, W U; Gishen, M; Colby, C B

    2006-09-06

    Visible (vis) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was used to classify the geographical origin of commercial Tempranillo wines from Australia and Spain. Wines (n = 63) were scanned in the vis and NIR regions (400-2500 nm) in a monochromator instrument in transmission. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on PCA scores were used to classify Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. Full cross-validation (leave-one-out) was used as validation method when PCA and LDA classification models were developed. PLS-DA models correctly classified 100% and 84.7% of the Australian and Spanish Tempranillo wine samples, respectively. LDA calibration models correctly classified 72% of the Australian wines and 85% of the Spanish wines. These results demonstrate the potential use of vis and NIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics as a rapid method to classify Tempranillo wines accordingly to their geographical origin.

  16. Formation and Degradation of Furfuryl Alcohol, 5-Methylfurfuryl Alcohol, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Their Ethyl Ethers in Barrel-Aged Wines.

    PubMed

    Spillman; Pollnitz; Liacopoulos; Pardon; Sefton

    1998-02-16

    Furfural, 5-methylfurfural, and vanillin co-occurred in 64 barrel-aged red, white, and model wines with the reduction products, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol, and vanillyl alcohol, and with the corresponding ethyl ethers of these alcohols. Hydrolytic studies in a model wine have shown that 5-methylfurfuryl ethyl ether is formed rapidly from 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol, but both decomposed quickly under the conditions. Vanillyl ethyl ether was also formed relatively rapidly, and both this ether and vanillyl alcohol were stable in the model wine. The formation of furfuryl ethyl ether from furfuryl alcohol and the subsequent decomposition of these two compounds were comparatively slow. The relative concentration of these aromatic alcohols and ethers in the barrel-aged wines was consistent with the observed stability of the furan derivatives, but low concentrations of vanillyl alcohol and vanillyl ethyl ether observed in all samples showed that factors other than solvolytic degradation were responsible for reducing the concentration of these compounds in wine. Furfuryl ethyl ether, which had an aroma threshold of 430 µg/L in a white wine, was found at approximate concentrations of up to 230 µg/L in the wines.

  17. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séon, T.; Liger-Belair, G.

    2017-01-01

    When a bubble reaches an air-liquid interface, it ruptures, projecting a multitude of tiny droplets in the air. Across the oceans, an estimated 1018 to 1020 bubbles burst every second, and form the so called sea spray, a major player in earth's climate system. At a smaller scale, in a glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall, rise towards the surface and burst, giving birth to a particular aerosol that holds a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in simple liquids, we depict each step of this effervescence, from bubble bursting to drop evaporation. In particular, we propose simple scaling laws for the jet velocity and the top drop size. We unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves, gravity, and liquid properties in the jet dynamics and the drop detachment. We demonstrate how damping action of viscosity produces faster and smaller droplets and more generally how liquid properties enable to control the bubble bursting aerosol characteristics. In this context, the particular case of Champagne wine aerosol is studied in details and the key features of this aerosol are identified. We demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. Conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of aerosol characteristics and flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  18. Quantification of Polyfunctional Thiols in Wine by HS-SPME-GC-MS Following Extractive Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Lauren E; Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Loscos, Natalia; Feng, Hui; Cleary, Michael T; Sacks, Gavin L

    2015-07-06

    Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH), 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP)) are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%-109%) and precision (5%-11% RSD) were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines), V. labruscana (Niagara), and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White). Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L) were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.

  19. Wine and bone health: a review.

    PubMed

    Kutleša, Zvonimir; Budimir Mršić, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    A light-to-moderate wine consumption has been shown to provide several beneficial effects on the skeletal system, including reduced risk of bone mass loss and fractures. Wine is rich in phenolic compounds, strong phytoestrogens and natural antioxidants, to which bone protection is mainly attributed. The objective of this review was to give an overview of the exact mechanisms by which wine consumption is involved in bone protection. We found a great variety of in vitro research on the beneficial effects of isolated wine phenolics on the skeletal system, with a significant lack of evidence of their in vivo effects. In addition, we found almost no studies investigating how wine, a mixture of these phenolics dissolved in ethanol, affects the skeletal system. Our results warrant further research on this interesting topic.

  20. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers.

  1. Metals in wine--impact on wine quality and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka

    2011-12-01

    Metals in wine can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its concentration can be a significant parameter affecting consumption and conservation of wine. Since metallic ions have important role in oxide-reductive reactions resulting in wine browning, turbidity, cloudiness, and astringency, wine quality depends greatly on its metal composition. Moreover, metals in wine may affect human health. Consumption of wine may contribute to the daily dietary intake of essential metals (i.e., copper, iron, and zinc) but can also have potentially toxic effects if metal concentrations are not kept under allowable limits. Therefore, a strict analytical control of metal concentration is required during the whole process of wine production. This article presents a critical review of the existing literature regarding the measured metal concentration in wine, methods applied for their determination, and possible sources, as well as their impact on wine quality and human health. The main focus is set on aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc, as these elements most often affect wine quality and human health.

