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Sample records for category ii regimen

  1. 14 CFR 91.191 - Category II and Category III manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category II and Category III manual. 91.191... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.191 Category II and Category III manual. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c... Category II or a Category III operation unless— (1) There is available in the aircraft a current and...

  2. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A...

  3. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A...

  4. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A...

  5. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A...

  6. Therapeutic enhancement: nursing intervention category for patients diagnosed with Readiness for Therapeutic Regimen Management.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2008-04-01

    To present a new nursing intervention category called therapeutic enhancement. Fewer than half of North Americans follow their physician's recommendations for diet and exercise, even when such are crucial to their health or recovery. It is imperative that nurses consider new ways to promote healthy behaviours. Therapeutic enhancement is intended to provide such a fresh approach. Traditional intervention techniques focusing on education, contracts, social support and more frequent interaction with physicians appear not to be effective when used alone. Successful strategies have been multidisciplinary; and have included interventions by professional nurses who assist patients to understand their disease and the disease process and that helps them to develop disease-management and self-management skills. Therapeutic enhancement incorporates The Stages of Change Theory, Commitment to Health Theory, Motivational Interviewing techniques and instrumentation specifically designed for process evaluation of health-promoting interventions. This is a critical review of approaches that, heretofore, have not been synthesised in a single published article. Based on the commonly used Stages of Change model, therapeutic enhancement is useful for patients who are at the action stage of change. Using therapeutic enhancement as well as therapeutic strategies identified in Stages of Change Theory, such as contingency management, helping relationships, counterconditioning, stimulus control and Motivational Interviewing techniques, nursing professionals can significantly increase the chances of patients moving from action to the maintenance stage of change for a specific health behaviour. Using the nursing intervention category, therapeutic enhancement can increase caregivers' success in helping patients maintain healthy behaviours.

  7. 14 CFR 135.111 - Second in command required in Category II operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.111 Second in command required in Category II operations. No person may operate an aircraft in a Category II operation unless there is a second in command of the aircraft....

  8. 14 CFR 135.111 - Second in command required in Category II operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.111 Second in command required in Category II operations. No person may operate an aircraft in a Category II operation unless there is a second in command of the aircraft....

  9. 14 CFR 135.111 - Second in command required in Category II operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.111 Second in command required in Category II operations. No person may operate an aircraft in a Category II operation unless there is a second in command of the aircraft....

  10. 14 CFR 135.111 - Second in command required in Category II operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.111 Second in command required in Category II operations. No person may operate an aircraft in a Category II operation unless there is a second in command of the aircraft....

  11. 14 CFR 135.111 - Second in command required in Category II operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.111 Second in command required in Category II operations. No person may operate an aircraft in a Category II operation unless there is a second in command of the aircraft....

  12. 14 CFR 61.21 - Duration of a Category II and a Category III pilot authorization (for other than part 121 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after the month in which it was issued or renewed. (b) Upon passing a practical test for a Category II... month the practical test was accomplished in that type aircraft. (d) If the holder of a Category II or Category III pilot authorization passes the practical test for a renewal in the month before...

  13. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  14. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Category II pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Saha, P.K.; George, Ninoo; Arora, S.K.; Gupta, Deepak; Singh, Urvashi; Hanif, M.; Vashisht, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a significant global health concern. The most important risk factor for the development of MDR-TB is previous anti-tuberculosis therapy. Category II pulmonary TB includes those patients who had failed previous TB treatment, relapsed after treatment, or defaulted during previous treatment. We carried out this study to ascertain the prevalence of MDR-TB among category II pulmonary TB patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study involving category II pulmonary TB patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2008. All sputum-positive category II TB cases were subjected to mycobacterial culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST). MDR-TB was defined as TB caused by bacilli showing resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Results: A total of 196 cases of sputum-positive category II pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Of these, 40 patients (20.4%) had MDR-TB. The mean age of MDR-TB patients was 33.25 ± 12.04 yr; 9 patients (22.5%) were female. Thirty six patients showed resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid; while 4 patients showed resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid and streptomycin. The prevalence of MDR-TB among category-II pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 20.4 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions : The prevalence of MDR-TB in category II TB patients was significant. However, nation-wide and State-wide representative data on prevalence of MDR-TB are lacking. We stress the importance of continuous monitoring of drug resistance trends, in order to assess the efficacy of current interventions and their impact on the TB epidemic. PMID:21441686

  15. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  16. 50 CFR 229.4 - Requirements for Category I and II fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.4 Requirements for... take marine mammals in the course of a commercial fishing operation in a Category I or II fishery, the...

  17. 50 CFR 229.4 - Requirements for Category I and II fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.4 Requirements for... take marine mammals in the course of a commercial fishing operation in a Category I or II fishery, the...

  18. 50 CFR 229.4 - Requirements for Category I and II fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.4 Requirements for... take marine mammals in the course of a commercial fishing operation in a Category I or II fishery, the...

  19. 14 CFR 91.189 - Category II and III operations: General operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings prescribed in § 61.3 of this chapter; (2) Each flight crewmember has adequate knowledge of, and... holders of management specifications issued in accordance with subpart K of this part. Holders of operations specifications or management specifications may operate a civil aircraft in a Category II...

  20. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  1. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  2. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  3. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of moderate...

  4. 50 CFR 229.4 - Requirements for Category I and II fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.4 Requirements for... take marine mammals in the course of a commercial fishing operation in a Category I or II fishery, the...

  5. Phase II trial of ifosfamide, fluorouracil, and folinic acid (FIFO regimen) in relapsed and refractory urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kattan, J; Culine, S; Theodore, C; Droz, J P

    1995-01-01

    There is no known effective salvage chemotherapy for patients with refractory or relapsed urothelial tumors after methotrexate/cisplatin-based regimen. We report the results of a phase II trial with the FIFO regimen that includes from day 1 to 5: fluorouracil 350 mg/m2, folinic acid 20 mg/m2, and ifosfamide 1000 mg/m2, Q4W. Fifteen patients with metastatic measurable urothelial cancer were enrolled in this trial. Previous therapy included M-VAC regimen in 11 patients, CMV regimen in 3 patients, and both regimens in 1 patient. Thirty-one courses were delivered. Toxicity was moderate, including encephalopathy grade 2 in 2 patients and hematological toxicity grade 3 in 2 others. However, an early death occurred on day 1 in a patient who progressed rapidly and died from hepatic insufficiency after initial encephalopathy. No objective response was seen. Twelve patients progressed during FIFO therapy and 3 patients experienced a stable disease. Despite almost encouraging results of fluorouracil and ifosfamide in the literature, their combination according to our schedule is not active in urothelial cancer.

  6. A phase II study of V-BEAM as conditioning regimen before second auto-SCT for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Wang, T-F; Fiala, M A; Cashen, A F; Uy, G L; Abboud, C N; Fletcher, T; Wu, N; Westervelt, P; DiPersio, J F; Stockerl-Goldstein, K E; Vij, R

    2014-11-01

    High-dose melphalan has been the standard conditioning regimen for auto-SCT in multiple myeloma (MM) for decades. A more effective conditioning regimen may induce deeper responses and longer remission duration. It is especially needed in the setting of second auto-SCT, which rarely achieves comparable results with the first auto-SCT using the same conditioning regimen. Here we conducted a phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of a conditioning regimen V-BEAM (bortezomib-BEAM) before second auto-SCT for multiple myeloma. Ten patients were enrolled from September 2012 to May 2013. The CR rate at day +100 after auto-SCT was 75%; all except for one patient remained in remission after a median follow-up of 6 months. Three patients developed Clostridium difficile infection. Two patients died within the first 30 days of auto-SCT from neutropenic colitis and overwhelming sepsis, respectively. Due to the high rate of morbidity and mortality, the study was terminated after 10 patients. In summary, although the conditioning regimen V-BEAM before second auto-SCT for MM provided promising responses, it was associated with unexpected treatment-related toxicity and should not be investigated further without modifications.

  7. A pilot phase II study of neoadjuvant triplet chemotherapy regimen in patients with locally advanced resectable colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haitao; Song, Yan; Jiang, Jun; Niu, Haitao; Zhao, Hong; Liang, Jianwei; Su, Hao; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Zhixiang; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of triplet regimen of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced resectable colon cancer. Methods Patients with clinical stage IIIb colon cancer received a perioperative triple chemotherapy regimen (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 and irinotecan 150 mg/m2, combined with folinic acid 200 mg, 5-fluorouracil 500 mg bolus and then 2,400 mg/m2 by 44 h infusion or capecitabine 1 g/m2 or S-1 40–60 mg b.i.d orally d 1–10, repeated at 2-week intervals) for 4 cycles. Complete mesocolic excision was scheduled 2–6 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant treatment and followed by a further 6 cycles of FOLFOXIRI or XELOX. Primary outcome measures of this stage II trial were feasibility, safety, tolerance and efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment. Results All 23 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent surgery. Twenty-one patients (91.3%) had reductions in tumor volume after neoadjuvant treatment, and 13 patients (56.5%) had grade 3–4 toxicity. No patients had severe complications from surgery. Preoperative therapy resulted in significant down-staging of T-stage and N-stage compared with the baseline clinical stage including one pathological complete response. Conclusions Neoadjuvant triple chemotherapy has high activity and acceptable toxicity and perioperative morbidity, and is feasible, tolerable and effective for locally advanced resectable colon cancer. PMID:28174488

  8. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be obtained from the RTCA Secretariat, 1425 K St., NW., Washington, DC 20005. (2) The altimeters and... section if they have not been approved for Category III operations under applicable type or supplemental... components must be approved under this paragraph. Related systems or devices, such as the autothrottle...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be obtained from the RTCA Secretariat, 1425 K St., NW., Washington, DC 20005. (2) The altimeters and... section if they have not been approved for Category III operations under applicable type or supplemental... components must be approved under this paragraph. Related systems or devices, such as the autothrottle...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be obtained from the RTCA Secretariat, 1425 K St., NW., Washington, DC 20005. (2) The altimeters and... section if they have not been approved for Category III operations under applicable type or supplemental... components must be approved under this paragraph. Related systems or devices, such as the autothrottle...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 91 - Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be obtained from the RTCA Secretariat, 1425 K St., NW., Washington, DC 20005. (2) The altimeters and... section if they have not been approved for Category III operations under applicable type or supplemental... components must be approved under this paragraph. Related systems or devices, such as the autothrottle...

  13. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  14. Efficacy of a rituximab regimen based on B cell depletion in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with suboptimal response to standard treatment: Results of a phase II, multicenter noncomparative study.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Ygal; Paintaud, Gilles; Azoulay, Elie; Poullin, Pascale; Galicier, Lionel; Desvignes, Céline; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Peltier, Julie; Mira, Jean-Paul; Pène, Frédéric; Presne, Claire; Saheb, Samir; Deligny, Christophe; Rousseau, Alexandra; Féger, Frédéric; Veyradier, Agnès; Coppo, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The standard four-rituximab infusions treatment in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) remains empirical. Peripheral B cell depletion is correlated with the decrease in serum concentrations of anti-ADAMTS13 and associated with clinical response. To assess the efficacy of a rituximab regimen based on B cell depletion, 24 TTP patients were enrolled in this prospective multicentre single arm phase II study and then compared to patients from a previous study. Patients with a suboptimal response to a plasma exchange-based regimen received two infusions of rituximab 375 mg m(-2) within 4 days, and a third dose at day +15 of the first infusion if peripheral B cells were still detectable. Primary endpoint was the assessment of the time required to platelet count recovery from the first plasma exchange. Three patients died after the first rituximab administration. In the remaining patients, the B cell-driven treatment hastened remission and ADAMTS13 activity recovery as a result of rapid anti-ADAMTS13 depletion in a similar manner to the standard four-rituximab infusions schedule. The 1-year relapse-free survival was also comparable between both groups. A rituximab regimen based on B cell depletion is feasible and provides comparable results than with the four-rituximab infusions schedule. This regimen could represent a new standard in TTP. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00907751). Am. J. Hematol. 91:1246-1251, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Method for Utilizing Bivariate Efficacy Outcome Measures to Screen Regimens for Activity in 2-Stage Phase II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Larry; Litwin, Samuel; Yothers, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Background Most phase II clinical trials utilize a single primary endpoint to determine the promise of a regimen for future study. However, many disorders manifest themselves in complex ways. For example, migraine headaches can cause pain, auras, photophobia, and emesis. Investigators may believe a drug is effective at reducing migraine pain and the severity of emesis during an attack. Nevertheless, they could still be interested in proceeding with development of the drug if it is effective against only one of these symptoms. Such a study would be a candidate for a clinical trial with co-primary endpoints. Purpose The purpose of the article is to provide a method for designing a 2-stage clinical trial with dichotomous co-primary endpoints of efficacy that has the ability to detect activity on either response measure with high probability when the drug is active on one or both measures, while at the same time rejecting the drug with high probability when there is little activity on both dimensions. The design enables early closure for futility and is flexible with regard to attained accrual. Methods The design is proposed in the context of cancer clinical trials where tumor response is used to assess a drug's ability to kill tumor cells and progression-free survival (PFS) status after a certain period is used to evaluate the drug's ability to stabilize tumor growth. Both endpoints are assumed to be distributed as binomial random variables, and uninteresting probabilities of success are determined from historical controls. Given the necessity of accrual flexibility, exhaustive searching algorithms to find optimum designs do not seem feasible at this time. Instead, critical values are determined for realized sample sizes using specific procedures. Then accrual windows are found to achieve a design's desired level of significance, probability of early termination (PET), and power. Results The design is illustrated with a clinical trial that examined bevacizumab in

  16. Categorial Compositionality II: Universal Constructions and a General Theory of (Quasi-)Systematicity in Human Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour) must explain the systematicity property—why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1) syntactically compositional representations; and (2) processes that are sensitive to—compatible with—their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention) of employing the same mode of (concatenative) compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities). Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages), where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes). An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-)systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions. PMID:21857816

  17. The Vineland-II in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Content Category Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balboni, Giulia; Tasso, Alessandra; Muratori, Filippo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We investigated which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate low-functioning preschoolers with ASD from matched peers with other neurodevelopmental disorders, using a regression analysis derived from a normative sample to account for cognitive and linguistic competencies. At variance with the typical profile, a pattern with Communication…

  18. INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Removal of Categories I and II Special Nuclear Material from Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (Sandia) develops science-based technologies in support of national security in areas such as nuclear weapons, nonproliferation, military technologies, and homeland security. Sandia's primary mission is ensuring that the U.S. nuclear arsenal is safe, secure, and reliable and can fully support the Nation's deterrence policy. Part of this mission includes systems engineering of nuclear weapons; research, design, and development of non-nuclear components; manufacturing of non-nuclear weapons components; the provision of safety, security, and reliability assessments of stockpile weapons; and the conduct of high-explosives research and development and environmental testing. Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates Sandia for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). On May 7, 2004, the Secretary announced that the Department would evaluate missions at DOE sites to consolidate Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in the most secure environments possible. The Administrator of the NNSA said that this effort was a key part of an overall plan to transform the nuclear weapons complex into a smaller, safer, more secure, and more efficient national security enterprise. In February 2008, Sandia was the first site to report it had reduced its on-site inventory of nuclear material below 'Categories I and II' levels, which require the highest level of security to protect material such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Office of Inspector General initiated an inspection to determine if Sandia made appropriate adjustments to its security posture in response to the removal of the Categories I and II SNM. We found that Sandia adjusted its security posture in response to the removal of Categories I and II SNM. For example, security posts were closed; unneeded protective force weapons and equipment were excessed from the site; and, Sandia's Site Safeguards and

  19. Phase II study of dose-intense chemotherapy with sequential topoisomerase-targeting regimens with irinotecan/oxaliplatin followed by etoposide/carboplatin in chemotherapy naive patients with extensive small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Joanne; Reddy, Vishnu; Cantor, Alan; Miley, Debi; Robert, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Topoisomerase inhibitors are active agents in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and preclinical models indicate that sequential administration of a topoisomerase I inhibitor followed by a topoisomerase II inhibitor can result in enhanced cytotoxicity. In this phase II study, patients with extensive SCLC were treated with two sequential topoisomerase-based regimens: irinotecan (150 mg/m(2))/oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) [regimen A] on day 1 followed by etoposide (100 mg/m(2)×3)/carboplatin (AUC 6) [regimen B] on day 15. Regimen A was repeated 3 weeks later. The primary objective was objective response rate. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity, and exploratory correlative analysis of the tumor expression of the excision repair cross complementing (ERCC1) and topoisomerase II-α. Patients received a maximum of 5 cycles of sequential therapy of regimen A→B. The overall response rate was 96%, the 6-month PFS was 76.9%, the median PFS was 8.95 months, and OS was 12.9 months in 26 evaluable patients. Grade 4 neutropenia (23%) and thrombocytopenia (58%) were observed with regimen B; and grade 2/3 nausea-vomiting (54%) and diarrhea (46%) with regimen A. Seven patients required dose reductions in regimen A and 19 patients in regimen B. The dose intensity, delivered during the first three cycles was 89%. No significant correlations were observed between the tumor expression of the ERCC1 and topoisomerase II-α and clinical outcomes (PFS or OS). Although cross-study comparisons are difficult to make, our data suggests that sequential topoisomerase-targeting regimens may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy in newly diagnosed SCLC patients (Clinical Trial Registration Number, 9 NCT00240097; Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00240097). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. A Phase I/II adaptive design to determine the optimal treatment regimen from a set of combination immunotherapies in high-risk melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wages, Nolan A; Slingluff, Craig L; Petroni, Gina R

    2015-03-01

    In oncology, vaccine-based immunotherapy often investigates regimens that demonstrate minimal toxicity overall and higher doses may not correlate with greater immune response. Rather than determining the maximum tolerated dose, the goal of the study becomes locating the optimal biological dose, which is defined as a safe dose demonstrating the greatest immunogenicity, based on some predefined measure of immune response. Incorporation of adjuvants, new or optimized peptide vaccines, and combining vaccines with immune modulators may enhance immune response, with the aim of improving clinical response. Innovative dose escalation strategies are needed to establish the safety and immunogenicity of new immunologic combinations. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying the optimal treatment strategy in a multi-site, FDA-approved, phase I/II trial of a novel vaccination approach using long-peptides plus TLR agonists for resected stage IIB-IV melanoma. Operating characteristics of the design are demonstrated under various possible true scenarios via simulation studies. Overall performance indicates that the design is a practical Phase I/II adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy agents. The simulation results demonstrate the method's ability to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with manageable sample sizes. The numerical results presented in this work include the type of simulation information that aid review boards in understanding design performance, such as average sample size and frequency of early trial termination, which we hope will augment early-phase trial design in cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Intranasal insulin: the effects of three dose regimens on postprandial glycaemic profiles in type II diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Coates, P A; Ismail, I S; Luzio, S D; Griffiths, I; Ollerton, R L; Vølund, A; Owens, D R

    1995-03-01

    In both fasting normal and diabetic subjects, nasally administered insulin achieves significant falls in plasma glucose concentrations. Repeated administration before and during a meal has been necessary to lower postprandial glycaemic excursion in subjects with NIDDM. We have studied the use of Novolin Nasal which employs a non-irritant, lecithin-based enhancer as a vehicle for human insulin, on postprandial glucose profiles in NIDDM subjects to determine efficacy, optimal dose frequency, and tolerability. Seventeen NIDDM subjects (15 men, 2 women) participated in a randomized, partially blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of three active treatment regimens (nasal insulin, 120 U at 0 min, 60 U at 0 and +20 min or 120 U at +20 min) in relation to a standardized mixed meal given at 0 min. All active treatments significantly reduced postprandial glucose concentrations compared to placebo. Intranasal insulin given at 0 min at a dose of 60 U or 120 U resulted in a 50% reduction in postprandial incremental glucose compared to placebo over the first 2 h, whereas treatment with 60 U both at 0 and 20 min lead to a 70% reduction over the 240 min postprandial period. Post-prandial intravenous insulin was the least effective. There were no episodes of symptomatic hypoglycaemia. Local tolerability was excellent with only four reports of transient nasal irritation out of a total of 68 doses. The delivery device was accurate with intra-device CV of delivered dose of 4.8%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Successful engraftment with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and thymoglobulin conditioning regimen in unrelated transplantation for severe aplastic anemia: A phase II prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young; Park, Jun Eun; Chung, Nak Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack Ki; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Young Ho; Lim, Young Tak; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin; Park, Sang Kyu; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2010-11-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been used in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) as part of the conditioning regimen. Among the many kinds of ATG preparations, thymoglobulin had been found to be more effective for preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the rejection of organ transplants. After the promising results of our preliminary study, we conducted a phase II prospective multicenter clinical trial using a fludarabine (Flu), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and thymoglobulin conditioning regimen to allow good engraftment in patients who underwent unrelated transplantation for SAA. Twenty-eight patients underwent bone marrow (N = 15) or mobilized peripheral blood (N = 13) transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors with Cy (50 mg/kg once daily intravenously (i.v.) on days -9, -8, -7, and -6), Flu (30 mg/m² once daily i.v. on days -5, -4, -3, and -2), and thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -3, -2, and -1). Donor-type hematologic recovery was achieved in all patients. The estimated survival rate (SR) was 67.9%, and all the events were treatment-related mortality (TRM), which included thrombotic microangiopathy (N = 2), pneumonia (N = 1), myocardiac infarction (N = 1), posttransplantation lymphoprolifarative disease (N = 3), and chronic GVHD-associated complications (N = 2). The SR of patients who received bone marrow (60.0%) was not different from that of patients who received mobilized peripheral blood (76.9%) (P = .351), but the SR of patients who received more than 15 units of red blood cells before transplantation (45.5%) was significantly lower than that of the other patients (82.4%) (P = .048). The Flu, Cy, and thymoglobulin conditioning regimen achieved promising results for successful engraftment, but the TRM was high. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00737685), and now we are performing a new multicenter study (NCT00882323) to decrease the TRM by reducing the dose of Cy. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Blood and

  3. Intermittent Versus Daily Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kasozi, Samuel; Clark, Justin; Doi, Suhail A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several systematic reviews suggest that intermittent pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy is effective, but intensity (daily versus intermittent) and duration of rifampicin use (intensive phase only versus both phases) have not been distinguished. In addition, the various outcomes (success, failure, relapse, and default) have only selectively been evaluated. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of proportions using all four outcomes as multi-category proportions to examine the effectiveness of WHO category 1 TB treatment regimens. Database searches of studies reporting treatment outcomes of HIV negative subjects were included and stratified by intensity of therapy and duration of rifampicin therapy. Using a bias-adjusted statistical model, we pooled proportions of the four treatment outcome categories using a method that handles multi-category proportions. Results A total of 27 studies comprising of 48 data sets with 10,624 participants were studied. Overall, treatment success was similar among patients treated with intermittent (I/I) (88%) (95% CI, 81–92) and daily (D/D) (90%) (95% CI, 84–95) regimens. Default was significantly less with I/I (0%) (95% CI, 0–2) compared to D/D regimens (5%) (95% CI, 1–9). Nevertheless, I/I relapse rates (7%) (95% CI, 3–11) were higher than D/D relapse rates (1%) (95% CI, 0–3). Conclusion Treatment regimens that are offered completely intermittently versus completely daily are associated with a trade-off between treatment relapse and treatment default. There is a possibility that I/I regimens can be improved by increasing treatment duration, and this needs to be urgently addressed by future studies. PMID:26056374

  4. A Phase II Study of 153Sm-EDTMP and High Dose Melphalan as a Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Conditioning Regimen in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dispenzieri, A.; Wiseman, G.A.; Lacy, M.Q.; Hayman, S.R.; Kumar, S.K.; Buadi, F.; Dingli, D.; Laumann, K.M.; Allred, J.; Geyer, S.M.; Litzow, M.R.; Gastineau, D.A.; Inwards, D.J.; Micallef, I.N.; Ansell, S.M.; Porrata, L.; Elliott, M.A.; Johnston, P.B.; Hogan, W.J.; Gertz, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable illness affecting nearly 20,000 individuals in the United States per year. High-dose melphalan (HDM) with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support (ASCT) is one of the mainstays of therapy for younger patients, but little advancement has been made with regards to conditioning regimens. We opted to combine 153Samarium ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP), a radiopharmaceutical approved for the palliation of pain caused by metastatic bone lesions, with HDM and ASCT in a phase II study. Individualized doses of 153Sm were based on dosimetry and were calculated to deliver 40 Gy to the bone marrow. The therapeutic dose of 153Sm-EDTMP was followed by HDM and ASCT. Forty-six patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed disease were treated. Study patients were compared to 102 contemporaneously patients treated with HDM and ASCT. Fifty-nine percent of study patients achieved a very good partial response or better. With a median follow-up of 7.1 years, the median overall survival and progression free survival from study registration was 6.2 years (95%CI 4.6–7.5 years) and 1.5 years (1.1–2.2 years), respectively, which compared favorably to contemporaneously treated non-study patients. Addition of high-dose 153Sm EDTMP to melphalan conditioning appears to be safe, well tolerated and worthy of further study in the context of novel agents and in the phase III setting. PMID:20513117

  5. Phase II study of S-1 plus leucovorin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: Regimen of 1 week on, 1 week off.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xu, Ruihua; Xu, Jianming; Denda, Tadamichi; Ikejiri, Koji; Shen, Lin; Toh, Yasushi; Shimada, Ken; Kato, Takeshi; Sakai, Kenji; Yamamoto, Manabu; Mishima, Hideyuki; Wang, Jinwan; Baba, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    A phase II study of S-1 plus leucovorin (LV) given in a 4-week schedule (2 weeks' administration followed by 2 weeks' rest) for patients with untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) showed that the combination was effective, but grade 3 toxicities (diarrhea, stomatitis and anorexia) occurred at a relatively high rate. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 2-week schedule of S-1 plus LV. Patients with mCRC received oral S-1 (40-60 mg) and LV (25 mg) twice daily for 1 week, followed by 1 week's rest. Treatment was repeated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was response rate. The pharmacokinetics of S-1 and LV in Chinese patients were evaluated on day 1 of the first cycle. Seventy-three patients were enrolled in Japan and China. Of 71 eligible patients, the response rate was 53.5%, and the disease control rate was 83.1%. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival were 6.5 and 24.3 months, respectively. The incidences of grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea 8.3%, stomatitis 8.3%, anorexia 2.8% and neutropenia 9.7%. There were no treatment-related deaths. The pharmacokinetics profiles of S-1 plus LV in Chinese patients were similar to those in Japanese patients. This 2-week schedule of S-1 plus LV showed good efficacy and better tolerability than the 4-week schedule. This therapy will be the base regimen for mCRC to be added by other cytotoxic or molecular-targeted drugs. The optimized treatment schedule for S-1 plus LV was 1 week on and 1 week off. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia II: H.M.’s Spared versus Impaired Encoding Categories

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Donald G.; Johnson, Laura W.; Hadley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Although amnesic H.M. typically could not recall where or when he met someone, he could recall their topics of conversation after long interference-filled delays, suggesting impaired encoding for some categories of novel events but not others. Similarly, H.M. successfully encoded into internal representations (sentence plans) some novel linguistic structures but not others in the present language production studies. For example, on the Test of Language Competence (TLC), H.M. produced uncorrected errors when encoding a wide range of novel linguistic structures, e.g., violating reliably more gender constraints than memory-normal controls when encoding referent-noun, pronoun-antecedent, and referent-pronoun anaphora, as when he erroneously and without correction used the gender-inappropriate pronoun “her” to refer to a man. In contrast, H.M. never violated corresponding referent-gender constraints for proper names, suggesting that his mechanisms for encoding proper name gender-agreement were intact. However, H.M. produced no more dysfluencies, off-topic comments, false starts, neologisms, or word and phonological sequencing errors than controls on the TLC. Present results suggest that: (a) frontal mechanisms for retrieving and sequencing word, phrase, and phonological categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia; (b) encoding mechanisms in the hippocampal region are category-specific rather than item-specific, applying to, e.g., proper names rather than words; (c) H.M.’s category-specific mechanisms for encoding referents into words, phrases, and propositions are impaired, with the exception of referent gender, person, and number for encoding proper names; and (d) H.M. overuses his intact proper name encoding mechanisms to compensate for his impaired mechanisms for encoding other functionally equivalent linguistic information. PMID:24961410

  7. Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary McGee; Hudson, Richard, Ed.

    Written as an objective critical assessment, this book is the first linguistic theory guide to categorial grammars. Categorial grammars offer a radical alternative to the phrase-structure paradigm, with roots in the philosophy of language, logic, and algebra. Their historical evolution is outlined and their formal basis is discussed, beginning…

  8. A Phase II study of trabectedin single agent in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer previously treated with platinum-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    Krasner, C N; McMeekin, D S; Chan, S; Braly, P S; Renshaw, F G; Kaye, S; Provencher, D M; Campos, S; Gore, M E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the objective response rate in patients with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer to treatment with trabectedin (Yondelis®) administered as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. We carried out a multicentre Phase II trial of trabectedin in patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer. Trabectedin (0.58 mg m−2) was administered via a central line, after premedication with dexamethasone, to 147 patients as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1-week rest. Major eligibility criteria included measurable relapsed advanced ovarian cancer and not more than two prior platinum-containing regimens. Patients were stratified according to the treatment-free interval (TFI) between having either platinum-sensitive (⩾6 months TFI) or platinum-resistant disease (<6 months TFI)/platinum-refractory disease (progression during first line therapy). In the platinum-sensitive cohort, 62 evaluable patients with measurable disease had an overall response rate (ORR) of 29.0% (95% CI: 18.2–41.9%) and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–6.2). Four patients with measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. In the platinum-resistant/refractory cohort, 79 patients were evaluable with an ORR of 6.3% (95% CI: 2.1–14.2%). Median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.7–3.5 months). Two patients with measurable disease per RECIST criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. The most frequent (⩾2% of patients) drug-related treatment-emergent grade 3/4 adverse events were reversible liver alanine transferase elevation (10%), neutropaenia (8%), nausea, vomiting, and fatigue (5% each). Trabectedin is an active treatment, with documented responses in patients with platinum sensitive advanced relapsed ovarian cancer, and has a manageable toxicity profile. PMID

  9. Preliminary plans to move the special nuclear material supporting category I and II missions from TA-18 to the device assembly facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, William Earl; Nicholas, N. J.; Mann, P.

    2004-01-01

    In December 2002, the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) issued a Record of Decision announcing its intent to relocate safeguards Category I and II missions and associated special nuclear materials (SNM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 18 (TA-18) to the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Cat I and II missions support nuclear criticality safety, nuclear emergency response, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. TA-18 is the sole remaining facility in the United States with the capability to perform general-purpose nuclear materials handling experiments and training. Hands-on and remote control experiments, measurements, and training with special materials and devices are conducted. The conceptual design for modifying the DAF to house these Cat I and II missions includes plans for packaging and transporting the SNM inventory associated with the missions. This paper discusses these preliminary packaging and transporting plans, including how they fit into the plans for transitioning the relevant TA- 18 missions to DAF while ensuring that mission, cost, and schedule requirements are met.

  10. A weekly regimen with dose escalation of doxorubicin for patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a phase II study of the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Fermé, Christophe; Brice, Pauline; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Lederlin, Pierre; Diviné, Marine; Casasnovas, Olivier; Devidas, Alain; Anglaret, Bruno; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Mounier, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    This multicenter phase II study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a weekly chemotherapy regimen with a moderately escalated dose of doxorubicin administered over 16 weeks, followed by radiation therapy (RT) to bulky sites. From July 1996 to February 1998, 44 untreated patients with stage IIIB-IV Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), and 0 - 2 risk factors described by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, were treated. Chemotherapy was a combination of increased-dose doxorubicin with conventional doses of cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, prednisone, vindesine, bleomycin, and etoposide. Patients received four cycles of the weekly regimen for 16 weeks. Forty-one patients received the planned four cycles of chemotherapy, and RT was delivered to 36 patients. The incidence of WHO grade 3 - 4 neutropenia was 90%. A total of 39 patients achieved a complete remission (88.6%). The median follow-up was 95 months. The 7-years freedom from treatment failure and overall survival estimates were 57% (95% confidence interval (CI), 41% - 70%), and 93% (95% CI, 80 - 98%), respectively. The relapse rate was related to the short duration of chemotherapy, and the failure to prevent relapses with consolidation RT. In this study population the 16-week regimen and RT to bulky sites were not sufficient for disease control.

  11. In situ lung perfusion is a valuable tool to assess lungs from donation after circulatory death donors category I-II.

    PubMed

    Van De Wauwer, Caroline; Munneke, Anita J; Engels, Gerwin E; Berga, Foke M; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Nijsten, Maarten W; Mariani, Massimo A; Erasmus, Michiel E

    2013-05-01

    Donations after circulatory death (DCD) lung grafts are an alternative to extend the donor pool in lung transplantation. This study investigates the use of an in situ lung perfusion system (ISLP) in the donor to evaluate category I-II lungs. Pigs were sacrificed by ventricular fibrillation. All animals underwent 20 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 5 min hands-off period after which heparin was administered. In group [WI-1], this was followed by 1 h of warm ischemia (WI) and 2 h of topical cooling (TC). In group [WI-2], 2 h of WI was followed by 1 h of TC. In group [WI-0], there was a minimal period of WI and no TC. In all three groups, the lungs were then evaluated during 60 min with ISLP. [WI-0] lungs showed a significantly higher compliance and Δ PO2 /FiO2 compared with [WI-1] and [WI-2]. PaCO2 and lactate production were higher in [WI-2] versus [WI-0]. Wet/Dry weight ratio was significantly higher in [WI-2] compared with [WI-0] in two lung biopsy locations. A high W/D weight ratio was correlated with a lower compliance, higher lactate production, and a higher PaCO2 . ISLP is an effective way to assess the quality of lungs from category I-II DCD donors. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20–41) and 285 days (range 50–1240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839287

  13. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-06-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20-41) and 285 days (range 50-1,240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients.

  14. Low-dose radiotherapy as a chemo-potentiator of a chemotherapy regimen with pemetrexed for recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer: a prospective phase II study.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Giovanna; Valentini, Vincenzo; Meduri, Bruno; Margaritora, Stefano; Balducci, Mario; Micciché, Francesco; Nardone, Luigia; De Rose, Fiorenza; Cesario, Alfredo; Larici, Anna Rita; Maggi, Fabio; Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-11-01

    Low-dose radiotherapy (LDR) (<50 cGy) induces enhanced cell killing in vitro via the hyper-radiation sensitivity phenomenon. Aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a palliative regimen combining pemetrexed and LDR (as a chemopotentiator) on patients affected by recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligible patients had an ECOG performance status ≤2, one prior chemotherapy regimen for advanced NSCLC, adequate organ function, measurable lesions. Patients received pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2) IV) and concurrent LDR (40 cGy bid on days 1 and 2) delivered to target pulmonary or metastatic disease. This cycle was repeated fourfold every 21 days. The accrual was determined by the single proportion powered analysis (α=0.05, power=0.8) with H0 ("bad" response probability, 9% according to literature) and H1 ("good" response probability, 35% ongoing study); 19 is the number required. Nineteen patients with stage III and IV disease were enrolled. Only one patient experienced neutropenia grade 4. All patients are evaluable for clinical response of irradiated lesion: overall response rate was 42%. Low-dose radiotherapy combined with pemetrexed has a similar toxicity profile to chemotherapy alone. The response rate of this novel approach is encouraging, since it was higher than what was reported for pemetrexed alone (42% versus 9.1%). Additional scientific investigation of this new treatment paradigm is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability and Arterial Stiffness Independently Predict Cardiovascular Risk Category in a General Population: Results from the SEPHAR II Study.

    PubMed

    Darabont, Roxana; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Pop, Dana; Fruntelata, Ana; Deaconu, Alexandru; Onciul, Sebastian; Salaru, Delia; Micoara, Adolf; Dorobantu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) and the association of this parameter with cardiovascular risk determinants, according to the SEPHAR II survey. Following a selection based on the multi-stratified proportional sampling procedure, a total of 1975 subjects who gave informed consent were evaluated by means of a questionnaire, anthropometric, blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measurements (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index), 12-lead ECG recordings, and blood and urine analysis. BPV was quantified in terms of the standard deviation (SD) of the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high BPV was defined as SBP-SD above the 4th quartile. Total cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 2013 ESH/ESC risk stratification chart. Mean BP was 132.37/82.01 mmHg. Mean systolic BPV was 6.16 mmHg, with 24.62% of values above the 75th percentile (8.48 mmHg). Factors found to be associated with high systolic BPV were age, SBP, pulse pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, visceral obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and increased aortic stiffness. In addition, in the hypertensive group high BPV was associated with the severity of hypertension and a lack of treatment control. Both visit-to-visit systolic BPV and aortic stiffness proved to be positively and independently correlated with the risk category. Based on these parameters it was possible to predict with 72.6% accuracy the probability of finding subjects in a high and very high cardiovascular risk category. The results of our study indicate a notable prevalence of high BPV, affecting almost a quarter of the Romanian adult population. Visit-to-visit systolic BPV and arterial stiffness are strongly correlated and together might contribute to the improvement of cardiovascular risk prediction models.

