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Sample records for catechol estrogen adducts

  1. Determination of Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High- Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...DAMD17-98-1-8216 Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas E. Stack, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...ultimate goal of this research is the development of a biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Breast

  2. Estrogen-DNA Adducts as Novel Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer Risk and for Use in Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    genes for four selected estrogen-metabolizing enzymes : cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 (I462V), CYP1B1 (V432L),catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (V158M...homozygous for the catechol-O-methyltransferase allele and the cytochrome P450 1B1 high activity allele had significantly increased DNA adduct ratios and... enzyme polymorphisms to serve as biomarkers to screen for ovarian cancer . Task 1. Obtain approval of the protocol from the OCRP Human Research

  3. Synthesis of catechol estrogens by human uterus and leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.V.; Hanjani, P.; Rajan, R.

    1981-02-01

    Homogenates of human endometrial, myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were incubated with (2,4,6,7-/sub 3/H)-estradiol and tritiated catechol estrogens were isolated and identified. Though 2- and 4-hydroxylations were about the same in endometrium, 4-hydroxylation was two to four fold higher than 2-hydroxylation in myometrium and leiomyoma. However, endometrium showed greater capacity to form both 2- and 4-hydroxyestrogens than the other two tissues. Both 2- and 4-hydroxylations were significantly less than in myometrium. In view of the reports indicating that inhibitors of catechol 0-methyl transferase (COMT) might act as antineoplastic agents due to their interference with t-RNA methylases and since catechol estrogens inhibit COMT, the present results suggest that endogenous synthesis of catechol estrogens may play an important role in the pathophysiology of uterine leiomyoma.

  4. Detection and evaluation of estrogen DNA-adducts and their carcinogenic effects in cultured human cells using biotinylated estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Mani, Chinnadurai; Somasagara, Ranganatha R; Clark, David W; Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Vinaya, Kambappa; Palle, Komaraiah

    2017-03-01

    The normal female reproductive hormone estrogen has been linked with increased risk of breast and many other forms of cancer. This is largely due to metabolic conversion of estrogens into highly reactive catechol estrogen quinones which can interact with DNA and cause a variety of DNA adducts and lesions. Detection and analysis of these adducts and their associated cellular responses involve complex chemical, enzymatic, and LC-MS based methods, which are both laborious and require specialized expertise and instrumentation. Herein, we show that using a biotin-labeled estradiol allows immunodetection of estrogen-induced DNA adducts by slot blot and single-cell molecular combing and proximity ligation assays. The biotinylated and unlabeled estradiols induced similar levels of DNA single and double strand breaks as measured by comet assays. Using biotinylated estrogen, we further show that estrogens are able to activate the Fanconi anemia-BRCA tumor suppressor pathway and cause DNA strand breaks and oxidatively modified DNA bases as well as gross chromosomal aberrations. Utilization of biotin-labeled estrogens could be a powerful tool to detect estrogen adducts and associated DNA damage, and to track estrogen adduct-induced cellular responses and carcinogenic mechanisms in cultured cells. The techniques presented here allow simple and rapid detection and quantitation of estrogen adducts by slot blot as well as direct visualization on the DNA strand and could pave the way for developing new treatments to protect the genome from the effects of reactive estrogen metabolites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modulation of Estrogen-Depurinating DNA Adducts by Sulforaphane for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ER-independent pathway, by which the estrogen oxidation product , catechol estrogen-3,4–quinone (CE-3,4-Q), can bind to DNA to form adenine or guanine ...depurinating DNA adducts. E2 or E1 can be oxidized to CE-3,4-quinone, which can bind to DNA to form 4-OHE1/2-1- N3Adenine or 4-OHE1/2-1-N7Guanine...NQO1 and GST, but also estrogen oxidation pathway enzymes such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The study indicates that Keap1-Nrf2 pathway may account for some

  6. Redox Cycling of Catechol Estrogens Generating Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites and 8-oxo-Deoxyguanosine via Reactive Oxygen Species Differentiates Equine and Human Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhican; Chandrasena, Esala R.; Yuan, Yang; Peng, Kuan-wei; van Breemen, Richard B.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic activation of estrogens to catechols and further oxidation to highly reactive o-quinones generates DNA damage including apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is the major catechol metabolite of equine estrogens present in estrogen replacement formulations, known to cause DNA strand breaks, oxidized bases, and stable and depurinating adducts. However, the direct formation of AP sites by 4-OHEN has not been characterized. In the present study, the induction of AP sites in vitro by 4-OHEN and the endogenous catechol estrogen metabolite, 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE) was examined by an aldehyde reactive probe assay. Both 4-OHEN and 4-OHE can significantly enhance the levels of AP sites in calf thymus DNA in the presence of the redox cycling agents, copper ion and NADPH. The B-ring unsaturated catechol 4-OHEN induced AP sites without added copper, whereas 4-OHE required copper. AP sites were also generated much more rapidly by 4-OHEN. For both catechol estrogens, the levels of AP sites correlated linearly with 8-oxo-dG levels, implying that depuriniation resulted from reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than depurination of estrogen-DNA adducts. ROS modulators such as catalase which scavenges hydrogen peroxide and a Cu(I) chelator blocked the formation of AP sites. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, 4-OHEN significantly enhanced the formation of AP sites with added NADH. In contrast, no significant induction of AP sites was detected in 4-OHE-treated cells. The greater redox activity of the equine catechol estrogen produces rapid oxidative DNA damage via ROS, which is enhanced by redox cycling agents and interestingly by NADPH-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). PMID:20509668

  7. Leptin influences estrogen metabolism and increases DNA adduct formation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shouman, Samia; Wagih, Mohamed; Kamel, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The elevated incidence of obesity has been paralleled with higher risks of breast cancer. High adiposity increases leptin secretion from adipose tissue, which in turn increases cancer cell proliferation. The interplay between leptin and estrogen is one of the mechanisms through which leptin influences breast carcinogenesis. An unbalanced estrogen metabolism increases the formations of catechol estrogen quinones, DNA adducts, and cancer mutations. This study aims to investigate the effect of leptin on some estrogen metabolic enzymes and DNA adduction in breast cancer cells. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to analyze the DNA adducts 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N3 adenine and 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N7 guanine. Reporter gene assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR), and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes: Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1), and Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). Results: Leptin significantly increased the DNA adducts 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N3 adenine and 4-OHE1[E2]-1-N7 guanine. Furthermore, leptin significantly upregulated CYP1B1 promoter activity and protein expression. The luciferase promoter activities of NQO1 and mRNA levels were significantly reduced. Moreover, leptin greatly reduced the reporter activities of the COMT-P1 and COMT-P2 promoters and diminished the protein expression of COMT. Conclusions: Leptin increases DNA adduct levels in breast cancer cells partly by affecting key genes and enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism. Thus, increased focus should be directed toward leptin and its effects on the estrogen metabolic pathway as an effective approach against breast cancer. PMID:28154783

  8. Regioselective deuterium labeling of estrone and catechol estrogen metabolites.

    PubMed

    Stack, Douglas E; Ritonya, Justin; Jakopovic, Scott; Maloley-Lewis, Brittney

    2014-12-01

    Increased exposure to estrogens and estrogen metabolites is linked with increased rates of breast, ovarian and other human cancers. Metabolism of estrogen can led to formation of electrophilic o-quinones capable of binding to DNA. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of estrogen-induced DNA damage, estrone and catechol estrogens derived from estrone, have been regioselectively labeled with deuterium at the 1-position. Estrone-1-d, estrone-1,2,4-d3, 4-hydroxyestrone-1-d and 2-hydroxyestrone-1-d have been synthesized with or without deuteriums at the 16-position. The key labeling step involves deuterated trifluoroacetic acid exchange catalyzed by t-butyl alcohol. This economical, straightforward labeling technique makes available a range of estrone compounds containing deuterium at the 1-position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Initiation of Breast Cancer: Activated Catechol Estrogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    cancer. The CE are identified and quantified by HPLC with multichannel electrochemical detection after extraction from tissue. We have obtained...cancer by mutating critical genes [1]. Depurinating adducts are lost from DNA by hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, leaving apurinic sites, which if...women with and without breast cancer. CE were to be quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis after extraction from tissue

  10. Site-specific covalent modifications of human insulin by catechol estrogens: Reactivity and induced structural and functional changes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Ming-Chun; Fang, Chieh-Ming; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Liang, Huei-Chen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chen, Chiao-Chen; Tai, Jung-Hsiang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-06-29

    Proteins, covalently modified by catechol estrogens (CEs), were identified recently from the blood serum of diabetic patients and referred to as estrogenized proteins. Estrogenization of circulating insulin may occur and affect its molecular functioning. Here, the chemical reactivity of CEs towards specific amino acid residues of proteins and the structural and functional changes induced by the estrogenization of insulin were studied using cyclic voltammetry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, molecular modeling, and bioassays. Our results indicate that CEs, namely, 2- and 4-hydroxyl estrogens, were thermodynamically and kinetically more reactive than the catechol moiety. Upon co-incubation, intact insulin formed a substantial number of adducts with one or multiple CEs via covalent conjugation at its Cys 7 in the A or B chain, as well as at His10 or Lys29 in the B chain. Such conjugation was coupled with the cleavage of inter-chain disulfide linkages. Estrogenization on these sites may block the receptor-binding pockets of insulin. Insulin signaling and glucose uptake levels were lower in MCF-7 cells treated with modified insulin than in cells treated with native insulin. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that insulin molecules are susceptible to active estrogenization, and that such modification may alter the action of insulin.

  11. Site-specific covalent modifications of human insulin by catechol estrogens: Reactivity and induced structural and functional changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Ming-Chun; Fang, Chieh-Ming; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Liang, Huei-Chen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chen, Chiao-Chen; Tai, Jung-Hsiang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Proteins, covalently modified by catechol estrogens (CEs), were identified recently from the blood serum of diabetic patients and referred to as estrogenized proteins. Estrogenization of circulating insulin may occur and affect its molecular functioning. Here, the chemical reactivity of CEs towards specific amino acid residues of proteins and the structural and functional changes induced by the estrogenization of insulin were studied using cyclic voltammetry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, molecular modeling, and bioassays. Our results indicate that CEs, namely, 2- and 4-hydroxyl estrogens, were thermodynamically and kinetically more reactive than the catechol moiety. Upon co-incubation, intact insulin formed a substantial number of adducts with one or multiple CEs via covalent conjugation at its Cys 7 in the A or B chain, as well as at His10 or Lys29 in the B chain. Such conjugation was coupled with the cleavage of inter-chain disulfide linkages. Estrogenization on these sites may block the receptor-binding pockets of insulin. Insulin signaling and glucose uptake levels were lower in MCF-7 cells treated with modified insulin than in cells treated with native insulin. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that insulin molecules are susceptible to active estrogenization, and that such modification may alter the action of insulin.

  12. Site-specific covalent modifications of human insulin by catechol estrogens: Reactivity and induced structural and functional changes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming-Chun; Fang, Chieh-Ming; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Liang, Huei-Chen; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chen, Chiao-Chen; Tai, Jung-Hsiang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Proteins, covalently modified by catechol estrogens (CEs), were identified recently from the blood serum of diabetic patients and referred to as estrogenized proteins. Estrogenization of circulating insulin may occur and affect its molecular functioning. Here, the chemical reactivity of CEs towards specific amino acid residues of proteins and the structural and functional changes induced by the estrogenization of insulin were studied using cyclic voltammetry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, molecular modeling, and bioassays. Our results indicate that CEs, namely, 2- and 4-hydroxyl estrogens, were thermodynamically and kinetically more reactive than the catechol moiety. Upon co-incubation, intact insulin formed a substantial number of adducts with one or multiple CEs via covalent conjugation at its Cys 7 in the A or B chain, as well as at His10 or Lys29 in the B chain. Such conjugation was coupled with the cleavage of inter-chain disulfide linkages. Estrogenization on these sites may block the receptor-binding pockets of insulin. Insulin signaling and glucose uptake levels were lower in MCF-7 cells treated with modified insulin than in cells treated with native insulin. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that insulin molecules are susceptible to active estrogenization, and that such modification may alter the action of insulin. PMID:27353345

  13. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

    PubMed Central

    Correia da Costa, José M.; Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria J.; Botelho, Mónica C.; Sripa, Banchob; Santos, Lúcio L.; Santos, Júlio H.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g., oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc.) metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of O. viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e., urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture. PMID:25566326

  14. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  15. Biochemical and computational insights into the anti-aromatase activity of natural catechol estrogens.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco A C; Dinis, Teresa C P; Colombo, Giorgio; Luisa Sá E Melo, M

    2008-05-01

    High levels of endogenous estrogens are associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Estrogen levels are mainly increased by the activity of the aromatase enzyme and reduced by oxidative/conjugative metabolic pathways. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that catechol estrogen metabolites are potent aromatase inhibitors, thus establishing a link between aromatase activity and the processes involved in estrogen metabolism. In particular, the anti-aromatase activity of a set of natural hydroxyl and methoxyl estrogen metabolites was investigated using biochemical methods and subsequently compared with the anti-aromatase potency of estradiol and two reference aromatase inhibitors. Catechol estrogens proved to be strong inhibitors with an anti-aromatase potency two orders of magnitude higher than estradiol. A competitive inhibition mechanism was found for the most potent molecule, 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE(2)) and a rational model identifying the interaction determinants of the metabolites with the enzyme is proposed based on ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations. A strong relationship between activity and electrostatic properties was found for catechol estrogens. Moreover, our results suggest that natural catechol estrogens may be involved in the control mechanisms of estrogen production.

  16. Characterization of estrogen quinone-derived protein adducts and their identification in human serum albumin derived from breast cancer patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shou-Tung; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Tsai, Chen-His; Wei, Hz-Han; Chen, Guan-Jie; Yang, Tsung-Chou; Lin, Che; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2011-05-10

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E₂-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E₂-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen that are thought to be responsible for the estrogen-induced genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to analyze estrogen quinone-derived protein adducts and to measure the background levels of these adducts in human serum albumin (Alb) derived from female blood donors in Taiwan. Results from in vitro experiments confirmed that the production of estrogen quinone-derived adducts on serum Alb increased with increased concentration of estrogen quinones. Time-course experiments suggested that both E₂-2,3-Q- and E₂-3,4-Q-derived adducts rapidly reached maximum values at 10 min mark and remained constant thereafter for up to 24 h. Additionally, with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) pretreatment, the production of estrogen quinone-derived protein adducts was detected in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to estrogen. Co-treatment of a catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor further enhanced the production of estrogen quinone-derived adducts in all cases. When we investigated the levels of estrogen quinone-derived adducts in human serum Alb, cysteinyl adducts of E₂-2,3-Q-1-S-Alb, E₂-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb, and E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb were detected in all healthy female controls (n=10) with median levels at 147 (range 14.1-533), 197 (range 30.0-777), and 65.6 (range 17.6-1360) (pmol/g), respectively. We noticed that levels of E₂-2,3-Q-derived adducts were 2-fold greater than those of E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in controls whereas levels of E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb were 2-fold higher than those of E₂-2,3-Q-derived adducts in patients (n = 20). Additionally, levels of E₂-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb correlated significantly with those of E₂-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb (correlation coefficient r = 0.684-0.850, p < 0.05). Overall, we conclude that cumulative body burden of E₂-3,4-Q is a significant predictor of breast cancer.

  17. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  18. Hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of a phenolic C-linked 2'-deoxyguanosine adduct yields a reactive catechol.

    PubMed

    Witham, Aaron A; Beach, Daniel G; Gabryelski, Wojciech; Manderville, Richard A

    2012-02-20

    Phenolic toxins stimulate oxidative stress and generate C-linked adducts at the C8-site of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG). We previously reported that the C-linked adduct 8-(4″-hydroxyphenyl)-dG (p-PhOH-dG) undergoes oxidation in the presence of Na(2)IrCl(6) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H(2)O(2) to generate polymeric adducts through phenoxyl radical production [ Weishar ( 2008 ) Org. Lett. 10 , 1839 - 1842 ]. We now report on reaction of p-PhOH-dG with two radical-generating systems, Cu(II)/H(2)O(2) or Fe(II)-EDTA/H(2)O(2), which were utilized to study the fate of the C-linked adduct in the presence of hydroxyl radical (HO(•)). The radical-generating systems facilitate (i) hydroxylation of the phenolic ring to afford the catechol adduct 8-(3″,4″-dihydroxyphenyl)-dG (3″,4″-DHPh-dG) and (ii) H-atom abstraction from the sugar moiety to generate the deglycosylated base p-PhOH-G. The ratios of 3″,4″-DHPh-dG to p-PhOH-G were ∼1 for Cu(II)/H(2)O(2) and ∼0.13 for Fe(II)-EDTA/H(2)O(2). The formation of 3″,4″-DHPh-dG was found to have important consequences in terms of reactivity. The catechol adduct has a lower oxidation potential than p-PhOH-dG and is sensitive to aqueous basic media, undergoing decomposition to generate a dicarboxylic acid derivative. In the presence of excess N-acetylcysteine (NAC), oxidation of 3″,4″-DHPh-dG produced mono-NAC and di-NAC conjugates. Our results imply that secondary oxidative pathways of phenolic-dG lesions are likely to contribute to toxicity.

  19. Modulation of Estrogen-Depurinating DNA Adducts by Sulforaphane for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    oup.com Subject: Carcinogenesis MS - CARCIN-2011-00715 Date: Tue, August 30, 2011 1:41 pm To: liyang@pitt.edu 30-Aug-2011   35   36 Dear...and its metabolites may play an important role in renal cell carcinogenesis. Catechol-<i>O</i>-methyltransferase ( COMT ) participates in the estrogen...metabolism pathway by neutralizing toxic substances. Although reduced COMT activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for estrogen-associated

  20. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 Arg139Trp and Pro187Ser polymorphisms imbalance estrogen metabolism towards DNA adduct formation in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seema; Zahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Muhammad; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Meza, Jane L; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G; Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti

    2009-10-01

    Estrogens (estrone, E(1); estradiol, E(2)) are oxidized in the breast first to catechols and then to form two ortho-quinones (E(1/2)-3,4-Q) that react with DNA to form depurinating adducts, which lead to mutations associated with breast cancer. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) reduces these quinones back to catechols, and thus may protect against this mechanism. We examined whether the inheritance of two polymorphic variants of NQO1 (Pro187Ser or Arg139Trp) would result in poor reduction of E(1/2)-3,4-Q in normal human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10F) and increased depurinating adduct formation. An isogenic set of stably transfected normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10F) that express a truncated (135Stop), the wild-type, the 139Trp variant or the 187Ser variant of human NQO1 cDNA was constructed. MCF-10F cells showed a low endogenous NQO1 activity. NQO1 expression was examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and catalytic activity of reducing E(2)-3,4-Q to 4-hydroxyE(1/2) and associated changes in the levels of quinone conjugates (4-methoxyE(1/2), 4-OHE(1/2)-2-glutathione, 4-OHE(1/2)-2-Cys and 4-OHE(1/2)-2-N-acetylcysteine) and depurinating DNA adducts (4-OHE(1/2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE(1/2)-1-N7Gua) were examined by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The polymorphic variants transcribed comparably to the wild-type NQO1, but produced approximately 2-fold lower levels of the protein, suggesting that the variant proteins may become degraded. E(1/2)-3,4-Q toxicity to MCF-10F cells (IC50=24.74 microM) was increased (IC50=3.7 microM) by Ro41-0960 (3 microM), a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor. Cells expressing polymorphic NQO1 treated with E(2)-3,4-Q with or without added Ro41-0960, showed lower ability to reduce the quinone ( approximately 50% lower levels of the free catechols and approximately 3-fold lower levels of methylated catechols) compared to the wild

  1. Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen*

    PubMed Central

    DAS, SANJOY K.; TAN, JIAN; JOHNSON, DONALD C.; DEY, SUDHANSU K.

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics are considered reproductive toxins because of their ability to interact with the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). However, there is evidence that these xenobiotics can regulate gene expression in the reproductive targets by mechanisms that do not involve these ERs. To examine this further, we compared the effects of estrogenic (o,p′-DDT [1-(o-chlorophenyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)2,2,2-trichloroethane] and Kepone, chlordecone) and nonestrogenic (p,p′-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], a metabolite of p,p′-DDT) xenobiotics with those of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxyestradiol-17β (4-OH-E2), a catechol metabolite of E2, on uterine expression of lactoferrin (LF) and progesterone receptor (PR). These genes are estrogen responsive in the mouse uterus. Normally, LF is expressed in the uterine epithelium, whereas PR is expressed in both the epithelium and stroma in response to estrogenic stimulation. Ovariectomized mice were injected with xenobiotics (7.5 mg/kg), E2 (10 μg/kg), 4-OH-E2 (10 μg/kg), or the vehicle (oil, 0.1 ml/mouse), and uterine tissues were processed for Northern blot and in situ hybridization. The pure antiestrogen ICI-182780 (ICI; 1 or 20 mg/kg) was used to interfere with estrogenic responses that were associated with the ERs. The results of Northern and in situ hybridization demonstrated increased uterine levels of PR and LF messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by all of these xenobiotics, but quantitatively the responses were much lower than those induced by E2 or 4-OH-E2. The results further showed that the E2-inducible epithelial LF mRNA accumulation was markedly abrogated by pretreatment with ICI (20 mg/kg). In contrast, this treatment retained the epithelial expression of PR mRNA, but down-regulated the stromal expression. In contrast, ICI had negligible effects on LF and PR mRNA responses to 4-OH-E2, indicating that this catechol estrogen exerted its effects primarily via a mechanism(s) other than the ERs. The

  2. Inhibition of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens by major polyphenolic components present in coffee.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao Ting; Wang, Pan; Nagai, Mime; Wen, Yujing; Bai, Hyoung-Woo

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three catechol-containing coffee polyphenols, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), on the O-methylation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2-OH-E(2) and 4-OH-E(2), respectively) catalyzed by the cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) isolated from human liver and placenta. When human liver COMT was used as the enzyme, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid each inhibited the O-methylation of 2-OH-E(2) in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 1.3-1.4 and 6.3-12.5 microM, respectively, and they also inhibited the O-methylation of 4-OH-E(2), with IC(50) values of 0.7-0.8 and 1.3-3.1 microM, respectively. Similar inhibition pattern was seen with human placental COMT preparation. CAPE had a comparable effect as caffeic acid for inhibiting the O-methylation of 2-OH-E(2), but it exerted a weaker inhibition of the O-methylation of 4-OH-E(2). Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid inhibited the human liver and placental COMT-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens with a mixed mechanism of inhibition (competitive plus noncompetitive). Computational molecular modeling analysis showed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid can bind to human soluble COMT at the active site in a similar manner as the catechol estrogen substrates. Moreover, the binding energy values of these two coffee polyphenols are lower than that of catechol estrogens, which means that coffee polyphenols have higher binding affinity for the enzyme than the natural substrates. This computational finding agreed perfectly with our biochemical data.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Weiss, Noel S.; Chen, Chu; Li, Christopher I.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway altered the risk of breast cancer alone or in combination, as well as whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) modified the effect of these SNPs on breast cancer risk. Methods In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer, 891 cases and 878 controls were genotyped for six functional SNPs in the COMT, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genes. Results Women homozygous with the T allele in CYP1B1*2 (Ser119; rs1056827) were at 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–2.46) times the risk of women homozygous with the G allele; women homozygous with the G allele in GSTP1 (Val105; rs1695) were at 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54–0.99) times the risk of breast cancer compared to women homozygous with the A allele. No other SNPs tested were associated with breast cancer to any appreciable degree. Potential gene-gene and gene-HT interactions were investigated. Conclusion With the exception of GSTP1 and possibly CYP1B1*2, our findings do not provide support for the role of genetic variation in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women. PMID:19383894

  4. Estrogen-DNA Adducts as Novel Biomarkers For Ovarian Cancer Risk and for Use in Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    amplification and genotyping of the four single nucleotide polymorphisms , CYP1A1 (I462V), CYP1B1 (V432L), COMT (V158M) and NQO1 (P609S). Task 6. Order...genetic polymorphisms in selected enzymes that metabolize estrogens. The first year of the grant has been spent collecting urine and saliva samples...DNA adducts, estrogen metabolism, genetic polymorphisms , cancer etiology, tool for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  5. Catechol estrogens induce proliferation and malignant transformation in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Hisham A; Tolba, Mai F; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2013-07-18

    In the current study, the non-transformed prostatic epithelial cells (BPH-1) were exposed to the catechol estrogens (CE) 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) or 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), or the parent hormone 17-β-estradiol (E2) at an equimolar concentration (1μM) for a period of 6 weeks. It was found that both 2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2 have more potent proliferation-enhancing effect than E2. Exposure to 2-OHE2, 4-OHE2 or E2 resulted in a significant increase in the protein abundance of cyclin D1 and c-myc. The treated cells exhibited a shift toward the proliferative phase as indicated by FACScan. BPH-1 cells treated with 4-OHE2 showed increased abundance of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and its downstream IGF-1R. Reduced abundance of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) and its downstream tumor suppressor FOXO-1 were observed in cells exposed to E2, 2-OHE2 and, to a greater extent, 4-OHE2. Comet assay revealed that CE, especially 4-OHE2, elicited significant genotoxic effects as compared to E2. 4-OHE2 showed greater ability to neoplastically transform BPH-1 cells as indicated by increased colony forming capacity in soft agar and matrix invasion. In conclusion, in vitro exposure to CE could neoplastically transform human prostatic epithelial cells. Further, 4-OHE2 is more carcinogenic to prostate epithelial cells than the parent hormone E2.

  6. Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the Gram-positive Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: quantitative structure/activity relationship and the crystal structures of native enzyme and catechols adducts.

    PubMed

    Matera, Irene; Ferraroni, Marta; Kolomytseva, Marina; Golovleva, Ludmila; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2010-06-01

    The first crystallographic structures of a catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP (Rho 1,2-CTD), a Fe(III) ion containing enzyme specialized in the aerobic biodegradation of catechols, and its adducts with catechol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol), 3-chlorocatechol, 4-chlorocatechol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol and protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) have been determined and analyzed. This study represents the first extensive characterization of catechols adducts of 1,2-CTDs. The structural analyses reveal the diverse modes of binding to the active metal iron ion of the tested catechols thus allowing to identify the residues selectively involved in recognition of the diverse substrates by this class of enzymes. The comparison is further extended to the structural and functional characteristics of the other 1,2-CTDs isolated from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover the high structural homology of the present enzyme with the 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the same bacterium are discussed in terms of their different substrate specificity. The catalytic rates for Rho 1,2-CTD conversion of the tested compounds are also compared with the calculated energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) of the substrates. A quantitative relationship (R=0.966) between the ln k(cat) and the calculated electronic parameter E(HOMO) was obtained for catechol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, 3-chlorocatechol, 4-chlorocatechol. This indicates that for these substrates the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle is dependent on their nucleophilic reactivity. The discrepancies observed in the quantitative relationship for 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol and protocatechuate are ascribed to the sterical hindrances leading to the distorted binding of such catechols observed in the corresponding structures.

  7. Evaluation of serum estrogen-DNA adducts as potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Yang, Li; Sandhu, Nicole P; Ingle, James N; Beseler, Cheryl L; Suman, Vera J; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the ratio of estrogen-DNA adducts to their respective metabolites and conjugates in serum differed between women with early-onset breast cancer and those with average or high risk of developing breast cancer. Serum samples from women at average risk (n=63) or high risk (n=80) for breast cancer (using Gail model) and women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer (n=79) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Adduct ratios were statistically compared among the three groups, and the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) was used to identify a diagnostic cut-off point. The median adduct ratio in the average-risk group was significantly lower than that of both the high-risk group and the breast cancer group (p values<0.0001), and provided good discrimination between those at average versus high risk of breast cancer (AUC=0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90). Sensitivity and specificity were maximized at an adduct ratio of 77. For women in the same age and BMI group, the odds of being at high risk for breast cancer was 8.03 (95% CI 3.46-18.7) times higher for those with a ratio of at least 77 compared to those with a ratio less than 77. The likelihood of being at high risk for breast cancer was significantly increased for those with a high adduct ratio relative to those with a low adduct ratio. These findings suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts deserve further study as potential biomarkers for risk of developing breast cancer.

  8. An assay for human erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase activity using a catechol estrogen as the substrate.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W; Edman, C D; Porter, J C; Johnston, J M; MacDonald, P C

    1979-05-16

    A radiometric assay for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity in human erythrocytes is described that employs 2-hydroxy[3H]estrone, and non-radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the cosubstrates. The ease of separation of the product of the reaction, 2-methoxy[3H]estrone from 2-hydroxy[3H]estrone makes it possible to achieve low reaction blanks. The assay is very sensitive, and only 200 microliter of whole blood are used per determination. The assay is highly reproducible. The interassay variability (coefficient of variation) was 6.5% for 24 assays of COMT activity in red blood cells in blood obtained daily for 24 days from one person. In incubations conducted at 37 degrees C for 30 min, the catechol-O-methyltransferase activity was a linear function of enzyme concentration (equivalent to 11 to 180 microliter of packed red blood cells). Employing this assay, we evaluated the catalytic conversion of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-methoxyestrone by catechol-O-methyltransferase from human red blood cells and found that the apparent Michaelis constant and the apparent maximal rate of reaction were 3 x 10(-7) M and 6.7 x 10(-9) mol . ml-1 erythrocytes . h-1, respectively. The catechol-O-methyltransferase activity measured in erythrocytes obtained from 100 healthy subjects (men and nonpregnant women) was 8.2 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- S.E.) nmol 2-methoxyestrone . ml-1 erythrocytes . h-1.

  9. Catechol estrogen formation and metabolism in brain tissue: comparison of tritium release from different positions in ring A of the steroid

    SciTech Connect

    Jellinck, P.H.; Hahn, E.F.; Norton, B.I.; Fishman, J.

    1984-11-01

    Catechol estrogens labeled with /sup 3/H at different positions in rings A and B of the steroid were synthesized by chemical or enzymatic methods, and their oxidative transformation by male rat brain microsomes was followed by the transfer of /sup 3/H into /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. This reaction was shown to occur more readily with the catechol estrogens than with the parent steroid and was also influenced by the position of the radiolabel. Tritium was displaced less readily from C-1 than from C-2 or C-4 of the aromatic ring. Spermine, which is known to increase cytochrome P-450-mediated hydroxylation reactions, had no effect on the release of /sup 3/H from ring A of either estradiol or 2-hydroxyestradiol with rat brain microsomes in contrast to liver. Glutathione and other thiols were able to cause a rapid loss of /sup 3/H from labeled catechol estrogens, even in the absence of tissue, but in double label experiments with (4-/sup 3/H)- and (4-/sup 14/C)2-hydroxyestradiol, the isotope ratio in the recovered catechol estrogen was unchanged. The results illustrate some of the problems in determining accurately the metabolism of estrogens by measuring /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formation when aromatic hydroxylation is involved and also highlight the possible interaction of the catechol estrogens with cellular nucleophiles such as glutathione.

  10. Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Self-Reported Infertility in Women Infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Júlio; Gouveia, Maria João; Vale, Nuno; Delgado, Maria de Lurdes; Gonçalves, Ana; da Silva, José M. Teixeira.; Oliveira, Cristiano; Xavier, Pedro; Gomes, Paula; Santos, Lúcio L.; Lopes, Carlos; Barros, Alberto; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J.; da Costa, José M. Correia; Sousa, Mário; Botelho, Mónica C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-DNA adducts. These catechol estrogens and the catechol-estrogen-DNA adducts can be isolated from sera of people infected with S. haematobium. The aim of this study was to study infertility in females infected with S. haematobium and its association with the presence of schistosome-derived catechol-estrogens. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was undertaken of female residents of a region in Bengo province, Angola, endemic for schistosomiasis haematobia. Ninety-three women and girls, aged from two (parents interviewed) to 94 years were interviewed on present and previous urinary, urogenital and gynecological symptoms and complaints. Urine was collected from the participants for egg-based parasitological assessment of schistosome infection, and for liquid chromatography diode array detection electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV-DAD/ESI-MSn) to investigate estrogen metabolites in the urine. Novel estrogen-like metabolites, potentially of schistosome origin, were detected in the urine of participants who were positive for eggs of S. haematobium, but not detected in urines negative for S. haematobium eggs. The catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts were significantly associated with schistosomiasis (OR 3.35; 95% CI 2.32–4.84; P≤0.001). In addition, presence of these metabolites was positively associated with infertility (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.13–16.70; P≤0.05). Conclusions/Significance Estrogen metabolites occur widely in diverse metabolic

  11. Urinary estrogen metabolites and self-reported infertility in women infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Santos, Júlio; Gouveia, Maria João; Vale, Nuno; Delgado, Maria de Lurdes; Gonçalves, Ana; da Silva, José M Teixeira; Oliveira, Cristiano; Xavier, Pedro; Gomes, Paula; Santos, Lúcio L; Lopes, Carlos; Barros, Alberto; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J; da Costa, José M Correia; Sousa, Mário; Botelho, Mónica C

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-DNA adducts. These catechol estrogens and the catechol-estrogen-DNA adducts can be isolated from sera of people infected with S. haematobium. The aim of this study was to study infertility in females infected with S. haematobium and its association with the presence of schistosome-derived catechol-estrogens. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of female residents of a region in Bengo province, Angola, endemic for schistosomiasis haematobia. Ninety-three women and girls, aged from two (parents interviewed) to 94 years were interviewed on present and previous urinary, urogenital and gynecological symptoms and complaints. Urine was collected from the participants for egg-based parasitological assessment of schistosome infection, and for liquid chromatography diode array detection electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV-DAD/ESI-MSn) to investigate estrogen metabolites in the urine. Novel estrogen-like metabolites, potentially of schistosome origin, were detected in the urine of participants who were positive for eggs of S. haematobium, but not detected in urines negative for S. haematobium eggs. The catechol-estrogens/ DNA adducts were significantly associated with schistosomiasis (OR 3.35; 95% CI 2.32-4.84; P≤0.001). In addition, presence of these metabolites was positively associated with infertility (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.13-16.70; P≤0.05). Estrogen metabolites occur widely in diverse metabolic pathways. In view of the statistically significant association between

  12. Metabolomic Profiling Unravels DNA Adducts in Human Breast That Are Formed from Peroxidase Mediated Activation of Estrogens to Quinone Methides

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are three major hypotheses that have been proposed for estrogen induced carcinogenicity, however exact etiology remains unknown. Based on the chemical logic, studies were undertaken to investigate if estrogens could generate quinone methides in an oxidative environment which then could cause DNA damage in humans. In presence of MnO2 estrogens were oxidized to quinone methides. Surprisingly quinone methides were found to be stable with t1/2 of 20.8 and 4.5 min respectively. Incubation of estrogens with lactoperoxidase (LPO) and H2O2 resulted in formation of respective quinone methides (E1(E2)-QM). Subsequent addition of adenine to the assay mixture lead to trapping of E1(E2)-QM, resulting in formation of adenine adducts of estrogens, E1(E2)-9-N-Ade. Targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based metabolomic analysis of the breast tissue extracts showed the presence of adenine adducts of estrogens, E1(E2)-9-N-Ade, along with other estrogen related metabolites. Identity of E1(E2)-N-Ade in LPO assay extracts and breast tissue extracts were confirmed by comparing them to pure synthesized E1(E2)-9-N-Ade standards. From these results, it is evident that peroxidase enzymes or peroxidase-like activity in human breast tissue could oxidize estrogens to electrophilic and stable quinone methides in a single step that covalently bind to DNA to form adducts. The error prone repair of the damaged DNA can result in mutation of critical genes and subsequently cancer. This article reports evidence for hitherto unknown estrogen metabolic pathway in human breast, catalyzed by peroxidase, which could initiate cancer. PMID:23762435

  13. Assessment of Cellular Estrogenic Activity Based on Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Reduction of Soluble-Form Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Expression in an ELISA-Based System

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Tse, Zero Ho-Man; Liu, Hui-Fang; Lu, Song; Ho, Jessica Wing-Man; Kung, Michelle Hiu-Wai; Ramsden, David Boyer; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2013-01-01

    Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER). Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10-9-10-7M) dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (p<0.05), which was blocked by ICI 182,780. Reduction of COMT expression was readily detectable in cells exposed to picomolar level of E2, comparable to other in vitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different cellular

  14. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) expression in an ELISA-based system.

    PubMed

    Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Tse, Zero Ho-Man; Liu, Hui-Fang; Lu, Song; Ho, Jessica Wing-Man; Kung, Michelle Hiu-Wai; Ramsden, David Boyer; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2013-01-01

    Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER). Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10(-9)-10(-7)M) dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (p<0.05), which was blocked by ICI 182,780. Reduction of COMT expression was readily detectable in cells exposed to picomolar level of E2, comparable to other in vitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different cellular

  15. X-ray structures of 4-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase adducts with substituted catechols: new perspectives in the molecular basis of intradiol ring cleaving dioxygenases specificity.

    PubMed

    Ferraroni, Marta; Kolomytseva, Marina; Scozzafava, Andrea; Golovleva, Ludmila; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    The crystallographic structures of 4-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (4-CCD) complexes with 3,5-dichlorocatechol, protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate), hydroxyquinol (benzen-1,2,4-triol) and pyrogallol (benzen-1,2,3-triol), which act as substrates or inhibitors of the enzyme, have been determined and analyzed. 4-CCD from the Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP is a Fe(III) ion containing enzyme specialized in the aerobic biodegradation of chlorocatechols. The structures of the 4-CCD complexes show that the catechols bind the catalytic iron ion in a bidentate mode displacing Tyr169 and the benzoate ion (found in the native enzyme structure) from the metal coordination sphere, as found in other adducts of intradiol dioxygenases with substrates. The analysis of the present structures allowed to identify the residues selectively involved in recognition of the diverse substrates. Furthermore the structural comparison with the corresponding complexes of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the same Rhodococcus strain (Rho-1,2-CTD) highlights significant differences in the binding of the tested catechols to the active site of the enzyme, particularly in the orientation of the aromatic ring substituents. As an example the 3-substituted catechols are bound with the substituent oriented towards the external part of the 4-CCD active site cavity, whereas in the Rho-1,2-CTD complexes the 3-substituents were placed in the internal position. The present crystallographic study shed light on the mechanism that allows substrate recognition inside this class of high specific enzymes involved in the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants.

  16. Unbalanced Estrogen Metabolism in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Muhammad; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Hall, James B.; LeVan, Tricia; Cavalieri, Ercole L.; Rogan, Eleanor G.

    2013-01-01

    Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p<0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. PMID:24170413

  17. Evidence of the directive effect of 17 beta-conjugate group on the enzymatic O-methylation of catechol estrogen.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, I; Nakagawa, A; Kamiya, E; Itoh, S; Ogiso, T

    1980-06-01

    Incubations of 2-hydroxyestradiol (I), 2-hydroxyestradiol 17 beta-sulfate (II), and 2-hydroxyestradiol 17 beta-glucuronide (III) with purified rat liver catechol O-methyltransferase were carried out at pH 7.2 in the presence of Mg2+ and (3H-Me)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The radioactive methylated products, 2-methoxyestradiol (IV) and 2-hydroxyestradiol-3-methyl ether (V), from each substrate were quantificanted by reverse isotope dilution method after their complete separation and acetylation. In the experiments of conjugated substrates, II and III, the analyses of the methylated products were done after their hydrolysis of 17 beta-conjugate groups with acid or beta-glucuronidase. The product ratios (2-methoxy/3-methoxy) of substrates I, II, and III, were 1:1, 4:1, and 45:1, respectively. These results are suggesting that 17 beta-conjugate groups of 2-hydroxyestradiol has directive effect on enzymatic O-methylation of estrogen catechols. Further, it is estimated that following process may be present in the estradiol metabolism in rat and/or humans: estradiol leads to estradiol 17 beta-conjugates leads to 2-hydroxyestradiol 17 beta-conjugates leads to 2-methoxyestradiol 17 beta-conjugates.

  18. Polymorphisms of catechol estrogens metabolism pathway genes and breast cancer risk in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, O C; Pérez-Morales, R; Castro, C; Flores-Díaz, A; Soto-Cruz, K E; Astorga-Ramos, A; Gonsebatt, M E; Casas, L; Valdés-Flores, M; Rubio, J

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is associated to estrogen exposure. Allelic variants involved in estrogen metabolism might change the risk of developing this neoplasia. We examined the potential association of breast cancer risk in Mexican women with the polymorphisms CYP1A1 rs1048943, CYP1B1 rs1056836, COMT rs4680, GSTP1 rs1695, GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null which are involved in estrogen metabolism pathway. This study included 150 cases and 150 controls. A significant association was observed between, CYP1A1 rs1048943 (OR = 1.95, C.I. 1.13-3.36) and GSTP1 rs1695 (OR = 2.39, C.I. 1.24-4.24) polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer. This risk was increased when the women were stratified according to their menopausal status. The results show that breast cancer risk significantly increases in women with 3-6 risk polymorphisms (OR = 3.75, C.I. 1.44-9.74).

  19. Formation of Two Novel Estrogen Guanine Adducts and HPLC/MS Detection of 4-Hydroxyestradiol-N7-Guanine in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Bransfield, Leslie A.; Rennie, Alissa; Visvanathan, Kala; Odwin, Shelly-Ann; Kensler, Thomas W.; Yager, James D.; Friesen, Marlin D.; Groopman, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen-DNA adducts are potential biomarkers for assessing the risk of developing of a number of hormonally-modified cancers, including breast cancer. Formation of the 4-hydroxyestradiol-N7-guanine (4-OHE2-N7-guanine) adduct from reaction of estradiol-3,4-quinone with DNA and its detection in vivo has been established. With the ultimate goal of exploring estrogen-DNA adducts as biomarkers in experimental and human investigations, the 4-OHE2-N7-guanine was synthesized and preliminary studies demonstrated that this adduct was detectable in all ten female human urine samples examined. Therefore, more extensive investigations were conducted to study this compound’s chemical-physical properties and to examine the stability of 4-OHE2-N7-guanine under a range of pH conditions that might influence biomarker measurement. Under neutral to alkaline conditions 4-OHE2-N7-guanine could completely oxidize to an 8-oxo-guanine derivative. This derivative was isolated by HPLC and mass spectrometry confirmed the oxidized compound by demonstrating the formation of an m/z 168 fragment, generated by oxygen addition to guanine. Further, investigation of the 4-OHE2-N7-2’-deoxyguanosine nucleoside adduct showed that under alkaline conditions a formamidopyrimidine analogue was produced. The formamidopyrimidine derivative forms from ring opening of the guanine imidazole ring following C-8 oxidation in the N7,N9 disubstituted guanine Formation of both of these oxidized estrogen-guanine DNA adducts has precedent with other chemical agents that covalently bind to the N7 position in guanine. Therefore, the development and application of methods to measure estrogen-guanine adducts will need to also consider these new adducts and the biological implications of these compounds will need to be explored to determine their contribution to estrogen toxicology. PMID:18582124

  20. Modulation of catechol estrogen synthesis by rat liver microsomes: effects of treatment with growth hormone or testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Quail, J.A.; Jellinck, P.H.

    1987-09-01

    The ability of GH from various mammalian species, administered to normal mature male rats by constant infusion, to decrease the hepatic 2-hydroxylation of estradiol (E2) to female levels, as measured by the release of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O from (2-3H)E2, was determined. Rat and human GH (hGH) showed the highest activity while ovine GH was inactive. PRL (0.6 IU/h X kg) administered together with hGH (0.02 IU/h X kg) did not antagonize the feminizing action of GH. Infusion of hGH into male rats decreased the affinity of estradiol 2-hydroxylase for its steroid substrate and altered the linear Lineweaver-Burk plot towards a nonlinear hyperbolic plot characteristic of the female. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) for the reaction was 1.69 microM for males and 2.75 microM for testosterone-treated ovariectomized females. An equal mixture of liver microsomes from male and female rats gave kinetic values similar to those observed with males alone. Neonatal imprinting with androgen did not alter the magnitude of the response of female rats to treatment with testosterone and/or GH at maturity and the androgen effect could only be shown in ovariectomized animals. The results with rats of different endocrine status were corroborated by the kinetic data and by the pattern of metabolites obtained with (4-/sup 14/C)E2 when examined by TLC and autoradiography. The hormonal control of estradiol 2-hydroxylase, the key enzyme in catechol estrogen formation, and the contribution of sex-specific multiple forms of the enzyme to this reaction are discussed.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes in Turkish patients with familial prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pazarbasi, Ayfer; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Alptekin, Davut; Luleyap, Umit; Tansug, Zuhtu; Ozpak, Lutfiye; Izmirli, Muzeyyen; Onatoglu-Arikan, Dilge; Kocaturk-Sel, Sabriye; Erkoc, Mehmet Ali; Turgut, Ozgur; Bereketoglu, Ceyhun; Tunc, Erdal; Akbal, Eylul

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estrogen is one of the most crucial hormones participating in the proliferation and carcinogenesis of the prostate glands. Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen metabolism pathway might be involved in the risk of prostate carcinoma development. We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes and the risk of developing familial prostate carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 34 cases with prostate carcinoma whose first-degree relatives had prostate carcinoma and 30 healthy age-matched male controls were enrolled. The genotypes of ESR1 and COMT genes were analyzed employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. 34 cases with prostate carcinoma, whose first degree relatives had prostate carcinoma and 14 age-matched male controls were enrolled to analyze the genotype of these two genes. RESULTS: Among control patients, the ESR1 PvuII genotypes of C/C, C/T and T/T were observed in 37%, 26% and 37%, respectively, whereas the C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes were observed in 18%, 41% and 41% of case patients, respectively. Among controls, the ESR1 PvuII allele frequencies of C and T were equally observed, whereas the C and T allele frequencies were observed in 38% and 62% of patients, respectively. Among ESR1 PvuII genotypes there were not any significant difference in terms of genotype (P = 0.199) and allele (P = 0.181) frequencies. Among controls, the ESR1 XbaI genotypes of G/G, G/A and A/A were observed in 33%, 37% and 33%, respectively, whereas the G/G, G/A and A/A genotypes were observed in 12%, 47% and 41% of patients, respectively. Among controls, the ESR1 XbaI allele frequencies of A and G were observed equally, respectively, whereas the A and G frequencies were observed in 65% and 35% of patients, respectively. Among ESR1 Χ baI, there was not any significant difference in terms of genotype (P = 0.111) and allele (P = 0

  2. Formation of catechol estrogen glutathione conjugates and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-dependent nephrotoxicity of 17beta-estradiol in the golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, M; Lau, S S; Monks, T J

    1997-03-01

    In an animal model of hormone-mediated carcinogenesis, male golden Syrian hamsters develop renal carcinoma following prolonged exposure to 17beta-estradiol. The basis for the species and tissue specificity is unclear. Detailed information on the disposition of 17beta-estradiol in this model is lacking. Because catechol estrogens have been implicated in this model of carcinogenesis, we investigated the metabolism and nephrotoxicity of 17beta-estradiol in golden Syrian hamsters, with emphasis on the formation of catechol estrogen thioethers. 17beta-Estradiol (50 micromol/kg, i.p.) is a mild nephrotoxicant, causing significant elevations in the urinary excretion of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose. Increases in renal protein carbonyls and lipid hydroperoxides, which are markers of oxidative damage, also occur after administration of 17beta-estradiol (50 micromol/kg, i.p.). 17beta-Estradiol-mediated nephrotoxicity is reduced by treating animals with acivicin, an inhibitor of gamma-GT, implying that toxicity is mediated by metabolites requiring metabolism by this enzyme. Following administration of 17beta-[14C]estradiol (100 micromol/kg) to hamsters, 9.7% of the dose is recovered in bile after 5 h, the majority (7.9%) representing aqueous metabolites. Seven catechol estrogen GSH conjugates were identified, 2-hydroxy-1,4-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol, 2-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol, 2-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone, 4-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone, 2-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone, 4-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol, and 2-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-17beta-estradiol. At 5.4 micromol/kg of 17beta-estradiol, a dose-reflective of daily exposure levels in the hamster model of nephrocarcinogenicity, 12% of the dose is recovered within 5 h as a combination of GSH conjugates of 2- and 4-hydroxy-17beta-estradiol and 2- and 4-hydroxyestrone. In summary

  3. Catechol estrogen formation by brain tissue: characterization of a direct product isolation assay for estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity and its application to studies of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol formation by rabbit hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, R.M.; Williams, K.I.; Weisz, J.

    1981-12-01

    A direct product isolation assay for quantifying the formation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2) from (6,7-3H)estradiol by rabbit hypothalami in vitro was developed, and the assay was used to characterize some properties of estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity in this tissue. The reaction was carried out under conditions that minimized further metabolism of enzymatically formed catechol estrogens. A simple two-step separation procedure, involving the use of a neutral alumina column, followed by thin layer chromatography, was developed to isolate the enzymatically formed catechol estrogens in a radiochemically homogeneous form. The detergent, Tween-80, was found to activate the enzyme and was used routinely at a concentration of 0.1% in the assay. The formation of 2-OHE2 was linear up to 10 min and with increasing protein concentrations up to 150 micrograms/incubation. Similar values were obtained for 4-OHE2. Maximum velocities (Vmax) for the formation of 2- and 4-OHE2 were 190 and 270 pmol/mg protein . 10 min, respectively. The apparent Km values with respect to estradiol for 2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2 were 125 and 150 microM, respectively. The highest specific activity for the enzyme was present in the 100,000 X g supernatant (S3), while the activity in the microsomal fraction (P3) was less than that in the original homogenate. Enzyme activity depended on the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was inhibited by CO as well as by high concentrations of SKF-525A. Estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity in rabbit hypothalamus differed from that in rat liver in two respects. In the liver, enzyme activity was localized in the microsomal fraction and was virtually abolished by Tween-80. In contrast, enzyme activity in rabbit hypothalamus was maximal in the soluble fraction (100,000 X g supernatant)and was stimulated by the detergent.

  4. Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of estrogen homeostasis: elevation of estrogenquinones as a risk factor for developing breast cancer in Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Yu, Wen-Fa; Hu, Suh-Woan; Sue, Hung-Jie; Ko, Mao-Hui; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Chung, Kuo-Suan; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2014-03-21

    The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to analyze estrogen quinone-derived adducts, including 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q), in human hemoglobin (Hb). The methodology was then used to measure the levels of these adducts in Hb derived from female breast cancer patients (n=143) as well as controls (n=147) in Taiwan. Our result confirmed that both E2-2,3-Q- and E2-3,4-Q-derived adducts, including E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb, were detected in all breast cancer patients with median levels at 434 (215-1472) and 913 (559-2384) (pmol/g), respectively. Levels of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb correlated significantly with those of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb (r=0.622-0.628, p<0.001). By contrast, median levels of these same estrogen quinone-derived adducts in healthy controls were 71.8 (35.7-292) and 139 (69.1-453) (pmol/g). This translated to ~6-fold increase in mean values of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Hb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Hb in breast cancer patients compared to those in the controls (p<0.001). Our findings add further support to the theme that cumulative body burden of estrogen quinones is an important indicator of breast cancer risk. We hypothesize that combination of genetic events and environmental factors may modulate estrogen homeostasis and enhance the production of estrogen quinones which lead to subsequent generation of pro-mutagenic DNA lesions in breast cancer patients.

  5. Depurinating estrogen–DNA adducts in the etiology and prevention of breast and other human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on estrogen metabolism, formation of DNA adducts, mutagenicity, cell transformation and carcinogenicity have led to and supported the hypothesis that the reaction of specific estrogen metabolites, mostly the electrophilic catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, with DNA can generate the critical mutations to initiate breast and other human cancers. Analysis of depurinating estrogen–DNA adducts in urine demonstrates that women at high risk of, or with breast cancer, have high levels of the adducts, indicating a critical role for adduct formation in breast cancer initiation. Men with prostate cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma also have high levels of estrogen–DNA adducts. This knowledge of the first step in cancer initiation suggests the use of specific antioxidants that can block formation of the adducts by chemical and biochemical mechanisms. Two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and resveratrol, are prime candidates to prevent breast and other human cancers because in various in vitro and in vivo experiments, they reduce the formation of estrogen–DNA adducts. PMID:20021210

  6. Catechol metabolites of zeranol and 17β-estradiol: a comparative in vitro study on the induction of oxidative DNA damage and methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Hildebrand, Andreas A; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred

    2012-04-05

    α-Zearalanol (α-ZAL, zeranol) is a highly estrogenic macrocyclic β-resorcylic acid lactone, which is used as a growth promotor for cattle in various countries. We have recently reported that α-ZAL and its major metabolite zearalanone (ZAN) are hydroxylated at the aromatic ring by microsomes from human liver in vitro, thereby forming two catechol metabolites each. Thus, the oxidative metabolism of α-ZAL and ZAN resembles that of the endogenous steroidal estrogens 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), which also give rise to two catechols each. As these catechol metabolites are believed to mediate the carcinogenicity of E2 and E1 by causing oxidative DNA damage and DNA adducts, their methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important inactivation pathway. Here we report that hepatic microsomes from five species generate catechol metabolites of α-ZAL and ZAN, the highest amounts being formed by human liver microsomes, followed by rat, mouse, steer and swine. The microsomal extracts and the individual catechols of α-ZAL, ZAN, E2 and E1 were found to induce oxidative DNA damage, as measured by the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in a cell-free system. The ranking of pro-oxidant activity was 15-HO-ZAN>15-HO-α-ZAL≈4-HO-E2/E1≈2-HO-E2/E1>13-HO-ZAN>13-HO-α-ZAL. With respect to the rate of methylation by human hepatic COMT, the ranking was 2-HO-E2/E1>4-HO-E2/E1>15-HO-α-ZAL/ZAN>13-HO-α-ZAL/ZAN. Thus, some catechol metabolites of α-ZAL and ZAN are better pro-oxidants and poorer substrates of COMT than the catechols of E2 and E1. These findings warrant further investigations into the genotoxic potential of α-ZAL, which may constitute another biological activity in addition to its well-known estrogenicity.