  2. Estrogen Receptor α Participates to the Beneficial Effect of Red Wine Polyphenols in a Mouse Model of Obesity-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Daniela; Soleti, Raffaella; Clere, Nicolas; Vergori, Luisa; Jacques, Caroline; Duluc, Lucie; Dourguia, Catherine; Martínez, Maria C.; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2017-01-01

    Red wine polyphenol extracts (polyphenols) ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that the alpha isoform of estrogen receptor (ERα) triggers the vascular protection of polyphenols. Here, we investigated the contribution of ERα on the effects of polyphenols on cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity. We used ovariectomized wild type or ERα-deficient mice receiving standard (SD) or western (WD) diets, or SD and WD containing polyphenols (SD+polyphenols and WD+polyphenols, respectively) over a 12-week period. Body weight was measured during treatment. Echocardiography examination was performed before sacrifice. Blood and tissues were sampled for biochemical and functional analysis with respect to nitric oxide (NO•) and oxidative stress. Vascular reactivity and liver mitochondrial complexes were analyzed. In WD-fed mice, polyphenols reduced adiposity, plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress in aorta, heart, adipose and liver tissues and enhanced NO• production in aorta and liver. ERα deletion prevented or reduced the beneficial effects of polyphenols, especially visceral adiposity, aortic and liver oxidative stresses and NO• bioavailability. ERα deletion, however, had no effect on polyphenol’s ability to decrease the fat accumulation and oxidative stress of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Also, ERα deletion did not modify the decrease of ROS levels induced by polyphenols treatment in the visceral adipose tissue and heart from WD-fed mice. Dietary supplementation of polyphenols remarkably attenuates features of metabolic syndrome; these effects are partially mediated by ERα-dependent mechanisms. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this extract in metabolic and cardiovascular alterations linked to excessive energy intake. PMID:28119607

  3. Stilbene compounds: from the grapevine to wine.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, L; Fregoni, C; Cantù, E; Trevisan, M

    1999-01-01

    Stilbenes are natural compounds occurring in a number of plant families, including Vitaceae and (within this family) Vitis vinifera L., which is the most important species grown worldwide for grape and wine production. Stilbenes (resveratrol and viniferins) are present in grapevine as constitutive compounds of the woody organs (roots, canes, stems) and as induced substances (in leaves and fruit) acting as phytoalexins in the mechanisms of grape resistance against certain pathogens. Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) was also detected in wine and it was thought to be the active principle of red wines that were shown to reduce heart diseases. This paper reviews data, obtained by the Viticulture Institute of the Catholic University at Piacenza and taken from the literature, on some aspects of stilbene physiology in grapevine and on their relation to resveratrol wine levels. Constitutive stilbene contents of woody organs are reported, as well as the possible role of cluster stems as a source of resveratrol for wine. The accumulation of stilbenes in grape berries infected by grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) has been investigated and the effects of environmental factors on resveratrol grape and wine levels will be discussed. An unidentified new hydroxystilbene was detected in wine.

  4. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  5. Spoilage yeasts in the wine industry.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, V; Malfeito-Ferreira, M

    2003-09-01

    Yeasts play a central role in the spoilage of foods and beverages, mainly those with high acidity and reduced water activity (a(w)). A few species are capable of spoiling foods produced according to good manufacturing practices (GMPs). These can survive and grow under stress conditions where other microorganisms are not competitive. However, many of the aspects determining yeast spoilage have yet to be clarified. This critical review uses the wine industry as a case study where serious microbiological problems are caused by yeasts. First, the limitations of the available tools to assess the presence of spoilage yeasts in foods are discussed. Next, yeasts and factors promoting their colonisation in grapes and wines are discussed from the ecological perspective, demonstrating that a deeper knowledge of vineyard and winery ecosystems is essential to establish the origin of wine spoilage yeasts, their routes of contamination, critical points of yeast infection, and of course, their control. Further, zymological indicators are discussed as important tools to assess the microbiological quality of wines, although they are rarely used by the wine industry. The concepts of the susceptibility of wine to spoilage yeasts and wine stability are addressed based on scientific knowledge and industrial practices for monitoring yeast contamination. A discussion on acceptable levels of yeasts and microbiological criteria in the wine industry is supported by data obtained from wineries, wholesalers, and the scientific literature.Finally, future directions for applied research are proposed, involving collaboration between scientists and industry to improve the quality of wine and methods for monitoring the presence of yeast.

  6. Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

    2013-11-27

    The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and γ-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, β-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

  7. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Jie; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yun; An, Rong-Yan; Yue, Zhuo-Ya

    2017-07-01

    Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines. In addition to typical aromas of noble-rot wines, artificial noble-rot wines were found to contain significant cream and dry apricot attributes. Partial Least-Squares Regression models of aroma characteristics against aroma components revealed that non-fermentative odorants were the primary contributor to dry apricot attribute, especially, thiols, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, terpenols and phenolic acid derivatives, while cream attribute was dependent on both fermentative and non-fermentative volatile components.

  8. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine.

  9. Membrane Technologies in Wine Industry: An Overview.

    PubMed

    El Rayess, Youssef; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-09-09

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in wine industry such as microfiltration, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis, but also emerging processes as bipolar electrodialysis and membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing a critical role in the field of separation/purification, clarification, stabilization, concentration, and de-alcoholization of wine products. They begin to be an integral part of the winemaking process. This review will provide an overview of recent developments, applications, and published literature in membrane technologies applied in wine industry.