  16. Colourful categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  17. Two cilengitide regimens in combination with standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and unmethylated MGMT gene promoter: results of the open-label, controlled, randomized phase II CORE study

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, L. Burt; Fink, Karen L.; Mikkelsen, Tom; Grujicic, Danica; Tarnawski, Rafal; Nam, Do Hyun; Mazurkiewicz, Maria; Salacz, Michael; Ashby, Lynn; Zagonel, Vittorina; Depenni, Roberta; Perry, James R.; Hicking, Christine; Picard, Martin; Hegi, Monika E.; Lhermitte, Benoit; Reardon, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survival outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor, particularly for patients with unmethylated O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter. This phase II, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 2 dose regimens of the selective integrin inhibitor cilengitide combined with standard chemoradiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Methods Overall, 265 patients were randomized (1:1:1) to standard cilengitide (2000 mg 2×/wk; n = 88), intensive cilengitide (2000 mg 5×/wk during wk 1−6, thereafter 2×/wk; n = 88), or a control arm (chemoradiotherapy alone; n = 89). Cilengitide was administered intravenously in combination with daily temozolomide (TMZ) and concomitant radiotherapy (RT; wk 1−6), followed by TMZ maintenance therapy (TMZ/RT→TMZ). The primary endpoint was overall survival; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, pharmacokinetics, and safety and tolerability. Results Median overall survival was 16.3 months in the standard cilengitide arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.686; 95% CI: 0.484, 0.972; P = .032) and 14.5 months in the intensive cilengitide arm (HR, 0.858; 95% CI: 0.612, 1.204; P = .3771) versus 13.4 months in the control arm. Median progression-free survival assessed per independent review committee was 5.6 months (HR, 0.822; 95% CI: 0.595, 1.134) and 5.9 months (HR, 0.794; 95% CI: 0.575, 1.096) in the standard and intensive cilengitide arms, respectively, versus 4.1 months in the control arm. Cilengitide was well tolerated. Conclusions Standard and intensive cilengitide dose regimens were well tolerated in combination with TMZ/RT→TMZ. Inconsistent overall survival and progression-free survival outcomes and a limited sample size did not allow firm conclusions regarding clinical efficacy in this exploratory phase II study. PMID:25762461

  18. CALGB 80403 (Alliance)/E1206: A Randomized Phase II Study of Three Chemotherapy Regimens Plus Cetuximab in Metastatic Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Burtness, Barbara Ann; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Douglas, Kathe; Ilson, David H.; Villaflor, Victoria Meucci; Cohen, Steven J.; Mayer, Robert J.; Venook, Alan; Benson, Al Bowen; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optimal chemotherapy backbone for testing in future US cooperative group studies for metastatic esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers. Cetuximab was added to each treatment arm based on promising preclinical data. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated metastatic esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer were randomly assigned at a one-to-one-to-one ratio to epirubicin, cisplatin, and continuous-infusion fluorouracil (ECF), irinotecan plus cisplatin (IC), or FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and bolus and infusional fluorouracil). All treatment programs included cetuximab once per week. The primary end point was response rate. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, and safety. As prespecified, primary and secondary analyses were conducted only among patients with adenocarcinoma. Results This study randomly assigned 245 patients, including 222 with adenocarcinoma. Among patients with adenocarcinoma, response rate was 60.9% (95% CI, 47.9 to 72.8) for ECF plus cetuximab, 45.0% (95% CI, 33.0 to 57.0) for IC plus cetuximab, and 54.3% (95% CI, 42.0 to 66.2) for FOLFOX plus cetuximab. Median overall survival was 11.6, 8.6, and 11.8 months; median progression-free survival was 7.1, 4.9, and 6.8 months; and median time to treatment failure was 5.6, 4.3, and 6.7 months for each of these arms, respectively. FOLFOX plus cetuximab required fewer treatment modifications compared with ECF plus cetuximab and IC plus cetuximab (P = .013), and fewer patients were removed from treatment because of an adverse event or experienced treatment-related death. Conclusion In combination with cetuximab, ECF and FOLFOX had similar efficacy, but FOLFOX was better tolerated. Although differences were nonsignificant, IC plus cetuximab seemed to be the least effective and most toxic of the three regimens tested. PMID:27382098

  19. [Alternative hemodialysis regimens].

    PubMed

    Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2010-03-01

    The mortality rate among patients on hemodialysis (HD) is extremely high. Remaining life expectancy for a patient initiating HD is only approximately one quarter of that of the general population at the same age bracket. The conventional HD regimen based on four-hour sessions three times a week was empirically established nearly four decades ago and needs to be revisited. Since the failure of the HEMO Study to demonstrate the clinical benefits of higher urea Kt/V for patients on conventional HD, an increasing interest for alternative HD regimens has emerged aiming at providing a treatment for improving survival rates. Short daily HD and long nocturnal HD stand out as the most promising alternative regimens. Economical obstacles which could hinder the clinical application of emerging knowledge in the field should be overcome.

  20. Aminoglycoside antibiotics for NIH category II chronic bacterial prostatitis: A single-cohort study with one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Marras, Emanuela; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Although fluoroquinolones are first-line agents for the treatment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), therapy with these agents is not always feasible due to the increasing worldwide resistance of causative uropathogens. New therapeutic options are urgently required, as drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics distribute poorly to prostatic sites of infection and trimethoprim therapy is often unfeasible due to high resistance rates. The present study aimed to analyze the efficacy of aminoglycosides, administered to a cohort of 78 patients affected by fluoroquinolone-resistant CBP, or excluded from fluoroquinolone therapy due to various contraindications. Patients received netilmicin (4.5 mg/kg, once-daily, intramuscular), combined or not with a β-lactam antibiotic, for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were scheduled 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Fifty-five out of 70 patients (78.6%) showed eradication of the causative pathogen, and a significant reduction of the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score from a baseline median value of 21 to 14 at the end of therapy, and to 9 and 8 at 6-month and 12-month follow-up assessments, respectively. The pain, voiding and quality of life subdomains of the NIH-CPSI decreased accordingly. In 15 patients showing persistence of infection, NIH-CPSI total and subdomain scores did not decrease at the end of therapy. Additional clinical parameters, such as the urinary peak flow rate, percentage voided bladder, serum prostate-specific antigen concentration, International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate volume improved significantly only in the group of patients in which the infection was eradicated. Therapy was well tolerated, and genetic testing for deafness-predisposing mitochondrial mutations allowed safer administration of aminoglycosides. These results suggest that aminoglycosides may become a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of CBP. These

  1. Aminoglycoside antibiotics for NIH category II chronic bacterial prostatitis: A single-cohort study with one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Marras, Emanuela; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2016-10-01

    Although fluoroquinolones are first-line agents for the treatment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), therapy with these agents is not always feasible due to the increasing worldwide resistance of causative uropathogens. New therapeutic options are urgently required, as drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics distribute poorly to prostatic sites of infection and trimethoprim therapy is often unfeasible due to high resistance rates. The present study aimed to analyze the efficacy of aminoglycosides, administered to a cohort of 78 patients affected by fluoroquinolone-resistant CBP, or excluded from fluoroquinolone therapy due to various contraindications. Patients received netilmicin (4.5 mg/kg, once-daily, intramuscular), combined or not with a β-lactam antibiotic, for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were scheduled 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Fifty-five out of 70 patients (78.6%) showed eradication of the causative pathogen, and a significant reduction of the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score from a baseline median value of 21 to 14 at the end of therapy, and to 9 and 8 at 6-month and 12-month follow-up assessments, respectively. The pain, voiding and quality of life subdomains of the NIH-CPSI decreased accordingly. In 15 patients showing persistence of infection, NIH-CPSI total and subdomain scores did not decrease at the end of therapy. Additional clinical parameters, such as the urinary peak flow rate, percentage voided bladder, serum prostate-specific antigen concentration, International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate volume improved significantly only in the group of patients in which the infection was eradicated. Therapy was well tolerated, and genetic testing for deafness-predisposing mitochondrial mutations allowed safer administration of aminoglycosides. These results suggest that aminoglycosides may become a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of CBP. These

  2. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Kazuki; Tanioka, Hiroaki; Tsuji, Akihito; Inukai, Michio; Yamakawa, Toshiki; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Toyota, Kazuhiro; Yamano, Taketoshi; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Okajima, Masazumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients and methods Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were eligible. Patients were treated with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) for 3 months followed by capecitabine (2,500 mg/m2 on days 1–14 every 3 weeks) for 3 months. Primary end points were frequency and the grade of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity as evaluated using the physician-based Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE) grading and the patient-based scale, self-reported Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire. Results Ninety-one patients were enrolled and 86 patients assessed. Eighty-four percent of patients completed the planned oxaliplatin-based therapy for 3 months, and 63% of patients completed all treatments for the full 6 months. Overall incidences of grade 3 or 4 peripheral sensory or motor neuropathy according to the CTCAE were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Regarding the peripheral sensory neuropathy, the proportion of Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (grade C–E) and CTCAE (grade 2–4) at months 1.5/3/6 were 11.3/22.1/29.4% and 5.3/4.4/11.3%, respectively (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.47). Conclusion A sequential approach to adjuvant chemotherapy with 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine was tolerated by patients and associated with a low incidence of

  3. A Phase II Study of a Paclitaxel-Based Chemoradiation Regimen With Selective Surgical Salvage for Resectable Locoregionally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Initial Reporting of RTOG 0246

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, Stephen G.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Wu, Tsung T.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Konski, Andre A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The strategy of definitive chemoradiation with selective surgical salvage in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer was evaluated in a Phase II trial in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-affiliated sites. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to detect an improvement in 1-year survival from 60% to 77.5% ({alpha} = 0.05; power = 80%). Definitive chemoradiation involved induction chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (650 mg/mg{sup 2}/day), cisplatin (15 mg/mg{sup 2}/day), and paclitaxel (200 mg/mg{sup 2}/day) for two cycles, followed by concurrent chemoradiation with 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and daily 5-FU (300 mg/mg{sup 2}/day) with cisplatin (15 mg/mg{sup 2}/day) over the first 5 days. Salvage surgical resection was considered for patients with residual or recurrent esophageal cancer who did not have systemic disease. Results: Forty-three patients with nonmetastatic resectable esophageal cancer were entered from Sept 2003 to March 2006. Forty-one patients were eligible for analysis. Clinical stage was {>=}T3 in 31 patients (76%) and N1 in 29 patients (71%), with adenocarcinoma histology in 30 patients (73%). Thirty-seven patients (90%) completed induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation. Twenty-eight patients (68%) experienced Grade 3+ nonhematologic toxicity. Four treatment-related deaths were noted. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery following definitive chemoradiation because of residual (17 patients) or recurrent (3 patients) esophageal cancer,and 1 patient because of choice. Median follow-up of live patients was 22 months, with an estimated 1-year survival of 71%. Conclusions: In this Phase II trial (RTOG 0246) evaluating selective surgical salvage after definitive chemoradiation in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer, the hypothesized 1-year RTOG survival rate (77.5%) was not achieved (1 year, 71%; 95% confidence interval< 54%-82%).

  4. EXTRA-A Multicenter Phase II Study of Chemoradiation Using a 5 Day per Week Oral Regimen of Capecitabine and Intravenous Mitomycin C in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Glynne-Jones, Rob Meadows, Helen; Wan, Susan; Gollins, Simon; Leslie, Martin; Levine, Ed; McDonald, Alec C.; Myint, Sun; Samuel, Les; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) + mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with epidermoid anal carcinoma. Clinical trials in other cancers have confirmed 5-FU can successfully be replaced by the oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine. This phase II trial aimed to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of capecitabine, MMC and radiotherapy (RT) in anal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT) II trial (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy). With MMC (12 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1 and capecitabine on each RT treatment day in two divided doses (825 mg/m{sup 2} b.i.d). The endpoints were complete response at 4 weeks, local control at 6 months and toxicity. Results: Thirty-one patients entered the trial. The median age was 61 years (range 45-86) with 14 males and 17 females. Compliance with chemotherapy with no dose interruptions or delays was 68%, and with RT was 81%. Eighteen (58%) patients completed both modalities of treatment as planned. Dose-limiting Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea was seen in 1 of 31 patients. Three patients experienced Grade 3 neutropenia. There were no treatment-related deaths. Four weeks following completion of chemoradiation, 24 patients (77%) had a complete clinical response, and 4 (16%) a partial response. With a median follow-up of 14 months, three locoregional relapses occurred. Conclusions: Capecitabine with MMC and RT in with patients anal carcinoma is well tolerated, with minimal toxicity and acceptable compliance. We recommend testing this schedule in future national Phase III studies in anal cancer.

  5. A PHASE II STUDY OF A PACLITAXEL-BASED CHEMORADIATION REGIMEN WITH SELECTIVE SURGICAL SALVAGE FOR RESECTABLE LOCOREGIONALLY ADVANCED ESOPHAGEAL CANCER: INITIAL REPORTING OF RTOG 0246

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Stephen G.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Wu, Tsung T.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Konski, Andre A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The strategy of definitive chemoradiation with selective surgical salvage in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer was evaluated in a Phase II trial in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-affiliated sites. Methods and Materials The study was designed to detect an improvement in 1-year survival from 60% to 77.5% (α= 0.05; power = 80%). Definitive chemoradiation involved induction chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (650 mg/mg2/day), cisplatin (15 mg/mg2/day), and paclitaxel (200 mg/mg2/day) for two cycles, followed by concurrent chemoradiation with 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and daily 5-FU (300 mg/mg2/day) with cisplatin (15 mg/mg2/day) over the first 5 days. Salvage surgical resection was considered for patients with residual or recurrent esophageal cancer who did not have systemic disease. Results Forty-three patients with nonmetastatic resectable esophageal cancer were entered from Sept 2003 to March 2006. Forty-one patients were eligible for analysis. Clinical stage was ≥T3 in 31 patients (76%) and N1 in 29 patients (71%), with adenocarcinoma histology in 30 patients (73%). Thirty-seven patients (90%) completed induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation. Twenty-eight patients (68%) experienced Grade 3+ nonhematologic toxicity. Four treatment-related deaths were noted. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery following definitive chemoradiation because of residual (17 patients) or recurrent (3 patients) esophageal cancer,and 1 patient because of choice. Median follow-up of live patients was 22 months, with an estimated 1-year survival of 71%. Conclusions In this Phase II trial (RTOG 0246) evaluating selective surgical salvage after definitive chemoradiation in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer, the hypothesized 1-year RTOG survival rate (77.5%) was not achieved (1 year, 71%; 95% confidence interval< 54%–82%). PMID:21507583

  6. Simplicial Descent Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2008-04-01

    Much of the homotopical and homological structure of the categories of chain complexes and topological spaces can be deduced from the existence and properties of the 'simple' functors Tot : {double chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and geometric realization : {sSets} -> {Top}, or similarly, Tot : {simplicial chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and | | : {sTop} -> {Top}. The purpose of this thesis is to abstract this situation, and to this end we introduce the notion of '(co)simplicial descent category'. It is inspired by Guillen-Navarros's '(cubical) descent categories'. The key ingredients in a (co)simplicial descent category D are a class E of morphisms in D, called equivalences, and a 'simple' functor s : {(co)simplicial objects in D} -> D. They must satisfy axioms like 'Eilenberg-Zilber', 'exactness' and 'acyclicity'. This notion covers a wide class of examples, as chain complexes, sSets, topological spaces, filtered cochain complexes (where E = filtered quasi-isomorphisms or E = E_2-isomorphisms), commutative differential graded algebras (with s = Navarro's Thom-Whitney simple), DG-modules over a DG-category and mixed Hodge complexes, where s = Deligne's simple. From the simplicial descent structure we obtain homotopical structure on D, as cone and cylinder objects. We use them to i) explicitly describe the morphisms of HoD=D[E^{-1}] similarly to the case of calculus of fractions; ii) endow HoD with a non-additive pre-triangulated structure, that becomes triangulated in the stable additive case. These results use the properties of a 'total functor', which associates to any biaugmented bisimplicial object a simplicial object. It is the simplicial analogue of the total chain complex of a double complex, and it is left adjoint to Illusie's 'decalage' functor.

  7. Randomized Phase III Trial Comparing ABVD Plus Radiotherapy With the Stanford V Regimen in Patients With Stages I or II Locally Extensive, Bulky Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Subset Analysis of the North American Intergroup E2496 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Ranjana H.; Hong, Fangxin; Fisher, Richard I.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Robinson, K. Sue; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Wagner, Henry; Stiff, Patrick J.; Cheson, Bruce D.; Stewart, Douglas A.; Gordon, Leo I.; Kahl, Brad S.; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Blum, Kristie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Tuscano, Joseph M.; Hoppe, Richard T.; Horning, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The phase III North American Intergroup E2496 Trial (Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Hodgkin's Lymphoma) compared doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) with mechlorethamine, doxorubicin, vincristine, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide, and prednisone (Stanford V). We report results of a planned subgroup analysis in patients with stage I or II bulky mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to six to eight cycles of ABVD every 28 days or Stanford V once per week for 12 weeks. Two to 3 weeks after completion of chemotherapy, all patients received 36 Gy of modified involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to the mediastinum, hila, and supraclavicular regions. Patients on the Stanford V arm received IFRT to additional sites ≥ 5 cm at diagnosis. Primary end points were failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Of 794 eligible patients, 264 had stage I or II bulky disease, 135 received ABVD, and 129 received Stanford V. Patient characteristics were matched. The overall response rate was 83% with ABVD and 88% with Stanford V. At a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the study excluded a difference of more than 21% in 5-year FFS and more than 16% in 5-year OS between ABVD and Stanford V (5-year FFS: 85% v 79%; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.25; P = .22; 5-year OS: 96% v 92%; HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.47; P = .19). In-field relapses occurred in < 10% of the patients in each arm. Conclusion For patients with stage I or II bulky mediastinal HL, no substantial statistically significant differences were detected between the two regimens, although power was limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective trial reporting outcomes specific to this subgroup, and it sets a benchmark for comparison of ongoing and future studies. PMID:25897153

  8. PERSONALIZED DOSING OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE IN THE TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION - CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE CONDITIONING REGIMEN: A PHASE II TRIAL IN PATIENTS WITH HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Batchelder, Ami; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Witherspoon, Robert; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Phillips, Brian; Vicini, Paolo; Salinger, David H.; McDonald, George B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy and safety of personalized cyclophosphamide (CY) dosing in 50 patients receiving CY with total body irradiation (TBI). Participants received CY 45 mg/kg with subsequent therapeutic drug monitoring with Bayesian parameter estimation to personalize the second CY dose to a target area under the curve for carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (a reporter for CY-derived toxins) and for hydroxycyclophosphamide (to ensure engraftment). The mean second CY dose was 66 mg/kg; the total dose ranged from 45–145 mg/kg. After completion of this phase II study, we compared participants’ clinical outcomes to those of concurrent controls (N=100) who received TBI with standard CY doses of 120 mg/kg. Patients receiving personalized CY dosing had significantly lower post-conditioning peak total serum bilirubin (p=0.03); a 38% reduction in the hazard of acute kidney injury (p=0.03); and similar non-relapse and overall survival (p=0.70 and 0.63, respectively) despite lower doses of CY in most patients. PMID:19295506

  9. HALT-D: A Phase II Evaluation of Crofelemer for the Prevention and Prophylaxis of Diarrhea in Patients With Breast Cancer on Pertuzumab-Based Regimens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jennifer J; Tan, Ming; Pohlmann, Paula R; Swain, Sandra M

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 40% to 80% of patients receiving pertuzumab-directed therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer will develop chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Loperamide and octreotide are frequently used to treat CID after diarrhea occurs, but neither is used prophylactically or targets the underlying mechanism. Previous studies suggest blocking epidermal growth factor receptor may cause excess chloride secretion, resulting in diarrhea. Crofelemer is derived from the red latex of the Croton lechleri tree, blocks gastrointestinal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and calcium-activated chloride channels, and is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for relief of diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy. Crofelemer is not systemically absorbed, has relatively few side effects, and presents a targeted approach at preventing CID in patients receiving pertuzumab-based therapy. HALT-D (DiarrHeA Prevention and ProphyLaxis with Crofelemer in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, and Docetaxel or Paclitaxel with or without Carboplatin, NCT02910219) is a phase II, randomized, open-label trial that aims to recruit 46 patients from 3 MedStar sites. Adults with HER2-positive breast cancer being treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and docetaxel or paclitaxel (THP) or trastuzumab, pertuzumab, docetaxel, and carboplatin (TCHP) will be randomized to receive crofelemer or no medication for diarrhea prophylaxis. The primary endpoint is incidence of all grade diarrhea for ≥ 2 consecutive days during cycles 1 to 2 of THP or TCHP. Secondary endpoints include overall incidence, duration, and severity of diarrhea; time to onset of diarrhea; use of other anti-diarrheal medications; stool frequency and consistency; and quality of life. HALT-D will provide important information about the feasibility and tolerability of crofelemer in preventing diarrhea for patients receiving THP or TCHP.

  10. Dose-dense temozolomide regimen for the treatment of brain metastases from melanoma, breast cancer, or lung cancer not amenable to surgery or radiosurgery: a multicenter phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Siena, S.; Crinò, L.; Danova, M.; Del Prete, S.; Cascinu, S.; Salvagni, S.; Schiavetto, I.; Vitali, M.; Bajetta, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases reduce survival because therapeutic options are limited. This phase II study evaluated the efficacy of single-agent therapy with alternating weekly, dose-dense temozolomide in pretreated patients with brain metastases prospectively stratified by primary tumor type. Methods: Eligible patients had bidimensionally measurable brain metastases from histologically/cytologically confirmed melanoma, breast cancer (BC), or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Prior chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were allowed. Patients received temozolomide 150 mg/m2/day (days 1–7 and 15–21 every 28- or 35-day cycle). Results: In the intent-to-treat population (N = 157; 53 melanoma, 51 BC, and 53 NSCLC), one patient had complete response, nine (6%) had partial responses, and 31 (20%) had stable disease in the brain. Median progression-free survival was 56, 58, and 66 days for melanoma, BC, and NSCLC, respectively. Median overall survival was 100 days for melanoma, 172 days for NSCLC, and not evaluable in the BC group. Thrombocytopenia was the most common adverse event causing dose modification or treatment discontinuation. Grade 4 toxic effects were rare. Conclusions: This alternating weekly, dose-dense temozolomide regimen was well tolerated and clinically active in heavily pretreated patients with brain metastases, particularly in patients with melanoma. Combining temozolomide with WBRT or other agents may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:19767314

  11. Managing Complex Medication Regimens.

    PubMed

    Harvath, Theresa A; Lindauer, Allison; Sexson, Kathryn

    2017-05-01

    : This article is the first in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The first video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A74.

  12. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…

  13. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…

  14. Rank 4 Premodular Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul J.; Galindo, Cesar; Ng, Siu Hung; Plavnik, Julia; Rowell, Eric; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-09-01

    We consider the classification problem for rank 4 premodular categories. We uncover a formula for the 2nd Frobenius-Schur indicator of a premodular category is determined and the classification of rank 4 premodular categories (up to Grothendieck equivalence) is completed. In the appendix we show rank finiteness for premodular categories.

  15. How Do Patients Who Fail First-Line TB Treatment but Who Are Not Placed on an MDR-TB Regimen Fare in South India?

    PubMed Central

    Burugina Nagaraja, Sharath; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chadha, Sarabjit Singh; Kalemane, Santosha; Jaju, Jyoti; Achanta, Shanta; Reddy, Kishore; Potharaju, Vishnu; Motta Shamrao, Srinivas Rao; Dewan, Puneet; Rony, Zachariah; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathi; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Harries, Anthony David; Kuldeep Singh, Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Setting Seven districts in Andhra Pradesh, South India Objectives To a) determine treatment outcomes of patients who fail first line anti-TB treatment and are not placed on an multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) regimen, and b) relate the treatment outcomes to culture and drug susceptibility patterns (C&DST). Design Retrospective cohort study using routine programme data and Mycobacterium TB Culture C&DST between July 2008 and December 2009. Results There were 202 individuals given a re-treatment regimen and included in the study. Overall treatment outcomes were: 68 (34%) with treatment success, 84 (42%) failed, 36 (18%) died, 13 (6.5%) defaulted and 1 transferred out. Treatment success for category I and II failures was low at 37%. In those with positive cultures, 81 had pan-sensitive strains with 31 (38%) showing treatment success, while 61 had drug-resistance strains with 9 (15%) showing treatment success. In 58 patients with negative cultures, 28 (48%) showed treatment success. Conclusion Treatment outcomes of patients who fail a first-line anti-TB treatment and who are not placed on an MDR-TB regimen are unacceptably poor. The worst outcomes are seen among category II failures and those with negative cultures or drug-resistance. There are important programmatic implications which need to be addressed. PMID:22022433

  16. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment. Considering the high

  17. Comparison of speechreading training regimens.

    PubMed

    Blumsack, Judith T; Bower, Carolyn R; Ross, Margaret E

    2007-12-01

    The regimen selected for use in speechreading training is an important consideration for audiological rehabilitation purposes and may play a role in its success. Short-term improvement on a commercially available speechreading training program was compared for two training regimens (daily and weekly). Two groups of university student volunteers (ages 20 to 31 years) (12 students per group) were trained daily or weekly on a vowel speechreading task. Percent correct was recorded for each training session. Both groups showed improved performance across training sessions, but there was no significant difference in improvement by type of training regimen.

  18. Categories of Arrhythmias

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous page En español Aneurysms and Dissections Angina Arrhythmia Bundle Branch Block Cardiomyopathy Carotid Artery Disease Chronic ... Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Categories of Arrhythmias Arrhythmias are generally divided into two categories: ventricular ...

  19. Color Vision: Representing Material Categories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    pigniv!i an(’I ermbte(Jlmq matterial . C 2 UPul’ .AND rUCIARDS COLOR AND MATERIAL CATEGORIES 3. The Opposite Slope Sign Inference 5i. 1 The Lawf ill Ff...Part II)," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 45, 636- 644, 1959b. Land, E.H., "Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computa

  20. M-M-R(®)II manufactured using recombinant human albumin (rHA) and M-M-R(®)II manufactured using human serum albumin (HSA) exhibit similar safety and immunogenicity profiles when administered as a 2-dose regimen to healthy children.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Richard T; Reisinger, Keith S; Hartzel, Jonathan; Malacaman, Edgardo; Senders, Shelly D; Giacoletti, Katherine E D; Shaw, Eric; Kuter, Barbara J; Schödel, Florian; Musey, Luwy K

    2015-04-27

    Prior to 2006, M-M-R(®)II (measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live) was manufactured using human serum albumin (HSA) and each dose of the vaccine contained a relatively small amount (≤0.3mg) of HSA. Because of specific regulatory requirements and limited suppliers of HSA acceptable for human use, there was a need to replace HSA with recombinant human albumin (rHA) to mitigate any potential risk to the availability of M-M-R(®)II. Two different formulations of M-M-R(®)II manufactured using either rHA or HSA were clinically evaluated for safety and immunogenicity when administered as a 2-dose regimen to healthy children 12-18 months and 3-4 years of age. Adverse events, including those indicative of a possible hypersensitivity reaction, were collected for 42 days after each dose. Antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella were measured before and approximately 6 weeks after dose 1. Antibodies to rHA were measured before and approximately 6 weeks after dose 1 and dose 2. Antibody seroconversion rates to measles, mumps, and rubella were 97.0%, 99.5%, and 99.7%, respectively, for recipients of M-M-R(®)II with rHA and 97.2%, 97.9%, and 99.6%, respectively, for recipients of M-M-R(®)II with HSA, and geometric mean titers to all 3 vaccine viral antigens were comparable between the 2 vaccination groups. The proportions of subjects who reported adverse events, including those suggestive of hypersensitivity reactions, after each dose of study vaccine were comparable between the 2 vaccination groups. No subject had detectable antibodies to rHA immediately prior to or following receipt of either the first or second dose of study vaccine. Given the comparable immunogenicity and safety profiles of both formulations, rHA is an acceptable replacement for HSA in the manufacture of M-M-R(®)II.

  1. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  2. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  3. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  4. Rethinking the Category 'Determiner'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Wayne E.

    1975-01-01

    The 'determiner' category was originally set up by structuralists for identifying nouns. The rewrite rule for 'determiners' in transformational generative grammar is inadequate for showing correspondences between type and token. An appraisal of quantity terms might eliminate the concept of the 'determiner,' and replace that category with one of…

  5. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  6. Categories of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    1994-01-01

    The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent…

  7. 40 CFR 94.106 - Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heated by the engine); (ii) Without correction at any ambient water temperature (or equivalent) between 5... commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 94.105(b), the Not to Exceed... Exceed zone which follows: ER29DE99.002 (2) For Category 2 engines certified using the duty...

  8. Ensuring compliance with drug regimens.

    PubMed

    Clarence, M

    This article explores the difficulties patients encounter in complying with prescribed drug regimens, and describes some of the compliance aids which are commonly available. A sensitive understanding of patients' individual difficulties by health care staff is an essential precursor to successful compliance behaviour.

  9. Randomized Phase II trial of two high-dose chemotherapy regimens with stem cell transplantation for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in first remission or chemosensitive relapse: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Stiff, Patrick J; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Liu, P Y; Wilczynski, Sharon P; Callander, Natalie S; Scudder, Sidney A; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman; Samlowski, Wolfram; McCoy, Jason; Alberts, David S

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity of two high-dose chemotherapy regimens with stem cell rescue used to treat patients with recurrent or persistent stage III/IV ovarian cancer, with the goal of taking one forward into a Phase III comparison with conventional therapy. Patients under 65 with clinically or pathologically persistent disease after initial chemotherapy or those relapsing >6 months after a complete remission (CR) were randomized to CMC carboplatin (1500 mg/m(2)), mitoxantrone (75 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg)], or CTC: [cisplatin (165 mg/m(2)), thiotepa (600 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (5625 mg/m(2))] with stem cell rescue. Of 67 randomized, the 32 and 26 eligible in the CMC and CTC arms were matched including age (median 49), maximum tumor diameter, and disease status at transplant. Low-risk disease (maximum diameter disease regimen was the superior regimen. However, few patients were long-term progression-free survivors. A clinical CR to primary therapy and a normal CA125, seen in a minority of patients, were requirements for a favorable outcome.

  10. Representation of categories.

    PubMed

    Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were presented inside or outside a frame that should activate the container schema. We found that performance to pictures was influenced by the frame in congruence with the metaphorical mapping (same category—inside bounded region; different category—not in same bounded region). These results show that the concept categories is metaphorically represented by containers.

  11. Phase II study of continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil with epirubicin and carboplatin (instead of cisplatin) in patients with metastatic/locally advanced breast cancer (infusional ECarboF): a very active and well-tolerated outpatient regimen.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoi, H.; Smith, I. E.; O'Brien, M. E.; Seymour, M. T.; Powles, T. J.; Allum, W. H.; Ebbs, S.; Baum, M.

    1996-01-01

    Infusional 5-fluorouracil (F) with cisplatin (C) and epirubicin (E), so-called infusional ECF, is a highly active new schedule against locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Cisplatin, however, is a major contributor to toxicity and usually requires inpatient treatment. In an attempt to overcome this, we have investigated the effect of substituting carboplatin for cisplatin in our original infusional ECF regimen. Fifty-two patients with metastatic (n = 36) or locally advanced/inflammatory (n = 16) breast cancer were treated with 5-fluorouracil 200 mg m-2 day-1 via a Hickman line using an ambulatory pump for for 6 months, with epirubicin 50 mg m-2 intravenously (i.v.) and carboplatin AUC5 i.v. every 4 weeks, for six courses (infusional ECarboF). The overall response rate (complete plus partial) was 81% (95% CI 67%-90%), with a complete response rate of 17% (95% CI 6-33%) in patients with metastatic disease and 56% (95% CI 30-80%) in patients with locally advanced disease. Median response duration and survival for metastatic disease was 8 and 14 months respectively, and two patients with locally advanced disease have relapsed. These results are very similar to those previously achieved with infusional ECF. Severe grade 3/4 toxicity was low. Infusional ECarboF is a highly active, well-tolerated, outpatient regimen effective against advanced/metastatic breast cancer and now warrants evaluation against conventional chemotherapy in high-risk early breast cancer. PMID:8562348

  12. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  13. Oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation, labor progression, and perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M; Laughon, S Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing of 1, 2, and 4 milliunits/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared with 1 milliunit/min, the regimens starting with 2 milliunits/min and 4 milliunits/min reduced the duration of first stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0-1.7), respectively, in nulliparous women. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparous women. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparous women. High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 milliunits/min and increment of 4 millliunits/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first-stage of labor for all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. II.

  14. Phonetic category recalibration: What are the categories?

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Eva; Wozny, David R.; Mitterer, Holger; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use lexical or visual context information to recalibrate auditory speech perception. After hearing an ambiguous auditory stimulus between /aba/ and /ada/ coupled with a clear visual stimulus (e.g., lip closure in /aba/), an ambiguous auditory-only stimulus is perceived in line with the previously seen visual stimulus. What remains unclear, however, is what exactly listeners are recalibrating: phonemes, phone sequences, or acoustic cues. To address this question we tested generalization of visually-guided auditory recalibration to 1) the same phoneme contrast cued differently (i.e., /aba/-/ada/ vs. /ibi/-/idi/ where the main cues are formant transitions in the vowels vs. burst and frication of the obstruent), 2) a different phoneme contrast cued identically (/aba/-/ada/ vs. /ama/-/ana/ both cued by formant transitions in the vowels), and 3) the same phoneme contrast with the same cues in a different acoustic context (/aba/-/ada/ vs. (/ubu/-/udu/). Whereas recalibration was robust for all recalibration control trials, no generalization was found in any of the experiments. This suggests that perceptual recalibration may be more specific than previously thought as it appears to be restricted to the phoneme category experienced during exposure as well as to the specific manipulated acoustic cues. We suggest that recalibration affects context-dependent sub-lexical units. PMID:24932053

  15. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  16. Category specific semantic impairments.

    PubMed

    Warrington, E K; Shallice, T

    1984-09-01

    We report a quantitative investigation of the visual identification and auditory comprehension deficits of 4 patients who had made a partial recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis. Clinical observations had suggested the selective impairment and selective preservation of certain categories of visual stimuli. In all 4 patients a significant discrepancy between their ability to identify inanimate objects and inability to identify living things and foods was demonstrated. In 2 patients it was possible to compare visual and verbal modalities and the same pattern of dissociation was observed in both. For 1 patient, comprehension of abstract words was significantly superior to comprehension of concrete words. Consistency of responses was recorded within a modality in contrast to a much lesser degree of consistency between modalities. We interpret our findings in terms of category specificity in the organization of meaning systems that are also modality specific semantic systems.

  17. Sound categories or phonemes?

    PubMed

    Redford, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Vihman emphasizes the importance of early word production to the emergence of phonological knowledge. This emphasis, consistent with the generative function of phonology, provides insight into the concurrent representation of phonemes and words. At the same time, Vihman's focus on phonology leads her to possibly overstate the influence of early word acquisition on the emergence of sound categories that are probably purely phonetic in nature at the outset of learning.

  18. Components of the Goeckerman regimen.

    PubMed

    Le Vine, M J; White, H A; Parrish, J A

    1979-08-01

    Although application of tar products and subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (the Goeckerman regimen) has repeatedly been demonstrated to be effective therapy for psoriasis, the therapeutic role of each component has remained uncertain. Utilizing the bilateral comparison technique in 30 hospitalized patients with chronic stable plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris, we closely monitored the clinical responses to ultraviolet radiation (Westinghouse fluorescent FS40 bulbs, 290--400 nm) and a variety of tar preparations and lubricant vehicles in combination and separately. We found that: 1) 4 weeks of maximally-aggressive exposure to ultraviolet radiation alone will markedly improve, but not completely clear, psoriasis unless combined with a tar preparation or lubricating base; 2) 5% crude coal tar plus ultraviolet radiation offers no clear advantage or benefit over lubricating base plus ultraviolet radiation; and 3) none of the tar preparations tested offered any consistent advantage over any other preparation.

  19. Gene-Category Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Gene-category analysis is one important knowledge integration approach in biomedical sciences that combines knowledge bases such as Gene Ontology with lists of genes or their products, which are often the result of high-throughput experiments, gained from either wet-lab or synthetic experiments. In this chapter, we will motivate this class of analyses and describe an often used variant that is based on Fisher's exact test. We show that this approach has some problems in the context of Gene Ontology of which users should be aware. We then describe some more recent algorithms that try to address some of the shortcomings of the standard approach.