  7. Investigation of the cumulative body burden of estrogen-3,4-quinone in breast cancer patients and controls using albumin adducts as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che; Chen, Dar-Ren; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Yu, Wen-Fa; Lin, Ching-Chiuan; Ko, Mao-Huei; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen. Elevation of E2-3,4-Q to E2-2,3-Q ratio is thought to be an important indicator of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Our current study compared the cumulative body burden of these estrogen quinones in serum samples taken from Taiwanese women with breast cancer (n=152) vs healthy controls (n=75) by using albumin (Alb) adducts as biomarkers. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in all study population at levels ranging from 61.7-1330 to 66.6-1,590 pmol/g, respectively. Correlation coefficient between E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was 0.610 for controls and 0.767 for breast cancer patients (p<0.001). We also noticed that in premenopausal subjects with body mass index (BMI) less than 27, background levels of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was inversely proportional to BMI with about 25% increase in E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb per 5 kg/m(2) decrease in BMI (p<0.001). In addition, we confirmed that mean levels of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in breast cancer patients were ∼5-fold greater than in those of controls (p<0.001). Overall, this evidence suggests that disparity in estrogen disposition and the subsequent elevation of cumulative body burden of E2-3,4-Q may play a role in the development of breast cancer.

  8. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  9. Estrogen

    MedlinePlus

    ... life', the end of monthly menstrual periods). Some brands of estrogen are also used to treat vaginal ... prevent osteoporosis should consider a different treatment. Some brands of estrogen are also to relieve symptoms of ...

  10. Mechanisms of Estrogen Carcinogenesis: The Role of E2/E1- Quinone Metabolites Suggests New Approaches to Preventive Intervention – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yager, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies in hamsters, mice and rats have demonstrated that estradiol (E2), its interconvertible metabolite estrone (E1) and their catechol metabolites, in particular 4-hydroxy E2/E1, are carcinogenic in the kidney, uterus and mammary gland. Observational studies and clinical trials consistently show that sustained exposure to E2/E1 is associated with the development of sporadic breast cancer. The weight of evidence supports the contribution of two complementary pathways in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer. One pathway involves activation of nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling pathways through the binding of estrogen to nuclear and membrane-bound estrogen receptors leading to increased cell proliferation. The other pathway involves the oxidative metabolism of E2/E1 to catechols and then reactive quinones that can contribute to oxidative DNA damage and form specific, mutagenic depurinating adducts with adenine and guanine which then in turn can serve as biomarkers for the occurrence of these processes. Both pathways can serve as portals to preventive intervention. Antiestrogens are used clinically to block receptor-mediated signaling to block tumor growth. Various chemopreventive agents such as sulforaphane (SFN) and resveratrol have been shown in cell culture to block oxidative metabolism of E2/E1 and thus prevent DNA damage. Pretreatment of MCF-7 and MCF-10F cells with and inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) followed by treatment with E2 or 4-OH E2 caused increased oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and depurinating DNA adducts showing the importance of E2-catechol O-methylation by COMT as a protective pathway. E2 Treatment of MCF-10A cells with E2 or 4-OH E2 caused an increase in E2-adenine and guanine adducts. Treatment with sulforaphane increased NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione-S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) expression without affecting expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) or cytochrome P450 1B1

  11. Development of a Monoclonal Antibody Against Estrogen Quinone-Adducted Proteins as Potential Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    E2-3,4-Q) covalently linked to hen egg albumin (OA) 1. Basis for the idea that E2-3,4-Q could form simple and stable adducts to protein amino groups...hen egg albumin (OA)], in comparison to a high molecular-weight protein, e.g., keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), is a superior carrier for...Backbone 0 0 0 Immune Receptor //HO 2-OHE2-6-N-GABA Figure 4 3. Synthesis I: Direct coupling of E2-3,4-Q to hen egg albumin (OA) a. Preparation of E2-3,4-Q

  12. Catechol oxidase activity of a series of new dinuclear copper(II) complexes with 3,5-DTBC and TCC as substrates: syntheses, X-ray crystal structures, spectroscopic characterization of the adducts and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2008-08-18

    A series of dinuclear copper(II) complexes has been synthesized with the aim to investigate their applicability as potential structure and function models for the active site of catechol oxidase enzyme. They have been characterized by routine physicochemical techniques as well as by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis: [Cu 2(H 2L2 (2))(OH)(H 2O)(NO 3)](NO 3) 3.2H 2O ( 1), [Cu(HL1 (4))(H 2O)(NO 3)] 2(NO 3) 2.2H 2O ( 2), [Cu(L1 (1))(H 2O)(NO 3)] 2 ( 3), [Cu 2(L2 (3))(OH)(H 2O) 2](NO 3) 2, ( 4) and [Cu 2(L2 (1))(N 3) 3] ( 5) [L1 = 2-formyl-4-methyl-6R-iminomethyl-phenolato and L2 = 2,6-bis(R-iminomethyl)-4-methyl-phenolato; for L1 (1) and L2 (1), R = N-propylmorpholine; for L2 (2), R = N-ethylpiperazine; for L2 (3), R = N-ethylpyrrolidine, and for L1 (4), R = N-ethylmorpholine]. Dinuclear 1 and 4 possess two "end-off" compartmental ligands with exogenous mu-hydroxido and endogenous mu-phenoxido groups leading to intermetallic distances of 2.9794(15) and 2.9435(9) A, respectively; 2 and 3 are formed by two tridentate compartmental ligands where the copper centers are connected by endogenous phenoxido bridges with Cu-Cu separations of 3.0213(13) and 3.0152(15) A, respectively; 5 is built by an end-off compartmental ligand having exogenous mu-azido and endogenous mu-phenoxido groups with a Cu-Cu distance of 3.133(2) A (mean of two independent molecules). The catecholase activity of all of the complexes has been investigated in acetonitrile and methanol medium by UV-vis spectrophotometric study using 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) and tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) as substrates. In acetonitrile medium, the conversion of 3,5-DTBC to 3,5-di- tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) catalyzed by 1- 5 is observed to proceed via the formation of two enzyme-substrate adducts, ES1 and ES2, detected spectroscopically for the first time. In methanol medium no such enzyme-substrate adduct has been detected, and the 3,5-DTBC to 3,5-DTBQ conversion is observed to be catalyzed by 1- 5

  13. Catechol metabolites of the mycotoxin zearalenone are poor substrates but potent inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Wefers, Daniel; Hildebrand, Andreas A; Fleck, Stefanie C; Metzler, Manfred

    2013-08-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) elicits estrogenic effects and is biotransformed to two catechol metabolites, in analogy to the endogenous steroidal estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E2). Previous studies have shown that the catechol metabolites of ZEN have about the same potency to induce oxidative DNA damage as the catechol metabolites of E2, but are less efficiently converted to their methyl ethers by human hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Here, we report that the two catechol metabolites of ZEN, i.e. 13-hydroxy-ZEN and 15-hydroxy-ZEN, are not only poor substrates of human COMT but are also able to strongly inhibit the O-methylation of 2-hydroxy-E2, the major catechol metabolite of E2. 15-Hydroxy-ZEN acts as a non-competitive inhibitor and is about ten times more potent than 13-hydroxy-ZEN, which is an uncompetitive inhibitor of COMT. The catechol metabolites of ZEN were also shown to inhibit the O-methylation of 2-hydroxy-E2 by hepatic COMT from mouse, rat, steer and piglet, although to a lesser extent than observed with human COMT. The powerful inhibitory effect of catechol metabolites of ZEN on COMT may have implications for the tumorigenic activity of E2, because catechol metabolites of E2 elicit genotoxic effects, and their impaired O-methylation may increase the tumorigenicity of steroidal estrogens.

  14. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, L E; De Iuliis, G N; Nixon, B; Kime, M; Zelski, K; McVicar, C M; Lewis, S E; Aitken, R J

    2008-05-10

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear (beta-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17beta-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of male

  15. Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Muhammad; Goldner, Whitney; Beseler, Cheryl L; Rogan, Eleanor G; Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2013-12-01

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer most frequently occurs in premenopausal women. Greater exposure to estrogens may be a risk factor for thyroid cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in thyroid cancer, a spot urine sample was obtained from 40 women with thyroid cancer and 40 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates significantly differed between cases and controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in thyroid cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts might play a role in the initiation of thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  16. Unbalanced Estrogen Metabolism in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Muhammad; Goldner, Whitney; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Cavalieri, Ercole L.

    2013-01-01

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer most frequently occurs in premenopausal women. Greater exposure to estrogens may be a risk factor for thyroid cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in thyroid cancer, a spot urine sample was obtained from 40 women with thyroid cancer and 40 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates significantly differed between cases and controls (p<0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in thyroid cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts might play a role in the initiation of thyroid cancer. PMID:23686454

  17. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis of ten estrogen metabolites at sub-picogram levels in breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Alaa; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M

    2016-09-15

    The measurement of estrogens at sub-picogram levels is essential for research on breast cancer and postmenopausal plasma. Heretofore, these concentration levels have rarely been achieved. However, it is possible through derivatization but still represent problems for monitoring catechol estrogens and 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OH-E1). Estrogens possess poor ionization efficiency in MS/MS, which results in insufficient sensitivity for analyzing samples at trace concentrations. The method presented here was used to extract ten estrogen metabolites (EMs) with a derivatization step involving a new adduct. The electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS sensitivity for the EMs was enhanced by derivatization with 3-bromomethyl-propyphenazone (BMP). The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of the EMs were 12-100 femtogram on-column, equivalent to 0.3-3.6pg/mL plasma, and the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.1-0.8pg/mL plasma. The percentage coefficient of variation (CV%) at the LLOQ was <20 for all investigated EMs. Ionization suppression was minimized by reacting the excess reagent, BMP, with methanol. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ten EMs in the plasma of fifty healthy postmenopausal and fifty ductal breast cancer women aged 47-65 years old. 16α-OH-E1 and three catechol estrogen metabolites, 4-OH-E1, 2-OH-E2 and 4-OH-E2, were successfully measured in the plasma of healthy and breast cancer women. The methyl-propyphenazone-EM derivatives exhibited better sensitivity in ESI-MS (7.5-fold) compared to the commonly used dansylation procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an immunoassay to detect benzene adducts in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Grassman, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an immunoassay to detect the adducts formed in hemoglobin after exposure to benzene, which is known to cause bone marrow degeneration and acute myelogenous leukemia. The use of benzene-adduct detection as a biological monitoring method would permit measurement of low exposures and exposures sustained weeks earlier. The reactivity of hydroquinone, an important benzene metabolite, with blood proteins and amino acids was investigated in order to decide which antigens and analytes were likely to be suitable for immunoassay development. The second section determined the combination of benzene-metabolite and antigen need to produce an immunoassay with the requisite low detection limit and specificity. The immunoassays with the best performance were tested on hemoglobin from benzene-exposed mice. In vitro studies showed that hydroquinone efficiently formed adducts with erythrocyte membranes and hemoglobin but not with albumin. Adduction efficiency was greater in incubations using purified hemoglobin than whole blood. Cysteine accounted for 15 to 27% of the adducts formed by hydroquinone. The site of the other adducts were not identified although there was evidence that the hemoglobin heme was adducted. Adducts were found on only 1 of the 2 globin chains. Tryptic digestion of the globin failed to associate the adducts with a specific peptide. Antigens made from hydroquinone-adducted hemoglobin but not hydroquinone-adducted cysteines coupled to carrier proteins effectively elicited adduct-specific antibodies. Interference due to reactivity to hemoglobin was controlled by using uniform quantities of hemoglobin in all wells. The mid-range of the best assays were approximately 12 pmoles HQ per well. Antibodies directed toward hemoglobin adducted with the benzene metabolites phenol, catechol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were also made. The performance of the anti-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were suitable for quantitative immunoassays.

  19. Catechol formation: a novel pathway in the metabolism of sterigmatocystin and 11-methoxysterigmatocystin.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Fleck, Stefanie C; Metzler, Manfred

    2014-12-15

    The mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (STC) has an aflatoxin-like structure including a furofuran ring system. Like aflatoxin B1, STC is a liver carcinogen and forms DNA adducts after metabolic activation to an epoxide at the furofuran ring. In incubations of STC with human P450 isoforms, one monooxygenated and one dioxygenated STC metabolite were recently reported, and a GSH adduct was formed when GSH was added to the incubations. However, the chemical structures of these metabolites were not unambiguously elucidated. We now report that hepatic microsomes from humans and rats predominantly form the catechol 9-hydroxy-STC via hydroxylation of the aromatic ring. No STC-1,2-oxide and only small amounts of STC-1,2-dihydrodiol were detected in microsomal incubations, suggesting that epoxidation is a minor pathway compared to catechol formation. Catechol formation was also much more pronounced than furofuran epoxidation in the microsomal metabolism of 11-methoxysterigmatocystin (MSTC). In support of the preference of catechol formation, only trace amounts of the thiol adduct of the 1,2-oxides but large amounts of the thiol adducts of the 9-hydroxy-8,9-quinones were obtained when N-acetyl-l-cysteine was added to the microsomal incubations of STC and MSTC. In addition to hydroxylation at C-9, smaller amounts of 12c-hydroxylated, 9,12c-dihydroxylated, and 9,11-dihydroxylated metabolites were formed. Our study suggests that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, yielding a catechol, represents a major and novel pathway in the oxidative metabolism of STC and MSTC, which may contribute to the toxic and genotoxic effects of these mycotoxins.

  20. In vitro bioactivation of a selective estrogen receptor modulator (2S,3R)-(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzoxathiin-6-ol (I) in liver microsomes: formation of adenine adducts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Doss, George A; Li, Yan; Chen, Qing; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Zhoupeng

    2012-11-19

    As part of our efforts to develop safer selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), compound I {(2S,3R)-(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxy)-phenyl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzoxathiin-6-ol} was previously identified as a lead for further development. Subsequent studies showed that compound I is genotoxic in both in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and in vivo mouse studies. To better understand the possible mechanisms for the observed genetoxicity effects, in vitro incubations of I with liver microsomes of human, monkey, and mouse in the presence of adenine were performed, which led to the detection of five adenine adducts. The formation of these adducts was NADPH-dependent, suggesting the involvement of oxidative bioactivation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The mechanism for the formation of the major adenine adduct (A1) involves the formation of a reactive ring-opened para-quinone intermediate. The formation of four other adenine adducts may involve the formation of a reactive epoxide or ortho-quinone intermediate. Furthermore, incubations of compound I with human hepatocytes showed dose-dependent DNA damages in Comet assays. All of the above suggest that some reactive metabolites of compound I, formed through bioactivation mechanisms, have a potential to interact with DNA molecules in vitro and in vivo. This may be one of the causes of the genotoxicity observed preclinically both in vitro and in vivo. This case study demonstrated an approach using in vitro DNA trapping assays for assessing the genotoxicity potential of drug candidates.

  1. Potentially estrogenic polychlorinated biphenyls congeners serum levels and its relation with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Mendez-Henandez, Alejandra; Gabriel, Antonio Padua Y; Jacobo-Avila, Antonio; Portales-Castanedo, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Sandra; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha Patricia; Ocampo-Gomez, Guadalupe

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. The main cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoke; however, other important genetic and environmental risk factors play a significant role in the development of lung cancer. Among these factors, occupational and accidental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with an increased risk in lung cancer, suggesting that PCBs could be potent carcinogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between PCB exposure levels, CYP1A1 polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer. This study enrolled newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Environmental and occupational information related to the patients studied was collected. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum levels of 20 PCB congeners and for CYP1A1 polymorphism analysis. The serum levels of two PCB congeners with potential estrogenic activity were higher in lung cancer patients. The risk of lung cancer was found to correlate with age, gender, smoking history and with agricultural workers, as well as with congener 18. No differences were found in the frequency of CYP1A1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, we did not find a correlation between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and PCB serum levels. The high levels of PCB with estrogenic activity found in our cases, could promote lung cancer inducing cell proliferation in non-neoplastic and neoplastic lung cells via ERβ; inducing the formation of DNA adducts, producing oxidative stress with the subsequent DNA damage and increasing the endogenous catechol levels by catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibition. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Association between Physical Activity and Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, Renee T.; Xu, Xia; Hankinson, Susan E.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ziegler, Regina G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate in premenopausal women the relationships of physically active and sedentary behaviors reported for adulthood and adolescence with a comprehensive profile of estrogen metabolism. Methodology: Fifteen estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly termed EM) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in luteal phase urines from 603 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Geometric means of individual EM, metabolic pathway groups, and pathway ratios were examined by level of exposure after adjustment for age, body mass index, alcohol intake, menstrual cycle length, and sample collection timing. Results: High overall physical activity in adulthood (42+ metabolic equivalent h/wk vs. <3 metabolic equivalent h/wk) was associated with a 15% lower level of urinary estradiol (Ptrend = 0.03) and 15% lower level of 16-hydroxylation pathway EM (Ptrend = 0.03). Levels of 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathway EM did not differ significantly by physical activity. High overall activity was also positively associated with four ratios: 2-pathway EM to parent estrogens (Ptrend = 0.05), 2-pathway catechols to parent estrogens (Ptrend = 0.03), 2-pathway catechols to methylated 2-pathway catechols (Ptrend < 0.01), and 2-hydroxyestrone to 16α-hydroxyestrone (Ptrend = 0.01). Similar patterns of association were noted for walking and vigorous physical activity, but there was little evidence of associations with sedentary behaviors or activity during adolescence. Conclusions: High levels of physical activity were associated with lower levels of parent estrogens and 16-hydroxylation pathway EM and preferential metabolism to 2-pathway catechols. The results of our analysis, the largest, most comprehensive examination of physical activity and estrogen metabolism to date, may be useful in future studies investigating the etiology of diseases linked to both physical activity and endogenous estrogen. PMID:22855335

  3. Oxidative calcium release from catechol.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick A; Stratford, Michael R L

    2015-04-01

    Oxidation of 4-methylcatechol previously exposed to aqueous calcium chloride was shown by ion chromatography to be associated with release of calcium ions. The catechol was oxidised to the corresponding orthoquinone by the use of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The oxidative release of calcium from the catechol is ascribed to the diminution of the available hydroxyl functions able to act as chelating groups. Our results suggest that the redox status of melanin may regulate calcium binding and influence calcium levels in pigmented cells.

  4. Copper-Aβ Peptides and Oxidation of Catecholic Substrates: Reactivity and Endogenous Peptide Damage.

    PubMed

    Pirota, Valentina; Dell'Acqua, Simone; Monzani, Enrico; Nicolis, Stefania; Casella, Luigi

    2016-11-14

    The oxidative reactivity of copper complexes with Aβ peptides 1-16 and 1-28 (Aβ16 and Aβ28) against dopamine and related catechols under physiological conditions has been investigated in parallel with the competitive oxidative modification undergone by the peptides. It was found that both Aβ16 and Aβ28 markedly increase the oxidative reactivity of copper(II) towards the catechol compounds, up to a molar ratio of about 4:1 of peptide/copper(II). Copper redox cycling during the catalytic activity induces the competitive modification of the peptide at selected amino acid residues. The main modifications consist of oxidation of His13/14 to 2-oxohistidine and Phe19/20 to ortho-tyrosine, and the formation of a covalent His6-catechol adduct. Competition by the endogenous peptide is rather efficient, as approximately one peptide molecule is oxidized every 10 molecules of 4-methylcatechol.

  5. The Three Catecholics Benserazide, Catechol and Pyrogallol are GPR35 Agonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huayun; Fang, Ye

    2013-04-08

    Nearly 1% of all clinically used drugs are catecholics, a family of catechol-containing compounds. Using label-free dynamic mass redistribution and Tango β-arrestin translocation assays, we show that several catecholics, including benserazide, catechol, 3-methoxycatechol, pyrogallol, (+)-taxifolin and fenoldopam, display agonistic activity against GPR35.

  6. The Three Catecholics Benserazide, Catechol and Pyrogallol are GPR35 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huayun; Fang, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 1% of all clinically used drugs are catecholics, a family of catechol-containing compounds. Using label-free dynamic mass redistribution and Tango β-arrestin translocation assays, we show that several catecholics, including benserazide, catechol, 3-methoxycatechol, pyrogallol, (+)-taxifolin and fenoldopam, display agonistic activity against GPR35. PMID:24276120

  7. Synthetic models of the active site of catechol oxidase: mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Koval, Iryna A; Gamez, Patrick; Belle, Catherine; Selmeczi, Katalin; Reedijk, Jan

    2006-09-01

    The ability of copper proteins to process dioxygen at ambient conditions has inspired numerous research groups to study their structural, spectroscopic and catalytic properties. Catechol oxidase is a type-3 copper enzyme usually encountered in plant tissues and in some insects and crustaceans. It catalyzes the conversion of a large number of catechols into the respective o-benzoquinones, which subsequently auto-polymerize, resulting in the formation of melanin, a dark pigment thought to protect a damaged tissue from pathogens. After the report of the X-ray crystal structure of catechol oxidase a few years earlier, a large number of publications devoted to the biomimetic modeling of its active site appeared in the literature. This critical review (citing 114 references) extensively discusses the synthetic models of this enzyme, with a particular emphasis on the different approaches used in the literature to study the mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of the substrate (catechol) by these compounds. These are the studies on the substrate binding to the model complexes, the structure-activity relationship, the kinetic studies of the catalytic oxidation of the substrate and finally the substrate interaction with (per)oxo-dicopper adducts. The general overview of the recognized types of copper proteins and the detailed description of the crystal structure of catechol oxidase, as well as the proposed mechanisms of the enzymatic cycle are also presented.

  8. Sensitive radioenzymatic assay for catechol drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Durrett, L.R.; Ziegler, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    This assay measures picogram quantities of catechol drugs and endogenous catecholamines in body tissues and fluids. The catechols are converted to their 3H-O-methyl metabolites during incubation with 3H-S-adenosylmethionine then separated by solvent extraction and thin-layer chromatography. Most drugs containing the catechol structure can be radiolabeled and separated from norepinephrine and epinephrine by this technique to provide simultaneous measurement of endogenous and exogenously administered catechols. The disposition of isoproterenol in tissues and fluids of man and experimental animals is measured to illustrate the utility of this assay. The reactivity of several commonly administered catechol drugs with COMT is described and the possible implications discussed.

  9. A new boronic acid based fluorescent reporter for catechol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongyu; Li, Minyong; Fang, Hao; Wang, Binghe

    2012-12-01

    Catechol skeleton widely exists in natural products and bioactive substances. Fluorescent reporters which could recognize catechol are very promising for the construction of chemosensors to detect catechol and its derivatives in biological environment. Herein, we reported a novel catechol reporter, 2-(4-boronophenyl)quinoline-4-carboxylic acid, which exhibits significant fluorescent property changes upon binding catechol containing molecules in an aqueous solution.

  10. Concerted double proton-transfer electron-transfer between catechol and superoxide radical anion.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Saumeth, Jorge; Rincón, David A; Doerr, Markus; Daza, Martha C

    2017-09-20

    We have carried out a computational study on the reactivity of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) towards superoxide radical anion (O2˙(-)) in water, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), pentyl ethanoate (PEA) and vacuum using density functional theory and the coupled cluster method. Five reaction mechanisms were studied: (i) sequential proton transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer (PT-HT), (ii) sequential hydrogen atom transfer followed by proton transfer (HT-PT), (iii) single electron transfer (SET), (iv) radical adduct formation (RAF) and (v) concerted double proton-transfer electron-transfer (denoted as global reaction, GR). Our results show that catechol and superoxide do not react via a sequential reaction mechanism (initial PT, initial HAT or SET). Instead, the reaction proceeds via a concerted double proton-transfer electron-transfer mechanism yielding hydrogen peroxide and catechol radical anion. The protons are transferred asynchronously between the σ orbitals of the catechol oxygen atoms to superoxide, while the electron is transferred between oxygen π orbitals in the same direction. The calculated rate constants in aqueous media agree with the experimental values reported in the literature. This suggests that the mechanism proposed in this work is adequate to describe this reaction. In addition, our results show that the reaction exhibits a large tunneling effect.

  11. Conformational Properties of Equilenin-DNA Adducts: Stereoisomer and Base Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Cai, Yuqin; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Broyde, Suse

    2008-01-01

    Equilin and equilenin, components of the hormone replacement therapy drug Premarin, can be metabolized to the catechol 4-hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN). The quinoids produced by 4-OHEN oxidation react with dC, dA and dG to form unusual stable cyclic adducts, which have been found in human breast tumor tissue. Four stereoisomeric adducts have been identified for each base. These twelve Premarin-derived adducts provide a unique opportunity for analyzing effects of stereochemistry and base damage on DNA structure, and consequently its function. Our computational studies have shown that these adducts, with obstructed Watson-Crick hydrogen bond edges and near-perpendicular ring systems, have limited conformational flexibility, and near-mirror image conformations in stereoisomer pairs. The dC and dA adducts can adopt major and minor groove positions in the double helix, but the dG adducts are positioned only in the major groove. In all cases, opposite orientations of the equilenin rings with respect to the 5'→3' direction of the damaged strand are found in stereoisomer pairs derived from the same base, and no Watson-Crick pairing is possible. However, detailed structural properties in DNA duplexes are distinct for each stereoisomer of each damaged base. These differences may underlie observed differential stereoisomer and base-dependent mutagenicities and repair susceptibilities of these adducts. PMID:18416538

  12. [Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to selected xenobiotics].

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Bożena

    2015-06-12

    In the living and working environments more and more new substances of anthropogenic origin exerting toxic properties appear. Simultaneously, the evaluation of human exposure is assessed. For many years adducts of hemoglobin (Hb) have been useful markers of the exposure of humans to various xenobiotics. These adducts are also termed biologically effective dose biomarkers. This paper focuses on a review of literature, mainly from the years 2010-2014, which refers to the hemoglobin adducts of toxic compounds with electrophilic properties. In the interactions of xenobiotics with hemoglobin, groups such as thiol, amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl of this hemoprotein are involved. These combinations occur most often in the reaction of xenobiotics with an N-terminal amino group of valine in Hb, imidazole nitrogen of histidine and cysteine sulfhydryl β93. Hb adducts are characterized by high availability, a long period of occurrence (up to 120 days) in the circulatory system, and high durability, and they have contact with all cells of the body. The measurement of hemoglobin adducts can be potentially used in the assessment of exposure to many xenobiotics such as acrylamide; substances present in tobacco smoke, e.g. benzo(α)pyrene and benzanthracene, ethylene oxide, aryl amines; and substances used on a large scale in industry such as glycidol and naphthalene and its derivatives. Recently the possibility of determination of hemoglobin adducts with estrogen metabolites has been postulated as indicators informing about heightened risk of breast cancer. Protein adducts are used as an alternative to DNA adducts for different classes of electrophilic substances.

  13. Spectroscopic Studies of the Catechol Dioxygenases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Que, Lawrence Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The catechol dioxygenases are bacterial iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of catechols. These enzymes serve as a component of nature's mechanisms for degrading aromatic compounds in the environment. The structure and mechanistic aspects of these enzymes are described. (JN)

  14. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-27

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C-H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to (18)O-labelled catechols using (18)O-labelled acetic acid.

  15. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C–H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to 18O-labelled catechols using 18O-labelled acetic acid. PMID:28128196

  16. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C-H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to 18O-labelled catechols using 18O-labelled acetic acid.

  17. Isolevuglandin Adducts in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wenzhao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A diverse family of lipid-derived levulinaldehydes, isolevuglandins (isoLGs), is produced by rearrangement of endoperoxide intermediates generated through both cyclooxygenase (COX) and free radical-induced cyclooxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their phospholipid esters. The formation and reactions of isoLGs with other biomolecules has been linked to alcoholic liver disease, Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration, atherosclerosis, cardiac arythmias, cancer, end-stage renal disease, glaucoma, inflammation of allergies and infection, mitochondrial dysfunction, multiple sclerosis, and thrombosis. This review chronicles progress in understanding the chemistry of isoLGs, detecting their production in vivo and understanding their biological consequences. Critical Issues: IsoLGs have never been isolated from biological sources, because they form adducts with primary amino groups of other biomolecules within seconds. Chemical synthesis enabled investigation of isoLG chemistry and detection of isoLG adducts present in vivo. Recent Advances: The first peptide mapping and sequencing of an isoLG-modified protein present in human retina identified the modification of a specific lysyl residue of the sterol C27-hydroxylase Cyp27A1. This residue is preferentially modified by iso[4]LGE2 in vitro, causing loss of function. Adduction of less than one equivalent of isoLG can induce COX-associated oligomerization of the amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. Adduction of isoLGE2 to phosphatidylethanolamines causes gain of function, converting them into proinflammatory isoLGE2-PE agonists that foster monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Future Directions: Among the remaining questions on the biochemistry of isoLGs are the dependence of biological activity on isoLG isomer structure, the structures and mechanism of isoLG-derived protein–protein and DNA–protein cross-link formation, and its biological consequences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22

  18. Depurinating naphthalene–DNA adducts in mouse skin related to cancer initiation

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad; Higginbotham, Sheila; Gaikwad, Nilesh; Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti; Rogan, Eleanor; Cavalieri, Ercole

    2015-01-01

    Naphthalene has been shown to be a weak carcinogen in rats. To investigate its mechanism of metabolic activation and cancer initiation, mice were topically treated with naphthalene or one of its metabolites, 1-naphthol, 1,2-dihydrodiolnaphthalene (1,2-DDN), 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (1,2-DHN), and 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ). After 4 h, the mice were sacrificed, the treated skin was excised, and the depurinating and stable DNA adducts were analyzed. The depurinating adducts were identified and quantified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, whereas the stable adducts were quantified by 32P-postlabeling. For comparison, the stable adducts formed when a mixture of the four deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates was treated with 1,2-NQ or enzyme-activated naphthalene were also analyzed. The depurinating adducts 1,2-DHN-1-N3Ade and 1,2-DHN-1-N7Gua arise from reaction of 1,2-NQ with DNA. Similarly, the major stable adducts appear to derive from the 1,2-NQ. The depurinating DNA adducts are, in general, the most abundant. Therefore, naphthalene undergoes metabolic activation to the electrophilic ortho-quinone, 1,2-NQ, which reacts with DNA to form depurinating adducts. This is the same mechanism as other weak carcinogens, such as the natural and synthetic estrogens, and benzene. PMID:19619639

  19. Generation of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen during oxidation of rhododendrol and rhododendrol-catechol.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Gabe, Yu; Kohno, Masahiro; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-03-01

    The generation of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen during the oxidation of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol) and 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol (rhododendrol-catechol) with mushroom tyrosinase in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was examined as the model for the reactive oxygen species generation via the two rhododendrol compounds in melanocytes. The reaction was performed in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) spin trap reagents for hydroxyl radical or 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (4-oxo-TEMP), an acceptor of singlet oxygen, and their electron spin resonances were measured. An increase in the electron spin resonances signal attributable to the adduct of DMPO reacting with the hydroxyl radical and that of 4-oxo-TEMP reacting with singlet oxygen was observed during the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of rhododendrol and rhododendrol-catechol, indicating the generation of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. Moreover, hydroxyl radical generation was also observed in the autoxidation of rhododendrol-catechol. We show that generation of intermediates during tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of rhododendrol enhances oxidative stress in melanocytes.

  20. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  1. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-11-05

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  2. Tamoxifen–DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM–DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM–DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3–4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM–DNA adducts were measurable by TAM–DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM–DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/108 nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/108 nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/108 nucleotides. To examine TAM–DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM–DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM–DNA adducts/108 nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM–DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer. PMID:24501327

  3. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  4. Cloning and expression of a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-02-04

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of endogenous catechol amines and estrogens and exogenous catechol-type of drugs. A Parkinson's disease model of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been widely used in preclinical studies to evaluate inhibitory potential of new drug candidates on marmoset COMT. Despite COMT inhibitors could potentiate the pharmacological action of levodopa on Parkinson's disease in animal models, marmoset COMT cDNA has not yet been identified and characterized. In this study, a cDNA highly homologous to human COMT was cloned from marmoset livers. This cDNA encoded 268 amino acids containing a transmembrane region and critical amino acid residues for catalytic function. The amino acid sequences of marmoset COMT shared high sequence identity (90%) with human COMT. COMT mRNA was expressed in all five tissues tested, including brain, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine, and was more abundant in marmoset liver and kidney. Membrane-bound COMT was immunochemically detected in livers and kidneys, whereas soluble COMT was detected in livers, similar to humans. These results indicated that the molecular characteristics of marmoset COMT were generally similar to the human ortholog.

  5. Cloning and expression of a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    UEHARA, Shotaro; UNO, Yasuhiro; INOUE, Takashi; SASAKI, Erika; YAMAZAKI, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of endogenous catechol amines and estrogens and exogenous catechol-type of drugs. A Parkinson’s disease model of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been widely used in preclinical studies to evaluate inhibitory potential of new drug candidates on marmoset COMT. Despite COMT inhibitors could potentiate the pharmacological action of levodopa on Parkinson’s disease in animal models, marmoset COMT cDNA has not yet been identified and characterized. In this study, a cDNA highly homologous to human COMT was cloned from marmoset livers. This cDNA encoded 268 amino acids containing a transmembrane region and critical amino acid residues for catalytic function. The amino acid sequences of marmoset COMT shared high sequence identity (90%) with human COMT. COMT mRNA was expressed in all five tissues tested, including brain, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine, and was more abundant in marmoset liver and kidney. Membrane-bound COMT was immunochemically detected in livers and kidneys, whereas soluble COMT was detected in livers, similar to humans. These results indicated that the molecular characteristics of marmoset COMT were generally similar to the human ortholog. PMID:27890888

  6. 40 CFR 721.10711 - Alkyl substituted catechol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted catechol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10711 Alkyl substituted catechol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted catechol (PMN P-13-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  8. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Snelten, Courtney S; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women's health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism.

  9. PEM Anchorage on Titanium Using Catechol Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Hélène; Barrere, Amélie; Schoentstein, Frédérique; Chavanne, Marie-Hélène; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Mora, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background This study deals with the anchorage of polyelectrolyte films onto titanium surfaces via a cathecol-based linker for biomedical applications. Methodology The following study uses a molecule functionalized with a catechol and a carboxylic acid: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid. This molecule is anchored to the TiO2 substrate via the catechol while the carboxylic acid reacts with polymers bearing amine groups. By providing a film anchorage of chemisorption type, it makes possible to deposit polyelectrolytes on the surface of titanium. Principal Findings Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the different steps of grafting have been successfully performed. Conclusions This method based on catechol anchorage of polyelectrolytes open a window towards large possibilities of clinical applications. PMID:23226262

  10. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... carefully for side effects.tell your doctor what herbal products you are taking, especially St. John's wort.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had yellowing of the skin or eyes during pregnancy or during your treatment with an estrogen product, endometriosis (a condition in ...

  11. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  12. Association of Active and Sedentary Behaviors with Postmenopausal Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dallal, Cher M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Falk, Roni T.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may reduce endogenous estrogens but few studies have assessed effects on estrogen metabolism and none have evaluated sedentary behavior in relation to estrogen metabolism. We assessed relationships between accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior and 15 urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among postmenopausal controls from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland (2000-2003). Methods Postmenopausal women (N=542) were ages 40 to 72 years and not currently using hormone therapy. Accelerometers, worn for seven days, were used to derive measures of average activity (counts/day) and sedentary behavior (<100 counts/min/day). EM were measured in 12-hour urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. EM were analyzed individually, in metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16), and as ratios relative to parent estrogens. Geometric means of EM by tertiles of accelerometer-measures, adjusted for age and body mass, were computed using linear models. Results High activity was associated with lower levels of estrone and estradiol (p-trend=0.01) while increased sedentary time was positively associated with these parent estrogens (p-trend=0.04). Inverse associations were observed between high activity and 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol, 17-epiestriol and 16-epiestriol (p-trend=0.03). Sedentary time was positively associated with methylated catechols in the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways (p-trend≤0.04). Women in the highest tertile of activity had increased hydroxylation at the C-2, -4, and -16 sites relative to parent estrogens (p-trend≤0.02) while increased sedentary time was associated with a lower 16-pathway:parent estrogen ratio (p-trend=0.01). Conclusions Higher activity was associated with lower urinary estrogens, possibly through increased estrogen hydroxylation and subsequent metabolism, while sedentary behavior may reduce metabolism. PMID:26460631

  13. Site-specific inhibitory mechanism for amyloid β42 aggregation by catechol-type flavonoids targeting the Lys residues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mizuho; Murakami, Kazuma; Uno, Mayumi; Nakagawa, Yu; Katayama, Sumie; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Yuichi; Takegoshi, Kiyonori; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-09

    The aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Numerous flavonoids exhibit inhibitory activity against Aβ42 aggregation, but their mechanism remains unclear in the molecular level. Here we propose the site-specific inhibitory mechanism of (+)-taxifolin, a catechol-type flavonoid, whose 3',4'-dihydroxyl groups of the B-ring plays a critical role. Addition of sodium periodate, an oxidant, strengthened suppression of Aβ42 aggregation by (+)-taxifolin, whereas no inhibition was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting the inhibition to be associated with the oxidation to form o-quinone. Because formation of the Aβ42-taxifolin adduct was suggested by mass spectrometry, Aβ42 mutants substituted at Arg(5), Lys(16), and/or Lys(28) with norleucine (Nle) were prepared to identify the residues involved in the conjugate formation. (+)-Taxifolin did not suppress the aggregation of Aβ42 mutants at Lys(16) and/or Lys(28) except for the mutant at Arg(5). In addition, the aggregation of Aβ42 was inhibited by other catechol-type flavonoids, whereas that of K16Nle-Aβ42 was not. In contrast, some non-catechol-type flavonoids suppressed the aggregation of K16Nle-Aβ42 as well as Aβ42. Furthermore, interaction of (+)-taxifolin with the β-sheet region in Aβ42 was not observed using solid-state NMR unlike curcumin of the non-catechol-type. These results demonstrate that catechol-type flavonoids could specifically suppress Aβ42 aggregation by targeting Lys residues. Although the anti-AD activity of flavonoids has been ascribed to their antioxidative activity, the mechanism that the o-quinone reacts with Lys residues of Aβ42 might be more intrinsic. The Lys residues could be targets for Alzheimer disease therapy.

  14. Anomalous cage effect of the excited state dynamics of catechol in the 18-crown-6-catechol host-guest complex.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Fumiya; Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Haino, Takeharu; Ebata, Takayuki

    2015-02-12

    We determined the number of isomers and their structures for the 18-crown-6 (18C6)-catechol host-guest complex, and examined the effect of the complex formation on the S1 ((1)ππ*) dynamics of catechol under a supersonically cooled gas phase condition and in cyclohexane solution at room temperature. In the gas phase experiment, UV-UV hole-burning spectra of the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex indicate that there are three stable isomers. For bare catechol, it has been reported that two adjacent OH groups have an intramolecular hydrogen (H) bond. The IR-UV double resonance spectra show two types of isomers in the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex; one of the three 18C6-catechol 1:1 isomers has the intramolecular H-bond between the two OH groups, while in the other two isomers the intramolecular H-bond is broken and the two OH groups are H-bonded to oxygen atoms of 18C6. The complex formation with 18C6 substantially elongates the S1 lifetime from 7 ps for bare catechol and 2.0 ns for the catechol-H2O complex to 10.3 ns for the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex. Density functional theory calculations of the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex suggest that this elongation is attributed to a larger energy gap between the S1 ((1)ππ*) and (1)πσ* states than that of bare catechol or the catechol-H2O complex. In cyclohexane solution, the enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of catechol was found by adding 18C6, due to the formation of the 18C6-catechol complex in solution, and the complex has a longer S1 lifetime than that of catechol monomer. From the concentration dependence of the fluorescence intensity, we estimated the equilibrium constant K for the 18C6 + catechol ⇄ 18C6-catechol reaction. The obtained value (log K = 2.3) in cyclohexane is comparable to those for alkali metal ions or other molecular ions, indicating that 18C6 efficiently captures catechol in solution. Therefore, 18C6 can be used as a sensitive sensor of catechol derivatives in solution with its high ability of

  15. Aluminum complexation by catechol as determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.; McBride, M.B.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry were used to determine the stoichiometry and association constant for the Al-catechol complex from pH 3.8 to 4.6. Job's method of continuous variation indicated the Al-catechol complex had a 1:1 stoichiometry in the pH range studied. Aluminum titrations of catechol and pH titrations of catechol plus Al resulted in a shift in the UV spectra due to the formation of an Al-catechol complex absorbing UV radiation uniquely different than that of free catechol. General equations were developed for the determination of association constants assuming an organic and Al-organic complex absorb UV radiation. Aluminum titrations with constant catechol concentration yielded a log k/sub 0.1//sup c/ of 16.22 for a 1:1 Al-catechol complex. Calculated absorbance as a function of pH agree dwell with experimental pH titrations of solutions containing catechol plus Al. The fact that Al can be complexed by catechol at low pH indicates the o-hydroxy group provides a potential source for Al complexation in soil and surface waters.

  16. Jack of all trades: versatile catechol crosslinking mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Kamperman, Marleen

    2014-12-21

    Catechols play an important role in many natural systems. They are known to readily interact with both organic (e.g., amino acids) and inorganic (e.g., metal ions, metal oxides) compounds, thereby providing a powerful system for protein curing. Catechol crosslinked protein networks, such as sclerotized cuticle and byssal threads of the mussel, have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical properties. A lot of effort has been devoted to mimicking the natural proteins using synthetic catechol-functionalized polymers. Despite the success in developing catechol-functionalized materials, the crosslinking chemistry of catechols is still a subject of debate. To develop materials with controlled and superior properties, a clear understanding of the crosslinking mechanism of catechols is of vital importance. This review describes the crosslinking pathways of catechol and derivatives in both natural and synthetic systems. We discuss existing pathways of catechol crosslinking and parameters that affect the catechol chemistry in detail. This overview will point towards a rational direction for further investigation of the complicated catechol chemistry.

  17. Synthesis of a water-soluble analog of 6-methyl-3-N-alkyl catechol labeled with carbon 13: NMR approach to the reactivity of poison ivy/oak sensitizers toward proteins.

    PubMed

    Goetz, G; Meschkat, E; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-04-19

    A 13-C labeled water soluble derivative of alkylcatechol was synthesized and reacted with human serum albumin in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 in air to allow a slow oxidation of the catechol into orthoquinone. The formation of several adducts was evidenced by a combination of 13C and 1H-13C correlation NMR. Although some adducts could result from a classical o-quinone formation - Michael type addition, our results suggest that a second pathway, involving a direct reaction of a carbon centered radical with proteins could be an important mechanism in the formation of modified proteins.

  18. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Suriguga; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  19. Synthesis of Substituted Catechols using Nitroarene Dioxygenases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    in batch fermentations , likely due to toxicity of the quinones that result from air oxidation of catechols. The nitroarene dioxygenases will serve as...strains were grown on Luria Bertani plates or broth containing ampi- cillin (100 mg L−1) or kanamycin (25 mg L−1) for plasmid maintenance as appropriate...Bacteria for substrate preference assays were cultivated in baffled shaker flasks containing LB broth ; recombinant oxygenase synthesis was induced

  20. Catechol-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors with additional antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Piemontese, Luca; Caradonna, Alessia; Capelli, Davide; Montanari, Roberta; Pochetti, Giorgio; Di Pizio, Antonella; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    New catechol-containing chemical entities have been investigated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as antioxidant molecules. The combination of the two properties could represent a useful feature due to the potential application in all the pathological processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity and radical oxygen species (ROS) production, such as inflammation and photoaging. A series of catechol-based molecules were synthesized and tested for both proteolytic and oxidative inhibitory activity, and the detailed binding mode was assessed by crystal structure determination of the complex between a catechol derivative and the matrix metalloproteinase-8. Surprisingly, X-ray structure reveals that the catechol oxygens do not coordinates the zinc atom.

  1. Etoposide catechol is an oxidizable topoisomerase II poison.

    PubMed

    Jacob, David A; Gibson, Elizabeth G; Mercer, Susan L; Deweese, Joseph E

    2013-08-19

    Topoisomerase II regulates DNA topology by generating transient double-stranded breaks. The anticancer drug etoposide targets topoisomerase II and is associated with the formation of secondary leukemias in patients. The quinone and catechol metabolites of etoposide may contribute to strand breaks that trigger leukemic translocations. To further analyze the characteristics of etoposide metabolites, we extend our previous analysis of etoposide quinone to the catechol. We demonstrate that the catechol is ∼2-3-fold more potent than etoposide and under oxidative reaction conditions induces high levels of double-stranded DNA cleavage. These results support a role for etoposide catechol in contributing to therapy-induced DNA damage.

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterocyclic Catechol Mimics as Inhibitors of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinones and 5-hydroxy-4-pyrimidinones were identified as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in a high-throughput screen. These heterocyclic catechol mimics exhibit potent inhibition of the enzyme and an improved toxicity profile versus the marketed nitrocatechol inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone. Optimization of the series was aided by X-ray cocrystal structures of the novel inhibitors in complex with COMT and cofactors SAM and Mg2+. The crystal structures suggest a mechanism of inhibition for these heterocyclic inhibitors distinct from previously disclosed COMT inhibitors. PMID:25815153

  3. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N′,N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and

  4. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Allred, Benjamin E; Raymond, Kenneth N; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-09-01

    Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N',N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and acquire essential

  5. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  6. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Estrogen Metabolism and Endometrial Cells: Potential Physiological and Pathological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Salama A.; Kamel, Marwa W.; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R.; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Salih, Sana; Botting, Shaleen K.; Kumar, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Context: Estrogen and its metabolites play a critical role in the pathophysiology of the endometrium. The bioavailability of estrogen and estrogen metabolites in endometrial tissues depends on the expression of enzymes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism. Substantial evidence indicates that estrogen-dependent endometrial disorders are also associated with proinflammatory milieu. However, the mechanism whereby inflammation contributes to these conditions is not known. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of TNF-α on estrogen metabolism and the expression of estrogen-metabolizing genes in human endometrial glandular epithelial cells (EM1). Design: EM1 were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) with or without TNF-α. Capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used for quantitative measurement of estrogens and estrogen metabolites. Western blot analysis, reporter gene assay, and real-time RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of estrogen-metabolizing genes. Results: TNF-α treatment significantly increased the level of total estrogen and estrogen metabolites and significantly increased the rate of conversion of estrone (E1) into E2. TNF-α also enhanced the oxidative metabolism of estrogen into catecholestrogens with concomitant inhibition of their conversion into methoxyestrogens. Gene expression analysis revealed that TNF-α induced the expression of genes involved in E2 biosynthesis (steroidogenic factor-1 and aromatase) and activation (17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and cytochrome P-450, 1B1) with simultaneous repression of genes involved in estrogen inactivation (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2; catechol O-methyltransferase; and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1). Conclusion: TNF-α increases the local estrogen biosynthesis in human endometrial glandular cells and directs estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic

  7. Photocatalytic reaction of catechol on rutile titanium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Peter; Wang, Chundao; Diebold, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    In an attempt to understand the fundamental aspects of photocatalysis we have studied the substituted benzene catechol on TiO2(110). Previous studies have given detailed information about the catechol bonding configuration letting our group focus on molecular level interactions with scanning tunneling microscopy and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under UV exposure (248 nm) in an oxygen background, catechol is observed to degrade via oxidation. This oxidation process results in removal of roughly 10% of the initial monolayer. The removal of carbon from the TiO2 surface is shown to depend upon the background gas. Formation of a residual carbon layer is achieved by annealing the catechol monolayer to 600C. This carbon layer is more difficult to remove by photocatalytic oxidation than a pristine catechol monolayer. Work supported by Intel Corporation

  8. Adsorption mechanism and valency of catechol-functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Stefanie; Wei, Qiang; Rischka, Klaus; Hartwig, Andreas; Haag, Rainer; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Nature often serves as a model system for developing new adhesives. In aqueous environments, mussel-inspired adhesives are promising candidates. Understanding the mechanism of the extraordinarily strong adhesive bonds of the catechol group will likely aid in the development of adhesives. With this aim, we study the adhesion of catechol-based adhesives to metal oxides on the molecular level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The comparison of single catechols (dopamine) with multiple catechols on hyperbranched polyglycerols (hPG) at various pH and dwell times allowed us to further increase our understanding. In particular, we were able to elucidate how to achieve strong bonds of different valency. It was concluded that hyperbranched polyglycerols with added catechol end groups are promising candidates for durable surface coatings.

  9. Adsorption mechanism and valency of catechol-functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Krysiak, Stefanie; Wei, Qiang; Rischka, Klaus; Hartwig, Andreas; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nature often serves as a model system for developing new adhesives. In aqueous environments, mussel-inspired adhesives are promising candidates. Understanding the mechanism of the extraordinarily strong adhesive bonds of the catechol group will likely aid in the development of adhesives. With this aim, we study the adhesion of catechol-based adhesives to metal oxides on the molecular level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The comparison of single catechols (dopamine) with multiple catechols on hyperbranched polyglycerols (hPG) at various pH and dwell times allowed us to further increase our understanding. In particular, we were able to elucidate how to achieve strong bonds of different valency. It was concluded that hyperbranched polyglycerols with added catechol end groups are promising candidates for durable surface coatings. PMID:26150898

  10. DNA integrity of onion root cells under catechol influence.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Forte, Valentina; Valente, Diego; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Catechol is a highly toxic organic pollutant, usually abundant in the waste effluents of industrial processes and agricultural activities. The environmental sources of catechol include pesticides, wood preservatives, tanning lotion, cosmetic creams, dyes, and synthetic intermediates. Genotoxicity of catechol at a concentration range 5 × 10(-1)-5 mM was evaluated by applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and time-lapse DNA laddering tests using onion (Allium cepa) root cells as the assay system. RAPD analysis revealed polymorphisms in the nucleotidic sequence of DNA that reflected the genotoxic potential of catechol to provoke point mutations, or deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Time-lapse DNA laddering test provided evidence that catechol provoked DNA necrosis and apoptosis. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining could distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells in root cells of A. cepa.

  11. Microfluidic array for simultaneous detection of DNA oxidation and DNA-adduct damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Boya; Shen, Min; Jiang, Di; Malla, Spundana; Mosa, Islam M; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Rusling, James F

    2016-10-21

    Exposure to chemical pollutants and pharmaceuticals may cause health issues caused by metabolite-related toxicity. This paper reports a new microfluidic electrochemical sensor array with the ability to simultaneously detect common types of DNA damage including oxidation and nucleobase adduct formation. Sensors in the 8-electrode screen-printed carbon array were coated with thin films of metallopolymers osmium or ruthenium bipyridyl-poly(vinylpyridine) chloride (OsPVP, RuPVP) along with DNA and metabolic enzymes by layer-by-layer electrostatic assembly. After a reaction step in which test chemicals and other necessary reagents flow over the array, OsPVP selectively detects oxidized guanines on the DNA strands, and RuPVP detects DNA adduction by metabolites on nucleobases. We demonstrate array performance for test chemicals including 17β-estradiol (E2), its metabolites 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), catechol, 2-nitrosotoluene (2-NO-T), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). Results revealed DNA-adduct and oxidation damage in a single run to provide a metabolic-genotoxic chemistry screen. The array measures damage directly in unhydrolyzed DNA, and is less expensive, faster, and simpler than conventional methods to detect DNA damage. The detection limit for oxidation is 672 8-oxodG per 10(6) bases. Each sensor requires only 22 ng of DNA, so the mass detection limit is 15 pg (∼10 pmol) 8-oxodG.

  12. Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort.