  10. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  11. [Traceability of Wine Varieties Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Cyclic Voltammetry].

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-hua; Li, Jing-ming; Li, Jun-hui; Zhang, Lu-da; Zhao, Long-lian

    2015-06-01

    To achieve the traceability of wine varieties, a method was proposed to fuse Near-infrared (NIR) spectra and cyclic voltammograms (CV) which contain different information using D-S evidence theory. NIR spectra and CV curves of three different varieties of wines (cabernet sauvignon, merlot, cabernet gernischt) which come from seven different geographical origins were collected separately. The discriminant models were built using PLS-DA method. Based on this, D-S evidence theory was then applied to achieve the integration of the two kinds of discrimination results. After integrated by D-S evidence theory, the accuracy rate of cross-validation is 95.69% and validation set is 94.12% for wine variety identification. When only considering the wine that come from Yantai, the accuracy rate of cross-validation is 99.46% and validation set is 100%. All the traceability models after fusion achieved better results on classification than individual method. These results suggest that the proposed method combining electrochemical information with spectral information using the D-S evidence combination formula is benefit to the improvement of model discrimination effect, and is a promising tool for discriminating different kinds of wines.

  12. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  13. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in...

  14. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  15. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in...

  16. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  17. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  18. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in...

  19. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in...

  20. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in...

  1. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  2. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the...

  3. Red wine polyphenols for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-05-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  4. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  5. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grapes are rich in health-protecting antioxidants, including resveratrol and flavonoids. These antioxidants are found mainly in ... grapes. Likewise, the level of antioxidants, such as resveratrol found in wine, varies with higher levels in ...

  6. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Méndez, María L.; De Saja, José A.; González-Antón, Rocio; García-Hernández, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; García-Cabezón, Cristina; Martín-Pedrosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control, or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of e-noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments. PMID:27826547

  7. Adsorption Characteristics of Pb(2+) onto Wine Lees-Derived Biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qihong; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lilin; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Biochar has great advantages in soil amendment and polluted soil remediation. Herein, the pore and adsorption properties of wine lees-derived biochar were explored. Specifically, the adsorption isotherm and kinetics of Pb(2+) onto wine lees-derived biochar were examined. Experimental results revealed that wine lees-derived biochar featured large specific surface area and total pore volume, and high contents of -COOH and -OH on its surface. Adsorption of Pb(2+) onto wine lees-derived biochar proceeded via a multilayer adsorption mechanism, as described by the Freundlich adsorption model. Adsorption kinetics followed the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetics model; adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 30-60 min. Furthermore, the effect of solution pH on the adsorption of Pb(2+) was investigated. Within the studied pH range of 3-6, the adsorption capacity increased with increasing pH. Under established optimized conditions, wine lees-derived biochar achieved a Pb(2+) adsorption capacity of 79.12 mg/g.

  8. Influence of fermentation temperature on volatile thiols concentrations in Sauvignon blanc wines.

    PubMed

    Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle; Mansour, Chantal; Murat, Marie-Laure; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2006-05-01

    The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on the amount of 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, a major varietal aroma of Sauvignon blanc wines, was demonstrated by previous research work. However, the influence of different alcoholic fermentation parameters on the levels of volatile thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate) in wines has not yet been investigated. The impact of fermentation temperature on the final amount of volatiles thiols and on some other analytical parameters (ethanol, total acidity, residual sugars, volatile acidity) was determined in a model medium and in grape juice. Interaction between fermentation temperature and yeast strain was also tested. The fermentation temperature influenced the amount of volatile thiols irrespective of the yeast strain used. The final levels of 4MMP and 3MH in model medium and in wines were higher when the alcoholic fermentation is conducted at 20 degrees C than at 13 degrees C. The 3MHA, which was correlated with the amount of 3MH determined in wines, was also higher when the alcoholic fermentation was conducted at 20 degrees C. From a technological point of view, the choice of yeast strain and fermentation temperature has a decisive influence on the concentrations of the varietal aromas of Sauvignon blanc wines.

  9. Expectations influence sensory experience in a wine tasting.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2009-06-01

    Information about a product may shape consumers' taste experience. In a wine tasting experiment, participants received (positive or negative) information about the wine prior to or after the tasting. When the information was given prior to the tasting, negative information about the wine resulted in lower ratings compared to the group that received positive information. No such effect was observed when participants received the information after the tasting but before they evaluated the wine. Results suggest that the information about the wine affected the experience itself and not only participants' overall assessment of the wine after the tasting.

  10. Lipid composition of lees from Sherry wine.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Maria Ester; Igartuburu, José M; Pando, Enrique; Luis, Francisco Rodríguez; Mourente, Gabriel

    2004-07-28

    In this paper, we describe the study and characterization of the lipids from lees of Sherry wine, one of the main byproducts from the wine-making industry in the Jerez/Xeres/Sherry denomination of the origin zone in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain. The lipid content, extractability, classification, fatty acid composition, and its main chemical characteristics have been determined in order to evaluate their potential use as a food or food additive.