  20. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  1. Limitations of cigarette machine smoking regimens.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Carchman, R A

    2011-05-30

    There is an ongoing debate about the 'usefulness' of the standard machine smoking regimen for cigarettes defined by the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and adopted in principal by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). More intense smoking regimens result in much higher smoke yields, and these higher yields have been suggested to be much closer to human smoke uptake. However, it appears that more intense smoking regimens are less efficient in detecting possible differences in the yield of toxicants. Intense smoking regimens reproducibly decrease the concentration of toxicants in the smoke per unit mass of total particulate matter, tar, or nicotine, most likely as a result of a more complete combustion. The toxicant concentration reaches the same plateau for different cigarette types under the intense smoking regimens. As such, differences in toxicant concentrations due to product changes, which are observable under ISO or FTC conditions, may disappear under intensive smoking regimens. Intense machine smoking regimens might be used for regulatory compliance and consumer information. However, when evaluating the toxicological impact of cigarette product changes, especially to avoid increases in toxicity, they should not be used as a standard (or at least not as the only standard). The type of smoking regimen has to be carefully considered and aligned to the underlying question. Depending on the question a combination of the reviewed regimens or even other approaches might be appropriate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Construction of a database for published phase II/III drug intervention clinical trials for the period 2009-2014 comprising 2,326 records, 90 disease categories, and 939 drug entities.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sohyun; Han, Nayoung; Choi, Boyoon; Sohn, Minji; Song, Yun-Kyoung; Chung, Myeon-Woo; Na, Han-Sung; Ji, Eunhee; Kim, Hyunah; Rhew, Ki Yon; Kim, Therasa; Kim, In-Wha; Oh, Jung Mi

    2016-06-01

    To construct a database of published clinical drug trials suitable for use 1) as a research tool in accessing clinical trial information and 2) in evidence-based decision-making by regulatory professionals, clinical research investigators, and medical practitioners. Comprehensive information obtained from a search of design elements and results of clinical trials in peer reviewed journals using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.ih.gov/pubmed). The methodology to develop a structured database was devised by a panel composed of experts in medical, pharmaceutical, information technology, and members of Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) using a step by step approach. A double-sided system consisting of user mode and manager mode served as the framework for the database; elements of interest from each trial were entered via secure manager mode enabling the input information to be accessed in a user-friendly manner (user mode). Information regarding methodology used and results of drug treatment were extracted as detail elements of each data set and then inputted into the web-based database system. Comprehensive information comprising 2,326 clinical trial records, 90 disease states, and 939 drugs entities and concerning study objectives, background, methods used, results, and conclusion could be extracted from published information on phase II/III drug intervention clinical trials appearing in SCI journals within the last 10 years. The extracted data was successfully assembled into a clinical drug trial database with easy access suitable for use as a research tool. The clinically most important therapeutic categories, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, metabolic, urogenital, gastrointestinal, psychological, and infectious diseases were covered by the database. Names of test and control drugs, details on primary and secondary outcomes and indexed keywords could also be retrieved and built into the database. The construction used in the database

  3. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  4. Beyond the Categories.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  5. Category Coherence and Category-Based Property Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Hastie, Reid

    2004-01-01

    One important property of human object categories is that they define the sets of exemplars to which newly observed properties are generalized. We manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories and assessed the resulting strength of property inductions. We found that the theoretical coherence afforded to a category by…

  6. Category Coherence and Category-Based Property Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Hastie, Reid

    2004-01-01

    One important property of human object categories is that they define the sets of exemplars to which newly observed properties are generalized. We manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories and assessed the resulting strength of property inductions. We found that the theoretical coherence afforded to a category by…

  7. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  8. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  9. DIOS - database of formalized chemotherapeutic regimens.

    PubMed

    Klimes, Daniel; Smid, Roman; Kubasek, Miroslav; Vyzula, Rostislav; Dušek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens (CHR) and their administration are routine practice in contemporary oncology. The development of a structured, electronic database of standard CHR can help the faster propagation of information about new CHR and at the same time enable assessment of their adherence in clinical practice. The goal was to develop a standardized way to describe a regimen using XML, fill the database with currently available regimens and develop tools to assess the adherence of the treatment to chosen regimen, compare the dose-intensity and recognize the regimen from existing data on drug administration. The data are being inserted in cooperation with expert oncologists and the database currently contains about 260 CHRs. Such system can be used to enhance decision support systems and interoperability of HIS. The database and tools are available online on the internet.

  10. Multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study comparing S-1 alternate-day oral therapy with the standard daily regimen as a first-line treatment in patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamaue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Yasuhiro; Sho, Masayuki; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Nakamori, Shoji; Ueno, Hideki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Sugimori, Kazuya; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Ueda, Kazuki; Nebiki, Hiroko; Nagakawa, Tatsuya; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Isao; Ohashi, Yasuo; Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Non-inferiority for overall survival (OS) following alternate-day treatment with the oral anticancer drug S-1 compared with standard daily treatment was assessed in Japanese patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer in a multicenter, randomized, phase II study. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (no. 000008604). Chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned 2:1 to treatment with alternate-day (twice daily on alternate days from days 1 through 42 of a 42-day cycle) or daily (twice daily on days 1 through 28 of a 42-day cycle) treatment with S-1. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), time to treatment failure, response rate, quality of life assessments, and safety. A total of 190 patients were enrolled, of which 185 were included in the final analysis (alternate-day: 121; daily: 64). Median OS was 9.4 for the alternate-day group and 10.4 months for the daily group [hazard ratio (HR), 1.19; 95% credible interval, 0.86 to 1.64], indicating that non-inferiority of alternate-day treatment to daily treatment was not demonstrated. Median PFS was 3.0 for the alternate-day group and 4.2 months for the daily group (HR, 1.65; 95% credible interval, 1.20-2.29). The incidence of anorexia, fatigue, neutrophils, pigmentation, and pneumonitis was lower in alternate-day treatment compared with daily treatment. S-1 for advanced pancreatic cancer should be taken daily as recommended, based on the decreased OS and PFS and marginal improvement in safety observed in the alternate-day group.

  11. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    PubMed

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  12. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the Gonzalez regimen as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  13. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  14. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  15. Dietary regimens of athletes competing at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary regimens reported by athletes competing at a major international competition and report whether these were based on nutrient composition, religious beliefs, cultural eating style, food intolerance or avoidance of certain ingredients. A questionnaire was randomly distributed to 351 athletes in the main dining hall of the athletes' village over the three main meal periods during the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games (23rd Sept-14th Oct, 2010). The majority (n = 218, 62%) of athletes reported following one or more dietary regimens, with 50% (n = 174) following a diet based on the nutrient composition of the food. Significantly more athletes from weight category and aesthetic sports (28%, p = .005) and from power/sprint sports (41%, p = .004) followed low fat and high protein regimens respectively. Other specialized dietary regimens were followed by 33% of participants, with avoidance of red meat (13%), vegetarian (7%), Halal (6%), and low lactose regimens (5%) reported most frequently. Significantly more athletes from non-Western regions followed a vegetarian diet (p < .001), while more vegetarians reported avoiding additives (p = .013) and wheat (p ≤ .001). A Western style of eating was the most commonly reported cultural regimen (72% of total with 23% from non-Western regions). Those following a Western diet were significantly more likely to report following a regimen based on nutrient composition (p = .02). As a high proportion of athletes from differing countries and sports follow specialized dietary regimens, caterers and organizers should ensure that adequate nutrition support and food items are available at similar events.

  16. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, suggesting that they focused on feature-feature relations rather than summary categorical information. The results showed that people relied heavily on such correlations, even when there was no reason to think that the correlations exist in the population. The results suggested that people’s use of this strategy is largely unreflective, rather than strategically chosen. These findings have important implications for models of category-based induction, which generally ignore feature-feature relations. PMID:20526447

  17. Recommendations for use of an isoniazid-rifapentine regimen with direct observation to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    2011-12-09

    Preventing tuberculosis (TB) by treating latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a cornerstone of the U.S. strategy for TB elimination. Three randomized controlled trials have shown that a new combination regimen of isoniazid (INH) and rifapentine (RPT) administered weekly for 12 weeks as directly observed therapy (DOT) is as effective for preventing TB as other regimens and is more likely to be completed than the U.S. standard regimen of 9 months of INH daily without DOT. This report provides CDC recommendations for using the INH-RPT regimen. The new regimen is recommended as an equal alternative to the 9-month INH regimen for otherwise healthy patients aged≥12 years who have LTBI and factors that are predictive of TB developing (e.g., recent exposure to contagious TB). The new regimen also can be considered for other categories of patients when it offers practical advantages. Although the INH-RPT regimen was well tolerated in treatment trials, monitoring for adverse effects is recommended. Severe adverse effects should be reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC.

  18. The Coordination of Unlike Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the account of coordination of unlike categories ought to be unified with the account of feature neutralization under phonological identity. Further argues that this unified account ought not be couched in terms of string of features, but rather in terms of the logic of categories. Study concludes with a discussion of the interactions…

  19. The Coordination of Unlike Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the account of coordination of unlike categories ought to be unified with the account of feature neutralization under phonological identity. Further argues that this unified account ought not be couched in terms of string of features, but rather in terms of the logic of categories. Study concludes with a discussion of the interactions…

  20. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

  1. Psychometric properties of the Halstead Category Test.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M N; Charter, R A; Newman, R J

    2000-05-01

    Using the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) corrected for item difficulty, the internal consistency reliability of the Halstead Category Test (HCT) was calculated for a sample (N = 398) of normal patients and volunteers, diffusely brain-damaged patients, and undiagnosed patients sent for neuropsychological assessment. The HCT Total Score reliability was.9716 and the subtest reliabilities ranged from.4587 to.9590. An item analysis found that most of the test items, except for those from Subtests I and II, were within established criteria for item difficulty and the discrimination index.

  2. Category norms for 500 Spanish words in five semantic categories.

    PubMed

    Izura, Cristina; Hernández-Muñoz, Natividad; Ellis, Andrew W

    2005-08-01

    This study presents a database of 500 words from five semantic categories: animals, body parts, furniture, clothing, and intelligence. Each category contains 100 words, and data on lexical availability, age of acquisition, imageability, typicality, concept familiarity, written word frequency, and word length in number of syllables are provided with each word. The full set of norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  3. Psychopathic disorder: a category mistake?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, C A

    1991-01-01

    Although the concept of psychopathy retains its currency in British psychiatry, apparently being meaningful as well as useful to practitioners (1), it is often taken to refer to a purely legal category with social control functions rather than a medical diagnosis with treatment implications. I wish, in this brief article, to suggest that it is essentially, and most usefully, an ethical category which stands outside the diagnostic framework of present-day psychiatry. PMID:1870086

  4. Drinfeld Center and Representation Theory for Monoidal Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshveyev, Sergey; Yamashita, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the relation between the Drinfeld double and central property (T) for quantum groups, given a rigid C*-tensor category {mathcal{C}} and a unitary half-braiding on an ind-object, we construct a *-representation of the fusion algebra of {mathcal{C}}. This allows us to present an alternative approach to recent results of Popa and Vaes, who defined C*-algebras of monoidal categories and introduced property (T) for them. As an example we analyze categories {mathcal{C}} of Hilbert bimodules over a II1-factor. We show that in this case the Drinfeld center is monoidally equivalent to a category of Hilbert bimodules over another II1-factor obtained by the Longo-Rehren construction. As an application, we obtain an alternative proof of the result of Popa and Vaes stating that property (T) for the category defined by an extremal finite index subfactor {N subset M} is equivalent to Popa's property (T) for the corresponding SE-inclusion of II1-factors. In the last part of the paper we study Müger's notion of weakly monoidally Morita equivalent categories and analyze the behavior of our constructions under the equivalence of the corresponding Drinfeld centers established by Schauenburg. In particular, we prove that property (T) is invariant under weak monoidal Morita equivalence.

  5. The myth of DSM's invention of new categories of disorder: Houts's diagnostic discontinuity thesis disconfirmed.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, J C

    2001-05-01

    Houts (2001) argues that increases in DSM diagnostic categories are due to the invention of new disorders that are discontinuous with old conceptions of disorder and would not have been previously diagnosed. He maintains that DSM category increases are not comparable in nature to ICD category increases, which are mainly refinements of recognized disorders. I survey categories of disorder introduced after DSM-II and assess whether they are discontinuous with old concepts and categories of disorder. Candidate categories are identified from: Houts and Follette (1998), Mentalism, mechanisms, and medical analogues: Reply to Wakefield. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; Kutchins and Kirk (1997) Making us crazy: DSM: The psychiatric bible and the creation of mental disorders. New York: Free Press; and my own list. The result is that virtually none of the candidate categories are invented, discontinuous categories. In almost every case, the newly labeled conditions were considered disorders at the time of DSM-II and would have been diagnosed under DSM-II categories. I also reexamine DSM-IV sleep disorder categories, which Houts claims are discontinuous with past diagnostic conceptions. The result is that all DSM-IV sleep disorders were recognized as disorders at the time of DSM-II, and most were recognized as mental disorders. I conclude that DSM category increases are comparable in nature to ICD category increases, and that the invention-of-disorder account cannot explain the vast majority of such increases.

  6. Data categories for marine planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  7. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit) A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin-Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of category goodness.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gaxiola, M; Johnson, M H; Csibra, G; Karmiloff-Smith, A

    2000-07-01

    We report the results obtained from a behavioural and electrophysiological study. A synthesised continuum going from labial /ba/ to retroflex /da/ through dental /da/ was tested for category goodness. Native English speakers rated different tokens from each category as good, bad or ambiguous. The results showed that not all of the representatives of each category were ideal and that the categories tested have an internal structure. The electrophysiological study evaluated whether event related potentials (ERPs) mirrored the goodness judgements. During a passive oddball task, the same participants were exposed to native /ba/-/da/, Hindi dental /da/-retroflex /da/ and within-category /ba/-/ba/ contrasts. Results showed that participants pre-attentively perceive the differences in all cases, as shown by mis-match negativities (MMN), late positive deflections (LPD) or greater N1 and/or P2 components for deviant stimuli. Acoustic sensitivities, categorical perception and category goodness all contributed to the waveforms obtained. We attribute the ERP effects to a combination of (1) prototypes built from initial sensitivities, (2) reinforcement with exposure to one's native language and (3) no permanent loss of the initial boundaries explains the effects observed.

  9. Social Support and Compliance with Hypertension Regimens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earp, Jo Anne L.

    While research strongly suggests that social support can be effective in helping patients increase their compliance with medical regimens, many more specific questions remain unanswered. These include: (1) how are physicians using social support in an effective manner; (2) what are the most effective ways for physicians and their office staff to…

  10. Pharmacoeconomic comparison of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens.

    PubMed

    Sancar, Mesut; Izzettin, Fikret Vehbi; Apikoglu-Rabus, Sule; Besisik, Fatih; Tozun, Nurdan; Dulger, Gul

    2006-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important etiologic agent for development of peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis and gastric carcinomas. It is now well established that H. pylori eradication treatment is more cost-effective than acid suppressing therapies alone for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. However, the comparative cost-effectiveness of various H. pylori eradication regimens is still not clear. This study was designed to make a pharmacoeconomic comparison of different H. pylori eradication regimens in patients with peptic ulcer disease or chronic gastritis, using real-world cost and effectiveness data. Istanbul University Hospital and Marmara University Hospital. A total of 75 patients diagnosed as H. pylori (+) by endoscopy were randomized to receive one of the seven H. pylori treatment protocols. These protocols were as follows: (LAC) = 'lansoprazole 30 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid' for 7 days and (OCM) = 'omeprazole 20 mg bid + clarithromycin 250 mg bid + metronidazole 500 mg bid'; (OAM) = 'omeprazole 40 mg qd + amoxicillin 500 mg tid + metronidazole 500 mg tid'; (MARB) = 'metronidazole 250 mg tid + amoxicillin 500 mg qid + ranitidine 300 mg hs + bismuth 300 mg qid'; (OAC) = omeprazole 20 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid'; (OCA) = omeprazole 40 mg bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid'; (OAB) = 'omeprazole 20 mg bid + amoxicillin 500 mg tid + bismuth 300 mg qid' each for 14 days. Only direct costs were included in the analysis. Effectiveness was measured in terms of "successful eradication". The cost-effectiveness ratios of the regimens were calculated using these effectiveness and cost data. The perspective of the study was assumed as the Government's perspective. Cost-effectiveness ratios of eradication regimens. MARB and OCA regimens were found to be more cost-effective than the other treatment regimens. The eradication rates and cost-effectiveness ratios calculated for these

  11. Prognosis of Hurricanes CATEGORIE-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Zapotitla Roman, Julian; Juarez Zuñiga, Alan

    Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. Approximately 80 cyclones per year occurring worldwide, from which 8.8 per year occur on average in different regions of the Atlantic. However, category-5 Hurricanes do not follow a cyclic pattern but ar rather of quasi-stochastic nature. To assist in the alert processes o of hurricanes, we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes based on the Wavelet Analysis and applying techniques of Fuzzy Logic. For our study we consider North Atlantic category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine dominant oscillation periods. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category can be described by the certain periodicities, we can define the dominant periods of oscillation and establish correspondence rules using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic searches for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics, and then delimits the occurrence of the next hurricane. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following periodicities 2, 9, 14 and 24 years. According to the behavior of the harmonics we found that their combination restricts regions of possible Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north Atlantic occur of 2014-2015. Regarding categorie-5 typhoons in the pacific we delimitate the genesis regions of western of these kind of typhoons.

  12. Efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhan-Zhao; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zheng, Yue; Cao, Li-Yan; Zhang, Yun-Jie; Sun, Yong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer (CC) by adopting a network meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception of these databases to September 2016, and all cohort studies (CSs) related to different CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC were included. A network analysis was adopted to compare the combination of direct and indirect evidence, to analyze the odds ratio (OR), and to draw a surface under the cumulative ranking curve of the efficacy and toxicity of different CCRT regimens for CC. Cluster analyses were used to group each category based on similar treatment regimens. Results: Nineteen CSs were enrolled in this network meta-analysis, including 12 CCRT regimens (radiotherapy [RT], CCRT [cisplatin], CCRT [vinorelbine], CCRT [paclitaxel], CCRT [hydroxyurea], CCRT [cisplatin + FU], CCRT [cisplatin + gemcitabine], CCRT [cisplatin + docetaxel], CCRT [cisplatin + paclitaxel], CCRT [cisplatin + amifostine], CCRT [cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea], and CCRT [cisplatin + vincristine + bleomycin]). The results of the network meta-analysis showed that regarding efficacy, the overall response rate of CCRT (cisplatin + docetaxel) was higher than RT, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of CCRT (cisplatin + FU + hydroxyurea) was relatively higher than CCRT (hydroxyurea). As for toxicity, CCRT (cisplatin) had a lower incidence of leukopenia than CCRT (hydroxyurea), CCRT (cisplatin + FU) and CCRT (cisplatin + paclitaxel), and the incidences of diarrhea and vomiting in CCRT (cisplatin) were lower than those in CCRT (cisplatin + gemcitabine). Additionally, the cluster analysis showed that CCRT (cisplatin) had relatively lower incidences of both hematotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity, and CCRT (paclitaxel) had lower

  13. Neural Correlates of Acquired Color Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Holmes, Amanda; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Ozgen, Emre; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Category training can induce category effects, whereby color discrimination of stimuli spanning a newly learned category boundary is enhanced relative to equivalently spaced stimuli from within the newly learned category (e.g., categorical perception). However, the underlying mechanisms of these acquired category effects are not fully understood.…

  14. Optimality of the basic colour categories for classification

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lewis D

    2005-01-01

    Categorization of colour has been widely studied as a window into human language and cognition, and quite separately has been used pragmatically in image-database retrieval systems. This suggests the hypothesis that the best category system for pragmatic purposes coincides with human categories (i.e. the basic colours). We have tested this hypothesis by assessing the performance of different category systems in a machine-vision task. The task was the identification of the odd-one-out from triples of images obtained using a web-based image-search service. In each triple, two of the images had been retrieved using the same search term, the other a different term. The terms were simple concrete nouns. The results were as follows: (i) the odd-one-out task can be performed better than chance using colour alone; (ii) basic colour categorization performs better than random systems of categories; (iii) a category system that performs better than the basic colours could not be found; and (iv) it is not just the general layout of the basic colours that is important, but also the detail. We conclude that (i) the results support the plausibility of an explanation for the basic colours as a result of a pressure-to-optimality and (ii) the basic colours are good categories for machine vision image-retrieval systems. PMID:16849219

  15. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  16. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  17. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  18. Sentence Processing with Empty Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Edward; Hickok, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Pickering and Barry's recent argument against the existence of empty categories (ECs) in human sentence processing is disputed. It is argued here that ECs may still play a linking role between thematic role assigners and wh-phrases. One possible parsing algorithm is given that accounts for Pickering and Barry's data. (28 references) (Author/LB)

  19. Hurricane Irene at Category 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Video sequence taken by the crew of the ISS on Aug. 23, 2011 at approximately 2:15PM EST. At that time, Hurricane Irene was a Category 3 storm with peak winds estimated at 115mph, moving west-north...

  20. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  1. Grassland Assessment Categories and Extent

    Treesearch

    Wayne A. Robbie

    2004-01-01

    This chapter establishes a general framework for describing the various kinds of grasslands outlined in subsequent chapters. This framework outlines the major categories or classes of grasslands that occur as part of Southwestern terrestrial ecosystems within National Forest System lands and provides an ecological and environmental context in regards to how they differ...

  2. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  3. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  4. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  5. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  6. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development. PMID:22490623

  7. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  8. Identification of prelinguistic phonological categories.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, Heather L; Oller, D Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H; Ethington, Corinna A; Chorna, Lesya

    2012-12-01

    The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of syllables--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver's natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver's natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development.

  9. Experimental endocrine manipulation by contraceptive regimen in the male marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Joachim; Luetjens, C Marc; Ehmcke, Jens; Redmann, Klaus; Damm, Oliver S; Steinhoff, Antje; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, Reinhild; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Simoni, Manuela; Schlatt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Marmosets are used as preclinical model in reproductive research. In contrast to other primates, they display short gestation times rendering this species valid for exploration of effects on fertility. However, their peculiar endocrine regulation differs from a those of macaques and humans. We subjected male marmosets to previously clinically tested hormonal regimens that are known to effectively suppress spermatogenesis. Beside a control group, seven groups (each n=6) were investigated for different periods of up to 42 months: regimen I, (four groups) received testosterone undecanoate (TU) and norethisterone enanthate (NETE); regimen II, (two groups) received TU and NETE followed by NETE only; and regimen III, (one group) received NETE only. Testicular volume, cell ploidy and histology, endocrine changes and fertility were monitored weekly. TU and NETE and initial TU and NETE treatment followed by NETE failed to suppress spermatogenesis and fertility. Testicular volumes dropped, although spermatogenesis was only mildly affected; however, testicular cellular composition remained stable. Serum testosterone dropped when NETE was given alone but the animals remained fertile. Compared with controls, no significant changes were observed in sperm motility and fertility. Administration of TU and NETE affected testicular function only mildly, indicating that the regulatory role of chorionic gonadotrophin and testosterone on spermatogenesis is obviously limited and testicular function is maintained, although the endocrine axis is affected by the treatment. In conclusion, marmosets showed a different response to regimens of male contraception from macaques or men and have to be considered as a problematic model for preclinical trials of male hormonal contraception.

  10. Dentine microhardness changes following conventional and alternate irrigation regimens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anusree; Kottoor, Jojo; Mathew, Joy; Kumar, Sanjana; George, Saira

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the changes in microhardness of root dentin caused by two novel irrigation regimens with conventional irrigation. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human permanent incisor teeth were selected. Decoronated roots were separated longitudinally to get 80 specimens that were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin and grounded flat with silicon carbide abrasive papers. Of these, 60 root segments without any cracks or defects were selected and divided into four groups according to the irrigation regimen used (n = 15). Group I: 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) (conventional). Group II: 6% Morinda Citrifolia Juice + 17% EDTA (MCJ). Group III: 5% NaOCl + Q Mix 2 in 1 (QMix). Group IV: Distilled water (control). Irrigation regimens were performed for 5 minutes. Dentin microhardness was measured with a Vickers indenter under a 200-g load and a 20-s dwell time at the midroot level of root dentin. The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. Results: A significant difference was seen in the median values of the four groups. The control group showed the least reduction in microhardness when comparison with the other groups. Except for Group III (Q Mix), the other groups that were tested (MCJ and conventional regimens) showed statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that NaOCl + Q Mix were least detrimental to root dentin microhardness when compared with MCJ and conventional irrigation regimens. PMID:25506142

  11. Optimizing rating scale category effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Linacre, John M

    2002-01-01

    Rating scales are employed as a means of extracting more information out of an item than would be obtained from a mere "yes/no", "right/wrong" or other dichotomy. But does this additional information increase measurement accuracy and precision? Eight guidelines are suggested to aid the analyst in optimizing the manner in which rating scales categories cooperate in order to improve the utility of the resultant measures. Though these guidelines are presented within the context of Rasch analysis, they reflect aspects of rating scale functioning which impact all methods of analysis. The guidelines feature rating-scale-based data such as category frequency, ordering, rating-to-measure inferential coherence, and the quality of the scale from measurement and statistical perspectives. The manner in which the guidelines prompt recategorization or reconceptualization of the rating scale is indicated. Utilization of the guidelines is illustrated through their application to two published data sets.

  12. Category Learning in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.; Miller, Earl K.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to group items and events into functional categories is a fundamental characteristic of sophisticated thought. It is subserved by plasticity in many neural systems, including neocortical regions (sensory, prefrontal, parietal, and motor cortex), the medial temporal lobe, the basal ganglia, and midbrain dopaminergic systems. These systems interact during category learning. Corticostriatal loops may mediate recursive, bootstrapping interactions between fast reward-gated plasticity in the basal ganglia and slow reward-shaded plasticity in the cortex. This can provide a balance between acquisition of details of experiences and generalization across them. Interactions between the corticostriatal loops can integrate perceptual, response, and feedback-related aspects of the task and mediate the shift from novice to skilled performance. The basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe interact competitively or cooperatively, depending on the demands of the learning task. PMID:20572771

  13. 75 FR 40756 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear... requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The NRC... category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material into a new part 37 of title 10 of the Code of...

  14. 7 CFR 993.503 - Size category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size category. 993.503 Section 993.503 Agriculture... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.503 Size category. Size category means each of the size categories listed in § 993.515 and fixes the range or the limits of the various size counts. Effective Date...

  15. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  16. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  17. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  18. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  19. Relational categories are more mutable than entity categories.

    PubMed

    Asmuth, Jennifer; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-10-01

    Across three experiments, we explore differences between relational categories-whose members share common relational patterns-and entity categories, whose members share common intrinsic properties. Specifically, we test the claim that relational concepts are more semantically mutable in context, and therefore less stable in memory, than entity concepts. We compared memory for entity nouns and relational nouns, tested either in the same context as at encoding or in a different context. We found that (a) participants show better recognition accuracy for entity nouns than for relational nouns, and (b) recognition of relational nouns is more impaired by a change in context than is recognition of entity nouns. We replicated these findings even when controlling for factors highly correlated with relationality, such as abstractness-concreteness. This suggests that the contextual mutability of relational concepts is due to the core semantic property of conveying relational structure and not simply to accompanying characteristics such as abstractness. We note parallels with the distinction between nouns and verbs and suggest implications for lexical and conceptual structure. Finally, we relate these patterns to proposals that a deep distinction exists between words with an essentially referential function and those with a predicate function.

  20. What are the most efficacious treatment regimens for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis? A systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stagg, H R; Harris, R J; Hatherell, H-A; Obach, D; Tsuchiya, N; Kranzer, K; Nikolayevskyy, V; Kim, J; Lipman, M C; Abubakar, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Consensus on the best treatment regimens for patients with isoniazid-resistant TB is limited; global treatment guidelines differ. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis using mixed-treatment comparisons methodology to provide an up-to-date summary of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and relative regimen efficacy. Methods Ovid MEDLINE, the Web of Science and EMBASE were mined using search terms for TB, drug therapy and RCTs. Extracted data were inputted into fixed-effects and random-effects models. ORs for all possible network comparisons and hierarchical rankings for different regimens were obtained. Results 12 604 records were retrieved and 118 remained postextraction, representing 59 studies—27 standalone and 32 with multiple papers. In comparison to a baseline category that included the WHO-recommended regimen for countries with high levels of isoniazid resistance (rifampicin-containing regimens using fewer than three effective drugs at 4 months, in which rifampicin was protected by another effective drug at 6 months, and rifampicin was taken for 6 months), extending the duration of rifampicin and increasing the number of effective drugs at 4 months lowered the odds of unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure or the lack of microbiological cure; relapse post-treatment; death due to TB) in a fixed-effects model (OR 0.31 (95% credible interval 0.12–0.81)). In a random-effects model all estimates crossed the null. Conclusions Our systematic review and network meta-analysis highlight a regimen category that may be more efficacious than the WHO population level recommendation, and identify knowledge gaps where data are sparse. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015025. PMID:27298314

  1. What are the most efficacious treatment regimens for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis? A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stagg, H R; Harris, R J; Hatherell, H-A; Obach, D; Zhao, H; Tsuchiya, N; Kranzer, K; Nikolayevskyy, V; Kim, J; Lipman, M C; Abubakar, I

    2016-10-01

    Consensus on the best treatment regimens for patients with isoniazid-resistant TB is limited; global treatment guidelines differ. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis using mixed-treatment comparisons methodology to provide an up-to-date summary of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and relative regimen efficacy. Ovid MEDLINE, the Web of Science and EMBASE were mined using search terms for TB, drug therapy and RCTs. Extracted data were inputted into fixed-effects and random-effects models. ORs for all possible network comparisons and hierarchical rankings for different regimens were obtained. 12 604 records were retrieved and 118 remained postextraction, representing 59 studies-27 standalone and 32 with multiple papers. In comparison to a baseline category that included the WHO-recommended regimen for countries with high levels of isoniazid resistance (rifampicin-containing regimens using fewer than three effective drugs at 4 months, in which rifampicin was protected by another effective drug at 6 months, and rifampicin was taken for 6 months), extending the duration of rifampicin and increasing the number of effective drugs at 4 months lowered the odds of unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure or the lack of microbiological cure; relapse post-treatment; death due to TB) in a fixed-effects model (OR 0.31 (95% credible interval 0.12-0.81)). In a random-effects model all estimates crossed the null. Our systematic review and network meta-analysis highlight a regimen category that may be more efficacious than the WHO population level recommendation, and identify knowledge gaps where data are sparse. PROSPERO CRD42014015025. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Generalization of Category Knowledge and Dimensional Categorization in Humans (Homo sapiens) and Nonhuman Primates (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Johnston, Jennifer J. R.; Roeder, Jessica L.; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F. Gregory; Church, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans’ implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the question of 1) how closely macaques’ dimensional categorization verges on humans’ explicit/declarative categorization, and 2) how far macaques’ dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species. PMID:26167774

  3. Category 4: Class II Division 2 malocclusion with deep overbite.

    PubMed

    Fooladi, Baharak; MacCarthy, Tarryn; Maloney, Tracy; Suri, Lokesh

    2007-08-01

    This case report was part of the resident display of cases sponsored by the College of Diplomates of the American Board of Orthodontics at the annual session of the American Association of Orthodontists, May 20-24, 2005, in San Francisco, Calif.

  4. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limitations, and altitude at which they are normally discernible at reduced RVR readings; (vi) Procedures and...; (vii) Effects of vertical and horizontal windshear; (viii) Characteristics and limitations of the...

  5. CATEGORY II ARCTIC EVALUATION OF THE YCH-47A HELICOPTER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Stability Augmentation System ) operation, delamination of rotor blade fiberglass skins, and extreme difficulty in ground handling on hard packed snow, ice, or similar slippery surfaces. In order for the helicopter to be suitable for low temperature operation, new or modified rotor blades with assured structural integrity must be incorporated along with other improvements recommended in this report.

  6. The history of psychological categories.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'.

  7. Cutaneous tuberculosis overview and current treatment regimens.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Lindi; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Viljoen, Joe

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases known to humankind and it is currently a worldwide threat with 8-9 million new active disease being reported every year. Among patients with co-infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis is ultimately responsible for the most deaths. Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is uncommon, comprising 1-1.5% of all extra-pulmonary tuberculosis manifestations, which manifests only in 8.4-13.7% of all tuberculosis cases. A more accurate classification of CTB includes inoculation tuberculosis, tuberculosis from an endogenous source and haematogenous tuberculosis. There is furthermore a definite distinction between true CTB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and CTB caused by atypical mycobacterium species. The lesions caused by mycobacterium species vary from small papules (e.g. primary inoculation tuberculosis) and warty lesions (e.g. tuberculosis verrucosa cutis) to massive ulcers (e.g. Buruli ulcer) and plaques (e.g. lupus vulgaris) that can be highly deformative. Treatment options for CTB are currently limited to conventional oral therapy and occasional surgical intervention in cases that require it. True CTB is treated with a combination of rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, isoniazid and streptomycin that is tailored to individual needs. Atypical mycobacterium infections are mostly resistant to anti-tuberculous drugs and only respond to certain antibiotics. As in the case of pulmonary TB, various and relatively wide-ranging treatment regimens are available, although patient compliance is poor. The development of multi-drug and extremely drug-resistant strains has also threatened treatment outcomes. To date, no topical therapy for CTB has been identified and although conventional therapy has mostly shown positive results, there is a lack of other treatment regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automating the medication regimen complexity index

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Margaret V; Peng, Timothy R; Sridharan, Sridevi; Foust, Janice B; Kogan, Polina; Pezzin, Liliana E; Feldman, Penny H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To adapt and automate the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI) within the structure of a commercial medication database in the post-acute home care setting. Materials and Methods In phase 1, medication data from 89 645 electronic health records were abstracted to line up with the components of the MRCI: dosage form, dosing frequency, and additional administrative directions. A committee reviewed output to assign index weights and determine necessary adaptations. In phase 2 we examined the face validity of the modified MRCI through analysis of automatic tabulations and descriptive statistics. Results The mean number of medications per patient record was 7.6 (SD 3.8); mean MRCI score was 16.1 (SD 9.0). The number of medications and MRCI were highly associated, but there was a wide range of MRCI scores for each number of medications. Most patients (55%) were taking only oral medications in tablet/capsule form, although 16% had regimens with three or more medications with different routes/forms. The biggest contributor to the MRCI score was dosing frequency (mean 11.9). Over 36% of patients needed to remember two or more special instructions (eg, take on alternate days, dissolve). Discussion Medication complexity can be tabulated through an automated process with some adaptation for local organizational systems. The MRCI provides a more nuanced way of measuring and assessing complexity than a simple medication count. Conclusions An automated MRCI may help to identify patients who are at higher risk of adverse events, and could potentially be used in research and clinical decision support to improve medication management and patient outcomes. PMID:23268486

  9. Automating the medication regimen complexity index.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Margaret V; Peng, Timothy R; Sridharan, Sridevi; Foust, Janice B; Kogan, Polina; Pezzin, Liliana E; Feldman, Penny H

    2013-05-01

    To adapt and automate the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI) within the structure of a commercial medication database in the post-acute home care setting. In phase 1, medication data from 89 645 electronic health records were abstracted to line up with the components of the MRCI: dosage form, dosing frequency, and additional administrative directions. A committee reviewed output to assign index weights and determine necessary adaptations. In phase 2 we examined the face validity of the modified MRCI through analysis of automatic tabulations and descriptive statistics. The mean number of medications per patient record was 7.6 (SD 3.8); mean MRCI score was 16.1 (SD 9.0). The number of medications and MRCI were highly associated, but there was a wide range of MRCI scores for each number of medications. Most patients (55%) were taking only oral medications in tablet/capsule form, although 16% had regimens with three or more medications with different routes/forms. The biggest contributor to the MRCI score was dosing frequency (mean 11.9). Over 36% of patients needed to remember two or more special instructions (eg, take on alternate days, dissolve). Medication complexity can be tabulated through an automated process with some adaptation for local organizational systems. The MRCI provides a more nuanced way of measuring and assessing complexity than a simple medication count. An automated MRCI may help to identify patients who are at higher risk of adverse events, and could potentially be used in research and clinical decision support to improve medication management and patient outcomes.

  10. Within-Category Discontinuity Interacts with Verbal Rule Complexity in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A test of the predicted interaction between within-category discontinuity and verbal rule complexity on information-integration and rule-based category learning was conducted. Within-category discontinuity adversely affected information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. Model-based analyses suggested that some…

  11. 75 FR 47494 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...; Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material; Meeting AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The NRC has prepared draft guidance to address..., specifically Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. It is intended for use by applicants...