    PubMed

    Dallal, Cher M; Lacey, James V; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Bauer, Douglas C; Falk, Roni T; Buist, Diana S M; Cauley, Jane A; Hue, Trisha F; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Tice, Jeffrey A; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xu, Xia; Brinton, Louise A

    2016-02-01

    Estrogen metabolites may have different genotoxic and mitogenic properties yet their relationship with endometrial and ovarian cancer risk remains unclear. Within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (B ∼ FIT, n = 15,595), we conducted a case-cohort study to evaluate 15 pre-diagnostic serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites with risk of incident endometrial and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy. Participants included 66 endometrial and 67 ovarian cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up (∼ 10 years) and subcohorts of 346 and 416 women, respectively, after relevant exclusions. Serum concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Exposures were categorized in tertiles (T) and analyzed individually, as metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16) and as ratios to parent estrogens (estradiol, estrone). Estradiol was significantly associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (BMI-adjusted HRT3vsT1 = 4.09, 95% CI 1.70, 9.85; p trend = 0.003). 2-Hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone were not associated with endometrial risk after estradiol adjustment (2-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.97, 95% CI 0.78, 4.94; 16-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.50, 95% CI 0.65, 3.46; p trend = 0.16 and 0.36, respectively). Ratios of 2- and 4-pathway catechol-to-methylated estrogens remained positively associated with endometrial cancer after BMI or estradiol adjustment (2-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.02, 95% CI 1.60, 10.1; 4-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.59, 95% CI 1.64, 12.9; p trend = 0.002 for both). Estrogens and estrogen metabolites were not associated with ovarian cancer risk; however, larger studies are needed to better evaluate these relationships. Estrogen metabolism may be important in endometrial carcinogenesis, particularly with less extensive methylation of 2- or 4

  13. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  14. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  15. Caffeine, coffee, and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Julia S; Hankinson, Susan E; Caporaso, Neil E; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee, and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways, and ratios by intake categories, and P values for tests of linear trend. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; Ptrend = 0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; Ptrend = 0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (Ptrend = 0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; Ptrend = 0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; Ptrend = 0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1-3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; Ptrend = 0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend = 0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend = 0.01). Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Caffeine, coffee and tea intake and urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478

  17. Estrogens and postcoital contraception.

    PubMed

    Notelovitz, M

    1981-07-01

    The contraceptive effect of large doses of estrogens administered postcoitally is not fully understood, although numerous reports have described the use of a 4 to 6 day course of high dose oral diethylstilbestrol (DES), ethinyl estradiol, conjugated estrogens, and combinations of estrogen and progestogen. Because estrogens are effective postovulatory rather than postcoital contraceptives, it is necessary to know the exact time of unprotected intercouse in relation to a woman's menstrual cycle. Depending on the frequency and timing of intercouse, a 5-day course of postcoital estrogen, introduced within 72 hours, yields a pregancy rate of .03-.3%. Failures are usually due to inadequate doses of estrogen, errors in timing, or multiple exposures. A lowering of basal body temperature after postovulatory administration of high doses of estrogen indicates successful intervention. Existence of various conditions such as hypertension and migraine contraindicate the use of postcoital estrogens. DES and possibly other estrogens are associated with teratogenic and potentially carcinogenic effects. 70 to 80% of women taking postcoital estrogens report side effects such as nausea, weight gain and headache. No randomized studies have compared the efficacy, side effects, or safety of the available estrogens. The use of informed coinsent procedures is advised because of the potency of high dose estrogens.

  18. Protein adduct biomarkers: State of the Art

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.J.; Bechtold, W.E.

    1996-10-01

    Covalent protein adducts formed after exposure to xenobiotics may provide readily measurable indicators of these exposures, After adequate characterization of the dose-dependent formation of a specific adduct, the adduct can often be used as a quantitative marker for exposure, DNA adduct formation, or, possibly, risk of disease. By elucidating the structure of an adduct and studying the conditions under which it forms, information about the reactions that lead to its formation can be obtained. Continuing work in this area includes methods to expand the number, types, and levels of chemical exposures that can be studied by covalent adduct formation. In addition to the use of this technology in the field of occupational health, basic research in this area provides insights into metabolic pathways and biochemistry, as well. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Fate of catechols in coal gasification condensate waters

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.E.

    1986-02-01

    Even after the wastewater has been subjected to rigorous cleaning, many chemicals still remain. In order to remove these compounds, they must be identified. Catechol is a compound which appears in the condensate water and, because its concentration changes, its fate is somewhat uncertain. In recent experiments modeling the condensate water conditions, catechol solutions were aerated in the presence of ammonia. Upon acidification of the solutions, a polymer precipitates. This polymer was compared to the black compound isolated from the condensate water by spectral and elemental analyses. The structures of the two polymers were reasonably similar. The kinetics of oxidation, as determined by the uptake of oxygen, indicates that the reaction was first order in catechol and oxygen. The rate was significantly enhanced by an increase in pH. Assuming that catechol is the only subunit of the polymers isolated from the different condensate waters, calculations would indicate that the initial catechol concentration varies from 440 to 1700 ppM. An attempt is being made to account for all of the carbon that appears in the water from the gasification process. Presently, only 60% to 70% of the carbon-containing products have been identified. Part of the remaining total organic carbon can be accounted for by the catechol polymer. Studying the fate of catechol in the coal gasification condensate water will help to develop an environmentally and financially feasible treatment of the wastewater. 4 refs.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of catechol to neuroblastoma N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rute M F; Alvarez, Lisandro D G; Costa, Maria F D; Costa, Silvia L; Clarêncio, Jorge; El-Bachá, Ramon S

    2008-12-01

    The mechanisms of catechol-induced cytotoxicity were studied in cultures of neuroblastoma N2a cells. The minimal cytotoxic concentration after 72 h was 20 micromol x l(-1). The EC50 after 72 h was 38 micromol x l(-1). There was not a correlation between the cytotoxicity and the formation of quinones in the medium. Catechol-induced cytotoxicity was increased significantly when superoxide dismutase (SOD) was added. The addition of catalase did not protect cells, but this enzyme reverted the deleterious effect of SOD. The experimental studies showed a detrimental effect of deferoxamine on catechol-induced cytotoxicity suggesting that cells need iron to maintain its metabolism. NF-kappaB inhibitors increased the cytotoxicity, suggesting that this factor is also important for cell viability. L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The use of monochlorobimane showed that catechol induced reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion after 24 h, prior to cell death. The mode of cell death was studied by flow cytometry after double staining with annexin V and propidium iodide. Catechol induced apoptosis after 72 h. Furthermore, catechol also induced nuclear fragmentation. These data showed that catechol-induced cytotoxicity to N2a cell was not directly a consequence of reactive oxygen species production. Rather, it was due to GSH depletion followed by the induction of apoptosis.

  1. Postmenopausal skin and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2012-10-01

    The aging global population continues to drive increasing demand for cosmaceuticals and cosmetic surgery among older men and women. Since the discovery in the 1990s that estrogen receptors are present in skin cells and decline in number from the onset of menopause in women, researchers have explored a number of ways in which estrogen can improve skin condition. Skin is estrogen responsive, and several studies now exist to support the antiaging properties of estrogen replacement therapies in postmenopausal women. Both systemic and topical estrogens appear to have positive effects on hormonal aging, increasing skin collagen content, thickness, elasticity and hydration. Estrogen therapies may also improve wound healing and reduce the incidence of wound complications. This review explores the potential for targeted estrogen replacement as a therapeutic option for long-term skin management in postmenopausal women.

  2. Bioinspired catecholic copolymers for antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    We report here a synthetic approach to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate)-polydopamine diblock (PMMA-PDA) and triblock (PDA-PMMA-PDA) copolymers combining mussel-inspired catecholic oxidative chemistry and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These copolymers display very good solubility in a range of organic solvents and also a broad band photo absorbance that increases with increasing PDA content in the copolymer. Spin-cast thin films of the copolymer were stable in water and showed a sharp reduction (by up to 50%) in protein adsorption compared to those of neat PMMA. Also the peak decomposition temperature of the copolymers was up to 43°C higher than neat PMMA. The enhanced solvent processability, thermal stability and low protein adsorption characteristics of this copolymer makes it attractive for variety of applications including antifouling coatings on large surfaces such as ship hulls, buoys, and wave energy converters.

  3. Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

    2013-12-07

    Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.

  4. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months. Images PMID:2337551

  5. Influence of dietary catechols on the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Freestone, Primrose P E; Walton, Nicholas J; Haigh, Richard D; Lyte, Mark

    2007-11-01

    The dietary constituents that may act, in the broadest sense, as co-factors to enable bacterial enteropathogens to replicate in gastrointestinal environments are still largely unknown. Recent work has demonstrated that certain non-nutritional components of food, such as the catecholamines, can contribute to the ability of Gram-negative pathogens to replicate in iron-restrictive media that may be reflective of gastrointestinal environments. The present report examines whether other, non-catecholamine, dietary catechols, which occur widely in plant foods, can also influence enteropathogen growth in an iron-restrictive environment such as might be found in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we have examined the ability of a range of catechol-rich foodstuffs, ranging from beverages (tea and coffee) to fruit and vegetable extracts, as well as purified preparations of commonly consumed dietary catechols (catechins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and tannic acid), to modulate the growth of the Gram-negative enteric pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica SV Enteriditis. Time-dependent growth in response to dietary catechols (0.05-5.0% v/v of beverage or fruit/vegetable extracts; 10-200 microM of purified catechols) was examined in an iron-replete, rich medium as well as in an iron-limited, basal medium designed to reflect the iron-restricted environment that is more characteristic of human and animal tissues. Results obtained in iron-replete, rich medium demonstrated dose-dependent bacteriostatic effects for certain catechols, consistent with previous studies. However, in iron-restricted medium, all of the dietary catechols produced marked growth stimulation of up to 4 logs greater than non-supplemented controls. Mechanistic studies measuring the uptake of radiolabelled (55)Fe from (55)Fe-labelled lactoferrin and transferrin in bacteria grown in the presence or absence of dietary catechols demonstrated that the ability of catechols to

  6. Protein reactivity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a toxic dopamine metabolite, is dependent on both the aldehyde and the catechol.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jennifer N; Florang, Virginia R; Eckert, Laurie L; Doorn, Jonathan A

    2009-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been implicated as an endogenous neurotoxin to explain selective neurodegeneration, as observed for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, previous work demonstrated that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) was more toxic than DA. DOPAL is generated as a part of DA catabolism via the activity of monoamine oxidase, and the mechanism of DOPAL toxicity is proposed to involve protein modification. Previous studies have demonstrated protein reactivity via the aldehyde moiety; however, DOPAL contains two reactive functional groups (catechol and aldehyde), both with the potential for protein adduction. The goal of this work was to determine whether protein modification by DOPAL occurs via a thiol-reactive quinone generated from oxidation of the catechol, which is known to occur for DA, or if the aldehyde forms adducts with amine nucleophiles. To accomplish this objective, the reactivity of DOPAL toward N-acetyl-lysine (NAL), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and two model proteins was determined. In addition, several DOPAL analogues were obtained and used for comparison of reactivity. Results demonstrate that at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, the order of DOPAL reactivity is NAL > NAC and the product of NAL and DOPAL is stable in the absence of reducing agent. Moreover, DOPAL will react with model proteins, but in the presence of amine-selective modifiers citraconic anhydride and 2-iminothiolane hydrochloride, the reactivity of DOPAL toward the proteins is diminished. In addition, DOPAL-mediated protein cross-linking is observed when a model protein or a protein mixture (i.e., mitochondria lysate) is treated with DOPAL at concentrations of 5-100 microM. Protein cross-linking was diminished in the presence of ascorbate, suggesting the involvement of a quinone in DOPAL-mediated protein modification. These data indicate that DOPAL is highly reactive toward protein nucleophiles with the potential for protein cross-linking.

  7. Degradation of recalcitrant compounds by catechol-driven Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J; Contreras, D; Oviedo, C; Freer, J; Baeza, J

    2004-01-01

    Dihydroxybenzenes are able to reduce Fe(III) and promote the Fenton reaction in the presence of H2O2. The catechol/Fe(III)/H2O2 system has been successfully used to degrade different compounds, being more efficient than the Fe(II)-Fenton reaction. In this paper the possibilities for using the catechol-driven Fenton reaction to degrade recalcitrant compounds such as the Fe(III)-EDTA complex and veratryl alcohol are reviewed.

  8. Kinetic and inhibition studies on catechol-O-methyltransferase affinity labelling by N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)maleimide.

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, F J; Fernandez-Alvarez, E; Nieto, O; Tipton, K F

    1992-01-01

    Initial velocity and product inhibition studies have been performed on soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase which has been partially purified from pig liver. The results are consistent with an ordered reaction mechanism, in which S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is the leading substrate. The enzyme is irreversibly inhibited by maleimide derivatives in a biphasic manner, which suggests a differential reaction with two thiol groups. N-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)maleimide, which has a reactive moiety (maleimide ring) and an affinity moiety (catechol ring), acts as an affinity labelling compound on the more reactive SH group; AdoMet and Mg2+ protect against this modification. Total protection of this SH group results in a pseudo-first-order inhibition of the enzyme, with the apparent rate constant being proportional to the inhibitor concentration. All the other maleimide derivatives studied inhibited the enzyme by reacting with one of the two SH groups in a non-specific manner. The reaction of the other, more reactive, SH group was either specific (active-site-directed) or non-specific, depending on the substituent present in the affinity moiety and also on the length of an intermediate chain of methylene groups present between this moiety and the reactive maleimide ring. In the presence of both AdoMet and Mg2+, 3,5-dinitrocatechol, a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme which is competitive with respect to the catechol substrate, protects the enzyme from inactivation by any of the maleimide derivatives. The adducts of these maleimide derivatives formed with dithiothreitol inhibit the enzyme reversibly, showing inhibition patterns that are consistent with the mechanism deduced from the initial velocity and product inhibition studies. PMID:1417755

  9. Decoration of electrospun nanofibers with monomeric catechols to facilitate cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Messersmith, Phillip B; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2014-02-01

    Monomeric catechols are displayed on the surface of polymeric nanofibers by robust catechol-thiol interactions to enhance cell adhesion and migration. Dihydroxyphenyl propionic acid is chemically conjugated to primary amine groups of poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-amine (PCL-PEG) nanofibers to display catechol moieties on the surface. At basic pH, catecholized nanofibers incorporate thiol groups at a five-fold higher rate than at acidic pH, while catechol-coated surfaces do not show any pH-dependent binding. Live/dead cell staining indicates that the catecholized nanofibers do not exert any cytotoxic effects. Also, NIH 3T3 cells cultured on the catecholized nanofibers show increased attachment and migration that is proportional to the amount of the immobilized catechol moieties on the surface. These results clearly indicate that 6 nmol of monomeric catechols on the surface of nanofiber can promote cell adhesion and migration by thiol-catehol interactions.

  10. Regiospecific attack of nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles on quinones derived from poison oak/ivy catechols (urushiols) and analogues as models for urushiol-protein conjugate formation.

    PubMed

    Liberato, D J; Byers, V S; Dennick, R G; Castagnoli, N

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to characterize potential biologically important covalent interactions between electrophilic quinones derived from catechols present in poison oak/ivy (urushiol) and biomacromolecules have led to the analysis of model reactions involving sulfur and amino nucleophiles with 3-heptadecylbenzoquinone. Characterization of the reaction products indicates that this quinone undergoes regiospecific attack by (S)-N-acetylcysteine at C-6 and by 1-aminopentane at C-5. The red solid obtained with 1-aminopentane proved to be 3-heptadecyl-5-(pentylamino)-1,2-benzoquinone. Analogous aminobenzoquinones were obtained with the quinones derived from the 4- and 6-methyl analogues of 3-pentadecylcatechol. All three adducts absorbed visible light at different wavelengths. When the starting catechols were incubated with human serum albumin almost identical chromophores were formed. These results establish that cathechols responsible for the production of the poison oak/ivy contact dermatitis in humans undergo a sequence of reactions in the presence of human serum albumin that lead to covalent attachment of the catechols to the protein via carbon-nitrogen bonds. Estimations of the extent of this binding indicate that, at least with human serum albumin, the reaction is quantitative.

  11. The Use of Screen-Printed Electrodes in a Proof of Concept Electrochemical Estimation of Homocysteine and Glutathione in the Presence of Cysteine Using Catechol

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patricia T.; Lowinsohn, Denise; Compton, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Screen printed electrodes were employed in a proof of concept determination of homocysteine and glutathione using electrochemically oxidized catechol via a 1,4-Michael addition reaction in the absence and presence of cysteine, and each other. Using cyclic voltammetry, the Michael reaction introduces a new adduct peak which is analytically useful in detecting thiols. The proposed procedure relies on the different rates of reaction of glutathione and homocysteine with oxidized catechol so that at fast voltage scan rates only homocysteine is detected in cyclic voltammetry. At slower scan rates, both glutathione and homocysteine are detected. The combination of the two sets of data provides quantification for homocysteine and glutathione. The presence of cysteine is shown not to interfere provided sufficient high concentrations of catechol are used. Calibration curves were determined for each homocysteine and glutathione detection; where the sensitivities are 0.019 μA·μM−1 and 0.0019 μA·μM−1 and limit of detections are ca. 1.2 μM and 0.11 μM for homocysteine and glutathione, respectively, within the linear range. This work presents results with potential and beneficial use in re-useable and/or disposable point-of-use sensors for biological and medical applications. PMID:24926695

  12. Neurotoxic thioether adducts of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine identified in human urine after ecstasy ingestion.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion approximately 0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans.

  13. Chemisorption of catechol on gibbsite, boehmite, and noncrystalline alumina surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Wesselink, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The mechanism of bonding of catechol and related phenolic compounds on aluminum oxides was elucidated from sorption behavior in the presence of competing adsorbates and the nature of the infrared spectra of the surface-bound molecules. The surfaces demonstrated a high degree of selectivity toward catechol, adsorbing the molecule in the presence of a large excess of chloride. Phosphate competed effectively with catechol for sorption sites while acetate did not. Dispersive and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy verified that catechol bound on the aluminum oxide surfaces was chemically perturbed in much the same manner as catechol chelated by Al/sup 3 +/, suggesting that the dominant sorption process involved the formation of a 1:1 bidentate complex with surface Al. The mechanisms of bonding was similar for all the aluminum oxides, but the dominant crystal surfaces of the crystalline oxides were unreactive toward catechol, and adsorption was attributed to -AlOH groups situated on edge faces. As a result, the noncrystalline oxide was more reactive per unit of surface area than the crystalline minerals boehmite and gibbsite.

  14. Quantification of phase I / II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Pratt, M. Margaret; Singh, Paras B.; Al-Buheissi, Salah; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Martin, Francis L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the aetiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ) and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ. METHODS To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n=26) or cystoprostatectomy (n=1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). RESULTS CYP1B1, NAT1 and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Tissue sections from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets were analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumour formation in the human prostate. PMID:19143007

  15. Crystal structures of human 108V and 108M catechol O-methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, K.; Le Trong, I.; Stenkamp, R.E.; Parson, W.W.

    2008-08-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays important roles in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol estrogens. The development of COMT inhibitors for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease has been aided by crystallographic structures of the rat enzyme. However, the human and rat proteins have significantly different substrate specificities. Additionally, human COMT contains a common valine-methionine polymorphism at position 108. The methionine protein is less stable than the valine polymorph, resulting in decreased enzyme activity and protein levels in vivo. Here we describe the crystal structures of the 108V and 108M variants of the soluble form of human COMT bound with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and a substrate analog, 3,5-dinitrocatechol. The polymorphic residue 108 is located in the {alpha}5-{beta}3 loop, buried in a hydrophobic pocket {approx}16 {angstrom} from the SAM-binding site. The 108V and 108M structures are very similar overall [RMSD of C{sup {alpha}} atoms between two structures (C{sup {alpha}} RMSD) = 0.2 {angstrom}], and the active-site residues are superposable, in accord with the observation that SAM stabilizes 108M COMT. However, the methionine side chain is packed more tightly within the polymorphic site and, consequently, interacts more closely with residues A22 ({alpha}2) and R78 ({alpha}4) than does valine. These interactions of the larger methionine result in a 0.7-{angstrom} displacement in the backbone structure near residue 108, which propagates along {alpha}1 and {alpha}5 toward the SAM-binding site. Although the overall secondary structures of the human and rat proteins are very similar (C{sup {alpha}} RMSD = 0.4 {angstrom}), several nonconserved residues are present in the SAM-(I89M, I91M, C95Y) and catechol- (C173V, R201M, E202K) binding sites. The human protein also contains three additional solvent-exposed cysteine residues (C95, C173, C188) that may contribute to intermolecular disulfide bond

  16. Amide-type adduct of dopamine - plausible cause of Parkinson diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuebo; Yamada, Naruomi; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is the endogenous neurotransmitter produced by nigral neurons. Dopamine loss can trigger not only prominent secondary morphological changes, but also changes in the density and sensitivity of dopamine receptors; therefore, it is a sign of PD development. The reasons for dopamine loss are attributed to dopamine's molecular instability due to it is a member of catecholamine family, whose catechol structure contributes to high oxidative stress through enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation. Oxidative stress in the brain easily leads to the lipid peroxidation reaction due to a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6/ω-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C18:4/ω-6). Recent studies have shown that lipid hydroperoxides, the primary peroxidative products, could non-specifically react with primary amino groups to form N-acyl-type (amide-linkage) adducts. Therefore, based on the NH2-teminals in dopamine's structure, the aims of this chapter are to describes the possibility that reactive LOOH species derived from DHA/AA lipid peroxidation may modify dopamine to form amide-linkage dopamine adducts, which might be related to etiology of Parkinson's diseases.

  17. A stable epoxide of estrone: Evidence for formation of a 'new' estrogen metabolite.

    PubMed

    Raeside, James I; Christie, Heather L

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative metabolism of estrogens is an important feature in liver and some non-hepatic tissues. In initial studies on estrogen metabolism in tissues from the reproductive tract of the stallion, where testicular estrogen secretion is remarkably high, a prominent radiolabeled product from [(3)H]-estrone (E1) was noted on chromatography; it had a retention time (Rt) between 17β-estradiol (E2) and E1. Unexpectedly, when non-radiolabeled E1 was the substrate no UV absorption at 280nm was seen at the Rt for the [(3)H]-labeled product-suggesting a non-aromatic ring A. The following efforts were made to reveal more about the nature of the "unknown" compound. Reduction and acetylation showed, separately, the presence of a single keto and hydroxyl group. Exposure to acid gave a single radiolabeled peak with Rt of 6α-hydroxy-E1-suggesting the presence of a third molecule of oxygen. Mass spectrometry with limited material was inconclusive but supportive for a formula of C18H22O3. Thus, an epoxide involving the aromatic ring of E1 is suggested as a labile intermediate in the formation of the "unknown" metabolite. Estrogen epoxides as labile, reactive intermediates have been considered as potential precursors of the 2- and 4-hydroxy catechol estrogens with implications in breast cancer [Soloway, 2007]. Because of the association of the "unknown" metabolite with 6α-hydroxy-E1, the structural form proposed for the stable epoxide is that for 5α,6α-epoxy-estrone. This represents an alternative to the production of the 2- and 4-hydroxy-catechol estrogens. The broad range in normal tissues where the "unknown" compound was shown to be a persistent metabolite (e.g. mouse mammary glands, ovary, uterus, brain, muscle, equine conceptus, stallion and domestic boar reproductive tracts) suggests more general biological implications.

  18. Dietary Catechols and their Relationship to Microbial Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Neil; Walton, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the evidence that the ability of neuroendocrine hormones, notably norepinephrine and epinephrine, to stimulate bacterial growth in iron-restricted media is not limited to molecules with a catecholamine structure but is also possessed by a variety of other catechols, many of which are of plant origin and are common in the diet. Catechols derived from the diet, such as the tea flavanols, can be present in the plasma at submicromolar and micromolar concentrations, comparable with the concentrations of catecholamines that have been shown to be effective in promoting bacterial growth under conditions of iron restriction, although many dietary catechols, notably quercetin derivatives, are present in the plasma and tissues largely as conjugates, from which the catechol function has been lost. Finally, although bacterial growth promotion through relief of iron restriction appears to be exhibited by a wide range of catechols, the gene-activation effects of catecholamines demonstrated to occur in some bacteria may be much more specific, although the definitive experiments to establish structure-function relationships have yet to be reported.

  19. Catechol conjugates are in vivo metabolites of Salicis cortex.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Susanne; Abdelsalam, Rania M; Khayyal, Mohamed T; Schweda, Frank; Heilmann, Jörg; Kees, Martin Georg; Mair, Georg; Kees, Frieder; Jürgenliemk, Guido

    2013-11-01

    After oral administration of 100 mg/kg b. w. (235.8 µmol/kg) salicortin to Wistar rats, peak serum concentrations of 1.43 mg/L (13.0 µM) catechol were detected after 0.5 h in addition to salicylic acid by HPLC-DAD after serum processing with β-glucuronidase and sulphatase. Both metabolites could also be detected in the serum of healthy volunteers following oral administration of a willow bark extract (Salicis cortex, Salix spec., Salicaceae) corresponding to 240 mg of salicin after processing with both enzymes. In humans, the cmax (1.46 mg/L, 13.3 µM) of catechol was reached after 1.2 h. The predominant phase-II metabolite in humans and rats was catechol sulphate, determined by HPLC analysis of serum samples processed with only one kind of enzyme. Without serum processing with glucuronidase and sulphatase, no unconjugated catechol could be detected in human and animal serum samples. As catechol is described as an anti-inflammatory compound, these results may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of the action of willow bark extract.

  20. Colorimetric determination of catechol siderophores in microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Rioux, C; Jordan, D C; Rattray, J B

    1983-08-01

    A highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the selective detection of catechol compounds such as catechol siderophores (e.g., enterobactin) is described. The basis of the method involves the ability of the vicinal aromatic hydroxyl groups under acidic conditions to bring about a reduction of Fe3+ (from ferric ammonium citrate) to Fe2+. Detection of Fe2+ in the presence of Fe3+ is made with 1,10-phenanthroline under previously established conditions. The assay mixture is heated at 60 degrees C for 1 h to accelerate the development of color which is subsequently measured at 510 nm. The Beer-Lambert law is obeyed over the range of 0.16 to 60 microM 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Compared to the Arnow nitration method, the assay is more responsive, is approximately seven times more sensitive, and is effective with catechols substituted at positions 3 and 4. The method gives positive results with catechols such as DL-DOPA, L-dopamine, (+/-)-epinephrine, and DL-norepinephrine. Very rapid color development is obtained with ascorbic acid and p-diols, while m-diols are poorly detected. Low degrees of reactivity are shown by hydroxylamino and hydroxamate compounds. Phenolic, sulfydryl, indolyl, and quinonyl derivatives do not interfere with the reaction. The method has been adapted to determine catechol compounds in the culture medium of bacterial cells grown at different iron concentrations.

  1. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  2. NMR spectra and electrochemical behavior of catechol-bearing block copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Urara; Moriyama, Masaki; Uyama, Hiroshi; van der Vlies, André J.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide the NMR spectra and AFM data for antioxidant micelles prepared from amphiphilic PAM-PDA block copolymers composed of a poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) and a redox-active catechol-bearing block with different catechol content. We also provide details of the electrochemical analysis that showed micelles higher catechol content had a similar redox potential with the small catechol compound dopamine, but slowed down the redox reaction (Hasegawa et al., Polymer (in press)). PMID:26217751

  3. Detection of DNA adducts by bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunqing; Tan, Xianglin; Yao, Qunfeng; He, Min; Zhou, Yikai; Chen, Jian

    2001-09-01

    Luminescent assay for detection ATP is very sensitive with limitation of 10-17 moles. ATP using styrene oxide as a model carcinogen we currently apply a luminescence technique to detect the very low levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo. The bioluminescent assay of DNA adducts entails three consecutive steps: digestion of modified DNA to adducted dinucleoside monophosphate and normal nucleotide are hydrolyzed to nucleosides (N) by nuclease P1 and prostatic acid phosphomonesterase (PAP); incorporation of (gamma) -P of ATP into normal nucleoside(N); detection of consumption of ATP by luminescence. This assay does not require separate manipulation because of the selective property of nuclease P1. One fmol of carcinogen- DNA adducts was detected by luminescent assay. A good correlation between results of luminescent assay and 32P-postlabeling procedures has been observed. We detect 1 adduct in 108 nucleotides for 10(mu) g DNA sample. The procedures of luminescent method is very simple and low- cost. IT appears applicable to the ultra sensitive detection of low levels of DNA adducts without radioactive isotope.

  4. Bioactive Flavonoids and Catechols as Hif1 and Nrf2 Protein Stabilizers - Implications for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Natalya A.; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Hushpulian, Dmitry M.; Rakhman, Ilay I.; Poloznikov, Andrey A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S.; Gaisina, Irina N.; Pekcec, Anton; Leyen, Klaus Van; Kazakov, Sergey V.; Yang, Lichuan; Thomas, Bobby; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Gazaryan, Irina G.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are known to trigger the intrinsic genetic adaptive programs to hypoxic or oxidative stress via estrogen receptor engagement or upstream kinase activation. To reveal specific structural requirements for direct stabilization of the transcription factors responsible for triggering the antihypoxic and antioxidant programs, we studied flavones, isoflavones and catechols including dihydroxybenzoate, didox, levodopa, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), using novel luciferase-based reporters specific for the first step in HIF1 or Nrf2 protein stabilization. Distinct structural requirements for either transcription factor stabilization have been found: as expected, these requirements for activation of HIF ODD-luc reporter correlate with in silico binding to HIF prolyl hydroxylase. By contrast, stabilization of Nrf2 requires the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy- (catechol) groups. Thus, only some but not all flavonoids are direct activators of the hypoxic and antioxidant genetic programs. NDGA from the Creosote bush resembles the best flavonoids in their ability to directly stabilize HIF1 and Nrf2 and is superior with respect to LOX inhibition thus favoring this compound over others. Given much higher bioavailability and stability of NDGA than any flavonoid, NDGA has been tested in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-animal model of Parkinson’s Disease and demonstrated neuroprotective effects. PMID:28053825

  5. Inactivation of urease by catechol: Kinetics and structure.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Musiani, Francesco; Lente, Gábor; Palombo, Marta; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Urease is a Ni(II)-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbamate at a rate 10(15) times higher than the uncatalyzed reaction. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, efficient urease inhibitors are actively sought. In this study, we describe a molecular characterization of the interaction between urease from Sporosarcina pasteurii (SPU) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean, JBU) with catechol, a model polyphenol. In particular, catechol irreversibly inactivates both SPU and JBU with a complex radical-based autocatalytic multistep mechanism. The crystal structure of the SPU-catechol complex, determined at 1.50Å resolution, reveals the structural details of the enzyme inhibition.

  6. Removal of arsenic compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  7. Environmental Estrogens and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Jefferson, Wendy N.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemicals in the environment, in particular those with estrogenic activity, can disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways that are established during development and result in adverse consequences that may not be apparent until much later in life. Most recently, obesity and diabetes join the growing list of adverse consequences that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens during critical stages of differentiation. These diseases are quickly becoming significant public health issues and are fast reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In this review, we summarize the literature from experimental animal studies documenting an association of environmental estrogens and the development of obesity, and further describe an animal model of exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) that has proven useful in studying mechanisms involved in abnormal programming of various differentiating estrogen- target tissues. Other examples of environmental estrogens including the phytoestrogen genistein and the environmental contaminant Bisphenol A are also discussed. Together, these data suggest new targets (i.e., adipocyte differentiation and molecular mechanisms involved in weight homeostasis) for abnormal programming by estrogenic chemicals, and provide evidence that support the scientific hypothesis termed “the developmental origins of adult disease”. The proposal of an association of environmental estrogens with obesity and diabetes expands the focus on the diseases from intervention/treatment to include prevention/avoidance of chemical modifiers especially during critical windows of development. PMID:19433252

  8. Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

    2013-11-01

    Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis of dopamine linkers and Cu NPs, peroxidase activity tests, H2O2 calibration and degradation tests for resorufin, RB and MB. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03563h

  9. Estrogen, schizophrenia and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2006-07-01

    Women are relatively protected against schizophrenia. The illness has a similar rate in women and men, but it starts later in women and is less severe. It is tempting to attribute this to the neuroprotective effect of estrogen, but the story is not straightforward and contains many unknowns. Women begin their schizophrenia trajectory later in development compared with men and this probably accounts for their relatively superior prognosis. Estrogen agonists are potential therapeutic agents but need to be proven safe, and the timing of administration may be crucial. This article examines what is known about estrogen and the development of schizophrenia.

  10. Conjugation of catechols by recombinant human sulfotransferases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and soluble catechol O-methyltransferase: structure-conjugation relationships and predictive models.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Jyrki; Ethell, Brian T; Pihlavisto, Pia; Hood, Alan M; Burchell, Brian; Coughtrie, Michael W H

    2003-09-01

    Conjugation of a structurally diverse set of 53 catechol compounds was studied in vitro using six recombinant human sulfotransferases (SULTs), five UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and the soluble form of catechol O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) as catalyst. The catechol set comprised endogenous compounds, such as catecholamines and catecholestrogens, drugs, natural plant constituents, and other catechols with diverse substituent properties and substitution patterns. Most of the catechols studied were substrates of S-COMT and four SULT isoforms (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, and 1B1), but the rates of conjugation varied considerably, depending on the substrate structure and the enzyme form. SULT1E1 sulfated fewer catechols. Only low activities were observed for SULT1C2. UGT1A9 glucuronidated catechols representing various structural classes, and almost half of the studied compounds were glucuronidated at a high rate. The other UGT enzymes (1A1, 1A6, 2B7, and 2B15) showed narrower substrate specificity for catechols, but each glucuronidated some catechols at a high rate. Dependence of specificity and rate of conjugation on the molecular structure of the substrate was characterized by structure-activity relationship analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling. Twelve structural descriptors were used to characterize lipophilicity/polar interaction properties, steric properties, and electronic effects of the substituents modifying the catechol structure. PLS models explaining more than 80% and predicting more than 70% of the variance in conjugation activity were derived for the representative enzyme forms SULT1A3, UGT1A9, and S-COMT. Several structural factors governing the conjugation of catechol hormones, metabolites, and drugs were identified. The results have significant implications for predicting the metabolic fate of catechols.

  11. Estrogen and Bazedoxifene

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck, and chest) in women who are experiencing menopause (stage of life when menstrual periods become less ... and break easily) in women who have undergone menopause. Estrogen is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Lack of association between the functional polymorphisms in the estrogen-metabolizing genes and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Gangqiao; Zhai, Yun; Xie, Weimin; Cui, Ying; Cao, Jia; Zhi, Lianteng; Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoai; Qiu, Wei; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Xiumei; Yu, Ling; Xia, Xia; He, Fuchu

    2008-12-01

    Estrogens have been proposed to act as tumor promoters and induce hepatocarcinogenesis. Recently, we observed a significant association between the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma and the polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ESR) alpha (ESR1) gene, supporting the hypothesis of involvement for the estrogen-ESR axis in the estrogen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, based on another hypothesis in which estrogen metabolites can directly cause DNA damage and affect tumor initiation, we examined whether the polymorphisms of the estrogen-metabolizing enzymes (EME), which are involved in biogenesis (CYP17, CYP19), bioavailability (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), and degradation (catechol-O-methyltransferase) of the estrogens, have any bearing on the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Seven functional polymorphisms in five EMEs (CYP17 MspAI site, CYP19 Trp39Arg, Ile462Val and MspI site in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 Val432Leu, and Ala72Ser and Val158Met in catechol-O-methyltransferase) were genotyped in 434 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 480 controls by PCR-RFLP analysis. The associations between the polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma risk were evaluated while controlling for confounding factors. No significant association with the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma was observed with the seven polymorphisms in hepatitis B virus carriers and non-hepatitis B virus carriers after correction for multiple comparisons. After stratification by common confounding factors of hepatocellular carcinoma, the EME polymorphism remained no significant association with the hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Furthermore, no signs of gene-gene interactions were observed for each combination of the seven polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms of EMEs may not contribute significantly to the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. [Estrogens and vascular thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Colmou, A

    1982-09-01

    The incidence of thromboses among young women has increased with widespread use of oral contraceptives (OCs) due to the significant thromboembolic risk of estrogen. Estrogens intervene at the vascular, platelet, and plasma levels as a function of hormonal variations in the menstrual cycle, increasing the aggregability of the platelets and thrombocytes, accelerating the formation of clots, and decreasing the amount of antithrombin III. Estrogens are used in medicine to treat breast and prostate cancers and in gynecology to treat dysmenorrhea, during the menopause, and in contraception. Smoking, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are contraindicators to estrogen use. Thrombosis refers to blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or thrombus. Before estrogens are prescribed, a history of phlebitis, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or significant varicosities should be ruled out. A history of venous thrombosis, hyperlipoproteinemia, breast nodules, serious liver condition, allergies to progesterone, and some ocular diseases of vascular origin definitively rule out treatment with estrogens. A family history of infarct, embolism, diabetes, cancer, or vascular accidents at a young age signals a need for greater patient surveillance. All patients receiving estrogens should be carefully observed for signs of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypercoagulability, or diabetes. Nurses have a role to play in carefully eliciting the patient's history of smoking, personal and family medical problems, and previous and current laboratory results, as well as in informing the patients of the risks and possible side effects of OCs, especially for those who smoke. Nurses should educate patients receiving estrogens, especially those with histories of circulatory problems, to avoid standing in 1 position for prolonged periods, avoid heat which is a vasodilator, avoid obesity, excercise regularly, wear appropriate footgear, and follow other good health

  14. The Measurement of Estrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Geoff; Makin, Hugh L. J.; Bradlow, H. Leon

    Biologists use the word ‘estrogen' when referring to molecules which have the ability to induce uterine growth or vaginal cornification in the immature or ovariectomized rodent. The word estrogen was derived from two Greek words - oistros meaning frenzy and gennein - to beget. Chemists and biochemists, however, often restrict their use of this term to molecules that contain a characteristic 18-carbon steroid nucleus with an aromatic (phenolic) A-ring, both those that are biologically active estrogens and those without biologic activity but which are of intrinsic interest, such as the estrogen conjugates. This chapter is concerned only with these steroid compounds. The structure and inter-relationship of some common estrogens are given in Fig. 8.1. In addition to the biological estrogens, there are a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds which have estrogenic activity when measured by one or another parameter. While many of the assay procedures described in this review are applicable to these compounds, their application to non C18-steroids will not be discussed here. Methodology for these non-steroidal compounds can be found in reviews by Wang et al. (2002), Wu et al. (2004), Muir (2006), and Delmonte and Rader (2006). While not wishing to downgrade the importance of previous work in the estrogen field, the authors have taken a deliberate decision to exclude most publications prior to 1975, not because these do not have value but simply because space is not unlimited and readers of the present chapter might be expected to be seeking information about methodology which is less than 30 years old. Readers seeking pre-1975 information in this area can find it in Oakey and Holder (1995).

  15. Optimization of catechol production by membrane-immobilized polyphenol oxidase: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, A; Burton, M H; Burton, S G

    2003-07-05

    Although previous research has focused on phenol removal efficiencies using polyphenol oxidase in nonimmobilized and immobilized forms, there has been little consideration of the use of polyphenol oxidase in a biotransformation system for the production of catechols. In this study, polyphenol oxidase was successfully immobilized on various synthetic membranes and used to convert phenolic substrates to catechol products. A neural network model was developed and used to model the rates of substrate utilization and catechol production for both nonimmobilized and immobilized polyphenol oxidase. The results indicate that the biotransformation of the phenols to their corresponding catechols was strongly influenced by the immobilization support, resulting in differing yields of catechols. Hydrophilic membranes were found to be the most suitable immobilization supports for catechol production. The successful biocatalytic production of 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and 4-chlorocatechol is demonstrated.

  16. Antiproliferative and Antiestrogenic Activities of Bonediol an Alkyl Catechol from Bonellia macrocarpa

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Puc, Rosa; Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar; Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R.; Slusarz, Anna; Jackson, Glenn; Drenkhahn, Sara K.; Lubahn, Dennis B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate antiproliferative activity of bonediol, an alkyl catechol isolated from the Mayan medicinal plant Bonellia macrocarpa. Bonediol was assessed for growth inhibition of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP), androgen-insensitive (PC-3), and metastatic androgen-insensitive (PC-3M) human prostate tumor cells; toxicity on normal cell line (HEK 293) was also evaluated. Hedgehog pathway was evaluated and competitive 3H-estradiol ligand binding assay was performed. Additionally, antioxidant activity on Nrf2-ARE pathway was evaluated. Bonediol induced a growth inhibition on prostate cancer cell lines (IC50 from 8.5 to 20.6 µM). Interestingly, bonediol binds to both estrogen receptors (ERα (2.5 µM) and ERβ (2.1 µM)) and displaces the native ligand E2 (17β-estradiol). No significant activity was found in the Hedgehog pathway. Additionally, activity of bonediol on Nrf2-ARE pathway suggested that bonediol could induce oxidative stress and activation of detoxification enzymes at 1 µM (3.8-fold). We propose that the compound bonediol may serve as a potential chemopreventive treatment with therapeutic potential against prostate cancer. PMID:26557704

  17. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val(158)met Polymorphism Interacts with Sex to Affect Face Recognition Ability.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; McKay, Nicole S; Singh, Shrimal S; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism affects the breakdown of synaptic dopamine. Consequently, this polymorphism has been associated with a variety of neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes. Some of the effects have been found to be sex-specific and it appears estrogen may act to down-regulate the activity of the COMT enzyme. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in face recognition, a form of cognition for which a female advantage has typically been reported. This study aimed to investigate potential joint effects of sex and COMT genotype on face recognition. A sample of 142 university students was genotyped and assessed using the Faces I subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III). A significant two-way interaction between sex and COMT genotype on face recognition performance was found. Of the male participants, COMT val homozygotes and heterozygotes had significantly lower scores than met homozygotes. Scores did not differ between genotypes for female participants. While male val homozygotes had significantly lower scores than female val homozygotes, no sex differences were observed in the heterozygotes and met homozygotes. This study contributes to the accumulating literature documenting sex-specific effects of the COMT polymorphism by demonstrating a COMT-sex interaction for face recognition, and is consistent with a role for dopamine in face recognition.

  18. Analysis of the Association between Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met and Male Sexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Tu, Dan; Hong, Fuchang; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoli; Cai, Yumao; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Feng; Pan, Hong; Wu, Shinan; Feng, Tiejian; Wang, Binbin

    2015-09-01

    Male sexual orientation is thought to have a genetic component. However, previous studies have failed to generate positive results from among candidate genes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), located on chromosome 22, has six exons, spans 27 kb, and encodes a protein of 271 amino acids. COMT has an important role in regulating the embryonic levels of catecholamine neurotransmitters (such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and estrogens. COMT is also thought to be related to sexual orientation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the COMT Val158Met variant and male sexual orientation. We performed association analysis of the COMT gene single nucleotide polymorphism, Val158Met, in 409 homosexual cases and 387 heterosexual control Chinese men. COMT polymorphism status was determined using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to genotype the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. The frequency differences of the genotype and alleles distribution between the male homosexual and control groups. Significant differences, both in genotype and alleles, between male homosexual individuals and controls indicated a genetic component related to male homosexuality. The Val allele recessive model could be an interrelated genetic model of the cause of male homosexuality. The COMT Val158Met variant might be associated with male sexual orientation and a recessive model was suggested. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met Polymorphism Interacts with Sex to Affect Face Recognition Ability

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Yvette N.; McKay, Nicole S.; Singh, Shrimal S.; Waldie, Karen E.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism affects the breakdown of synaptic dopamine. Consequently, this polymorphism has been associated with a variety of neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes. Some of the effects have been found to be sex-specific and it appears estrogen may act to down-regulate the activity of the COMT enzyme. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in face recognition, a form of cognition for which a female advantage has typically been reported. This study aimed to investigate potential joint effects of sex and COMT genotype on face recognition. A sample of 142 university students was genotyped and assessed using the Faces I subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III). A significant two-way interaction between sex and COMT genotype on face recognition performance was found. Of the male participants, COMT val homozygotes and heterozygotes had significantly lower scores than met homozygotes. Scores did not differ between genotypes for female participants. While male val homozygotes had significantly lower scores than female val homozygotes, no sex differences were observed in the heterozygotes and met homozygotes. This study contributes to the accumulating literature documenting sex-specific effects of the COMT polymorphism by demonstrating a COMT-sex interaction for face recognition, and is consistent with a role for dopamine in face recognition. PMID:27445927

  20. SERMs attenuate estrogen-induced malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by upregulating detoxification of oxidative metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Madhubhani, L.P.; Hemachandra, P.; Patel, Hitisha; Esala, R.; Chandrasena, P.; Choi, Jaewoo; Piyankarage, Sujeewa C.; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yijin; Thayer, Emily; Scism, Rob; Michalsen, Bradley T.; Xiong, Rui; Siklos, Marton; Bolton, Judy L.; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers with long-term exposure to estrogens is attributed both to proliferative, hormonal actions at the estrogen receptor (ER), and chemical carcinogenesis elicited by genotoxic, oxidative estrogen metabolites. Non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells are classified as ER(−) and undergo estrogen-induced malignant transformation. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), in use for breast cancer chemoprevention and for post-menopausal osteoporosis, were observed to inhibit malignant transformation, as measured by anchorage-independent colony growth. This chemopreventive activity was observed to correlate with reduced levels of oxidative estrogen metabolites, cellular ROS, and DNA oxidation. The ability of raloxifene, desmethylarzoxifene (DMA), and bazedoxifene to inhibit this chemical carcinogenesis pathway was not shared by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Regulation of Phase 2 rather than Phase 1 metabolic enzymes was implicated mechanistically: raloxifene and DMA were observed to upregulate sulfotransferase (SULT 1E1) and glucuronidase (UGT 1A1). The results support upregulation of Phase 2 metabolism in detoxification of catechol estrogen metabolites leading to attenuated ROS formation as a mechanism for inhibition of malignant transformation by a subset of clinically important SERMs. PMID:24598415

  1. Removal of estrogens and estrogenicity through drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura; Wiese, Thomas E; Wymer, Larry; Dugan, Nicholas; Williams, Daniel; Mash, Heath; Merriman, Betty; Speth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drinking waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conventional drinking water treatment using a natural water. Bench-scale studies utilizing chlorine, alum coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were conducted using Ohio River water spiked with three estrogens, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, and estriol. Treatment of the estrogens with chlorine, either alone or with coagulant, resulted in approximately 98% reductions in the concentrations of the parent estrogens, accompanied by formation of by-products. The MVLN reporter gene and MCF-7 cell proliferation assays were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the water before and after treatment. The observed estrogenic activities of the chlorinated samples showed that estrogenicity of the water was reduced commensurate with removal of the parent estrogen. Therefore, the estrogen chlorination by-products did not contribute appreciably to the estrogenic activity of the water. Coagulation alone did not result in significant removals of the estrogens. However, addition of PAC, at a typical drinking water plant dose, resulted in removals ranging from approximately 20 to 80%.

  2. Iron-Binding Catechols and Virulence in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Henry J.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work suggested that virulent bacteria, which can grow rapidly in serum, must possess a specific mechanism for removing iron from its transferrin complex. Two strains of Escherichia coli were examined with this in mind. Strain O141, which showed inoculum-dependent growth in serum and multiplied in the mouse peritoneum, secreted iron-binding catechols into both synthetic medium and serum. One of these compounds has an association constant for iron similar to that of transferrin. Both transferrin and ethylenediamine-di-o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (EDDA), which have very high affinities for ferric iron, induced catechol synthesis in growing cultures of strain O111. This organism was inhibited by normal horse serum. Further work showed that traces of specific antibody inhibited catechol synthesis by O111 exposed to EDDA; therefore, the existence of this inhibitory process means that the organism can no longer obtain Fe3+, which all remains bound to transferrin in serum. In vivo, the inhibition of O111 is similar to that produced by serum in vitro. Neither phagocytosis nor killing by complement appeared to be of any significance during the first 4 h of the infections. Significantly, the purified catechol was capable of abolishing bacteriostasis in vivo. Since these results show that the production of iron-binding catechols is essential for rapid bacterial growth both in vitro and in vivo, these compounds should therefore be considered as true virulence factors. Conversely, any interference by the host with the production or activity of these compounds would constitute an important aspect of antibacterial defense. Images PMID:16558077

  3. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps = 0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps = 0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps = 0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on

  4. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-12-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly.

  5. Equine cytochrome P450 aromatase exhibits an estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Almadhidi, J; Moslemi, S; Drosdowsky, M A; Séralini, G E

    1996-09-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthetase) is a steroidogenic enzyme complex which catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens (termed aromatization). This enzyme was purified from adult equine testis to homogeneity by five chromatographic steps. The ability of purified and reconstituted equine aromatase to exhibit an estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity was tested and compared to testosterone aromatization. Enzymatic activities were assessed by tritiated water release from labelled estradiol and testosterone. Kinetic analysis of estradiol 2-hydroxylation showed an apparent K(m) of 23 microM and a V(max) of 18 nmol/min/mg, whereas the values for testosterone aromatization were a K(m) of 15.7 nM and a V(max) of 34.6 pmol/min/mg. A specific antiserum raised against purified testicular equine P450arom and known to inhibit aromatase activity [1] was also found to inhibit the estrogen hydroxylase activity of equine placental microsomes in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 15 microl serum: 0.5 ml incubate. The estrogen hydroxylase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by two classes of aromatase inhibitors, i.e. steroidal-- (4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 7alpha-([4-aminophenyl]thio)-androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione)--and non-steroidal--(fadrozole and miconazole). The IC50 values were approximately 300 and 890 nM for 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 7alpha-([4-aminophenyl]thio)-androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione, and 92 and 285 nM, for fadrozole and miconazole, respectively. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione caused a time-dependent inactivation of estrogen hydroxylase activity. We conclude that equine aromatase is able to use estradiol as a substrate, and converts it to catechol estradiol in vitro, possibly using the active site of aromatization. This is the first demonstration that equine aromatase functions as an estrogen 2-hydroxylase, in addition to transforming androgens into estrogen.

  6. Tamoxifen-induced adduct formation and cell stress in human endometrial glands.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Helén; Helmestam, Malin; Zebrowska, Anna; Olovsson, Matts; Brittebo, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The beneficial effects of tamoxifen in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer are compromised by an increased risk of endometrial polyps, hyperplasia, and cancer. Tamoxifen is metabolized to an array of metabolites with estrogenic effects but also to reactive intermediates that may form protein and DNA adducts. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular [(3)H]tamoxifen adduct formation by light microscopic autoradiography and cell stress by immunohistochemical analysis of glucose-regulating protein 78 (GRP78), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and caspase 3 in human endometrial explants after short-term incubation with tamoxifen. The cellular expression of tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes in human endometrial biopsy samples was also determined by immunohistochemistry. The results showed selective [(3)H]tamoxifen adduct formation in glandular and surface epithelia after incubation with a nontoxic concentration of [(3)H]tamoxifen (6 nM). There was also a selective expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone GRP78 and activated caspase 3 at these sites after incubation with cytotoxic concentrations of tamoxifen (10-100 microM). The cell stress was preferentially observed in samples from women in the proliferative menstrual phase. No treatment-related expression of NF-kappaB was observed. Constitutive expression of the tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8/9/19, CYP2D6, and SULT2A1 in glandular and surface epithelia was shown, but there was a large interindividual variation. The colocalization of [(3)H]tamoxifen adducts, expression of GRP78, caspase 3, and tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes in human glandular and surface epithelia suggest a local bioactivation of tamoxifen at these sites and that epithelial cells are early target sites for tamoxifen-induced cell stress.

  7. Estrogen and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, A A; Lee, A R

    2012-07-01

    Estrogen is a potent steroid with pleiotropic effects, which have yet to be fully elucidated. Estrogen has both nuclear and non-nuclear effects. The rapid response to estrogen, which involves a membrane associated estrogen receptor(ER) and is protective, involves signaling through PI3K, Akt, and ERK 1/2. The nuclear response is much slower, as the ER-estrogen complex moves to the nucleus, where it functions as a transcription factor, both activating and repressing gene expression. Several different ERs regulate the specificity of response to estrogen, and appear to have specific effects in cardiac remodeling and the response to injury. However, much remains to be understood about the selectivity of these receptors and their specific effects on gene expression. Basic studies have demonstrated that estrogen treatment prevents apoptosis and necrosis of cardiac and endothelial cells. Estrogen also attenuates pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Estrogen may have great benefit in aging as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, clinical investigations of estrogen have had mixed results, and not shown the clear-cut benefit of more basic investigations. This can be explained in part by differences in study design: in basic studies estrogen treatment was used immediately or shortly after ovariectomy, while in some key clinical trials, estrogen was given years after menopause. Further basic research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of estrogen's actions is essential to provide a better comprehension of the many properties of this powerful hormone.

  8. Estrogen and Cytochrome P450 1B1 Contribute to Both Early- and Late-Stage Head and Neck Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shatalova, Ekaterina G.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.P.; Devarajan, Karthik; Cukierman, Edna; Clapper, Margie L.

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most common type of cancer in the U.S. The goal of this study was to evaluate the contribution of estrogens to the development of HNSCCs. Various cell lines derived from early- and late-stage head and neck lesions were used to: characterize the expression of estrogen synthesis and metabolism genes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP)1B1, examine the effect of estrogen on gene expression and evaluate the role of CYP1B1 and/or estrogen in cell motility, proliferation and apoptosis. Estrogen metabolism genes (CYP1B1, CYP1A1, catechol-o-methyltransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, and glutathione-S-transferase P1) and estrogen receptor (ER)β were expressed in cell lines derived from both premalignant (MSK-Leuk1) and malignant (HNSCC) lesions. Exposure to estrogen induced CYP1B1 2.3 to 3.6 fold relative to vehicle-treated controls (P=0.0004) in MSK-Leuk1 cells but not in HNSCC cells. CYP1B1 knockdown by shRNA reduced the migration and proliferation of MSK-Leuk1 cells by 57% and 45%, respectively. Exposure of MSK-Leuk1 cells to estrogen inhibited apoptosis by 26%, while supplementation with the antiestrogen fulvestrant restored estrogen-dependent apoptosis. Representation of the estrogen pathway in human head and neck tissues from 128 patients was examined using tissue microarrays. The majority of the samples exhibited immunohistochemical staining for ERβ (91.9%), CYP1B1 (99.4%) and 17β-estradiol (88.4%). CYP1B1 and ERβ were elevated in HNSCCs relative to normal epithelium (P=0.024 and 0.008, respectively). These data provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying head and neck carcinogenesis and facilitate the identification new targets for chemopreventive intervention. PMID:21205741

  9. Neurotoxic Thioether Adducts of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Identified in Human Urine After Ecstasy IngestionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion ∼0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans. PMID:19349378

  10. Removal of Estrogens and Estrogenicity through Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drining waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conven...