  11. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed.

  12. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  13. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes.

  14. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  15. Reaction Kinetics of Monomeric Anthocyanin Conversion to Polymeric Pigments and Their Significance to Color in Interspecific Hybrid Wines.

    PubMed

    Burtch, Claire E; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Manns, David C

    2017-02-15

    The color stability of red wines produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, which is partially dependent on anthocyanin diglucosides, is not well understood. In this study, the rate of decrease of monomeric anthocyanins as they polymerized to polymeric pigments due to the presence of excess catechin and acetaldehyde was measured in model wine using HPLC. Colorimetry was used to measure L*, a*, and b* values, hue angle, and change in color (ΔE). Concentrations of individual diglucosides decreased more slowly than monoglucosides. When monoglucosides and diglucosides were combined, the reaction rate of monoglucosides was slower than that of monoglucosides alone. Hue angles described transitions from red to red-orange, orange, or orange-yellow as anthocyanin-specific changes occurred. The evolution in color represents dynamic reactions between anthocyanins, catechin, and acetaldehyde. Consequently, wines containing high concentrations of diglucosides, such as those produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, will form less polymeric pigment than wines containing primarily monoglucosides.

  16. Immobilized lysozyme for the continuous lysis of lactic bacteria in wine: Bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor study.

    PubMed

    Cappannella, Elena; Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Bavaro, Teodora; Esti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Lysozyme from hen egg white (HEWL) was covalently immobilized on spherical supports based on microbial chitosan in order to develop a system for the continuous, efficient and food-grade enzymatic lysis of lactic bacteria (Oenococcus oeni) in white and red wine. The objective is to limit the sulfur dioxide dosage required to control malolactic fermentation, via a cell concentration typical during this process. The immobilization procedure was optimized in batch mode, evaluating the enzyme loading, the specific activity, and the kinetic parameters in model wine. Subsequently, a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor was developed, applying the optimized process conditions. HEWL appeared more effective in the immobilized form than in the free one, when the reactor was applied in real white and red wine. This preliminary study suggests that covalent immobilization renders the enzyme less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of wine flavans.

  17. Volatile compounds as markers of ageing in Tempranillo red wines from La Mancha D.O. stored in oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Alañón, M Elena; Calvo, Elena; Cejudo, M Jesús; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-07-29

    Solid-phase extraction cartridges (SPE)-GC/MS method was used to analyse red wines aromas. The matrix effect was studied with chemicals standard prepared in synthetic wines with water/alcohol solutions (12% ethanol, v/v) following the procedure proposed. The method offers good reproducibility since the relative standard deviations (RSD%) for the volatile compounds levels were less than 9%. This method was used to differentiate the aroma of one hundred mono-varietal young, crianza, reserva and gran reserva La Mancha D.O. wines (cv. Tempranillo) on the basis of oak barrel contact period. Samples were checked at ten time points over 36 months. Sixty important wine odorants, such as volatile phenols, vanillin derivatives, lactones, norisoprenoids, benzene compounds, esters and terpenols, can be quantitatively determined in a single run. Results showed significant quantitative differences in the volatile profiles of wines depending on the length of time in contact with wood, even in wines belonging to the same commercial category. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) was used to obtain a model that predicted the time of barrel ageing to which wines were submitted in relation with the wine volatile composition. A successful function based on eight compounds with a mean deviation of 0.37 months in the predictions, was obtained.

  18. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-04

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins.

  19. A meta-analysis of studies on wine and beer and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    de Gaetano, Giovanni; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rotondo, Serenella; Iacoviello, Licia; Donati, Maria Benedetta

    2002-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have evaluated whether different alcoholic beverages protect against cardiovascular disease. We performed a meta-analysis of 26 studies on relationship between wine or beer consumption and vascular risk. General variance-based method and fitting models were applied to pooled data derived from 26 studies that gave quantitative estimation of the vascular risk associated with either beverage consumption. From 13 studies involving 209,418 persons, the relative risk of vascular disease associated with wine intake was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59-0.77) relative to nondrinkers. There was strong evidence from 10 studies involving 176,042 persons to support a J-shaped relationship between different amounts of wine intake and vascular risk. A statistically significant inverse association was found up to a daily intake of 150 ml of wine. The overall relative risk of moderate beer consumption, which was measured in 15 studies involving 208,036 persons, was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.86). However, no significant relationship between different amounts of beer intake and vascular risk was found after meta-analyzing 7 studies involving 136,382 persons. These findings show evidence of a significant inverse association between light to moderate wine consumption and vascular risk. A similar, although smaller association was also apparent in beer consumption studies. The latter finding, however, is difficult to interpret because no meaningful relationship could be found between different amounts of beer intake and vascular risk.

  20. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  1. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  2. Foaming properties of various Champagne wines depending on several parameters: grape variety, aging, protein and CO2 content.