  12. A Comparison of Breast Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marianne E. Ulcickas Yood, M.P.H. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry...NUMBERS A Comparison of Breast Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics DAMD17-97-1-7302 6. AUTHOR(S) Marianne E. Ulcickas Yood, M.P.H. 7... Cancer Treatment Regimens by Demographic Characteristics (DAMD17-97-1-7302), Annual Report October, 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction

  13. Prevalence of inappropriate tuberculosis treatment regimens: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Langendam, M.W.; van der Werf, M.J.; Huitric, E.; Manissero, D.

    2012-01-01

    A potential threat to the success of new tuberculosis (TB) drugs is the development of resistance. Using drugs in appropriate regimens, such as those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines, prevents the development of resistance. We performed a systematic review to assess the prevalence of inappropriate prescription of TB drugs for the treatment of TB. MEDLINE, EMBASE and other databases were searched for relevant articles in January 2011. Observational studies published from 2000 that included TB patients receiving treatment were selected. A treatment regimen was considered inappropriate if the regimen was not a WHO recommended regimen. 37 studies were included. Inappropriate treatment regimens were prescribed in 67% of studies. The percentage of patients receiving inappropriate regimens varied between 0.4% and 100%. In 19 studies the quality of treatment regimen reporting was low. Despite the fact that assessment of inappropriate treatment was hampered by low quality of reporting, our data indicate a reasonable amount of inappropriate prescription of TB treatment regimens. Thus, there is a risk that new drugs will be used in inappropriate treatment regimens, even with WHO guidelines in place, introducing the risk of resistance development. This article highlights the need to improve implementation of the WHO treatment of TB guidelines. PMID:22005923

  14. What Children Infer from Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Eldror, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Children hold the belief that social categories have essences. We investigated what kinds of properties children feel licensed to infer about a person based on social category membership. Seventy-two 4-6-year-olds were introduced to novel social categories defined as having one internal--psychological or biological--and one external--behavioral or…

  15. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  16. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  17. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  18. What Children Infer from Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Eldror, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Children hold the belief that social categories have essences. We investigated what kinds of properties children feel licensed to infer about a person based on social category membership. Seventy-two 4-6-year-olds were introduced to novel social categories defined as having one internal--psychological or biological--and one external--behavioral or…

  19. Pharmacoeconomic consequences of variable patient compliance with prescribed drug regimens.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, J

    1999-03-01

    Variable compliance with prescribed drug regimens is a leading source of variability in drug response. Specifics differ by drug and disease. The role of variable compliance was clearly defined in 2 trials of lipid-lowering agents, cholestyramine and gemfibrozil, in which exceptionally careful measurements of compliance were made, which has not been done in later trials. Economic consequences of variable compliance are estimated by converting dose-dependent changes in absolute risk of incident coronary disease into the unicohort format, which designates how many patients must be treated to prevent, in a given time, a defined 'coronary event'. Two strong influences on the costs of treatment are: (i) the shape of the relation between drug intake and risk reduction; and (ii) the strength of the linkage between intake and prescription refills. The intake-effect relation for cholestyramine is linear, making compliance-neutral the cost to prevent 1 coronary event, provided that refills match intake. If refills exceed intake, treatment costs rise. The intake-effect relation for gemfibrozil is more typically nonlinear, so poorer compliers purchase and take the drug in amounts that have little benefit, increasing the cost to prevent 1 coronary event. If refills run at a higher rate than intake, costs increase still further. A key question for future study is: do policies that encourage timely refills increase compliance enough to offset their potential to waste money in the purchasing of an untaken drug?

  20. Optimization of anti-infective dosing regimens during online haemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Zandvliet, Anthe S.; Touw, Daniel J.; Penne, Erik L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) is increasingly used in clinical practice as a routine intermittent dialysis modality. It is well known that renal impairment and renal replacement therapy can substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of several drugs. However, surprisingly few data are available on the need for specific dose adjustments during HDF. Due to convection, drug clearance may be increased during HDF as compared with standard haemodialysis. This may be of particular interest in patients undergoing anti-infective therapy, since under-dosing may compromise patient outcomes and promote the emergence of bacterial resistance. Drug clearance during HDF is determined by (i) dialysis characteristics, (ii) drug characteristics and (iii) patient characteristics. In this review, we will discuss these different determinants of drug clearance during HDF and advise on how to adjust the dose of antibacterial, antimycotic and antiviral agents in patients undergoing HDF. In addition, the possible added value of therapeutic drug monitoring is discussed. The review provides guidance for optimization of anti-infective dosing regimens in HDF patients. PMID:28396747

  1. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  2. Orienting attention to semantic categories

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Tamara C.; Devlin, Joseph T.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability to orient attention to a complex, non-perceptual attribute of stimuli—semantic category. Behavioral consequences and neural correlates of semantic orienting were revealed and compared with those of spatial orienting, using event-related functional magnetic-resonance imaging. Semantic orienting significantly shortened response times to identify word stimuli, showing that it is possible to focus attention on non-perceptual attributes of stimuli to enhance behavioral performance. Semantic-orienting cues engaged parietal and frontal areas that were also involved in spatial orienting, but in addition engaged brain areas associated with semantic analysis of words, such as the left anterior inferior frontal cortex. These findings show that attentional orienting selectively engages brain areas with functional specialization for the predicted attributes. They also support the existence of a core frontoparietal network, which controls attentional orienting in speeded response tasks independently of the type of expectations, interacting with task-relevant functionally specialized areas to optimize perception and action. PMID:17011212

  3. A history of chorological categories.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, S

    2016-09-01

    One of the purposes of the research program referred to as "systematic biogeography" is the use of species distributions to identify regions and reconstruct biotic area relationships. The reverse, i.e. to group species according to the areas that they live in, leads to the recognition of chorological categories. Biogeographers, working under these two different approaches, have proposed several terms to refer to groups of species that have similar distributions, such as "element", "chorotype" and "component". A historical reconstruction, including semantic observations and philosophical implications, shows that these terms have been used in a variety of senses. The word "component" should not be used in biogeography. The word "element" has been used to identify both a group of species defined according to the biogeographic areas they occupy and a group of species with an assumed shared biogeographic history. It is especially because of the influence of the dispersalist paradigm, which dominated evolutionary thought until the mid-twentieth century, that the second definition has been frequently adopted. The term "element" is therefore ambiguous and its use should always be associated with an explicit definition. The word "chorotype" should be used to define groups of species with similar ranges when no causal assumption is made. The concept of "chorotype," finally, should not be confounded with other concepts such as distributional pattern, cenocron, horofauna, biota, endemic area, area of endemism, biotic element, and generalized track, which are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Heterogeneity in perceptual category learning by high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Dovgopoly, Alexander; Lopata, Christopher J.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that high functioning (HF) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by HF children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children’s performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets. PMID:26157368

  5. Categories of quantum and classical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Heunen, Chris; Kissinger, Aleks

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a construction that turns a category of pure state spaces and operators into a category of observable algebras and superoperators. For example, it turns the category of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces into the category of finite-dimensional C*-algebras and completely positive maps. In particular, the new category contains both quantum and classical channels, providing elegant abstract notions of preparation and measurement. We also consider nonstandard models that can be used to investigate which notions from algebraic quantum information theory are operationally justifiable.

  6. Two Pathways to Stimulus Encoding in Category Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Category learning theorists tacitly assume that stimuli are encoded by a single pathway. Motivated by theories of object recognition, we evaluate a dual-pathway account of stimulus encoding. The part-based pathway establishes mappings between sensory input and symbols that encode discrete stimulus features, whereas the image-based pathway applies holistic templates to sensory input. Our experiments use rule-plus-exception structures in which one exception item in each category violates a salient regularity and must be distinguished from other items. In Experiment 1, we find that discrete representations are crucial for recognition of exceptions following brief training. Experiments 2 and 3 involve multi-session training regimens designed to encourage either part or image-based encoding. We find that both pathways are able to support exception encoding, but have unique characteristics. We speculate that one advantage of the part-based pathway is the ability to generalize across domains, whereas the image-based pathway provides faster and more effortless recognition. PMID:19460948

  7. Enhancing Commitment Improves Adherence to a Medical Regimen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Dana E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated commitment-based intervention for improvement of adherence to 10-day antibiotic regimen. Subjects were 60 college students. Experimental subjects made verbal and written commitments for adherence and completed tasks designed to increase their investment in medication regimen. Controls performed similarly structured tasks unrelated to…

  8. Enhancing Commitment Improves Adherence to a Medical Regimen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Dana E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated commitment-based intervention for improvement of adherence to 10-day antibiotic regimen. Subjects were 60 college students. Experimental subjects made verbal and written commitments for adherence and completed tasks designed to increase their investment in medication regimen. Controls performed similarly structured tasks unrelated to…

  9. Individualizing phenytoin dosage regimens using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ng, P K

    1980-04-01

    A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of individualized phenytoin dosage regimens is described. The calculator is programmed based on a one-compartment, open model using the Michaelis-Menten equation. A detailed description of the programs and user instructions are presented. The programs allow calculation of oral dosage regimens and steady-state phenytoin levels. The first two programs require a given dose and one corresponding steady-state minimum concentration point to estimate a dosage regimen and steady-state serum level. The second two programs, which provide a more accurate prediction of dosage regimen and steady-state serum levels, require two dose and steady-state minimum concentration poits. The calculator programs provide a rapid and reliable means of estimating a patient's phenytoin dosage regimens and steady-state serum levels.

  10. 75 FR 62694 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material; Draft Guidance Document for Comment; Extension of... Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The public comment period for this guidance was to have... use of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material into a new Part 37 of Title 10 of...

  11. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  12. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  13. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., chair is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: (a) the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and (b) the grouping of concepts into categories based on those features. Our model learns categories incrementally using particle filters, a sequential Monte Carlo method commonly used for approximate probabilistic inference that sequentially integrates newly observed data and can be viewed as a plausible mechanism for human learning. Experimental results show that our incremental learner obtains meaningful categories which yield a closer fit to behavioral data compared to related models while at the same time acquiring features which characterize the learned categories. (An earlier version of this work was published in Frermann and Lapata .). Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Social learning in animals: categories and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heyes, C M

    1994-05-01

    There has been relatively little research on the psychological mechanisms of social learning. This may be due, in part, to the practice of distinguishing categories of social learning in relation to ill-defined mechanisms (Davis, 1973; Galef, 1988). This practice both makes it difficult to identify empirically examples of different types of social learning, and gives the false impression that the mechanisms responsible for social learning are clearly understood. It has been proposed that social learning phenomena be subsumed within the categorization scheme currently used by investigators of asocial learning. This scheme distinguishes categories of learning according to observable conditions, namely, the type of experience that gives rise to a change in an animal (single stimulus vs. stimulus-stimulus relationship vs. response-reinforcer relationship), and the type of behaviour in which this change is detected (response evocation vs. learnability) (Rescorla, 1988). Specifically, three alignments have been proposed: (i) stimulus enhancement with single stimulus learning, (ii) observational conditioning with stimulus-stimulus learning, or Pavlovian conditioning, and (iii) observational learning with response-reinforcer learning, or instrumental conditioning. If, as the proposed alignments suggest, the conditions of social and asocial learning are the same, there is some reason to believe that the mechanisms underlying the two sets of phenomena are also the same. This is so if one makes the relatively uncontroversial assumption that phenomena which occur under similar conditions tend to be controlled by similar mechanisms. However, the proposed alignments are intended to be a set of hypotheses, rather than conclusions, about the mechanisms of social learning; as a basis for further research in which animal learning theory is applied to social learning. A concerted attempt to apply animal learning theory to social learning, to find out whether the same mechanisms are

  15. Procedural-based category learning in patients with Parkinson's disease: impact of category number and category continuity

    PubMed Central

    Filoteo, J. Vincent; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Maddox and Filoteo, 2001; Filoteo et al., 2005a,b). We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting “striatal units” to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1) the number of categories, and (2) category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients' cognitive impairment. PMID:24600355

  16. Excellent outcomes can be achieved in young pancreas transplant alone recipients by addition of sirolimus to maintenance immunosuppression regimen.

    PubMed

    Porubsky, M; Gruessner, A C; Rana, A; Jie, T; Gruessner, R W G

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas transplant alone (PTA) has evolved into a viable treatment option for nonuremic patients with labile diabetes mellitus. Historically, PTA outcomes were inferior to simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant outcomes, because of the higher rate of graft loss due to rejection in PTA recipients. But with advances in immunosuppression, PTA outcomes have improved significantly--except in young PTA recipients. The more potent immune system in young recipients appears to play a key role. In this study, our objective was to investigate outcomes of PTA, by recipient age, with the use of different immunosuppressive maintenance regimens. Using information from the International Pancreas Transplant Registry and from the United Network for Organ Sharing, we analyzed outcomes of 393 technically successful enteric-drained transplants in the PTA category that were performed from January 2003 through December 2012. All PTA recipients underwent induction immunosuppression with thymoglobulin and pulse steroids and were then maintained on long-term low-dose prednisone. Excluded from our study group were patients who experienced surgical graft loss. We divided the 393 recipients into 2 age groups: <42 years (187 patients) versus ≥42 years (206 patients). For both the younger group and the older group, we compared 2 maintenance immunosuppressive regimens: (1) tacrolimus (Tac) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus (2) Tac/MMF and sirolimus (Srl). We refer to immunosuppression with Tac and MMF as the non-Srl regimen. The overall 3-year graft survival rate, across both age groups, was significantly better with the Srl regimen (P = .03). Regardless of the immunosuppressive regimen used, outcomes were significantly better in the older group than in the younger group (P = .05). In the older group, with both regimens, outcomes were similar (P = .55). But in the younger group, outcomes with the Srl regimen were significantly better (P = .009) than with the non-Srl regimen and, in fact

  17. Adherence to asthma controller medication regimens.

    PubMed

    Stempel, D A; Stoloff, S W; Carranza Rosenzweig, J R; Stanford, R H; Ryskina, K L; Legorreta, A P

    2005-10-01

    Improved adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is recognized as an important factor in reduced morbidity, mortality and consumption of health care resources. The present study was designed to replicate previous reports of patient adherence with fluticasone/salmeterol in a single inhaler (FSC), fluticasone and salmeterol in separate inhalers (FP+SAL), fluticasone and montelukast (FP+MON), fluticasone alone (FP) and montelukast alone (MON). A 24-month observational retrospective study was conducted using administrative claims data. Subjects were 12 years old with 24 months of continuous enrollment; had 1 asthma claim (ICD-9: 493), 1 short-acting beta(2)-agonist claim, and 1 FSC, FP, SAL, or MON claim. Outcomes included asthma medication refill rates and persistence measured by treatment days. This study was designed with a unique population of patients with asthma from different health plans to validate previous findings. A total of 3,503 subjects were identified based on their index medication: FSC (996), FP+SAL (259), FP+MON (101), FP (1254) and MON (893). Mean number of prescription refills for FSC (3.98) was significantly higher than FP (2.29) and the FP component of FP+SAL (2.36), and FP+MON (2.15), P<0.05. No significant differences were observed between FSC and MON fill rates (4.33). Mean number of treatment days was greater for FSC compared to FP, FP+SAL, and FP+MON (P<0.0001). This study confirms a previous report that adherence profiles of fluticasone and salmeterol in a single inhaler are significantly better when compared to the controller regimens of fluticasone and salmeterol in separate inhalers, fluticasone and montelukast, or fluticasone alone and similar to montelukast alone.

  18. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover. PMID:24292562

  19. Dissociation of category-learning systems via brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert G.; Reber, Paul J.; Bharani, Krishna L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence has suggested that categories can often be learned via either an explicit rule-based (RB) mechanism critically dependent on medial temporal and prefrontal brain regions, or via an implicit information-integration (II) mechanism relying on the basal ganglia. In this study, participants viewed sine-wave gratings (Gabor patches) that varied on two dimensions and learned to categorize them via trial-by-trial feedback. Two different stimulus distributions were used; one was intended to encourage an explicit RB process and the other an implicit II process. We monitored brain activity with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) while each participant: (1) passively observed stimuli represented of both distributions; (2) categorized stimuli from one distribution, and, 1 week later; (3) categorized stimuli from the other distribution. Categorization accuracy was similar for the two distributions. Subtractions of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) for correct and incorrect trials were used to identify neural differences in RB and II categorization processes. We identified an occipital brain potential that was differentially modulated by categorization condition accuracy at an early latency (150–250 ms), likely reflecting the degree of holistic processing. A stimulus-locked Late Positive Complex (LPC) associated with explicit memory updating was modulated by accuracy in the RB, but not the II task. Likewise, a feedback-locked P300 ERP associated with expectancy was correlated with performance only in the RB, but not the II condition. These results provide additional evidence for distinct brain mechanisms supporting RB vs. implicit II category learning and use. PMID:26217210

  20. In silico evaluation and exploration of antibiotic tuberculosis treatment regimens

    DOE PAGES

    Pienaar, Elsje; Dartois, Véronique; Linderman, Jennifer J.; ...

    2015-11-14

    Improvement in tuberculosis treatment regimens requires selection of antibiotics and dosing schedules from a large design space of possibilities. Incomplete knowledge of antibiotic and host immune dynamics in tuberculosis granulomas impacts clinical trial design and success, and variations among clinical trials hamper side-by-side comparison of regimens. Our objective is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of isoniazid and rifampin regimens, and identify modifications to these antibiotics that improve treatment outcomes. We pair a spatio-temporal computational model of host immunity with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on isoniazid and rifampin. The model is calibrated to plasma pharmacokinetic and granuloma bacterial load data frommore » non-human primate models of tuberculosis and to tissue and granuloma measurements of isoniazid and rifampin in rabbit granulomas. We predict the efficacy of regimens containing different doses and frequencies of isoniazid and rifampin. We predict impacts of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modifications on antibiotic efficacy. We demonstrate that suboptimal antibiotic concentrations within granulomas lead to poor performance of intermittent regimens compared to daily regimens. Improvements from dose and frequency changes are limited by inherent antibiotic properties, and we propose that changes in intracellular accumulation ratios and antimicrobial activity would lead to the most significant improvements in treatment outcomes. Results suggest that an increased risk of drug resistance in fully intermittent as compared to daily regimens arises from higher bacterial population levels early during treatment. In conclusion, our systems pharmacology approach complements efforts to accelerate tuberculosis therapeutic development.« less

  1. A longitudinal study of category-specific agnosia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Forde, Emer M E; Humphreys, Glyn W; Graham, Kim S

    2002-01-01

    We report a 12-year longitudinal case study on a 60-year-old male patient (DW) with category-specific agnosia. The extent to which DW's impairment has changed over time was evaluated using identical tests at time 1 (1988) and time 2 (2000). In particular, we assessed his ability to identify pictures and real objects, to draw from memory, and to access stored semantic information about living and non-living things. The principal findings were: (i). DW was significantly better at identifying real objects in comparison with line drawings. (ii). DW presented with a category-specific impairment for living things that remained consistent over the 12-year period. (iii). He significantly improved in his ability to identify real non-living objects over the 12-year period but real living objects remained at floor. (iv). His ability to access stored visual knowledge declined over time. On the basis of these data, we suggest that visual perception is required to maintain intact visual memories over a period of time. We also suggest that integrative visual agnosia co-occurs with a category-specific impairment for living things because the recognition of these items requires more global processing than for non-living things. In addition, we suggest that degradation to stored visual knowledge can cause category-specific naming impairments for living compared with non-living things because naming living things requires access to more detailed visual knowledge.

  2. NOVP: a novel chemotherapeutic regimen with minimal toxicity for treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemeister, F.B.; Cabanillas, F.; Velasquez, W.S.; Meistrich, M.L.; Liang, J.C.; McLaughlin, P.; Redman, J.R.; Romaguera, J.E.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Swan, F. Jr. )

    1990-12-01

    Patients with early-staged Hodgkin's disease have had a higher relapse rate following radiotherapy alone if they have B symptoms, large mediastinal masses, hilar involvement, or stage III disease. From June 1988 to December 1989, 27 previously untreated patients with early-staged Hodgkin's disease with adverse features for disease-free survival received combined-modality therapy. Seventeen patients had stage I or II disease, 10 had stage III, 5 had B symptoms, 13 had large mediastinal masses, and 6 had peripheral masses measuring 10 cm or more in diameter. All patients initially received three cycles of a novel chemotherapeutic regimen combining Novantrone (mitoxantrone, American Cyanamid Company), vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP). Twenty-four patients with clinically staged I or II disease with adverse features or stage III disease did not undergo laparotomy; three patients had favorable stage I or II disease and at laparotomy had stage III disease. Radiotherapy-treatment fields depended on the extent of nodal involvement. Twenty-six patients completed all therapy as planned to complete remission (CR) and one of these has had progression; she is in second CR following additional radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 12 months, all patients are alive. Tolerance to treatment was excellent with only grade 1 or 2 nausea, alopecia and myalgias, and brief myelosuppression. NOVP is an effective adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for inducing responses, with minimal toxicity, prior to definitive radiotherapy for patients with early-staged Hodgkin's disease.

  3. Combined-modality therapy of rectal cancer with irinotecan-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2004-12-01

    There are two conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer. The first is surgery followed by postoperative combined-modality therapy if the tumor is T3 and/or N1/2. The second, if the tumor is ultrasound T3 or clinical T4, is preoperative combined-modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. There are a number of new chemotherapeutic agents that have been developed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Phase I/II trials are examining the use of new chemotherapeutic agents in combination with pelvic radiation therapy, most commonly in the preoperative setting. There is considerable interest in integrating irinotecan (Camptosar) into preoperative combined-modality therapy regimens for rectal cancer. Based on these trials, the recommended regimen for patients who receive irinotecan-based combined-modality therapy is continuous infusion fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan, and pelvic radiation. New trials examining preoperative combined-modality therapy regimens substituting capecitabine (Xeloda) for continuous infusion 5-FU are in progress.

  4. Influence of feeding regimens on rat gut fluids and colonic metabolism of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amélia C F; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Serra, Arménio C; Veiga, Francisco J; Gonsalves, António M d'A Rocha; Basit, Abdul W

    2014-11-04

    Feeding states may affect the performance of colonic prodrugs. The aim is to investigate the influence of feeding regimen in Wistar rats on: (i) distribution and pH contents along the gut and (ii) metabolism of two colonic prodrugs, diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin and a commercially available control, sulfasalazine, within the caecal and colonic contents. Male Wistar rats were subject to four different feeding regimens, the gut contents characterized (mass and pH) and the metabolism of prodrugs investigated. The feeding regimen affects gut contents (mass and pH), more specifically in the stomach and lower intestine, and affects the rate of metabolism of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin, but not that of sulfasalazine. The latter's degradation is much faster than that of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin while the metabolism of both prodrugs is faster in colonic (versus caecal) contents. Fasting results in most rapid degradation of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin, possibly due to lack of competition (absence of food) for microbial enzymatic activity.

  5. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for severe acquired aplastic anaemia using a fludarabine-based preparative regimen.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Igor B; Aker, Memet; Shapira, Michael Y; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis D; Bitan, Menachem; Abdul-Hai, Ali; Samuel, Simcha; Ackerstein, Aliza; Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zilberman, Irina; Miron, Svetlana; Yoffe, Luba; Lvovich, Alex; Slavin, Shimon; Or, Reuven

    2006-06-01

    We reviewed our experience in the treatment of 13 patients with severe acquired aplastic anaemia, using a newly developed non-myeloablative regimen consisting of fludarabine (total dose 180 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (total dose 120 mg/kg), and antithymocyte globulin (total dose 40 mg/kg). All except one patient received multiple transfusions and had failed prior immunosuppressive treatment. Twelve out of 13 patients achieved sustained engraftment. One patient was not evaluable for engraftment because of early death on day +10. None of the patients developed graft failure. Mucositis of mild-to-moderate severity was the only observed regimen-related toxicity. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade II-IV and III-IV was 8.3% and 0%, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 45 months, the 5-year overall survival probability was 84%. Eight out of 11 surviving patients have been followed for more than 1 year and only one developed limited chronic GvHD. All patients enjoy a normal life style, with a Karnofsky score of 100%, and all except three, followed for 3, 5 and 6 months respectively, are free of any immunosuppressive medication. The results of this study look promising, while prospective clinical trials may be required to confirm the benefits of this regimen as an alternative to existing protocols.

  6. SUSTAIN: A Network Model of Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Bradley C.; Medin, Douglas L.; Gureckis, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN…

  7. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  8. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  9. Category Coherence in Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malt, Barbara C.

    1995-01-01

    Major proposals that psychologists have made about how humans segment their world into categories are reviewed. The anthropological literature that bears on the same issues is explored, noting its implications for psychological theory. Cross-cultural data provide substantial constraints for theories of category coherence. (SLD)

  10. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  11. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size categories. 993.515 Section 993.515 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... respective size categories expressed as follows or in an applicable equivalent range expressed in the...

  12. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  13. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  14. Geometric Representation of Association between Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Willem J.

    2004-01-01

    Categories can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured. Likewise, persons or individuals can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured either. Nevertheless, psychology has realized early on that it can take an indirect road to measurement: What can be measured is the strength of association between categories in…

  15. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  16. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  17. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  18. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  19. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  20. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  1. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  2. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  3. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  4. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  5. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  6. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  7. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  8. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  9. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  10. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  11. Geometric Representation of Association between Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Willem J.

    2004-01-01

    Categories can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured. Likewise, persons or individuals can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured either. Nevertheless, psychology has realized early on that it can take an indirect road to measurement: What can be measured is the strength of association between categories in…

  12. Induction with cross-classified categories.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G L; Ross, B H

    1999-11-01

    One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly cross-classified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories.

  13. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.62 Toxicity Category... being the highest toxicity category. Most human hazard, precautionary statements, and human personal... days No corneal opacity; irritation reversible within 7 days No irritation Skin irritation Corrosive...

  14. SUSTAIN: A Network Model of Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Bradley C.; Medin, Douglas L.; Gureckis, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN…

  15. A steroid-independent regimen of bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and thalidomide demonstrate high response rates in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Taimur; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Miller, Kena C.; Manfredi, Debbie; Wood, Margaret; Tan, Wei; Wilding, Gregory; Czuczman, Myron S.; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J.; Hong, Fredrick; Sood, Raman; Soniwala, Saif; Lawrence, William; Jamshed, Saad; Masood, Aisha; Iancu, Daniel; Lee, Kelvin; Chanan-Khan, Asher

    2014-01-01

    Novel agents have provided new a foundation for multiple myeloma therapies. When combined with other anti-myeloma agents, these compounds significantly enhance clinical efficacy. High-dose steroids are frequently used in anti-myeloma combination regimens; however, the doses employed are often poorly tolerated, especially in patients with concurrent comorbid conditions. We hypothesized that a steroid-independent combination regimen could be developed without significant compromise of efficacy. The availability of such a regimen will be important for patients whose concurrent ailments make them poor candidates for steroid containing anti-myeloma regimens. A phase II single institute, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate a novel steroid-free three-drug combination of bortezomib (V), pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (D), and thalidomide (T), the VDT regimen. Forty-three newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients requiring treatment were enrolled on this study. The overall response rate and complete response (CR) + near complete response (nCR) rate was 78% and 35%, respectively. Median time to progression was 29.5 months. Fatigue, rash, neuropathy, constipation and infections were the most common side effects. We concluded that VDT is a tolerable and an effective regimen capable of inducing high response rates and can be employed in patients considered to be poor candidates for steroid-based treatment regimens. PMID:21554260

  16. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    PubMed

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  17. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  18. Chemotherapy Regimen Extends Survival in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.

  19. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines to treat HIV infection is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). People on ART take a combination of HIV ... treat HIV infection. HIV treatment (also called antiretroviral therapy or ART) begins with choosing an HIV regimen. People on ...

  20. Controlled-protein dietary regimens for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2010-02-01

    Continuous levodopa replacement still is the most efficacious treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. Unfortunately, the neutral aromatic amino acids contained in dietary proteins may compete with this drug for intestinal absorption and transport across the blood-brain barrier, thus limiting its efficacy and being responsible for the occurrence of motor fluctuations. Current guidelines recommend low-protein dietary regimens with protein redistribution, as shifting protein intake to the evening has proved to ameliorate the response to levodopa. However, adherence to this dietary regimen does not seem to be satisfactory and response is variable. Recent studies have shown that low-protein products designed for chronic renal failure patients are safe, tasty, well-tolerated and useful in improving both adherence to low-protein dietary regimens and levodopa-related motor fluctuations. However, there still is the need to define the selection criteria for the patients who may benefit the most from adherence to this regimen.

  1. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the Gonzalez regimen as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  2. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  3. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  4. Moving East: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis regimen in Asia.

    PubMed

    Houssiau, Frédéric A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of lupus nephritis is more evidenced-based than ever. Yet many areas of uncertainty persist. The article by Rathi et al. brings a piece to the puzzle by comparing, in a group of Indian patients, the Euro-Lupus low-dose i.v. cyclophosphamide regimen with mycophenolate mofetil. Although some caveats must be raised, the results suggest that, after crossing the Atlantic, the Euro-Lupus regimen may well be moving East.

  5. [Principles of organizing efficient work and rest regimens for crews on prolonged space flights].

    PubMed

    Litsov, A N; Bulyko, V I

    1983-01-01

    The work-rest cycles of Salyut-6 crews were investigated. Several modifications were detected: 24-hour static regimens (65-70%) and altered regimens (35-30%) with longer or shorter work-rest cycles. It is concluded that in prolonged space flights two regimens are allowed: principal regimens (normal static regimens of work and rest) used throughout the flight, and operational regimens (differing from 24-hour ones) used no more than once every 7-10 days.

  6. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    PubMed

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  7. Altered Implicit Category Learning in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Shott, Megan E.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Jappe, Leah M.; Pryor, Tamara; Maddox, W. Todd; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent research has identified specific cognitive deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), including impairment in executive functioning and attention. Another such cognitive process, implicit category learning has been less studied in AN. This study examined whether implicit category learning is impaired in AN. Method Twenty-one women diagnosed with AN and 19 control women (CW) were administered an implicit category learning task in which they were asked to categorize simple perceptual stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories. Category membership was based on a linear integration (i.e., an implicit task) of two stimulus dimensions (orientation and spatial frequency of the stimulus). Results AN individuals were less accurate on implicit category learning relative to age-matched CW. Model-based analyses indicated that, even when AN individuals used the appropriate (i.e., implicit) strategy they were still impaired relative to CW who also used the same strategy. In addition, task performance in AN patients was worse the higher they were in self-reported novelty seeking and the lower they were in sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions These results indicate that AN patients have implicit category learning deficits, and given this type of learning is thought to be mediated by striatal dopamine pathways, AN patients may have deficits in these neural systems. The finding of significant correlations with novelty seeking and sensitivity to punishment suggests that feedback sensitivity is related to implicit learning in AN. PMID:22201300

  8. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    PubMed

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  9. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  10. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  11. How to achieve full prophylaxis in young boys with severe haemophilia A: different regimens and their effect on early bleeding and venous access.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, A; Kurnik, K; Liesner, R; Ljung, R; Nolan, B; Petrini, P; Fischer, K

    2015-07-01

    To facilitate early prophylaxis, step-up regimens starting prophylaxis with infusions 1× week(-1) were introduced. Choice of initial regimen may affect outcome. This study aims to classify initial prophylactic regimens and compare them on short-term outcome. From the 'European Paediatric Network for Haemophilia Management' (PedNet) registry, patients with severe haemophilia A without inhibitors, born 2000-2012, receiving prophylaxis were included. Treatment centres were classified according to the initial frequency of prophylactic infusions and the age at reaching infusions ≥3× week(-1) . Bleeding, and central venous access device (CVAD) use were compared at age 4 years. In 21 centres with 363 patients, three regimens were identified: (i) start prophylaxis with ≥3× week(-1) infusions before age three (full: 19% of centres, 18% of patients); (ii) start 1-2× week(-1) , increasing frequency as soon as possible (asap), reaching ≥3× week(-1) before age three (43% of centres, 36% of patients); (iii) start 1-2× week(-1) , increasing frequency according to bleeding (phenotype), reaching ≥3× week(-1) after age three (38% of centres, 46% of patients). Prophylaxis was started at median 1.2 years on the full and asap regimen vs 1.8 years on the phenotype regimen. Complete prevention of joint bleeds was most effective on the full regimen (32% full vs. 27% asap and 8% phenotype), though at the cost of using most CVADs (88% full vs. 34% asap and 22% phenotype). The three prophylaxis regimens identified had different effects on early bleeding and CVAD use. This classification provides the first step towards establishing the optimum prophylactic regimen.

  12. Characteristics of false positive findings in CT colonography CAD: a comparison of two fecal tagging regimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, Lia; Delsanto, Silvia; Agliozzo, Silvano; Baggio, Riccardo; Belluccio, Erika; Correale, Loredana; Genova, Dario; Bert, Alberto; Regge, Daniele

    2009-02-01

    The successful application of Computer Aided Detection schemes to CT Colonography depends not only on their performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but also on the interaction with the radiologist, and thus ultimately on factors such as the nature of CAD prompts and the reading paradigm. Fecal tagging is emerging as a widely accepted technique for patient preparation, and patient-friendlier schemes are being proposed in an effort to increase compliance to screening programs; the interaction between CAD and FT regimens should likewise be taken into account. In this scenario, an analysis of the characteristics of CAD prompts is of paramount importance in order to guide further research, both from clinical and technical viewpoints. The CAD scheme analyzed in this paper is essentially composed of five steps: electronic cleansing, colon surface extraction, polyp candidate segmentation, pre-filtering of residual tagged stool and classification of the generated candidates in true polyps vs. false alarms. False positives were divided into six categories: untagged and tagged solid stool, haustral folds, extra-colonic candidates, ileocecal valve and cleansing artifacts. A full cathartic preparation was compared with a semi-cathartic regimen with sameday fecal tagging, which is characterized by higher patient acceptance but also higher inhomogeneity. The distribution of false positives at segmentation reflects the quality of preparation, as more inhomogeneous tagging results in a higher number of untagged solid stool and cleansing artifacts.