  11. Removal of Estrogens and Estrogenicity through Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drining waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conven...

  12. Interactions between genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450-1B1, sulfotransferase 1A1, catechol-o-methyltransferase and tobacco exposure in breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Saintot, Monique; Malaveille, Christian; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Gerber, Mariette

    2003-11-20

    Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and estrogens might play a role in breast carcinogenesis related to environmental exposures. In a case-only study on 282 women with breast cancer, we studied the interaction effects (ORi) between smoking habits and the gene polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 1B1 (Val432Leu CYP1B1), Phenol-sulfotransferase 1A1 (Arg213His SULT1A1) and Catechol-O-methyltransferase (Val158Met COMT). The smokers carrying the Val CYP1B1 allele associated with a high hydroxylation activity had a higher risk of breast cancer than never smokers with the Leu/Leu genotype (ORi=2.32, 95%CI: 1.00-5.38). Also, the smokers carrying the His SULT1A1 allele associated with a low sulfation activity had a 2-fold excess risk compared to never smokers carrying Arg/Arg SULT1A1 common genotype (ORi= 2.55, 95%CI: 1.21-5.36). The His SULT1A1 allele increased the risk only in premenopausal patients. The Met COMT allele with a lower methylation activity than Val COMT did not modify the risk among smokers. The excess risk due to joint effect could result from a higher exposure to activated tobacco-compounds for women homo/heterozygous for the Val CYP1B1 allele. Also, a lower sulfation of the tobacco carcinogens among women with His SULT1A1 could increase exposure to genotoxic compounds. Alternatively, the Val CYP1B1 or His SULT1A1 allele with modified ability to metabolize estrogens could increase the level of genotoxic catechol estrogen (i.e., 4-hydroxy-estradiol) among smokers. Our study showed that gene polymorphisms of CYP1B1 and SULT1A1 induce an individual susceptibility to breast cancer among current smokers.

  13. Relationships between DNA adduct formation and carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, J.A.; Richardson, F.C.; Boucheron, J.A.; Dyroff, M.C.

    1985-10-01

    An impressive array of evidence has been obtained during the past decade establishing correlations between specific DNA adducts and carcinogenesis. Many of the studies utilized organ specific differences in carcinogenesis to establish the correlations. More recently, we have investigated similar relationships between target and nontarget cell populations within the liver. Chronic exposure to methylating hepatocarcinogens predominantly induces hemangiosarcomas, whereas exposure to ethylating agents causes hepatocellular carcinomas. This cell specificity in carcinogenesis correlates well with the presence of promutagenic DNA adducts. In the case of methylating agents, the nonparenchymal cells accumulate O6-methylguanine whereas the hepatocytes do not. Exposure to ethylating agents leads to accumulation of O4-ethyldeoxythymidine, but not O6-ethyldeoxyguanosine in hepatocytes. These differences reflect the ability of the two cell populations to repair O6-alkylguanine and the extent of purine and pyrimidine alkylation with methylating and ethylating agents. Hepatocytes of rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 28 days have four to five times more promutagenic DNA adducts (O6-alkyldeoxyguanosine and O4-alkyldeoxythymidine) than hepatocytes of rats exposed to nearly equimolar doses of dimethylhydrazine. Both O6-methylguanine and O4-methyldeoxythymidine are rapidly repaired by rat hepatocytes, while only O6-ethyldeoxyguanosine is rapidly repaired. Studies comparing the relationship between the induction of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci, hepatocellular carcinoma and promutagenic lesions such as O4-ethyldeoxythymidine will be useful in understanding associations between the molecular dosimetry of DNA adducts, initiation, and progression of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Estrogen supplements in menopause.

    PubMed

    Booher, D L

    1990-01-01

    The number of women aged 65 and older is expected to double by the year 2000, increasing the need for effective management of symptoms related to menopause. Contemporary management of menopause addresses the continuum of events associated with the effects of estrogen deprivation on quality and duration of life, including neuroendocrine changes, urogenital atrophy, sexual dysfunction, skin and hair changes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. The risks and benefits of management strategies, including hormone replacement therapy, must be weighted carefully by both physician and patient. The use of estrogens and progestins, alterative compounds, dosages, routes of administration, and their advantages and disadvantages must be analyzed.

  15. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  16. Computational Study on the Stacking Interaction in Catechol Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Laura; Otero, Nicolás; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2009-09-01

    The stability and electron density topology of catechol complexes (dimers and tetramer) were studied using the MPW1B95 functional. The QTAIM analysis shows that both dimers (face to face and C-H/π one) display a different electronic origin. The formation of the former is accompanied by a significant change in the values of atomic electron dipole and quadrupole components, flattening the most diffuse part of the electron density distribution toward the molecular plane. A small electron population transfer is observed between catechol monomers connected by C-H/π interactions, whose QTAIM characterization does not differ from that of a weak hydrogen bond. Cooperative effects in the tetramer on binding energies are small and negligible for bond properties and charge transfer. Nevertheless, they are significant on atomic electron populations.

  17. A catechol biosensor based on electrospun carbon nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Pang, Zengyuan; Chen, Xiaodong; Luo, Lei; Cai, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were employed to study the electrocatalysis of the catechol biosensor. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the biosensor was 41 µA·mM−1, the detection limit was 0.63 µM, the linear range was 1–1310 µM and the response time was within 2 seconds, which excelled most other laccase-based biosensor reported. Furthermore, the biosensor showed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability and tolerance to interferences. This novel biosensor also demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples. PMID:24778958

  18. Tyrosinase versus Catechol Oxidase: One Asparagine Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Solem, Even; Tuczek, Felix; Decker, Heinz

    2016-02-18

    Tyrosinases mediate the ortho-hydroxylation and two-electron oxidation of monophenols to ortho-quinones. Catechol oxidases only catalyze the oxidation of diphenols. Although it is of significant interest, the origin of the functional discrimination between tyrosinases and catechol oxidases has been unclear. Recently, it has been postulated that a glutamate and an asparagine bind and activate a conserved water molecule towards deprotonation of monophenols. Here we demonstrate for the first time that a polyphenoloxidase, which exhibits only diphenolase activity, can be transformed to a tyrosinase by mutation to introduce an asparagine. The asparagine and a conserved glutamate are necessary to properly orient the conserved water in order to abstract a proton from the monophenol. These results provide direct evidence for the crucial importance of a proton shuttle for tyrosinase activity of type 3 copper proteins, allowing a consistent understanding of their different chemical reactivities.

  19. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on polyaniline-polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongyan; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinghui; Kan, Jinqing

    2010-03-15

    A novel catechol biosensor was described based on the immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) into polyaniline (PANI), which was easily constructed by direct electropolymerization of aniline in a solution containing ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EMIES). The developed biosensor for the detection of catechol has a linear range of 1.25-150 micromol dm(-3). The maximum response current (I(max)) and the Michaelis-Menten constant (k'(m)) are 0.62 microA and 146 micromol dm(-3), respectively. The activation energy (E(a)) of the PPO catalytic reaction is 31.1 kJ mol(-1) in the B-R buffer. The biosensor shows good reproducibility (a relative standard deviation of 3.1% was obtained) and remarkable long-term stability (it retains 75% of the original activity after four months). The effects of potential and pH on the response current of the biosensor are also described.

  20. Low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in a Saami population.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Straume, B; Giverhaug, T; Aarbakke, J

    1994-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of catechol hormones, neurotransmitters and certain drugs. It is subject to genetic polymorphism and ethnic differences. High red blood cell (RBC) COMT activity has been correlated with a poor response to levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease. RBC COMT was determined in a Norwegian population (n = 213) of whom 115 were Saami (Laaps). The Saami had 16.5% lower RBC COMT activity compared to a non-Saami population sample from the northern part of Norway (n = 50), 13.9 vs. 16.4 units/ml RBC (U) (P = 0.04). This is the first report of any population with lower RBC COMT activity than a Caucasian population. A wide range of RBC COMT activities was found in the entire population examined (1.3-38.3 U).

  1. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  2. Improved Performance of Protected Catecholic Polysiloxanes for Bioinspired Wet Adhesion to Surface Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-26

    REPORT Improved Performance of Protected Catecholic Polysiloxanes for Bioinspired Wet Adhesion to Surface Oxides 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Improved Performance of Protected Catecholic Polysiloxanes for Bioinspired Wet Adhesion to Surface Oxides Report Title...Protected Catecholic P Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2012 . Published in Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. Ed. 0 134, (49) (2012), ( (49). DoD

  3. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including α-globin, β-globin, γ-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including α-globin, β-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ► Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ► Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ► Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  4. Biological degradation of catechol in wastewater using the sequencing continuous-inflow reactor (SCR)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Catechol is used in many industries. It can be removed from wastewater by various methods but biological processes are the most superior and commonly used technology. The SCR is a modified form of SBR used to degrade catechol. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of SCR for biodegradation and mineralization of catechol under various inlet concentrations (630–1500 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (18–9 h). This study used a bench scale SCR setup to test catechol degradation. The acclimation time of biomass for catechol at degradation at 630 mg/L was 41 d. The SCR operating cycle time was 6 h and the consecutive times taken for aerating, settling and decanting were 4, 1.5 and 0.5 h, respectively. This study investigated the effects of inlet catechol concentration (630–1560 mg/L) and HRT (18–9 h). The average catechol removal efficiencies in steady-state conditions of 630, 930, 12954 and 1559 mg/L of catechol were 98.5%, 98.5%, 98.2% and 96.9% in terms catechol and 97.8%, 97.7%, 96.4% and 94.3% for COD, respectively. SCR with acclimated biomasses could effectively remove the catechol and the corresponding COD from wastewater with concentrations of up to 1560, at the loading rate of 5.38 kg COD/m3.d and at a HRT of up to 13 h. The HRT was determined as an important variable affecting catechol removal from wastewater. Reducing the HRT to below 13 h led to reduced removal of catechol and COD. PMID:24499534

  5. Menopause, estrogens and frailty.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Anders; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Christiansen, Claus

    2013-05-01

    The controversy surrounding the results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trials published a decade ago caused a significant decline in the use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy. However, these results have been vehemently contested and several lines of evidence suggest that in perimenopausal and non-obese women, estrogen therapy may indeed be of benefit. There is ample proof that menopause causes a loss of musculoskeletal tissue mass and quality, thereby causing a loss of health and quality of life. There is also solid evidence that hormone replacement therapy in itself prevents most of these effects in connective tissue in itself. Besides the independent, direct effects on the musculoskeletal tissues, estrogen deficiency also reduces the ability to adequately respond and adapt to external mechanical and metabolic stressors, e.g. exercise, which are otherwise the main stimuli that should maintain musculoskeletal integrity and metabolic function. Thus, normophysiological estrogen levels appear to exert a permissive effect on musculoskeletal adaptations to loading, thereby likely improving the outcome of rehabilitation following critical illness, musculoskeletal trauma or orthopedic surgical therapy. These effects add to the evidence supporting the use of estrogen therapy, particularly accelerated gain of functional capacity and independence following musculoskeletal disuse.

  6. Estrogens, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Alessandro; Vegeto, Elisabetta; Poletti, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia is a hallmark of several disorders of the central nervous system. In addition to protecting the brain against inflammatory insults, microglia are neuroprotective and play a significant role in maintaining neuronal connectivity, but the prolongation of an inflammatory status may limit the beneficial functions of these immune cells. The finding that estrogen receptors are present in monocyte-derived cells and that estrogens prevent and control the inflammatory response raise the question of the role that this sex steroid plays in the manifestation and progression of pathologies that have a clear sex difference in prevalence, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The present review aims to provide a critical review of the current literature on the actions of estrogen in microglia and on the involvement of estrogen receptors in the manifestation of selected neurological disorders. This current understanding highlights a research area that should be expanded to identify appropriate replacement therapies to slow the progression of such diseases. PMID:27196727

  7. Aerosol formation yields from the reaction of catechol with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Tomas, Alexandre; Guilloteau, Angélique; Henry, Françoise; Ledoux, Frédéric; Visez, Nicolas; Riffault, Véronique; Wenger, John C.; Bedjanian, Yuri

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol from the gas-phase reaction of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) with ozone has been studied in two smog chambers. Aerosol production was monitored using a scanning mobility particle sizer and loss of the precursor was determined by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy, whilst ozone concentrations were measured using a UV photometric analyzer. The overall organic aerosol yield ( Y) was determined as the ratio of the suspended aerosol mass corrected for wall losses ( Mo) to the total reacted catechol concentrations, assuming a particle density of 1.4 g cm -3. Analysis of the data clearly shows that Y is a strong function of Mo and that secondary organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas-particle partitioning absorption model. The aerosol formation is affected by the initial catechol concentration, which leads to aerosol yields ranging from 17% to 86%. The results of this work are compared to similar studies reported in the literature.

  8. Platinum Nanoparticles: Efficient and Stable Catechol Oxidase Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Haohao; Chong, Yu; Wamer, Wayne G; Xia, Qingsu; Cai, Lining; Nie, Zhihong; Fu, Peter P; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2015-09-09

    Although enzyme-like nanomaterials have been extensively investigated over the past decade, most research has focused on the peroxidase-like, catalase-like, or SOD-like activity of these nanomaterials. Identifying nanomaterials having oxidase-like activities has received less attention. In this study, we demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) exhibit catechol oxidase-like activity, oxidizing polyphenols into the corresponding o-quinones. Four unique approaches are employed to demonstrate the catechol oxidase-like activity exerted by Pt NPs. First, UV-vis spectroscopy is used to monitor the oxidation of polyphenols catalyzed by Pt NPs. Second, the oxidized products of polyphenols are identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) identification. Third, electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry techniques are used to confirm the O2 consumption during the oxidation reaction. Fourth, the intermediate products of semiquinone radicals formed during the oxidation of polyphenols are determined by ESR using spin stabilization. These results indicate Pt NPs possess catechol oxidase-like activity. Because polyphenols and related bioactive substances have been explored as potent antioxidants that could be useful for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and Pt NPs have been widely used in the chemical industry and medical science, it is essential to understand the potential effects of Pt NPs for altering or influencing the antioxidant activity of polyphenols.

  9. An antioxidant role for catecholate siderophores in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Achard, Maud E S; Chen, Kaiwen W; Sweet, Matthew J; Watts, Rebecca E; Schroder, Kate; Schembri, Mark A; McEwan, Alastair G

    2013-09-15

    Iron acquisition is an important aspect of the host-pathogen interaction. In the case of Salmonella it is established that catecholate siderophores are important for full virulence. In view of their very high affinity for ferric iron, functional studies of siderophores have been almost exclusively focused on their role in acquisition of iron from the host. In the present study, we investigated whether the siderophores (enterobactin and salmochelin) produced by Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium could act as antioxidants and protect from the oxidative stress encountered after macrophage invasion. Our results show that the ability to produce siderophores enhanced the survival of Salmonella in the macrophage mainly at the early stages of infection, coincident with the oxidative burst. Using siderophore biosynthetic and siderophore receptor mutants we demonstrated that salmochelin and enterobactin protect S. Typhimurium against ROS (reactive oxygen species) in vitro and that siderophores must be intracellular to confer full protection. We also investigated whether other chemically distinct siderophores (yersiniabactin and aerobactin) or the monomeric catechol 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate could provide protection against oxidative stress and found that only catecholate siderophores have this property. Collectively, the results of the present study identify additional functions for siderophores during host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Immobilization of Amphiphilic Polycations by Catechol Functionality for Antimicrobial Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hua; Wu, Jianfeng; Avery, Christopher W.; Mizutani, Masato; Jiang, Xiaoming; Kamigaito, Masami; Chen, Zhan; Xi, Chuanwu; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    A new strategy to prepare antimicrobial surfaces by a simple dip-coating procedure is reported. Amphiphilic polycations with different mole ratios of monomers containing dodecyl quaternary ammonium, methoxyethyl, and catechol groups were synthesized by free-radical polymerization. The polymer coatings were prepared by immersing glass slides into a polymer solution and subsequent drying and heating. The quaternary ammonium side chains endow the coatings with potent antibacterial activity, while the methoxyetyhyl side chains enable tuning the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance and the catachol groups promote immobilization of the polymers into films. The polymer coated surfaces displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a dynamic contact assay and prevented accumulation of viable E. coli, S. aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii for up to 96 hours. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of coating surfaces indicated that the surfaces exhibit virtually the same smoothness for all polymers except the most hydrophobic. The hydrophobic polymer without methoxyethyl side chains showed clear structuring into polymer domains, causing high surface roughness. Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy characterization of the surface structures demonstrated that the dodecyl chains are predominantly localized at the surface-air interface of the coatings. SFG also showed that the phenyl groups of the catechols are oriented on the substrate surface. These results support our hypothesis that the adhesive or cross-linking functionality of catechol groups discourages leaching of polymers, allowing tuning of the amphiphilic balance by incorporating hydrophilic components into the polymer chains to gain potent biocidal activity. PMID:21391641

  11. Estrogen, inflammation, and platelet phenotype.

    PubMed

    Miller, Virginia M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Hashimoto, Kazumori; Heit, John A; Owen, Whyte G

    2008-01-01

    Although exogenous estrogenic therapies increase the risk of thrombosis, the effects of estrogen on formed elements of blood are uncertain. This article examines the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen on platelet phenotype that may contribute to increased thrombotic risk. To determine aggregation, secretion, protein expression, and thrombin generation, platelets were collected from experimental animals of varying hormonal status and from women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Estrogen receptor beta predominates in circulating platelets. Estrogenic treatment in ovariectomized animals decreased platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion. However, acute exposure to 17beta-estradiol did not reverse decreases in platelet ATP secretion invoked by lipopolysaccharide. Thrombin generation was positively correlated to the number of circulating microvesicles expressing phosphatidylserine. Assessing the effect of estrogen treatments on blood platelets may lead to new ways of identifying women at risk for adverse thrombotic events with such therapies.

  12. Defining the Catechol-Cation Synergy for Enhanced Wet Adhesion to Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Michael V; Maier, Greg P; Dobbs, Howard A; Higdon, Nicholas J; Waite, J Herbert; Butler, Alison; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2016-07-27

    Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) exhibit remarkably adaptive adhesion and bridging between polar surfaces in aqueous solution despite the strong hydration barriers at the solid-liquid interface. Recently, catechols and amines-two functionalities that account for >50 mol % of the amino acid side chains in surface-priming Mfps-were shown to cooperatively displace the interfacial hydration and mediate robust adhesion between mineral surfaces. Here we demonstrate that (1) synergy between catecholic and guanidinium side chains similarly promotes adhesion, (2) increasing the ratio of cationic amines to catechols in a molecule reduces adhesion, and (3) the catechol-cation synergy is greatest when both functionalities are present within the same molecule.

  13. Identification of catechol as a new marker for detecting propolis adulteration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Li, George Q; Sun, Yue-Yi; Wang, Kai; Hu, Fu-Liang

    2014-07-14

    Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract.

  14. Iron(III) complexes of tripodal tetradentate 4N ligands as functional models for catechol dioxygenases: the electronic vs. steric effect on extradiol cleavage.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Mani; Vadivelu, Prabha; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2014-10-21

    A few mononuclear iron(iii) complexes of the type [Fe(L)Cl2]Cl , where L is a tetradentate tripodal 4N ligand such as N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-diethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis-(6-methylpyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-dimethyl-N'-(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)-N'-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine () and N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), have been isolated and characterized by CHN analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The complex cation [Fe(H)Cl3](+) possesses a distorted octahedral geometry in which iron is coordinated by the monoprotonated 4N ligand in a tridentate fashion and the remaining three sites of the octahedron are occupied by chloride ions. The DFT optimized octahedral geometries of , and contain iron(iii) with a high-spin (S = 5/2) ground state. The catecholate adducts [Fe(L)(DBC)](+), where H2DBC is 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol, of all the complexes have been generated in situ in acetonitrile solution and their spectral and redox properties and dioxygenase activities have been studied. The DFT optimized geometries of the catecholate adducts [Fe()(DBC)](+), [Fe()(DBC)](+) and [Fe()(DBC)](+) have also been generated to illustrate the ability of the complexes to cleave H2DBC in the presence of molecular oxygen to afford varying amounts of intra- (I) and extradiol (E) cleavage products. The extradiol to intradiol product selectivity (E/I, 0.1-2.0) depends upon the asymmetry in bidentate coordination of catecholate, as determined by the stereoelectronic properties of the ligand donor functionalities. While the higher E/I value obtained for [Fe()(DBC)](+) is on account of the steric hindrance of the quinolyl moiety to coordination the lower value observed for [Fe()(DBC)](+) and [Fe()(DBC)](+) is on account of the electron

  15. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism Val158Met and mammographic density: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kallionpää, Roope A; Uusitalo, Elina; Peltonen, Juha

    2017-08-15

    The Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme reduces the methylation of catechol estrogens, which may affect mammographic density. High mammographic density is a known risk factor of breast cancer. Our aim was to perform meta-analysis of the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on mammographic density. Original studies reporting data on mammographic density, stratified by the presence of COMT Val158Met polymorphism, were identified and combined using genetic models Met/Val vs. Val/Val, Met/Met vs. Val/Val, Val/Met+Met/Met vs. Val/Val (dominant model) and Met/Met vs. Val/Met+Val/Val (recessive model). Subgroup analyses by breast cancer status, menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were also performed. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effect in percent mammographic density was -1.41 (CI -2.86 to 0.05; P=0.06) in the recessive model. Exclusion of breast cancer patients increased the effect size to -1.93 (CI -3.49 to -0.37; P=0.02). The results suggested opposite effect of COMT Val158Met for postmenopausal users of HRT versus premenopausal women or postmenopausal non-users of HRT. COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be associated with mammographic density at least in healthy women. Menopausal status and HRT should be taken into account in future studies to avoid masking of the underlying effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationship for the cleavage of C3/C4-substituted catechols by a prototypal extradiol catechol dioxygenase with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Horiike, Kihachiro

    2004-06-01

    Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase [EC 1.13.11.2] from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (Mpc) catalyzes the extradiol cleavage of catechol to produce 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde. The K(m) values for the catecholic substrate (K(mA)) and O(2) (K(mO2)), and catalytic constants (k(cat)) were kinetically determined for eight C3/C4-substituted catechols at 25 degrees C and pH 6.5 or 7.5. The first pK(a) values (pK(1)) were determined for eleven catechols (pK(1) = 7.26-9.47), correlated with Hammett substituent constants, and electron-withdrawing substituents significantly stabilized the monoanionic species of free catechols. Mpc preferred catechols with non-ionic substituents at the C3 or C4 position. 3-Phenylcatechol, a biphenyl, was cleaved, while 4-tert-butylcatechol was not. The logarithm of k(cat)/K(mA) (substrate specificity constant) exhibited a good linear correlation with pK(1), with the exception of those for 4-halocatechols. The logarithm of k(cat)/K(mO2) showed a good linear correlation with pK(1), with the exception of that of 3-phenylcatechol. These results demonstrate that catechol binding to the Mpc active site, the following O(2) binding, and the activation of the bound O(2) are all sensitive to electronic effects of the substituents. However, k(cat) did not correlate significantly with pK(1). The present study distinguishes clearly between the electronic and the steric effects of catecholic substrates in the reactivity of Mpc, and provides important insight into the mechanistic basis for a vast range of substrate specificities of extradiol dioxygenases.

  17. Cytochrome c Adducts with PCB Quinoid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miao; Teesch, Lynn M.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pope, R. Marshal; Li, Yalan; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are a group of 209 individual congeners widely used as industrial chemicals. PCBs are found as by-products in dye and paint manufacture and are legacy, ubiquitous and persistent as human and environmental contaminants. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms may be metabolized to hydroxy- and dihydroxy- metabolites and further oxidized to quinoid metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, quinoid metabolites may form adducts on nucleophilic sites within cells. We hypothesized that the PCB-quinones covalently bind to cytochrome c and thereby cause defects in the function of cytochrome c. In this study synthetic PCB quinones (2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’, 5’-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’,4’, 5’-trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-3,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone) were incubated with cytochrome c, and adducts were detected by LC-MS and MALDI TOF. SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis was employed to separate the adducted proteins, while trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS were applied to identify the amino acid binding sites on cytochrome c. Conformation change of cytochrome c after binding with PCB3-para-quinone was investigated by SYBYL-X simulation and cytochrome c function was examined. We found that more than one molecule of PCB-quinone may bind to one molecule of cytochrome c. Lysine and glutamic acid were identified as the predominant binding sites. Software simulation showed conformation changes of adducted cytochrome c. Additionally, cross-linking of cytochrome c was observed on the SDS PAGE gel. Cytochrome c was found to be in the reduced form after incubation with PCB quinones. These data provide evidence that the covalent binding of PCB quinone metabolites to cytochrome c may be included among the toxic effects of PCBs. PMID:26062463

  18. Human DNA adduct measurements: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.C.; Weston, A.

    1996-10-01

    Human DNA adduct formation (covalent modification of DNA with chemical carcinogens) is a promising biomarker for elucidating the molecular epidemiology of cancer. Classes of compounds for which human DNA adducts have been observed include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines, mycotoxins, aromatic amines, heterocyclic amines, ultraviolet light, and alkylating cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Most human DNA adduct exposure monitoring has been performed with either {sup 32}P-postlabeling or immunoassays, neither of which is able to chemically characterize specific DNA adducts. Recently developed combinations of methods with chemical and physical end points have allowed identification of specific adducts in human tissues. Studies are presented that demonstrate that high ambient levels of benzo[a]pyrene are associated with high levels of DNA adducts in human blood cell DNA and that the same DNA adduct levels drop when the ambient PAH levels decrease significantly. DNA adduct dosimetry, which has been achieved with some dietary carcinogens and cancer chemotherapeutic agents, is described, as well as studies correlating DNA adducts with other biomarkers. It is likely that some toxic, noncarcinogenic compounds may have genotoxic effects, including oxidative damage, and that adverse health outcomes other than cancer may be correlated with DNA adduct formation. The studies presented here may serve as useful prototypes for exploration of other toxicological end points. 156 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Immunochemical properties of malondialdehyde-protein adducts.

    PubMed

    Lung, C C; Fleisher, J H; Meinke, G; Pinnas, J L

    1990-03-27

    Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, can bind to and modify proteins by adduct formation. To determine whether MDA adducts were immunogenic, MDA was added to rabbit serum albumin (RSA) in order to characterize MDA-proteins and to immunize rabbits. Bound MDA was proportional to the concentration of MDA added in the range of 2.5-20 mM as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactivity. MDA adducts of RSA migrated further toward the anode than native serum protein in zone and immunoelectrophoresis indicating increased negative charge. Rabbits immunized with MDA-RSA produced high titers of IgG antibodies to MDA-RSA as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hapten specificity of the antibody was demonstrated by antisera reactivity with MDA-RSA but not with unaltered RSA. Our findings support the possibility that MDA may serve as a hapten to form neoantigens which may represent a pathway by which lipid peroxidation could produce tissue damage via an immunologic mechanism.

  20. Polymorphisms related to estrogen and xenobiotic metabolism in healthy Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Kocabaş, Neslihan Aygün; Sardaş, Semra; Sardas, Semra; Karakaya, Ali Esat; Karakaya, Ali Estat

    2005-01-01

    Polymorphisms which are inherited alterations in the activity of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) hold the potential to define differences in estrogen metabolism and, thereby, possibly explain inter-individual differences in cancer susceptibility associated with estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. The CYP1B1 (L432V), COMT (V158M), MnSOD (Ala-9Val) genotypes, to examine estrogen metabolism and the influence of age of menarche/menopause, were determined by using different polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) based on genotyping assays. Women who carried CYP1B1 *3 and COMT-L alleles had an earlier age at menarche than the women who carried wild alleles (chi2 = 4.57, p = 0.032), whereas I did not observe any correlation in women with all mutant alleles. Also, CYP1B1 *3 and COMT-H genotypes were common among postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m2 (Fisher exact test, p = 0.044). To my knowledge, this is the first genetic study on the association of these genes with susceptibility in Turkish women. Although the small sample size of each combination of estrogen metabolizing, results suggest that the CYP1B1 *3 and COMT-L alleles influence age at menarche in healthy Turkish women.

  1. Estrogenicity of Medicinal Botanicals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Medicinal botanicals PLANT EXTRACTS have been used for centuries to relieve various gynecological symptoms, and are of increasing interest to those...seeking alternative health care and self-treatment. However, women who have or are at risk for breast cancer pose a particular problem when using such...hops, vitex and cohosh. These studies verify that certain medicinal botanicals demonstrate measurable and significant estrogenic activities in

  2. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)-like Activities of Diarylheptanoid, a Phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, in Breast Cancer Cells, Pre-osteoblast Cells, and Rat Uterine Tissues.

    PubMed

    Thongon, Natthakan; Boonmuen, Nittaya; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Wichit, Patsorn; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2017-05-03

    Diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa, of the Zingiberaceae family, exhibit diverse estrogenic activities. In this study we investigated the estrogenic activity of a major hydroxyl diarylheptanoid, 7-(3,4 -dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene (compound 092) isolated from C. comosa. The compound elicited different transcriptional activities of estrogen agonist at low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) and antagonist at high concentrations (10-50 μM) using luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293T cells. In human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, compound 092 showed an anti-estrogenic activity by down-regulating ERα-signaling and suppressing estrogen-responsive genes, whereas it attenuated the uterotrophic effect of estrogen in immature ovariectomized rats. Of note, compound 092 promoted mouse pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell differentiation and the related bone markers, indicating its positive osteogenic effect. Our findings highlight a new, nonsteroidal, estrogen agonist/antagonist of catechol diarylheptanoid from C. comosa, which is scientific evidence supporting its potential as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss with low risk of breast and uterine cancers in postmenopausal women.

  3. The influence of isometric hip adduction on quadriceps femoris activity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P W; Richardson, C A

    1993-06-01

    In the treatment of muscle imbalances around the knee, hip adduction and the contraction of adductor magnus have been used to facilitate vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) to a greater extent than vastus lateralis (VL). This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of this technique. Hip adduction was superimposed onto the contraction of quadriceps femoris in a weight bearing (WB) and a non-weight bearing (NWB) position at three levels of hip adduction force. The muscle activity of VMO and VL was recorded using electromyography with the ratio of the recordings of VMO to VL used for comparison. The activity of VMO compared with VL was greater in WB than NWB without hip adduction. VMO activity increased relatively more than VL with the addition of each level of hip adduction in WB and only with maximal hip adduction in NWB. The results provide support for the use of this technique.

  4. Infrared spectra of some acetone—magnesium adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatsune, I. C.

    Co-deposition of atomic magnesium with excess acetone at liquid-nitrogen temperature produces an unstable charge-transfer complex with a characteristic carbonyl infrared band at 1595 cm -1 and stable acetone adducts in which the metal atom bridges the carbonyl bond (π-complex) or coordinates to the oxygen atom (σ-complex). Infrared spectra of these complexes with (CH 3) 2CO and (CD 3) 2CO have been obtained. Corroborations for these adducts were obtained from infrared studies of acetone matrices with atomic copper and acetaldehyde matrices with atomic magnesium and with atomic copper. Infrared spectra of an acetone adduct and a dimethyl ether adduct of the Grignard reagent CH 3MgI have also been obtained. Hydrolysis of a σ-adduct gives acetone but isopropyl alcohol is obtained from hydrolysis of the π-adduct.

  5. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  6. Succinimide complexes of borated alkyl catechols and lubricating oil compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.V.

    1986-12-16

    A composition is described comprising a complex prepared by reacting a borated alkyl catechol and an oil soluble alkyl or alkenyl succinimide wherein the weight percent ratio of the alkyl or alkenyl succinimide to the borated alkyl catechol ranges from 3:1 to 16:1.

  7. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  8. Role of catechol in the radical reduction of B-alkylcatecholboranes in presence of methanol.

    PubMed

    Povie, Guillaume; Villa, Giorgio; Ford, Leigh; Pozzi, Davide; Schiesser, Carl H; Renaud, Philippe

    2010-02-07

    Mechanistic investigations on the previously reported reduction of B-alkylcatecholboranes in the presence of methanol led to the disclosure of a new mechanism involving catechol as a reducing agent. More than just revising the mechanism of this reaction, we disclose here the surprising role of catechol, a chain breaking antioxidant, which becomes a source of hydrogen atoms in an efficient radical chain process.

  9. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to identify in vitro and in vivo. In this study, model peptides with cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues were used to examine the reactivity of acrolein. Results from these experiments show that acrolein reacts rapidly with cysteine residues through Michael addition to form M+56 Da adducts. These M+56 adducts are, however, not stable, even though spontaneous dissociation of the adduct is slow. Further studies demonstrated that when acrolein and model peptides are incubated at physiological pH and temperature, the M+56 adducts decreased gradually accompanied by the increase of M+38 adducts, which are formed from intra-molecular Schiff base formation. Adduct formation with the side chains of other amino acid residues (lysine and histidine) was much slower than cysteine and required higher acrolein concentration. When cysteine residues were blocked by reaction with iodoacetamide and higher concentrations of acrolein were used, adducts of the N-terminal amino group or histidyl residues were formed but lysine adducts were not detected. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein reacts avidly with protein cysteine residues and that the apparent loss of protein-acrolein Michael adducts over time may be related to the appearance of a novel (M+38) adduct. These findings may be important in identification of in vivo adducts of acrolein with protein cysteine residues. PMID:19231900

  10. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  11. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    PubMed

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  12. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  13. Binding to PLA2 may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of catechol.

    PubMed

    Dileep, Kalarickal V; Tintu, Ignatius; Mandal, Pradeep K; Karthe, Ponnuraj; Haridas, Madathilkovilakathu; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu

    2012-01-01

    Inhibiting PLA(2) activity should, in theory, be an effective approach to control the inflammation. Several naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds have been reported as inhibitors of PLA(2) . Among the naturally occurring polyphenols, catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Catechol can inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. By means of enzyme kinetic study, it was revealed that catechol can inhibit PLA(2) also. Crystal structure showed that catechol binds to PLA(2) at the opening of the active site cleft. This might stop the entry of substrate into the active site. Hence, catechol can be used as a lead compound for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with PLA(2) as the target.

  14. Pathways for formation of catechol and 1,2,4-benzenetriol in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Osamu; Seiji, Kazunori Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai ); Ikeda, Masayuki )

    1989-08-01

    Benzene, an established human leukemogen, was once widely used as an industrial solvent and is currently an important material for organic synthesis. Its metabolism in man and animals has also been studied extensively, and phenolic compounds were identified as major metabolites in urine after benzene exposure. One point yet to be elucidated is the pathway for formation of catechol (or 1,2-benzenediol). Early studies suggested that catechol will be formed via phenol whereas a later study failed to identify catechol in the urine of men and rabbits after oral administration methods of {sup 14}C-phenol. Sensitive HPLC methods have been recently developed in our laboratory to measure urinary phenolic metabolites and t,t-muconic acid. The methods were applied to show that phenol is not a precursor of catechol in rabbits. Evidence is also presented that 1,2,4-benzenetriol is formed only from quinol (1,4-benzenediol) and not from catechol.

  15. Catechol-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) for PEGylation on versatile substrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyukjin; Lee, Kang Dae; Pyo, Kyung Bo; Park, Sung Young; Lee, Haeshin

    2010-03-16

    We report on catechol-grafted poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG-g-catechol) for the preparation of nonfouling surfaces on versatile substrates including adhesion-resistant PTFE. PEG-g-catechol was prepared by the step-growth polymerization of PEO to which dopamine, a mussel-derived adhesive molecule, was conjugated. The immersion of substrates into an aqueous solution of PEG-g-catechol resulted in robust PEGylation on versatile surfaces of noble metals, oxides, and synthetic polymers. Surface PEGylation was unambiguously confirmed by various surface analytical tools such as ellipsometry, goniometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Contrary to existing PEG derivatives that are difficult-to-modify synthetic polymer surfaces, PEG-g-catechol can be considered to be a new class of PEGs for the facile surface PEGylation of various types of surfaces.

  16. Improved performance of protected catecholic polysiloxanes for bio-inspired wet adhesion to surface oxides

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinhwa; Kang, Taegon; Jang, Se Gyu; Hwang, Dong Soo; Spruell, Jason M.; Killops, Kato L.; Waite, J. Herbert; Hawker, Craig J.

    2012-01-01

    A facile synthetic strategy for introducing catecholic moieties into polymeric materials based on a readily available precursor – eugenol – and efficient chemistries – tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane catalyzed silation and thiol-ene coupling is reported. Silyl-protection is shown to be critical for the oxidative stability of catecholic moieties during synthesis and processing which allows functionalized polysiloxane derivatives to be fabricated into 3-D microstructures as well as 2-D patterned surfaces. Deprotection gives stable catechol surfaces with adhesion to a variety of oxide surfaces being precisely tuned by the level of catechol incorporation. The advantage of silyl-protection for catechol functionalized polysiloxanes is demonstrated and represents a promising and versatile new platform for underwater surface treatments. PMID:23181614

  17. Role of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts in liver injury.

    PubMed

    Tuma, Dean J

    2002-02-15

    Malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde react together with proteins in a synergistic manner and form hybrid protein adducts, designated as MAA adducts. MAA-protein adducts are composed of two major products whose structures and mechanism of formation have been elucidated. MAA adduct formation, especially in the liver, has been demonstrated in vivo during ethanol consumption. These protein adducts are capable of inducing a potent immune response, resulting in the generation of antibodies against both MAA epitopes, as well as against epitopes on the carrier protein. Chronic ethanol administration to rats results in significant circulating antibody titers against MAA-adducted proteins, and high anti-MAA titers have been associated with the severity of liver damage in humans with alcoholic liver disease. In vitro exposure of liver endothelial or hepatic stellate cells to MAA adducts induces a proinflammatory and profibrogenic response in these cells. Thus, during excessive ethanol consumption, ethanol oxidation and ethanol-induced oxidative stress result in the formation of acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde, respectively. These aldehydes can react together synergistically with proteins and generate MAA adducts, which are very immunogenic and possess proinflammatory and profibrogenic properties. By virtue of these potentially toxic effects, MAA adducts may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury.

  18. What predicts the first peak of the knee adduction moment?

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Noehren, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The first peak of the knee adduction moment curve during walking has been shown to be a good clinical surrogate measure of medial tibiofemoral joint loading and osteoarthritis. Defining the relative contributions of the variables that dictate the knee adduction moment, such as center of mass, center of pressure, vertical ground reaction force, and knee adduction angle (i.e. lower limb alignment), has not been formally investigated within the same cohort of individuals. Purpose Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine which of these variables is the biggest determinant of the first peak of knee adduction moment curve. Methods Instrumented gait analysis was collected for 30 individuals. Variables significantly correlated with the peak knee adduction moment were input into a stepwise multi-variable linear regression model. Results The knee adduction angle predicted 58% of the variance in the first peak knee adduction moment and the vertical ground reaction force magnitude predicted the second most variance (20%). Conclusions The most effective way to modify the peak knee adduction moment may be to change the knee adduction angle (e.g. offloader brace), followed by changing the vertical magnitude of the ground reaction force (e.g. cane use). PMID:25127390

  19. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric characterization of acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.L.; Goheen, S.C.; Edmonds, C.G. ); Bull, R.J.; Sylvester, D.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The most common procedure to identify hemoglobin adducts has been to cleave the adducts from the protein and characterize the adducting species, by, for example, derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To extend these approaches we used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to characterize adducted hemoglobin. For this we incubated [[sup 14]C]acrylamide with the purified human hemoglobin (type A[sub 0]) under conditions that yielded high adduct levels. When the hemoglobin was separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 65% of the radioactivity copurified with the [beta]-subunit. Three adducted species were prominent in the ESI mass spectrum of the intact [beta]-subunit, indicating acrylamide adduction (i.e., mass increase of 71 Da) and two addition unidentified moieties with mass increments of 102 and 135 Da. Endoproteinase Glu-C digestion of the adducted [beta]-subunit resulted in a peptide mixture that, upon reversed-phase HPLC separation, provided several radiolabeled peptides. Using ESI-MS we identified these as the V[sub 91-101] and V[sub 102-122] peptides that represent the cysteine-containing peptides of the [beta]-subunit. These results provide definitive information on acrylamide-modified human hemoglobin and demonstrate that ESI-MS provides valuable structure information on chemically adducted proteins. 30 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Quantitation of carcinogen bound protein adducts by fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Liang-Shang; Otteson, Michael S.; Doxtader, Mark M.; Skipper, Paul L.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    A highly significant correlation of aflatoxin B 1 serum albumin adduct level with daily aflatoxin B 1 intake was observed in a molecular epidemiological study of aflatoxin carcinogenesis which used conventional fluorescence spectroscopy methods for adduct quantitation. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence techniques have been employed to quantitate antibenzo[ a]pyrene diol epoxide derived globin peptide adducts. Fast and efficient methods to isolate the peptide adducts as well as eliminate protein fluorescence background are described. A detection limit of several femtomoles has been achieved. Experimental and technical considerations of low temperature synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence line narrowing to improve the detection sensitivities are also presented.

  1. New synthetic catecholate-type siderophores with triamine backbone.

    PubMed

    Heinisch, Lothar; Gebhardt, Peter; Heidersbach, Renate; Reissbrodt, Rolf; Möllmann, Ute

    2002-06-01

    New analogues of triscatecholate siderophores based on linear or tripodal triamines with or without spacer groups or lipophilic and hydrophilic substituents were synthesized. The catecholate moieties were prepared in OH-forms, as acetylated compounds or masked as 8-methoxycarbonyloxy-2,4-dioxo-1,3-benzoxazine derivatives. Some of the new compounds were active as siderophores tested by growth promotion assays using various gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria under iron limitation and by CAS-assay. Structure-activity-correlations have been studied.

  2. Photophysical properties of catechol axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) titanium (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinxin; Lin, Ting; Lv, Huafei; Pan, Sujuan; Wu, Shijun; Zeng, Di; Jiang, Yufeng; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Huang, Yide; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) have been found to be a promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers and non-cancer diseases. Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. Catechol is an important pharmaceutical intermediate, playing important in vivo biological activity in medicine. Using catechol (pyrocatechin) as axial ligands, utilizing of the pharmaceutical effect of catechins, could improve the bioavailability, and achieve synergistic therapeutic effect in PDT. To address these issues, a novel catechol axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) titanium(IV) (TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol) was synthesized. The structure of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and MS methods. The photophysical properties of TiPc(OC5H11)4 and TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol have been studied by UV/Vis and steady-state fluorescence spectra. After being axially substituted with catechin groups, no obviously intensity and position of maximum wavelength in Q-band of TiPc(OC5H11)4 and TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol were observed. The fluorescence intensity of TiPc(OC5H11)4 was stronger than that of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol, but the fluorescence lifetime of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol was longer than that of TiPc(OC5H11)4. TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol may be considered as a promising photosensitizer for PDT.

  3. Biosynthesis of catechol melanin from glycerol employing metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Caballero, Alejandra; de Anda, Ramón; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Rogg, Simone; Martinez, Alfredo; Bolívar, Francisco; Castaño, Victor M; Gosset, Guillermo

    2016-09-22

    Melanins comprise a chemically-diverse group of polymeric pigments whose function is related to protection against physical and chemical stress factors. These polymers have current and potential applications in the chemical, medical, electronics and materials industries. The biotechnological production of melanins offers the possibility of obtaining these pigments in pure form and relatively low cost. In this study, Escherichia coli strains were engineered to evaluate the production of melanin from supplemented catechol or from glycerol-derived catechol produced by an Escherichia coli strain generated by metabolic engineering. It was determined that an improved mutant version of the tyrosinase from Rhizobium etli (MutmelA), could employ catechol as a substrate to generate melanin. Strain E. coli W3110 expressing MutmelA was grown in bioreactor batch cultures with catechol supplemented in the medium. Under these conditions, 0.29 g/L of catechol melanin were produced. A strain with the capacity to synthesize catechol melanin from a simple carbon source was generated by integrating the gene MutmelA into the chromosome of E. coli W3110 trpD9923, that has been modified to produce catechol by the expression of genes encoding a feedback inhibition resistant version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase, transketolase and anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In batch cultures with this strain employing complex medium with 40 g/L glycerol as a carbon source, 1.21 g/L of catechol melanin were produced. The melanin was analysed by employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, revealing the expected characteristics for a catechol-derived polymer. This constitutes the first report of an engineered E. coli strain and a fermentation process for producing a catechol melanin from a simple carbon source (glycerol) at gram level, opening the possibility of generating a large quantity of this polymer for its detailed characterization

  4. Mapping the conformational space accessible to catechol-O-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Andreas; Benz, Jörg; Schlatter, Daniel; Rudolph, Markus G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation catalysed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is the main pathway of catechol neurotransmitter deactivation in the prefrontal cortex. Low levels of this class of neurotransmitters are held to be causative of diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of COMT may increase neurotransmitter levels, thus offering a route for treatment. Structure-based drug design hitherto seems to be based on the closed enzyme conformation. Here, a set of apo, semi-holo, holo and Michaelis form crystal structures are described that define the conformational space available to COMT and that include likely intermediates along the catalytic pathway. Domain swaps and sizeable loop movements around the active site testify to the flexibility of this enzyme, rendering COMT a difficult drug target. The low affinity of the co-substrate S-adenosylmethionine and the large conformational changes involved during catalysis highlight significant energetic investment to achieve the closed conformation. Since each conformation of COMT is a bona fide target for inhibitors, other states than the closed conformation may be promising to address. Crystallographic data for an alternative avenue of COMT inhibition, i.e. locking of the apo state by an inhibitor, are presented. The set of COMT structures may prove to be useful for the development of novel classes of inhibitors. PMID:25084335

  5. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  6. Detoxication of structurally diverse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) o-quinones by human recombinant catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) via O-methylation of PAH catechols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Huang, Meng; Harvey, Ronald G; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2011-07-22

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Metabolic activation of intermediate PAH trans-dihydrodiols by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to the formation of electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. We investigated whether O-methylation by human recombinant soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) is a feasible detoxication step for a panel of structurally diverse PAH-catechols produced during the redox-cycling process. Classes of PAH non-K-region o-quinones (bay region, methylated bay region, and fjord region o-quinones) produced by AKRs were employed in the studies. PAH o-quinones were reduced to the corresponding catechols by dithiothreitol under anaerobic conditions and then further O-methylated by human S-COMT in the presence of S-[³H]adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl group donor. The formation of the O-methylated catechols was detected by HPLC-UV coupled with in-line radiometric detection, and unlabeled products were also characterized by LC-MS/MS. Human S-COMT was able to catalyze O-methylation of all of the PAH-catechols and generated two isomeric metabolites in different proportions. LC-MS/MS showed that each isomer was a mono-O-methylated metabolite. ¹H NMR was used to assign the predominant positional isomer of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol as the O-8-monomethylated catechol. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) varied among different classes of PAH-catechols by 500-fold. The ability of S-COMT to produce two isomeric products from PAH-catechols was rationalized using the crystal structure of the enzyme. We provide evidence that O-8-monomethylated benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol is formed in three different human lung cell lines. It is concluded that human S-COMT may play a critical role in the detoxication of PAH o-quinones generated by AKRs.

  7. Estrogen therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2006-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a worldwide problem that results in fractures that lead to disability and high costs to society. Estrogen therapy is frequently utilized for postmenopausal symptoms, but also has proven protective effects on the skeleton. The main action of estrogen at the cellular level is to inhibit the osteoclast by increasing levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG). OPG binds to the receptor activator of NFkB and prevents osteoclast differentiation, activity and survival. Numerous trials have demonstrated the positive effect estrogen has on the improvement of bone mineral density, and lower doses have also proven efficacious with fewer side effects. Both observational and randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of estrogen treatment to prevent fractures. Topics that remain controversial include the appropriate length of estrogen treatment for postmenopausal women and the appropriate follow-up after treatment discontinuation.

  8. A functional model of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases: mimicking the 2-his-1-carboxylate facial triad.

    PubMed

    Paria, Sayantan; Halder, Partha; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2010-05-17

    The synthesis and characterization of an iron-catecholate model complex of a tridentate 2-N-1-carboxylate ligand derived from L-proline are reported. The X-ray crystal structure of the complex [(L)(3)Fe(3)(DBC)(3)] (1) (where L is 1-(2-pyridylmethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate and DBC is the dianion of 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol) reveals that the tridentate ligand binds to the iron center in a facial manner and mimics the 2-his-1-carboxylate facial triad motif observed in extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases. The iron(III)-catecholate complex (1) reacts with dioxygen in acetonitrile in ambient conditions to cleave the C-C bond of catecholate. In the reaction, an equal amount of extra- and intradiol cleavage products are formed without any auto-oxidation product. The iron-catecholate complex is a potential functional model of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases.

  9. PURIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF BULKY HYDROPHOBIC DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years 32P postlabeling has detected DNA adducts at very low levels and yet has not been able to identify unknown adducts. Mass spectrometry offers substantially improved identification powers, albeit at some loss in detection limits. With this ultimate utilization of ma...

  10. The antimicrobial activities of the cinnamaldehyde adducts with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Yi; Xiong, Jia-Jun; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Chao; Wen Ye

    2011-11-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a well-established natural antimicrobial compound. It is probable for cinnamaldehyde to react with amino acid forming Schiff base adduct in real food system. In this paper, 9 such kind of adducts were prepared by the direct reaction of amino acids with cinnamaldehyde at room temperature. Their antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated with benzoic acid as a reference. The adducts showed a dose-dependent activities against the three microbial strains. Both cinnamaldehyde and their adducts were more active against B. subtilis than on E. coli, and their antimicrobial activities were higher at lower pH. Both cinnamaldehyde and its adducts were more active than benzoic acid at the same conditions. The adduct compound A was non-toxic by primary oral acute toxicity study in mice. However, in situ effect of the adduct compound A against E. coli was a little lower than cinnamaldehyde in fish meat. This paper for the first time showed that the cinnamaldehyde adducts with amino acids had similar strong antimicrobial activities as cinnamaldehyde, which may provide alternatives to cinnamaldehyde in food to avoid the strong unacceptable odor of cinnamaldehyde. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risks of estrogens and progestogens.

    PubMed

    L'Hermite, M

    1990-09-01

    The risks and benefits of specific types of postmenopausal estrogens and progestogens are explored: those affecting serum lipids, clotting elements, hepatic proteins synthesis, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, endometrial, breast and cervical cancer. Ethinyl estradiol taken orally is the only estrogen likely to cause gall bladder disease. It also induces liver protein synthesis when taken orally or vaginally. Natural estrogens do not heighten coagulation factors, and may shift towards fibrinolysis. Both ethinyl estradiol and equine estrogens may increase blood pressure, while natural estrogens may decrease it. Similarly natural estrogens induce prostacyclin synthesis, while ethinyl estradiol activates both prostacyclin and thromboxanes. Progestagens, especially so the norprogestins, disturb carbohydrate metabolism and tend to reverse the beneficial effects of estrogens on serum lipids, a 40-70% reduction in risk of mortality from coronary heart disease. A meta- analysis of 23 studies concluded that menopausal estrogens do not increase the risk of breast cancer by a measurable degree, except in high doses and in those predisposed by family history. There is an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma for those taking unopposed estrogens for more than 3-6 years. This can be attenuated by taking combined estrogen-progestins, which will eventually result in absence of bleeding, or a 12-day progestogen course every 4-6 cycles. Oral micronized progesterone decreases blood pressure. The relative androgenic effects of progestins other than the norprogesterone derivatives are less significant. As an alternative to taking a progestogen, a woman could have regular endometrial sampling or abdominal or vaginal sonograms to detect endometrial cancer.

  12. No association between germline variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase and colorectal cancer survival in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Passarelli, Michael N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Makar, Karen W.; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Phipps, Amanda I.; David, Sean P.; Hsu, Li; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Duggan, David J.; White, Emily; Chan, Andrew T.; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sex-steroid hormones play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development, but little is known about their influence on tumor progression and metastasis. Because catechol-O-methyltransferase activity (COMT; 22q11.21) is an important component of estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that germline variation in COMT may be associated with CRC survival. Methods We identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that tagged variation across both isoforms of COMT in 2,458 women with CRC from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), Postmenopausal Hormones Supplementary Study to the Colon Cancer Family Registry (PMH-CCFR), VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study, and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). All four studies participate in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Results Over a median follow-up of 7 years across all studies, there were 799 deaths, including 566 from CRC. Accounting for multiple comparisons, no associations between the SNPs and CRC-specific or overall survival reached statistical significance, including the well-characterized Val108/158Met polymorphism (rs4680; hazard ratio per minor allele [HR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92–1.17 for CRC-specific survival and 1.01; 0.90–1.14 for overall survival). Conclusions In this large study of women with CRC, we found no evidence that common inherited variation in COMT is associated with survival-time after diagnosis. PMID:23880798

  13. Joining Two Natural Motifs: Catechol-Containing Poly(phosphoester)s.

    PubMed

    Becker, Greta; Ackermann, Lisa-Maria; Schechtel, Eugen; Klapper, Markus; Tremel, Wolfgang; Wurm, Frederik R

    2017-02-14

    Numerous catechol-containing polymers, including biodegradable polymers, are currently heavily discussed for modern biomaterials. However, there is no report combining poly(phosphoester)s (PPEs) with catechols. Adhesive PPEs have been prepared via acyclic diene metathesis polymerization. A novel acetal-protected catechol phosphate monomer was homo- and copolymerized with phosphoester comonomers with molecular weights up to 42000 g/mol. Quantitative release of the catechols was achieved by careful hydrolysis of the acetal groups without backbone degradation. Degradation of the PPEs under basic conditions revealed complete and statistical degradation of the phosphotri- to phosphodiesters. In addition, a phosphodiester monomer with an adhesive P-OH group and no protective group chemistry was used to compare the binding to metal oxides with the multicatechol-PPEs. All PPEs can stabilize magnetite particles (NPs) in polar solvents, for example, methanol, due to the binding of the phosphoester groups in the backbone to the particles. ITC measurements reveal that multicatechol PPEs exhibit a higher binding affinity to magnetite NPs compared to PPEs bearing phosphodi- or phosphotriesters as repeating units. In addition, the catechol-containing PPEs were used to generate organo- and hydrogels by oxidative cross-linking, due to cohesive properties of catechol groups. This unique combination of two natural adhesive motives, catechols and phosphates, will allow the design of novel future gels for tissue engineering applications or novel degradable adhesives.