    PubMed

    Cilindre, Clara; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Marchal, Richard

    2010-02-15

    A comparison of the foaming parameters of various Champagne wines was undergone with two well distinct methods: (i) a classical gas-sparging method providing standardized but artificial effervescence conditions (the so-called Mosalux), and (ii) a computer assisted viewing equipment (CAVE), much closer to the real champagne tasting conditions. The latter one is the only apparatus which enables a thorough descriptive analysis of foam behavior, during the pouring process of a sparkling wine, and from the end of its pouring. Various Champagne wines elaborated from two grape varieties (Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier) and having experienced different aging-periods (15 months and 5 years) were analyzed and compared to a model sparkling wine, elaborated from a model base wine (devoid of grape colloids). The CO(2) and protein content was also investigated to discuss the foaming behavior of these wines. A significant loss of the CO(2) content during aging was observed and might be the reason for the worse foaming properties of the old champagnes, as determined with CAVE. It is worth noting that contradictory foaming parameters were obtained through the Mosalux method, which is indeed more intrusive than the CAVE, and finally far from the real champagne tasting conditions, since it requires filtration and champagne degassing prior experiment.

  3. Wine consumption throughout life is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but only in overweight individuals: results from a large female French cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Lajous, Martin; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol has previously been shown to have a U-shaped association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but less is known regarding the specific association with wine. To evaluate for the first time the associations between T2D risk and both baseline wine consumption and trajectories of wine consumption frequency throughout life, estimated using an innovative group-based trajectory modeling strategy. A total of 66,485 women from the French prospective E3N-EPIC cohort were followed between 1993 and 2007; 1,372 incident cases of T2D were diagnosed during the follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for T2D risk. The average consumption of wine, among alcohol consumers, was 0.81 drinks/day (1 drink = 150 mL). Associations between wine and T2D were restricted to overweight women (P interaction = 0.0084). Among them, wine consumption was inversely associated with T2D risk (P trend = 0.0022). A lower risk was observed for overweight women having two or more drinks/day [HR 0.59 (0.43-0.82)] when compared with non-alcohol consumers. Women who started to drink wine early in life (around age 10-15 years) were at a significantly lower risk than lifetime abstainers. In our study, wine drinking was inversely associated with T2D risk but only in overweight women. Our results also suggest a potential beneficial, cumulative effect of moderate wine consumption throughout life for overweight women, who would already be at higher risk of T2D. We encourage other cohort studies with information on wine consumption to investigate these associations.

  4. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy as a tool for determining quality of sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa; Callejón, Raquel M; Amigo, Jose M; Ocaña-González, Juan A; Morales, M Lourdes; Ubeda, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Browning in sparkling wines was assessed by the use of excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC). Four different cava sparkling wines were monitored during an accelerated browning process and subsequently storage. Fluorescence changes observed during the accelerated browning process were monitored and compared with other conventional parameters: absorbance at 420nm (A420) and the content of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF). A high similarity of the spectral profiles for all sparkling wines analyzed was observed, being explained by a four component PARAFAC model. A high correlation between the third PARAFAC factor (465/530nm) and the commonly used non-enzymatic browning indicators was observed. The fourth PARAFAC factor (280/380nm) gives us also information about the browning process following a first order kinetic reaction. Hence, excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy, together with PARAFAC, provides a faster alternative for browning monitoring to conventional methods, as well as useful key indicators for quality control.

  5. Inhibition of Amyloid-like Fibril Formation of Trypsin by Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Kotormán, Márta; Kasi, Phanindra Babu; Halász, László; Borics, Attila

    2017-02-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the potential role and applicability of dietary supplements in reducing the risk of development of amyloid diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract, such as type II diabetes. Trypsin, a well-known serine protease was used as a model protein in our experiments. The effect of various red wines on the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin was studied in vitro, in aqueous ethanol, at pH 7.0. Turbidity measurements, aggregation kinetics experiments, Congo red binding assays and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements were used to follow the aggregation process in the presence or absence of various red wines. The results suggest that red wines effectively inhibit the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The extent of inhibition was found to be proportional to the total concentration of phenolic compounds.

  6. Regional microbial signatures positively correlate with differential wine phenotypes: evidence for a microbial aspect to terroir

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Many crops display differential geographic phenotypes and sensorial signatures, encapsulated by the concept of terroir. The drivers behind these differences remain elusive, and the potential contribution of microbes has been ignored until recently. Significant genetic differentiation between microbial communities and populations from different geographic locations has been demonstrated, but crucially it has not been shown whether this correlates with differential agricultural phenotypes or not. Using wine as a model system, we utilize the regionally genetically differentiated population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in New Zealand and objectively demonstrate that these populations differentially affect wine phenotype, which is driven by a complex mix of chemicals. These findings reveal the importance of microbial populations for the regional identity of wine, and potentially extend to other important agricultural commodities. Moreover, this suggests that long-term implementation of methods maintaining differential biodiversity may have tangible economic imperatives as well as being desirable in terms of employing agricultural practices that increase responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:26400688

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods for the determination of brandy adulteration with mixed wine spirit.