  13. Compliance with Xylitol and Sorbitol Chewing Gum Regimens in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    BRETZ, WALTER A.; ROSA, ODILA P. S.; SILVA, SALETE M. B.; CORBY, PATRICIA M. A.; MILANDA, MARCELO; LOESCHE, WALTER J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance of long-term xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens in adult women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Design The participants included 122 mothers (age range: 16–35 years) residing in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Compliance with the xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens was assessed by weighing, with a precision balance, all used gums returned in zip-lock bags during the study period of 33 months. The total number of returned bags in both chewing gum groups was computed and the differences between groups were determined by one-way ANOVA. Compliance was further categorized into excellent, good, fair or poor based on the distribution of the combined data for both groups by quartiles. These distributions for the xylitol and sorbitol groups were subjected to chi-square analysis. Results Compliance was always superior for the xylitol group in all categories. These distributions were, however, not significantly different in statistical terms. Average compliance in the xylitol chewing gum group was significantly higher when compared to the sorbitol chewing gum group (p=0.0481). Conclusions The results suggest that compliance, and possibly acceptance in this population, was superior for xylitol chewing gum than for sorbitol chewing gum. PMID:22241940

  14. Topoisomerase II and leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, MaryJean; Lindsey, R. Hunter; Felix, Carolyn A.; Grimwade, David; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that modulate DNA under- and overwinding, knotting, and tangling. Beyond their critical physiological functions, these enzymes are the targets for some of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs (topoisomerase II poisons) in clinical use. Topoisomerase II poisons kill cells by increasing levels of covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complexes that are normal reaction intermediates. Drugs such as etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone are frontline therapies for a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, their use is also associated with the development of specific leukemias. Regimens that include etoposide or doxorubicin are linked to the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemias that feature rearrangements at chromosomal band 11q23. Similar rearrangements are seen in infant leukemias and are associated with gestational diets that are high in naturally occurring topoisomerase II–active compounds. Finally, regimens that include mitoxantrone and epirubicin are linked to acute promyelocytic leukemias that feature t(15;17) rearrangements. The first part of this article will focus on type II topoisomerases and describe the mechanism of enzyme and drug action. The second part will discuss how topoisomerase II poisons trigger chromosomal breaks that lead to leukemia and potential approaches for dissociating the actions of drugs from their leukemogenic potential. PMID:24495080

  15. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 injury are not well elucidated. In this study, the global transcriptional regulations were investigated under different storage conditions and during development of CO2 injury symptoms on ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit. Fruit peel tissues under three different storage regimens, regular cold atmosphere, CA and CA storage and 1-MCP application were sampled at four storage durations over a 12-week period. Fruit physiological changes were affected differently under these storage regimens, and CO2 injury symptoms were detectable 2 weeks after CA storage. Identification of the differentially expressed genes and a gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed the specific transcriptome changes associated with each storage regimen. Overall, a profound transcriptome change was associated with CA storage regimen as indicated by the large number of differentially expressed genes. The lighter symptom was accompanied by reduced transcriptome changes under the CA storage and 1-MCP application regimen. Furthermore, the higher enrichment levels in the functional categories of oxidative stress response, glycolysis and protein post-translational modification were only associated with CA storage regime; therefore, these processes potentially contribute to the development of external CO2 injury or its symptom in apple. PMID:27087982

  16. Novel calcium infusion regimen after parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jih Huei; Tan, Henry Chor Lip; Arulanantham, Sarojah A/P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim Calcium infusion is used after parathyroid surgery for renal hyperparathyroidism to treat postoperative hypocalcaemia. We compared a new infusion regimen to one commonly used in Malaysia based on 2003 K/DOQI guidelines. Methods Retrospective data on serum calcium and infusion rates was collected from 2011–2015. The relationship between peak calcium efflux (PER) and time was determined using a scatterplot and linear regression. A comparison between regimens was made based on treatment efficacy (hypocalcaemia duration, total infusion amount and time) and calcium excursions (outside target range, peak and trough calcium) using bar charts and an unpaired t‐test. Results Fifty‐one and 34 patients on the original and new regimens respectively were included. Mean PER was lower (2.16 vs 2.56 mmol/h; P = 0.03) and occurred earlier (17.6 vs 23.2 h; P = 0.13) for the new regimen. Both scatterplot and regression showed a large correlation between PER and time (R‐square 0.64, SE 1.53, P < 0.001). The new regimen had shorter period of hypocalcaemia (28.9 vs 66.4 h, P = 0.04), and required less calcium infusion (67.7 vs 127.2 mmol, P = 0.02) for a shorter duration (57.3 vs 102.9 h, P = 0.001). Calcium excursions, peak and trough calcium were not significantly different between regimens. Early postoperative high excursions occurred when the infusion was started in spite of elevated peri‐operative calcium levels. Conclusion The new infusion regimen was superior to the original in that it required a shorter treatment period and resulted in less hypocalcaemia. We found that early aggressive calcium replacement is unnecessary and raises the risk of rebound hypercalcemia. PMID:26952689

  17. Hypofractionation Regimens for Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Large Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Jiankui; Wang, Jian Z. Lo, Simon; Grecula, John C.; Ammirati, Mario; Montebello, Joseph F.; Zhang Hualin; Gupta, Nilendu; Yuh, William T.C.; Mayr, Nina A.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate equivalent regimens for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain tumor treatment and to provide dose-escalation guidance to maximize the tumor control within the normal brain tolerance. Methods and Materials: The linear-quadratic model, including the effect of nonuniform dose distributions, was used to evaluate the HSRT regimens. The {alpha}/{beta} ratio was estimated using the Gammaknife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy experience for large brain tumors. The HSRT regimens were derived using two methods: (1) an equivalent tumor control approach, which matches the whole-brain radiotherapy experience for many fractions and merges it with the GKSRS data for few fractions; and (2) a normal-tissue tolerance approach, which takes advantages of the dose conformity and fractionation of HSRT to approach the maximal dose tolerance of the normal brain. Results: A plausible {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 12 Gy for brain tumor and a volume parameter n of 0.23 for normal brain were derived from the GKSRS and whole-brain radiotherapy data. The HSRT prescription regimens for the isoeffect of tumor irradiation were calculated. The normal-brain equivalent uniform dose decreased as the number of fractions increased, because of the advantage of fractionation. The regimens for potential dose escalation of HSRT within the limits of normal-brain tolerance were derived. Conclusions: The designed hypofractionated regimens could be used as a preliminary guide for HSRT dose prescription for large brain tumors to mimic the GKSRS experience and for dose escalation trials. Clinical studies are necessary to further tune the model parameters and validate these regimens.

  18. Hypofractionation regimens for stereotactic radiotherapy for large brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiankui; Wang, Jian Z; Lo, Simon; Grecula, John C; Ammirati, Mario; Montebello, Joseph F; Zhang, Hualin; Gupta, Nilendu; Yuh, William T C; Mayr, Nina A

    2008-10-01

    To investigate equivalent regimens for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain tumor treatment and to provide dose-escalation guidance to maximize the tumor control within the normal brain tolerance. The linear-quadratic model, including the effect of nonuniform dose distributions, was used to evaluate the HSRT regimens. The alpha/beta ratio was estimated using the Gammaknife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy experience for large brain tumors. The HSRT regimens were derived using two methods: (1) an equivalent tumor control approach, which matches the whole-brain radiotherapy experience for many fractions and merges it with the GKSRS data for few fractions; and (2) a normal-tissue tolerance approach, which takes advantages of the dose conformity and fractionation of HSRT to approach the maximal dose tolerance of the normal brain. A plausible alpha/beta ratio of 12 Gy for brain tumor and a volume parameter n of 0.23 for normal brain were derived from the GKSRS and whole-brain radiotherapy data. The HSRT prescription regimens for the isoeffect of tumor irradiation were calculated. The normal-brain equivalent uniform dose decreased as the number of fractions increased, because of the advantage of fractionation. The regimens for potential dose escalation of HSRT within the limits of normal-brain tolerance were derived. The designed hypofractionated regimens could be used as a preliminary guide for HSRT dose prescription for large brain tumors to mimic the GKSRS experience and for dose escalation trials. Clinical studies are necessary to further tune the model parameters and validate these regimens.

  19. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  20. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-12-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4}-obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  1. Human category learning 2.0.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Maddox, W Todd

    2011-04-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, cognitive neuroscience investigations of human category learning focused on the primary goal of showing that humans have multiple category-learning systems and on the secondary goals of identifying key qualitative properties of each system and of roughly mapping out the neural networks that mediate each system. Many researchers now accept the strength of the evidence supporting multiple systems, and as a result, during the past few years, work has begun on the second generation of research questions-that is, on questions that begin with the assumption that humans have multiple category-learning systems. This article reviews much of this second generation of research. Topics covered include (1) How do the various systems interact? (2) Are there different neural systems for categorization and category representation? (3) How does automaticity develop in each system? and (4) Exactly how does each system learn?

  2. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distributed. In addition, toxicity categories may be used for regulatory purposes other than labeling, such as... days No corneal opacity; irritation reversible within 7 days No irritation Skin irritation Corrosive...

  3. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distributed. In addition, toxicity categories may be used for regulatory purposes other than labeling, such as... days No corneal opacity; irritation reversible within 7 days No irritation Skin irritation Corrosive...

  4. Words can slow down category learning.

    PubMed

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  5. Clinical expertise and reasoning with uncertain categories.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brett K; Chen, Tsan-Hsiang Jessamine

    2008-10-01

    Expert clinical psychologists, clinical psychology graduates, and nonclinical graduate students were presented with clinical and nonclinical cases in which the diagnosis or category membership of a character was uncertain; they then made feature predictions about the character. For each case, there was a diagnosis or category that was highly probable and a less likely alternative that either did (relevant condition) or did not (neutral condition) alter predictions. For clinical cases, clinical experts and graduate clinicians gave different predictions for the relevant and neutral conditions, indicating that they had considered the uncertain nature of the diagnosis in their predictions. Although they acknowledged that the diagnosis was uncertain, nonclinical students ignored the less likely diagnostic alternatives when making predictions. For the nonclinical cases, all three groups made predictions based on only the most likely category alternative. The results showed that clinical training and/or experience promote multiple-category reasoning, but that this effect is domain specific.

  6. Combined-modality therapy of rectal cancer with oxaliplatin-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2004-06-01

    There are 2 conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer. First is surgery and, if the tumor is stage T3 and/or N1/2, this is followed by postoperative combined modality therapy. The second is preoperative combined modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative combined modality therapy if the tumor is stage uT3/4 and/or node-positive. There are a number of new chemotherapeutic agents that have been developed for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Phase I/II trials examining the use of these new chemotherapeutic agents in combination with pelvic radiation therapy, most commonly in the preoperative setting are in progress and suggest higher complete response rates. There is considerable interest in integrating oxaliplatin into preoperative combined modality therapy regimens for rectal cancer. Based on results from phase I/II trials, the recommended regimen for patients who receive oxaliplatin-based combined modality therapy is continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine with pelvic radiation.

  7. Searching for Category-Consistent Features: A Computational Approach to Understanding Visual Category Representation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen-Ping; Maxfield, Justin T; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2016-06-01

    This article introduces a generative model of category representation that uses computer vision methods to extract category-consistent features (CCFs) directly from images of category exemplars. The model was trained on 4,800 images of common objects, and CCFs were obtained for 68 categories spanning subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels in a category hierarchy. When participants searched for these same categories, targets cued at the subordinate level were preferentially fixated, but fixated targets were verified faster when they followed a basic-level cue. The subordinate-level advantage in guidance is explained by the number of target-category CCFs, a measure of category specificity that decreases with movement up the category hierarchy. The basic-level advantage in verification is explained by multiplying the number of CCFs by sibling distance, a measure of category distinctiveness. With this model, the visual representations of real-world object categories, each learned from the vast numbers of image exemplars accumulated throughout everyday experience, can finally be studied.

  8. Feature-based versus category-based induction with uncertain categories.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K; Newell, Ben R

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is known. The present experiments examined the conditions that drive feature-based and category-based strategies in induction under category uncertainty. Specifically, 2 experiments investigated whether reliance on feature-based inductive strategies is a product of the lack of coherence in the categories used in previous research or is due to the use of a decision-only induction procedure. Experiment 1 found that feature-based reasoning remained the preferred strategy even when categories with relatively high internal coherence were used. Experiment 2 found a shift toward category-based reasoning when participants were trained to classify category members prior to feature induction. Together, these results suggest that an appropriate conceptual representation must be formed through experience with a category before it is likely to be used as a basis for feature induction.

  9. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Gorodkin, J

    2004-12-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/.

  10. Hepatitis C Treatment From "Response-guided" to "Resource-guided" therapy in the transition era from IFN-containing to IFN-free regimens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Lung

    2017-01-26

    Peginterferon/ribavirin has been the standard-of-care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections: 48-week for genotype 1 or 4 (HCV-1/4) and 24-week for HCV-2/3. Response-guided therapy recommended shorter 24-week and 16-week regimens for HCV-1 with lower baseline viral loads (LVL, <400,000-800,000 IU/ml) and rapid virological response (RVR, undetectable HCV RNA at week 4) and HCV-2/3 with RVR, respectively; and extending to 72 and 48 weeks for HCV-1 slower responders and HCV-2 non-RVR patients, respectively, to improve the efficacy. The progress of directly-acting-antivirals (DAA), moving from interferon-containing regimens in 2011 to interferon-free regimens in 2013, has greatly improved the treatment success. Interferon-containing regimens include boceprevir or telaprevir or simeprevir or daclatasvir plus peginterferon/ribavirin, 24-48 weeks, for HCV-1 or 4. However, adding these DAA has no benefit for HCV-1 with LVL/RVR. Instead, 12-week sofosbuvir plus peginterferon/ribavirin attained SVR rates of >90% for HCV-1/3-6. Interferon-free regimens include two main categories: NS5B nucleotide inhibitor (sofosbuvir)-based regimens and NS3/4A inhibitor/NS5A inhibitor-based regimens (daclatasvir/asunaprevir, paritaprevir/r/ombitasvir/dasabuvir and grazoprevir/elbasvir). 8-24 weeks interferon-free regimens could achieve SVR rates of 82%-99% for corresponding HCV genotypes. Although the newly DAA interferon-free regimens have high efficacy and safety, the huge budget impact increases the treatment barriers. The current recommendation should, therefore, base on the availability, indication and cost-effectiveness in the transition era of DAA. Based on the concept of "Resource-guided therapy", peginterferon/ribavirin might be applied for easy-to-treat interferon-eligible patients in resource-constrained areas. Prioritizing patients for interferon-free regimens according to "time-degenerative factors" (age and fibrosis) is justified before the regimens becoming

  11. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-04-27

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report.

  12. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  13. N400 and category exemplar associative strength.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Honrubia-Serrano, M Luisa

    2005-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine if the N400 amplitude can be considered an index of category exemplar strength of association in a semantic categorization task. Series of six words from a particular semantic category were used as context, and the strength of association between the seventh word and the category was manipulated. Moreover, subjects were asked to perform two different tasks: one consisting of reading the words for comprehension and the other of making a decision regarding the congruence of the ending word. Results showed that the N400 component was elicited by whichever word that was not the best exemplar for the category (atypical members and nonmember of the category). No interaction between type of ending word and type of task was found around 400 ms poststimuli although the P3b component was present for infrequent stimuli in the decision task. It is concluded that the N400 amplitude is sensitive to category membership although no specific attention to the semantic relationship between words was required.

  14. Development of antibiotic regimens using graph based evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Corns, Steven M; Ashlock, Daniel A; Bryden, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the use of evolutionary algorithms in the development of antibiotic regimens given to production animals. A model is constructed that combines the lifespan of the animal and the bacteria living in the animal's gastro-intestinal tract from the early finishing stage until the animal reaches market weight. This model is used as the fitness evaluation for a set of graph based evolutionary algorithms to assess the impact of diversity control on the evolving antibiotic regimens. The graph based evolutionary algorithms have two objectives: to find an antibiotic treatment regimen that maintains the weight gain and health benefits of antibiotic use and to reduce the risk of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria. This study examines different regimens of tylosin phosphate use on bacteria populations divided into Gram positive and Gram negative types, with a focus on Campylobacter spp. Treatment regimens were found that provided decreased antibiotic resistance relative to conventional methods while providing nearly the same benefits as conventional antibiotic regimes. By using a graph to control the information flow in the evolutionary algorithm, a variety of solutions along the Pareto front can be found automatically for this and other multi-objective problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of mandibular growth and response to functional appliance treatment in prepubertal patients with different auxologic categories.

    PubMed

    Celli, Daniel; Gasperoni, Enrico; Oliva, Bruno; Deli, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    To assess mandibular growth and response to functional appliance treatment in different Petrovic's auxologic categories and to investigate diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of the Lavergne-Petrovic's flow diagram. Eighteen patients with class II malocclusion (ANB>/=4 degrees , dental class II) were selected and divided into 4 groups according to the auxologic categories. Category 2 group had 4 patients, category 3 group had 5, category 4 group had 5 and category 5 group had 4. In order to obtain patient's growth curves and detect the correct treatment time, patient's height was measured every 3 months. This method was supported by the cervical vertebral maturation method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Functional appliance and/or class II elastics, during the fixed appliance phase, were used to correct skeletal and dental relationships. Average treatment time was 31 months (Range 28-36 months). CoGn and ANB were detected in pre-treatment and post-treatment radiographs in order to assess mandibular growth. The highest growth was in category 5, the lowest in category 2. Rotational type improvement was generally observed. In prepubertal class II patients, treatment success not only depends on appliance choice, clinician's ability and correct treatment time, but also on individual growth potential and facial type. Therefore Lavergne-Petrovic's flow diagram could become a great diagnostic and prognostic aid for the orthodontist. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of Febrile Neutropenia Associated With Select Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy Regimens in a Large Community-Based Oncology Practice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Family, Leila; Yang, Su-Jau; Klippel, Zandra; Page, John H; Chao, Chun

    2017-09-01

    Background: NCCN has classified commonly used chemotherapy regimens into high (>20%), intermediate (10%-20%), or low (<10%) febrile neutropenia (FN) risk categories based primarily on clinical trial evidence. Many chemotherapy regimens, however, remain unclassified by NCCN or lack FN incidence data in real-world clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We evaluated incidence proportions of FN and grade 4 and 3/4 neutropenia during the first chemotherapy course among patients from Kaiser Permanente Southern California who received selected chemotherapy regimens without well-established FN risk. Patients given granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis were excluded. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for FN misclassification and censoring. Results: From 2008 to 2013, 1,312 patients with breast cancer who received docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC; n=853) or docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCH; n=459); 1,321 patients with colorectal cancer who received capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX; n=401) or leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX6; n=920); 307 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who received bendamustine with or without rituximab; and 181 patients with multiple myeloma who received lenalidomide with or without dexamethasone were included. Crude FN risk was >20% for both breast cancer regimens (TC and TCH). Crude FN risks for XELOX, FOLFOX6, bendamustine, and lenalidomide were <10%; however, when potential FN misclassification and censoring were considered, FN risks were >10%. Conclusions: Our results support published literature highlighting the real-world, "high" FN risk of the TC and TCH regimens for breast cancer. There is strong suggestive evidence that FN risks for XELOX, FOLFOX6, bendamustine, and lenalidomide are >10%. Calculation of chemotherapy course-level FN incidence without controlling for differential censoring for patients who discontinued regimens early, or possible FN misclassification, might

  17. Comparison of Four-Drug Regimens and Pairs of Sequential Three-Drug Regimens as Initial Therapy for HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Robert W.; Smeaton, Laura M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; De Gruttola, Victor; Snyder, Sally W.; D’Aquila, Richard T.; Johnson, Victoria A.; Morse, Gene D.; Nokta, Mostafa A.; Martinez, Ana I.; Gripshover, Barbara M.; Kaul, Pamposh; Haubrich, Richard; Swingle, Mary; McCarty, S. Debra; Vella, Stefano; Hirsch, Martin S.; Merigan, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether therapy for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) should be initiated with a four-drug or two sequential three-drug regimens. METHODS In this multicenter trial we compared initial therapy involving four-drug regimens containing efavirenz and nelfinavir in combination with either didanosine and stavudine or zidovudine and lamivudine with therapy involving two consecutive three-drug regimens the first of which contained either efavirenz or nelfinavir. RESULTS A total of 980 subjects were followed for a median of 2.3 years. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of regimen failures between the group that received the four-drug regimen containing didanosine, stavudine, nelfinavir, and efavirenz and the groups that received the three-drug regimens beginning with didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio for regimen failure, 1.24) or didanosine, stavudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 1.01). There was no significant difference between the group that received the four-drug regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, and efavirenz and the groups that received the three-drug regimens beginning with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio, 1.06) or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 1.45). A four-drug regimen was associated with a longer time to the first regimen failure than the three-drug regimens containing didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio for a first regimen failure, 0.55); didanosine, stavudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 0.63); or zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio, 0.49), but not the three-drug regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 1.21). CONCLUSIONS There was no significant difference in the duration of successful HIV-1 treatment between a single four-drug regimen and two consecutive three-drug regimens. Among these treatment strategies, initiating therapy with the three-drug regimen of

  18. Comparison of Four-Drug Regimens and Pairs of Sequential Three-Drug Regimens as Initial Therapy for HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Robert W.; Smeaton, Laura M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; De Gruttola, Victor; Snyder, Sally W.; D’Aquila, Richard T.; Johnson, Victoria A.; Morse, Gene D.; Nokta, Mostafa A.; Martinez, Ana I.; Gripshover, Barbara M.; Kaul, Pamposh; Haubrich, Richard; Swingle, Mary; McCarty, S. Debra; Vella, Stefano; Hirsch, Martin S.; Merigan, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether therapy for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) should be initiated with a four-drug or two sequential three-drug regimens. METHODS In this multicenter trial we compared initial therapy involving four-drug regimens containing efavirenz and nelfinavir in combination with either didanosine and stavudine or zidovudine and lamivudine with therapy involving two consecutive three-drug regimens the first of which contained either efavirenz or nelfinavir. RESULTS A total of 980 subjects were followed for a median of 2.3 years. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of regimen failures between the group that received the four-drug regimen containing didanosine, stavudine, nelfinavir, and efavirenz and the groups that received the three-drug regimens beginning with didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio for regimen failure, 1.24) or didanosine, stavudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 1.01). There was no significant difference between the group that received the four-drug regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, and efavirenz and the groups that received the three-drug regimens beginning with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio, 1.06) or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 1.45). A four-drug regimen was associated with a longer time to the first regimen failure than the three-drug regimens containing didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio for a first regimen failure, 0.55); didanosine, stavudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 0.63); or zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir (hazard ratio, 0.49), but not the three-drug regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz (hazard ratio, 1.21). CONCLUSIONS There was no significant difference in the duration of successful HIV-1 treatment between a single four-drug regimen and two consecutive three-drug regimens. Among these treatment strategies, initiating therapy with the three-drug regimen of

  19. Uncertainty in Category-Based Induction: When Do People Integrate Across Categories?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gregory L; Ross, Brian H

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated how people perform category-based induction for items that have uncertain categorization. Whereas normative considerations suggest that people should consider multiple relevant categories, much past research has argued that people focus on only the most likely category. A new method is introduced in which individual trials can be classified as using single or multiple categories, improving on past methods that relied on null effects as evidence for single-category use. Experiment 1 found that people did use multiple categories when the most likely category gave an ambiguous induction but that few people did so when it gave an unambiguous induction. Experiment 2 suggested that the reluctance to use multiple categories arose from a cognitive short-cut, in which only one source of information is consulted. The experiments found significant individual differences, suggesting that use of multiple categories is one of a number of strategies that can be used, rather than being the basis for most category-based induction. PMID:20192530

  20. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-hoc and Well-defined Categories

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this population. Aims The present study explores the possible contributors to the typicality effect in persons with aphasia by analyzing and comparing data from both normal and language-disordered populations, from persons with aphasia with more semantic impairment versus those with less semantic impairment, and from two types of categories with very different boundary structure (ad-hoc vs. well-defined). Methods and procedures A total of 40 neurologically healthy adults (20 older, 20 younger) and 35 persons with aphasia (20 LSI (less-semantically impaired) patients, 15 MSI (more-semantically impaired) patients) participated in the study. Participants completed one of two tasks: either category verification for ad-hoc categories or category verification for well-defined categories. Outcomes and Results Neurologically healthy participants showed typicality effects for both ad-hoc and well-defined categories. MSI patients showed a typicality effect for well-defined categories, but not for ad-hoc categories, whereas LSI patients showed a typicality effect for ad-hoc categories, but not for well-defined categories. Conclusions These results suggest that the degree of semantic impairment mediates the typicality effect in persons with aphasia depending on the structure of the category. PMID:22261305

  1. A Proposed Mediation Model of the Effects of Motivation for a Healthy Lifestyle: Impacts on Emotional Exhaustion, Medication Regimens, and Low-Density Lipoprotein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    prescription or non-prescription pharmacological medications. Low-density lipoprotein is defined as a molecule found in the blood that is 9...cortisol 18 Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a molecule made up of a lipid and a protein; its purpose is to transport triglycerides and free fatty...inflammatory, mental health, anti-lipids, hypothyroid, and a miscellaneous category for any other daily medications, such as a daily regimen of aspirin or

  2. Design of initial dosage regimen using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ritschel, W A; Eldon, M A

    1985-07-01

    A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of dosage regimens to achieve desired steady state concentrations is described. The dosage regimen prediction is based on data from the literature on pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs and correction factors specific for the patient's condition, such as renal failure, geriatric patient and congestive heart failure. The program is designed to generate dosage regimens based on desired steady state trough level, desired steady state peak level, desired mean steady state level, or to fluctuate between desired steady state peak and trough levels. The program can be used for I.V. and extravascular route of administration. A detailed program description and user instructions are presented and illustrated by three examples.

  3. Statistical methods for down-selection of treatment regimens based on multiple endpoints, with application to HIV vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Gilbert, Peter B; Fu, Rong; Janes, Holly

    2016-09-20

    SummaryBiomarker endpoints measuring vaccine-induced immune responses are essential to HIV vaccine development because of their potential to predict the effect of a vaccine in preventing HIV infection. A vaccine's immune response profile observed in phase I immunogenicity studies is a key factor in determining whether it is advanced for further study in phase II and III efficacy trials. The multiplicity of immune variables and scientific uncertainty in their relative importance, however, pose great challenges to the development of formal algorithms for selecting vaccines to study further. Motivated by the practical need to identify a set of promising vaccines from a pool of candidate regimens for inclusion in an upcoming HIV vaccine efficacy trial, we propose a new statistical framework for the selection of vaccine regimens based on their immune response profile. In particular, we propose superiority and non-redundancy criteria to be achieved in down-selection, and develop novel statistical algorithms that integrate hypothesis testing and ranking for selecting vaccine regimens satisfying these criteria. Performance of the proposed selection algorithms are evaluated through extensive numerical studies. We demonstrate the application of the proposed methods through the comparison of immune responses between several HIV vaccine regimens. The methods are applicable to general down-selection applications in clinical trials.

  4. Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Brigden, Grania; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick P J; Balasegaram, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen.

  5. Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nyang’wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick PJ; Balasegaram, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen. PMID:24391302

  6. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  7. Adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and experimental regimens in overcoming pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wysocka, Olga; Kulbacka, Julita; Saczko, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and deadly malignancies. Despite better understanding of its biology and pathogenesis, contemporary treatment regimens are still insufficient. Along with the introduction of new treatment agents and combination therapy, the response rates are increasing, but these scores do not go with overall survival, and results are frequently conflicting. Therefore, contemporary medicine faces the challenge of expanding the knowledge base and practice on all grounds – pathology, factor risk, diagnosis, and finally surgical and palliative treatment of this disease. This paper provides a review of current adjuvant and neoadjuvant regimens and the role of experimental therapies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:27713776

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Looking for Interferon Free Regimens

    PubMed Central

    González-Moreno, J.; Payeras-Cifre, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments of new drugs' combinations are changing the treatment paradigm in hepatitis C virus infection. Due to the side effect profile of pegylated interferons, interferon-sparing regimens have become the main target in chronic hepatitis C treatment research. Recent proofs of concept studies have suggested that cure of chronic hepatitis C can be achieved without interferon. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the clinical results recently reported for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with interferon-free regimens, focusing on the most promising new compounds and combinations. PMID:23710151

  9. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    PubMed Central

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  10. Differentiation in preschooler's categories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Widen, Sherri C; Russell, James A

    2010-10-01

    Two studies (N = 68, ages 2;0-3;11; N = 80, ages 2;6-4;11) explore the idea that, rather than starting with a separate mental category for each discrete emotion, children start with two broad categories (positive and negative) and then differentiate within each until adult-like categories form. Children generated emotion labels for (a) facial expressions or (b) stories about an emotion's cause and consequence. Emotions included were happiness, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Both conditions yielded the predicted pattern of differentiation. These studies of younger children found the face more powerful in eliciting correct emotion labels than had prior research, which typically relied on older preschoolers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  12. Concepts and categories: a cognitive neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    One of the most provocative and exciting issues in cognitive science is how neural specificity for semantic categories of common objects arises in the functional architecture of the brain. More than two decades of research on the neuropsychological phenomenon of category-specific semantic deficits has generated detailed claims about the organization and representation of conceptual knowledge. More recently, researchers have sought to test hypotheses developed on the basis of neuropsychological evidence with functional imaging. From those two fields, the empirical generalization emerges that object domain and sensory modality jointly constrain the organization of knowledge in the brain. At the same time, research within the embodied cognition framework has highlighted the need to articulate how information is communicated between the sensory and motor systems, and processes that represent and generalize abstract information. Those developments point toward a new approach for understanding category specificity in terms of the coordinated influences of diverse regions and cognitive systems.

  13. Children's internal organization of locative categories.

    PubMed

    Erreich, A; Valian, V

    1979-12-01

    4 locative categories were investigated to determine whether their examples were organized according to the prototype/nonprototype distinction. A ranking task was presented to 30 adult subjects to see whether they would judge those instances which had been designated as prototypes by the experimenter to be the best exemplars of each category. An elicited-drawing task was administered to see whether there was a preference for drawing adult-designated prototypical instances. A matching task was presented to determine whether fewer errors would occur in response to adult-designated prototypical instances. The latter 2 tasks were presented to 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and adults, with 17 subjects in each group. The results provide strong evidence of prototype/nonprototype organization in 3 of the locative categories and weak evidence in the fourth. Tentative conclusions regarding the development of such organization are drawn.

  14. Moduli of linear and abelian categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anel, Mathieu

    2006-07-01

    Linear categories naturally have several identification relations : isomorphisms, categorical equivalences and Morita equivalences. In this thesis, we construct the classifying stacks for these three relations (\\ukcatiso, \\ukcateq, \\ukcatmor) together with the classifying stack of abelian categories (\\ukab), the originality of the subject being that, apart from the first one, these are higher stacks. The principal result is that, under some finiteness assumptions, these stacks are geometric in the sense of C. Simpson. In particular, one recover the Hochschild cohomology of a category C as the tangent complex, i.e. the object classifying first order deformations of C, of these stacks at the point defined by C. Moreover, there exists a natural sequence of surjective morphisms of stacks : \\ukcatiso tto \\ukcateq tto \\ukcatmor tto \\ukab for which we prove that the middle one is etale, and the right one is an equivalence.

  15. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  16. Association of HIV transmission categories with sociodemographic, viroimmunological and clinical parameters of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Collazos, J; Asensi, V; Carton, J A

    2010-07-01

    To analyse sociodemographic, viroimmunological and clinical parameters in different HIV-transmission categories at baseline and during treatment, 3039 patients were followed up for 12 months after the initiation of a nelfinavir-based regimen. Multiple baseline parameters were significantly different in the diverse categories, including CD4 counts (P<0.0001) and viral load (P=0.02). There were differences in the groups regarding the CD4 response (P=0.01), but not the virological response (P=0.4), to therapy over time. Multivariate analyses revealed that transmission categories were significantly related to baseline CD4 counts (P=0.01), viral load at 12 months (P=0.0006), poorer adherence to therapy of injecting drug users (IDUs) vs. each of the other groups (P<0.001) and failure to complete the 12-month evaluation of IDU vs. heterosexual (P=0.003) and men who have sex with men (MSM) groups (P=0.02). We conclude that transmission categories had a significant influence on several baseline parameters and viroimmunological outcomes following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), as well as on adherence to therapy and to medical appointments.

  17. Occipitotemporal Category Representations Are Sensitive to Abstract Category Boundaries Defined by Generalization Demands.

    PubMed

    Braunlich, Kurt; Liu, Zhiya; Seger, Carol A

    2017-08-09

    Categorization involves organizing perceptual information so as to maximize differences along dimensions that predict class membership while minimizing differences along dimensions that do not. In the current experiment, we investigated how neural representations reflecting learned category structure vary according to generalization demands. We asked male and female human participants to switch between two rules when determining whether stimuli should be considered members of a single known category. When categorizing according to the "strict" rule, participants were required to limit generalization to make fine-grained distinctions between stimuli and the category prototype. When categorizing according to the "lax" rule, participants were required to generalize category knowledge to highly atypical category members. As expected, frontoparietal regions were primarily sensitive to decisional demands (i.e., the distance of each stimulus from the active category boundary), whereas occipitotemporal representations were primarily sensitive to stimulus typicality (i.e., the similarity between each exemplar and the category prototype). Interestingly, occipitotemporal representations of stimulus typicality differed between rules. While decoding models were able to predict unseen data when trained and tested on the same rule, they were unable to do so when trained and tested on different rules. We additionally found that the discriminability of the multivariate signal negatively covaried with distance from the active category boundary. Thus, whereas many accounts of occipitotemporal cortex emphasize its important role in transforming visual information to accentuate learned category structure, our results highlight the flexible nature of these representations with regards to transient decisional demands.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Occipitotemporal representations are known to reflect category structure and are often assumed to be largely invariant with regards to transient

  18. Category number impacts rule-based and information-integration category learning: a reassessment of evidence for dissociable category-learning systems.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Roger D; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on category-number manipulations in which rule-based category learning is worse when the category is composed of 4, rather than 2, response categories; however, information-integration category learning is unaffected by category-number manipulations. We argue that within the reported category-number manipulations, there exists a critical confound: Perceptual clusters used to construct the categories are spread apart in the 4-category condition relative to the 2-category one. The present research shows that when this confound is eliminated, performance on information-integration category learning is worse for 4 categories than for 2 categories, and this finding is demonstrated across 2 different information-integration category structures. Furthermore, model-based analyses indicate that a single-system learning model accounts well for both the original findings and the updated experimental findings reported here.

  19. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  20. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  1. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  2. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  3. Unnecessary Complexity of Home Medication Regimens among Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Lee A.; Lindquist, Lucy M.; Zickuhr, Lisa; Friesema, Elisha; Wolf, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether seniors consolidate their home medications or if there is evidence of unnecessary regimen complexity. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 200 community-dwelling seniors > 70 years in their homes. Subjects demonstrated how they took their medications in a typical day and the number of times a day patients would take medications was calculated. A pharmacist and physician blinded to patient characteristics examined medication regimens and determined the fewest number of times a day they could be taken by subjects. Results Home medication regimens could be simplified for 85 (42.5%) subjects. Of those subjects not optimally consolidating their medications, 53 (26.5%) could have had the number of times a day medications were taken reduced by one time per day; 32 (16.0%) reduced by two times or more. The three most common causes of overcomplexity were (1) misunderstanding medication instructions, (2) concern over drug absorption (i.e. before meals), and (3) perceived drug-drug interactions. Conclusion Almost half of seniors had medication regimens that were unnecessarily complicated and could be simplified. This lack of consolidation potentially impedes medication adherence. Practice Implications Health care providers should ask patients to explicitly detail when medication consumption occurs in the home. PMID:24793007

  4. Tuberculosis 2: exploring methods of diagnosis, treatment regimens and concordance.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Miles

    The second in this two part unit on tuberculosis examines diagnosis and treatment options. Part I outlined background on epidemiology and control of this disease. This part draws on the guidance set out by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Diagnostic methods are discussed and the standard treatment regimen is outlined.

  5. Are calcineurin inhibitors-free regimens ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Flavio

    2012-11-01

    The goal of research in transplant therapeutics is to achieve safe and effective immunosuppression strategies that allow durable engraftment free of toxicities. The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) regimens, because of their inherent toxicities (including nephrotoxicity), have been unable to meet these promises. Over the past decade acute cellular rejection decreased dramatically with a concomitant robust increase in 1-year graft survival; however, long-term graft outcome showed only modest improvement. This is due in part to the toxicities of the immunosuppressive drugs. The quest for a toxicity-free-CNI-free regimen has been both intense and frustrating. A turning point in CNIs-free therapy may have occurred with the recent approval of belatacept, which represents a new paradigm in immunosuppression: biological therapy for chronic immunosuppression devoid of the usual toxicities associated with the CNIs. Belatacept, a fusion receptor protein, blocks costimulation signals necessary for the activation of T cells. Although costimulation blockade has not been shown to induce tolerance, it can provide safe and effective immunosuppression without renal or cardiovascular toxicities. The approval of belatacept in both the United States and Europe for use in renal transplantation will finally push CNI-free regimens into prime time. Novel biologics such as ASKP1240 (a human anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody) and one small molecule, tofacitinib, may advance further the use of CNI-free regimens in organ transplantation.

  6. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Gonzalez regimen is a specialized diet that uses enzymes, supplements, and other factors in cancer management based on a theory that involves the use of pancreatic enzymes to help the body get rid of toxins that lead to cancer. Read about existing clinical data in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Roughage level and limited maximum intake regimens for feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Bartle, S J; Preston, R L

    1992-11-01

    Hereford steers (n = 280, BW = 371 +/- 29 kg; 40 pens) were used to evaluate two alternatives to ad libitum access to feed and constant roughage levels in finishing diets. The eight treatments were as follows: two treatments in which intake was limited to a multiple of the maintenance (MM) energy requirement (2.1, 2.3, 2.5, and 2.7, [2.7MM] and 2.3, 2.5, 2.7, and 2.9 [2.9MM] times maintenance for wk 1, 2, 3, and 4 and thereafter, respectively) and six roughage regimen and grain source treatments (10% roughage equivalent [RE] fed during the mid- and late-finishing periods [10/10], respectively, 2% RE followed by 10% RE [2/10], and 10% RE followed by 2% RE [10/2] fed with steam-flaked sorghum grain [SFSG] or whole-shelled corn [WSC]). The 2.7MM treatment tended to improve ADG (6%, P = .08) and gain efficiency (4%, P = .15) relative to ad libitum access to feed. The 2.9MM treatment was intermediate. Steers fed WSC diets consumed approximately 12% more DM (9.2 vs 8.2 kg/d) and gained 4% more (1.45 vs 1.39 kg/d, P < .05) but had lower gain efficiency (7%, 159 and 170 g/kg, P < .001) than steers fed SFSG diets. For SFSG diets, the 2/10 regimen resulted in similar gains, a 3.6% decrease (P = .10) in DMI, an 8.6% improvement (P < .01) in gain efficiency, and reduced roughage use (40 kg per steer) compared with the 10/10 regimen. With WSC diets, the 2/10 regimen did not (P > .2) affect gain efficiency but did reduce roughage use (48 kg) compared with the 10/10 regimen. The 10/2 regimen did not differ (P > .2) from the 10/10 regimen. Few differences in carcass characteristics were noted among treatments. Roughage use and cost of gain can be reduced by feeding 2% roughage during the mid-finishing period followed by a return to 10% roughage.