  14. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are now being used as a treatment for breast cancer, osteoporosis and postmenopausal symptoms, as these drugs have features that can act as an estrogen agonist and an antagonist, depending on the target tissue. After tamoxifen, raloxifene, lasofoxifene and bazedoxifene SERMs have been developed and used for treatment. The clinically decisive difference among these drugs (i.e., the key difference) is their endometrial safety. Compared to bisphosphonate drug formulations for osteoporosis, SERMs are to be used primarily in postmenopausal women of younger age and are particularly recommended if there is a family history of invasive breast cancer, as their use greatly reduces the incidence of this type of cancer in women. Among the above mentioned SERMs, raloxifene has been widely used in prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures, and clinical studies are now underway to test the comparative advantages of raloxifene with those of bazedoxifene, a more recently developed SERM. Research on a number of adverse side effects of SERM agents is being performed to determine the long-term safety of this class of compouds for treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27559463

  15. Adduct Formation in ESI/MS by Mobile Phase Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruve, Anneli; Kaupmees, Karl

    2017-03-01

    Adduct formation is a common ionization method in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). However, this process is poorly understood and complicated to control. We demonstrate possibilities to control adduct formation via mobile phase additives in ESI positive mode for 17 oxygen and nitrogen bases. Mobile phase additives were found to be a very effective measure for manipulating the formation efficiencies of adducts. An appropriate choice of additive may increase sensitivity by up to three orders of magnitude. In general, sodium adduct [M + Na]+ and protonated molecule [M + H]+ formation efficiencies were found to be in good correlation; however, the former were significantly more influenced by mobile phase properties. Although the highest formation efficiencies for both species were observed in water/acetonitrile mixtures not containing additives, the repeatability of the formation efficiencies was found to be improved by additives. It is concluded that mobile phase additives are powerful, yet not limiting factors, for altering adduct formation.

  16. Adduct Formation in ESI/MS by Mobile Phase Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruve, Anneli; Kaupmees, Karl

    2017-05-01

    Adduct formation is a common ionization method in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). However, this process is poorly understood and complicated to control. We demonstrate possibilities to control adduct formation via mobile phase additives in ESI positive mode for 17 oxygen and nitrogen bases. Mobile phase additives were found to be a very effective measure for manipulating the formation efficiencies of adducts. An appropriate choice of additive may increase sensitivity by up to three orders of magnitude. In general, sodium adduct [M + Na]+ and protonated molecule [M + H]+ formation efficiencies were found to be in good correlation; however, the former were significantly more influenced by mobile phase properties. Although the highest formation efficiencies for both species were observed in water/acetonitrile mixtures not containing additives, the repeatability of the formation efficiencies was found to be improved by additives. It is concluded that mobile phase additives are powerful, yet not limiting factors, for altering adduct formation.

  17. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including α-globin, β-globin, γ-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including α-globin, β-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes.

  18. Bio-inspired adhesive catechol-conjugated chitosan for biomedical applications: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Hyun; Hong, Seonki; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-11-01

    The development of adhesive materials, such as cyanoacrylate derivatives, fibrin glues, and gelatin-based adhesives, has been an emerging topic in biomaterial science because of the many uses of these materials, including in wound healing patches, tissue sealants, and hemostatic materials. However, most bio-adhesives exhibit poor adhesion to tissue and related surfaces due to the presence of body fluid. For a decade, studies have aimed at addressing this issue by developing wet-resistant adhesives. Mussels demonstrate robust wet-resistant adhesion despite the ceaseless waves at seashores, and mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in this adhesion. Adhesive proteins located at the distal end (i.e., those that directly contact surfaces) are composed of nearly 60% of amino acids called 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine, which contain side chains of catechol, primary amines, and secondary amines, respectively. Inspired by the abundant catecholamine in mussel adhesive proteins, researchers have developed various types of polymeric mimics, such as polyethylenimine-catechol, chitosan-catechol, and other related catecholic polymers. Among them, chitosan-catechol is a promising adhesive polymer for biomedical applications. The conjugation of catechol onto chitosan dramatically increases its solubility from zero to nearly 60mg/mL (i.e., 6% w/v) in pH 7 aqueous solutions. The enhanced solubility maximizes the ability of catecholamine to behave similar to mussel adhesive proteins. Chitosan-catechol is biocompatible and exhibits excellent hemostatic ability and tissue adhesion, and thus, chitosan-catechol will be widely used in a variety of medical settings in the future. This review focuses on the various aspects of chitosan-catechol, including its (1) preparation methods, (2) physicochemical properties, and (3) current applications.

  19. Estrogen, testosterone, and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, Dean E

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to gain some current perspective on the definition, bases, and trends for research associated with gender differences. To accomplish this goal an analysis on the number of citations from a 1994-2004 Medline search with the terms estrogen, testosterone, gender differences, sex differences as well as the combinations of these terms was performed. Other combinations of terms included separate searches of estrogen, testosterone, and their combination within males or females, and an analysis of gender and sex differences with the terms human and animal. The salient results from this survey include: (1) An overall greater ratio of estrogen:testosterone citations when these terms were searched alone or in combination with gender differences; (2) an overall greater ratio of testosterone:estrogen citations when these terms were combined with sex differences or conducted separately within males or females, although this trend was shifting toward decreased testosterone and increased estrogen citation numbers toward the latter years of the survey; (3) a trend for increasing numbers of estrogen and gender differences citations over the period of the survey; (4) a clear indication for the term gender differences to be associated with the search term human; and (5) a very small number of citations when the terms estrogen and testosterone were combined. Interpretations and implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Investigation of polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen metabolism in menstrual migraine.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Heidi G; Champion, Morgane; Plays, Amelie; Stuart, Shani; Haupt, Larisa M; Frith, Alison; MacGregor, E Anne; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-04-05

    Migraine is a common, disabling headache disorder, which is influenced by multiple genes and environmental triggers. After puberty, the prevalence of migraine in women is three times higher than in men and >50% of females suffering from migraine report a menstrual association, suggesting hormonal fluctuations can influence the risk of migraine attacks. It has been hypothesized that the drop in estrogen during menses is an important trigger for menstrual migraine. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in estrogen synthesis and metabolism. Functional polymorphisms in these genes can influence estrogen levels and therefore may be associated with risk of menstrual migraine. In this study we investigated four single nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes involved in estrogen metabolism that have been reported to impact enzyme levels or function, in a specific menstrual migraine cohort. 268 menstrual migraine cases and 142 controls were genotyped for rs4680 in COMT (Val158Met), rs4646903 and rs1048943 in CYP1A1 (T3801C and Ile462Val) and rs700519 in CYP19A1 (Cys264Arg). Neither genotype nor allele frequencies for the COMT and CYP SNPs genotyped were found to be significantly different between menstrual migraineurs and controls by chi-square analysis (P>0.05). Therefore we did not find association of functional polymorphisms in the estrogen metabolism genes COMT, CYP1A1 or CYP19A1 with menstrual migraine. Further studies are required to assess whether menstrual migraine is genetically distinct from the common migraine subtypes and identify genes that influence risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  2. The Formation and Biological Significance of N7-Guanine Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Gunnar; Pachkowski, Brian F.; Nakamura, Jun; Swenberg, James A

    2009-01-01

    DNA alkylation or adduct formation occurs at nucleophilic sites in DNA, mainly the N7-position of guanine. Ever since identification of the first N7-guanine adduct, several hundred studies on DNA adducts have been reported. Major issues addressed include the relationships between N7-guanine adducts and exposure, mutagenesis, and other biological endpoints. It became quickly apparent that N7-guanine adducts are frequently formed, but may have minimal biological relevance, since they are chemically unstable and do not participate in Watson Crick base pairing. However, N7-guanine adducts have been shown to be excellent biomarkers for internal exposure to direct acting and metabolically activated carcinogens. Questions arise, however, regarding the biological significance for N7-guanine adducts that are readily formed, do not persist, and are not likely to be mutagenic. Thus, we set out to review the current literature to evaluate their formation and the mechanistic evidence for the involvement of N7-guanine adducts in mutagenesis or other biological processes. It was concluded that there is insufficient evidence that N7-guanine adducts can be used beyond confirmation of exposure to the target tissue and demonstration of the molecular dose. There is little to no evidence that N7-guanine adducts or their depurination product, apurinic sites, are the cause of mutations in cells and tissues, since increases in AP sites have not been shown unless toxicity is extant. However, more research is needed to define the extent of chemical depurination versus removal by DNA repair proteins. Interestingly, N7-guanine adducts are clearly present as endogenous background adducts and the endogenous background amounts appear to increase with age. Furthermore, the N7-guanine adducts have been shown to convert to ring opened lesions (FAPy), which are much more persistent and have higher mutagenic potency. Studies in humans are limited in sample size and differences between controls and

  3. Biocatalytic Reductions of Baylis - Hillman Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    A Walton; W Conerly; Y Pompeu; B Sullivan; J Stewart

    2011-12-31

    Baylis-Hillman adducts are highly useful synthetic intermediates; to enhance their value further, we sought enantiocomplementary alkene reductases to introduce chirality. Two solutions emerged: (1) a wild-type protein from Pichia stipitis (OYE 2.6), whose performance significantly outstrips that of the standard enzyme (Saccharomyces pastorianus OYE1), and (2) a series of OYE1 mutants at position 116 (Trp in the wild-type enzyme). To understand how mutations could lead to inverted enantioselectivity, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the Trp116Ile OYE1 variant complexed with a cyclopentenone substrate. This revealed key protein-ligand interactions that control the orientation of substrate binding above the FMN cofactor.

  4. Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2008-09-05

    The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

  5. Identification of catechols as histone-lysine demethylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anders L; Kristensen, Line H; Stephansen, Karen B; Kristensen, Jan B L; Helgstrand, Charlotte; Lees, Michael; Cloos, Paul; Helin, Kristian; Gajhede, Michael; Olsen, Lars

    2012-04-24

    Identification of inhibitors of histone-lysine demethylase (HDM) enzymes is important because of their involvement in the development of cancer. An ELISA-based assay was developed for identification of inhibitors of the HDM KDM4C in a natural products library. Based on one of the hits with affinity in the low μM range (1, a catechol), a subset of structurally related compounds was selected and tested against a panel of HDMs. In this subset, two inhibitors (2 and 10) had comparable affinities towards KDM4C and KDM6A but no effect on PHF8. One inhibitor restored H3K9me3 levels in KDM4C transfected U2-OS cells.

  6. The epigenetics of estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic processes have been implicated in everything from cell proliferation to maternal behavior. Epigenetic alterations, including histone alterations and DNA methylation, have also been shown to play critical roles in the formation of some types of memory, and in the modulatory effects that factors, such as stress, drugs of abuse and environmental stimulation, have on the brain and memory function. Recently, we demonstrated that the ability of the sex-steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance memory formation is dependent on histone acetylation and DNA methylation, a finding that has important implications for understanding how hormones influence cognition in adulthood and aging. In this article, we provide an overview of the literature demonstrating that epigenetic processes and E2 influence memory, describe our findings indicating that epigenetic alterations regulate E2-induced memory enhancement, and discuss directions for future work on the epigenetics of estrogen. PMID:21593594

  7. DNA adduct formation by alachlor metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kimmel, E.C.; Casida, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of DNA adduct formation by alachlor (ArN(CH/sub 2/OCH/sub 3/)C(O)CH/sub 2/Cl wherein Ar is 2,6-diethylphenyl) and its metabolites is used as a guide to deduce the causal agent(s) in the carcinogenicity of this major herbicide. (/sup 14/C-phenyl)Alachlor is compared to its two metabolic cleavage products, (/sup 14/C-phenyl) 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) (ArNHC(O)CH/sub 2/Cl) and (/sup 14/C-phenyl)2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) (ArNH/sub 2/), and to (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor in various in vitro and in vivo systems. Horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide activate DEA, but not CEDPA or alachlor, for formation of adducts with calf thymus DNA, which probably involves 2,6-diethylnitrosobenzene (ArNO) as an intermediate. Mouse liver microsomes and NADPH are both required to enhance the binding from each labeled preparation to calf thymus DNA; 4-fold higher labeling is observed from (/sup 14/C-methoxy)- than from (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor. This 4-fold preferential DNA labeling from the /sup 14/C-methoxy compound is likewise found in the liver of mice treated intraperitoneally. Mouse liver protein and hemoglobin are also labeled, in vivo, with (/sup 14/C-phenyl)alachlor, -CDEPA and -DEA, and, as with the DNA, the labeling of these proteins is 1.5- to 2-fold higher with (/sup 14/C-methoxy)alachlor.

  8. Glottal Adduction and Subglottal Pressure in Singing.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Christian T; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Švec, Jan G; Sundberg, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that independent variation of vocal loudness and glottal configuration (type and degree of vocal fold adduction) does not occur in untrained speech production. This study investigated whether these factors can be varied independently in trained singing and how subglottal pressure is related to average glottal airflow, voice source properties, and sound level under these conditions. A classically trained baritone produced sustained phonations on the endoscopic vowel [i:] at pitch D4 (approximately 294 Hz), exclusively varying either (a) vocal register; (b) phonation type (from "breathy" to "pressed" via cartilaginous adduction); or (c) vocal loudness, while keeping the others constant. Phonation was documented by simultaneous recording of videokymographic, electroglottographic, airflow and voice source data, and by percutaneous measurement of relative subglottal pressure. Register shifts were clearly marked in the electroglottographic wavegram display. Compared with chest register, falsetto was produced with greater pulse amplitude of the glottal flow, H1-H2, mean airflow, and with lower maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), subglottal pressure, and sound pressure. Shifts of phonation type (breathy/flow/neutral/pressed) induced comparable systematic changes. Increase of vocal loudness resulted in increased subglottal pressure, average flow, sound pressure, MFDR, glottal flow pulse amplitude, and H1-H2. When changing either vocal register or phonation type, subglottal pressure and mean airflow showed an inverse relationship, that is, variation of glottal flow resistance. The direct relation between subglottal pressure and airflow when varying only vocal loudness demonstrated independent control of vocal loudness and glottal configuration. Achieving such independent control of phonatory control parameters would be an important target in vocal pedagogy and in voice therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Metabolic inactivation of estrogens in breast tissue by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Guillemette, Chantal; Bélanger, Alain; Lépine, Johanie

    2004-01-01

    The breast tissue is the site of major metabolic conversions of estradiol (E2) mediated by specific cytochromes P450 hydroxylations and methylation by catechol-O-methytransferase. In addition to E2 itself, recent findings highlight the significance of 4-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites as chemical mediators and their link to breast cancer development and progression, whereas, in opposition, 2-methoxylated estrogens appear to be protective. Recent data also indicate that breast tissue possesses enzymatic machinery to inactivate and eliminate E2 and its oxidized and methoxylated metabolites through conjugation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which involves the covalent addition of glucuronic acid. In opposition to other metabolic pathways of estrogen, the UGT-mediated process leads to the formation of glucuronides that are devoid of biologic activity and are readily excreted from the tissue into the circulation. This review addresses the most recent findings on the identification of UGT enzymes that are responsible for the glucuronidation of E2 and its metabolites, and evidence regarding their potential role in breast cancer. PMID:15535854

  10. Prolonged Acetaminophen-Protein Adduct Elimination During Renal Failure, Lack of Adduct Removal by Hemodiafiltration, and Urinary Adduct Concentrations After Acetaminophen Overdose.

    PubMed

    Curry, Steven C; Padilla-Jones, Angela; O'Connor, Ayrn D; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Bikin, Dale S; Wilkins, Diana G; Rollins, Douglas E; Slawson, Matthew H; Gerkin, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of serum acetaminophen-protein adducts, measured as protein-derived acetaminophen-cysteine (APAP-CYS), have been used to support a diagnosis of APAP-induced liver injury when histories and APAP levels are unhelpful. Adducts have been reported to undergo first-order elimination, with a terminal half-life of about 1.6 days. We wondered whether renal failure would affect APAP-CYS elimination half-life and whether continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), commonly used in liver failure patients, would remove adducts to lower their serum concentrations. Terminal elimination half-lives of serum APAP-CYS were compared between subjects with and without renal failure in a prospective cohort study of 168 adults who had ingested excessive doses of APAP. APAP-CYS concentrations were measured in plasma ultrafiltrate during CVVHDF at times of elevated serum adduct concentrations. Paired samples of urine and serum APAP-CYS concentrations were examined to help understand the potential importance of urinary elimination of serum adducts. APAP-CYS elimination half-life was longer in 15 renal failure subjects than in 28 subjects with normal renal function (41.3 ± 2.2 h versus 26.8 ± 1.1 h [mean ± SEM], respectively, p < 0.001). CVVHDF failed to remove detectable amounts of APAP-CYS in any of the nine subjects studied. Sixty-eight percent of 557 urine samples from 168 subjects contained no detectable APAP-CYS, despite levels in serum up to 16.99 μM. Terminal elimination half-life of serum APAP-CYS was prolonged in patients with renal failure for reasons unrelated to renal urinary adduct elimination, and consideration of prolonged elimination needs to be considered if attempting back-extrapolation of adduct concentrations. CVVHDF did not remove detectable APAP-CYS, suggesting approximate APAP-protein adduct molecular weights ≥ 50,000 Da. The presence of urinary APAP-CYS in the minority of instances was most compatible with renal

  11. Effect of an allophanic soil on humification reactions between catechol and glycine: Spectroscopic investigations of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masami; Miura, Akitaka; Sasaki, Masahide; Izumo, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Adduction of amino acids to phenols is a possible humification reaction pathway [F.J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reaction, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1994, pp. 188-211; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Sci. Total Environ. 62 (1987) 435; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55 (1991) 1156; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 112 (2003) 31; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 124 (2005) 415]. To elucidate the reaction kinetics and products of abiotic humification, the effects of an allophanic soil on the adduction of amino acids to phenols were investigated using catechol (CT) and glycine (Gly) as a model phenol and amino acid, respectively. An aqueous solution containing CT and Gly (pH 7.0) in the presence of allophanic soil was incubated for 2 weeks, and the kinetics of the humification reactions were monitored by analysis of absorptivity at 600 nm ( E600). A mixture of CT and Gly in the absence of allophanic soil was used as a control. The E600 value increased markedly in the presence of allophanic soil. In addition, unreacted CT was detected in the control reaction mixture, but not in the allophane-containing reaction mixture. Under the sterilized conditions, absorbance at 600 nm for the control reaction mixture was significantly smaller than that for the allophanic soil-containing reaction mixture, which indicates there was no microbial participation during incubation. These results indicate that the allophanic soil effectively facilitated humification reactions between CT and Gly. The reaction mixtures were acidified and humic-like acid (HLA) was isolated as a precipitate. The elemental composition, acidic functional group contents, molecular weight, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR, and 1H NMR spectra of the purified HLAs were analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that the nitrogen atom of Gly binds to the aromatic carbon of CT in the HLA products.

  12. POOLED ANALYSIS OF STUDIES ON DNA ADDUCTS AND DIETARY VITAMINS

    PubMed Central

    Ragin, Camille; Minor, Aerie; Agudo, Antonio; Farmer, Peter; Garte, Seymour; Gonzales, Carlos; Kalina, Ivan; Matullo, Pino; Popov, Todor; Palli, Domenico; Peluso, Marco; Riccieri, Fulvio; Sram, Radim; Vineis, Paolo; Taioli, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There is some evidence that dietary components that are rich in antioxidant and vitamins are inversely associated with DNA adduct levels induced by environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, although the epidemiologic data are inconsistent. This study addresses the association between vitamins, DNA adducts and smoking. Methods A combined analysis of individual data on the association between bulky DNA adducts and dietary vitamins were conducted. A Medline search was performed to identify studies on healthy subjects in which smoking and vitamins intake information were available, and bulky DNA adducts were measured in peripheral blood with 32P post labeling. Eight published studies met the eligibility criteria, and individual data from 7 data sets including 2,758 subjects were obtained. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were also available on all the subjects. Results Vitamin E was inversely significantly associated with DNA adducts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Vitamin A and C were not independent predictors of DNA adducts. A stratified analysis showed that vitamin A had a significant inverse association with DNA adducts in ever smokers only. Conclusions This result is relevant to planning any future chemo-preventive interventions directed to high risk subgroups of the population, for cancer prevention. PMID:20399891

  13. Derivatization of isothiocyanates and their reactive adducts for chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Müller, Caroline; Iori, Renato

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates form adducts with a multitude of biomolecules, and these adducts need analytical methods. Likewise, analytical methods for hydrophilic isothiocyanates are needed. We considered reaction with ammonia to form thiourea derivatives. The hydrophilic, glycosylated isothiocyanate moringin, 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, was efficiently derivatized to the thiourea derivative by incubation with ammonia. The hydrophobic benzyl isothiocyanate was also efficiently derivatized to the thiourea derivative. The thiourea group provided a UV absorbing chromophore, and the derivatives showed expectable sodium and hydrogen adducts in ion trap mass spectrometry and were suitable for liquid chromatography analysis. Reactive dithiocarbamate adducts constitute the major type of reactive ITC adduct expected in biological matrices. Incubation of a model dithiocarbamate with ammonia likewise resulted in conversion to the corresponding thiourea derivative, suggesting that a variety of matrix-bound reactive isothiocyanate adducts can be determined using this strategy. As an example of the application of the method, recovery of moringin and benzyl isothiocyanate applied to cabbage leaf discs was studied in simulated insect feeding assays. The majority of moringin was recovered as native isothiocyanate, but a major part of benzyl isothiocyanate was converted to reactive adducts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  15. Immunodetection of Serum Albumin Adducts as Biomarkers for Organophosphorus Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sigeng; Zhang, Jun; Lumley, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in organophosphate (OP) research has been the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for the rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Although Tyr 411 OP adducts to human serum albumin (HSA) have been suggested to be one of the most robust biomarkers in the detection of OP exposure, the analysis of HSA-OP adduct detection has been limited to techniques using mass spectrometry. Herein, we describe the procurement of two monoclonal antibodies (mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX) that recognized the HSA Tyr 411 adduct of soman (GD) or S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), respectively, but did not recognize nonphosphonylated HSA. We showed that mAb-HSA-GD was able to detect the HSA Tyr 411 OP adduct at a low level (i.e., human blood plasma treated with 180 nM GD) that could not be detected by mass spectrometry. mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX showed an extremely low-level detection of GD adducted to HSA (on the order of picograms). mAb-HSA-GD could also detect serum albumin OP adducts in blood plasma samples from different animals administered GD, including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. The ability of the two antibodies to selectively recognize nerve agents adducted to serum albumin suggests that these antibodies could be used to identify biomarkers of OP exposure and provide a new biologic approach to detect OP exposure in animals. PMID:23192655

  16. Analytical methods in DNA and protein adduct analysis.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2010-11-01

    DNA or protein adducts are reaction products of endogenous or exogenous chemicals and cellular macromolecules. Adducts are useful in toxicological studies and/or human biomonitoring exercises. In particular, DNA damage provides invaluable information for risk analysis. Second, metabolites or conjugates can be regarded as markers of phase II reactions though they may not give accurate information about the levels of reactive and damage-provoking reactive compounds or intermediates. Electrophiles are often short-lived molecules and therefore difficult to monitor. In contrast, adducts are often chemically stable, though their levels in biological samples are low, which makes their detection challenging. The assay of adducts is similar to the analysis of any other trace organic molecule, i.e. problems with the matrix and small amounts of analytes in samples. The (32)P-postlabelling assay is a specific method for DNA adducts but immunochemical and fluorescence-based methods have been developed which can detect adducts linked to both DNA and protein. Tandem mass spectrometry, particularly if combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography, is currently the recommended detection technique; however investigators are striving to develop novel ways to achieve greater sensitivity. Standards are a prerequisite in adduct analysis, but unfortunately they are seldom commercially available.

  17. [Uterine estrogen sulfotransferase and estrogen sulfatase in embryo implantation].

    PubMed

    Loza Arredondo, M C; González Juarez, N A

    1994-11-01

    The relation conjugated/unconjugated estrogens associated with reproductive processes has brought about the interest to study the biological role and regulation of the estrogen sulfotransferase and estrogen sulfatase which participate in the formation and hydrolysis of estrogen 3-sulfates, respectively. In this paper, both activities were measured through the reciprocal conversion of 3H-estrone sulfate and 3H-unconjugated estrogen during in vitro incubation with implantation sites (SI) and non-implanted sites (SNI) from the rat uterus, during the process of embryo implantation. Contrasting enzyme activities were found in these tissues. While sulfotransferase activity was higher in SI than in SNI (0.205 vs 0.144 pmol of E1S formed/mg protein/h, the inverse was found for the sulfatase (1.470 vs 1.977 pmol of E1 formed/mg protein/h). These results indicate the presence of both enzymes in the rat uterus and suggest the existence of a mechanism in SI that locally regulate the concentration of free and sulfoconjugated estrogens in which these enzymes participate.

  18. H-point curve isolation method for determination of catechol in complex unknown mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) was used for determination of catechol in the presence of phenolic interferents. Spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard additions of an analyte in an unknown matrix was used by the method. A cumulative spectrum for interferents in sample was extracted by HPCIM and then HPSAM is used for determination of the catechol concentration by obtained cumulative interferents spectrum. The method was tested with simulated data set. The spectrum obtained from applying HPCIM to the simulated data well agrees with the cumulative spectra of the interferents. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in the presence of highly overlapping interferents in synthetic ternary mixtures using spectrophotometric data. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used for determination of catechol in real complicated matrices of tea and urine samples. Percent recoveries were between 95.4 and 113.6.

  19. BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Rapp, Michael V; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-07

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  20. Protein-responsive assemblies from catechol-metal ion supramolecular coordination.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Chen, J; Yu, S; Chang, Y; Mao, J; Xu, Y; Luo, W; Zeng, B; Dai, L

    2015-03-21

    Supramolecular self-assembly driven by catechol-metal ion coordination has gained great success in the fabrication of functional materials including adhesives, capsules, coatings and hydrogels. However, this route has encountered a great challenge in the construction of nanoarchitectures in the absence of removable templates, because of the uncontrollable crosslinking of catechol-metal ion coordination. Herein, we show that a supramolecular approach, combining both catechol-metal ion coordination and polymer self-assembly together, can organize polymers into hybrid nanoassemblies ranging from solid particles, homogeneous vesicles to Janus vesicles. Without the introduction of a specific binding ligand or complicated molecular design, these assemblies can totally disassemble in response to proteins. UV/vis absorption, fluorescence quenching and recovery investigations have confirmed that proteins can seize metal ions from the hybrid nanoassemblies, thus causing the degradation of catechol-metal ion coordination networks.

  1. H-point curve isolation method for determination of catechol in complex unknown mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) was used for determination of catechol in the presence of phenolic interferents. Spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard additions of an analyte in an unknown matrix was used by the method. A cumulative spectrum for interferents in sample was extracted by HPCIM and then HPSAM is used for determination of the catechol concentration by obtained cumulative interferents spectrum. The method was tested with simulated data set. The spectrum obtained from applying HPCIM to the simulated data well agrees with the cumulative spectra of the interferents. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in the presence of highly overlapping interferents in synthetic ternary mixtures using spectrophotometric data. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used for determination of catechol in real complicated matrices of tea and urine samples. Percent recoveries were between 95.4 and 113.6.

  2. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  3. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Greg P.; Rapp, Michael V.; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (Ead ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a “one-two punch,” whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  4. Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.

    1986-06-17

    A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

  5. Dynamic adsorption of catechol at the goethite/aqueous solution interface: a molecular-scale study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Yan, Wei; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-10-16

    Insights from molecular-level mechanisms of catechol adsorption on goethite can further our understanding of the fate and transport of hydroxyaromatic compounds in the environment. The motivation for our study is to explore the dynamic adsorption process of catechol at the goethite/aqueous interface on the molecular scale. Multiple complementary techniques including macroscopic adsorption experiments, flow-cell ATR-FTIR measurement, 2D IR correlation analysis, and quantum chemical calculations were used to study the adsorption mechanisms. Our results show that the adsorption of catechol was elevated at high pH but was not affected by ionic strength because of the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Catechol adsorbed on goethite in mononuclear monodentate and binuclear bidentate configurations in the pH range of 5 to 9. Partial mononuclear monodentate structures could be converted to binuclear bidentate complexes under basic conditions and with increasing surface coverage.

  6. β-cyclodextrin-cobalt ferrite nanocomposite as enhanced sensing platform for catechol determination.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Tu; Huang, Ke-Jing; Li, Jing; Liu, Yan-Ming; Yu, Meng

    2012-10-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on β-cyclodextrin-cobalt ferrite nanocomposite was developed for the sensitive detection of catechol (CT). To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining cobalt ferrite nanocomposite and β-cyclodextrin via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high catechol-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of cobalt ferrite nanocomposite, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for catechol detection from 1 to 200 μM with a low detection limit of 0.12 μM (S/N=3). Moreover, the developed electrochemical sensor exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of catechol in water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotransformation of benzene and toluene to catechols by phenol hydroxylase from Arthrobacter sp. W1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Shi, Sheng-Nan; Sun, Tie-Heng; Li, Ang; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Qu, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Phenol hydroxylase gene engineered microorganism (PHIND) was used to synthesize catechols from benzene and toluene by successive hydroxylation reaction. HPLC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis proved that the products of biotransformation were the corresponding catechols via the intermediate production of phenols. It was indicated that the main products of toluene oxidation were o-cresol and p-cresol. 3-Methylcatechol was the predominant product for m-cresol biotransformation. Formation rate of catechol (25 μM/min/g cell dry weight) was 1.43-fold higher than that of methylcatechols. It was suggested that phenol hydroxylase could be successfully used to transform both benzene and toluene to catechols by successive hydroxylation.

  8. Surface water enhances the uptake and photoreactivity of gaseous catechol on solid iron(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Tofan-Lazar, Julia; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and photoreactivity of catechol-Fe complexes are investigated at the gas/solid interface under humid and dry conditions, along with the nature of the hydrogen-bonding network of adsorbed water. Catechol was chosen as a simple model for organics in aerosols. Iron chloride was used to distinguish ionic mobility from binding to coordinated iron(III) in hematite. Studies were conducted using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy as a function of irradiation time. Results show that adsorbed water at 30% relative humidity (RH), not light, increases the concentration of adsorbed catechol by a factor of 3 over 60 min relative to dry conditions. Also, our data show that, at 30% RH and under light and dark conditions, growth factors describing the concentration of adsorbed catechol are very similar suggesting that light does not significantly enhance the uptake of catechol vapor on FeCl3. Surface water also enhances the initial photodecay kinetics of catechol-Fe complexes at 30% RH by a factor of 10 relative to control experiments (RH < 1%, or no FeCl3 under humid conditions). Absorptions assigned to carbonyl groups were not observed with irradiation time, which was explained by the dominance of FeCl(2+) species relative to FeOH(2+) in the highly acidic "quasi-liquid" phase at 30% RH. Clear differences in the hydrogen-bonding network upon gaseous catechol uptake are observed in the dark and light and during the photodecay of adsorbed catechol. The implications of these results on our understanding of interfacial processes in aged iron-containing surfaces are discussed.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of catechols in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells: inhibition of microglial neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long Tai; Ryu, Geun-Mu; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2008-06-24

    Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by producing various proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and subsequent neuroprotective effects of catechol and its derivatives including 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 4-tert-butylcatechol were investigated in microglia and neuroblastoma cells in culture. The four catechol compounds showed anti-inflammatory effects with different potency. The catechols significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in BV-2 microglia cells. The catechols also inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-alpha at mRNA or protein levels in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. In addition, the catechols inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, IkappaB degradation, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in BV-2 cells. Moreover, the catechols attenuated the cytotoxicity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia toward co-cultured rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. The catechols, however, did not protect B35 cells against H(2)O(2) toxicity, indicating that the compounds exerted the neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the inflammatory activation of microglia in the co-culture. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of the catechols in cultured microglia and neuroblastoma cells suggest a therapeutic potential of these compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with an excessive microglial activation.

  10. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  11. Siderophores and mussel foot proteins: the role of catechol, cations, and metal coordination in surface adhesion.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Butler, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Metal coordination, hydrogen bonding, redox reactions, and covalent crosslinking are seemingly disparate chemical and physicochemical processes that are all accomplished in natural materials by the catechol functional group. This review focuses on the reactivity of catechols in tris-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-containing microbial siderophores and synthetic analogs, as well as Dopa-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-containing mussel foot proteins that adhere to surfaces in aqueous conditions. Mussel foot proteins with a high content of Dopa and cationic amino acids, Lys and Arg, adhere strongly to mica, an aluminosilicate mineral, in aqueous conditions. The siderophore cyclic trichrysobactin, tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-D-Lys-L-Ser) and related synthetic analogs in which the tri-Ser macrolactone is replaced by Tren, tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine, also adheres strongly to mica. Variation in the nature of the catechol and cationic groups in synthetic analogs reveals a synergism between the cationic amino acid and the catechol, required for strong aqueous adhesion. Autoxidation and iron(III)-catalyzed oxidation of 2,3-dihydroxy and 3,4-dihydroxy catechols are also considered. These siderophore analogs provide a platform to understand catechol interactions and reactivity on surfaces, which may ultimately improve the design of synthetic materials that address diverse challenges in medicine, materials science, as well as other disciplines, in which surface adhesion in aqueous conditions is important.

  12. Removing Dissolved Silica from Waste Water with Catechol and Active Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sasan, Koroush; Brady, Patrick; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity is going to be a global great challenge in the near future because of the increasing population. Our water resources are limited and, hence, water treatment and recycling methods are the only alternatives for fresh water procurement in the upcoming decades. Water treatment and recycling methods serve to remove harmful or problematic constituents from ground, surface and waste waters prior to its consumption, industrial supply, or other uses. Scale formation in industrial and domestic installations is still an important problem during water treatment. In water treatment, silica scaling is a real and constant concern for plant operations. The focus of this study is on the viability of using a combination of catechol and active carbon to remove dissolved silica from concentrated cooling tower water (CCTW). Various analytical methods, such as ICP-MS and UV-vis, were used to understand the structure-property relationship between the material and the silica removal results. UV-Vis indicates that catechol can react with silica ions and form a silica-catecholate complex. The speciation calculation of catechol and silica shows that catechol and silica bind in the pH range of 8 – 10; there is no evidence of linkage between them in neutral and acidic pHs. The silica removal results indicate that using ~4g/L of catechol and 10g/L active carbon removes up to 50% of the dissolved silica from the CCTW.

  13. Extradiol dioxygenase-SiO₂ sol-gel modified electrode for catechol and its derivatives detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Hongtao

    2011-07-15

    A feasible and sensitive biosensor for catechol and its derivatives using 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC)-modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully constructed by polyvinyl alcohol-modified SiO₂ sol-gel method. The as-prepared biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the surface topography of the film was imaged by atomic force microscope. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to reveal the catalytic mechanism. BphC embedded in SiO₂ gel maintained its bioactivity well and exhibited excellent eletrocatalytical response to both catechol and some of its derivatives (such as 3-methylcatechol and 4-methylcatechol). The biosensor showed a linear amperometric response range between 0.002 mM and 0.8 mM catechol. And the sensitivity was 1.268 mA/(mM cm²) with a detection limit of 0.428 μM for catechol (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the BphC biosensor exhibited perfect selectivity for catechol in the mixtures of catechol and phenol. It was suggested that this flexible protocol would open up a new avenue for designing other ring-cleavage enzyme biosensors, which could be widely used for monitoring various kinds of environmental pollutants.

  14. A fluorescence-based analysis of aristolochic acid-derived DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Sidorenko, Victoria; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Whyard, Terry; Grollman, Arthur P

    2012-08-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs), major components of plant extracts from Aristolochia species, form (after metabolic activation) pro-mutagenic DNA adducts in renal tissue. The DNA adducts can be used as biomarkers for studies of AA toxicity. Identification of these adducts is a complicated and time-consuming procedure. We present here a fast, nonisotopic, fluorescence-based assay for the detection of AA-DNA adducts in multiple samples. This approach allows analysis of AA adducts in synthetic DNA with known nucleotide composition and analysis of DNA adducts formed from chemically diverse AAs in vitro. The method can be applied to compare AA-DNA adduct formation in cells and tissues.

  15. Study of S0 and S1 states of catechol and catechol-Al(III) systems in aqueous solution by TD-DFT methods and electronic spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornard, Jean-Paul; Lapouge, Christine; Allet-Bodelot, Cyrille

    2010-04-01

    The electronic structures of the ground and the lowest excited states of catechol and its 1:1 complex with aluminium have been optimized by taking into account the solvent effects. The good agreement between the theoretical absorption and fluorescence emission wavelengths with the experimental ones has allowed the validation of the computed electronic structures. If the structure of the S0 state of catechol is planar, it is twisted in the S1 state in water, contrary to the results obtained in vacuum. In opposition, the changes observed for the 1:1 complex structures in the S0 and S1 states are negligible.

  16. Structure of adduct X, the last unknown of the six major DNA adducts of mitomycin C formed in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Palom, Y; Belcourt, M F; Musser, S M; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S; Tomasz, M

    2000-06-01

    Treatment of EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells with mitomycin C (MC) results in the formation of six major MC-DNA adducts. We identified the last unknown of these ("adduct X") as a guanine N(2) adduct of 2, 7-diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM), in which the mitosene is linked at its C-10 position to guanine N(2). The assigned structure is based on UV and mass spectra of adduct X isolated directly from the cells, as well as on its difference UV, second-derivative UV, and circular dichroism spectra, synthesis from [8-(3)H]deoxyguanosine, and observation of its heat stability. These tests were carried out using 17 microg of synthetic material altogether. The mechanism of formation of adduct X involves reductive metabolism of MC to 2,7-DAM, which undergoes a second round of reductive activation to alkylate DNA, yielding adduct X and another 2,7-DAM-guanine adduct (adduct Y), which is linked at guanine N7 to the mitosene. Adduct Y has been described previously. Adduct X is formed preferentially at GpC, while adduct Y favors the GpG sequence. In contrast to MC-DNA adducts, the 2,7-DAM-DNA adducts are not cytotoxic.

  17. Biological activities of eco-friendly synthesized Hantzsch adducts.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Samira R; Braga, Taniris C; da Silva, Daniel L; Horta, Livia P; Reis, Fabiano S; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, Joao E; Modolo, Luzia V; de Fatima, Ângelo

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen Hantzsch adducts with different substituents at the C-4 position were synthesized through multicomponent reactions by using citric or lactic acid as catalysts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of such a class of compounds based on multicomponent reactions catalyzed by non-toxic organic acids. The potential to scavenge reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RNS/ROS) and the ability to inhibit cancer cell growth were then investigated. Among the synthesized compounds, adduct 15 was the most promising free radical scavenger, while adduct 20 was shown to have a wider spectrum of action on the cancer cells studied. These results highlight Hantzsch adducts as lead compounds for obtaining new free radical scavengers and anticancer agents.

  18. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T.; Pan, Chong-xian

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid report provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis of tobacco-specific hemoglobin adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Schäffler, G; Betz, C; Richter, E

    1993-01-01

    Hemoglobin adducts of the common metabolite of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were quantified in blood samples from smokers and nonsmokers to test their suitability for biomonitoring tobacco smoke exposure. Additionally, TSNA adducts were measured in nasal snuff users. Mild alkaline treatment of hemoglobin releases 4-ABP and HPB, which were analyzed in parallel by capillary gas chromatography with electronic impact or negative ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (EI- or NICI-GC-MS). Samples of snuff users showed high levels of HPB adducts not correlated with the amount or type of snuff used. HPB concentrations in smokers and nonsmokers, however, were much lower, with no group-specific differences detectable. In contrast, 4-ABP adduct levels were much higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, confirming the significant difference between these two groups reported by others. PMID:8319620

  20. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; Zhang, Hongyong; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Henderson, Paul T.; Pan, Chong-xian

    2016-01-01

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). This rapid report provides the first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic. PMID:26544157

  1. Paclitaxel Enhances Carboplatin-DNA Adduct Formation and Cytotoxicity

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Shuai; Pan, Amy W.; Lin, Tzu-yin; ...

    2015-11-06

    This rapid report focuses on the pharmacodynamic mechanism of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination and correlates it with its cytotoxicity. Consistent with the synergistic to additive antitumor activity (the combination index ranging from 0.53 to 0.94), cells exposed to this combination had significantly increased carboplatin-DNA adduct formation when compared to that of carboplatin alone (450 ± 30 versus 320 ± 120 adducts per 108 nucleotides at 2 h, p = 0.004). Removal of paclitaxel increased the repair of carboplatin-DNA adducts: 39.4 versus 33.1 adducts per 108 nucleotides per hour in carboplatin alone (p = 0.021). In conclusion, this rapid report provides themore » first pharmacodynamics data to support the use of carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in the clinic.« less

  2. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  3. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts in laminating adhesives

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Roland E. Kreibich

    1985-01-01

    A condensed tannin-resorcinol adduct made by co-reaction of an extract from southern pine bark with resorcinol at a 2 to 1 weight ratio was used to prepare a laminating resin in which the entire amount of resorcinol normally used was replaced by this adduct. The resin was formulated into a room temperature setting adhesive that meets the basic criteria of product...

  4. Arytenoid adduction combined with Gore-Tex medialization thyroplasty.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, T M; Hoffman, H T; Andrews, B T; Karnell, M P

    2000-08-01

    To describe the technique of combined Gore-Tex medialization thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction and to determine the long-term vocal outcome of patients treated for unilateral vocal cord paralysis with this procedure. A retrospective chart review and patient reevaluation for patients treated at The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between May 1995 and June 1999. The review addressed patient demographics, perioperative and long-term complications, and voice outcomes. Details of the surgical technique are provided within the manuscript. Seventy-two Gore-Tex medialization procedures were completed. Arytenoid adduction was included in 22 of these procedures. This subset of patients was compared with the patients treated with Gore-Tex alone. No major postoperative complications occurred in either group. Preoperative and postoperative voice and videostroboscopy data were available for 19 arytenoid adduction patients and 25 Gore-Tex alone patients. On a seven-point scale (6 [severely abnormal] --> 0 [normal voice]), the average patient rating of voice dysfunction improved from 4.2 to 1.6 (arytenoid adduction) and 4.5 to 2.8 (Gore-Tex alone). Maximum phonation time improved from 6.9 seconds to 16.7 seconds in the arytenoid adduction group. Subjective voice assessment employing the four-point GRBAS scale (3 [severely abnormal] --> 0 [normal]) identified average improvement from an overall grade of 2.1 to 0.8 arytenoid adduction and 2.2 to 1.5 in the Gore-Tex alone group. Improvement was identified in the vocal quality of breathiness from 1.9 to 0.2 (arytenoid adduction) and 1.9 to 0.9 (Gore-Tex alone). The combined technique of Gore-Tex medialization thyroplasty and arytenoid adduction provide functional results that appear to exceed the improvement attained with medialization alone.

  5. ACCUMULATION OF M1DG DNA ADDUCTS AFTER ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ABSTRACT: Oxidative DNA damage is one of the key events leading to mutation and cancer. The present study examined the accumulation of M1dG DNA adducts, 3-(2’-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-a]-purin-10(3H)-one, after single or yearly exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH) in order to test the role of oxidative DNA damage in PHAH carcinogenicity. The effect of PHAH exposure on the number of M1dG adducts was explored initially in female mice exposed to a single dose of either TCDD or a PHAH mixture. This study demonstrated that a single exposure to PHAH had no significant effect on the number of M1dG adducts compared to the corn oil control group. The role of M1dG adducts in PCB-induced carcinogenicity was further investigated in rats exposed for a year to PCB 153, PCB 126, or a mixture of the two. PCB 153 had no significant effect on M1dG adducts number in liver and brain tissues from the exposed rats compared to controls. However, high dose PCB 126 exposure resulted in M1dG adducts accumulation in the liver. More importantly, starting at low doses, co-administration of equal proportions of PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in dose-dependent increases in M1dG adducts accumulation in the liver. Interestingly, the result from co-administration of different amounts of PCB 153 with fixed amounts of PCB 126 demonstrated more M1dG adducts accumulation with higher doses of PCB 153. These results are consistent with the results from canc

  6. Modulation of human multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 (ABCC1) and MRP2 (ABCC2) transport activities by endogenous and exogenous glutathione-conjugated catechol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Slot, Andrew J; Wise, Dana D; Deeley, Roger G; Monks, Terrence J; Cole, Susan P C

    2008-03-01

    Members of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP/ABCC) subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins transport a wide array of anionic compounds, including sulfate, glucuronide, and glutathione (GSH) conjugates. The present study tested the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of leukotriene C(4) and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-d-glucuronide) (E(2)17betaG) mediated by the MRP1 and MRP2 transporters in the presence of six potential modulators from three different classes of GSH-conjugated catechol metabolites: the ecstasy metabolite 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (5-GS-N-Me-alpha-MeDA), the caffeic acid metabolite 2-(glutathion-S-yl)-caffeic acid (2-GS-CA), and four GSH conjugates of 2-hydroxy (OH) and 4-OH estrogens (GS estrogens). MRP1-mediated E(2)17betaG transport was inhibited in a competitive manner with a relative order of potency of GS estrogens (IC(50) <1 microM) > 2-GS-CA (IC(50) 3 microM) > 5-GS-N-Me-alpha-MeDA (IC(50) 31 microM). MRP2-mediated transport was inhibited with a similar order of potency, except the 2-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-2-(glutathion-S-yl)-estradiol conjugates were approximately 50- and 300-fold less potent, respectively. Transport activity was unaffected by N-acetylcysteine conjugates of N-Me-alpha-MeDA and CA. The position of GSH conjugation appears important as all four GS estrogen conjugates tested were potent inhibitors of MRP1 transport, but only the 2-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-estradiol and 2-hydroxy-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-estrone conjugates were potent inhibitors of MRP2-mediated transport. In conclusion, we have identified three new classes of MRP1 and MRP2 modulators and demonstrated that one of these, the estrogen conjugates, shows unanticipated differences in their interactions with the two transporters.

  7. Estrogen pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open angle glaucoma: An analysis accounting for gender from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Stephanie J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Kang, Jae H.; Yaspan, Brian L.; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Lee, Richard K.; Scott, William K.; Lichter, Paul R.; Budenz, Donald L.; Liu, Yutao; Realini, Tony; Friedman, David S.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Olson, Lana; Schuman, Joel S.; Singh, Kuldev; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Brilliant, Murray; Sit, Arthur J.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John; Kraft, Peter; Zhang, Kang; Allingham, R. Rand; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Richards, Julia E.; Hauser, Michael A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Circulating estrogen levels are relevant in glaucoma phenotypic traits. We assessed the association between an estrogen metabolism single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), accounting for gender. Methods We included 3,108 POAG cases and 3,430 controls of both genders from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium genotyped on the Illumina 660W-Quad platform. We assessed the relation between the SNP panels representative of estrogen metabolism and POAG using pathway- and gene-based approaches with the Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure (PARIS) software. PARIS executes a permutation algorithm to assess statistical significance relative to the pathways and genes of comparable genetic architecture. These analyses were performed using the meta-analyzed results from the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR data sets. We evaluated POAG overall as well as two subtypes of POAG defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥22 mmHg (high-pressure glaucoma [HPG]) or IOP <22 mmHg (normal pressure glaucoma [NPG]) at diagnosis. We conducted these analyses for each gender separately and then jointly in men and women. Results Among women, the estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG overall (permuted p=0.006) and HPG (permuted p<0.001) but not NPG (permuted p=0.09). Interestingly, there was no relation between the estrogen SNP pathway and POAG when men were considered alone (permuted p>0.99). Among women, gene-based analyses revealed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene showed strong associations with HTG (permuted gene p≤0.001) and NPG (permuted gene p=0.01). Conclusions The estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG among women. PMID:23869166

  8. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Felipe H; Jallad, Raquel S; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-11-01

    Despite recent advances in acromegaly treatment by surgery, drugs, and radiotherapy, hormonal control is still not achieved by some patients. The impairment of IGF-1 generation by estrogens in growth hormone deficient patients is well known. Patients on oral estrogens need higher growth hormone doses in order to achieve normal IGF-1 values. In the past, estrogens were one of the first drugs used to treat acromegaly. Nevertheless, due to the high doses used and the obvious side effects in male patients, this strategy was sidelined with the development of more specific drugs, as somatostatin receptor ligands and dopamine agonists. In the last 15 years, the antagonist of growth hormone receptor became available, making possible IGF-1 control of the majority of patients on this particular drug. However, due to its high cost, pegvisomant is still not available in many centers around the world. In this setting, the effect of estrogens and also of selective estrogen receptor modulators on IGF-1 control was reviewed, and proved to be an ancillary tool in the management of acromegaly. This review describes data concerning their efficacy and place in the treatment algorithm of acromegaly.

  9. Heterogeneous Reactions of Surface-Adsorbed Catechol: A Comparison of Tropospheric Aerosol Surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.; Woodill, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Surface-adsorbed organics can alter the chemistry of tropospheric solid-air interfaces, such as aerosol and ground level surfaces, thereby impacting photochemical cycles and altering aerosol properties. The nature of the surface can also influence the chemistry of the surface-adsorbed organic. We employed diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to monitor the adsorption of gaseous catechol on several tropospheric aerosol surrogates and to investigate the subsequent reactivity of adsorbed-catechol with nitrogen dioxide and, in separate preliminary experiments, ozone. Graphite, kaolinite, and sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr) powders served as carbonaceous, mineral and sea salt aerosol surrogates, respectively. Broad OH stretching bands for adsorbed catechol shifted to lower wavenumber with peak frequencies following the trend NaBr > NaCl > NaF ≈ kaolinite, consistent with the increasing basicity of the halide anions and basic Brønsted sites on kaolinite. The dark heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with NaCl-adsorbed catechol at relative humidity (RH) <2% promoted nitration forming 4-nitrocatechol and oxidation forming 1,2-benzoquinone and the ring cleavage product muconic acid, with product yields of 88%, 8%, and 4%, respectively. 4-Nitrocatechol was the dominant product for catechol adsorbed on NaF and kaolinite, while NaBr-adsorbed catechol produced less 4-nitrocatechol and more 1,2-benzoquinone and muconic acid. For all three sodium halides, the reactions of NO2 with adsorbed catechol were orders of magnitude faster than between NO2 and each NaX substrate. 4-Nitrocatechol rates and product yields were consistent with the relative ability of each substrate to enhance the deprotonated nature of adsorbed-catechol. Increasing the relative humidity caused the rate of each product channel to decrease and also altered the product branching ratios. Most notably, 1,2-benzoquinone formation decreased significantly even at 13% RH. The dramatic

  10. Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Their Genetic Determinants: A Study Within the Dutch "DOM" Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    methoxy metabolites of E1 and E2 2) examine relationship of polymorphic variants of genes encoding estrogen-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1 ...exhaustive catalog of polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1 , CYP3A4 and COMT genes by searching the literature, and by DHPLC analysis. Complete... CYP1B1 , and CYP3A4. Furthermore, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is a key enzyme in the methoxylation of 2- and 4- hydroxyl groups, thus leading to

  11. Adduction of untested derived stimulus relations depends on environmental complexity.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Sterling M; Doughty, Adam H

    2017-10-01

    The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned. The adduction assessment required participants to derive the untested CA (Group CA) or EA (Group EA) equivalence relations and combine them with their already learned math skills. All participants in Group CA showed above 90% accuracy during the adduction assessment, whereas only one of four Group EA participants responded in that manner. These results extend adduction to untested equivalence relations and clarify the environmental conditions under which such adduction is less likely to occur (i.e., with larger relational networks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Kate; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2010-01-01

    There have been many attempts in the past to determine whether significant levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts form in cells and contribute to the anticancer activity of this agent. Supraclincal drug levels have been required to study drug-DNA adducts because of the lack of sensitivity associated with many of the techniques employed, including liquid scintillation counting of radiolabeled drug. The use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adduct formation in cells at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection (compared to liquid scintillation counting) and has revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. The rigorous protocol required for this approach, together with many notes on the precautions and procedures required in order to ensure that absolute levels of Adriamycin-DNA adducts can be determined with good reproducibility, is outlined in this chapter.

  13. Characterization of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Planococcus sp. strain S5 induced by high phenol concentration.