    PubMed

    Markechová, Diana; Májek, Pavel; Sádecká, Jana

    2014-09-15

    The addition of mixed wine spirit to brandy is easy way to adulterate brandy. To avoid the misleading of the consumers, it is necessary to develop reliable method to detect adulteration of brandy. In this work excitation emission matrix fluorescence in combination with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to determine the content of mixed wine spirit in adulterated brandy samples. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectra were measured in the emission wavelength range of 485-580 nm and in the excitation wavelength range of 363-475 nm. The model created using PARAFAC-PLS was able to predict the mixed wine spirit level in adulterated brandy with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value of 1.9% and a square of the correlation (R(2)) between the reference contents and the predicted values of 0.995.

  8. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The... under this part and which is lost while in transit may be allowed only to the extent that the...

  9. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The... under this part and which is lost while in transit may be allowed only to the extent that the...

  10. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The... under this part and which is lost while in transit may be allowed only to the extent that the...

  11. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The... under this part and which is lost while in transit may be allowed only to the extent that the...

  12. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The... under this part and which is lost while in transit may be allowed only to the extent that the...

  13. Borders Uncorked: Exporting Wine to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpern, Barbara E.; Odett, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Last fall, in an effort to raise awareness of Canadian table wines, the Consulate General commissioned a group of International Business MBA students from Walsh College, in suburban Detroit, to create the "Canadian Wine Exporter's Guide." This report, which was officially presented to Canadian wine producers prior to the tasting,…

  14. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  15. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from...

  16. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.108 Bonded wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded...

  17. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  18. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.108 Bonded wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded...

  19. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.108 Bonded wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded...

  20. 27 CFR 19.26 - Tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.26 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.26 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. A tax is imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5041 or 7652 on wine (including imitation, substandard,...

  1. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.108 Bonded wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded...

  2. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from...

  3. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from...

  4. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  5. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  6. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from...

  7. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to...

  8. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from...

  9. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  10. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to...

  11. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.108 Bonded wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded...

  12. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to...

  13. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to...

  14. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to...

  15. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  16. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  17. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  18. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  19. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  20. Carbocations and the Complex Flavor and Bouquet of Wine: Mechanistic Aspects of Terpene Biosynthesis in Wine Grapes.

    PubMed

    Wedler, Henry B; Pemberton, Ryan P; Tantillo, Dean J

    2015-06-11

    Computational chemistry approaches for studying the formation of terpenes/terpenoids in wines are presented, using five particular terpenes/terpenoids (1,8-cineole, α-ylangene, botrydial, rotundone, and the wine lactone), volatile compounds (or their precursors) found in wine and/or wine grapes, as representative examples. Through these examples, we show how modern computational quantum chemistry can be employed as an effective tool for assessing the validity of proposed mechanisms for terpene/terpenoid formation.

  1. UHPLC quantification of sotolon in white wine.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Mario; Fracassetti, Daniela; Tirelli, Antonio

    2014-05-28

    Sotolon (4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one) is a volatile compound involved in the atypical aging of dry white wine, causing an irreversible defect when it exceeds 7-8 μg L(-1), and it might be adopted as a chemical marker of oxidative aging. An easier and sensitive ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography method for its determination in white wine is reported. The sample preparation is based on the liquid/liquid extraction by dichloromethane and the purification by solid phase extraction of the redissolved dry sample. This method showed good linearity and intermediate repeatability (<0.7 μg L(-1)), high recovery (>89.5%), and low detection limit (0.029 μg L(-1)). This method was usefully applied to 30 Italian sparkling and still white wine samples, where sotolon was not detected in most of them and exceeded the perception threshold only in one sparkling wine (13 μg L(-1)). The proposed method could be used to further investigate the aging/storage conditions and the chemical-physical parameters affecting its formation in wine.

  2. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology.

  3. Aroma composition of red wines by different extraction methods and Gas Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Dimaggio, Rosa; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    One hundred and one volatile compounds, reported in literature as powerful odorants of wine, were quantified by Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring/Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM/MS) in Primitivo, Aglianico, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Wine samples were extracted by 3 different extraction methods: 1) separation of the alcoholic fraction from the aqueous phase by salting-out and subsequent extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113); 2) extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with dichloromethane; 3) solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge: 800 mg of LiChrolut EN resin) with pentane-dichloromethane (20:1) and dichloromethane. The selection of the ion fragments used for quantification was directly performed on a red wine sample. For each compound the area of the corresponding peak was normalized respect to the peak of the internal standard and then interpolated in a calibration curve obtained analysing a model wine solution (water, ethanol, tartaric acid and known amounts of analytes and of internal standard). The methods showed a good linearity: r2>0.990, except for farnesol (isomer a and c), octanal, decanal, furaneol and phenylacetic acid with 0.966 < or = r2 < or = 0.990. The 7 most powerful odorants were: beta-damascenone, acetaldehyde, maltol, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanoic acid and acetal; 7 other slightly less important were: ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate, 1-octen-3-ol, butanoic acid, rose oxide, furaneol and sotolon. The Aglianico wines were characterised by the major fermentation compounds (esters, fatty acids and 2-phenylethanol), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone and linalool. The Primitivo wines were characterized by furaneol, methoxypyrazine, gamma-nonalactone and acetaldehyde, while Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines principally by cask derivates (vanillin, (Z) 3-methyl-gamma-octalactone [(Z) wiskylactone], maltol and eugenol), some aldehydes and 3

  4. Middle atmosphere thermal structure during MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offermann, D.

    1989-01-01

    Middle atmosphere temperatures were measured during the MAP/WINE campaign by various ground-based techniques, by rocket instruments, and by satellites. Respective data were analyzed for atmospheric thermal mean state as well as for long and short period variations. A brief survey of the results is given. Monthly mean temperatures agree well with the new CIRA model. Long period (planetary) waves frequently exhibit peculiar vertical amplitude and phase structures, resembling those of standing waves. Short period oscillations tend to begin breaking well below the stratosphere.