  8. Event-related potential parameters of category and property violations during semantic category-based induction.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Lei, Xu; Chen, Jie; Chang, Yun; Chen, Antao; Li, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have failed to clarify the event-related potentials (ERPs) that occur in response to categorization and property inferences during category-based induction. The present study examined ERP differences among acceptable-induction conclusions, unrelated-category conclusions, and unrelated-property conclusions to dissociate categorization and property-inference processing during category-based induction. The results showed that: (a) conclusions with categories that were unrelated to the premise evoked greater frontal N2 amplitudes, smaller P3b amplitudes, and greater N400 amplitudes, compared to conclusions with categories that were logically related to the premise; and (b) conclusions with unrelated properties evoked larger late positive components (LPCs) during the 700-800ms time interval compared to conclusions with related properties. These results suggest that the N2-P3b-N400 effects reflect categorization violations, while the LPCs are related to property violations during category-based induction, therefore, the ERP responses to category-related and property-related processes are dissociated respectively during category-based induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  10. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  11. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  12. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  13. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…

  14. 32 CFR 901.10 - Presidential category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.10... the year that the candidate would enter the U.S. Air Force Academy; or (2) The parent was retired with... the Presidential category.) (b) An eligible individual applies to USAFA/RRS, U.S. Air Force Academy...

  15. 32 CFR 901.16 - Superintendent category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.16 Superintendent category. Fifty eligible applicants who have not secured a nomination to the Academy from any... selected for nomination from the nationwide precandidate program by the Academy. Appointments from this...

  16. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  17. When Does Fading Enhance Perceptual Category Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In…

  18. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  19. Opposite RHOA functions within the ATLL category.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shumpei

    2016-02-04

    In this issue of Blood, Nagata et al reported that different Ras homolog gene family, member A (RHOA) hotspot mutations among the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) category have opposite biochemical activities, which are linked to different T-cell phenotypes.

  20. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  1. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  2. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  3. Listeners Retune Phoneme Categories across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch…

  4. Categories Influence Predictions about Individual Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…

  5. Right-of-Way Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The thrust of this document is vegetation management in public service rights-of-way such as along utility lines, railroads and highways. Different categories of herbicides are discussed with attention given to how they should be applied, the…

  6. Measuring Category Intuitiveness in Unconstrained Categorization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.

    2011-01-01

    What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…

  7. Production Determines Category: An Ontology of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It is a mainstream view within the ontology of art that there are singular as well as multiple artworks, but it is also a view that is contested. In this article, the author investigates whether the singular/multiple distinction can be sustained and argues for a new way to determine the category to which an artwork belongs. The author stresses…

  8. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  9. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  10. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  11. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  12. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  13. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  14. Prior Knowledge Enhances the Category Dimensionality Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron B.; Harris, Harlan D.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the combined influence of prior knowledge and stimulus dimensionality on category learning was conducted. Subjects learned category structures with the same number of necessary dimensions but more or fewer additional redundant dimensions, and with either knowledge-related or knowledge-unrelated features. Minimal-learning models predict that all subjects, regardless of condition, should learn either the same number of dimensions, or else should respond more slowly to each dimension. Despite similar learning rates and response times, subjects learned more features in the high-dimensional than in the low-dimensional condition. Furthermore, prior knowledge interacted with dimensionality, increasing what was learned especially in the high-dimensional case. A second experiment confirmed that the participants did in fact learn more features during the training phase, rather than simply inferring them at test. These effects can be explained by direct associations among features (representing prior knowledge) combined with feedback between features and the category label, as shown by simulations of the knowledge-resonance, or KRES, model of category learning. PMID:18426059

  15. Addressing Behavior Needs by Disability Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serfass, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with identified behavioral needs were provided a different level of behavioral intervention based on their special education disability category verification. A second purpose of this study was to determine what caused potential differences as interpreted by individuals working in the…

  16. Making Sense of the Role Category Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichty, Greg

    Despite over 30 years of review and analysis, researchers still are unclear as to what W.H. Crockett's Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ) of interpersonal differentiation actually measures. Among the constructivists, at least four different explanations have been advanced. The "orthodox" interpretation holds that the RCQ constitutes a…

  17. Dewey, Peirce, and the Categories of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcikiewicz, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    John Dewey proposes the "educative" experience as the goal of instruction. Yet, in focusing on the educative experience, Dewey may discount other sorts of learning which occur in school, and indeed in life. This piece proposes a recapitulation of Dewey's theory through Peirce's categorical system of experience, leading to three categories of…

  18. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  19. Learning about Tool Categories via Eavesdropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Brenda; Seston, Rebecca; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that toddlers will form enduring artifact categories after direct exposure to an adult using a novel tool. Four studies explored whether 2- (N = 48) and 3-year-olds (N = 32) demonstrate this same capacity when learning by eavesdropping. After surreptitiously observing an adult use 1 of 2 artifacts to operate a bell via a…

  20. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  1. The Role Centrality on Story Category Saliency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omanson, Richard C.

    Four experiments involving 54 adults were performed to examine the relationship between the effects of story grammar categories and content centrality on subjects' importance ratings, summaries, immediate recall, and delayed recall. Results of the studies indicated that central content units were judged as more important and were better recalled…

  2. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  3. Categories of Large Numbers in Line Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Charlesworth, Arthur; Ottmar, Erin

    2017-01-01

    How do people stretch their understanding of magnitude from the experiential range to the very large quantities and ranges important in science, geopolitics, and mathematics? This paper empirically evaluates how and whether people make use of numerical categories when estimating relative magnitudes of numbers across many orders of magnitude. We…

  4. Category-Specific Object Image Denoising.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Saeed; Porikli, Fatih; Huynh, Cong Phuoc

    2017-07-31

    We present a novel image denoising algorithm that uses external, category specific image database. In contrast to existing noisy image restoration algorithms that search patches either from a generic database or noisy image itself, our method first selects clean images similar to the noisy image from a database that consists of images of the same class. Then, within the spatial locality of each noisy patch, it assembles a set of "support patches" from the selected images. These noisyfree support samples resemble the noisy patch and correspond principally to the identical part of the depicted object. In addition, we employ a content adaptive distribution model for each patch where we derive the parameters of the distribution from the support patches. We formulate noise removal task as an optimization problem in the transform domain. Our objective function composed of a Gaussian fidelity term that imposes category specific information, and a low-rank term that encourages the similarity between the noisy and the support patches in a robust manner. The denoising process is driven by an iterative selection of support patches and optimization of the objective function. Our extensive experiments on five different object categories confirm the benefit of incorporating category-specific information to noise removal and demonstrates the superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art alternatives.

  5. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  6. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    PubMed

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  7. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  8. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  9. What We Eat In America Food Categories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) Food Categories is to provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each of the 7,000+ codes in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) are sorted into 150 mutually exclusive food categ...

  10. When Does Fading Enhance Perceptual Category Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In…

  11. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  12. Right-of-Way Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The thrust of this document is vegetation management in public service rights-of-way such as along utility lines, railroads and highways. Different categories of herbicides are discussed with attention given to how they should be applied, the…

  13. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  14. Oxytocin Regimen for Labor Augmentation, Labor Progression, Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D. Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Laughon, S. Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Methods Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing: 1, 2, and 4 mU/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared to 1 mU/min, the regimens starting with 2 mU/min and 4 mU/min reduced the duration of 1st stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5 – 1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0 – 1.7), respectively, in nulliparas. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparas. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparas. Conclusion High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 mU/min and increment of 4 mU/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first stage of labor in all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. PMID:21775839

  15. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis reduce recurrence.

    PubMed

    Franke, Molly F; Appleton, Sasha C; Mitnick, Carole D; Furin, Jennifer J; Bayona, Jaime; Chalco, Katiuska; Shin, Sonya; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-03-01

    Recurrent tuberculosis disease occurs within 2 years in as few as 1% and as many as 29% of individuals successfully treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. A better understanding of treatment-related factors associated with an elevated risk of recurrent tuberculosis after cure is urgently needed to optimize MDR tuberculosis therapy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults successfully treated for MDR tuberculosis in Peru. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine whether receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion from positive to negative was associated with a reduced rate of recurrent tuberculosis. Among 402 patients, the median duration of follow-up was 40.5 months (interquartile range, 21.2-53.4). Receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion was associated with a lower risk of recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.96]; P = .04). A baseline diagnosis of diabetes mellitus also predicted recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 10.47 [95% confidence interval, 2.17-50.60]; P = .004). Individuals who received an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion experienced a lower rate of recurrence after cure. Efforts to ensure that an aggressive regimen is accessible to all patients with MDR tuberculosis, such as minimization of sequential ineffective regimens, expanded drug access, and development of new MDR tuberculosis compounds, are critical to reducing tuberculosis recurrence in this population. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be carefully managed during initial treatment and followed closely for recurrent disease.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of four precolonoscopy bowel cleansing regimens

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Dina; Lalor, Eoin; Sandha, Gurpal; Fedorak, Richard N; van der Knoop, Bloeme; Doornweerd, Stieneke; van Kooten, Harmke; Schreuders, Eline; Midodzi, William; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ideal bowel cleansing regimen for colonoscopy has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cleansing efficacy, and patient tolerability and safety of four bowel preparation regimens. METHODS: A total of 834 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to one of four regimens: 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG); 2 L PEG + 20 mg bisacodyl; 90 mL of sodium phosphate (NaP); or two sachets of a commercially available bowel cleansing solution (PSMC) + 300 mL of magnesium citrate (M). The primary outcome measure was cleansing efficacy, which was scored by blinded endoscopists using the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale. Secondary outcome measures were bowel preparation quality according to time of colonoscopy, and patient tolerability and safety. RESULTS: The mean total cleansing score was significantly worse in the NaP group compared with the other three groups (P<0.0001). The mean cleansing scores were worse in patients who underwent morning versus afternoon colonoscopy, a finding that was consistent in all four groups. PSMC + M was the best tolerated regimen. No clinically significant mean changes in creatinine or electrolyte levels were identified, although a significantly higher proportion of patients in the NaP group developed hypokelemia (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: 2 L PEG + 20 mg bisacodyl, or PSMC + M was as efficacious as 4 L PEG and superior to NaP for bowel cleansing. A short interval between the completion of bowel preparation and the start of colonoscopy (ie, ‘runway time’), irrespective of bowel preparation regimen, appeared to be a more important predictor of bowel cleanliness than the cathartic agents used. PMID:22175055

  17. A randomized controlled trial of four precolonoscopy bowel cleansing regimens.

    PubMed

    Kao, Dina; Lalor, Eoin; Sandha, Gurpal; Fedorak, Richard N; van der Knoop, Bloeme; Doornweerd, Stieneke; van Kooten, Harmke; Schreuders, Eline; Midodzi, William; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander

    2011-12-01

    The ideal bowel cleansing regimen for colonoscopy has yet to be determined. To compare the cleansing efficacy, and patient tolerability and safety of four bowel preparation regimens. A total of 834 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to one of four regimens: 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG); 2 L PEG + 20 mg bisacodyl; 90 mL of sodium phosphate (NaP); or two sachets of a commercially available bowel cleansing solution (PSMC) + 300 mL of magnesium citrate (M). The primary outcome measure was cleansing efficacy, which was scored by blinded endoscopists using the Ottawa Bowel Preparation Scale. Secondary outcome measures were bowel preparation quality according to time of colonoscopy, and patient tolerability and safety. The mean total cleansing score was significantly worse in the NaP group compared with the other three groups (P<0.0001). The mean cleansing scores were worse in patients who underwent morning versus afternoon colonoscopy, a finding that was consistent in all four groups. PSMC + M was the best tolerated regimen. No clinically significant mean changes in creatinine or electrolyte levels were identified, although a significantly higher proportion of patients in the NaP group developed hypokelemia (P<0.0001). 2 L PEG + 20 mg bisacodyl, or PSMC + M was as efficacious as 4 L PEG and superior to NaP for bowel cleansing. A short interval between the completion of bowel preparation and the start of colonoscopy (ie, 'runway time'), irrespective of bowel preparation regimen, appeared to be a more important predictor of bowel cleanliness than the cathartic agents used.

  18. Aggressive Regimens for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Reduce Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Molly F.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Mitnick, Carole D.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Bayona, Jaime; Chalco, Katiuska; Shin, Sonya; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Recurrent tuberculosis disease occurs within 2 years in as few as 1% and as many as 29% of individuals successfully treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. A better understanding of treatment-related factors associated with an elevated risk of recurrent tuberculosis after cure is urgently needed to optimize MDR tuberculosis therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults successfully treated for MDR tuberculosis in Peru. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine whether receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion from positive to negative was associated with a reduced rate of recurrent tuberculosis. Results. Among 402 patients, the median duration of follow-up was 40.5 months (interquartile range, 21.2–53.4). Receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion was associated with a lower risk of recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.96]; P = .04). A baseline diagnosis of diabetes mellitus also predicted recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 10.47 [95% confidence interval, 2.17–50.60]; P = .004). Conclusions. Individuals who received an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion experienced a lower rate of recurrence after cure. Efforts to ensure that an aggressive regimen is accessible to all patients with MDR tuberculosis, such as minimization of sequential ineffective regimens, expanded drug access, and development of new MDR tuberculosis compounds, are critical to reducing tuberculosis recurrence in this population. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be carefully managed during initial treatment and followed closely for recurrent disease. PMID:23223591

  19. 10 CFR 37.71 - Additional requirements for transfer of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.71 Section 37.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. A licensee transferring a category 1 or category 2 quantity of radioactive material to...

  20. Verbal vs. Visual Categories on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised: How Meaningful a Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jane L.; Gilpin, Andrew R.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated a prior classification of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) subtests into Verbal and Visual categories. Findings from 45 college students found that memory test performance correlated significantly with performance on subtests of Form II of Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery that measures substrates of particular memory…

  1. 12 CFR 208.43 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... categories of asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, or sensitivity to market risk. .... For purposes of section 38 and this subpart, the relevant capital measures are: (1) The total risk...” if the bank: (i) Has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0 percent or greater; and (ii) Has a Tier...

  2. Gene therapy for HIV/AIDS: the potential for a new therapeutic regimen.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Greg; Amado, Rafael; Symonds, Geoff

    2003-08-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AIDS is a disease that, compared with the not so distant past, is now better held in check by current antiretroviral drugs. However, it remains a disease not solved. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) generally uses two non-nucleoside and one nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor or two non-nucleoside RT and one protease inhibitor. HAART is far more effective than the mono- or duo-therapy of the past, which used compounds like the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor AZT or two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, even with the relatively potent drug cocktails that comprise HAART, there are the issues of (i). HIV escape mutants, (ii). an apparent need to take the drugs in an ongoing manner, and (iii). the drugs' side effects that are often severe. This review speaks to the potential addition to these potent regimens of another regimen, namely the genetic modification of target hematopoietic cells. Such a new treatment paradigm is conceptually attractive as it may yield the constant intracellular expression of an anti-HIV gene that acts to inhibit HIV replication and pathogenicity. A body of preclinical work exists showing the inhibition of HIV replication and decreased HIV pathogenicity by anti-HIV genetic agents. This preclinical work used hematopoietic cell lines and primary cells as the target tissue. More recently, several clinical trials have sought to test this concept in vivo.

  3. 32 CFR 901.3 - Categories of nominations for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Appointment Policies and... District of Columbia, Guam, Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (3) Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico... category. (i) Superintendent competitive category. (j) Foreign students competitive category (40...

  4. 32 CFR 901.3 - Categories of nominations for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Appointment Policies and... District of Columbia, Guam, Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (3) Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico... category. (i) Superintendent competitive category. (j) Foreign students competitive category (40...

  5. 32 CFR 901.3 - Categories of nominations for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Appointment Policies and... District of Columbia, Guam, Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (3) Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico... category. (i) Superintendent competitive category. (j) Foreign students competitive category (40...

  6. 32 CFR 901.3 - Categories of nominations for appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Appointment Policies and... District of Columbia, Guam, Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (3) Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico... category. (i) Superintendent competitive category. (j) Foreign students competitive category (40...

  7. Determination and Assessment of Graded Safeguards Categories for Potential Space Reactor Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, Paul G.

    2005-02-06

    Research was conducted in the classification of lower-enrichment space nuclear reactor fuel in terms of its graded safeguards category and attractiveness level. Specifically, fuel with a 235U enrichment of less than 50% and greater than 20% (i.e., 49.9%) meets the criteria for a lower category of special-nuclear-material control and accountability. This fuel is considered to have an attractiveness level of 'D' and therefore is classified as Category II material rather than the highest and most rigorous Category I. The net result is a more cost-effective and facilitated approach to the protection, control, and accountability of this material. The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect agreement by the Government.

  8. Tandem transplants with different high-dose regimens improve the complete remission rates in multiple myeloma. Results of a Grupo Español de Síndromes Linfoproliferativos/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Osea phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Lahuerta, Juan José; Grande, Carlos; Martínez-Lopez, Joaquín; De La Serna, Javier; Toscano, Rosa; Ortiz, María Cruz; Larregla, Santiago; Conde, Eulogio; Insunza, Andrés; Gonzalez-San Miguel, José David; Bargay, Juan; Cabrera, Rafael; García-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Albó, Carmen; García-Alonso, Luis; Solano, Fernando; Vivancos, Pilar; León, Angel; San Miguel, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1999, 88 multiple myeloma (MM) patients were included in a phase II study to evaluate a tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) programme. The first was conditioned with melphalan 200 mg/m2 (MEL200-ASCT1), and the second with cyclophosphamide, etoposide and BCNU (CBV-ASCT2). All patients were in response after MEL200-ASCT1. A control group of MM patients with response to a single ASCT was selected to compare outcomes. After MEL200-ASCT1, 26 patients (30%) achieved complete remission (CR). Of the remaining 48 evaluable patients, 16 (33%) achieved CR with CBV-ASCT2. The final CR rate was 48%. The 5-year survival (OS) was 55%[95% confidence interval (CI) 43-67%] while the event-free survival (EFS) was 28% (95% CI 15-39%). CR status after CBV-ASCT2 was the most important prognostic factor for OS and EFS (P = 0.00001), although no differences in outcomes were detected when the patients in CR after MEL200-ASCT1 were compared with those who obtained CR after CBV-ASCT2. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed improved OS and EFS for the tandem series as compared with the control series treated with a single MEL200-ASCT. However, in a stratified comparison by response, there were no prognostic differences between tandem patients and control patients treated with a single ASCT. In summary, our study suggests that the benefit of a second high-dose therapy course depends on its capacity to result in CR for MM patients who have not attained CR after ASCT1.

  9. Economic evaluation of a shortened standardised treatment regimen of antituberculosis drugs for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gama, Elvis; Madan, Jason; Langley, Ivor; Girma, Mamo; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Squire, S Bertel

    2016-10-17

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious financial challenge to health systems and patients. The current treatment for patients with MDR-TB takes up to 24 months to complete. Evidence for a shorter regimen which differs from the standard WHO recommended MDR-TB regimen and typically lasts between 9 and 12 months has been reported from Bangladesh. This evaluation aims to assess the economic impact of a shortened regimen on patients and health systems. This evaluation is innovative as it combines patient and health system costs, as well as operational modelling in assessing the impact. An economic evaluation nested in a clinical trial with 2 arms will be performed at 4 facilities. The primary outcome measure is incremental cost to the health system of the study regimen compared with the control regimen. Secondary outcome measures are mean incremental costs incurred by patients by treatment outcome; patient costs by category (direct medical costs, transport, food and accommodation costs, and cost of guardians/accompanying persons and lost time); health systems cost by category and drugs; and costs related to serious adverse events. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Ethics Advisory Group of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; South African Medical Research Ethics Committee; Wits Health Consortium Protocol Review Committee; University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee; University of Kwazulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee; St Peter TB Specialized Hospital Ethical Review Committee; AHRI-ALERT Ethical Review Committee, and all participants will provide written informed consent. The results of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. ISRCTN78372190. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Economic evaluation of a shortened standardised treatment regimen of antituberculosis drugs for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Elvis; Madan, Jason; Langley, Ivor; Girma, Mamo; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Squire, S Bertel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious financial challenge to health systems and patients. The current treatment for patients with MDR-TB takes up to 24 months to complete. Evidence for a shorter regimen which differs from the standard WHO recommended MDR-TB regimen and typically lasts between 9 and 12 months has been reported from Bangladesh. This evaluation aims to assess the economic impact of a shortened regimen on patients and health systems. This evaluation is innovative as it combines patient and health system costs, as well as operational modelling in assessing the impact. Methods and analysis An economic evaluation nested in a clinical trial with 2 arms will be performed at 4 facilities. The primary outcome measure is incremental cost to the health system of the study regimen compared with the control regimen. Secondary outcome measures are mean incremental costs incurred by patients by treatment outcome; patient costs by category (direct medical costs, transport, food and accommodation costs, and cost of guardians/accompanying persons and lost time); health systems cost by category and drugs; and costs related to serious adverse events. Ethics and dissemination The study has been evaluated and approved by the Ethics Advisory Group of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; South African Medical Research Ethics Committee; Wits Health Consortium Protocol Review Committee; University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee; University of Kwazulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee; St Peter TB Specialized Hospital Ethical Review Committee; AHRI-ALERT Ethical Review Committee, and all participants will provide written informed consent. The results of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number ISRCTN78372190. PMID:27798041

  11. Endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy is superior to other regimens in managing anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: a comparative retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schniewind, Bodo; Schafmayer, Clemens; Voehrs, Gesa; Egberts, Jan; von Schoenfels, Witigo; Rose, Tobias; Kurdow, Roland; Arlt, Alexander; Ellrichmann, Mark; Jürgensen, Christian; Schreiber, Stefan; Becker, Thomas; Hampe, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    Anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy is a life-threatening complication. No comparative outcome analyses for the different treatment regimens are yet available. In a single-center study, data from all esophagectomy patients from January 1995 to January 2012, including tumor characteristics, surgical procedure, postoperative anastomotic leakage, leakage therapy regimens, APACHE II scores, and mortality, were collected, and predictors of patient survival after anastomotic leakage were analyzed. Among 366 resected patients, 62 patients (16 %) developed an anastomotic leak, 16 (26 %) of whom died. Therapy regimens included surgical revision (n = 18), endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy (n = 17), endoscopic stent application (n = 12), and conservative management (n = 15). APACHE II score at the initiation of treatment for leakage was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality (p < 0.0017). Conservatively managed patients showed mild systemic illness (mean APACHE II score 5) and no mortality. In systemically ill patients matched for APACHE II scores (mean, 14.4), endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy patients had lower mortality (12 %) compared to surgically treated (50 %, p = 0.01) cases and patients managed by stent placement (83 %, p = 00014, log rank test). No other clinical or laboratory parameters significantly influenced patient survival. Endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy was the best treatment of anastomotic leakage in systemically ill patients after esophagectomy in this retrospective analysis. It should therefore be considered an important instrument in the management of this disorder.

  12. Adherence to treatment of chronic hepatitis C: from interferon containing regimens to interferon and ribavirin free regimens

    PubMed Central

    Younossi, Zobair M.; Stepanova, Maria; Henry, Linda; Nader, Fatema; Younossi, Youssef; Hunt, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients’ experience during treatment may affect treatment adherence. Our aim was to assess the impact of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) on adherence to different anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens. Clinical, demographic, and PRO data (short form-36 [SF-36], chronic liver disease questionnaire-hepatitis C version [CLDQ-HCV], functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue [FACIT-F], work productivity and activity impairment: specific health problem [WPAI:SHP]) from 13 multinational clinical trials of anti-HCV treatment were available. Treatment adherence was defined as >80% of prescribed doses taken. Included were 4825 HCV patients. Regimens were grouped into: interferon- and ribavirin (RBV)-containing (±sofosbuvir [SOF]), interferon-free RBV-containing (RBV + SOF ± ledipasvir [LDV]), and interferon-free RBV-free (LDV/SOF). The adherence to these regimens were 77.6%, 84.3%, and 96.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Nonadherent patients were more likely to be unemployed and to have a greater PRO impairment at baseline (up to −5.3% lower PRO scores, P < 0.0001). During treatment with interferon- or RBV-based regimens, nonadherent patients experienced lower PROs and had larger decrements from their baseline PRO scores. In contrast, there were no significant declines in PRO scores (all P > 0.05) for the small number of patients who were nonadherent to LDV/SOF. In multivariate analysis, being treatment-naive, longer treatment duration, and receiving an interferon- or RBV-containing regimen were associated with a lower likelihood of adherence (all P < 0.003). Better baseline and on-treatment PRO scores were associated with a higher likelihood of adherence to interferon and RBV. The use of interferon and/or RBV, longer duration of treatment, and lower baseline and on-treatment PRO scores were linked to a decreased likelihood of being adherent to interferon + RBV-containing or interferon-free RBV-containing antiviral

  13. Durability of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy on Initial and Subsequent Regimens

    PubMed Central

    GARDNER, EDWARD M.; BURMAN, WILLIAM J.; MARAVI, MOISES E.; DAVIDSON, ARTHUR J.

    2007-01-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the durability of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. This study is a retrospective review of previously antiretroviral naïve patients initiating therapy between 1997 and 2002. Antiretroviral adherence was calculated using prescription refill data and was analyzed over time on an initial regimen and on sequential antiretroviral regimens. Three hundred forty-four patients were included. The median lengths of the first, second, and third regimens were stable at 1.7 years, 1.2 years, and 1.5 years, respectively (p = 0.10). In multivariate analysis the factor most significantly associated with earlier initial regimen termination was poor adherence. On an initial regimen, adherence decreased over time and declined most rapidly in patients with the shortest regimens (4 to <16 months, −43% per year), followed by patients with intermediate regimen duration (16 to <28 months, −19% per year), and then patients with longer regimens (≥28 months, −5% per year). In patients progressing to a third regimen, there was a trend toward decreasing adherence over successive regimens. In conclusion, sequential antiretroviral regimens are of similar lengths, with adherence being highly associated with first regimen duration. Adherence decreases during an initial regimen and on sequential antiretroviral regimens. Effective and durable interventions to prevent declining adherence are needed. PMID:16987049

  14. Comparison of different TEE-guided thrombolytic regimens for prosthetic valve thrombosis: the TROIA trial.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Mehmet; Gündüz, Sabahattin; Biteker, Murat; Astarcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Çevik, Cihan; Kaynak, Evren; Yıldız, Mustafa; Oğuz, Emrah; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Ertürk, Emre; Karavelioğlu, Yusuf; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kaya, Hasan; Gürsoy, Ozan Mustafa; Çakal, Beytullah; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Duran, Nilüfer; Özdemir, Nihal

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify the most effective and safest regimen among different thrombolytic treatment strategies. The best treatment strategies for prosthetic valve thrombosis have been controversial. Transesophageal echocardiography-guided thrombolytic treatment was administered to 182 consecutive patients with prosthetic valve thrombosis in 220 different episodes (156 women; mean age, 43.2 ± 13.06 years) between 1993 and 2009 at a single center. These regimens chronologically included rapid (Group I), slow (Group II) streptokinase, high-dose (100 mg) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) (Group III), a half-dose (50 mg) and slow infusion (6 h) of t-PA without bolus (Group IV), and a low dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 h) of t-PA without bolus (Group V). The endpoints were thrombolytic success, in-hospital mortality, and nonfatal complication rates. The overall success rate in the whole series was 83.2%; it did not differ significantly among Groups I through V (68.8%, 85.4%, 75%, 81.5%, and 85.5%, respectively; p = 0.46). The overall complication rate in the whole series was 18.6%. Although the overall complication rate was similar among Groups I through IV (37.5%, 24.4 %, 33.3%, and 29.6%, respectively; p > 0.05 for each comparison), it was significantly lower in Group V (10.5%, p < 0.05 for each). The combined rates of mortality and nonfatal major complications were also lower in Group V than in the other groups, with all differences significant except for comparison of Groups IV and V. By multivariate analysis, the predictors of combined mortality plus nonfatal major complications were any thrombolytic therapy regimen other than Group V (odds ratios for Groups I through IV: 8.2, 3.8, 8.1, and 4.1, respectively; p < 0.05 for each) and a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack (odds ratio: 3.5, p = 0.011). In addition, there was no mortality in Group V. Low-dose slow infusion of t-PA repeated as needed without a bolus provides

  15. Chemical Categories Used to Review New Chemicals under TSCA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA groups Premanufacture Notice (PMN) chemicals with shared chemical and toxicological properties into categories. Establishing these categories has streamlined the process for Agency review of new chemical substances.

  16. Neural Changes Associated with Nonspeech Auditory Category Learning Parallel Those of Speech Category Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Holt, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Native language experience plays a critical role in shaping speech categorization, but the exact mechanisms by which it does so are not well understood. Investigating category learning of nonspeech sounds with which listeners have no prior experience allows their experience to be systematically controlled in a way that is impossible to achieve by studying natural speech acquisition, and it provides a means of probing the boundaries and constraints that general auditory perception and cognition bring to the task of speech category learning. In this study, we used a multimodal, video-game-based implicit learning paradigm to train participants to categorize acoustically complex, nonlinguistic sounds. Mismatch negativity responses to the nonspeech stimuli were collected before and after training to investigate the degree to which neural changes supporting the learning of these nonspeech categories parallel those typically observed for speech category acquisition. Results indicate that changes in mismatch negativity resulting from the nonspeech category learning closely resemble patterns of change typically observed during speech category learning. This suggests that the often-observed “specialized” neural responses to speech sounds may result, at least in part, from the expertise we develop with speech categories through experience rathr than from properties unique to speech (e.g., linguistic or vocal tract gestural information). Furthermore, particular characteristics of the training paradigm may inform our understanding of mechanisms that support natural speech acquisition. PMID:19929331

  17. Effects of category learning on neural sensitivity to non-native phonetic categories.

    PubMed

    Myers, Emily B; Swan, Kristen

    2012-08-01

    Categorical perception, an increased sensitivity to between- compared with within-category contrasts, is a stable property of native speech perception that emerges as language matures. Although recent research suggests that categorical responses to speech sounds can be found in left prefrontal as well as temporo-parietal areas, it is unclear how the neural system develops heightened sensitivity to between-category contrasts. In the current study, two groups of adult participants were trained to categorize speech sounds taken from a dental/retroflex/velar continuum according to two different boundary locations. Behavioral results suggest that for successful learners, categorization training led to increased discrimination accuracy for between-category contrasts with no concomitant increase for within-category contrasts. Neural responses to the learned category schemes were measured using a short-interval habituation design during fMRI scanning. Whereas both inferior frontal and temporal regions showed sensitivity to phonetic contrasts sampled from the continuum, only the bilateral middle frontal gyri exhibited a pattern consistent with encoding of the learned category scheme. Taken together, these results support a view in which top-down information about category membership may reshape perceptual sensitivities via attention or executive mechanisms in the frontal lobes.

  18. Treatment of category generation and retrieval in aphasia: Effect of typicality of category items.

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Kiran and colleagues (Kiran, 2007, 2008; Kiran & Johnson, 2008; Kiran & Thompson, 2003) have previously suggested that training atypical examples within a semantic category is a more efficient treatment approach to facilitating generalization within the category than training typical examples. The present study extended our previous work examining the notion of semantic complexity within goal-derived (ad-hoc) categories in individuals with aphasia. Methods: Six individuals with fluent aphasia (range = 39-84 years) and varying degrees of naming deficits and semantic impairments were involved. Thirty typical and atypical items each from two categories were selected after an extensive stimulus norming task. Generative naming for the two categories was tested during baseline and treatment. Results: As predicted, training atypical examples in the category resulted in generalization to untrained typical examples in five out the five patient-treatment conditions. In contrast, training typical examples (which was in examined three conditions) produced mixed results. One patient showed generalization to untrained atypical examples, whereas two patients did not show generalization to untrained atypical examples. Conclusions: Results of the present study supplement our existing data on the effect of a semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval by manipulating the typicality of category exemplars. PMID:21173393

  19. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians.

  20. Development of a category 2 approach system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical model is presented which provides, as its primary output, the probability of a successful Category II approach. Typical applications are included using several example systems (manual and automatic) which are subjected to random gusts and deterministic wind shear. The primary purpose of the approach system model is to establish a structure containing the system elements, command inputs, disturbances, and their interactions in an analytical framework so that the relative effects of changes in the various system elements on precision of control and available margins of safety can be estimated. The model is intended to provide insight for the design and integration of suitable autopilot, display, and navigation elements; and to assess the interaction of such elements with the pilot/copilot.

  1. Abstract and concrete categories? Evidences from neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Eleonora; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Plebani, Valentina; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the performance of patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA) in a series of tasks involving both abstract and concrete stimuli, which were controlled for most of the variables that have been shown to affect performance on lexical-semantic tasks. Our aims were to compare the patients׳ performance on abstract and concrete stimuli and to assess category-effects within the abstract and concrete domains. The results showed: (i) a better performance on abstract than concrete concepts in sv-PPA patients. (ii) Category-related effects in the abstract domain, with emotion concepts being preserved in AD and social relations being selectively impaired in sv-PPA. In addition, a living-non living dissociation may be (infrequently) observed in individual AD patients after controlling for an extensive set of potential confounds. Thus, differences between and within the concrete or abstract domain may be present in patients with semantic memory disorders, mirroring the different brain regions involved by the different pathologies.

  2. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100 ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400 ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  3. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage.

  4. Clustering header categories extracted from web tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Embley, David W.; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Seth, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Revealing related content among heterogeneous web tables is part of our long term objective of formulating queries over multiple sources of information. Two hundred HTML tables from institutional web sites are segmented and each table cell is classified according to the fundamental indexing property of row and column headers. The categories that correspond to the multi-dimensional data cube view of a table are extracted by factoring the (often multi-row/column) headers. To reveal commonalities between tables from diverse sources, the Jaccard distances between pairs of category headers (and also table titles) are computed. We show how about one third of our heterogeneous collection can be clustered into a dozen groups that exhibit table-title and header similarities that can be exploited for queries.

  5. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  6. Improving causality induction with category learning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning.

  7. Improving Causality Induction with Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning. PMID:24883419

  8. Listeners retune phoneme categories across languages.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-02-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch listeners were exposed to unusual pronunciation variants in which word-final /f/ or /s/ was replaced by an ambiguous sound. At test, listeners categorized Dutch minimal word pairs ending in sounds along an /f/-/s/ continuum. Dutch L1 and German L2 listeners showed boundary shifts of a similar magnitude. Moreover, following exposure to Dutch-accented English, Dutch listeners also showed comparable effects of category retuning when they heard the same speaker speak her native language (Dutch) during the test. The former result suggests that lexical representations in a second language are specific enough to support lexically guided retuning, and the latter implies that production patterns in a second language are deemed a stable speaker characteristic likely to transfer to the native language; thus retuning of phoneme categories applies across languages. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Structural processing and category-specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Marques, J Frederico; Raposo, Ana; Almeida, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of four structural dimensions (object parts, internal details, objects contours and variability of the representation), as a possible source of categorical processing differences and category-specific deficits. Importantly, these dimensions aggregate 22 different structural measures that have been proposed to describe the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. Study 1 analysed the differences between the four dimensions across domains and categories. Study 2 investigated how these dimensions may contribute to the performance of two patients with category-specific deficits that have been reported previously in the literature (Farah et al., 1991). The results showed that living things were structurally more complex than non-living things, scoring higher in object parts and object contours. Regarding the variability of the representation, living things did not show much within-item diversity but did show more contour overlap and less visual similarity, the latter two qualities of living things being detrimental to object processing in a naming task. Parts, contours and variability of the representation also differentiated animals, fruits and vegetables and, to a certain degree, non-living things: animals had more parts, fruits had more object contours and non-living things had a lower variability of the representation (which was especially related to higher within-item diversity and lower contour overlap). The same three dimensions predicted patient performance. However, when structural dimensions were considered together with domain (living/non-living) and concept familiarity, only variability of the representation contributed significantly to patient performance.

  10. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  11. Using BIRADS categories in ROC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallergi, Maria; Hersh, Marla R.; Thomas, Jerry A.

    2002-04-01

    This paper investigated the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BIRADS) Lexicon in ROC mammography experiments. Analysis was based on data from parallel ROC experiments performed at two Institutions with different readers and databases to compare film to digitized mammography. Seven readers participated in the studies and read approximately 200 cases each in two formats: film and digital or softcopy. Reporting was done using BIRADS categories 1 through 5. Training was done with a separate set of cases and included detailed review of the relationship between BIRADS and a standard ROC discrete 5-point rating scale. The results from both sites showed equivalency between film and softcopy mammography. Decisions using the BIRADS categories showed no unsampled ROC regions and no degenerate data. Fits yielded smooth ROC curves that correlated to clinical practice. In a qualitative evaluation, all observers indicated preference in using the BIRADS classes instead of a discrete or continuous rating scheme. Familiarity with the rating process seems to relieve some of the bias associated with the interpretation of digitized mammograms from computer monitors (softcopy reading). Our results suggested that BIRADS categories can be used in comparative ROC studies because they represent a scale familiar to the reader that can be followed consistently and they provide a rating approach that accounts for both positive and negative cases to be evaluated and categorized.