    PubMed

    Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Guzik, Urszula; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at characterization of a new catechol 2,3-dioxygenase isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium able to utilize phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Planococcus sp. strain S5 grown on 1 or 2 mM phenol showed activity of both a catechol 1,2- and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase while at a higher concentrations of phenol only catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was observed. The enzyme was optimally active at 60°C and pH 8.0. Kinetic studies showed that the K(m) and V(max) of the enzyme were 42.70 µM and 329.96 mU, respectively. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase showed the following relative meta-cleavage activities for various catechols tested: catechol (100%), 3-methylcatechol (13.67%), 4-methylcatechol (106.33%) and 4-chlorocatechol (203.80%). The high reactivity of this enzyme towards 4-chlorocatechol is different from that observed for other catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. Nucleotide sequencing and homology search revealed that the gene encoding the S5 catechol 2,3-dioxygenase shared the greatest homology with the known genes encoding isoenzymes from Gram-negative Pseudomonas strains.

  14. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the estrogen pathway and mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the estrogen pathway appear to be associated with breast cancer risk and possibly with mammographic density (MD), but little is known of these associations among premenopausal women. This study examines the association of 11 polymorphisms in five estrogen-related genes (estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)) with premenopausal MD. Effect modification of four estrogen-related factors (parity, age at menarche, hormonal derivatives use and body mass index (BMI)) on this relation is also assessed. Methods Polymorphisms were genotyped in 741 premenopausal Caucasian women whose MD was measured in absolute density (AD, cm2) and percent density using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate linear models were used to examine the associations (Ptrend) and interactions (Pi). Results None of the SNPs showed a statistically significant association with AD. However, each additional rare allele of rs1056836 CYP1B1 was associated with a reduction in AD among nulliparous women (Ptrend = 0.004), while no association was observed among parous women (Ptrend = 0.62; Pi = 0.02). An increase in the number of rare alleles of the HSD17B1 SNP (rs598126 and rs2010750) was associated with an increase in AD among women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.06 and Ptrend = 0.04, respectively), but with a decrease in AD among past hormonal derivatives users (Ptrend = 0.04; Pi = 0.02 and Ptrend = 0.08; Pi = 0.01, respectively). Moreover, a negative association of rs598126 HSD17B1 SNP with AD was observed among women with higher BMI (>median) (Ptrend = 0.01; Pi = 0.02). A negative association between an increased number of rare alleles of COMT rs4680 SNP and AD was limited to women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.02; Pi = 0.03) or with late age at menarche (>median) (Ptrend = 0

  15. Estrogens and development of pulmonary hypertension - Interaction of estradiol metabolism and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Tofovic, Stevan P.

    2010-01-01

    Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by clustered proliferation of endothelial cells in the lumina of small size pulmonary arteries resulting in concentric obliteration of the lumina and formation of complex vascular structures known as plexiform lesions. This debilitating disease occurs more frequently in women, yet both animal studies in classical models of PAH and limited clinical data suggest protective effects of estrogens: the estrogen paradox in pulmonary hypertension. Little is known about the role of estrogens in PAH, but one line of evidence strongly suggests that the vascular protective effects of 17β-estradiol (estradiol; E2) are mediated largely by its downstream metabolites. Estradiol is metabolized to 2-hydroxyestradiol (2HE) by CYP1A1/CYP1B1, and 2HE is converted to 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) by catechol-O-methyl transferase. 2ME is extensively metabolized to 2-methoxyestrone, a metabolite that lacks biologic activity but which may be converted back to 2ME. 2ME has no estrogenic activity and its effects are mediated by estrogen receptors-independent mechanism(s). Notably, in systemic and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts 2ME exerts stronger anti-mitotic effects than E2 itself. E2 and 2ME, despite having similar effects on other cardiovascular cells, have opposing effects on endothelial cells; that is, in endothelial cells, E2 is pro-mitogenic, pro-angiogenic and anti- apoptotic, whereas 2ME is antimitogenic, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic. This may have significant ramifications in severe PAH that involves uncontrolled proliferation of monoclonal, apoptosis resistant endothelial cells. Based on its cellular effects, 2ME should be expected to attenuate the progression of disease and provide protection in severe PAH. In contrast, E2, due to its mitogenic, angiogenic, and anti-apoptotic effects (otherwise desirable in normal, quiescent endothelial cells), may even adversely affect

  16. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Bhupendra; Mense, Sarah M.; Bhat, Nimee K.; Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A.; Remotti, Fabrizio; Bhat, Hari K.

    2010-09-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E{sub 2}-induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E{sub 2} pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E{sub 2}-induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E{sub 2}-treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E{sub 2} group relative to those in the E{sub 2} group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F{sub 2{alpha}} (8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E{sub 2}-induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E{sub 2}-induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E{sub 2}-treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E{sub 2} and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E{sub 2} and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox

  17. Dietary Quercetin Exacerbates the Development of Estrogen-Induced Breast Tumors in Female ACI Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupendra; Mense, Sarah M.; Bhat, Nimee K.; Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A.; Remotti, Fabrizio; Bhat, Hari K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E2-induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E2 pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E2-induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E2-treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E2 group relative to those in the E2 group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E2-induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E2-induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E2-treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E2 and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E2 and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E2-induced breast tumors in female

  18. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra; Mense, Sarah M; Bhat, Nimee K; Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A; Remotti, Fabrizio; Bhat, Hari K

    2010-09-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E(2)-induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E(2) pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E(2)-induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin+E(2)-treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin+E(2) group relative to those in the E(2) group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F(2alpha) (8-iso-PGF(2alpha)) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E(2)-induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E(2)-induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E(2)-treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E(2) and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E(2) and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E(2

  19. VASCULAR ACTIONS OF ESTROGENS: FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Virginia M.; Duckles, Sue P.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of estrogen exposure in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease is controversial. But it is clear that estrogen has important effects on vascular physiology and pathophysiology, with potential therapeutic implications. Therefore, it is the goal of this review to summarize, using an integrated approach, current knowledge of the vascular effects of estrogen, both in humans and in experimental animals. Aspects of estrogen synthesis and receptors, as well as general mechanisms of estrogenic action are reviewed with an emphasis on issues particularly relevant to the vascular system. Recent understanding of the impact of estrogen on mitochondrial function suggests that the longer lifespan of women compared to men may depend in part on the ability of estrogen to decrease production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Mechanisms by which estrogen increases endothelial vasodilator function, promotes angiogenesis and modulates autonomic function are summarized. Key aspects of the relevant pathophysiology of inflammation, atherosclerosis, stroke, migraine and thrombosis are reviewed concerning current knowledge of estrogenic effects. A number of emerging concepts are addressed throughout. These include the importance of estrogenic formulation and route of administration and the impact of genetic polymorphisms, either in estrogen receptors or in enzymes responsible for estrogen metabolism, on responsiveness to hormone treatment. The importance of local metabolism of estrogenic precursors and the impact of timing for initiation of treatment and its duration are also considered. While consensus opinions are emphasized, controversial views are presented in order to stimulate future research. PMID:18579753

  20. The Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism Contributes to the Risk of Breast Cancer in the Chinese Population: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guo-Xing; Cao, Yu-Wen; Li, Wen-Qin; Li, Yu-Cong; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme plays a central role in estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Emerging evidence from association studies has revealed that the functional Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680 G>A) of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) has been implicated in susceptibility to breast cancer in the Chinese population, while results of individual published studies remain inconclusive and inconsistent. To assess this association in the Chinese population, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods Eligible studies were searched on MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Biomedicine Database. Odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to assess the association between COMT polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer using RevMan 5.2 and Stata 12.0 software. Results The meta-analysis included 14 eligible studies, with a total of 4,626 breast cancer cases and 5,637 controls. Overall, the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680 G>A) was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in several genetic models (A/A vs. G/G: OR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.12-2.27; A/A vs. G/A+G/G: OR, 1.62, 95% CI, 1.14-2.29; A vs. G: OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 1.00-1.32), and a subgroup analysis according to menopausal status showed that this association was especially evident among premenopausal Chinese women (A/A vs. G/G: OR, 1.87, 95% CI, 0.99-3.54; A/A vs. G/A+G/G: OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.03-3.63). Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis indicated that COMT Val158Met variants contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population, particularly among premenopausal women. PMID:25013436

  1. A mitomycin-N6-deoxyadenosine adduct isolated from DNA.

    PubMed

    Palom, Y; Lipman, R; Musser, S M; Tomasz, M

    1998-03-01

    A minor N6-deoxyadenosine adduct of mitomycin C (MC) was isolated from synthetic oligonucleotides and calf thymus DNA, representing the first adduct of MC and a DNA base other than guanine. The structure of the adduct (8) was elucidated using submilligram quantities of total available material. UV difference spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and electrospray mass spectroscopy as well as chemical transformations were utilized in deriving the structure of 8. A series of synthetic oligonucleotides was designed to probe the specificities of the alkylation of adenine by MC. The nature and frequency of the oligonucleotide-MC adducts formed under conditions of reductive activation of MC were determined by their enzymatic digestion to the nucleoside level followed by quantitative analysis of the products by HPLC. The analyses indicated the following: (i) (A)n sequence is favored over (AT)n for adduct formation; (ii) the alkylation favors the duplex structure; (iii) at adenine sites only monofunctional alkylation occurs; (iv) the adenine-to-alkylation frequency in the model oligonucleotides was 0.3-0.6 relative to guanine alkylation at the 5'-ApG sequence but only 0.02-0.1 relative to guanine alkylation at 5'-CpG. The 5'-phosphodiester linkage of the MC-adenine adduct is resistant to snake venom diesterase. The overall ratio of adenine to guanine alkylation in calf thymus DNA was 0.03, indicating that 8 is a minor MC-DNA adduct relative to MC-DNA adducts at guanine residues in the present experimental residues in the present experimental system. However, the HPLC elution time of 8 coincides with that of a major, unknown MC adduct detected previously in mouse mammary tumor cells treated with radiolabeled MC [Bizanek, R., Chowdary, D., Arai, H., Kasai, M., Hughes, C. S., Sartorelli, A. C., Rockwell, S., and Tomasz, M. (1993) Cancer Res. 53, 5127-5134]. Thus, 8 may be identical or closely related to this major adduct formed in vivo. This possibility can now be tested by

  2. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression. Estrogen also prevents thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) in menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen ... you are taking this medication for prevention of osteoporosis. Follow all dietary and exercise recommendations, as both ...

  3. Mixture interactions of xenoestrogens with endogenous estrogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing concern of exposure to fish, wildlife, and humans to water sources contaminated with estrogens and the potential impact on reproductive health. These environmental estrogens originate from various sources including concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFO), m...

  4. Mixture interactions of xenoestrogens with endogenous estrogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing concern of exposure to fish, wildlife, and humans to water sources contaminated with estrogens and the potential impact on reproductive health. These environmental estrogens originate from various sources including concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFO), m...

  5. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphysms in Italians

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Gialluisi, Alessandro; Barbuti, Serena; Curcio, Michele; Scatena, Fabrizio; Carli, Giancarlo; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.

    2014-01-01

    Higher brain dopamine content depending on lower activity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) in subjects with high hypnotizability scores (highs) has been considered responsible for their attentional characteristics. However, the results of the previous genetic studies on association between hypnotizability and the COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 (Val158Met) were inconsistent. Here, we used a selective genotyping approach to re-evaluate the association between hypnotizability and COMT in the context of a two-SNP haplotype analysis, considering not only the Val158Met polymorphism, but also the closely located rs4818 SNP. An Italian sample of 53 highs, 49 low hypnotizable subjects (lows), and 57 controls, were genotyped for a segment of 805 bp of the COMT gene, including Val158Met and the closely located rs4818 SNP. Our selective genotyping approach had 97.1% power to detect the previously reported strongest association at the significance level of 5%. We found no evidence of association at the SNP, haplotype, and diplotype levels. Thus, our results challenge the dopamine-based theory of hypnosis and indirectly support recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings reporting the lack of any association between hypnotizability and focused attention abilities. PMID:24431998

  6. A chemical proteomic probe for detecting dehydrogenases: catechol rhodanine.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xia; Sem, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Inherent complexity of the proteome often demands that it be studied as manageable subsets, termed subproteomes. A subproteome can be defined in a number of ways, although a pragmatic approach is to define it based on common features in an active site that lead to binding of a common small molecule ligand (e.g., a cofactor or a cross-reactive drug lead). The subproteome, so defined, can be purified using that common ligand tethered to a resin, with affinity chromatography. Affinity purification of a subproteome is described in the next chapter. That subproteome can then be analyzed using a common ligand probe, such as a fluorescent common ligand that can be used to stain members of the subproteome in a native gel. Here, we describe such a fluorescent probe, based on a catechol rhodanine acetic acid (CRAA) ligand that binds to dehydrogenases. The CRAA ligand is fluorescent and binds to dehydrogenases at pH > 7, and hence can be used effectively to stain dehydrogenases in native gels to identify what subset of proteins in a mixture are dehydrogenases. Furthermore, if one is designing inhibitors to target one or more of these dehydrogenases, the CRAA staining can be performed in a competitive assay format, with or without inhibitor, to assess the selectivity of the inhibitor for the targeted dehydrogenase. Finally, the CRAA probe is a privileged scaffold for dehydrogenases, and hence can easily be modified to increase affinity for a given dehydrogenase.

  7. Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase and phobic anxiety.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Monica; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ascherio, Alberto; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2004-09-01

    The authors assessed the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and scores on the phobic anxiety scale of the Crown-Crisp Experimental Index. A total of 1,234 women completed the Crown-Crisp Experimental Index phobic anxiety scale and were genotyped for the COMT polymorphism. The authors used unconditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between the COMT genotype and phobic anxiety. The mean scores for the three genotypes were statistically significantly different. Compared to the COMT Met/Met genotype, the age-adjusted odds ratio for scoring >/=6 compared to scoring 0 or 1 were 1.15 (95% CI=0.71-1.85) and 1.99 (95% CI=1.17-3.40) for the COMT Val/Met and COMT Val/Val genotypes, respectively; a significant gene dosage effect was observed. Our results suggest that the functional COMT polymorphism is associated with the development of phobic anxiety.

  8. Estrogen actions in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, M E

    2009-01-01

    This brief review summarizes the current state of the field for estrogen receptor actions in the cardiovascular system and the cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). It is organized into three parts: a short Introduction and overview of the current view of how estrogen works on blood vessels; a summary of the current status of clinical information regarding HRT and cardiovascular effects; and an update on state-of-the-art mouse models of estrogen action using estrogen receptor knockout mice.

  9. Enantioselectivity in the methylation of the catecholic phase I metabolites of methylenedioxy designer drugs and their capability to inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed dopamine 3-methylation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-06-01

    The designer drugs R,S-3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy), R,S-3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA, Eve), and R,S-N-methyl-benzodioxolyl-butanamine (MBDB, Eden) are chiral compounds, and their in vitro and in vivo metabolism is enantioselective with a preference for the S-enantiomer caused in part by P450-mediated demethylenation. As the elimination of the catecholamine metabolites could also be enantioselective, the aim of the present study was to investigate the O-methylation to the corresponding methoxy derivatives catalyzed by the soluble or membrane-bound form of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). As all three compounds showed substrate inhibition effects during the incubation, their inhibition potential was quantified using the methylation of dopamine as a marker reaction. For investigation of the catechol-O-methylation catalyzed by the soluble form of the COMT (sCOMT), incubations with human liver cytosol (HLC) were performed. Human liver microsomes (HLM) were used for investigation of the membrane-bound form. For inhibition studies, 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) was incubated in HLC. The respective catechols were added at various concentrations to check whether they influence the methylation of 3-hydroxytyramine. Our data showed that the S-enantiomers of all studied catecholamines were preferably O-methylated by both types of COMT. Comparing the resulting kinetics of the HLC and HLM assays, the affinity for all substrates was 10-fold higher for the membrane-bound COMT, whereas the turnover rate was 10-fold higher for the soluble COMT. Uncompetitive inhibition of dopamine methylation could be observed for all tested catechols. In conclusion, elimination of the catecholamine metabolites of MDMA, MDEA, and MBDB was shown to be enantioselective and might therefore contribute to the different pharmacokinetic properties observed for both enantiomers. Furthermore, the catecholic metabolites were identified to be uncompetitive inhibitors

  10. Ortho-substituted catechol derivatives: the effect of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pathways on chloride anion recognition.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, Keith J; Smith, David K

    2007-04-13

    This paper reports a series of chloride anion receptors containing two catechol head groups connected through their ortho-positions via a spacer chain. The linking group chosen to attach the spacer chain to the catechol units has a major impact on the anion-binding potential of the receptor. Linking groups that are capable of forming stable six-membered intramolecular hydrogen-bonded rings with the catechol O-H groups significantly inhibit the ability of the catechol units to hydrogen bond to chloride anions. However, where the linking groups are only capable of forming five- or seven-membered intramolecular hydrogen-bonded rings, then anion binding via hydrogen bonding through the catechol O-H groups becomes a possibility. This process is solvent dependent; the presence of competitive solvent (e.g., DMSO-d6) disrupts the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern and enhances anion binding relative to simple unfunctionalized catechol. The most effective receptor is that in which the hydrogen-bonding linker (-CH2CONH-) is most distant from the catechol units and can only form a seven-membered intramolecular hydrogen-bonded ring. In this case, the receptor, which contains two catechol units, is a more effective chloride anion binder than simple unfunctionalized catechol, demonstrating that the two head groups, in combination with the N-H groups in the linker, act cooperatively and enhance the degree of anion binding. In summary, this paper provides insight into the hydrogen-bonding patterns in ortho-functionalized catechols and the impact these have on the potential of the catechol O-H groups to hydrogen bond to a chloride anion.

  11. Estrogen in the limbic system.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, Gert J

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that function as the primary female sex hormone. Estrogens not only have an important role in the regulation of the estrous or menstrual cycle but also control, for example, bone formation, the cardiovascular system, and cognitive functions. Estradiol (E2), the main representative of the group, is highly lipophylic and can easily pass the blood-brain barrier to modulate neuronal activity. Particularly the limbic system, a group of tightly interconnected forebrain areas controlling mood and emotion, is rich in estrogen receptors. To date two cytoplasmatic and/or nuclear estrogen receptors named ER-alpha (ERalpha) and ER-beta (ERbeta) have been identified. In the brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine behavior and function. ERbeta appears to play an important role in nonreproductive behaviors, such as learning and memory, anxiety, and mood. Five splice variants of ERbeta, named Erb1, Erb2, Erb1d3, Erb2d3, and Erb1d4, have been identified with possibly different biological activities. There is evidence of a thus far not definitely characterized membrane-linked ER receptor named mER-X. In this review, the anatomy of the limbic system and the distribution of estrogen receptors (ERs) are described in relation to coping with stress and the higher prevalence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in women. Effects of cyclic estrogen administration and chronic stress on recovery and neuronal plasticity are illustrated with own results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Partitioning of knee joint internal forces in gait is dictated by the knee adduction angle and not by the knee adduction moment.

    PubMed

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A

    2014-05-07

    Medial knee osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease. Surgical and conservative interventions are performed to manage its progression via reduction of load on the medial compartment or equivalently its surrogate measure, the external adduction moment. However, some studies have questioned a correlation between the medial load and adduction moment. Using a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity driven by kinematics-kinetics of asymptomatic subjects at gait midstance, we aim here to quantify the relative effects of changes in the knee adduction angle versus changes in the adduction moment on the joint response and medial/lateral load partitioning. The reference adduction rotation of 1.6° is altered by ±1.5° to 3.1° and 0.1° or the knee reference adduction moment of 17Nm is varied by ±50% to 25.5Nm and 8.5Nm. Quadriceps, hamstrings and tibiofemoral contact forces substantially increased as adduction angle dropped and diminished as it increased. The medial/lateral ratio of contact forces slightly altered by changes in the adduction moment but a larger adduction rotation hugely increased this ratio from 8.8 to a 90 while in contrast a smaller adduction rotation yielded a more uniform distribution. If the aim in an intervention is to diminish the medial contact force and medial/lateral load ratio, a drop of 1.5° in adduction angle is much more effective (causing respectively 12% and 80% decreases) than a reduction of 50% in the adduction moment (causing respectively 4% and 13% decreases). Substantial role of changes in adduction angle is due to the associated alterations in joint nonlinear passive resistance. These findings explain the poor correlation between knee adduction moment and tibiofemoral compartment loading during gait suggesting that the internal load partitioning is dictated by the joint adduction angle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and vulvar pain in women with vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Patanwala, Insiyyah Y; Lamvu, Georgine; Ledger, William J; Witzeman, Kathryn; Marvel, Richard; Rapkin, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Feranec, Jessica; Witkin, Steven S

    2017-04-01

    The underlying causes of vulvar pain in women with vulvodynia remain poorly understood. Catechol-O-methyltransferase, an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, is a neuromodulator that is involved with perception and sensitivity to pain. The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene is polymorphic, and a single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with low activity and heightened pain sensitivity. The variant allele that encodes this polymorphism commonly is called the "L allele" because of its low enzyme activity as opposed to the normal H (high activity) allele. The methionine-containing catechol-O-methyltransferase protein coded by the L allele results in elevated catecholamine levels, reduced inactivation of the dopaminergic and adrenergic systems, and increased sensitivity to pain. This polymorphism not only may decrease the pain threshold in response to acute pain but also may facilitate the development of chronic pain. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess whether a variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype is involved in increased pain sensitivity in women with vulvodynia. We conducted a prospective cohort study. Buccal swabs were collected from 167 white women with vulvodynia and 107 control subjects; the DNA was tested for a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 158 (rs4680) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Women with vulvodynia had a marginally increased, yet not significant, prevalence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype that is associated with high activity of the coded protein: 32.9% in the women with vulvodynia, as opposed to 21.5% in the control subjects (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.15). Subgrouping the cases based on pain frequency revealed that the elevated occurrence of this catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype was present in 40.6% of the subset of women who experienced pain only with sexual intercourse vs only 21.5% of control subjects (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval

  14. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/12/1 PMID:24512617

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modifies executive functioning and prefrontal functional connectivity in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Clementi, Maurizio; Manara, Renzo; Bosello, Romina; Forzan, Monica; Bruson, Alice; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Titton, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is characterized by high levels of perseveration and inflexibility, which interfere with successful treatments. Dopamine (DA) signalling seems to play a key role in modulating the prefrontal cortex, since both DA deficiency and excess nega tively influence the efficiency of cognitive functions. The present study explores the effect of a functional polymorphism (Val158Met) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on the set-shifting abilities and prefrontal functional connectivity of patients with anorexia nervosa. All participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, and a subsample underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We included 166 patients with DSM-IV lifetime anorexia nervosa and 140 healthy women in our study. Both underweight and weight-recovered patients with anorexia nervosa showed high levels of perseveration, but only in the underweight group did the Val158Met polymorphism affect cognitive performance, showing the U-shaped curve characteristic of increased DA signalling in the prefrontal cortex. Underweight patients with anorexia nervosa who are Met homozygotes had significantly higher levels of perseveration and increased prefrontal functional connectivity than underweight patients in the other genotype groups, indicating abnormal regional cortical processing. Although our data show that grey matter reduction in starving patients with anorexia nervosa did not explain our findings, the cross-sectional design of the present study did not allow us to distinguish between the effects of starvation and those of low estrogen levels. Starvation affects DA release in the prefrontal cortex of patients with anorexia nervosa with different effects on executive functioning and prefrontal functional connectivity according to the COMT genotype. This observation has several therapeutic implications that need to be addressed by future studies.

  16. Electrocatalytic Efficiency Analysis of Catechol Molecules for NADH Oxidation during Nanoparticle Collision.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Jun; Qian, Ruo-Can; Ma, Wei; Tian, He; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-06

    Electrocatalysis of molecules is a hot research topic in biological and energy-related chemistry. Here, we develop a new system to study the electrocatalytic efficiency of a single catechol molecule for NADH oxidation by single functionalized nanoparticle collision at ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs). The proposed system is composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with catechol molecules and a carbon-fiber ultramicroelectrode. In the absence of NADH, when a functionalized AuNP collides with an UME at a suitable voltage, a small current spike is generated due to the oxidation of catechol molecules modified on the surface of AuNP. In the presence of NADH, the current spike is significantly amplified by the combined effects of the oxidation and electrocatalysis for NADH of catechol molecules. By analyzing the variations of the average peak charges and durations without or with NADH, we calculate that around five thousands NADH molecules could be catalyzed per second by a single catechol molecule, suggesting the successful establishment of this novel catalytic system. Thus, the proposed strategy could be used as a promising platform for research of other molecular electrocatalytic systems.

  17. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, J; Daneshi, M; Nami-Ana, F; Behbahani, M; Bagheri, A

    2016-11-15

    A new electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-MPS) was developed for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Morphology and structure of the AuNPs-MPS were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and catechol were investigated using square wave voltammetry and the results indicate that the electrochemical responses are improved significantly at the modified electrode. The observed oxidative peaks separation of about 120mV made possible the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in their binary-mixture. Under the optimized condition, a linear dynamic range of 10.0μM-1.0mM range for hydroquinone with the detection limit of 1.2μM and from 30.0μM-1.0mM for catechol with the detection limit of 1.1μM were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the recovery studies of hydroquinone and catechol in spiked tap water samples.

  18. Relation between the adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy in catechol aqueous solutions on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An activated carbon, Carbochem(TM)-PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H(2), in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pK(a). The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon (CAG), the immersion enthalpies obtained are between 21.5 and 45.7 J·g(-1) for catechol aqueous solutions in a range of 20 at 1500 mg·L(-1).

  19. Bioinspired catechol-terminated self-assembled monolayers with enhanced adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Guardingo, Mireia; Bellido, Elena; Miralles-Llumà, Rosa; Faraudo, Jordi; Sedó, Josep; Tatay, Sergio; Verdaguer, Albert; Busqué, Felix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2014-04-24

    The role of the catechol moiety in the adhesive properties of mussel proteins and related synthetic materials has been extensively studied in the last years but still remains elusive. Here, a simplified model approach is presented based on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of upward-facing catechols thiol-bound to epitaxial gold substrates. The orientation of the catechol moieties is confirmed by spectroscopy, which also showed lack of significant amounts of interfering o-quinones. Local force-distance curves on the SAM measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows an average adhesion force of 45 nN, stronger than that of a reference polydopamine coating, along with higher reproducibility and less statistical dispersion. This is attributed to the superior chemical and topographical homogeneity of the SAM coating. Catechol-terminated SAMs are also obtained on high-roughness gold substrates that show the ability to assemble magnetic nanoparticles, despite their lack of enhanced adhesion at the molecular level. Finally, the influence of the catechol group on the formation and quality of the SAM is explored both theoretically (molecular dynamics simulations) and experimentally using direct-write AFM lithography.

  20. Catechol and humic acid sorption onto a range of laboratory-produced black carbons (biochars).

    PubMed

    Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Gao, Bin

    2010-08-15

    Although the major influence of black carbon (BC) on soil and sediment organic contaminant sorption is widely accepted, an understanding of the mechanisms and natural variation in pyrogenic carbon interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) is lacking. The sorption of a phenolic NOM monomer (catechol) and humic acids (HA) onto BC was examined using biochars made from oak, pine, and grass at 250, 400, and 650 degrees C. Catechol sorption equilibrium occurred after 14 d and was described by a diffusion kinetic model, while HA required only 1 d and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Catechol sorption capacity increased with increasing biochar combustion temperature, from pine < oak < grass and from coarse < fine particle size. At lower catechol concentrations, sorption affinity (Freundlich constant, K(f)) was directly related to micropore surface area (measured via CO(2) sorptometry) indicating the predominance of specific adsorption. In contrast, HA exhibited an order of magnitude less sorption (0.1% versus 1%, by weight) due to its exclusion from micropores. Greater sorption of both catechol and HA occurred on biochars with nanopores, i.e. biochars made at higher temperatures. These findings suggest that addition of BC to soil, via natural fires or biochar amendments, will sequester abundant native OM through sorption.

  1. Relation Between the Adsorbed Quantity and the Immersion Enthalpy in Catechol Aqueous Solutions on Activated Carbons

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An activated carbon, CarbochemTM—PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon (CAG), the immersion enthalpies obtained are between 21.5 and 45.7 J·g−1 for catechol aqueous solutions in a range of 20 at 1500 mg·L−1. PMID:22312237

  2. Catechol siderophores control tungsten uptake and toxicity in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Wichard, Thomas; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Loison, Aurélie; Kraepiel, Anne M L

    2008-04-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W), which have similar chemistry, are present at roughly the same concentration in the earth's continental crust, and both are present in oxic systems as oxoanions, molybdate and tungstate. Molybdenum is a cofactor in the molybdenum-nitrogenase enzyme and is thus an important micronutrient for N2-fixing bacteria such as Azotobacter vinelandii (A. vinelandii). Tungsten is known to be toxic to N2-fixing bacteria, partly by substituting for Mo in nitrogenase. We showthatthe catechol siderophores produced by A. vinelandii, in addition to being essential for iron acquisition, modulate the relative uptake of Mo and W. These catechol siderophores (particularly protochelin), whose concentrations in the growth medium increase sharply at high W, complex all the tungstate along with molybdate and some of the iron. The molybdenum-catechol complex is taken up much more rapidly than the W complex, allowing A. vinelandii to satisfy its Mo requirement and avoid W toxicity. Mutants deficient in the production of catechol siderophores are more sensitive to tungstate and have higher cellular W quotas than the wild type. The binding of metals by excreted catechol siderophores allows A. vinelandii to discriminate in its uptake of essential metals, such as Fe and Mo, over that of toxic metals, such as W, and to sustain high growth rates under adverse environmental conditions.

  3. Underwater Contact Behavior of Alginate and Catechol-Conjugated Alginate Hydrogel Beads.

    PubMed

    Cholewinski, Aleksander; Yang, Fut K; Zhao, Boxin

    2017-08-29

    Modifying hydrogels with catechol functionality is a promising approach for improving their mechanical and interfacial properties in water, particularly in biological environments. However, the effects of this modification on hydrogels' contact behavior with soft tissues are not well-studied due to the complexity of hydrogels and lack of suitable techniques to probe this behavior. In addition, modification can alter the mechanical properties of hydrogels, resulting in consequences for adhesive strength as well. In this work, we report an investigation of the contact behavior of alginate hydrogels with and without conjugation of catechol functionality, aiming to elucidate the role of catechol modification on wet adhesion of alginates to a model tissue-like material, gelatin. To directly characterize this soft-on-soft contact, which has commonly been a challenge, we developed an indentation-based contact adhesion measurement using alginate hydrogel beads as the testing probe. We found that <3% conjugation of catechol can significantly improve the adhesion of alginate to gelatin by half an order of magnitude, with this adhesion depending heavily on contact time and pH. In contrast, the reduced elastic modulus from modification resulted in lower adhesive strength on rigid substrates. These findings provide valuable insight into the effects of catechol modification of hydrogels, especially in their interaction with tissue-like soft substrates, as well as a simple method for the direct measurement of time- and pH-dependent hydrogel adhesion behavior underwater.

  4. Surface Complexation at the TiO(2) (anatase)/Aqueous Solution Interface: Chemisorption of Catechol.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez; Blesa; Regazzoni

    1996-01-15

    Catechol adsorbs at the TiO(2) (anatase)/aqueous solution interface forming inner-sphere surface complexes. The UV-visible differential reflectance spectrum of surface titanium-catecholate complexes presents a band centered at 420 nm which corresponds to the ligand to metal charge transfer transition within the surface complexes. At pH values below pK(a1), the surface excess of catechol is almost insensitive toward pH and presents a Langmuirian dependence with the concentration of uncomplexed catechol. The ratio Gamma(max):N(S) (N(S) being the measured density of available OH surface groups) indicates a prevailing 1 to 2 ligand exchange adsorption stoichiometry. In the range pH >/= pK(a1), the catechol surface excess decreases markedly with increasing pH. Formation of 1 to 1 surface complexes produces an excess of negative surface charge that is revealed by the shift of the iep to lower pH values. The reported data, which are supplemented with information on the charging behavior of TiO(2) suspended in indifferent electrolyte solutions, are interpreted in terms of the multi-site surface complexation model. In this model, two types of surface OH groups are considered: identical withTiOH(1/3-) and identical withOH(1/3+). Although both surface groups undergo protonation-deprotonation reactions, only identical withTiOH(1/3-) are prone to chemisorption.

  5. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  6. Characterization of deoxyguanosine adducts from hydroquinone/benzoquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Jowa, J.; Winkel, S.; Witz, G.; Snyder, R.

    1986-03-01

    Occupational exposure to benzene has long been associated with the development of pancytopenia and leukemia. This toxicity has been attributed to the action of benzene metabolites. The authors have chosen to investigate the reaction of hydroquinone (HQ)/benzoquinone(BQ) with deoxyguanosine(dG) and DNA. (/sup 14/C)HQ was incubated with (/sup 3/H)dG in potassium phosphate buffer pH7.2 for 24 hours. Two dual labeled products were found by HPLC and presumed to be adducts. The same result was obtained when BQ was substituted in the reaction for HQ. Both adducts were found in isolated DNA from Clostridium perfringens, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, human placenta and calf thymus reacted with HO under similar conditions. One of the dG adducts was proposed to be (/sup 3/'OH) benzetheno(1,N-2)deoxyguanosine based on NMR and mass spectral results. The other adduct was characterized by a molecular weight of 339. The latter adduct was found in greater amounts than the former when HQ was reacted with denatured DNA.

  7. Organocatalytic Removal of Formaldehyde Adducts from RNA and DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is universally employed to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, and avoiding high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5–2.4 fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions, and by 7–25 fold compared to a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens. PMID:26291948

  8. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M; Hewings, David S; Scherer, Florian; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Kurtz, David M; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A; Kool, Eric T

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  9. Glutathione Adduct Patterns of Michael-Acceptor Carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Slawik, Christian; Rickmeyer, Christiane; Brehm, Martin; Böhme, Alexander; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2017-02-22

    Glutathione (GSH) has so far been considered to facilitate detoxification of soft organic electrophiles through covalent binding at its cysteine (Cys) thiol group, followed by stepwise catalyzed degradation and eventual elimination along the mercapturic acid pathway. Here we show that in contrast to expectation from HSAB theory, Michael-acceptor ketones, aldehydes and esters may form also single, double and triple adducts with GSH involving β-carbon attack at the much harder N-terminus of the γ-glutamyl (Glu) unit of GSH. In particular, formation of the GSH-N single adduct contradicts the traditional view that S alkylation always forms the initial reaction of GSH with Michael-acceptor carbonyls. To this end, chemoassay analyses of the adduct formation of GSH with nine α,β-unsaturated carbonyls employing high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry have been performed. Besides enriching the GSH adductome and potential biomarker applications, electrophilic N-terminus functio-nalization is likely to impair GSH homeostasis substantially through blocking the γ-glutamyl transferase catalysis of the first breakdown step of modified GSH, and thus its timely reconstitution. The discussion includes a comparison with cyclic adducts of GSH and furan metabolites as reported in literature, and quantum chemically calculated thermodynamics of hard-hard, hard-soft and soft-soft adducts.

  10. Effect of Michael adduction on peptide preservation in natural waters.

    PubMed

    McKee, G A; Kobiela, M E; Hatcher, P G

    2014-09-20

    The reaction of peptides with chemicals already present in natural waters (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is one method that has been suggested to preserve peptides for the longer term. In this study we test whether the reaction of tetrapeptides with a model quinone can help stabilise the peptide in one polluted riverine system, Elizabeth River in Virginia, USA. We found that there is almost no difference in rate constants between the peptide and its quinone adduct (e.g. 6.62 versus 6.86 per day for AVFA and its respective adduct). However, when monitoring the removal of the adduct from natural water, we identified two new compounds that are formed as a result of its decomposition. Using tandem mass spectrometry we identified potential structures and mechanisms for the formation of these new compounds. These new compounds are more recalcitrant than their parent peptide-quinone adduct, since they remain in solution for 3-10 times longer. Based on our findings we postulate that the reaction of peptides with quinones can help preserve sections of the original peptide following an initial rearrangement of the original adduct, potentially explaining why seemingly labile peptides are observed in most natural waters.

  11. Antitumor Trans Platinum Adducts of GMP and AMP

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yangzhong; Sivo, Maria F.; Natile, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that several analogues of the clinically ineffective trans-DDP exhibit antitumor activity comparable to that of cis-DDP. The present paper describes the binding of antitumor trans-[PtCl2(E-iminoether)2] (trans-EE) to guanosinemonophosphate (GMP) and adenosinemonophosphate (AMP). We have used HPLC and 1H and 15N NMR to characterize the different adducts. In the case of a 1:1 mixture of trans-EE and GMP, at an early stage of the reaction, a monofunctional adduct is formed which, subsequently, is partly converted into a monosolvated monofunctional species. After about 70 hours an equilibrium is established between chloro and solvato monofunctional adducts at a ratio of 30/70. In the presence of excess GMP (4:1) the initially formed monofunctional adducts react further to give two bifunctional adducts, one with the iminoether ligands in their original E configurations and the other with the iminoether ligands having one E and the other, Z configurations. The coordination geometry obtained by energy minimization calculations is in qualitative agreement with 2D NMR data. PMID:18475942

  12. PROTEIN ADDUCTS AS BIOMAKERS OF EXPOSURE TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds can lead to serious neurological damage or death. Following bioactivation by the liver cytochromes P450, the OP metabolites produced are potent inhibitors of serine active-site enzymes including esterases, proteases and lipases. OPs may form adducts on other cellular proteins. Blood cholinesterases (ChEs) have long served as biomarkers of OP exposure in humans. However, the enzymatic assays used for biomonitoring OP exposures have several drawbacks. A more useful approach will focus on multiple biomarkers and avoid problems with the enzymatic activity assays. OP inhibitory effects result from a covalent bond with the active-site serine of the target enzymes. The serine OP adducts become irreversible following a process referred to as aging where one alkyl group dissociates over variable lengths of time depending on the OP adduct. The OP-adducted enzyme then remains in circulation until it is degraded, allowing for a longer window of detection compared with direct analysis of OPs or their metabolites. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides a very sensitive method for identification of post-translational protein modifications. MS analyses of the percentage adduction of the active-site serine of biomarker proteins such as ChEs will eliminate the need for basal activity levels of the individual and will provide for a more accurate determination of OP exposure. MS analysis of biomarker proteins also provides information about the OP that has caused inhibition. Other useful biomarker proteins include other serine hydrolases, albumin, tubulin and transferrin. PMID:23261756

  13. A natural small molecule, catechol, induces c-Myc degradation by directly targeting ERK2 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do Young; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jinglong; Jiang, Yanan; Dong, Ziming; Liu, Kangdong; Lee, Kun Yeong; Bae, Ki Beom; Choi, Bu Young; Deng, Yibin; Bode, Ann; Dong, Zigang

    2016-06-07

    Various carcinogens induce EGFR/RAS/MAPK signaling, which is critical in the development of lung cancer. In particular, constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is observed in many lung cancer patients, and therefore developing compounds capable of targeting ERK2 in lung carcinogenesis could be beneficial. We examined the therapeutic effect of catechol in lung cancer treatment. Catechol suppressed anchorage-independent growth of murine KP2 and human H460 lung cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Catechol inhibited ERK2 kinase activity in vitro, and its direct binding to the ERK2 active site was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Phosphorylation of c-Myc, a substrate of ERK2, was decreased in catechol-treated lung cancer cells and resulted in reduced protein stability and subsequent down-regulation of total c-Myc. Treatment with catechol induced G1 phase arrest in lung cancer cells and decreased protein expression related to G1-S progression. In addition, we showed that catechol inhibited the growth of both allograft and xenograft lung cancer tumors in vivo. In summary, catechol exerted inhibitory effects on the ERK2/c-Myc signaling axis to reduce lung cancer tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, including a preclinical patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. These findings suggest that catechol, a natural small molecule, possesses potential as a novel therapeutic agent against lung carcinogenesis in future clinical approaches.

  14. Catechol-modified activated carbon prepared by the diazonium chemistry for application as active electrode material in electrochemical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Pognon, Grégory; Cougnon, Charles; Mayilukila, Dilungane; Bélanger, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Activated carbon (Black Pearls 2000) modified with electroactive catechol groups was evaluated for charge storage application as active composite electrode material in an aqueous electrochemical capacitor. High surface area Black Pearls 2000 carbon was functionalized by introduction of catechol groups by spontaneous reduction of catechol diazonium ions in situ prepared in aqueous solution from the corresponding amine. Change in the specific surface area and pore texture of the carbon following grafting was monitored by nitrogen gas adsorption measurements. The electrochemical properties and the chemical composition of the catechol-modified carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Such carbon-modified electrode combines well the faradaic capacitance, originating from the redox activity of the surface immobilized catechol groups, to the electrochemical double layer capacitance of the high surface area Black Pearls carbon. Due to the faradaic contribution, the catechol-modified electrode exhibits a higher specific capacitance (250 F/g) than pristine carbon (150 F/g) over a potential range of -0.4 to 0.75 V in 1 M H(2)SO(4). The stability of the modified electrode evaluated by long-time charge/discharge cycling revealed a low decrease of the capacitance of the catechol-modified carbon due to the loss of the catechol redox activity. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that the benefit of redox groups persists for 10, 000 constant current charge/discharge cycles.

  15. A natural small molecule, catechol, induces c-Myc degradation by directly targeting ERK2 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Do Young; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jinglong; Jiang, Yanan; Dong, Ziming; Liu, Kangdong; Lee, Kun Yeong; Bae, Ki Beom; Choi, Bu Young; Deng, Yibin; Bode, Ann; Dong, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Various carcinogens induce EGFR/RAS/MAPK signaling, which is critical in the development of lung cancer. In particular, constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is observed in many lung cancer patients, and therefore developing compounds capable of targeting ERK2 in lung carcinogenesis could be beneficial. We examined the therapeutic effect of catechol in lung cancer treatment. Catechol suppressed anchorage-independent growth of murine KP2 and human H460 lung cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Catechol inhibited ERK2 kinase activity in vitro, and its direct binding to the ERK2 active site was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Phosphorylation of c-Myc, a substrate of ERK2, was decreased in catechol-treated lung cancer cells and resulted in reduced protein stability and subsequent down-regulation of total c-Myc. Treatment with catechol induced G1 phase arrest in lung cancer cells and decreased protein expression related to G1-S progression. In addition, we showed that catechol inhibited the growth of both allograft and xenograft lung cancer tumors in vivo. In summary, catechol exerted inhibitory effects on the ERK2/c-Myc signaling axis to reduce lung cancer tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, including a preclinical patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. These findings suggest that catechol, a natural small molecule, possesses potential as a novel therapeutic agent against lung carcinogenesis in future clinical approaches. PMID:27167001

  16. Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Harini S.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17β estradiol (E2) -induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized ACI rats (n=6/group) into 5 groups − sham implant + control diet (SH-CD), E2 − implant + control diet (E2-CD), E2+2.5% black raspberry (E2-BRB); E2+2.5% blueberry (E2-BB) and E2+ 400ppm ellagic acid (E2-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6wk), intermediate (18wk) and late (24wk) phases of E2-carcinogenesis and the mammary tissue analyzed for gene-expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) (p<0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (p<0.001). E2 did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively from baseline (p<0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehyrdogenase(17βHSD7) and this was moderately abrogated to about 2-fold by all supplementation (p<0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E2-CD and only E2-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (p<0.05). Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) expression was elevated 2-fold by E2-treatment (p<0.05) and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced, but still high (8-fold) in E2-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2 and 4.6-fold, by E2-BRB and E2-EA, respectively (p<0.05), but not by E2-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E2 on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10–30%), volume (41–67%) and multiplicity (38 to 51%) (p<0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E2-carcinogenesis. PMID:20501861

  17. P450 enzymes of estrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martucci, C P; Fishman, J

    1993-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous estrogens undergo extensive oxidative metabolism by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes. Certain drugs and xenobiotics have been found to be potent inducers of estrogen hydroxylating enzymes with C-2 hydroxylase induction being greater than that of C-16 hydroxylase. Oxygenated estrogen metabolites have different biological activities, with C-2 metabolites having limited or no activity and C-4 and C-16 metabolites having similar potency to estradiol. Pathophysiological roles for some of the oxygenated estrogen metabolites have been proposed, e.g. 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and 4-hydroxyestrone. These reactive estrogens are capable of damaging cellular proteins and DNA and may be carcinogenic in specific cells.

  18. Melasma Associated with Topical Estrogen Cream

    PubMed Central

    Schiechert, Rachel A.; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with hyperpigmented patches on her upper extremities. The patient had begun using a topical estrogen cream in the affected areas prior to noticing the hyperpigmentation. A diagnosis of melasma secondary to topical estrogen cream was made. While systemic hormones are a well-documented trigger for the development of melasma, this case represents the first report of melasma associated with topical estrogens. Topical estrogens are frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women for skin rejuvenation. Melasma should be discussed as a potential side effect of systemic as well as topical estrogen preparations. PMID:28367263

  19. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-25

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  20. Direction-dependent intermolecular interactions: catechol on TiO2(110)-1×1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Chun; Diebold, Ulrike

    2009-08-01

    The adsorption of a submonolayer of catechol (C6H6O2) on the rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surface has been investigated by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The catechol molecules are preferentially adsorbed on the surface 5-fold coordinated Ti4+ sites, and occupy two neighboring lattice Ti sites. No preference for adsorption at surface step edges is observed at room temperature. A statistical analysis of intermolecular distances demonstrates that the interaction between the molecules strongly depends on the surface crystallographic direction: catechol molecules exhibit attractive interaction along [1-1 0], while they repel each other along the [001] direction. The attractive interaction is proposed to be caused by the coupling of π bonding electrons and the repulsive interaction is possibly mediated by substrate.

  1. Multimodal underwater adsorption of oxide nanoparticles on catechol-based polymer nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Uchiyama, Shun; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Multimodal underwater adsorption behaviour of catechol units was demonstrated by examining the adsorption of different oxide nanoparticles on nanoscale-integrated polymer nanosheets. Catechol-based polymer nanosheets were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique with random copolymers (p(DDA/DMA)s) of N-dodecylacrylamide (DDA) and dopamine methacrylamide (DMA). The p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets were immersed into water dispersions of SiO2, Al2O3, and WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) respectively. The results show that the adsorption properties can be altered by varying the NP type: SiO2 NP adsorption was observed only below pH = 6, at which the o-quinone form in p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets transforms into the catechol form or vice versa. However, their transition point for Al2O3 NP adsorption was found at approximately pH 10, at which the surface potential of Al2O3 NPs changes the charge polarity, indicating that the electrostatic interaction is predominant. For WO3 NPs, adsorption was observed when citric acid, which modifies the surface of WO3 NPs by complex formation, was used as a pH-controlling agent, but no adsorption was found for hydrochloric acid used as a pH controlling agent. FT-IR measurements proved that miniscule amounts of water molecules were trapped in p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets and that they acquired hydrogen bonding network formations, which might assist nanoparticle adsorption underwater and make the catechol units adjustable. The results indicate that the nanoscale spatial arrangements of catechol units in films are crucially important for the application of multimodal adsorption of oxide nanoparticles on catechol-based polymer materials.Multimodal underwater adsorption behaviour of catechol units was demonstrated by examining the adsorption of different oxide nanoparticles on nanoscale-integrated polymer nanosheets. Catechol-based polymer nanosheets were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique with random copolymers (p(DDA/DMA)s) of N

  2. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-01

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  3. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on intra and intermolecular Michael addition of some catechol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Fathi, Sahar

    2014-01-24

    The oxidation reactions of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine have been studied in the absence and presence of N-methylaniline by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometry. A variety of reaction pathways (inter and intramolecular reactions) that followed by this oxidation have been observed depending on the nature of catechol derivatives. The observed homogeneous rate constants of the reactions were estimated by fitting the absorption time profiles for each reaction. The effect of β-cyclodextrin and its inclusion complex has also been studied on the chosen reactions. The formation constants of the complexes of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine with β-cyclodextrin as well as the rate constants of the reactions of free and complexed forms have been obtained by fitting the absorption-time spectra to a proposed kinetic-equilibrium model.

  4. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on intra and intermolecular Michael addition of some catechol derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Fathi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation reactions of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine have been studied in the absence and presence of N-methylaniline by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometry. A variety of reaction pathways (inter and intramolecular reactions) that followed by this oxidation have been observed depending on the nature of catechol derivatives. The observed homogeneous rate constants of the reactions were estimated by fitting the absorption time profiles for each reaction. The effect of β-cyclodextrin and its inclusion complex has also been studied on the chosen reactions. The formation constants of the complexes of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine with β-cyclodextrin as well as the rate constants of the reactions of free and complexed forms have been obtained by fitting the absorption-time spectra to a proposed kinetic-equilibrium model.

  5. Structure and kinetics of formation of catechol complexes of ferric soybean lipoxygenase-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Brennan, B.A.; Chase, D.B. |

    1995-11-21

    Ferric soybean lipoxygenase forms stable complexes with 4-substituted catechols. The structure of the complex between the enzyme and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile has been studied by resonance Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, visible, and X-ray spectroscopies. It is a bidentate iron-catecholate complex with at least one water ligand. The kinetics of formation of complexes between lipoxygenase and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile and 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone have been studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The data are consistent with two kinetically distinct, reversible steps. The pH dependence of the first step suggests that the substrate for the reaction is the catechol monoanion. When these results are combined, plausible mechanisms for the complexation reaction are suggested. 51 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases.

  7. Catechol derivatives as fluorescent chemosensors for wide-range pH detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelio, Emilia; Hernando, Jordi; Imaz, Inhar; Bardají, Gisela G; Alibés, Ramon; Busqué, Félix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new family of catechol derivatives designed to behave as fluorescent chemosensors for wide-range pH detection has been described. These compounds were prepared by covalently coupling a catechol unit with other aromatic rings, thus obtaining pi-delocalized systems with both pH-responsive groups and fluorescent behavior. In the case of a pyridine-catechol derivative, this leads to up to three different protonation states with distinct optical properties in organic media, as corroborated by density functional theory calculations. By applying dual-wavelength detection techniques, this compound shows complementary "off-on-off" and "on-off-on" emission profiles upon pH variation, a behavior that can be exploited to perform acidity detection over a broad pH range.

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  9. Catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine, and sleep-wake regulation.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Tafti, Mehdi; Landolt, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sleep and sleep disorders are complex and highly variable phenotypes regulated by many genes and environment. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is an interesting candidate, being one of the major mammalian enzymes involved in the catabolism of catecholamines. The activity of COMT enzyme is genetically polymorphic due to a guanine-to-adenine transition at codon 158, resulting in a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution. Individuals homozygous for the Val allele show higher COMT activity, and lower dopaminergic signaling in prefrontal cortex (PFC) than subjects homozygous for the Met allele. Since COMT has a crucial role in metabolising dopamine, it was suggested that the common functional polymorphism in the COMT gene impacts on cognitive function related to PFC, sleep-wake regulation, and potentially on sleep pathologies. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may predict inter-individual differences in brain electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations and recovery processes resulting from partial sleep loss in healthy individuals. The Val158Met polymorphism also exerts a sexual dimorphism and has a strong effect on objective daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Since the COMT enzyme inactivates catecholamines, it was hypothesized that the response to stimulant drugs differs between COMT genotypes. Modafinil maintained executive functioning performance and vigilant attention throughout sleep deprivation in subjects with Val/Val genotype, but less in those with Met/Met genotype. Also, homozygous Met/Met patients with narcolepsy responded to lower doses of modafinil compared to Val/Val carriers. We review here the critical role of the common functional COMT gene polymorphism, COMT enzyme activity, and the prefrontal dopamine levels in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in normal subjects, in narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders, and its impact on the response to psychostimulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. A Hyperactive Cobalt-Substituted Extradiol-Cleaving Catechol Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Andrew J.; Farquhar, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Homoprotocatechuate (HPCA) 2,3-dioxygenase from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) has an Fe(II) center in its active site that can be replaced with Mn(II) or Co(II). While Mn-HPCD exhibits steady state kinetic parameters comparable to those of Fe-HPCD, Co-HPCD behaves somewhat differently exhibiting a significantly higher KMO2 and kcat. The high activity of Co-HPCD is surprising, given that cobalt has the highest standard M(III/II) redox potential of the three metals. Comparison of the X-ray crystal structures of the resting and substrate-bound forms of Fe-, Mn-, and Co-HPCD shows that metal-substitution has no effect on the local ligand environment, the conformational integrity of the active site, or the overall protein structure, suggesting that the protein structure does not differentially tune the potential of the metal center. Analysis of the steady state kinetics of Co-HPCD suggests that the Co(II) center alters the relative rate constants for the interconversion of intermediates in the catalytic cycle but still allows the dioxygenase reaction to proceed efficiently. When compared with the kinetic data for Fe- and Mn-HPCD, these results show that dioxygenase catalysis can proceed at high rates over a wide range of metal redox potentials. This is consistent with the proposed mechanism in which the metal mediates electron transfer between the catechol substrate and O2 to form the postulated [M(II)(semiquinone)superoxo] reactive species. These kinetic differences and the spectroscopic properties of Co-HPCD provide new tools with which to explore the unique O2 activation mechanism associated with the extradiol dioxygenase family. PMID:21153851

  11. Interactions of dietary estrogens with human estrogen receptors and the effect on estrogen receptor-estrogen response element complex formation.