  5. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  6. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  7. Consumption of wine stored in leather wine bottles and incidence of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Abente, G; Sanz-Anquela, J M; González, C A

    2001-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey among participants of a large-scale case-control study to evaluate a possible association between consumption of wine in leather bottles and incidence of gastric cancer. There were 59 cases and 53 controls in the study. The results suggest that some of the components of the complex mixture (i.e., tar) used in the proofing of leather wine bottles might dissolve in the wine and participate in the etiology of gastric cancer. Nevertheless, the results should be confirmed in an independent study.

  8. Understanding Micro-Oxygenation Techniques and the Oxidation of Grape/Wine Polyphenolics: Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin (polymer) underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 °C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catecho...

  9. [Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and electronic nose for alcohol quantification during the red wine fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2012-11-01

    The red wine fermentation needs fast and nondestructive techniques, which can help to control the fermentation process and assure the quality of wine. In the present study, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and electronic nose (EN) were used to predict the alcohol content during the red wine alcoholic fermentation. Calibration models were developed between instru- mental data and chemical analysis using principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) with cross validation. Good correlations (R > 0.99) were acquired for both the models developed by the NIR and EN data. However, RMSEC and RMSEP were a little larger. Combining NIR and EN can optimize the model and improve the prediction accuracy. The PLSR model based on combined data shows the best correlation (R = 0.999 2), with RMSEC and RMSEP being 0. 206 and 0.205% (v/v), respectively. Both NIR spectroscopy and EN can predict the alcohol concentration during the alcoholic fermentation of red wine, and the combination of two instruments can improve the analysis precision. Although the measurements were carried out in off-line mode, this study demonstrates that NIR and EN can be used as on line, fast, nondestructive and in time techniques to provide in-time information about the fermentation process and to assure the quality of final products.

  10. Correlating wine quality indicators to chemical and sensory measurements.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-05-12

    Twenty-seven commercial Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different quality categories were analyzed with sensory and chemical methods. Correlations between five quality proxies-points awarded during a wine competition, wine expert scores, retail price, vintage, and wine region-were correlated to sensory attributes, volatile compounds, and elemental composition. Wine quality is a multi-faceted construct, incorporating many different layers. Depending on the quality proxy studied, significant correlations between quality and attributes, volatiles and elements were found, some of them previously reported in the literature.

  11. Classification of white wine aromas with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Horrillo, M C

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a tin dioxide multisensor array based electronic nose for recognition of 29 typical aromas in white wine. Headspace technique has been used to extract aroma of the wine. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) as well as probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), has been used to identify the main aroma added to the wine. The results showed that in spite of the strong influence of ethanol and other majority compounds of wine, the system could discriminate correctly the aromatic compounds added to the wine with a minimum accuracy of 97.2%.

  12. Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French paradox?

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Bertelli, Alberto A E

    2015-06-15

    The present review discusses the acquisitions obtained to date on the subject of wine consumption, health and cardiovascular protection. We distinguished the cardiovascular effects related to the consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages focusing on non-alcoholic wine fraction: polyphenols and especially resveratrol. In the second part of the review we have addressed the issue of resveratrol bioavailability and the importance of wine matrix and phytocomplex highlighting the biological effects that can be obtained with nutraceuticals and resveratrol pills compared to the daily consumption of a glass of red wine.

  13. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  14. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures.

  15. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis D.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS2. In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy. PMID:25431760

  16. Characterization of wine with PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscaini, Elena; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Hartungen, Eugen Von; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2004-12-01

    A new method for measuring volatile profiles of alcoholic beverages (or other ethanol-containing analytes such as perfumes or herbs) has been developed. The method is based on proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). However, instead of hydronium ions (H3O+) protonated ethanol clusters (C2H5OH2+(C2H5OH)n = 1,2) are used as chemical ionization reagent ions. A stable reagent ion distribution is obtained by a 10-fold dilution of analyte headspace into ethanol-saturated nitrogen. Samples with different ethanol content can thus be directly compared. Characteristic mass spectral fingerprints have been obtained for four wine varieties. Principal component analysis discriminates between different wine varieties and shows specific correlations between wine variety and selected ions.

  17. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollós-Nagy, Katalin; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  18. Extraction and quantification of SO2 content in wines using a hollow fiber contactor.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Andrea; Romero, Julio; Silva, Wladimir; Morales, Elizabeth; Torres, Alejandra; Aguirre, María J

    2014-10-01

    Sulfites [Formula: see text] or sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a preservative widely used in fruits and fruit-derived products. This study aims to propose a membrane contactor process for the selective removal and recovery of SO2 from wines in order to obtain its reliable quantification. Currently, the aspiration and Ripper methods offer a difficult quantification of the sulfite content in red wines because they involve evaporation steps of diluted compounds and a colorimetric assay, respectively. Therefore, an inexpensive and accurate methodology is not currently available for continuous monitoring of SO2 in the liquids food industry. Red wine initially acidified at pH < 1 was treated by membrane extraction at 25 ℃. This operation is based on a hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Contactor, which separates the acidified red wine in the shell side and a diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide solution as receiving solution into the lumenside in countercurrent. Sulfite and bisulfite in the acidified red wine become molecular SO2, which is evaporated through the membrane pores filled with gas. Thus, SO2 is trapped in a colorless solution and the membrane contactor controls its transfer, decreasing experimental error induced in classical methods. Experimental results using model solutions with known concentration values of [Formula: see text] show an average extraction percentage of 98.91 after 4 min. On the other hand, two types of Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines were analyzed with the same system to quantify the content of free and total sulfites. Results show a good agreement between these methods and the proposed technique, which shows a lower experimental variability.

  19. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo; Brazão, João; Graça, António; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Wine authenticity methods are in increasing demand mainly in Denomination of Origin designations. The DNA-based methodologies are a reliable means of tracking food/wine varietal composition. The main aim of this work was the study of High Resolution Melting (HRM) application as a screening method for must and wine authenticity. Three sample types (leaf, must and wine) were used to validate the three developed HRM assays (Vv1-705bp; Vv2-375bp; and Vv3-119bp). The Vv1 HRM assay was only successful when applied to leaf and must samples. The Vv2 HRM assay successfully amplified all sample types, allowing genotype discrimination based on melting temperature values. The smallest amplicon, Vv3, produced a coincident melting curve shape in all sample types (leaf and wine) with corresponding genotypes. This study presents sensitive, rapid and efficient HRM assays applied for the first time to wine samples suitable for wine authenticity purposes.

  20. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Lori A; Geronemus, Roy G; Reddy, Kavitha K

    2015-01-01

    Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25624768

  1. Prediction of soluble solids content and ph in red wine by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; He, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-02-01

    Soluble solids content (SSC) and pH are two major characteristic used for assessing quality of red wine, and they are also two important quality indexes in the manufacture of red wine. For rapid detection of SSC and pH in red wine, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) transmittance spectroscopy technique combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were used in this study. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of 175 red wine samples were obtained using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then, PLS was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, latent variables (LVs) selected by PLS could be used to replace the complex spectral data. All samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. The LVs (selected by PLS) of each sample in calibration set was used as the inputs to train the LS-SVM model, then the optimal model was used to predict the SSC and pH values of samples in validation set based on their LVs. Standard error prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (r2) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the SEP and r2 for the prediction of SSC were 0.2313 and 0.9348; while 0.0071 and 0.9986 for pH. This prediction model was more accurate compared with the related research.

  2. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removal of wine as... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.290 Removal of wine as distilling material. (a) General. Still wine may...

  3. 27 CFR 24.291 - Removal of wine for vinegar production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removal of wine for... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.291 Removal of wine for vinegar production. (a) General. Still wine may...

  4. 27 CFR 19.419 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.419 Section 19.419 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... in wine production. A proprietor may withdraw wine spirits without payment of tax for transfer in bond to a bonded wine cellar for use in wine production. The proprietor, as consignor, must prepare...

  5. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  6. 27 CFR 24.291 - Removal of wine for vinegar production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of wine for... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.291 Removal of wine for vinegar production. (a) General. Still wine may...

  7. 27 CFR 19.419 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.419 Section 19.419 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... in wine production. A proprietor may withdraw wine spirits without payment of tax for transfer in bond to a bonded wine cellar for use in wine production. The proprietor, as consignor, must prepare...

  8. 27 CFR 19.419 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.419 Section 19.419 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... in wine production. A proprietor may withdraw wine spirits without payment of tax for transfer in bond to a bonded wine cellar for use in wine production. The proprietor, as consignor, must prepare...

  9. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits....

  10. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removal of wine as... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.290 Removal of wine as distilling material. (a) General. Still wine may...

  11. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of wine as... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.290 Removal of wine as distilling material. (a) General. Still wine may...

  12. 27 CFR 28.131 - Application for return of wines withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wines withdrawn without payment of tax. 28.131 Section 28.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for Exportation, Use on Vessels and Aircraft, Transfer to a Foreign... Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.131 Application for return of wines withdrawn without...

  13. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removal of wine as... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.290 Removal of wine as distilling material. (a) General. Still wine may...

  14. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits....

  15. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits....

  16. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits....

  17. 27 CFR 24.291 - Removal of wine for vinegar production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removal of wine for... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.291 Removal of wine for vinegar production. (a) General. Still wine may...

  18. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits....

  19. 27 CFR 19.419 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.419 Section 19.419 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... in wine production. A proprietor may withdraw wine spirits without payment of tax for transfer in bond to a bonded wine cellar for use in wine production. The proprietor, as consignor, must prepare...

  20. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of wine as... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.290 Removal of wine as distilling material. (a) General. Still wine may...