  12. Comparing the effects of positive and negative feedback in information-integration category learning.

    PubMed

    Freedberg, Michael; Glass, Brian; Filoteo, J Vincent; Hazeltine, Eliot; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-01-01

    Categorical learning is dependent on feedback. Here, we compare how positive and negative feedback affect information-integration (II) category learning. Ashby and O'Brien (2007) demonstrated that both positive and negative feedback are required to solve II category problems when feedback was not guaranteed on each trial, and reported no differences between positive-only and negative-only feedback in terms of their effectiveness. We followed up on these findings and conducted 3 experiments in which participants completed 2,400 II categorization trials across three days under 1 of 3 conditions: positive feedback only (PFB), negative feedback only (NFB), or both types of feedback (CP; control partial). An adaptive algorithm controlled the amount of feedback given to each group so that feedback was nearly equated. Using different feedback control procedures, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants in the NFB and CP group were able to engage II learning strategies, whereas the PFB group was not. Additionally, the NFB group was able to achieve significantly higher accuracy than the PFB group by Day 3. Experiment 3 revealed that these differences remained even when we equated the information received on feedback trials. Thus, negative feedback appears significantly more effective for learning II category structures. This suggests that the human implicit learning system may be capable of learning in the absence of positive feedback.

  13. Initial dosage regimens of gentamicin in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Zaske, D E; Chin, T; Kohls, P R; Solem, L D; Strate, R G

    1991-01-01

    For 95 patients with burns the gentamicin dosage regimen necessary to achieve optimal serum concentrations was determined. Individual elimination rates and distribution volumes for gentamicin were determined and correlated with renal function parameters and age. In patients with burns who had normal serum creatinine levels (less than 1.5 mg/dl), gentamicin clearance and thus dosage regimens can be stratified by age. Gentamicin's clearance decreased inversely with age. Initial dosage guidelines were calculated for different age groups of patients with normal levels of serum creatinine. The guidelines were developed to assist the clinician in attaining therapeutic concentrations with initial doses of gentamicin. Therapeutic serum concentrations were reached in most patients with burns dosed by these guidelines. Serum gentamicin concentrations should always be monitored during therapy, and dosages should be adjusted to ensure optimal concentrations during the course of therapy.

  14. Intensified hemodialysis regimens: neglected treatment options for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dominik; Zimmering, Miriam; Chan, Christopher T; McFarlane, Philip A; Pierratos, Andreas; Querfeld, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    During recent years, the importance of intensified dialysis regimens has gathered increasing interest, especially after the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study Group reported that a higher dose of thrice-weekly hemodialysis failed to improve clinical outcomes. Long nocturnal hemodialysis (three to six times per week) or short daily hemodialysis are the currently used forms of intensified dialysis. There is substantial evidence for cardiovascular and quality-of-life improvements as well as financial benefits with intensified hemodialysis. Preliminary experience with daily hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration in children has been reported. Given the continuing shortage of donor organs for kidney transplantation, the increasing incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and recognition of the deleterious effects of long-lasting ESRD, growth retardation, and poor social rehabilitation, more intensified dialysis regimens are a much-needed therapeutical option in both adults and children.

  15. A short two-drug regimen prevents active TB.

    PubMed

    Torres, G

    1998-04-01

    Study results presented at the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections showed that a two-month regimen of rifampin with pyrazinamide proved to be as effective as a twelve-month regimen of isoniazid in the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-positive individuals. HIV-positive individuals have a ten times greater chance of developing TB than HIV-negative individuals, and TB may contribute to greater viral loads and HIV progression. The short-term course is not recommended for patients using protease inhibitors due to drug interactions with rifampin to treat active TB. The recommendations for the prevention of TB in HIV-positive individuals will probably be changed when all the data are analyzed and confirmed.

  16. Basis for selecting optimum antibiotic regimens for secondary peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Emilio; Gimenez, Maria-Jose; Gilsanz, Fernando; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Adequate management of severely ill patients with secondary peritonitis requires supportive therapy of organ dysfunction, source control of infection and antimicrobial therapy. Since secondary peritonitis is polymicrobial, appropriate empiric therapy requires combination therapy in order to achieve the needed coverage for both common and more unusual organisms. This article reviews etiological agents, resistance mechanisms and their prevalence, how and when to cover them and guidelines for treatment in the literature. Local surveillances are the basis for the selection of compounds in antibiotic regimens, which should be further adapted to the increasing number of patients with risk factors for resistance (clinical setting, comorbidities, previous antibiotic treatments, previous colonization, severity…). Inadequate antimicrobial regimens are strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Awareness of resistance epidemiology and of clinical consequences of inadequate therapy against resistant bacteria is crucial for clinicians treating secondary peritonitis, with delicate balance between optimization of empirical therapy (improving outcomes) and antimicrobial overuse (increasing resistance emergence).

  17. Cross-category demand effects of price promotions.

    PubMed

    Leeflang, Peter S H; Parreño-Selva, Josefa

    Do promotions in a certain category lead to higher revenues in other categories? If so, to what degree? The answers to these questions are highly relevant for retailers that supply products in different categories. Empirical findings in studies that consider a limited number of categories indicate small promotional cross-category effects. This study develops a framework to determine the impact of price promotions on category revenues that include interdependencies among a substantial number of categories at the category demand level. The own- and cross-category demand effects are moderated by variables such as promotion intensity, category characteristics (own-category effects), and spatial distances between shelf locations (cross-category effects). The empirical results based on daily store-level scanner data show that approximately half of all price promotions expand own-category revenues, especially for categories with deeper supported discounts. There is a high probability (61%) that a price promotion affects sales of at least one other category. The number of categories affected is not greater than two. Moderate evidence supports the existence of cross-promotional effects between categories more closely located in a store.

  18. Dosing regimens of cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) for melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; McBryde, Emma S; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Amornchai, Premjit; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Peacock, Sharon J

    2009-10-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease with a propensity for relapse, despite prolonged antibiotic eradication therapy for 12 to 20 weeks. A pharmacokinetic (PK) simulation study was performed to determine the optimal dosing of cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX]) used in current eradication regimens in Thailand and Australia. Data for bioavailability, protein binding, and coefficients of absorption and elimination were taken from published literature. Apparent volumes of distribution were correlated with body mass and were estimated separately for Thai and Australian populations. In vitro experiments demonstrated concentration-dependent killing. In Australia, the currently used eradication regimen (320 [TMP]/1,600 [SMX] mg every 12 h [q12h]) was predicted to achieve the PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) target (an area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h/MIC ratio of >25 for both TMP and SMX) for strains with the MIC90 of Australian strains (< or = 1/19 mg/liter). In Thailand, the former regimen of 160/800 mg q12h would not be expected to attain the target for strains with an MIC of > or = 1/19 mg/liter, but the recently implemented weight-based regimen (<40 kg [body weight], 160/800 mg q12h; 40 to 60 kg, 240/1,200 mg q12h; >60 kg, 320/1,600 mg q12h) would be expected to achieve adequate concentrations for strains with an MIC of < or = 1/19 mg/liter. The results were sensitive to the variance of the PK parameters. Prospective PK-PD studies of Asian populations are needed to optimize TMP-SMX dosing in melioidosis.

  19. Novel bladder preservation therapy with Osaka Medical College regimen.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Haruhito; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Nomi, Hayahito; Hirano, Hajime; Ibuki, Naokazu; Uehara, Hiroshi; Komura, Kazumasa; Minami, Koichiro; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Takai, Tomoaki; Tanda, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Narumi, Yoshihumi; Kiyama, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effect of balloon occluded arterial infusion of an anticancer agent (cisplatin/gemcitabine), used concomitantly with hemodialysis, which delivers an extremely high concentration of anticancer agent to the tumor site without systemic adverse effects, along with concurrent radiation (referred to as the Osaka Medical College regimen) in patients with advanced bladder cancer. A total of 329 patients (TisN0 16, T2N0 174, T3N0 77, T4N0 22 and TxN+ 40) were assigned to receive the Osaka Medical College regimen. Patients who did not achieve complete response underwent total cystectomy or secondary balloon occluded arterial infusion with an increased amount of cisplatin and/or gemcitabine. The Osaka Medical College regimen allowed 83.6% (276 of 329) of patients in total and 93.6% (250 of 267) of patients with organ confined disease (including T3b) to achieve complete response. Of the patients with a complete response 96% (240 of 250) survived with a functional bladder without evidence of recurrent disease within a mean followup of 159 weeks. Although lymph node involvement, especially N2 stage, was selected as a significant risk factor for treatment failure and survival, it was noteworthy that 61.9% of patients with N1 disease achieved complete response and that the 5-year overall survival rate was 72.2%. No patients had grade III or more severe toxicities. The Osaka Medical College regimen, a new bladder preservation strategy, can be curative not only in patients for whom cystectomy is indicated, but also in patients whose condition is not amenable to curative treatment because of disease stage, age or other factors, and for whom merely palliative therapy would otherwise seem the only option. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. “Rescue” regimens after Helicobacter pylori treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After more than 20 years of experience in H pylori treatment, in my opinion, the ideal regimen to treat this infection is still to be found. Currently, apart from having to know first-line eradication regimens well, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. Therefore, in designing a treatment strategy we should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone, but also on the final (overall) eradication rate. The choice of a “rescue” treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a clarithromycin-based regimen was used initially, a subsequent metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy) may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third “rescue” option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, a quadruple regimen may be reserved as a third-line rescue option. Finally, rifabutin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging empirical fourth-line strategy after multiple previous eradication failures with key antibiotics such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several rescue therapies are consecutively given. Therefore, the attitude in H pylori eradication therapy failure, even after two or more unsuccessful attempts, should be to fight and not to surrender. PMID:18803350

  1. [Malaria and life at sea: prophylactic regimens on merchant ships].

    PubMed

    Michot, S

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe requirements for protection/treatment of malaria on merchant ships. The first part of the article reviews recent data on the incidence of malaria in seagoing personnel. The second part provides advice on mosquito-bite prevention on merchant ships. The third part presents the most important information on prophylaxis for seafarers working in malarial risk areas. Several regimens are proposed. The last part of the article discusses curative treatment for malaria on merchant ships.

  2. [Distribution of the public healthcare budget of Catalonia (Spain) for 2005 among the 17 ICD-9-CM categories].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Ramón; Brosa, Max; Bohigas, Lluís

    2007-01-01

    To describe the distribution of the Catalan public healthcare budget for 2005 among the 17 ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, clinical modification) categories. The methodology comprised 2 phases: an initial phase in which the global budget was distributed by type of healthcare (hospital, outpatient or pharmacological care), and a second phase in which the expenditure was distributed by the type of care among the ICD-9-CM categories. In the first phase, this distribution was based on information enabling the various budget items to be assigned to the different types of care. Various elements were used for the distribution by categories, depending on each type of care: hospital stay, outpatient visit or consumption by therapeutic subgroup. Distribution of the budget was as follows: 46.6% for specialized care, 27.5% for pharmacological care, and 20.0% for primary care; 5.9% was not distributed. Of the 17 categories, that accounting for the largest percentage (17.3%) was "diseases of the circulatory system" (VII), followed by category VIII, "diseases of the respiratory system" which totaled 10.9%. The budget was concentrated in 5 categories, the 2 mentioned above plus category V "mental disorders" (9.4%), category II "tumors" (9.1%) and category IX "disorders of the digestive system" (7.7%), which accounted for 54.4% of the total budget. The internal composition of each category showed major variations. The distribution of the budget offers a point of reference for health planning and management.

  3. Does anesthetic regimen influence implicit memory during general anesthesia?

    PubMed

    Lequeux, Pierre-Yves; Hecquet, Fidelie; Bredas, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Implicit learning of intraoperative auditory stimuli during general anesthesia is very difficult to quantify but may require the presence of noxious stimulation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic regimen with a low dose of opioid would enhance implicit memory, while a regimen with a high dose of opioid would not. One hundred-twenty patients were randomized into 3 groups. All patients were anesthetized with a target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil, targeting a Bispectral Index (BIS) value of 50. The remifentanil effect-site concentration (in ng/mL) was always double that of propofol (in μg/mL) in the first group and half of that in the second group. Patients in these 2 groups were played a list of 20 words via headphones during surgery. The third group served as control for memory tests and was not played any word during anesthesia. BIS was recorded during word presentation. No statistical difference was found among the 3 groups regarding 3 different memory tests although 67.5% [50.7%; 80.9%] of the patients of the high-opioid group and 72.5% [55.9%; 84.9%] of the low-opioid group had at least 1 episode of BIS >60. We could not demonstrate the presence of implicit or explicit memorization under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia either with a low- or a high-dose opioid anesthetic regimen.

  4. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Antiretroviral Drug Regimens.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus. Current guidelines recommend six combination regimens for initial therapy. Five are based on tenofovir and emtricitabine; the other uses abacavir and lamivudine. Five include integrase strand transfer inhibitors. HIV specialists should assist with treating patients with complicated HIV infection, including patients with treatment-resistant HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, pregnancy, childhood infections, severe opportunistic infections, complex drug interactions, significant drug toxicity, or comorbidities. Family physicians can treat most patients with HIV infection effectively by choosing appropriate treatment regimens, monitoring patients closely, and retaining patients in care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  5. Bowel preparation regimens for colon capsule endoscopy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Nigar, Sofia; Paleti, Vani; Lane, Devin; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is being actively evaluated as an emerging complementary or alternative procedure for evaluation of the colon. The yield of CCE is significantly dependent on the quality of bowel preparation. In addition to achieving a stool-free colon the bowel preparation protocols need to decrease bubble effect and aid propulsion of the capsule. An extensive English literature search was done using PubMed with search terms of colon capsule endoscopy, PillCam and bowel preparation. Full-length articles which met the criteria were included for review. A total of 12 studies including 1149 patients were reviewed. There was significant variability in the type of bowel preparation regimens. Large-volume (3–4 liters) polyethylene glycol (PEG) was the most widely used laxative. Lower volumes of PEG showed comparable results but larger studies are needed to determine efficacy. Sodium phosphate was used as an effective booster in most studies. Magnesium citrate and ascorbic acid are emerging as promising boosters to replace sodium phosphate when it is contraindicated. The potential benefit of prokinetics needs further evaluation. Over the past decade there has been significant improvement in the bowel preparation regimens for CCE. Further experience and studies are likely to standardize the bowel preparation regimens before CCE is adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:24790642

  6. Antiepileptic drug regimens and major congenital abnormalities in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Samrén, E B; van Duijn, C M; Christiaens, G C; Hofman, A; Lindhout, D

    1999-11-01

    To assess the risk of major congenital abnormalities associated with specific antiepileptic drug regimens, a large retrospective cohort study was performed. The study comprised 1,411 children born between 1972 and 1992 in four provinces in The Netherlands who were born to mothers with epilepsy and using antiepileptic drugs during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 2,000 nonepileptic matched controls. We found significantly increased risks of major congenital abnormalities for carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy, with evidence for a significant dose-response relationship for valproate. The risk of major congenital abnormalities was nonsignificantly increased for phenobarbital monotherapy when caffeine comedication was excluded, but a significant increase in risk was found when caffeine was included. Phenytoin monotherapy was not associated with an increased risk of major congenital abnormalities. Regarding polytherapy regimens, increased risks were found for several antiepileptic drug combinations. Clonazepam, in combination with other antiepileptic drugs, showed a significantly increased relative risk. Furthermore, there were significantly increased relative risks for the combination of carbamazepine and valproate and the combination of phenobarbital and caffeine with other antiepileptic drugs. This study shows that most antiepileptic drug regimens were associated with an increased risk of major congenital abnormalities in the offspring, in particular valproate (dose-response relationship) and carbamazepine monotherapy, benzodiazepines in polytherapy, and caffeine comedication in combinations with phenobarbital.

  7. An evaluation of analgesic regimens for abdominal surgery in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K E; Raucci, J A; Gades, N M; Toth, L A

    2000-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of several analgesic regimens for use after intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters in mice. The lengths of time required for postoperative recovery of food and water intake, locomotor activity, and core temperature of mice that did not receive postsurgical analgesic medication were compared to those of mice that were given either an analgesic in the drinking water or buprenorphine injections. Many measured variables were not substantially altered by analgesic medications. However, ibuprofen-treated mice demonstrated significantly greater locomotor activity on days 2 through 5 after surgery and a more rapid return to stable postsurgical levels of activity and water intake as compared to those in untreated mice. These changes are consistent with potential analgesic efficacy of the ibuprofen treatment regimen. Buprenorphine injections elicited hyperactivity, hyperthermia, and reduced food and water intake during both the immediate postsurgical recovery period and after apparent recuperation from surgery, as compared to effects observed in saline-treated mice. Evaluating the effect of analgesic regimens on postsurgical changes in physiologic and behavioral variables can be useful in assessing the efficacy of analgesic treatments, but some changes may indicate pharmacologic effects that do not reflect pain relief.

  8. Dose regimen for vancomycin not needing serum peak levels?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, W; Brown, N; Kelsall, A; McClure, R

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the safety, efficacy, and need to measure peak serum vancomycin concentrations in a neonatal population using a standard vancomycin dosage regimen. Method: A total of 101 infants who were admitted to a regional neonatal intensive care unit and received vancomycin (15 mg/kg every 12 or 18 hours depending on postnatal age) were studied retrospectively. Infants who had been started on vancomycin before they were transferred to the unit were excluded. The proportion of infants was measured whose serum vancomycin concentrations were within a conservative therapeutic range of trough 5–10 mg/l, peak 20–40 mg/l, and a less conservative, but still safe, range of trough 5–12 mg/l, peak 15–60 mg/l. Results: Trough concentrations of 5–10 mg/l were achieved by 46.5% of infants, and 5–12 mg/l by 55.4%. Peak concentrations of 20–40 mg/l were found in 83.2% of infants, and 15–60 mg/l in 99.0%. Highest peak concentration was 47.2 mg/l. Some 89.4% of infants with trough concentrations of 5–10 mg/l had a peak concentration of 20–40 mg/l. Conclusions: The vancomycin dosage regimen used in this study produces acceptable therapeutic serum vancomycin concentrations. Peak serum vancomycin concentrations do not need to be measured in neonates using this dosage regimen. PMID:12390995

  9. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.

  10. Fludarabine and busulfan as a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    DAI, ZHIMING; LIU, JIE; ZHANG, WANG-GANG; CAO, XINGMEI; ZHANG, YANG; DAI, ZHIJUN

    2016-01-01

    The optimal conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in acute leukemia remains undefined. We evaluated the outcomes in 30 patients with acute leukemia who underwent allo-HSCT from human leukocyte antigen-matched donors after conditioning with busulfan and fludarabine (BuFlu). The regimen comprised injection of busulfan 3.2 mg/kg daily on 4 consecutive days and fludarabine 30 mg/m2 daily for 4 doses. All 30 patients achieved hematopoiesis reconstitution with full donor chimerism confirmed by short tandem repeat DNA analysis. The most common regimen-related toxicity was mucositis (86.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus infection (80%). Serious regimen-related toxicities were rare. Acute graft vs. host disease (aGVHD) was detected in 46.7% of the patients; 33.4% had grade I–II aGVHD and 13.3% had grade III–IV aGVHD. Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was noted in 20% of the patients. The overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 66.7 and 53%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 25 months for surviving patients. Therefore, BuFlu was an effective conditioning regimen with a low rate of transplant-related adverse effects and increased antileukemic effects in patients with acute leukemia undergoing allo-HSCT. PMID:27073687

  11. Observational study results in glaucoma patients undergoing a regimen replacement to fixed combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% in Germany.

    PubMed

    Arend, Kay-Oliver; Raber, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    With the launch of the fixed combination of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% (trav/tim) in Germany in May 2006, a noninterventional observational study designed as an open-label, multicenter, 6-week trial was initiated in order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of this new drug combination in glaucoma patients. Participants were grouped into categories according to previous drug regimens: those on timolol monotherapy; those on prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy; those on concomitant therapy with a PGA and timolol; and those on fixed combinations. Trav/tim was well accepted by the patients, with 87.9% judging the tolerability of the therapy as good, very good, or excellent. Analysis of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements showed statistically significant IOP decreases in all four categories examined in our study after regimen substitution with fixed-combination trav/tim. Fixed-combination prostaglandin analog/beta-blocker formulations are an attractive therapeutic option due to their strong IOP-lowering efficacy with once-daily dosing. In this study, glaucoma patients who underwent a regimen modification to fixed-combination trav/tim showed further reductions in IOP, irrespective of which selected monoor multiple therapies had been used previously.

  12. 47 CFR 36.122 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Central Office Equipment § 36.122 Categories and apportionment procedures. (a) The following categories of central office equipment and apportionment procedures therefore are set forth in §§ 36.123 through 36.126. Operator Systems Equipment Category 1. Tandem Switching Equipment Category 2. Local Switching Equipment...

  13. Statistical Inference in the Learning of Novel Phonetic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Learning a phonetic category (or any linguistic category) requires integrating different sources of information. A crucial unsolved problem for phonetic learning is how this integration occurs: how can we update our previous knowledge about a phonetic category as we hear new exemplars of the category? One model of learning is Bayesian Inference,…

  14. 78 FR 34867 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... designated product categories: countertops to the composite panels category; and wheel bearing and chassis... countertops subcategory to the existing composite panels product category. USDA has determined that each of... subcategory for countertops to the composite panels product category designated in Round 2 (73 FR 27954,...

  15. Drug regimens identified and optimized by output-driven platform markedly reduce tuberculosis treatment time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bai-Yu; Clemens, Daniel L; Silva, Aleidy; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Nava, Susana; Ding, Xianting; Ho, Chih-Ming; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2017-01-24

    The current drug regimens for treating tuberculosis are lengthy and onerous, and hence complicated by poor adherence leading to drug resistance and disease relapse. Previously, using an output-driven optimization platform and an in vitro macrophage model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we identified several experimental drug regimens among billions of possible drug-dose combinations that outperform the current standard regimen. Here we use this platform to optimize the in vivo drug doses of two of these regimens in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The experimental regimens kill M. tuberculosis much more rapidly than the standard regimen and reduce treatment time to relapse-free cure by 75%. Thus, these regimens have the potential to provide a markedly shorter course of treatment for tuberculosis in humans. As these regimens omit isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones and injectable aminoglycosides, they would be suitable for treating many cases of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  16. Drug regimens identified and optimized by output-driven platform markedly reduce tuberculosis treatment time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bai-Yu; Clemens, Daniel L.; Silva, Aleidy; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Nava, Susana; Ding, Xianting; Ho, Chih-Ming; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    The current drug regimens for treating tuberculosis are lengthy and onerous, and hence complicated by poor adherence leading to drug resistance and disease relapse. Previously, using an output-driven optimization platform and an in vitro macrophage model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we identified several experimental drug regimens among billions of possible drug-dose combinations that outperform the current standard regimen. Here we use this platform to optimize the in vivo drug doses of two of these regimens in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The experimental regimens kill M. tuberculosis much more rapidly than the standard regimen and reduce treatment time to relapse-free cure by 75%. Thus, these regimens have the potential to provide a markedly shorter course of treatment for tuberculosis in humans. As these regimens omit isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones and injectable aminoglycosides, they would be suitable for treating many cases of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:28117835

  17. Three Postpartum Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Intrapartum HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Watts, D. Heather; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Joao, Esau C.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy; Bethel, James; Morgado, Marisa G.; Dickover, Ruth; Camarca, Margaret; Mirochnick, Mark; Siberry, George; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Bastos, Francisco I.; Xu, Jiahong; Moye, Jack; Mofenson, Lynne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The safety and efficacy of adding antiretroviral drugs to standard zidovudine prophylaxis in infants of mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who did not receive antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of late identification are unclear. We evaluated three ART regimens in such infants. Methods Within 48 hours after their birth, we randomly assigned formula-fed infants born to women with a peripartum diagnosis of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection to one of three regimens: zidovudine for 6 weeks (zidovudine-alone group), zidovudine for 6 weeks plus three doses of nevirapine during the first 8 days of life (two-drug group), or zidovudine for 6 weeks plus nelfinavir and lamivudine for 2 weeks (three-drug group). The primary outcome was HIV-1 infection at 3 months in infants uninfected at birth. Results A total of 1684 infants were enrolled in the Americas and South Africa (566 in the zidovudine-alone group, 562 in the two-drug group, and 556 in the three-drug group). The overall rate of in utero transmission of HIV-1 on the basis of Kaplan–Meier estimates was 5.7% (93 infants), with no significant differences among the groups. Intra-partum transmission occurred in 24 infants in the zidovudine-alone group (4.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2 to 7.1), as compared with 11 infants in the two-drug group (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.9; P = 0.046) and 12 in the three-drug group (2.4%; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.3; P = 0.046). The overall transmission rate was 8.5% (140 infants), with an increased rate in the zidovudine-alone group (P = 0.03 for the comparisons with the two- and three-drug groups). On multivariate analysis, zidovudine monotherapy, a higher maternal viral load, and maternal use of illegal substances were significantly associated with transmission. The rate of neutropenia was significantly increased in the three-drug group (P<0.001 for both comparisons with the other groups). Conclusions In neonates whose mothers did not receive ART

  18. Rationale for optimal obinutuzumab/GA101 dosing regimen in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, Guillaume; Hourcade-Potelleret, Florence; Morschhauser, Franck; Salles, Gilles; Wenger, Michael; Truppel-Hartmann, Anna; Carlile, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a type II, glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Obinutuzumab has mechanisms of action that are distinct from those of rituximab, potentially translating into improved clinical efficacy. We present the pharmacokinetic and clinical data from the phase I/II GAUGUIN and phase I GAUDI studies that were used to identify the obinutuzumab dose and regimen undergoing phase III assessment. In phase I (GAUGUIN and GAUDI), non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients received up to a maximum 9 fixed doses (obinutuzumab 50–2000 mg). In GAUGUIN phase II, patients received obinutuzumab 400/400 mg or 1600/800 mg [first dose day (D)1, D8, cycle (C) 1; second dose D1, C2–C8]. The influence of demographic factors on pharmacokinetics and drug exposure on tumor response and toxicity were analyzed using exploratory graphical analyses. Obinutuzumab serum concentrations with 1600/800 mg were compared with a 1000 mg fixed-dose regimen (D1, D8 and D15, C1; D1, C2–C8) using pharmacokinetic modeling simulations. Factors related to CD20-antigenic mass were more influential on obinutuzumab pharmacokinetics with 400/400 versus 1600/800 mg. Higher serum concentrations were observed with 1600/800 versus 400/400 mg, irrespective of CD20-antigenic mass. Tumor shrinkage was greater with 1600/800 versus 400/400 mg; there was no significant increase in adverse events. Fixed dose 1000 mg with an additional C1 infusion resulted in similar serum concentrations to 1600/800 mg in model-based analyses. The obinutuzumab 1000 mg fixed-dose regimen identified in this exploratory analysis was confirmed in a full covariate analysis of a larger dataset, and is undergoing phase III evaluation. GAUGUIN and GAUDI are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:00517530 and 00825149, respectively). PMID:26659915

  19. Rationale for optimal obinutuzumab/GA101 dosing regimen in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cartron, Guillaume; Hourcade-Potelleret, Florence; Morschhauser, Franck; Salles, Gilles; Wenger, Michael; Truppel-Hartmann, Anna; Carlile, David J

    2016-02-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a type II, glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Obinutuzumab has mechanisms of action that are distinct from those of rituximab, potentially translating into improved clinical efficacy. We present the pharmacokinetic and clinical data from the phase I/II GAUGUIN and phase I GAUDI studies that were used to identify the obinutuzumab dose and regimen undergoing phase III assessment. In phase I (GAUGUIN and GAUDI), non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients received up to a maximum 9 fixed doses (obinutuzumab 50-2000 mg). In GAUGUIN phase II, patients received obinutuzumab 400/400 mg or 1600/800 mg [first dose day (D)1, D8, cycle (C) 1; second dose D1, C2-C8]. The influence of demographic factors on pharmacokinetics and drug exposure on tumor response and toxicity were analyzed using exploratory graphical analyses. Obinutuzumab serum concentrations with 1600/800 mg were compared with a 1000 mg fixed-dose regimen (D1, D8 and D15, C1; D1, C2-C8) using pharmacokinetic modeling simulations. Factors related to CD20-antigenic mass were more influential on obinutuzumab pharmacokinetics with 400/400 versus 1600/800 mg. Higher serum concentrations were observed with 1600/800 versus 400/400 mg, irrespective of CD20-antigenic mass. Tumor shrinkage was greater with 1600/800 versus 400/400 mg; there was no significant increase in adverse events. Fixed dose 1000 mg with an additional C1 infusion resulted in similar serum concentrations to 1600/800 mg in model-based analyses. The obinutuzumab 1000 mg fixed-dose regimen identified in this exploratory analysis was confirmed in a full covariate analysis of a larger dataset, and is undergoing phase III evaluation. GAUGUIN and GAUDI are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:00517530 and 00825149, respectively).

  20. Toxicities of different first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Ping; Sun, Gui-Xia; Yang, Shao-Qin; Tian, Jun; Si, Jin-Ge; Wang, Yi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis. Methods: Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemotherapy regimens were included. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence to assess pooled odds ratios (ORs) and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves. Results: Thirteen eligible RCTs were included in this network meta-analysis, including 8 chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel + carboplatin [PC], pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] + carboplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine + carboplatin, paclitaxel, PC + epirubicin, PC + topotecan, docetaxel + carboplatin). Gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen exerted higher incidence of anemia when compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel regimens. The incidence of febrile neutropenia of gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen was higher than that of PC, PLD + carboplatin, carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. Topotecan PC + epirubicin regimen had a higher toxicity, comparing with PC, PLD + carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. As for thrombocytopenia, gemcitabine + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen produced an obviously higher toxicity than PC and carboplatin. As for nausea, PLD + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen had a significantly higher toxicity than that of carboplatin chemotherapy regimen. Moreover, when compared with PC and carboplatin chemotherapy regimens, the toxicity of PC + epirubicin was greatly higher to patients with AOC. Conclusion: The nonhematologic toxicity of PLD + carboplatin regimen was higher than other regimens, which

  1. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based but Not Information-Integration Category Learning: Further Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hejl, Kelli D.; Ing, A. David

    2004-01-01

    Category number effects on rule-based and information-integration category learning were investigated. Category number affected accuracy and the distribution of best-fitting models in the rule-based task but had no effect on accuracy and little effect on the distribution of best-fining models in the information-integration task. In the 2 category…

  2. When is category specific in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M; Leeson, Verity C; Crawford, John R

    2005-08-01

    Mixed findings have emerged concerning whether category-specific disorders occur in Alzheimer's disease. Factors that may contribute to these inconsistencies include: ceiling effects/skewed distributions for control data in some studies; differences in the severity of cognitive deficit in patients; and differences in the type of analysis (in particular, if and how controls are used to analyse single case data). We examined picture naming in Alzheimer's patients and matched elderly healthy normal controls in three experiments. These experiments used stimuli that did and did not produce ceiling effects/skewed data in controls. In Experiment 1, we examined for category effects in individual DAT patients using commonly used analyses for single cases (chi2 and z-scores). The different techniques produced quite different outcomes. In Experiment 2a, we used the same techniques on a different group of patients with similar outcomes. Finally, in Experiment 2b, we examined the same patients but (a) used stimuli that did not produce ceiling effects/skewed distributions in healthy controls, and (b) used statistical methods that did not treat the control sample as a population. We found that ceiling effects in controls may markedly inflate the incidence of dissociations in which living things are differentially impaired and seriously underestimate dissociations in the opposite direction. In addition, methods that treat the control sample as a population led to inflation in the overall number of dissociations detected. These findings have implications for the reliability of category effects previously reported both in Alzheimer patients and in other pathologies. In particular, they suggest that the greater proportion of living than nonliving deficits reported in the literature may be an artifact of the methods used.

  3. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. © 2016 Vadillo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants’ attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  5. On a categorial aspect of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan; Nieznański, Edward

    Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation. Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.

  6. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Protection in Transit § 37.73 Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  7. 10 CFR 37.21 - Personnel access authorization requirements for category 1 or category 2 quantities of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.21 Section 37.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background... 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General. (1) Each licensee that possesses...

  8. A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Price, C J

    1999-05-01

    Brain damage can cause remarkably selective deficits in processing specific categories of objects, indicating the high degree of functional segregation within the brain. The neuroimaging study presented here investigates differences in the neural activity associated with two categories of natural objects (animals and fruit) and two categories of man-made objects (vehicles and tools). Stimuli were outline drawings and the tasks were naming and word-picture matching. For man-made objects, the only category-specific effect was in the left posterior middle temporal cortex, which was most active for drawings of tools, as previously reported. For natural objects, drawings of animals and fruit (relative to drawings of man-made objects) enhanced activity in bilateral anterior temporal and right posterior middle temporal cortices. Critically, these effects with natural objects were not observed when the stimuli were coloured appropriately to facilitate identification. Furthermore, activation in the same right hemisphere areas was also observed for viewing and matching unfamiliar non-objects relative to naming and matching man-made objects. These results indicate that, in the right hemisphere, differences between processing natural relative to man-made objects overlap with the effects of increasing demands on object identification. In the left hemisphere, the effects are more consistent with functional specialization within the semantic system. We discuss (i) how category-specific differences can emerge for multiple reasons and (ii) the implications of these effects on the interpretation of functional imaging data and patients with category-specific deficits.

  9. Labour induction with an intermediate-dose oxytocin regimen has advantages over a high-dose regimen.

    PubMed

    Manjula, B G; Bagga, R; Kalra, J; Dutta, S

    2015-05-01

    A total of 200 women planned for labour induction were randomised to receive high-dose oxytocin (6 mU/min with similar increments every 45 min) or intermediate-dose oxytocin (3 mU/min with similar increments every 45 min). Oxytocin solution was prepared with 30 units in 500 ml saline with which the infusion rate in ml/h is numerically equal to oxytocin in mU/min. We observed that the caesarean rate (18% vs 6%, p = 0.009), contraction abnormalities (35% vs 14%, p = 0.0005) and neonatal bilirubin levels (7.99 ± 2.70 vs 6.80 ± 2.65, p = 0.002) were higher with high-dose than with intermediate-dose. The induction-delivery interval (IDI) was similar (10 h 13 min with high-dose and 11 h 5 min with intermediate-dose; p = 0.237, NS). Nulliparous women benefited more with intermediate-dose as the caesarean rate was higher with high-dose (24.6% vs 7.9%, p = 0.011). Although the caesarean rate was higher in multiparous women with high-dose oxytocin, it was statistically not significant (5.7% vs 2.7%; p = 0.609). Oxytocin regimens for labour induction are usually high-dose (4-6 mU/min) or low-dose (1-1.5 mU/min). The former is associated with more contraction abnormalities and the latter with prolonged IDI; both result in an increased caesarean rate. In order to offset these disadvantages, an intermediate- dose regimen was selected. The increment interval of 45 min was selected in accordance with the pharmacokinetics of oxytocin. We observed a lower caesarean rate when compared with the high-dose regimen, without any increase in the IDI. Hence, we propose that the intermediate-dose oxytocin regimen should be preferred to the high-dose regimen for labour induction.

  10. Abstraction and model evaluation in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Thirty previously published data sets, from seminal category learning tasks, are reanalyzed using the varying abstraction model (VAM). Unlike a prototype-versus-exemplar analysis, which focuses on extreme levels of abstraction only, a VAM analysis also considers the possibility of partial abstraction. Whereas most data sets support no abstraction when only the extreme possibilities are considered, we show that evidence for abstraction can be provided using the broader view on abstraction provided by the VAM. The present results generalize earlier demonstrations of partial abstraction (Vanpaemel & Storms, 2008), in which only a small number of data sets was analyzed. Following the dominant modus operandi in category learning research, Vanpaemel and Storms evaluated the models on their best fit, a practice known to ignore the complexity of the models under consideration. In the present study, in contrast, model evaluation not only relies on the maximal likelihood, but also on the marginal likelihood, which is sensitive to model complexity. Finally, using a large recovery study, it is demonstrated that, across the 30 data sets, complexity differences between the models in the VAM family are small. This indicates that a (computationally challenging) complexity-sensitive model evaluation method is uncalled for, and that the use of a (computationally straightforward) complexity-insensitive model evaluation method is justified.