    PubMed Central

    Nikov, G N; Hopkins, N E; Boue, S; Alworth, W L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies support the hypothesis that dietary estrogens from plant sources (phytoestrogens) may play a role in the prevention of breast and prostate cancer. The molecular mechanisms for such chemopreventive effect are still unclear. We investigated the possibility that phytoestrogens may bind differentially to estrogen receptor proteins (ER[alpha] and ERss) and affect the interactions of the ligand-ER complexes with different estrogen response element (ERE) sequences. We used fluorescence polarization to measure the binding affinities of genistein, coumestrol, daidzein, glyceollin, and zearalenone for human ER[alpha] and ERss. Competition binding experiments revealed higher affinity of the phytoestrogens for ERss than for ER[alpha]. Genistein [median inhibitory concentration 12nM] is the most potent and has the same relative binding affinity for ERss as 17ss-estradiol. We also studied the effect of these phytoestrogens on the ability of ER[alpha] and ERss to associate with specific DNA sequences (EREs). The direct binding of human recombinant estrogen receptors to fluorescein-labeled EREs indicates that phytoestrogens can cause conformational changes in both human ERs, which results in altered affinities of the complexes for the ERE from the Xenopus vitellogenin A2 gene and an ERE from the human pS2 gene. PMID:11017892

  12. Estrogens and Male Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, Jalissa L.; Nicholson, Tristan M.; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common clinical problems in urology and affect the majority of men at some time during their lives. The development of BPH/LUTS is associated with an increased ratio of estrogen to androgen levels, and this ratio, when mimicked in a variety of animals, induces BPH and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). While the precise molecular etiology remains unclear, estrogens have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BPH. Numerous endogenous and exogenous estrogens exist in humans. These estrogens act via multiple estrogen receptors to promote or inhibit prostatic hyperplasia and other BPH-associated processes. The prostate is an estrogen target tissue, and estrogens directly and indirectly affect growth and differentiation of prostate. The precise role of estrogen action directly affecting prostate growth and differentiation in the context of BPH is an understudied area and remains to be elucidated. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been shown to promote or inhibit prostate proliferation illustrating their potential roles in the development of BPH as therapy. More work will be required to identify estrogen signaling pathways associated with LUTD in order to develop more efficacious drugs for BPH treatment and prevention. PMID:26156791

  13. Estrogen mediation of hormone responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert R; Francois, Michelle; Castracane, V Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The roles of estrogens extend from the regulation of reproduction to other functions involved in control of metabolism, fluid balance, as well as gastrointestinal, lung, and brain function, with a strong effect on other hormones that subsequently alter the physiology of multiple tissues. As such, alteration of endogenous estrogens across the menstrual cycle, or from oral contraception and estrogen replacement therapy, can affect these tissues. Due to the important effects that estrogens have on different tissues, there are many investigations concerning the effects of a human estrogenic environment on endocrine responses to exercise. The following review will describe the consequences of varying estrogen levels on pituitary, adrenal, gonadal, and endocrine function, followed by discussion of the outcomes of different estrogen levels on endocrine tissues in response to exercise, problems encountered for interpretation of findings, and recommended direction for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Catechol chemistry inspired approach to construct self-cross-linked polymer nanolayers as versatile biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyue; Deng, Jie; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Nie, Chuanxiong; He, Chao; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-16

    In this study, we proposed a catechol chemistry inspired approach to construct surface self-cross-linked polymer nanolayers for the design of versatile biointerfaces. Several representative biofunctional polymers, P(SS-co-AA), P(SBMA-co-AA), P(EGMA-co-AA), P(VP-co-AA), and P(MTAC-co-AA), were first synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and then the catecholic molecules (dopamine, DA) were conjugated to the acrylic acid (AA) units by the facile carbodiimide chemistry. Then, the catechol (Cat) group conjugated biofunctional polymers, named PSS-Cat, PSBMA-Cat, PEGMA-Cat, PVP-Cat, and PMTAC-Cat, were applied for the construction of self-cross-linked nanolayers on polymeric substrates via the pH induced catechol cross-linking and immobilization. The XPS spectra, surface morphology, and wettability gave robust evidence that the catechol conjugated polymers were successfully coated, and the coated substrates possessed increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity. Furthermore, the systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), cell viability, and antibacterial ability confirmed that the coated nanolayers conferred the substrates with versatile biological performances. The PSS-Cat coated substrate had low blood component activation and excellent anticoagulant activity; while the PEGMA-Cat and PSBMA-Cat showed ideal resistance to protein fouling and inhibition of platelet activation. The PSS-Cat and PVP-Cat coated substrates exhibited promoted endothelial cell proliferation and viability. The PMTAC-Cat coated substrate showed an outstanding activity on bacterial inhibition. In conclusion, the catechol chemistry inspired approach allows the self-cross-linked nanolayers to be easily immobilized on polymeric substrates with the stable conformation and multiple biofunctionalities. It is expected that this low-cost and facile

  15. The effect of catechol on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Catechol also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene is formed endogenously in the organism from neurotransmitters including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. It is also a metabolite of many drugs like DOPA, isoproterenol or aspirin and it is also formed in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics. We evaluated in vitro the effect of catechol on the structure and function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cells were incubated with xenobiotic at concentration range from 2 to 500μg/mL for 1h. Human blood mononuclear cells were obtained from leucocyte-platelet buffy coat taken from healthy donors in the Blood Bank of Łódź, Poland. Using flow cytometry we have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic and morphological changes in PBMCs incubated with catechol. Moreover, we have estimated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in the cells studied. The compound studied provoked necrotic (from 250μg/mL), apoptotic (from 100μg/mL), and morphological changes (from 250μg/mL) in the incubated cells. We have also noted that catechol decreased H2DCF oxidation at 2 and 10μg/mL but at higher concentrations of 250 and 500μg/mL it caused statistically significant increase in the oxidation of this probe. We also observed an increase in lipid peroxidation (from 250μg/mL) and protein carbonylation (from 50μg/mL) of PBMCs. It was observed that catechol only at high concentrations was capable of inducing changes in PBMCs. The obtained results clearly showed that catechol may induce change in PBMCs only in the caste of poisoning with this compound.

  16. Mechanistic insight into the catechol oxidase activity by a biomimetic dinuclear copper complex.

    PubMed

    Granata, Alessandro; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi

    2004-10-01

    The biomimetic catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol by the dicopper(II) complex of the ligand alpha,alpha'-bis(bis[1-(1'-methyl-2'-benzimidazolyl)methyl]amino)- m-xylene in the presence of dioxygen has been investigated as a function of temperature and pH in a mixed aqueous/organic solvent. The catalytic cycle occurs in two steps, the first step being faster than the second step. In the first step, one molecule of catechol is oxidized by the dicopper(II) complex, and the copper(II) centers are reduced. From the pH dependence, it is deduced that the active species of the process is the monohydroxo form of the dinuclear complex. In the second step, the second molecule of catechol is oxidized by the dicopper(I)-dioxygen complex formed upon oxygenation of the reduced complex. In both cases, catechol oxidation is an inner-sphere electron transfer process involving binding of the catechol to the active species. The binary catechol-dicopper(II) complex formed in the first step could be characterized at very low temperature (-90 degrees C), where substrate oxidation is blocked. On the contrary, the ternary complex of dicopper(I)-O(2)-catechol relevant to the second step does not accumulate in solution and could not be characterized, even at low temperature. The investigation of the biphasic kinetics of the catalytic reaction over a range of temperatures allowed the thermodynamic (Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees ) and activation parameters (Delta H( not equal) and Delta S( not equal)) connected with the key steps of the catecholase process to be obtained.

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF THE ANAEROBIC ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX OF CATECHOL 1,2-DIOXYGENASE

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Jirasek, Andrew; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H.; Barbosa, Christopher J.; Jarzecki, Andrzej A.; Xu, Changliang; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Spiro, Thomas G.; Lipscomb, John D.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F.B.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2008-01-01

    The basis of the respective regiospecificities of intradiol and extradiol dioxygenase is poorly understood and may be linked to the protonation state of the bidentate-bound catechol in the enzyme:substrate complex. Previous ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and UV-visible (UV-vis) difference spectroscopic studies demonstrated that in extradiol dioxygenases, the catechol is bound to the Fe(II) as a monoanion. In this study, we use the same approaches to demonstrate that in catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), an intradiol enzyme, the catechol binds to the Fe(III) as a dianion. Specifically, features at 290 nm and 1550 cm−1 in the UV-vis and UVRR difference spectra, respectively, are assigned to dianionic catechol based on spectra of the model compound, ferric tris(catecholate). The UVRR spectroscopic band assignments are corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, negative features at 240 nm in UV-vis difference spectra and at 1600, 1210, and 1175 cm−1 in UVRR difference spectra match those of a tyrosinate model compound, consistent with protonation of the axial tyrosinate ligand when it is displaced from the ferric ion coordination sphere upon substrate binding. The DFT calculations ascribe the asymmetry of the bound dianionic substrate to the trans donor effect of an equatorially ligated tyrosinate ligand. In addition, the computations suggest that trans donation from the tyrosinate ligand may facilitate charge-transfer from the substrate to yield the iron-bound semiquinone transition state, which is capable of reacting with dioxygen. In illustrating the importance of ligand trans effects in a biological system, the current study demonstrates the power of combining difference UVRR and optical spectroscopies to probe metal ligation in solution. PMID:16316234

  18. Effect of β-carotene on catechol-induced genotoxicity in vitro: evidence of both enhanced and reduced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Åsgård, R; Hellman, B

    2013-09-01

    Intake of antioxidants from the diet has been recognized to have beneficial health effects, but the potential benefit of taking antioxidants such as β-carotene as supplements is controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of a physiologically relevant concentration (2 μM) of β-carotene on the DNA damaging effects of catechol in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Two different exposure protocols were used: simultaneous exposure to β-carotene and catechol for 3 h; and exposure to catechol for 3 h after 18 h pre-treatment with the vitamin. DNA damage was evaluated using the comet assay (employing one procedure for general damage, and another procedure, which also included oxidative DNA damage). Independent of exposure protocol and procedure for comet assay, β-carotene did not increase the basal level of DNA damage. However, at the highest concentration of catechol (1 mM), β-carotene was found to clearly increase the level of catechol-induced DNA damage, especially in the pre-treated cells. Interestingly, an opposite effect was observed at lower concentrations of catechol, but the β-carotene related reduction of catechol-induced genotoxicity was significant (P < 0.05) only for the procedure including oxidative damage induced by 0.5 mM catechol. Taken together our results indicate that β- carotene can both reduce and enhance the DNA damaging effects of a genotoxic agent such as catechol. This indicates that it is the level of catechol-induced DNA damage that seems to determine whether β-carotene should be regarded as a beneficial or detrimental agent when it comes to its use as a dietary supplement.

  19. DNA adducts: mass spectrometry methods and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P B; Brown, K; Tompkins, E; Emms, V L; Jones, D J L; Singh, R; Phillips, D H

    2005-09-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10(12) nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [(14)C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [(14)C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing (32)P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens.

  20. DNA adducts: Mass spectrometry methods and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, P.B. . E-mail: pbf1@le.ac.uk; Brown, K.; Tompkins, E.; Emms, V.L.; Jones, D.J.L.; Singh, R.; Phillips, D.H.

    2005-09-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10{sup 12} nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [{sup 14}C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [{sup 14}C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing {sup 32}P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens.

  1. Regioselectivity of catechol O-methyltransferase confers enhancement of catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Douglas; Liu, Shubin; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2011-04-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catechol moieties by methylating a single hydroxyl group at the meta- or para- hydroxyl position. Hydrophobic amino acids near the active site of COMT influence the regioselectivity of this reaction. Our sequence analysis highlights their importance by showing that these residues are highly conserved throughout evolution. Reaction barriers calculated in the gas phase reveal a lower barrier during methylation at the meta- position, suggesting that the observed meta-regioselectivity of COMT can be attributed to the substrate itself, and that COMT has evolved residues to orient the substrate in a manner that increases the rate of catalysis.

  2. Stark spectroscopy of charge-transfer transitions in catechol-sensitized TiO 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Zdyb, Agata; Krawczyk, Stanisław

    2009-06-01

    Electronic excited states of catechol bound to titanium dioxide nanoparticles were investigated using electroabsorption (Stark effect) spectroscopy. The electronic transition at about 400 nm, characteristic for catechol bound to TiO 2 is associated with a change in permanent dipole moment by f · |Δ μ| = 15.7 D (where f is the local field correction factor), and a small negative change in the polarizability. Electron transfer distance points to the strong charge-transfer character of this transition. The electroabsorption spectra show also another electronic transition 7000 cm -1 higher energy, partially masked by the TiO 2 absorption.

  3. Catechol versus bisphosphonate ligand exchange at the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles: towards multi-functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guénin, Erwann; Lalatonne, Yoann; Bolley, Julie; Milosevic, Irena; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Motte, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    We report an investigation of the ligand exchange at the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in water. For this purpose we compared two strong chelating agents on the iron oxide surface containing catechol and bisphosphonate moieties. Interactions between the coating agents (catechol/bisphosphonate) and the nanoparticle's surface were studied by FTIR and DFT calculations. Ligand exchange experiments were performed using sonication and the exchange yield was characterized by FTIR and EDX. This methodology allowed introducing bisphosphonates with various functionalities (alkyne or biotin) permitting multi-functionalization.

  4. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  5. Novel catecholate-type siderophore analogs based on a myo-inositol scaffold.

    PubMed

    Schnabelrauch, M; Egbe, D A; Heinisch, L; Reissbrodt, R; Möllmann, U

    1998-09-01

    A novel 1,3,5-triamino-myo-inositol derivative is presented as a readily available scaffold for the design of tripodal siderophore mimetics. Based on this scaffold, various hexadentate catecholate-type siderophore analogs were synthesized by attaching the catechols to the inositol scaffold via spacer units of different structure and length. The potential to tune the polarity of the inositol containing siderophore analogs has also been demonstrated by varying the protection group strategy. The siderophore activity of the prepared siderophore analogs was examined by cross-feeding tests with various Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria.

  6. Unexpected formation of a novel pyridinium-containing catecholate ligand and its manganese(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Tippu S; Watkinson, Michael; Motevalli, Majid; Lesin, Jocelyne F

    2010-01-07

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone by pyridine and reduction of the o-quinone to the catechol by hydroxylamine forms 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trichlorobenzene-4-pyridinium chloride. This compound reacts with manganese(II) acetate in air to form chlorobis(3,5,6-trichlorobenzene 4-pyridinium catecholate)manganese(III), which represents the first complex of this ligand class to be structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction; this complex is active in the catalytic reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide under ambient conditions and turnover frequencies (TOFs) >10,000 h(-1) can be obtained.

  7. Synthesis and Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactivity of a Chromium Catecholate Porous Organic Polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bunquin, Jeffrey Camacho; Siladke, Nathan A.; Zhang, Guanghui; Niklas, Jens; Poluektov, Oleg G.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hock, Adam S.

    2015-03-09

    A single-site chromium catecholate POP (catPOP A(2)B(1)) was synthesized and characterized via AT-IR, XAS, and EPR spectroscopy. The well-defined, four-coordinate, 11-electron Cr(III) centers bound to catecholate POP were demonstrated to be active hydrogenation catalysts for nonpolar unsaturated organic substrates under mild conditions (5 mol % of Cr, 200 psi of H-2, 60 degrees C). This material constitutes the first example of a well-defined, supported organometallic chromium hydrogenation precatalyst.

  8. Intramolecular interactions in ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids and their catechol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Borys, Krzysztof M.; Czerwińska, Karolina; Gierczyk, Błażej; Jakubczyk, Michał; Madura, Izabela D.; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Tomecka, Ewelina

    2013-12-01

    Catechol esters of ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids have been synthesized and characterized by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with the data for the parent acids. The influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the properties of the boronic acids has been discussed. The 17O NMR data for the boronic esters proved that there are no O → B interactions in the investigated compounds. This fact is connected with weak Lewis acidity of the parent acids and their low sugars' receptors activity. Crystal structure of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid catechol ester was determined.

  9. Synthesis, molecular structure and magnetic properties of a rhenium(IV) compound with catechol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, A.; Geis, L.; Pintos, V.; Chiozzone, R.; Sanchíz, J.; Hummert, M.; Schumann, H.; Kremer, C.

    2009-03-01

    A novel Re(IV) complex containing catechol as ligand has been prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of (HNEt 3)(NBu 4)[ReCl 4(cat)]·H 2cat was determined. The rhenium ion presents a distorted octahedral geometry, being bonded to a bidentate catecholate group and four chloride anions. The magnetic properties of the complex were studied, a /2 D/ (the energy gap between ±3/2 and ±1/2 Kramers doublets) value of 190(10) cm -1. This is the largest /2 D/ value reported for Re(IV) up to now.

  10. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducted protein inhalation causes lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Todd A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; McCaskill, Michael L; Tuma, Dean J; Yanov, Daniel; DeVasure, Jane; Sisson, Joseph H

    2012-02-01

    In addition to cigarette smoking, alcohol exposure is also associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. However, little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and cigarette smoke on lungs. Previously, we have demonstrated in a mouse model that the combination of cigarette smoke and alcohol exposure results in the formation of a very stable hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA)-adducted protein in the lung. In in vitro studies, MAA-adducted protein stimulates bronchial epithelial cell interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the activation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ). We hypothesized that direct MAA-adducted protein exposure in the lungs would mimic such a combination of smoke and alcohol exposure leading to airway inflammation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J female mice were intranasally instilled with either saline, 30μL of 50μg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MAA, or unadducted BSA for up to 3 weeks. Likewise, human lung surfactant proteins A and D (SPA and SPD) were purified from human pulmonary proteinosis lung lavage fluid and successfully MAA-adducted in vitro. Similar to BSA-MAA, SPD-MAA was instilled into mouse lungs. Lungs were necropsied and assayed for histopathology, PKCɛ activation, and lung lavage chemokines. In control mice instilled with saline, normal lungs had few inflammatory cells. No significant effects were observed in unadducted BSA- or SPD-instilled mice. However, when mice were instilled with BSA-MAA or SPD-MAA for 3 weeks, a significant peribronchiolar localization of inflammatory cells was observed. Both BSA-MAA and SPD-MAA stimulated increased lung lavage neutrophils and caused a significant elevation in the chemokine, keratinocyte chemokine, which is a functional homologue to human IL-8. Likewise, MAA-adducted protein stimulated the activation of airway and lung slice PKCɛ. These data support that the MAA-adducted protein induces a proinflammatory response in the lungs and

  11. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  12. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  13. A Cyclic Disilylated Stannylene: Synthesis, Dimerization, and Adduct Formation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reaction of 1,4-dipotassio-1,1,4,4-tetrakis(trimethylsilyl)tetramethyltetrasilane with [(Me3Si)2N]2Sn led to the formation of an endocyclic distannene via the dimerization of a transient stannylene. In the presence of strong donor molecules such as PEt3, the stannylene could be trapped as adduct. Reaction of the PEt3 derivative with B(C6F5)3 gave rise to the formation of the stannylene B(C6F5)3 adduct. PMID:21438553

  14. Laboratory studies of weakly bound adducts of atmospheric interest

    SciTech Connect

    Wine, P.H.; Nicovich, J.M.; Stickel, R.E.; Hynes, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is now well-established that weakly bound adducts, i.e., species whose life-times toward unimolecular decomposition are only fractions of a second under atmospheric conditions, play an important role in tropospheric sulfur chemistry. In this presentation, recent results from our laboratory concerning the existence and atmospheric fates of two such weakly bound species, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S-OH and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S-Cl, will be discussed. In addition, evidence for the formation of weakly bound adducts in reactions of chlorine atoms with methyl halides will be presented.

  15. Possible rare congenital dysinnervation disorder: congenital ptosis associated with adduction.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sílvia; Beselga, Diana; Campos, Sónia; Neves, Arminda; Campos, Joana; Carvalho, Sílvia; Silva, Eduardo; Castro Sousa, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Ptosis is defined as an abnormally low position of the upper eyelid margin. It can be congenital or acquired, uni or bilateral, and isolated or associated with other ocular and nonocular defects. We report a case of a female child, aged 8 years, with congenital right ptosis increased on right adduction and with left ptosis on left adduction. There was no horizontal ocular movement limitation. Apparent underaction of the right inferior oblique muscle was also present. We believe that within the possible mechanisms it is more likely that it is a congenital innervation dysgenesis syndrome (CID)/congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD).

  16. Strategy for identifying unknown hemoglobin adducts using adductome LC-MS/MS data: Identification of adducts corresponding to acrylic acid, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 1-octen-3-one.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2016-06-01

    Electrophilic compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA in tissues, and thereby constitute risks for toxic effects. Adductomic approaches are developed for systematic screening of adducts to DNA and blood proteins, with the aim to detect unknown internal exposures to electrophiles. In a previous adductomic screening of adducts to N-terminals in hemoglobin, using LC-MS/MS, 19 unknown adducts were detected in addition to seven previously identified adducts. The present paper describes the identification of four of these unknown adducts, as well as the strategy used to identify them. Using LC-MS data from the screening, hypotheses about adduct identities were formulated: probable precursor electrophiles with matching molecular weights were suggested based on the molecular weights of the modifications and the retention times of the analytes, in combination with comparisons of theoretical Log P calculations and databases. Reference adducts were generated by incubation of blood samples with the hypothesized precursor electrophiles. The four identified precursor electrophiles, corresponding to the observed unknown adducts, were glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acrylic acid and 1-octen-3-one. Possible origins/exposure sources and toxicological information concerning the electrophilic precursors are discussed. The identified adducts could be explored as possible biomarkers for exposure.

  17. Estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Muehlfelder, Melanie; Pelzer, Theo

    2013-05-01

    The cardiovascular system of a premenopausal woman is prepared to adapt to the challenges of increased cardiac output and work load that accompany pregnancy. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether enhanced adaptability of the female cardiovascular system might be advantageous under conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. In support of this concept, 17β-estradiol as the major female sex hormone has been shown to confer protective cardiovascular effects in experimental studies. Mechanistically, these have been partially linked to the prevention and protection against oxidative stress. Current evidence indicates that estrogens attenuate oxidative stress at two levels: first, by preventing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, second, by scavenging ROS in the myocardium and in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on current concepts on conditions and mechanisms by which estrogens protect the cardiovascular system against ROS-mediated cellular injury.

  18. Protein adduct species in muscle and liver of rats following acute ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinood B; Worrall, Simon; Emery, Peter W; Preedy, Victor R

    2005-01-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies have shown that the post-translational formation of aldehyde-protein adducts may be an important process in the aetiology of alcohol-induced muscle disease. However, other studies have shown that in a variety of tissues, alcohol induces the formation of various other adduct species, including hybrid acetaldehyde-malondialdehyde-protein adducts and adducts with free radicals themselves, e.g. hydroxyethyl radical (HER)-protein adducts. Furthermore, acetaldehyde-protein adducts may be formed in reducing or non-reducing environments resulting in distinct molecular entities, each with unique features of stability and immunogenicity. Some in vitro studies have also suggested that unreduced adducts may be converted to reduced adducts in situ. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that in muscle a variety of different adduct species are formed after acute alcohol exposure and that unreduced adducts predominate. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against unreduced and reduced aldehydes and the HER-protein adducts. These were used to assay different adduct species in soleus (type I fibre-predominant) and plantaris (type II fibre-predominant) muscles and liver in four groups of rats administered acutely with either [A] saline (control); [B] cyanamide (an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor); [C] ethanol; [D] cyanamide+ethanol. Amounts of unreduced acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde adducts were increased in both muscles of alcohol-dosed rats. However there was no increase in the amounts of reduced acetaldehyde adducts, as detected by both the rabbit polyclonal antibody and the RT1.1 mouse monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, there was no detectable increase in malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde and HER-protein adducts. Similar results were obtained in the liver. Adducts formed in skeletal muscle and liver of rats exposed acutely to ethanol are mainly unreduced acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde species.

  19. UNUSUALLY STABLE ADDUCT BETWEEN METHANOLYZED AMOXICILLIN OR AMPICILLIN AND THEIR DIKETOPIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Katarzyna; Frański, Rafał; Frańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin and ampicillin were subjected to methanolysis. As expected, the methanolysis products were observed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Besides these products, diketopiperazine derivatives were also detected. Additionally, unusually stable adduct formed between the products of methanolysis and diketopiperazine derivatives was also identified. Analogical adducts were detected when ethanolysis was performed instead of methanolysis. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the separated adducts confirmed that the adducts were composed of methanolysis products and diketopiperazine derivatives.

  20. Immunochemical and Biochemical Analysis of Adducts to DNA and Proteins After Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    cQ.00o~33/o/ /9 IMMUNOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF O• ADDUCTS TO DNA AND PROTEINS AFTER EXPOSURE TO SULFUR MUSTARD _ == M G.P. van der Schans...chosen to define exposure to sulfur mustard (HD), based on immunochemical analysis of adducts of HD to DNA and proteins. These adducts are agent...calibration of the immunochemical assays. Analogous to HD-DNA adducts , reaction products with blood proteins may be used to establish HD exposure. Since it

  1. Commonly occurring plant flavonoids have estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Miksicek, R J

    1993-07-01

    A remarkable diversity of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds have been shown to mimic the biological effects of 17 beta-estradiol by virtue of their ability to bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor. This report extends the family of nonsteroidal estrogens to include several multiply hydroxylated chalcones, flavanones, and flavones. The hormone-like activity of these natural plant products is indicated by their ability to stimulate an estrogen receptor-dependent transcriptional response and to promote growth of estrogen-dependent MCF7 cells in culture. The transcriptional response can be inhibited by the steroidal estrogen antagonist ICI-164,384 and is specific for the estrogen receptor. Evidence is presented to show that selected hydroxylated flavonoids interact directly with the estrogen receptor, based on their ability to compete for the binding of 17 beta-[3H]estradiol to the receptor in cell-free extracts. These compounds are less active, on a molar basis, than 17 beta-estradiol or the synthetic dihydroxystilbene estrogens, but they have potencies comparable to those of other known phytoestrogens. Together, these findings broaden our understanding of the structure-activity relationships for nonsteroidal estrogens and present a series of new chemical prototypes for the future development of potentially useful agonists and antagonists for this nuclear receptor. The wide distribution of weakly estrogenic flavonoid pigments in food crops and medicinal plants raises additional questions about the possible health risks and benefits of these compounds, meriting closer examination of their presence in the human diet.

  2. The role of environmental estrogens and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Chighizola, Cecilia; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of autoimmune diseases has significantly increased over the recent years. It has been proposed that this epidemiological evidence could be in part attributable to environmental estrogens, compounds that display estrogen-like activity and are ubiquitously present in the environment. Environmental estrogens can be found in a wide variety of foods: phytoestrogens occur in plants such as clover and soy, while mycoestrogens are food contaminants produced by fungi. Meat, eggs and dairy products from animals given exogenous hormones contain relatively high concentration of estrogens. Among xenoestrogens, industrial estrogens are synthetic chemicals produced for specific purposes (pesticides, plastics, surfactants and detergents) while metalloestrogens are found in heavy metals. Estrogens can be also administered through medications (contraceptive pill, hormone replacement therapy, genistein, cimetidine, creams). There is a considerable burden of evidence in vitro and in animal models that these compounds may exert immunotoxic effects. However, to date there is no convincing data that exposure to environmental estrogens can be regarded as a risk for human health. In particular, there is no consensus whether prolonged exposure to relatively low concentrations of different estrogenic chemicals can affect the human immune system and induce clinically evident diseases in real-life scenario. Moreover, the effects on human health of the synergistic interactions between natural, medical, dietary and environmental estrogens have not been fully elucidated yet. Here we provide an extensive review of the in vivo and in vitro effects of environmental estrogens on the immune system, focusing on the evidences of association between exposure and autoimmune disorders.

  3. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    2006-08-31

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful for targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.

  4. 40 CFR 721.6205 - Hexamethylenediamine adduct of substituted piperidinyloxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexamethylenediamine adduct of... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6205 Hexamethylenediamine adduct of substituted... substance identified generically as hexamethylenediamine adduct of substituted piperidinyloxy (PMN P-99-0510...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6205 - Hexamethylenediamine adduct of substituted piperidinyloxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexamethylenediamine adduct of... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6205 Hexamethylenediamine adduct of substituted... substance identified generically as hexamethylenediamine adduct of substituted piperidinyloxy (PMN P-99-0510...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... epoxy adduct. 721.1850 Section 721.1850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under...

  7. Volatile Barium Beta-Diketonate Polyether Adducts. Synthesis, Characterization and Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    Volatile Barium 13- Diketonate Polyether Adducts.... Synthesis , Characterization and Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition by Robin A. Gardiner...has been approved for public release and sale: its distribution is unlimited. Volatile, Barium B- Diketonate Polyether Adducts. Synthesis ...NO. NO. INO. ACCESSION NO. Arlington, VA 22217 II 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) Volatile Barium B- Diketonate Polyether Adducts

  8. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  13. Estrogen turns down "the AIRE".

    PubMed

    Bakhru, Pearl; Su, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Genetic alterations are known drivers of autoimmune disease; however, there is a much higher incidence of autoimmunity in women, implicating sex-specific factors in disease development. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene contributes to the maintenance of central tolerance, and complete loss of AIRE function results in the development of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1. In this issue of the JCI, Dragin and colleagues demonstrate that AIRE expression is downregulated in females as the result of estrogen-mediated alterations at the AIRE promoter. The association between estrogen and reduction of AIRE may at least partially account for the elevated incidence of autoimmune disease in women and has potential implications for sex hormone therapy.

  14. [Transdermal estrogenic therapy in menopause].

    PubMed

    Nencioni, T; Polvani, F; Penotti, M; Porcaro, E; Barbieri Carones, M

    1989-01-01

    The availability of percutaneous estrogenic preparations capable of directly entering the bloodstream, avoiding the liver, has opened new prospects in the treatment of the climacteric syndrome. The purpose of our work has been to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of a percutaneous 17-beta-estradiol-oral progestin association with an all oral association of conjugated estrogens and progestins and to evaluate the ability to control menopausal symptoms and biohumoral characteristics. 42 (1 to 7 years postmenopausal) heavily symptomatic patients were selected at the "Centro per lo studio e la terapia del climaterio" in Milan and divided in two equally sized groups. One group was treated using the percutaneous therapy, the other with the all-oral one. The results show that percutaneous administration leads to a quicker control of vasomotor symptomatology and metabolic effects similar to oral administration.

  15. The Estrogen Hypothesis of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, James P.; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The explanation of obesity as a simple result of positive energy balance fails to account for the scope of variable responses to diets and lifestyles. It is postulated that individual physiological and anatomical variation may be responsible for developing obesity. Girls in poor families develop greater adiposity than their male siblings, a trend not present in richer environments. This indicates strong influence of estrogen on fat accumulation irrespective of poor socioeconomic conditions. Obesity rates in males and females of developed nations are similar, while in poorer nations obesity is much more prevalent in females. Female to male ratio of obesity correlates inversely with gross domestic product. Therefore, the parity of male and female obesity in developed countries may result from male exposure to environmental estrogen-like substances associated with affluence. These hormonally driven mechanisms may be equally active within both sexes in more developed areas, thereby increasing overall obesity. PMID:24915457

  16. Conformations of DNA adducts with polycyclic aromatic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.

    1984-01-01

    Minimized semi-empirical potential energy calculations for a number of carcinogen adducts with dCpdG have yielded molecular views of the adduct conformations. The base displaced and Z type conformations of acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts to guanine C-8 have been detailed. Model building shows that base displacement causes kinking and denaturation in the B helix, while the Z helix is largely unperturbed by modification with AAF, in agreement with experimental findings. The minor AAF adduct linked to quanine N/sup 2/ can reside at a B-Z junction, with the carcinogen buried in a groove in the Z direction, without causing denaturation. The syn guanine in these modified Z forms could be mutagenic, the lesion escaping repair because the helix is undeformed, while the distorted base-displaced conformers are repaired. Aminofluorene (AF) and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) linked to guanine N/sup 2/ are currently believed to be critical lesions. They all have a pair of A or B type low energy states, one of which has base-base stacking with carcinogen at the helix exterior, and a second with carcinogen-base stacking. The two states are easily interconvertible. It is possible that the carcinogen may reside primarily at the unperturbed helix exterior where it escapes repair, but that carcinogen-base stacking may occur at a critical time during replication, leading to a mutation. 49 references, 8 figures.

  17. NMR at the Picomole Level of a DNA Adduct

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Roger; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the limit of detection for obtaining NMR data of a DNA adduct using modern microscale NMR instrumentation, once the adduct has been isolated at the pmol level. Eighty nanograms (130 pmol) of a DNA adduct standard, N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene 5′-monophosphate (AAF-dGMP), in 1.5 μL of D2O with 10% methanol-d4, in a vial, was completely picked up as a droplet suspended in a fluorocarbon liquid, and loaded efficiently into a microcoil probe. This work demonstrates a practical manual method of droplet microfluidic sample loading, previously demonstrated using automated equipment, which provides a several-fold advantage over conventional flow injection. Eliminating dilution during injection and confining the sample into the observed volume realizes the full theoretical mass sensitivity of a microcoil, comparable to a micro-cryo probe. With 80 ng, an NMR spectrum acquired over 40 hr showed all of the resonances seen in a standard spectrum of AAF-dGMP, with a S/N of at least 10, despite broadening due to previously-noted effects of conformational exchange. Also a 2D TOCSY spectrum (total correlation spectroscopy) was acquired on 1.6 μg in 18 hr. This work helps to define the utility of NMR in combination with other analytical methods for the structural characterization of a small amount of a DNA adduct. PMID:24028148

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of fullerene C60/anthracene adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Cataldo, F.; Manchado, A.

    2013-09-01

    Recent Spitzer Space Telescope observations of several astrophysical environments such as planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae and R Coronae Borealis stars show the simultaneous presence of mid-infrared features attributed to neutral fullerene molecules (i.e. C60) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). If C60 fullerenes and PAHs coexist in fullerene-rich space environments, then C60 may easily form adducts with a number of different PAH molecules, at least with catacondensed PAHs. Here we present the laboratory infrared spectra (˜2-25 μm) of C60 fullerene and anthracene Diels-Alder mono- and bis-adducts as produced by sonochemical synthesis. We find that C60/anthracene Diels-Alder adducts display spectral features strikingly similar to those from C60 (and C70) fullerenes and other unidentified infrared emission features. Thus, fullerene adducts - if formed under astrophysical conditions and are stable/abundant enough - may contribute to the infrared emission features observed in fullerene-containing circumstellar/interstellar environments.

  19. 40 CFR 721.4590 - Mannich-based adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4... reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a Mannich-based adduct (PMN P-93-66) is...

  20. Theoretical investigations on the formation of nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2011-09-07

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The thermochemical formation cascades were calculated for six 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts employing its arylnitrenium ion as precursor using density functional theory (DFT). Clear exothermic pathways were found for four adducts, i.e., 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone. All four have been observed to be formed in cell-free experimental systems. The formation of N-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone is predicted to be not thermochemically viable explaining its absence in either in vitro or in vivo model systems. However, 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, can be formed, albeit not as a major product, and is a viable candidate for an unknown adenine adduct observed experimentally. 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), an isomer of 3-NBA, was also included in the calculations; it has a higher abundance in ambient air than 3-NBA, but a much lower genotoxic potency. Similar thermochemical profiles were obtained for the calculated 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts. This leads to the conclusion that enzymatic activation as well as the stability of its arylnitrenium ion are important determinants of 2-NBA genotoxicity.

  1. Cloning, expression, and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis JH8 strain.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2016-10-02

    The sequence cato encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence cato contained an ORF of 858 bp encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acid residues. The recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase exists as a homodimer structure with a subunit molecular mass of 32 KD. Recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was unstable below pH 5.0 and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0; its optimum pH was at 7.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30°C, and it possessed a thermophilic activity within a broad temperature range. Under the optimal conditions with catechol as substrate, the Km and Vmax of recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were 9.2 µM and 0.987 µM/min, respectively. This is the first article presenting cloning and expressing in E. coli of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from C. tropicalis and characterization of the recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase.

  2. Correlation between Bonding Geometry and Band Gap States at Organic -- inorganic interfaces: Catechol on Rutile TiO2 (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Ulrike; Li, Shao-Chun; Wang, Jian-Guo; Jacobson, Peter; Gong, Xue-Qing; Selloni, Annabella

    2009-03-01

    Adsorbate-induced band gap states in semiconductors are of particular interest due to the potential of increased light absorption and photoreactivity. A combined theoretical (DFT) and experimental (STM, photoemission) study of the molecular-scale factors involved in the formation of gap states in TiO2 is presented. Using the organic catechol on rutile TiO2(110) as a model system it is found that the bonding geometry strongly affects the molecular electronic structure. At saturation catechol forms an ordered 4 x 1 overlayer. This structure is attributed to catechol adsorbed on rows of surface Ti atoms with the molecular plane tilted from the surface normal by about ±27 in an alternating fashion. In the lowest-energy structure one of the two terminal OH groups at each catechol dissociates and the O binds to a surface Ti atom in a monodentate configuration, while the other OH group forms a H-bond to the next catechol neighbor. Through proton exchange with the surface this structure transforms into one where both OH groups dissociate and the catechol is bound to two surface Ti in a bidentate configuration. Only bidendate catechol introduces states in the band gap of TiO2.

  3. Polyaniline-iron oxide nanohybrid film as multi-functional label-free electrochemical and biomagnetic sensor for catechol.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Lang, Heinrich; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2013-09-17

    Polyaniline-iron oxide magnetic nanohybrid was synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic, microstructural and electrochemical techniques. The smart integration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles within the polyaniline (PANI) matrix yielded a mesoporous nanohybrid (Fe3O4@PANI) with high surface area (94 m(2) g(-1)) and average pore width of 12.8 nm. Catechol is quasi-reversibly oxidized to o-quinone and reduced at the Fe3O4@PANI modified electrodes. The amperometric current response toward catechol was evaluated using the nanohybrid and the sensitivity and detection limit were found to be 312 μA μL(-1) and 0.2 nM, respectively. The results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the increased solution resistance (Rs) was due to elevated adsorption of catechol on the modified electrodes. Photoluminescence spectra showed ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) between p-π orbitals of the phenolate oxygen in catechol and the d-σ* metal orbital of Fe3O4@PANI nanohybrid. Potential dependent spectroelectrochemical behavior of Fe3O4@PANI nanohybrid toward catechol was studied using UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. The binding activity of the biomagnetic particles to catechol through Brownian relaxation was evident from AC susceptibility measurements. The proposed sensor was used for successful recovery of catechol in tap water samples.

  4. Preserving the adhesion of catechol-conjugated hydrogels by thiourea-quinone coupling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang J; Wei, Kongchang; Zhao, Pengchao; Feng, Qian; Choi, Chun Kit K; Bian, Liming

    2016-11-15

    Mussel adhesion has inspired the development of catechol-based adhesive polymers. However, conventional strategies require basic pH conditions and lead to the loss of adhesion. To solve the problem, we report the first attempt to use thiourea-functionalized polymers for preserving hydrogel adhesion. We believe that this simple thiourea-quinone coupling chemistry is instrumental to synthetic adhesive materials.

  5. Reaction Pathways in Catechol/Primary Amine Mixtures: A Window on Crosslinking Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Velders, Aldrik H; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Kamperman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Catechol chemistry is used as a crosslinking tool abundantly in both natural organisms (e.g. mussels, sandcastle worms) and synthetic systems to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Despite this abundance and success, the crosslinking chemistry is still poorly understood. In this study, to simplify the system, yet to capture the essential chemistry, model compounds 4-methyl catechol and propylamine are used. The reaction of 4-methyl catechol (2 mM) with propylamine (6 mM) is carried out in the presence of NaIO4 (2 mM) in 10 mM Na2CO3 aqueous solution. A variety of spectroscopic/spectrometric and chromatographic methods such as 1H NMR, LC-MS, and UV-VIS are used to track the reaction and identify the products/intermediates. It is found that the crosslinking chemistry of a catechol and an amine is both fast and complicated. Within five minutes, more than 60 products are formed. These products encompass 19 different masses ranging from molecular weight of 179 to 704. By combining time-dependent data, it is inferred that the dominant reaction pathways: the majority is formed via aryloxyl-phenol coupling and Michael-type addition, whereas a small fraction of products is formed via Schiff base reactions.

  6. Ultrafast Exciton Dynamics of J- and H- Aggregates of Porphyrin Catechol in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sandeep; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    Porphyrin catechol found to form J- and H-aggregates in different pH at certain concentration. Ultrafast exciton dynamics of J- and H-aggregates found to be 200 fs and 100 fs respectively as monitored by femtosecond visible spectroscopy

  7. Revealing the role of catechol moieties in the interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2016-08-18

    Catechol (1,2-dihydroxy benzene) moieties are being widely used today in new adhesive technologies. Understanding their mechanism of action is therefore of high importance for developing their applications in materials science. This paper describes a single-molecule study of the interactions between catechol-related amino acid residues and a well-defined titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface. It is the first quantified measurement of the adhesion of these residues with a well-defined TiO2 surface. Single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements with AFM determined the role of different substitutions of the catechol moiety on the aromatic ring in the adhesion to the surface. These results shed light on the nature of interactions between these residues and inorganic metal oxide surfaces. This information is important for the design and fabrication of catechol-based materials such as hydrogels, coatings, and composites. Specifically, the interaction with TiO2 is important for the development of solar cells.

  8. Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenases, a distinct group of meta-cleaving enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Müller, R; Wegst, W; Lingens, F

    1984-02-01

    We previously described a new meta-cleaving enzyme, termed chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase. The present paper describes the comparison of this enzyme with the meta-cleaving enzymes of eighteen strains of soil bacteria isolated with various aromatic compounds. Four of these strains were isolated with the herbicide chloridazon, six with the analgeticum aminopyrine and one with the analgeticum antipyrine as sole carbon source. These strains all belonged to a new type of bacteria, called Phenylobacteria. The seven other strains were isolated with aromatic compounds such as toluene, 3-phenylpropionate, benzoate, papaverine and 4-chlorobenzoate, and belonged to various species including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Nocardia. In double diffusion experiments with antibodies, prepared against chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase, extracts from the eleven strains of Phenylobacteria gave a cross reaction, whereas the extracts of the seven other strains showed no reaction. The enzymes of the eleven positive strains showed the same characteristic kinetic behaviour as the previously described enzyme. In contrast to catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase they needed the addition of exogenous Fe2+ ions for activity. On ion-exchange chromatography they emerged at the same buffer concentration as chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase. In polyacrylamide electrophoresis they migrated identically. The linkage map derived from the activities of the various enzymes with 10 different substrates revealed an identity of more than 80% for these eleven enzymes. So the meta-cleaving enzymes of the Phenylobacteria seem to form a distinct group among the non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases.

  9. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    PubMed

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.

  10. Association of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphism and Academic Achievement in a Chinese Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Ming-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme that catalyzes the degradation pathway and inactivation of dopamine. It is accepted widely as being involved in the modulation of dopaminergic physiology and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with variation in COMT activity. COMT 158Met allele…

  11. Chitosan-catechol: a polymer with long-lasting mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuri; Kim, Keumyeon; Ryu, Ji Hyun; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-06-01

    Numerous mucoadhesive polymers have been exploited for prolonging the residence time of formulated drugs or pharmaceuticals at specific delivery sites. However, it has been difficult to achieve satisfactory mucoadhesive properties. The two major modification strategies such as thiolation or lectin functionalization have been extensively studied, but disulfide bond reversibility in the case of thiolation and the toxicity of lectins have been problems. Thus, approaches for further improvement of mucoadhesive properties need to be developed. With an overwhelming library of mucoadhesive polymers, one practical way to improve mucoadhesion is chemical modification of existing mucoadhesive polymers. In other words, the method is based on utilizing the cooperative effect that might be achieved by chemical tethering of a small adhesive moiety to an available mucoadhesive polymer. Here, we conjugated catechols derived from mussel adhesive proteins to chitosan, which is a widely known mucoadhesive polymer. We demonstrated that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract retention of chitosan-catechol was improved compared to unmodified chitosan, which is due to the formation of irreversible catechol mediated-crosslinking with mucin. The results indicate that catechol modification of mucoadhesive polymers may possibly lead to a new generation of mucoadhesive polymers for mucosal drug delivery.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase in complex with substituted 3'-deoxyribose bisubstrate inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ellermann, Manuel; Lerner, Christian; Burgy, Guillaume; Ehler, Andreas; Bissantz, Caterina; Jakob-Roetne, Roland; Paulini, Ralph; Allemann, Oliver; Tissot, Heloïse; Grünstein, Dan; Stihle, Martine; Diederich, Francois; Rudolph, Markus G

    2012-03-01

    The biological activity of catechol neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the synapse is modulated by transporters and enzymes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) inactivates neurotransmitters by catalyzing the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catechols in the presence of Mg²⁺. This pathway also inactivates L-DOPA, the standard therapeutic for Parkinson's disease. Depletion of catechol neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex has been linked to schizophrenia. The inhibition of COMT therefore promises improvements in the treatment of these diseases. The concept of bisubstrate inhibitors for COMT has been described previously. Here, ribose-modified bisubstrate inhibitors were studied. Three high-resolution crystal structures of COMT in complex with novel ribose-modified bisubstrate inhibitors confirmed the predicted binding mode but displayed subtle alterations at the ribose-binding site. The high affinity of the inhibitors can be convincingly rationalized from the structures, which document the possibility of removing and/or replacing the ribose 3'-hydroxyl group and provide a framework for further inhibitor design.

  13. Salicylate and catechol levels are maintained in nahG transgenic poplar

    Treesearch

    Alison M. Morse; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Christopher Dervinis; Paula M. Pijut; Eric A. Schmelz; Wendy Day; John M. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic profiling was used to investigate the molecular phenotypes of a transgenic Populus tremula × P. alba hybrid expressing the nahG transgene, a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol. Despite the efficacy of this transgenic approach to reduce...

  14. Mechanochemical transformation of an organic ligand on mineral surfaces: the efficiency of birnessite in catechol degradation.

    PubMed

    Di Leo, Paola; Pizzigallo, Maria Donata Rosa; Ancona, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Ventruti, Gennaro

    2012-01-30

    The aim of this work is to investigate the efficiency of the phyllomanganate birnessite in degrading catechol after mechanochemical treatments. A synthesized birnessite and the organic molecule were grounded together in a high energy mill and the xenobiotic-mineral surface reactions induced by the grinding treatment have been investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermal analysis and spectroscopic techniques as well as high-performance liquid chromatography and voltammetric techniques. If compared to the simple contact between the birnessite and the organic molecule, mechanochemical treatments have revealed to be highly efficient in degrading catechol molecules, in terms both of time and extent. Due to the two phenolic groups of catechol and the small steric hindrance of the molecule, the extent of the mechanochemically induced degradation of catechol onto birnessite surfaces is quite high. The degradation mechanism mainly occurs via a redox reaction. It implies the formation of a surface bidentate inner-sphere complex between the phenolic group of the organic molecules and the Mn(IV) from the birnessite structure. Structural changes occur on the MnO(6) layers of birnessite as due to the mechanically induced surface reactions: reduction of Mn(IV), consequent formation of Mn(III) and new vacancies, and free Mn(2+) ions production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  16. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  17. The influence of catechol structure on the suicide-inactivation of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher A; Stratford, Michael R L; Riley, Patrick A

    2009-09-07

    3,6-Difluorocatechol, which cannot act as a monooxygenase tyrosinase substrate, is an oxidase substrate, and, in contrast to other catechols, oxidation does not lead to suicide-inactivation, providing experimental evidence for an inactivation mechanism involving reductive elimination of Cu(0) from the active site.

  18. Association of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphism and Academic Achievement in a Chinese Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Ming-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme that catalyzes the degradation pathway and inactivation of dopamine. It is accepted widely as being involved in the modulation of dopaminergic physiology and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with variation in COMT activity. COMT 158Met allele…

  19. Surface complexation of catechol to metal oxides: an ATR-FTIR, adsorption, and dissolution study.

    PubMed

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather; Hogan, Patrick A; Schmidt, Whitney L; Wall, Stephen J; Buhrlage, Andrew; Bullen, Heather A

    2010-06-01

    The interaction of catechol with chromium(III) oxide (Cr(2)O(3)), manganese dioxide (MnO(2)), iron(III) oxide (Fe(2)O(3)), and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) was evaluated as a function of pH conditions (pH 3-10) and ionic strength using a combined approach of bulk adsorption, attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and dissolution analysis. Adsorption of catechol showed a strong pH-dependent behavior with the metal oxides, remaining constant under acidic-neutral pH (3-7) and increasing under more basic conditions. In situ ATR-FTIR measurements indicate that catechol binds predominately as an outer-sphere complex on MnO(2) and as an inner-sphere complex on Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), and Cr(2)O(3) substrates. Catechol complexation on Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), and Cr(2)O(3) promotes dissolution at pH >5, whereas MnO(2) dissolution occurs under acidic and basic conditions (pH 3-10).

  20. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    PubMed

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Recognition in the Oxidation of Catechols by Dicobalt-BISDIEN Dioxygen Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-30

    Recognition in the Oxidation of Catechols by Dicobalt-RISDIEN Dioxygen Complexes Lizete F S Cezar and Bruno Szpoganicz Departamento de Quimica ...bridged bi- nuclear Co(II)-BISDIEN dioxygen complexes; Co20 2 LCat2 + is the bivalent form, and Co20 2 (OH)LCat + and Co 20 2 (OH)2 Cat° are hydroxo

  2. Catechol-O-methyltransferase: a method for autoradiographic visualization of isozymes in cellogel

    SciTech Connect

    Brahe, C.; Crosti, N.; Meera Khan, P.; Serra, A.

    1984-02-01

    An electrophoretic procedure for separating the molecular forms of catechol-O-methyltransferase in cellulose acetate gel is described; the zones of enzyme activity were revealed by autoradiography. The electrophoretic patterns of the enzyme in several tissues and cell lines derived from four different species are presented.

  3. Reaction Pathways in Catechol/Primary Amine Mixtures: A Window on Crosslinking Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Velders, Aldrik H.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Kamperman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Catechol chemistry is used as a crosslinking tool abundantly in both natural organisms (e.g. mussels, sandcastle worms) and synthetic systems to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Despite this abundance and success, the crosslinking chemistry is still poorly understood. In this study, to simplify the system, yet to capture the essential chemistry, model compounds 4-methyl catechol and propylamine are used. The reaction of 4-methyl catechol (2 mM) with propylamine (6 mM) is carried out in the presence of NaIO4 (2 mM) in 10 mM Na2CO3 aqueous solution. A variety of spectroscopic/spectrometric and chromatographic methods such as 1H NMR, LC-MS, and UV-VIS are used to track the reaction and identify the products/intermediates. It is found that the crosslinking chemistry of a catechol and an amine is both fast and complicated. Within five minutes, more than 60 products are formed. These products encompass 19 different masses ranging from molecular weight of 179 to 704. By combining time-dependent data, it is inferred that the dominant reaction pathways: the majority is formed via aryloxyl-phenol coupling and Michael-type addition, whereas a small fraction of products is formed via Schiff base reactions. PMID:27930671

  4. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  5. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  6. Estrogens and the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Agius, J; Muscat-Baron, Y; Brincat, M P

    2009-09-01

    Intervertebral discs are an integral part of the vertebral column. It has been shown that menopause has a negative effect on bone and on intervertebral discs. Estrogen has a beneficial effect of preserving the health of collagen-containing tissues, including the intervertebral disc. The intervertebral disc allows for mobility of the spine, and maintains a uniform stress distribution of the area of the vertebral endplates. Also, the disc influences spinal height. The disc tissue is adapted for this biomechanical function. The function of the spine is impaired if there is a loss of disc tissue. Narrowing of the disc space due to degeneration of intervertebral discs is associated with a significantly increased risk of vertebral fractures. Estrogen should be seen as the first-choice therapy for bones and other collagen-rich tissues, such as intervertebral discs, because it maintains homeostasis of the bone-remodelling unit. Unlike bisphosphonates, estrogen is unique in its ability to regenerate bone collagen after its disintegration, apart from suppressing osteoclastic activity. Besides, there is insufficient data on deterioration in bone qualities and micro-cracks in patients on long-term bisphosphonates.

  7. Estrogen and ERα: Culprits in Cervical Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Franceschi, Silvia; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen and its receptors are implicated in the promotion and prevention of various cancers. While the uterine cervix is highly responsive to estrogen, the role of estrogen in cervical cancer, which is strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, is poorly understood. Recent studies in HPV transgenic mouse models provide evidence that estrogen and its nuclear receptor promote cervical cancer in combination with HPV oncogenes. While epidemiological studies further support this hypothesis, there is little experimental data assessing the hormonal responsiveness of human cervical cancers. If these cancers are dependent upon estrogen, then drugs targeting estrogen and its receptors may be effective in treating and/or preventing cervical cancer, the second leading cause of death by cancer amongst women worldwide. PMID:20456973

  8. Vanadium-based, extended catalytic lifetime catechol dioxygenases: evidence for a common catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cindy-Xing; Finke, Richard G

    2005-06-29

    In 1999, a catechol dioxygenase derived from a V-polyoxometalate was reported which was able to perform a record >100 000 total turnovers of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol oxygenation using O2 as the oxidant (Weiner, H.; Finke, R. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9831). An important goal is to better understand this and other vanadium-based catechol dioxygenases. Scrutiny of 11 literature reports of vanadium-based catechol dioxygenases yielded the insight that they all proceed with closely similar selectivities. This, in turn, led to a "common catalyst hypothesis" for the broad range of vanadium based catechol dioxygenase precatalysts presently known. The following three classes of V-based compounds, 10 complexes total, have been explored to test the common catalyst hypothesis: (i) six vanadium-based polyoxometalate precatalysts, (n-Bu4N)4H5PV14O42, (n-Bu4N)7SiW9V3O40, (n-Bu4N)5[(CH3CN)(x)Fe(II).SiW9V3O40], (n-Bu4N)9P2W15V3O62, (n-Bu4N)5Na2[(CH3CN)(x)Fe(II).P2W15V3O62], and (n-Bu4N)4H2-gamma-SiW10V2O40; (ii) three vanadium catecholate complexes, [V(V)O(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2, [Et3NH]2[V(IV)O(DBTC)2].2CH3OH, and [Na(CH3OH)2]2[V(V)(DTBC)3]2.4CH3OH (where DBSQ = 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone anion and DTBC = 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate dianion), and (iii) simple VO(acac)2. Product selectivity studies, catalytic lifetime tests, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), negative ion mode electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (negative ion ESI-MS), and kinetic studies provided compelling evidence for a common catalyst or catalyst resting state, namely, Pierpont's structurally characterized vanadyl semiquinone catecholate dimer complex, [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2, formed from V-leaching from the precatalysts. The results provide a considerable simplification and unification of a previously disparate literature of V-based catechol dioxygenases.

  9. 2'-Deoxythymidine adducts from the anti-HIV drug nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Alexandra M M; Wolf, Benjamin; Oliveira, M Conceição; Beland, Frederick A; Marques, M Matilde

    2013-04-26

    Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) used against HIV-1. Currently, NVP is the most widely used anti-HIV drug in developing countries, both in combination therapy and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Despite its efficacy against HIV, NVP produces a variety of toxic responses, including hepatotoxicity and skin rash. It is also associated with increased incidences of hepatoneoplasias in rodents. In addition, epidemiological data suggest that NNRTI use is a risk factor for non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-positive patients. Current evidence supports the involvement of metabolic activation to reactive electrophiles in NVP toxicity. NVP metabolism includes oxidation to 12-hydroxy-NVP; subsequent Phase II sulfonation produces an electrophilic metabolite, 12-sulfoxy-NVP, capable of reacting with DNA to yield covalent adducts. Since 2'-deoxythymidine (dT) adducts from several alkylating agents are regarded as having significant mutagenic/carcinogenic potential, we investigated the formation of NVP-dT adducts under biomimetic conditions. Toward this goal, we initially prepared and characterized synthetic NVP-dT adduct standards using a palladium-mediated Buchwald-Hartwig coupling strategy. The synthetic standards enabled the identification, by LC-ESI-MS, of 12-(2'-deoxythymidin-N3-yl)-nevirapine (N3-NVP-dT) in the enzymatic hydrolysate of salmon testis DNA reacted with 12-mesyloxy-NVP, a synthetic surrogate for 12-sulfoxy-NVP. N3-NVP-dT, a potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA lesion, was also the only dT-specific adduct detected upon reaction of dT with 12-mesyloxy-NVP. Our data suggest that N3-NVP-dT may be formed in vivo and play a role in the hepatotoxicity and/or putative hepatocarcinogenicity of NVP.

  10. Quantification of Carnosine-Aldehyde Adducts in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    da Silva Bispo, Vanderson; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates several reactive carbonyl species, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and malondialdehyde. One major pathwayof aldehydes detoxification is through conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases or, alternatively, by conjugation with endogenous histidine containing dipeptides, such as carnosine (CAR). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of CAR- ACR, CAR-HHE and CAR-HNE adducts in human urinary samples from non-smokers young adults. Standard adducts were prepared and isolated by HPLC. The results showed the presence of a new product from the reaction of CAR with ACR. This new adduct was completely characterized by HPLC/MS-MSn, 1H RMN, COSY and HSQC. The new HPLC/MS/MS methodology employing stable isotope-labeled internal standards (CAR-HHEd5 and CAR-HNEd11) was developed for adducts quantification. This methodology permits quantification of 10pmol CAR-HHE and 1pmol of CAR-ACR and CAR-HNE. Accurate determinations in human urine sample were performed and showed 4.65±1.71 to CAR-ACR, 5.13±1.76 to CAR-HHE and 5.99±3.19nmol/mg creatinine to CAR-HNE. Our results indicate that carnosine pathways can be an important detoxification route of a, ß -unsaturated aldehydes. Moreover, carnosine adducts may be useful as redox stress indicator. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Ion-molecule adduct formation in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays most LC-MS methods rely on tandem mass spectrometry not only for quantitation and confirmation of compounds by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), but also for the identification of unknowns from their product ion spectra. However, gas-phase reactions between charged and neutral species inside the mass analyzer can occur, yielding product ions at m/z values higher than that of the precursor ion, or at m/z values difficult to explain by logical losses, which complicate mass spectral interpretation. In this work, the formation of adduct ions in the mass analyzer was studied using several mass spectrometers with different mass analyzers (ion trap, triple quadrupole, and quadrupole-Orbitrap). Heterocyclic amines (AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1, and Trp-P-2), photo-initiators (BP and THBP), and pharmaceuticals (phenacetin and levamisole) were selected as model compounds and infused in LCQ Classic, TSQ Quantum Ultra AM, and Q-Exactive Orbitrap (ThermoFisher Scientific) mass spectrometers using electrospray as ionization method. The generation of ion-molecule adducts depended on the compound and also on the instrument employed. Adducts with neutral organic solvents (methanol and acetonitrile) were only observed in the ion trap instrument (LCQ Classic), because of the ionization source on-axis configuration and the lack of gas-phase barriers, which allowed inertial entrance of the neutrals into the analyzer. Adduct formation (only with water) in the triple quadrupole instruments was less abundant than in the ion trap and quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, because of the lower residence time of the reactive product ions in the mass analyzer. The moisture level of the CID and/or damper gas had a great effect in beam-like mass analyzers such as triple quadrupole, but not in trap-like mass analyzers, probably because of the long residence time that allowed adduct formation even with very low concentrations of water inside the mass spectrometer.

  12. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  13. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  14. Catechol oxidation by ozone and hydroxyl radicals at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pillar, Elizabeth A; Camm, Robert C; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2014-12-16

    Anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons promptly react with hydroxyl radicals undergoing oxidation to form phenols and polyphenols (e.g., catechol) typically identified in the complex mixture of humic-like substances (HULIS). Because further processing of polyphenols in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) can continue mediated by a mechanism of ozonolysis at interfaces, a better understanding about how these reactions proceed at the air-water interface is needed. This work shows how catechol, a molecular probe of the oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in SOA, can contribute interfacial reactive species that enhance the production of HULIS under atmospheric conditions. Reactive semiquinone radicals are quickly produced upon the encounter of 40 ppbv-6.0 ppmv O3(g) with microdroplets containing [catechol] = 1-150 μM. While the previous pathway results in the instantaneous formation of mono- and polyhydroxylated aromatic rings (PHA) and chromophoric mono- and polyhydroxylated quinones (PHQ), a different channel produces oxo- and dicarboxylic acids of low molecular weight (LMW). The cleavage of catechol occurs at the 1,2 carbon-carbon bond at the air-water interface through the formation of (1) an ozonide intermediate, (2) a hydroperoxide, and (3) cis,cis-muconic acid. However, variable [catechol] and [O3(g)] can affect the ratio of the primary products (cis,cis-muconic acid and trihydroxybenzenes) and higher order products observed (PHA, PHQ, and LMW oxo- and dicarboxylic acids). Secondary processing is confirmed by mass spectrometry, showing the production of crotonic, maleinaldehydic, maleic, glyoxylic, and oxalic acids. The proposed pathway can contribute precursors to aqueous SOA (AqSOA) formation, converting aromatic hydrocarbons into polyfunctional species widely found in tropospheric aerosols with light-absorbing brown carbon.

  15. Condensed-phase versus gas-phase ozonolysis of catechol: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Timothy J.; Medeiros, Nicholas; Hinrichs, Ryan Z.

    2012-08-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of volatile aromatic compounds contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), especially in urban environments. Aromatic SOA precursors typically require oxidation by hydroxyl radicals, although recent work suggests that ozonolysis of 1,2-benzenediols produces SOA in high yields. We employed attenuated total reflectance and transmission infrared spectroscopy to investigate the heterogeneous ozonolysis of catechol thin films. Formation of the dominant condensed-phase product muconic acid was highly dependent on relative humidity (RH) with few products detected below 40% RH and a maximum reactive uptake coefficient of γ = (5.6 ± 0.5) × 10-5 measured at 81.2% RH. We also performed quantum chemical calculations mapping out several reaction pathways for the homogeneous ozonolysis of gaseous catechol. 1,3-cycloaddition transition states were rate limiting with the most favorable activation energies at 45.4 and 47.1 kJ mol-1 [CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)] corresponding to addition across and adjacent to the diol Cdbnd C, respectively. Gas-phase rate constants, calculated using transition state theory, were six orders of magnitude slower than experimental values. In contrast, a calculated activation energy was lower for the ozonolysis of a catechol•H2O complex, which serves as a first-approximation for modeling the ozonolysis of condensed-phase catechol. These combined results suggests that homogeneous ozonolysis of catechol may not be important for the formation of secondary organic aerosols but that ozonolysis of surface-adsorbed catechol may contribute to SOA growth.

  16. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-03-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  17. The role of the interaction between oxygen and catechol in the pitting corrosion of steel in alkaline sulfide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.; Kelly, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    Black liquor corrosivity is shown to depend on the interaction of the chemical species present. Specifically, an interaction between oxygen and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene compounds (catechols) in alkaline sulfide solutions leads to a distinct increase in the severity of the attack. This increased corrosivity is explained in terms of the oxidation of catechol leading to increased open circuit potentials for steel. The importance of the ratio of sulfide concentration to hydroxyl concentration in the initiation of pitting is stressed. The possible role of catechol in stabilizing metastable pits is also discussed.

  18. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Chloroethyinitrosourea-derived ethano cytosine and adenine adducts are substrates for escherichia coli glycosylases excising analogous etheno adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Guliaev, Anton B.; Singer, B.; Hang, Bo

    2004-05-05

    Exocyclic ethano DNA adducts are saturated etheno ring derivatives formed mainly by therapeutic chloroethylnitrosoureas (CNUs), which are also mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this work, we report that two of the ethano adducts, 3,N{sup 4}-ethanocytosine (EC) and 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine (EA), are novel substrates for the Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (Mug) and 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA), respectively. It has been shown previously that Mug excises 3,N{sup 4}-ethenocytosine ({var_epsilon}C) and AlkA releases 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using synthetic oligonucleotides containing a single ethano or etheno adduct, we found that both glycosylases had a {approx}20-fold lower excision activity toward EC or EA than that toward their structurally analogous {var_epsilon}C or {var_epsilon}A adduct. Both enzymes were capable of excising the ethano base paired with any of the four natural bases, but with varying efficiencies. The Mug activity toward EC could be stimulated by E. coli endonuclease IV and, more efficiently, by exonuclease III. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed similar structural features of the etheno and ethano derivatives when present in DNA duplexes. However, also as shown by MD, the stacking interaction between the EC base and Phe 30 in the Mug active site is reduced as compared to the {var_epsilon}C base, which could account for the lower EC activity observed in this study.

  20. Estrogenic activity, estrogens, and calcium in runoff post-layer litter application from rainfall simulated events

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogens in runoff from fields fertilized with animal wastes have been implicated as endocrine disruptors of fish in recipient surface waters. The goal of this study was to measure estrogenic activity in runoff post-application of animal waste with the greatest potential for estrogenic activity - ...

  1. Estrogens and Cognition: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed Central

    Korol, Donna L.; Pisani, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens are becoming well known for their robust enhancement on cognition particularly for learning and memory that relies upon functioning of the hippocampus and related neural systems. What is also emerging is that estrogen modulation of cognition is not uniform, at times enhancing yet at other times impairing learning. This review explores the bidirectional effects of estrogens on learning from a multiple memory systems view, focusing on the hippocampus and striatum, whereby modulation by estrogens sorts according to task attributes and neural systems engaged during cognition. We highlight our findings that show the ability to solve hippocampus-sensitive tasks typically improves under relatively high estrogen status while the ability to solve striatum-sensitive tasks degrades with estrogen exposures. Though constrained by dose and timing of exposure, these opposing enhancements and impairments of cognition can be observed following treatments with different estrogenic compounds including the hormone estradiol, the isoflavone genistein found in soybeans, and agonists that are selective for specific estrogen receptors, suggesting that activation of a single receptor type is sufficient to produce the observed shifts in learning strategies. Using this multi-dimensional framework will allow us to extend our thinking of the relationship between estrogens and cognition to other brain regions and cognitive functions. PMID:26149525

  2. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals.

  3. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts in serum from coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C C; Vahakangas, K; Newman, M J; Trivers, G E; Shamsuddin, A; Sinopoli, N; Mann, D L; Wright, W E

    1985-01-01

    Coke oven workers are exposed to high levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and are at increased risk of lung cancer. Since B[a]P is enzymatically activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy(9 alpha, 10 alpha)epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]PDE) that forms adducts with DNA, the presence of these adducts was measured in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and enzyme radioimmunoassay. Approximately two-thirds of the workers had detectable levels of B[a]PDE-DNA adducts. Antibodies to the DNA adducts were also found in the serum of 27% of the workers. B[a]PDE-DNA adducts were not detectable in lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts were not detected in sera from a control group of nonsmoking laboratory workers. DNA adducts and/or antibodies to the adducts indicate exposure to B[a]P and its metabolic activation to the carcinogenic metabolite that covalently binds to and damages DNA. Detection of adducts and antibodies to them may also be useful as internal dosimeters of the pathobiological effective doses of chemical carcinogens. PMID:2413443

  4. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  5. [Methodology of capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence immunoassay for highly sensitive detection of DNA adducts].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailin; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Tao; Feng, Feng; Wang, Chao; Gao, Haiyan

    2009-09-01

    DNA adducts is a very important class of biomarkers of human exposure to carcinogen, cancer risk assessment, and population susceptibility. There is a lack of a technology with a sufficient sensitivity to detect trace DNA adducts related to low environmental exposure levels. We attempt to develop a highly sensitive assay for the detection of DNA adducts by combining capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) with immunochemical recognition, or CE-LIF immunoassay. This review describes the recent research progress on CE-LIF instrument construction and the methodology of CE-LIF immunoassay for the detection of DNA adducts. The methodology study mainly involves the synthesis and characterization of the adduct containing DNA fluorescent probes, the interaction of DNA adducts and antibody, stabilization of trace DNA adducts-antibody complexes, and DNA-driven focusing.

  6. The role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Sui, M; Zhang, H; Fan, W

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major obstacles limiting the success of cancer chemotherapy. Biological mechanisms contributing to drug resistance may be present de novo and related to inherent features or may be raised after exposure to anticancer drugs. In recent years, both clinical observations and experimental studies suggested that steroid hormones and their receptors might also affect the therapeutic efficacy of antineoplastic drugs. Estrogens and estrogen receptors (ER) are well-known for their critical roles in the development and progression of breast tumors. It has long been known that breast tumors expressing ERα protein (ERα+) behave in a fundamentally different fashion than ERα-negative (ERα-) tumors with regard to their responses to hormonal therapy. Data obtained from both laboratory and clinical investigations suggested that some chemotherapeutic agents are clearly less effective in ERα+ tumors than ERα- tumors, although the mechanisms of ERα-mediated chemoresistance are not entirely clear. Moreover, recent studies from our laboratory and others demonstrated that the combination of antiestrogenic agents with chemotherapeutic drugs is of significant therapeutic benefit in ERα+ breast cancer over chemotherapy alone. In addition, the ERα-derived peptides, microRNAs specifically targeting ERα, as well as agents targeting estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) may hold promise to sensitize ERα+ breast tumors to chemotherapy. Considering that ERs are expressed in ˜ 65% of human breast cancer, the ERα-mediated chemoresistance has become a big challenge for clinical treatment. The hope to overcome this drug resistance relies on further clarification of specific pathways or molecules contributing to the resistance. More exhaustive and systematic studies are essential to reach deeper understandings on the underlying mechanisms and to develop novel approaches to sensitize ERα+ breast tumors to chemotherapy.

  7. Elucidation of reaction scheme describing malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-protein adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Tuma, D J; Kearley, M L; Thiele, G M; Worrall, S; Haver, A; Klassen, L W; Sorrell, M F

    2001-07-01

    Malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde react together with proteins and form hybrid protein conjugates designated as MAA adducts, which have been detected in livers of ethanol-fed animals. Our previous studies have shown that MAA adducts are comprised of two distinct products. One adduct is composed of two molecules of malondialdehyde and one molecule of acetaldehyde and was identified as the 4-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbaldehyde derivative of an amino group (MDHDC adduct). The other adduct is a 1:1 adduct of malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde and was identified as the 2-formyl-3-(alkylamino)butanal derivative of an amino group (FAAB adduct). In this study, information on the mechanism of MAA adduct formation was obtained, focusing on whether the FAAB adduct serves as a precursor for the MDHDC adduct. Upon the basis of chemical analysis and NMR spectroscopy, two initial reaction steps appear to be a prerequisite for MDHDC formation. One step involves the reaction of one molecule of malondialdehyde and one of acetaldehyde with an amino group of a protein to form the FAAB product, while the other step involves the generation of a malondialdehyde-enamine. It appears that generation of the MDHDC adduct requires the FAAB moiety to be transferred to the nitrogen of the MDA-enamine. For efficient reaction of FAAB with the enamine to take place, additional experiments indicated that these two intermediates likely must be in positions on the protein of close proximity to each other. Further studies showed that the incubation of liver proteins from ethanol-fed rats with MDA resulted in a marked generation of MDHDC adducts, indicating the presence of a pool of FAAB adducts in the liver of ethanol-fed animals. Overall, these findings show that MDHDC-protein adduct formation occurs via the reaction of the FAAB moiety with a malondialdehyde-enamine, and further suggest that a similar mechanism may be operative in vivo in the liver during prolonged ethanol consumption.

  8. Use of haemoglobin adducts in exposure monitoring and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J

    2002-10-05

    Many industrial bulk chemicals are oxiranes or alkenes that are easily metabolised to oxiranes in mammalian systems. Many oxiranes may react with DNA and are therefore mutagenic in vitro. Some oxiranes have been shown to be carcinogenic in rodents in vivo as well. Despite the very limited evidence of the carcinogenicity of oxiranes in humans, they should be considered potential human carcinogens. As a consequence, exposure to these compounds should be minimised and controlled. Twenty-five years ago, Ehrenberg and co-workers suggested that exposure to oxiranes might be determined through the measurement of the adducts they form with haemoglobin (Hb). Ten years later, a modification of the Edman degradation was developed at Stockholm University that allowed determination of adducts with the N-terminal valine of Hb by GC-MS. In our laboratory, this methodology was modified and adapted for analysis on an industrial scale. Since 1987, exposure of operators in our facilities to ethylene oxide (EO) has been routinely monitored by determination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine in Hb. Biological monitoring programmes for propylene oxide (PO) and 1,3-butadiene (BD) were developed later. In this review, the methodology and its results are discussed as a tool in human risk assessment of industrial chemicals. Two major advantages of Hb adduct determinations in risk assessment are (1) the qualitative information on the structure of reactive intermediates that may be obtained through the mass spectrometry, which may provide insight in the molecular toxicology of compounds such as BD, and (2) the possibility of reliable determination of exposure over periods of several months with limited number of samples for compounds such as ethylene oxide (EO), propylene oxide (PO) and BD which form stable adducts with Hb. Since good correlations between the airborne concentrations of these chemicals with their respective adducts have been established, Hb adducts can also be used to quantitate

  9. UVR exposure sensitizes keratinocytes to DNA adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sudhir; Kekatpure, Vikram D; Judson, Benjamin L; Rifkind, Arleen B; Granstein, Richard D; Boyle, Jay O; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Guttenplan, Joseph B; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2009-10-01

    UV radiation (UVR) and exposure to tobacco smoke, a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), have been linked to skin carcinogenesis. UVR-mediated activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) stimulates the transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAH to genotoxic metabolites. We determined whether UVR exposure sensitized human keratinocytes to PAH-induced DNA adduct formation. UVR exposure induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in HaCaT cells, an effect that was mimicked by photooxidized tryptophan (aTRP) and FICZ, a component of aTRP. UVR exposure or pretreatment with aTRP or FICZ also sensitized cells to benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA adduct formation. alphaNF, an AhR antagonist, suppressed UVR-, aTRP-, and FICZ-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited B[a]P-induced DNA adduct formation. Treatment with 17-AAG, an Hsp90 inhibitor, caused a marked decrease in levels of AhR; inhibited UVR-, aTRP-, and FICZ-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1; and blocked the sensitization of HaCaT cells to B[a]P-induced DNA adduct formation. FICZ has been suggested to be a physiologic ligand of the AhR that may have systemic effects. Hence, studies of FICZ were also carried out in MSK-Leuk1 cells, a model of oral leukoplakia. Pretreatment with alpha-naphthoflavone or 17-AAG blocked FICZ-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and suppressed the increased B[a]P-induced DNA adduct formation. Collectively, these results suggest that sunlight may activate AhR signaling and thereby sensitize cells to PAH-mediated DNA adduct formation. Antagonists of AhR signaling may have a role in the chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis.

  10. Adducts of mitomycin C and DNA in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells: effects of hypoxia and dicumarol on adduct patterns.

    PubMed

    Bizanek, R; Chowdary, D; Arai, H; Kasai, M; Hughes, C S; Sartorelli, A C; Rockwell, S; Tomasz, M

    1993-11-01

    6-CH3-3H-Mitomycin C (MC) was used to identify MC-DNA adducts formed in EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells. DNA was isolated from cells treated with 3H-MC. The DNA was enzymatically digested, and the digest was analyzed for 3H-labeled adducts by high performance liquid chromatography. All four major adducts previously isolated and characterized in cell-free systems were detected: two different monoadducts and two bisadducts forming DNA-interstrand and DNA-intrastrand cross-links, respectively. No MC-DNA adducts other than the DNA interstrand cross-link had been shown previously to be formed in living cells. A MC-deoxyguanosine adduct of unknown structure was also detected in DNA from EMT6 cells; this adduct was also formed with purified EMT6 DNA. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was further applied to study the relationship between DNA adducts and cytotoxicity. The number of adducts increased with the concentration of MC in both aerobic and hypoxic cells. At a constant drug level, more adducts were observed in cells treated under hypoxic conditions than in cells treated aerobically; at 2 microM MC, 4.8 x 10(-7) and 3.1 x 10(-7) adducts/nucleotide were observed under hypoxic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The increased adduct frequency under hypoxia correlates with the known increased cytotoxicity of MC to EMT6 cells under hypoxic conditions. In addition, a higher ratio of cross-linked adducts to monoadducts was observed in hypoxic cells. The high performance liquid chromatography techniques were also used to examine the effects of dicumarol (DIC) on adduct patterns in cells treated simultaneously with 3H-MC. The MC-DNA adduct frequencies in DIC-treated cells were increased 1.5-fold under hypoxia and decreased 1.6-fold under aerobic conditions from those observed without DIC. This finding correlates with the known DIC-induced increase and decrease in the cytotoxicity of MC in hypoxic and aerobic EMT6 cells, respectively. The monoadduct resulting

  11. Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: possible link to paraben estrogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J; Harville, Heather M; Zhang, Yanhua; Ackermann, Chrisita; Voorman, Richard L

    2007-04-11

    Parabens (p-hydroxybenzoate esters) are a group of widely used preservatives in topically applied cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Parabens display weak associations with the estrogen receptors in vitro or in cell based models, but do exhibit estrogenic effects in animal models. It is our hypothesis that parabens exert their estrogenic effects, in part, by elevating levels of estrogens through inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferases (SULTs) in skin. We report here the results of a structure-activity-relationship of parabens as inhibitors of estrogen sulfation in human skin cytosolic fractions and normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Similar to reports of paraben estrogenicity and estrogen receptor affinity, the potency of SULT inhibition increased as the paraben ester chain length increased. Butylparaben was found to be the most potent of the parabens in skin cytosol, yielding an IC(50) value of 37+/-5 microM. Butylparaben blocked the skin cytosol sulfation of estradiol and estrone, but not the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone. The parabens were also tested as inhibitors of SULT activity in a cellular system, with normal human epidermal keratinocytes. The potency of butylparaben increased three-fold in these cells relative to the IC(50) value from skin cytosol. Overall, these results suggest chronic topical application of parabens may lead to prolonged estrogenic effects in skin as a result of inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase activity. Accordingly, the skin anti-aging benefits of many topical cosmetics and pharmaceuticals could be derived, in part, from the estrogenicity of parabens.

  12. Polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen and progesterone metabolism and mammographic density changes in women randomized to postmenopausal hormone therapy: results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah J; Mack, Wendy J; Van Den Berg, David; Pike, Malcolm C; Ingles, Sue A; Haiman, Christopher A; Wang, Wei; Parisky, Yuri R; Hodis, Howard N; Ursin, Giske

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer, and can be modified by hormonal exposures. Identifying genetic variants that determine increases in mammographic density in hormone users may be important in understanding hormonal carcinogenesis of the breast. Methods We obtained mammograms and DNA from 232 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 75 years who had participated in one of two randomized, double-blind clinical trials with estrogen therapy (104 women, taking 1 mg/day of micronized 17β-estradiol, E2), combined estrogen and progestin therapy (34 women, taking 17β-estradiol and 5 mg/day of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 12 days/month) or matching placebos (94 women). Mammographic percentage density (MPD) was measured on baseline and 12-month mammograms with a validated computer-assisted method. We evaluated polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen metabolism (catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT (Val158Met)), cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 (Val432Leu)), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 (<7/≥ 7 TA repeats))) and progesterone metabolism (aldo-keto reductase 1C4 (AKR1C4 (Leu311Val))) with changes in MPD. Results The adjusted mean change in MPD was +4.6% in the estrogen therapy arm and +7.2% in the combined estrogen and progestin therapy arm, compared with +0.02% in the placebo arm (P = 0.0001). None of the genetic variants predicted mammographic density changes in women using estrogen therapy. Both the AKR1C4 and the CYP1B1 polymorphisms predicted mammographic density change in the combined estrogen and progestin therapy group (P < 0.05). In particular, the eight women carrying one or two low-activity AKR1C4 Val alleles showed a significantly greater increase in MPD (16.7% and 29.3%) than women homozygous for the Leu allele (4.0%). Conclusion Although based on small numbers, these findings suggest that the magnitude of the increase in mammographic density in women using combined estrogen and progestin therapy may be

  13. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and

  14. Androgen, Estrogen and the Bone Marrow Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have accomplished the following: 1) Characterized androgen responsive genes in mouse bone marrow (BM) via...castration (androgen ablation) and estrogen stimulation. 2) Measurements of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and of genes that regulate the local... gene expression in the bone marrow. In males, the main source of estrogen is through conversion of androgen by aromatase. We postulate that gene

  15. Estrogenic Potentials of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2017-09-25

    Estrogen, a steroid hormone, is associated with several human activities, including environmental, industrial, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical fields. In this review paper, estrogenic activity associated with traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is discussed first by focusing on the assays needed to detect estrogenic activity (animal test, cell assay, ligand-binding assay, protein assay, reporter-gene assay, transcription assay and yeast two-hybrid assay), and then, their sources, the nature of activities (estrogenic or anti-estrogenic, or other types), and pathways/functions, along with the assay used to detect the activity, which is followed by a summary of effective chemicals found in or associated with TCM. Applications of estrogens in TCM are then discussed by a comprehensive search of the literature, which include basic study/pathway analysis, cell functions, diseases/symptoms and medicine/supplements. Discrepancies and conflicting cases about estrogenicity of TCM among assays or between TCM and their effective chemicals, are focused on to enlarge estrogenic potentials of TCM by referring to omic knowledge such as transcriptome, proteome, glycome, chemome, cellome, ligandome, interactome and effectome.

  16. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  17. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  18. Estrogen, aging and the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Stice, James P.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Pechenino, Angela S.; Knowlton, Anne A.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is a powerful hormone with pleiotropic effects. Estrogens have potent antioxidant effects and are able to reduce inflammation, induce vasorelaxation and alter gene expression in both the vasculature and the heart. Estrogen treatment of cultured cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells rapidly activates NFκB, induces heat-shock protein (HSP)-72, a potent intracellular protective protein, and protects cells from simulated ischemia. In in vivo models, estrogens protect against ischemia and trauma/hemorrhage. Estrogens may decrease the expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase, which has deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system through metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Natural (endogenous) estrogens in premenopausal women appear to protect against cardiovascular disease and yet controlled clinical trials have not indicated a benefit from estrogen replacement postmenopause. Much remains to be understood in regards to the many properties of this powerful hormone and how changes in this hormone interact with aging-associated changes. The unexpected negative results of trials of estrogen replacement postmenopause probably arise from our lack of understanding of the many effects of this hormone. PMID:19371207

  19. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  20. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many endocrine disruptors are estrogenic and affect the normal estrogen signaling pathways. However, ERs can also serve as therapeutic targets for various medical conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and ER-positive breast cancer. Because of the decades-long interest in the safety and therapeutic utility of estrogenic chemicals, a large number of chemicals have been assayed for estrogenic activity, but these data exist in various sources and different formats that restrict the ability of regulatory and industry scientists to utilize them fully for assessing risk-benefit. To address this issue, we have developed an Estrogenic Activity Database (EADB; http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/ BioinformaticsTools/EstrogenicActivityDatabaseEADB/default. htm) and made it freely available to the public. EADB contains 18,114 estrogenic activity data points collected for 8212 chemicals tested in 1284 binding, reporter gene, cell proliferation, and in vivo assays in 11 different species. The chemicals cover a broad chemical structure space and the data span a wide range of activities. A set of tools allow users to access EADB and evaluate potential endocrine activity of

  1. Biocidal properties of metal oxide nanoparticles and their halogen adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggstrom, Johanna A.; Klabunde, Kenneth J.; Marchin, George L.

    2010-03-01

    Nanosized metal oxide halogen adducts possess high surface reactivities due to their unique surface morphologies. These adducts have been used as reactive materials against vegetative cells, such as Escherichia coli as well as bacterial endospores, including Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis (Δ Sterne strain). Here we report high biocidal activities against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and endospores. The procedure consists of a membrane method. Transmission electron micrographs are used to compare nanoparticle-treated and untreated cells and spores. It is proposed that the abrasive character of the particles, the oxidative power of the halogens/interhalogens, and the electrostatic attraction between the metal oxides and the biological material are responsible for high biocidal activities. While some activity was demonstrated, bacterial endospores were more resistant to nanoparticle treatment than the vegetative bacteria.

  2. Proteomic analysis of adducted butyrylcholinesterase for biomonitoring organophosphorus exposures

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Hsieh, Edward J.; Richter, Rebecca J.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds include a broad group of toxic chemicals such as insecticides, chemical warfare agents and antiwear agents. The liver cytochromes P450 bioactivate many OPs to potent inhibitors of serine hydrolases. Cholinesterases were the first OP targets discovered and are the most studied. They are used to monitor human exposures to OP compounds. However, the assay that is currently used has limitations. The mechanism of action of OP compounds is the inhibition of serine hydrolases by covalently modifying their active-site serine. After structural rearrangement, the complex OP inhibitor-enzyme is irreversible and will remain in circulation until the modified enzyme is degraded. Mass spectrometry is a sensitive technology for analyzing protein modifications, such as OP-adducted enzymes. These analyses also provide some information about the nature of the OP adduct. Our aim is to develop high-throughput protocols for monitoring OP exposures using mass spectrometry. PMID:23123252

  3. Estrogens and Stem Cells in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Mariangela; Catalano, Veronica; Scavo, Emanuela; Bonanno, Marco; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries highlight the emerging role of estrogens in the initiation and progression of different malignancies through their interaction with stem cell (SC) compartment. Estrogens play a relevant role especially for those tumors bearing a gender disparity in incidence and aggressiveness, as occurs for most thyroid diseases. Although several experimental lines suggest that estrogens promote thyroid cell proliferation and invasion, their precise contribution in SC compartment still remains unclear. This review underlines the interplay between hormones and thyroid function, which could help to complete the puzzle of gender discrepancy in thyroid malignancies. Defining the association between estrogen receptors’ status and signaling pathways by which estrogens exert their effects on thyroid cells is a potential tool that provides important insights in pathogenetic mechanisms of thyroid tumors. PMID:25120531

  4. [Estrogen receptors and the mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Barrón, A; Bermejo, L; Castro, I

    1997-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, regulate some genes involved in the growth, proliferation and differentiation of the mammary-gland in animals and humans. In the last years, the presence or absence of the nuclear estrogen receptor has been used by clinicians as a marker for tumor malignancy, as a prognostic index or as an important parameter for hormonal therapy with anti-estrogenic compounds of some hormone-dependent breast cancers. This review shows some advances in the knowledge of the structure, function, molecular mechanisms of estrogenic activity, and interaction with proteins like protooncogenes and growth factors. Also, we refer to the role of the estrogen receptor in the physiophatology of breast cancer.

  5. Finite Element Biomechanics of Optic Nerve Sheath Traction in Adduction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Park, Joseph; Demer, Joseph L

    2017-10-01

    Historical emphasis on increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in the pathogenesis of glaucoma has been challenged by the recognition that many patients lack abnormally elevated IOP. We employed finite element analysis (FEA) to infer contribution to optic neuropathy from tractional deformation of the optic nerve head (ONH) and lamina cribrosa (LC) by extraocular muscle (EOM) counterforce exerted when optic nerve (ON) redundancy becomes exhausted in adduction. We characterized assumed isotropic Young's modulus of fresh adult bovine ON, ON sheath, and peripapillary and peripheral sclera by tensile elongation in arbitrary orientations of five specimens of each tissue to failure under physiological temperature and humidity. Physical dimensions of the FEA were scaled to human histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and used to predict stress and strain during adduction 6 deg beyond ON straightening at multiple levels of IOP. Young's modulus of ON sheath of 44.6 ± 5.6 MPa (standard error of mean) greatly exceeded that of ON at 5.2 ± 0.4 MPa, peripapillary sclera at 5.5 ± 0.8 MPa, and peripheral sclera at 14.0 ± 2.3 MPa. FEA indicated that adduction induced maximum stress and strain in the temporal ONH. In the temporal LC, the maximum stress was 180 kPa, and the maximum strain was ninefold larger than produced by IOP elevation to 45 mm Hg. The simulation suggests that ON sheath traction by adduction concentrates far greater mechanical stress and strain in the ONH region than does elevated IOP, supporting the novel concept that glaucomatous optic neuropathy may result at least partly from external traction on the ON, rather than exclusively on pressure on the ON exerted from within the eye.

  6. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  7. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  8. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  9. 2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOEpatents

    Soloway, Albert H.; Barth, Rolf F.; Anisuzzaman, Abul K.; Alam, Fazlul; Tjarks, Werner

    1992-01-01

    There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

  10. Development of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase-specific primers for monitoring bioremediation by competitive quantitative PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Mesarch, M.B.; Nakatsu, C.H.; Nies, L.

    2000-02-01

    Benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, naphthalene, and biphenyl are among a group of compounds that have at least one reported pathway for biodegradation involving catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes. Thus, detection of the corresponding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes can serve as a basis for identifying and quantifying bacteria that have these catabolic abilities. Primes that can successfully amplify a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene fragment from eight different bacteria are described. The identities of the amplicons were confirmed by hybridization with a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase probe. The detection limit was 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} gene copies, which was lowered to 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 1} gene copies of hybridization. Using the dioxygenase-specific primers, an increase in catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes was detected in petroleum-amended soils. The dioxygenase genes were enumerated by competitive quantitative PCR and a 163-bp competitor that was amplified using the same primers. Target and competitor sequences had identical amplification kinetics. Potential PCR inhibitors that could coextract with DNA, nonamplifying DNA, soil factors (humics), and soil pollutants (toluene) did not impact enumeration. Therefore, this technique can be used to accurately and reproducibly quantify catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes in complex environments such as petroleum-contaminated soil. Direct, non-cultivation-based molecular techniques for detecting and enumerating microbial pollutant-biodegrading genes in environmental samples are powerful tools for monitoring bioremediation and developing field evidence in support of natural attenuation.

  11. Surface charge-transfer complex formation of catechol on titanium(IV) oxide and the application to bio-sensing.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yusuke; Hori, Hiroshige; Taga, Atsushi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-11-15

    Adsorption properties of 2-hydroxyphenol (catechol) on TiO2 particles has been studied at 298K. The adsorption proceeds from the aqueous solution with the Langmuir type behavior. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of the catechol-adsorbed TiO2 suggested that catechol is adsorbed on TiO2 solution via the chelation to the surface Ti ions. The adsorption induces a strong absorption in the whole visible region, of which intensity increases with an increase in the adsorption amount. Photoelectrochemical experiments and molecular orbital calculations indicate that the absorption stems from the charge-transfer (CT) transition from the HOMO of catechol to the conduction band of TiO2. Time courses for the adsorption of catechol on mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline film-coated glass was traced by measuring the change in the absorbance of the CT band, and analyzed on the basis of the Langmuir model. This study would present a new simple technique for sensing of important biomolecules bearing the catechol moiety.

  12. Evolution of CO{sub 2} during birnessite-induced oxidation of {sup 14}C-labeled catechol

    SciTech Connect

    Majcher, E.H.; Chorover, J.; Bollag, J.M.; Huang, P.M.

    2000-02-01

    Phenolic compounds undergo several transformation processes in soil and water (i.e., partial degradation, mineralization, and polymerization), many of which have been attributed primarily to biological activity. Results from previous work indicate that naturally occurring Mn oxides are also capable of oxidizing phenolic compounds. In the present study, {sup 14}C-labeled catechol was reacted with birnessite (manganese oxide) in aqueous suspension of pH 4. The mass of catechol-derived c in solid, solution, and gas phases was quantified as a function of time. Between 5 and 16% of the total catechol C was liberated as CO{sub 2} from oxidation and abiotic ring cleavage under various conditions. Most of the {sup 14}C (55--83%) was incorporated into the solid phase in the form of stable organic reaction products whereas solution phase {sup 14}C concentrations increased from 16 to 39% with a doubling of total catechol added. Polymerization and CO{sub 2} evolution appear to be competitive pathways in the transformation of catechol since their relative importance was strongly dependent on initial birnessite-catechol reaction conditions. Solid phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra are consistent with the presence of phenolic, quinone, and aromatic ring cleavage products. Carbon dioxide release appears to be limited by availability of reactive birnessite surface sites and it is diminished in the presence of polymerized reaction products.

  13. Effects of biochar and the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on fate of (14)C-catechol in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Ji, Rong; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-01

    Both biochar and earthworms can exert influence on behaviors of soil-borne monomeric phenols in soil; however, little was known about the combined effects of biochar and earthworm activities on fate of these chemicals in soil. Using (14)C-catechol as a representative, the mineralization, transformation and residue distribution of phenolic humus monomer in soil amended with different amounts of biochar (0%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5%) without/with the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi were investigated. The results showed biochar at amendment rate <0.5% did not affect (14)C-catechol mineralization, whereas 5% biochar amendment significantly inhibited the mineralization. Earthworms did not affect the mineralization of (14)C-catechol in soil amended with <0.5% biochar, but significantly enhanced the mineralization in 5% biochar amended soil when they were present in soil for 9 d. When earthworms were removed from the soil, the mineralization of (14)C-catechol was significantly lower than that of in earthworm-free soil indicating that (14)C-catecholic residues were stabilized during their passage through earthworm gut. The assimilation of (14)C by earthworms was low (1.2%), and was significantly enhanced by biochar amendment, which was attributed to the release of biochar-associated (14)C-catecholic residues during gut passage of earthworm.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of catechols in human subjects intravenously receiving XueBiJing injection, an emerging antiseptic herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuxue; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Fengqing; Huang, Yühong; Jia, Weiwei; Olaleye, Olajide E; Li, Meijuan; Li, Yanfen; Li, Chuan

    2016-02-01

    XueBiJing injection, prepared from a five-herb combination, is extensively used as add-on therapy in routine sepsis care in China. Catechols, derived from the component herb Salvia miltiorrhiza roots (Danshen), are probably important because of their reported antiseptic properties. This study was designed to characterize pharmacokinetics of major circulating Danshen catechols in human subjects intravenously receiving the injection at the label doses. A total of 17 Danshen catechols were detected in XueBiJing injection (content level, 0.1-139.3 μmol/L). After dosing, tanshinol and salvianolic acid B exhibited relatively high levels of systemic exposure with mean elimination half-lives of 0.38 and 0.29 h, respectively. The total plasma clearance and apparent volume of distribution at steady state of tanshinol were 1.07 L/h/kg and 0.40 L/kg, respectively, whereas those of salvianolic acid B were 0.43 L/h/kg and 0.13 L/kg, respectively. Protocatechuic acid and five other catechols were also detected in plasma but at low exposure levels. Although protocatechuic aldehyde had the highest content level in the injection, like the remaining eight catechols, it was undetected in plasma. Protocatechuic aldehyde was extensively converted into protocatechuic acid and other metabolites. The information gained here facilitates understanding the roles of Danshen catechols in therapeutic actions of XueBiJing injection.

  15. Natural compounds containing a catechol group enhance the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kiyota, Naoko; Tsurushima, Keiichiro; Yoshitomi, Makiko; Mera, Katsumi; Sakashita, Naomi; Takeya, Motohiro; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Araki, Tomohiro; Nohara, Toshihiro; Nagai, Ryoji

    2011-04-01

    Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation is a potential strategy for the prevention of clinical diabetes complications. Screening for new AGE inhibitors revealed several natural compounds that inhibited the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a major antigenic AGE structure, whereas natural compounds containing a catechol group, such as gallic acid and epicatechin, significantly enhanced CML formation. A similar enhancing effect was also observed by culturing THP-1 macrophages in the presence of catechol compounds. Although 4-methylcatechol significantly enhanced CML formation from glycated HSA (gHSA), a model for Amadori proteins, analogues of catechol such as 5-methylresorcinol and methylhydroquinone showed no enhancing effect. Even though 1mM 4-methylcatechol, epicatechin, and gallic acid significantly enhanced CML formation from gHSA, it was significantly inhibited by decreasing their concentration. The enhancing effect of 1mM catechol compounds was inhibited in the presence of the glutathione peroxidase system, thus demonstrating that hydrogen peroxide generated from catechol compounds plays an important role in the enhancement of CML formation. Furthermore, administration of 500mg/kg/day epicatechin to STZ-induced diabetic mice for 45days enhanced CML accumulation at the surface area of gastric epithelial cells in the stomach. This study provides the first evidence that high amounts of catechol-containing structures enhance oxidative stress, thus leading to enhanced CML formation, and this phenomenon may explain the paradoxical effect that some flavonoids have on redox status.

  16. Development of Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase-Specific Primers for Monitoring Bioremediation by Competitive Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Mesarch, Matthew B.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Nies, Loring

    2000-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, naphthalene, and biphenyl are among a group of compounds that have at least one reported pathway for biodegradation involving catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes. Thus, detection of the corresponding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes can serve as a basis for identifying and quantifying bacteria that have these catabolic abilities. Primers that can successfully amplify a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene fragment from eight different bacteria are described. The identities of the amplicons were confirmed by hybridization with a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase probe. The detection limit was 102 to 103 gene copies, which was lowered to 100 to 101 gene copies by hybridization. Using the dioxygenase-specific primers, an increase in catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes was detected in petroleum-amended soils. The dioxygenase genes were enumerated by competitive quantitative PCR with a 163-bp competitor that was amplified using the same primers. Target and competitor sequences had identical amplification kinetics. Potential PCR inhibitors that could coextract with DNA, nonamplifying DNA, soil factors (humics), and soil pollutants (toluene) did not impact enumeration. Therefore, this technique can be used to accurately and reproducibly quantify catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes in complex environments such as petroleum-contaminated soil. Direct, non-cultivation-based molecular techniques for detecting and enumerating microbial pollutant-biodegrading genes in environmental samples are powerful tools for monitoring bioremediation and developing field evidence in support of natural attenuation. PMID:10653735

  17. pH-dependent cross-linking of catechols through oxidation via Fe(3+) and potential implications for mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E; Barrett, Devin G; Miller, Dusty R; Kurutz, Josh W; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2014-01-01

    The mussel byssus is a remarkable attachment structure that is formed by injection molding and rapid in-situ hardening of concentrated solutions of proteins enriched in the catecholic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA). Fe(3+), found in high concentrations in the byssus, has been speculated to participate in redox reactions with DOPA that lead to protein polymerization, however direct evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. Using small molecule catechols, DOPA-containing peptides, and native mussel foot proteins, we report the first direct observation of catechol oxidation and polymerization accompanied by reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). In the case of the small molecule catechol, we identified two dominant dimer species and characterized their connectivities by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the C6-C6 and C5-C6 linked species as the major and minor products, respectively. For the DOPA-containing peptide, we studied the pH dependence of the reaction and demonstrated that catechol polymerization occurs readily at low pH, but is increasingly diminished in favor of metal-catechol coordination interactions at higher pH. Finally, we demonstrate that Fe(3+) can induce cross-links in native byssal mussel proteins mefp-1 and mcfp-1 at acidic pH. Based on these findings, we discuss the potential implications to the chemistry of mussel adhesion.

  18. A Novel Sensitive Method to Measure Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity Unravels the Presence of This Activity in Extracellular Vesicles Released by Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Casal, Enriqueta; Palomo, Laura; Cabrera, Diana; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear need for drug treatments to be selected according to the characteristics of an individual patient, in order to improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of adverse drug reactions. One of the main enzymes to take into account in pharmacogenomics is catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catechols and catecholamines, like the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Although, most of this enzyme is associated to intracellular vesicles, recently it has also been detected in extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes and in serum circulating vesicles. COMT has implications in many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue, pain response, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. Remarkably, genetic variations of COMT affect its activity and are associated to various human disorders from psychiatric diseases to estrogen-induced cancers. Consequently, the establishment of new methods to evaluate COMT activity is an important aspect to investigate the biology of this drug-metabolizing enzyme. Herein, we have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine COMT activity. We first optimized the activity in rat liver incubated with two different substrates; norepinephrine and dopamine. The enzymatically formed products (normetanephrine and 3-methoxytyramine, respectively) were extracted by solid-phase extraction using weak cation exchange cartridges, chromatographically separated, and detected and quantified using a mass spectrometer. The range of quantitation for both products was from 0.005 to 25 μg/mL. This methodology offers acceptable recovery for both enzymatic products (≥75%) and good accuracy and precision (≤15%). The lower limit of quantifications were 0.01 and 0.005 μM for 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine, respectively. Importantly, this sensitive assay was able to detect the presence of

  19. A Novel Sensitive Method to Measure Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity Unravels the Presence of This Activity in Extracellular Vesicles Released by Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Enriqueta; Palomo, Laura; Cabrera, Diana; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear need for drug treatments to be selected according to the characteristics of an individual patient, in order to improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of adverse drug reactions. One of the main enzymes to take into account in pharmacogenomics is catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catechols and catecholamines, like the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Although, most of this enzyme is associated to intracellular vesicles, recently it has also been detected in extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes and in serum circulating vesicles. COMT has implications in many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue, pain response, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. Remarkably, genetic variations of COMT affect its activity and are associated to various human disorders from psychiatric diseases to estrogen-induced cancers. Consequently, the establishment of new methods to evaluate COMT activity is an important aspect to investigate the biology of this drug-metabolizing enzyme. Herein, we have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine COMT activity. We first optimized the activity in rat liver incubated with two different substrates; norepinephrine and dopamine. The enzymatically formed products (normetanephrine and 3-methoxytyramine, respectively) were extracted by solid-phase extraction using weak cation exchange cartridges, chromatographically separated, and detected and quantified using a mass spectrometer. The range of quantitation for both products was from 0.005 to 25 μg/mL. This methodology offers acceptable recovery for both enzymatic products (≥75%) and good accuracy and precision (≤15%). The lower limit of quantifications were 0.01 and 0.005 μM for 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine, respectively. Importantly, this sensitive assay was able to detect the presence of

  20. In Vivo Effects of Ozone Exposure on Protein Adduct Formation by 1-Nitronaphthalene in Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Åsa M.; Boland, Bridget C.; Isbell, Margaret; Morin, Dexter; Wegesser, Teresa C.; Plopper, Charles G.; Buckpitt, Alan R.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of serious photochemical smog events is steadily growing in urban environments around the world. The electrophilic metabolites of 1-nitronaphthalene (1-NN), a common air pollutant in urban areas, have been shown to bind covalently to proteins. 1-NN specifically targets the airway epithelium, and the toxicity is synergized by prior long-term ozone exposure in rat. In this study we investigated the formation of 1-NN protein adducts in the rat airway epithelium in vivo and examined how prior long-term ozone exposure affects adduct formation. Eight adducted proteins, several involved in cellular antioxidant defense, were identified. The extent of adduction of each protein was calculated, and two proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and biliverdin reductase, were adducted at high specific activities (0.36–0.70 and 1.0 nmol adduct/nmol protein). Furthermore, the N-terminal region of calreticulin, known as vasostatin, was adducted only in ozone-exposed animals. Although vasostatin was adducted at relatively low specific activity (0.01 nmol adduct/nmol protein), the adduction only in ozone-exposed animals makes it a candidate protein for elucidating the synergistic toxicity between ozone and 1-NN. These studies identified in vivo protein targets for reactive 1-NN metabolites that are potentially associated with the mechanism of 1-NN toxicity and the synergistic effects of ozone. PMID:15845863

  1. In vivo effects of ozone exposure on protein adduct formation by 1-nitronaphthalene in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, Asa M; Boland, Bridget C; Isbell, Margaret; Morin, Dexter; Wegesser, Teresa C; Plopper, Charles G; Buckpitt, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of serious photochemical smog events is steadily growing in urban environments around the world. The electrophilic metabolites of 1-nitronaphthalene (1-NN), a common air pollutant in urban areas, have been shown to bind covalently to proteins. 1-NN specifically targets the airway epithelium, and the toxicity is synergized by prior long-term ozone exposure in rat. In this study we investigated the formation of 1-NN protein adducts in the rat airway epithelium in vivo and examined how prior long-term ozone exposure affects adduct formation. Eight adducted proteins, several involved in cellular antioxidant defense, were identified. The extent of adduction of each protein was calculated, and two proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and biliverdin reductase, were adducted at high specific activities (0.36-0.70 and 1.0 nmol adduct/nmol protein). Furthermore, the N-terminal region of calreticulin, known as vasostatin, was adducted only in ozone-exposed animals. Although vasostatin was adducted at relatively low specific activity (0.01 nmol adduct/nmol protein), the adduction only in ozone-exposed animals makes it a candidate protein for elucidating the synergistic toxicity between ozone and 1-NN. These studies identified in vivo protein targets for reactive 1-NN metabolites that are potentially associated with the mechanism of 1-NN toxicity and the synergistic effects of ozone.

  2. Multiple DNA adducts in lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers determined by sup 32 P-postlabeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, G.D.; Thompson, C.L.; Walker, M.P.; Gallagher, J.E.; Lucier, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Identification of DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes could serve as a means of monitoring human exposure to potential genotoxic agents. In the study, DNA from peripheral lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers was examined for adducts by the P1 nuclease {sup 32}P-post-labeling technique. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) maps from both groups revealed multiple DNA adducts which ranged from no adducts for one individual to six adducts for a different individual. The total DNA adduct concentrations were approximately one adduct in 10 to the seventh-10 to the eighth power normal nucleotides. Comparison of the adduct TLC profiles revealed individual variation in both pattern and level of DNA adducts. The type and amount of adduct was not influenced by smoking history and remained unchanged in four out of six subjects who were resampled after a one month interval. One adduct detected in lymphocyte DNA co-migrated on TLC with an adduct derived by in vitro incubation of lymphocytes with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The 3H-nucloside values were consistent with values obtained by {sup 32}P-postlabeling of the same sample (correlation coefficient of 0.88). No relationship was apparent between the capacity of lymphocytes to form a (3H)-B(a)P-derived adduct in vitro and the concentration of the adduct, or total adducts present in untreated lymphocytes.

  3. Tunable degradation of maleimide-thiol adducts in reducing environments

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Addition chemistries are widely used in preparing biological conjugates, and in particular, maleimide-thiol adducts have been widely employed. Here we show that the resulting succinimide thioether formed by a Michael type addition of a thiol to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), generally accepted as stable, can in fact undergo retro and exchange reactions in the presence of other thiol compounds at physiological pH and temperature, offering a novel strategy for controlled release. Model studies (1H NMR, HPLC) of NEM conjugated to 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPA), N-acetylcysteine, or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP) incubated with glutathione showed half lives of conversion from 20–80 hrs, with extents of conversion from 20–90% for MPA and N-acetylcysteine conjugates. Ring-opened the resultant succinimide thioether as well as any MP adduct did not show retro and exchange reactions. The kinetics of the retro reactions can be modulated by the Michael donor’s reactivity; therefore the degradation of maleimide-thiol adducts could be tuned for controlled release of drugs or degradation of materials at timescales different than those currently possible via disulfide-mediated release. Such approaches may find a new niche for controlled release in reducing environments relevant in chemotherapy and sub-cellular trafficking. PMID:21863904

  4. Acetaldehyde and the genome: beyond nuclear DNA adducts and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2014-03-01

    The designation of acetaldehyde associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has brought renewed attention to the biological effects of acetaldehyde, as the primary oxidative metabolite of alcohol. Therefore, the overall focus of this review is on acetaldeh