  11. Grid multi-category response logistic models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Wenchao; Li, Pinghao; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-02-18

    Multi-category response models are very important complements to binary logistic models in medical decision-making. Decomposing model construction by aggregating computation developed at different sites is necessary when data cannot be moved outside institutions due to privacy or other concerns. Such decomposition makes it possible to conduct grid computing to protect the privacy of individual observations. This paper proposes two grid multi-category response models for ordinal and multinomial logistic regressions. Grid computation to test model assumptions is also developed for these two types of models. In addition, we present grid methods for goodness-of-fit assessment and for classification performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the grid models produce the same results as those obtained from corresponding centralized models, demonstrating that it is possible to build models using multi-center data without losing accuracy or transmitting observation-level data. Two real data sets are used to evaluate the performance of our proposed grid models. The grid fitting method offers a practical solution for resolving privacy and other issues caused by pooling all data in a central site. The proposed method is applicable for various likelihood estimation problems, including other generalized linear models.

  12. Duality as a category-theoretic concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, David

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.

  13. Interferon-free regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C virus in liver transplant candidates or recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cholongitas, Evangelos; Pipili, Chrysoula; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-01-01

    The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is sustained virological response (SVR) which reflects HCV eradication. Treatment against HCV has dramatically improved with the recent availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) including sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir. Carefully selected combinations of these DAAs offer the potential for highly effective all-oral safe regimens even for patients with decompensated cirrhosis or liver transplant (LT) recipients. Like all current protease inhibitors, simeprevir and paritaprevir should not be used in patients with Child C cirrhosis, while sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir should not be given in patients with severe renal impairment and glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min. Drug-drug interactions may still occur with the current DAAs particularly in post-LT patients, in whom simeprevir should not be co-administered with cyclosporine and dose adjustments of calcineurin inhibitors are required in case of regimens including the ritonavir boosted paritaprevir. Phase II clinical trials and real life cohort studies have shown that sofosbuvir based combinations are safe and can achieve improvements of clinical status, high SVR rates and even prevention of post-LT HCV recurrence in patients with decompensated cirrhosis or LT-candidates. In the post-LT setting, sofosbuvir based regimens and the combination of paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir have been reported to be safe and achieve high SVR rates, similar to those in non-transplant patients, being effective even in cases with cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis. Ongoing clinical trials and rapidly emerging real life data will further clarify the safety and efficacy of the new regimens in these settings. PMID:26327760

  14. Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Sandra A.; Friedland, Gerald H.; Doros, Gheorghe; Pesanti, Edward; Altice, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of HIV in correctional settings, the duration of therapy and response to various highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens in this setting is unknown. Method Using a retrospective cohort study (1997−2002) of HIV-infected prisoners in Connecticut that linked demographic, pharmacy, and laboratory data, we compared HIV-1 RNA (VL) and CD4 lymphocyte responses to four treatment strategies at baseline and at the end of incarceration. Results Using an analysis of 1,044 incarceration periods or 1,099 subjects for whom ≥6 months of continuous data were available, HAART regimens that included a triple NRTI, two NRTIs + either a PI or NNRTI, or a three-class (NRTI+NNRTI+PI) strategy demonstrated no difference in virological and immunological outcomes. The proportion of subjects who were initiated with NRTI, NNRTI, PI, or three-class regimens were 14%, 32%, 46%, and 8%, respectively. For all study groups, the mean change from baseline in CD4 and VL was +74 cells/μL and −0.93 log10 copies/mL (p < .0001), respectively. Overall, 59% of subjects had an HIV-1 RNA level below the level of detection (<400 copies/mL) by the end of their incarceration. Using Kaplan-Meier curves to examine the time to change in the initial HAART strategy over the incarceration period, the three-class strategy was significantly more likely to be changed earlier than all others (p < .05). Conclusion Although the three-class strategy was less durable, initiating HAART with any strategy resulted in similar and impressive virological and immunological outcomes by the end of incarceration, further supporting prison as an important site for the initiation and provision of effective antiretroviral therapy. PMID:17720660

  15. Cardiopulmonary toxicity of different chemoradiotherapy combined regimens for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Busia, Alessandra; Laffranchi, Alberto; Viviani, Simonetta; Bonfante, Valeria; Villani, Fabrizio

    2010-10-01

    The majority of patients with Hodgkin's disease can be cured by combination of polychemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) that can produce late toxic pulmonary and cardiac effects which often remain at a subclinical level. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the late pulmonary and cardiac toxicity of three chemotherapeutic regimens combined with RT and particularly doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD), vincristine, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and prednisone (VEBEP) and ABVD with mechloretamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone (MOPP). We investigated 147 patients suffering from Hodgkin's disease after a follow-up of at least 5 years from the completion of CT-RT. Seventy-eight patients were submitted to ABVD-RT, 36 to VEBEP-RT and 33 to MOPP-ABVD-RT. Patients underwent spirometry, 2D-doppler echocardiography at rest, cardiopulmonary exercise test on cycloergometer and determination of cardiac output by a non invasive method. Patients of the three different treatment groups showed tolerance to exercise, and oxygen consumption significantly lower than the predicted values but there were no statistically significant difference between the three groups. Nevertheless, patients treated with VEBEP and with MOPP-ABVD showed an ejection fraction at rest lower than those observed in the ABVD group and patients treated with VEBEP showed a cardiac output for oxygen uptake lower than those observed in the ABVD and MOPP-ABVD treatment groups. These data confirm that the combination of mediastinal RT with the more commonly used polychemotherapy regimens produce late toxic effects. The lower exercise capacity seems to be due to a combination of decreased cardiac performance and impairment of ventilation. The VEBEP regimens could be potentially more toxic for the heart, probably because of the higher cumulative dose of anthracyclines.

  16. On Monoids in the Category of Sets and Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenčová, Anna; Jenča, Gejza

    2017-02-01

    The category R e l is the category of sets (objects) and relations (morphisms). Equipped with the direct product of sets, R e l is a monoidal category. Moreover, R e l is a locally posetal 2-category, since every homset R e l(A,B) is a poset with respect to inclusion. We examine the 2-category of monoids R e l M o n in this category. The morphism we use are lax. This category includes, as subcategories, various interesting classes: hypergroups, partial monoids (which include various types of quantum logics, for example effect algebras) and small categories. We show how the 2-categorical structure gives rise to several previously defined notions in these categories, for example certain types of congruence relations on generalized effect algebras. This explains where these definitions come from.

  17. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    PubMed

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  18. Limits of Generalization between Categories and Implications for Theories of Category Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Phillips, W. Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of the studies. The current study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars, but not antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features. PMID:20952784

  19. Management of patients using unproven regimens for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wolman, P G

    1987-09-01

    Such treatments as vegetarian diets, fresh or raw diets, allergy diets, no-dairy-products diets, fasting, vitamin and mineral supplementation, apple cider vinegar, and honey drinks are touted in the popular press as effective for the treatment of arthritis. In contrast to conventional therapies, the unproven treatments promise not only relief from symptoms but freedom from the disease as long as the diet regimen is followed. Several of the remedies appear to be harmless, but others are dangerous, especially if followed for prolonged periods. Nutrition professionals should be aware of the nature of these treatments and be prepared to offer sound, scientifically based but nonjudgmental care and information.

  20. Which insulin, regimen and device in type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    Around 4% of the UK population have diabetes mellitus.1 Around 90% have type 2 disease and many of these people will need insulin therapy for effective control of their diabetes. The different types of insulin (animal, human or analogue), regimen (timing of doses and duration of action of insulin) and device (syringes, prefilled or disposable pens) present various advantages and disadvantages that can affect adherence, quality of life and glycaemic control.2 Here we provide an overview of the various treatment options available, and offer practical advice on how to choose the appropriate approach for adults with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor sparing regimens in kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, Frank; Diaz-Wong, Roque; Roth, David; Isakova, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that is associated with increased risks of kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease and death. Kidney transplantation remains the renal replacement therapy of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite impressive strides in short-term allograft survival, there has been little improvement in long-term kidney graft survival, and rates of death with a functioning allograft remain high. Long-term safety profiles of existing immunosuppressive regimens point to a need for continued search for alternative agents. This overview discusses emerging evidence on a few promising therapeutic approaches, juxtaposes conflicting findings and highlights remaining knowledge gaps. PMID:23825102

  2. Corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor sparing regimens in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, Frank; Diaz-Wong, Roque; Roth, David; Isakova, Tamara

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that is associated with increased risks of kidney disease progression, cardiovascular disease and death. Kidney transplantation remains the renal replacement therapy of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite impressive strides in short-term allograft survival, there has been little improvement in long-term kidney graft survival, and rates of death with a functioning allograft remain high. Long-term safety profiles of existing immunosuppressive regimens point to a need for continued search for alternative agents. This overview discusses emerging evidence on a few promising therapeutic approaches, juxtaposes conflicting findings and highlights remaining knowledge gaps.

  3. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumor surgery (PARITY) survey.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Khaled; Racano, Antonella; Deheshi, Benjamin; Farrokhyar, Forough; Wunder, Jay; Ferguson, Peter; Holt, Ginger; Schwartz, Herbert; Petrisor, Brad; Bhandari, Mohit; Ghert, Michelle

    2012-06-07

    Deep infection following endoprosthetic limb reconstruction for sarcoma of the long bones is a devastating complication occurring in 15% of sarcoma patients. Optimizing infection protocols and conducting definitive surgical trials are critical to improving outcomes. In this study, the PARITY (Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery) investigators aimed to examine surgeon preferences in antibiotic prophylaxis and perceptions about current evidence, as well as to ascertain interest in resolving uncertainty in the evidence with clinical trials. We used a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice in the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery. The survey was approved by our institution's Ethics Board and emailed to all Active Members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and Canadian Orthopaedic Oncology Society (CANOOS). Survey answers were collected using an anonymous online survey tool. Of the 96 surgeons who received the questionnaire, 72 responded (75% response rate (% CI: 65.5, 82.5%)). While almost all respondents agreed antibiotic regimens were important in reducing the risk of infection, respondents varied considerably in their choices of antibiotic regimens and dosages. Although 73% (95% CI: 61, 82%) of respondents prescribe a first generation cephalosporin, 25% favor additional coverage with an aminoglycoside and/or Vancomycin. Of those who prescribe a cephalosporin, 33% prescribe a dosage of one gram for all patients and the reminder prescribe up to 2 grams based on body weight. One in three surgeons (95% CI: 25, 48%) believes antibiotics could be discontinued after 24 hours but 40% (95% CI: 30, 53%) continue antibiotics until the suction drain is removed. Given the ongoing uncertainty in evidence to guide best practices, 90% (95% CI: 81, 95%) of respondents agreed that they would change their practice if a large randomized controlled trial showed clear benefit of an antibiotic drug regimen

  4. Galeazzi fractures: our modified classification and treatment regimen.

    PubMed

    Fayaz, H C; Jupiter, J B

    2014-02-01

    While diaphyseal fractures of the forearm are a common orthopedic injury, Galeazzi fractures are difficult to treat. The current knowledge on pathobiomechanics and modified therapeutic decisions implicate the need to devise an updated classification and treatment regimen of Galeazzi fractures. We challenge the concept that isolated fractures of the radius should be considered as a Galeazzi fractures as long as stability of the distal radioulnar joint is not proven. Contrary to others we demonstrate that the fracture location alone is not sufficient to determine the stability of the distal radioulnar joint. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The Washington Regimen: rehabilitation of the hand following flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Dovelle, S; Heeter, P K

    1989-12-01

    This article describes the use of the "Washington Regimen" of early controlled motion in the rehabilitation of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This regimen is derived from a combination of Kleinert's controlled active extension with rubber-hand passive flexion, Duran's controlled passive techniques, and the modification of the Kleinert orthosis that uses a palmar pulley system. Based on results of clinical investigations, this regimen of early controlled motion appears effective in inhibiting peritendinous scarring, joint contractures, and other complications that commonly occur secondary to flexor tendon repairs. A six-week staged regimen of postoperative rehabilitation is presented. Splint design, exercise regimen, and rationale for treatment are reviewed.

  6. [A new regimen for TS-1 therapy designed to minimize adverse reactions by introducing a one-week interval after each two-week dosing session].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yutaka; Kikkawa, Nobuteru; Iijima, Shohei; Kato, Takeshi; Naoi, Yasuto; Hayashi, Taro; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Kurokawa, Eiji

    2002-08-01

    group. These results suggest that the 2-week regimen may allow safer outpatient drug therapy using TS-1 and merits a trial when considering the QOL of patients. We propose conducting a phase-II multi-center clinical study of this regimen in the near future.

  7. Should we await IFN-free regimens to treat HCV genotype 1 treatment-naive patients? A cost-effectiveness analysis (ANRS 95141).

    PubMed

    Deuffic-Burban, Sylvie; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Obach, Dorothée; Mallet, Vincent; Pol, Stanislas; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Canva, Valérie; Deltenre, Pierre; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Larrey, Dominique; Dhumeaux, Daniel; Mathurin, Philippe; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan

    2014-07-01

    In treatment-naive patients mono-infected with genotype 1 chronic HCV, treatments with telaprevir/boceprevir (TVR/BOC)-based triple therapy are standard-of-care. However, more efficacious direct-acting antivirals (IFN-based new DAAs) are available and interferon-free (IFN-free) regimens are imminent (2015). A mathematical model estimated quality-adjusted life years, cost and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of (i) IFN-based new DAAs vs. TVR/BOC-based triple therapy; and (ii) IFN-based new DAAs initiation strategies, given that IFN-free regimens are imminent. The sustained virological response in F3-4/F0-2 was 71/89% with IFN-based new DAAs, 85/95% with IFN-free regimens, vs. 64/80% with TVR/BOC-based triple therapy. Serious adverse events leading to discontinuation were taken as: 0-0.6% with IFN-based new DAAs, 0% with IFN-free regimens, vs. 1-10% with TVR/BOC-based triple therapy. Costs were €60,000 for 12weeks of IFN-based new DAAs and two times higher for IFN-free regimens. Treatment with IFN-based new DAAs when fibrosis stage ⩾F2 is cost-effective compared to TVR/BOC-based triple therapy (€37,900/QALY gained), but not at F0-1 (€103,500/QALY gained). Awaiting the IFN-free regimens is more effective, except in F4 patients, but not cost-effective compared to IFN-based new DAAs. If we decrease the cost of IFN-free regimens close to that of IFN-based new DAAs, then awaiting the IFN-free regimen becomes cost-effective. Treatment with IFN-based new DAAs at stage ⩾F2 is both effective and cost-effective compared to TVR/BOC triple therapy. Awaiting IFN-free regimens and then treating regardless of fibrosis is more efficacious, except in F4 patients; however, the cost-effectiveness of this strategy is highly dependent on its cost. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  9. An antiretroviral regimen containing 6 months of stavudine followed by long-term zidovudine for first-line HIV therapy is optimal in resource-limited settings: a prospective, multicenter study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Taisheng; Guo, Fuping; Li, Yijia; Zhang, Chengda; Han, Yang; Lye, Wei; He, Yun; Lu, Hongzhou; Xie, Jing; Huang, Aiqiong; Li, Yanling; Tang, Xiaoping; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tong; Gao, Guiju; Lei, Junkang; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wu, Xinhua; Sun, Yongtao; Bai, Jinsong; Luo, Ling; Wang, Huanling

    2014-01-01

    An zidovudine (AZT)-substitution regimen containing 24-week stavudine (d4T) followed by long-term AZT for HIV therapy is potential to trade off short-term AZT-related anemia and long-term risks associated with d4T in resource-limited settings. However, evidence is scarce. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of AZT-substitution regimen, aiming to find a regimen with better efficacy, less adverse events, and more affordability in resource-limited settings. This prospective, multicenter study enrolled 499 (190 on d4T regimen, 172 on AZT regimen, and 137 on AZT-substitution regimen) HIV-1-infected subjects who initiated combined antiretroviral therapy and attended follow-up visits over 96 weeks from 2009 to 2011. Lamivudine (3TC) and either nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) were the other two drugs in the antiretroviral regimens. Virologic and immunologic responses and adverse events were monitored at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96. In terms of hematological adverse effects, AZT-substitution group had similar safety profiles to d4T group and was superior to AZT group. In comparison with AZT-substitution group, AZT group was associated with higher risk of developing anemia (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for anemia ≥ grade II, 8.44, 95% CI 1.81-39.46) and neutropenia (aHR for neutropenia ≥ grade II, 1.86, 95% CI 1.19-2.93). The prevalence of lipodystrophy in d4T group was 19.5%, while that in AZT-substitution group was zero. As to antiretroviral efficacy, these three groups showed no differences. AZT-substitution regimen provides a relatively safe and effective first-line antiretroviral strategy in resource-limited settings.

  10. The history of generalized anxiety disorder as a diagnostic category.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2017-06-01

    From the 19th century into the 20th century, the terms used to diagnose generalized anxiety included "pantophobia" and "anxiety neurosis." Such terms designated paroxysmal manifestations (panic attacks) as well as interparoxysmal phenomenology (the apprehensive mental state). Also, generalized anxiety was considered one of numerous symptoms of neurasthenia, a vaguely defined illness. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) appeared as a diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder. The distinct responses these two disorders had to imipramine therapy was one reason to distinguish between the two. Since the revised DSM-III (DSM-III-R), worry about a number of life circumstances has been gradually emphasized as the distinctive symptom of GAD. Thus, a cognitive aspect of anxiety has become the core criterion of GAD. The validity of GAD as an independent category has been questioned from DSM-III up to preparation of DSM-5. Areas of concern have included the difficulty to establish clear boundaries between GAD and (i) personality dimensions, (ii) other anxiety-spectrum disorders, and (iii) nonbipolar depression. The National Institute of Mental Health has recently proposed the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a framework destined to facilitate biological research into the etiology of mental symptoms. Within the RDoC framework, generalized anxiety might be studied as a dimension denominated "anxious apprehension" that would typically fit into the research domain called "negative valence systems" and the more specific construct termed "potential threat."

  11. The history of generalized anxiety disorder as a diagnostic category

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    From the 19th century into the 20th century, the terms used to diagnose generalized anxiety included “pantophobia” and “anxiety neurosis.” Such terms designated paroxysmal manifestations (panic attacks) as well as interparoxysmal phenomenology (the apprehensive mental state). Also, generalized anxiety was considered one of numerous symptoms of neurasthenia, a vaguely defined illness. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) appeared as a diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder. The distinct responses these two disorders had to imipramine therapy was one reason to distinguish between the two. Since the revised DSM-III (DSM-III-R), worry about a number of life circumstances has been gradually emphasized as the distinctive symptom of GAD. Thus, a cognitive aspect of anxiety has become the core criterion of GAD. The validity of GAD as an independent category has been questioned from DSM-III up to preparation of DSM-5. Areas of concern have included the difficulty to establish clear boundaries between GAD and (i) personality dimensions, (ii) other anxiety-spectrum disorders, and (iii) nonbipolar depression. The National Institute of Mental Health has recently proposed the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a framework destined to facilitate biological research into the etiology of mental symptoms. Within the RDoC framework, generalized anxiety might be studied as a dimension denominated “anxious apprehension” that would typically fit into the research domain called “negative valence systems” and the more specific construct termed “potential threat.” PMID:28867935

  12. Rifaximin Plus Levofloxacin-Based Rescue Regimen for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Pil; Seon, Han Gyung; Ok, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kang, Min Kyung; Kim, Won Hee; Kwon, Chang Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Park, Pil Won

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims This study assessed the efficacy of a rifaximin plus levofloxacin-based rescue regimen in patients that had failed both triple and quadruple standard regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Methods We treated patients for H. pylori between August 2009 and April 2011. The triple regimen consisted of combined treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 1 week. For failed cases, a quadruple regimen of tetracycline, metronidazole, bismuth dicitrate, and lansoprazole for 1 week was administered. The rescue regimen for persistently refractory cases was rifaximin 200 mg t.i.d., levofloxacin 500 mg q.d., and lansoprazole 15 mg b.i.d. for 1 week. Results In total, 482 patients were enrolled in this study. The eradication rates associated with the first and second regimens were 58% and 60%, respectively. Forty-seven out of 58 patients who failed with the second-line regimen received rifaximin plus levofloxacin-based third-line therapy. The eradication rate for the third regimen was 65%. The cumulative eradication rates were 58%, 85%, and 96% for each regimen, respectively. Conclusions A rifaximin plus levofloxacin-based regimen could be an alternative rescue therapy in patients with resistance to both triple and quadruple regimens for the eradication of H. pylori. PMID:23170149

  13. Accuracy of the mammographic report category according to BIRADS.

    PubMed

    Hirunpat, Siriporn; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Khojarern, Rungrat; Arpakupakul, Nualta

    2005-01-01

    To determine the accuracy and predictive value of the mammographic report according to the BIRADS categories in Songklanagarind University Hospital. Mammograms of 1000 women who came to Songklanagarind University Hospital from June 1998 to September 1999 were reported and placed in category 1 for negative results, category 2 for benign lesions, category 3 for probably benign lesions, category 4 for suspicious lesions and category 5 for highly suspicious lesions. Accuracy was determined by either histology or by unchanged follow-up mammography within 24 months. The total accuracy was 97.8%, sensitivity 62.5% and specificity 98.1%.

  14. The structure and formation of natural categories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  15. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  16. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process.

  17. Postmenopausal hormone use and incident ovarian cancer: Associations differ by regimen.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Gapstur, Susan M; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V

    2010-12-15

    Ovarian cancer has been associated in epidemiologic studies with postmenopausal hormone use. Whether associations differ by hormone regimen, current status or duration of use is unclear. We examined epithelial ovarian cancer incidence in relation to unopposed estrogen (E-only) and estrogen plus progestin (E + P) among 54,436 postmenopausal women of the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a US cohort prospectively followed for cancer incidence since 1992. Demographic, medical, reproductive and lifestyle information was collected at enrollment and updated throughout follow-up via self-administered questionnaire. Extended Cox models were used to estimate age- and multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) of ovarian cancer according to hormone regimen, current status and duration of use. During 15 years of follow-up, 297 incident cases were identified. Relative to "never" use of hormones, current E-only use was associated with a twofold higher risk [RR 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-2.85]; each 5-year increment of use was associated with a 25% higher risk (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36); ≥ 20 years of use was associated with a near threefold higher risk (RR 2.89; 95% CI 1.71-4.87; trend p = 0.01). Past E-only use was not significantly associated with ovarian cancer, although a modest increase in risk per each 5-year increment of use was suggested (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.92-1.41). Neither current nor former E + P use was associated with ovarian cancer risk (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.86-1.35; RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.68-1.71, respectively, per 5-year increment). These findings suggest that progestins may mitigate some of the detrimental effects of estrogen on the ovarian epithelium.

  18. Logistics of therapy with the ibritumomab tiuxetan regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, Ruby F. . E-mail: rmeredith@uabmc.edu

    2006-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an important new modality for treating patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Clinical trials have shown the safety and efficacy of agents that deliver radiation directly to malignant cells by attaching the {sup 131}I or {sup 9}Y radionuclide to monoclonal antibodies against CD20. In clinical trials, {sup 9}Y ibritumomab tiuxetan has produced rates of response as high as 83% in patients with relapsed or refractory CD20+ NHL. The ibritumomab tiuxetan regimen is conveniently given in an outpatient setting over the course of 7-9 days. This article describes the logistics for initiating treatment, coordinating a multidisciplinary team, identifying eligible patients, and delivering the imaging and therapeutic doses of ibritumomab tiuxetan. The standard radiation safety procedures to protect family members and healthcare professionals involved in the care of patients treated with {sup 9}Y ibritumomab tiuxetan are also reviewed. Treatment with the ibritumomab tiuxetan regimen involves only standard precautions needed to minimize radiation exposure to other persons.

  19. Candidates for inclusion in a universal antiretroviral regimen: dolutegravir.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    The review addresses the role of dolutegravir (DTG) in first-line therapy. In the era of test and treat, where United Nations AIDS Program and WHO have set the ambitious targets of 90/90/90, new efficacious, well tolerated, and simple therapeutic options are needed. DTG has been tested in large clinical trials in treatment-naïve patients, showing noninferiority to raltegravir and superiority compared with efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir, respectively. The main features of DTG are reviewed in this study, including efficacy, safety, high-resistance barrier, daily treatment schedule, and coformulation as single-tablet regimen. Use of DTG in special populations is also reviewed. Tolerability, with focus in neuropsychiatric disturbances is discussed in particular. DTG has shown high efficacy level, tested in males and females, has no limitations in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment and is available as single drug (to be combined with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in fixed combinations) or as a single-tablet regimen combined with abacavir and lamivudine. DTG is an excellent candidate for initial therapy in HIV-infected patients. If safety of DTG in pregnant women are confirmed by ongoing studies, DTG might become the first option in WHO antiretroviral guidelines.

  20. Remission-Induction Regimens in Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Donald C.; Lewis, Jerry P.

    1980-01-01

    A sequential study was carried out involving 40 adults with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). The first 20 patients were treated with cytarabine (Ara-C) and 6-thioguanine (6-TG), the second 20 with a regimen that added a three-day course of daunomycin (DNM) to the Ara-C and 6-TG therapy. With both groups well matched for age, patients in the DNM-treated group had a higher complete remission (CR) rate but failed to survive longer than those in the Ara-C and 6-TG treatment group. In a comprehensive literature review of various treatments for adult ANLL, a higher CR rate but not significantly better survival for patients initially treated with DNM-combined regimens was found. Our analysis of cases and literature review suggest that while DNM is a very active drug, its use in the initial treatment of adult ANLL has not produced a significant improvement in overall survival or in survival of those brought into complete remission. PMID:7347042

  1. The effect of methadone dose regimen on neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John J; Leamon, Martin H; Willits, Neil H; Salo, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a multiple daily dose methadone regimen in pregnancy on neonatal outcomes. Although methadone maintenance has been the standard for the treatment of opioid dependence in pregnancy, there is no consensus on proper dosing. Single daily dosing is the most common strategy. Because of accelerated metabolism of methadone in pregnancy, this regimen may expose mother and fetus to daily episodes of withdrawal and possibly contribute to more severe Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). This study reports on a protocol that increased both methadone dose and dose frequency in response to maternal reports of withdrawal. Treatment of NAS was needed in 29% of neonates, compared to a published rate of 60% to 80%. The mean methadone dose was 152 mg at delivery, divided into 2 to 6 doses per day. Ninety-two percent of mothers were free of illicit drug use at delivery. There was no relationship between methadone dose and treatment of NAS. Female babies had a treatment rate of 16% versus 38% for male babies. Beyond abstinence symptoms, cohort outcomes in terms of gestational age, birth weight, prematurity, Caesarian sections, and breastfeeding equaled or approximated US population norms. The protocol was associated with low rates of treatment of NAS and high rates of maternal recovery. High rates of treatment for NAS reported in methadone-exposed neonates might relate in part to iatrogenic factors and be reduced through the use of divided daily doses and protocols that minimize maternal withdrawal.

  2. New anti-tuberculosis drugs and regimens: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Pontali, Emanuele; Spanevello, Antonio; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    Over 480 000 cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) occur every year globally, 9% of them being affected by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The treatment of MDR/XDR-TB is unfortunately long, toxic and expensive, and the success rate largely unsatisfactory (<20% among cases with resistance patterns beyond XDR). The aim of this review is to summarise the available evidence-based updated international recommendations to manage MDR/XDR-TB, and to update the reader on the role of newly developed drugs (delamanid, bedaquiline and pretomanid) as well as repurposed drugs (linezolid and meropenem clavulanate, among others) used to treat these conditions within new regimens. A nonsystematic review based on historical trials results as well as on recent literature and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines has been performed, with special focus on the approach to managing MDR/XDR-TB. The new, innovative global public health interventions, recently approved by WHO and known as the “End TB Strategy”, support the vision of a TB-free world with zero death, disease and suffering due to TB. Adequate, universally accessed treatment is a pre-requisite to reach TB elimination. New shorter, cheap, safe and effective anti-TB regimens are necessary to boost TB elimination. PMID:27730131

  3. Development of a chemotherapy regimen interaction database for the mobile internet: detecting interactions with psychotropics through OncoRx-MI.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Chui, Wai Keung; Chan, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    Cancer patients are at high risks of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Clinicians need to know the magnitude of DDIs so as to better manage their patients' drug therapies. We have previously created a novel interaction database for oncology prescriptions (OncoRx). In this project, we leverage on 3G networks to further develop this database into an iPhone-specific application for the mobile internet (OncoRx-MI). Data on anticancer drugs (ACDs), chemotherapy regimens (CRegs) and DDIs with psychotropics were compiled from various hardcopy and online resources, and published articles from PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. The database and iPhone web documents were designed using Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 and associated with a combination of open-source programming scripts. OncoRx-MI currently detects over 5000 DDIs (69.3% pharmacokinetic, 30.7% pharmacodynamic) between 256 single-agent and combination CRegs with 51 psychotropic drugs. OncoRx-MI fits the iPhone screen configuration, and displays information regarding the regimen, pharmacokinetics of the drugs and detected DDIs in tabular format for improved usability. OncoRx-MI is the first mobile DDI application of its kind which detects interactions for combination CRegs. Future versions will include DDIs with other drug categories. Usability studies on its impact in clinical practice will also be carried out.

  4. Busulfan and melphalan as conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Nadjanara Dorna; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Saboya, Rosaura; Amigo Filho, José Ulysses; Coracin, Fabio Luiz; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HLA-identical donors has been established for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients for over 30 years with a cure rate of 50% to 60%. Objectives To analyze the overall survival of patients and identify factors that influence the outcomes of this type of transplant in patients in 1st complete remission who received a busulfan and melphalan combination as conditioning regimen. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia were enrolled between 2003 and 2008. The median age was 34 years old (Range: 16 - 57 years). All patients received cyclosporine and methotrexate for prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Median neutrophil engraftment time was 16 days (Range: 7 - 22 days) and 17 days (Range: 7 - 46 days) for platelets. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome was observed in three patients, seven had grade II acute graft-versus-host disease and one extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Results The overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method was 48% after 36 months with a plateau at 36 months after transplantation. Intensive consolidation with high-dose arabinoside resulted in an improved survival (p-value = 0.0001), as did grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (p-value = 0.0377) and mild chronic graft-versus-host disease (p-value < 0.0001). Thirteen patients died, five due to infection within 100 days of transplant, two due to hemorrhages, one to infection and graftversus-host disease and three relapses followed by renal failure (one) and infection (two). The cause of death could not be determined for two patients. Conclusion The busulfan and melphalan conditioning regimen is as good as other conditioning regimens providing an excellent survival rate. PMID:23049292

  5. Discontinuous Categories Affect Information-Integration but not Rule-Based Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott; Connally, Emily; Hejl, Kelli D.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted that provide a direct examination of within-category discontinuity manipulations on the implicit, procedural-based learning and the explicit, hypothesis-testing systems proposed in F. G. Ashby, L. A. Alfonso-Reese, A. U. Turken, and E. M. Waldron's (1998) competition between verbal and implicit systems model.…

  6. Category Labels Induce Boundary-Dependent Perceptual Warping in Learned Speech Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native…

  7. Case-like Categories in Children: The Actor and Some Related Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, Martin D. S.; Wells, Robin S.

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in which nursery school children were taught to identify persons, animals, or objects in pictures that took the nominative, objective, or locative case in sentences about the pictures. Inferences are made about categories in children's thinking including animate, and actor and agent. (CTM)

  8. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  9. Neural Changes Associated with Nonspeech Auditory Category Learning Parallel Those of Speech Category Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ran; Holt, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Native language experience plays a critical role in shaping speech categorization, but the exact mechanisms by which it does so are not well understood. Investigating category learning of nonspeech sounds with which listeners have no prior experience allows their experience to be systematically controlled in a way that is impossible to achieve by…

  10. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-the-Spot.

    PubMed

    Soro, Jerônimo C; Ferreira, Mário B; Semin, Gün R; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-04-06

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment 1 revealed considerable levels of false recognitions of critical words from ad hoc categories. False recognitions occurred even when the lists were presented without an organizing theme (i.e., the category's label). Experiments 1 and 2 tested whether (a) the ease of identifying the categories' themes, and (b) the lists' backward associative strength could be driving the effect. List identifiability did not correlate with false recognition, and the effect remained even when backward associative strength was controlled for. Experiment 3 manipulated the distractor items in the recognition task to address the hypothesis that the salience of unrelated items could be facilitating the occurrence of the phenomenon. The effect remained when controlling for this source of facilitation. These results have implications for assumptions made by theories of false memories, namely the preexistence of associations in the activation-monitoring framework and the central role of gist extraction in fuzzy-trace theory, while providing evidence of the occurrence of false memories for more dynamic and context-dependent knowledge structures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  12. Category label effects on Chinese children's inductive inferences: modulation by perceptual detail and category specificity.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deák, Gedeon O

    2012-02-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs (Experiment 1), realistic line drawings (Experiment 2), and cartoon-like line drawings (Experiment 3). No significant labeling effects were found for photos and realistic drawings, but there were significant effects for cartoon-like drawings. Children made mostly (>70%) category-based inferences about photographs whether or not labels were provided (Experiment 1). Children showed a bias toward category-based inferences about realistic drawings (Experiment 2) but did so only when labels were provided. Finally, children made mostly appearance-based generalizations for cartoon-like drawings (Experiment 3). However, labels (basic or superordinate level) reduced appearance-based responses. Labeling effects did not depend on having identical labels; however, identical superordinate labels were more effective than different basic-level labels for the least informative stimuli (i.e., cartoons). Thus, labels sometimes confirm the identity of ambiguous items. This evidence of labeling effects in Mandarin-speaking Chinese children extends previous findings beyond English-speaking children and shows that the effects are not narrowly culture and language specific. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  14. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  15. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  16. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  17. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  1. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  2. Use of weight-for-age-data to optimize tablet strength and dosing regimens for a new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine combination for treating falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Walter R. J.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; White, Nicholas J.; Brasseur, Philippe; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a novel methodology to define age-based dosing regimens for the treatment of malaria with a new, user-friendly, blister-packaged fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. METHODS: A weight-for-age reference database of 88 054 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa was compiled using data from Demographic Health Surveys, observational and intervention studies, and standardized for sex, age and malaria risk. We then determined the optimal tablet strength (milligram (mg) per tablet) and age-dose categories for the combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. The proportions of patients predicted to receive doses within newly defined therapeutic ranges for amodiaquine (7-15 mg/kg/day) and artesunate (2-10 mg/kg/day), were estimated for different age categories and mg tablet strengths using models based on the weight-for-age reference database. FINDINGS: The optimal paediatric (p) and adult (a) strength tablets contained 25/67.5 and 100/270 mg artesunate/amodiaquine, respectively. A regimen with five age categories: 0-1 months (1/2 p), 2-11 months (1 p), 1-5 years (2 p), 6-13 years (1 a), and > 14 years (2 a) had an overall dosing accuracy of 83.4% and 99.9% for amodiaquine and artesunate, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed method to use weight-for-age reference data from countries where malaria is endemic is a useful tool for designing age-based dosing regimens for antimalarial drugs for drug registration and field use. PMID:17242831

  3. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities. ...

  4. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities. ...

  5. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities. ...

  6. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities. ...

  7. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities. ...

  8. Inferior frontal regions underlie the perception of phonetic category invariance.

    PubMed

    Myers, Emily B; Blumstein, Sheila E; Walsh, Edward; Eliassen, James

    2009-07-01

    The problem of mapping differing sensory stimuli onto a common category is fundamental to human cognition. Listeners perceive stable phonetic categories despite many sources of acoustic variability. What are the neural mechanisms that underlie this perceptual stability? In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, a short-interval habituation paradigm was used to investigate neural sensitivity to acoustic changes within and between phonetic categories. A region in the left inferior frontal sulcus showed a pattern of activation consistent with phonetic invariance: insensitivity to acoustic changes within a phonetic category and sensitivity to changes between phonetic categories. Left superior temporal regions, in contrast, showed graded sensitivity to both within- and between-category changes. These results suggest that perceptual insensitivity to changes within a phonetic category may arise from decision-related mechanisms in the left prefrontal cortex and add to a growing body of literature suggesting that the inferior prefrontal cortex plays a domain-general role in computing category representations.

  9. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  10. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  11. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  12. Language, Perceptual Categories and their Interaction: Insights from Computational Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belpaeme, Tony; Bleys, Joris

    How do humans acquire perceptual categories? This question is far from being resolved. Specifically the balance between the influence of nature and nurture on perceptual categories remains the topic of heated debate. We present a computational model and take as case study colour categories to study two issues in perceptual category acquisition. The first issue is the effect of linguistic communication on categories during their acquisition: we demonstrate how categories can become coordinated under the influence of language. The second issue concerns the amount of coordination needed between the categories of individuals in order to achieve unambiguous communication. We show that, depending on how strictly linguistic utterances are interpreted, coordination of the individuals' categories is not always a prerequisite for successful communication.

  13. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  14. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  15. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  16. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  17. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  18. 15 CFR 2004.9 - Fees for categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Educational institutions. USTR shall provide records to requesters in this category for the cost of duplication alone, excluding charges for the first 100 pages. To qualify for inclusion in this fee category, a...

  19. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics ...

  20. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics ...