Sample records for catheter cvc insertion

  1. Complications Related to Insertion and Use of Central Venous Catheters (CVC).

    PubMed

    Hodzic, Samir; Golic, Darko; Smajic, Jasmina; Sijercic, Selma; Umihanic, Sekib; Umihanic, Sefika

    2014-10-01

    Central Venous Catheters (CVC) are essential in everyday medical practice, especially in treating patients in intensive care units (ICU). The application of these catheters is accompanied with the risk of complications, such as the complications caused during the CVC insertion, infections at the location of the insertion, and complications during the use of the catheter, sepsis and other metastatic infections. This study is a retrospective-prospective and it was implemented in the period 1(st) January 2011- 31(st) December 2012. It included 108 examinees with CVC placed for more than 7 days. The most common complications occurring in more than 2 attempts of CVC applications are: hearth arrhythmias in both groups in 12 cases, 7 in multi-lumen (12.72%) and 5 in mono-lumen ones (9.43%). Artery puncture occurs in both groups in 7 cases, 5 in multi-lumen (9.09%) and 2 in mono-lumen ones (3.77%). Hematoma occurred in both groups in 4 cases, 3 in multi-lumen CVCs (5.45%) and 1 in mono-lumen ones (1.88%). The most common complication in multi-lumen catheters was heart arrhythmia, in 20 cases (36.37%). The most common complications in mono-lumen CVCs was hearth arrhythmias, in 20 cases as extrasystoles and they were registered in 16 catheter insertions (30.18%). Out of total number of catheters of both groups, out of 108 catheters the complications during insertion occurred in 49 catheters (45.40%). The most common complications in both groups were heart arrhythmias, artery punctures and hematomas at the place of catheter insertion.

  2. Octenidine hydrochloride for the care of central venous catheter insertion sites in severely immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Andreas; Frei, Reno; Dangel, Marc; Bolliger, Dora; Passweg, Jakob R; Gratwohl, Alois; Widmer, Andreas E

    2005-08-01

    To determine the efficacy and tolerability of octenidine hydrochloride, a non-alcoholic skin antiseptic, for the care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites. Prospective, observational study. Bone marrow transplantation unit of a university hospital. All consecutive patients with a nontunneled CVC were enrolled prospectively after informed consent. Octenidine hydrochloride (0.1%) was applied for disinfection at the CVC insertion site during dressing changes. The following cultures were performed weekly as well as at the occurrence of any systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria: cultures of the skin surrounding the CVC entry site, cultures of the three-way hub connected to the CVC, blood cultures, and cultures of the CVC tip on removal. Enhanced microbiological methods (skin swabs of a 24-cm2 standardized area, roll plate, and sonication of catheter tips) were applied. One hundred thirty-five CVCs were inserted in 62 patients during the study period and remained for a mean period of 19.1 days, corresponding to 2,462 catheter-days. Bacterial density at the insertion site declined substantially over time, and most cultures became negative 2 weeks after insertion. Only 6 patients had a documented catheter-related bloodstream infection. The incidence density was 2.39 catheter infections per 1,000 catheter-days. No side effects were noted with application of the antiseptic. Disinfection with a skin antiseptic that contains octenidine hydrochloride is highly active and well tolerated. It leads to a decrease in skin colonization over time and may be a new option for CVC care.

  3. Effect of skin disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride on insertion site colonization of intravascular catheters.

    PubMed

    Dettenkofer, M; Jonas, D; Wiechmann, C; Rossner, R; Frank, U; Zentner, J; Daschner, F D

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the efficacy of two commercially available, alcohol-based antiseptic solutions in decontaminating the insertion site of central lines. One solution contained the bispyridine octenidine dihydrochloride. Inpatients receiving either a central venous catheter (CVC) or a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) were alternately assigned to different skin disinfection regimens at the insertion site: (A) 0.1% octendine dihydrochloride with 30% 1-propanol and 45% 2-propanol, (B) 74% ethanol with 10% 2-propanol. Quantitative skin cultures were obtained from the insertion site at predetermined intervals. A total of 60 patients received 12 CVCs and 47 PICCs (no significant difference with respect to gender, age and catheter type). In total, 90 cultures were assessed in each group. The median colony-forming unit (cfu) counts per 24 cm(2) (group A vs B) were 2,270 vs 2,950 before, 20 vs 40 following and 860 vs 1,210 24 h after catheter insertion, respectively. A statistically significant difference in the efficacy of skin decontamination was seen between groups in culture set (3) and in the difference between culture sets (2) and (3) (Wilcoxon rank sum test). Octenidine/propanol appears to be more effective than alcohol (ethanol/propanol) alone in reducing microflora of the skin at the PICC/CVC insertion site over a 24-h period.

  4. Risk factors for central venous catheter thrombotic complications in children and adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Revel-Vilk, S; Yacobovich, J; Tamary, H; Goldstein, G; Nemet, S; Weintraub, M; Paltiel, O; Kenet, G

    2010-09-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) has greatly improved the quality of care in children with cancer, yet these catheters may cause serious infectious and thrombotic complications. The aim of this prospective registry study was to assess the host and CVC-related risk factors for CVC-created thrombotic complications. Patients undergoing CVC insertion for chemotherapy were followed prospectively for CVC complications. At the time of enrollment, demographic, clinical, and CVC-related data, and family history of thrombosis were collected. Survival and Cox regression analyses were performed. A total of 423 CVCs were inserted into 262 patients for a total of 76,540 catheter days. The incidence of CVC-related deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was 0.13 per 1000 catheter-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.24). Insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and insertion in an angiography suite significantly increased the risk of symptomatic CVC-related DVT. The incidence of CVC occlusion was 1.35 per 1000 catheter-days (95% CI, 1.1-1.63). Positive family history of thrombosis significantly increased the risk of CVC occlusion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.16; 95% CI, 1.2-3.8). The CVC-related risk factors were insertion of Hickman catheters, insertion in angiography suite, and proximal-tip location. Patients developing at least 1 episode of both CVC occlusion and infection had an increased risk for developing symptomatic CVC-related DVT (HR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.2-14.4). Both patient-related and CVC-related factors are associated with higher risk of symptomatic thrombotic complications. These risk factors could be used in the clinical setting and in developing future studies for CVC thromboprophylaxis.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kenzie A; Cohen, Elaine R; Hertz, Joelle R; Wayne, Diane B; Mitra, Debi; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2018-03-14

    The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas. We conducted semistructured interviews to assess perceptions of barriers and facilitators to CVC insertion. Deidentified transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative method. We subsequently mapped identified barriers and facilitators to our SBML curriculum to determine whether or not the curriculum addresses these factors. We interviewed 28 providers at six Veterans Administration Medical Centers, identifying the following five overarching factors of perceived barriers to CVC insertion: (1) equipment, (2) personnel/staff, (3) setting or organizational context, (4) patient or provider, and (5) time-related barriers. Three overarching factors of facilitators emerged: (1) equipment, (2) personnel, and (3) setting or organizational context facilitators. The SBML curriculum seems to address most identified barriers, while leveraging many facilitators; building on the commonly identified facilitator of nursing staff contribution by expanding the curriculum to explicitly include nurse involvement could improve team efficiency and organizational culture of safety. Many identified facilitators (e.g., ability to use ultrasound, personnel confidence/competence) were also identified as barriers. Evidence-based SBML programs have the potential to amplify these facilitators while addressing the barriers by providing an opportunity to practice and master CVC insertion skills.

  6. Medical-grade honey does not reduce skin colonization at central venous catheter-insertion sites of critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) associated with short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are a major clinical problem. Bacterial colonization of the skin at the CVC insertion site is an important etiologic factor for CRBSI. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey in reducing bacterial skin colonization at insertion sites. Methods A prospective, single-center, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed at the ICU of a university hospital in The Netherlands to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey to reduce skin colonization of insertion sites. Medical-grade honey was applied in addition to standard CVC-site dressing and disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Skin colonization was assessed on a daily basis before CVC-site disinfection. The primary end point was colonization of insertion sites with >100 colony-forming units at the last sampling before removal of the CVC or transfer of the patient from the ICU. Secondary end points were quantitative levels of colonization of the insertion sites and colonization of insertion sites stratified for CVC location. Results Colonization of insertion sites was not affected by the use of medical-grade honey, as 44 (34%) of 129 and 36 (34%) of 106 patients in the honey and standard care groups, respectively, had a positive skin culture (P = 0.98). Median levels of skin colonization at the last sampling were 1 (0 to 2.84) and 1 (0 to 2.70) log colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for the honey and control groups, respectively (P = 0.94). Gender, days of CVC placement, CVC location, and CVC type were predictive for a positive skin culture. Correction for these variables did not change the effect of honey on skin-culture positivity. Conclusions Medical-grade honey does not affect colonization of the skin at CVC insertion sites in ICU patients when applied in addition to standard disinfection with 0

  7. Medical-grade honey does not reduce skin colonization at central venous catheter-insertion sites of critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kwakman, Paulus H; Müller, Marcella C; Binnekade, Jan M; van den Akker, Johannes P; de Borgie, Corianne A; Schultz, Marcus J; Zaat, Sebastian A

    2012-10-30

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) associated with short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are a major clinical problem. Bacterial colonization of the skin at the CVC insertion site is an important etiologic factor for CRBSI. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey in reducing bacterial skin colonization at insertion sites. A prospective, single-center, open-label randomized controlled trial was performed at the ICU of a university hospital in The Netherlands to assess the efficacy of medical-grade honey to reduce skin colonization of insertion sites. Medical-grade honey was applied in addition to standard CVC-site dressing and disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Skin colonization was assessed on a daily basis before CVC-site disinfection. The primary end point was colonization of insertion sites with >100 colony-forming units at the last sampling before removal of the CVC or transfer of the patient from the ICU. Secondary end points were quantitative levels of colonization of the insertion sites and colonization of insertion sites stratified for CVC location. Colonization of insertion sites was not affected by the use of medical-grade honey, as 44 (34%) of 129 and 36 (34%) of 106 patients in the honey and standard care groups, respectively, had a positive skin culture (P = 0.98). Median levels of skin colonization at the last sampling were 1 (0 to 2.84) and 1 (0 to 2.70) log colony-forming units (CFUs)/swab for the honey and control groups, respectively (P = 0.94). Gender, days of CVC placement, CVC location, and CVC type were predictive for a positive skin culture. Correction for these variables did not change the effect of honey on skin-culture positivity. Medical-grade honey does not affect colonization of the skin at CVC insertion sites in ICU patients when applied in addition to standard disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol. Netherlands Trial

  8. Knowledge of nursing students about central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, Suzana; Malnarsić, Rosanda Rasković

    2012-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are at the crucial importance, particulary in the intensive therapy units. In order to handle a CVC safely, nursing students need to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge during the course of their studies. The aim of the study was to establish theoretical knowledge of nursing students about the procedures of nurses in placing and removing a central venous catheter (CVC), dressing the catheter entry point, the reasons for measuring central venous pressure (CVP), possible complications and risk factors for developing infections related to CVC. The questionnaire developed specifically for this cross-sectionl study was handed out to 87 full-time students and 57 part-time students. The results show that all the surveyed nursing students know why chest radiography is carried out when inserting a catheter, have relatively good knowledge of CVC insertion points, procedures carried out in case of a suspected catheter sepsis and complications and risk factors for the development of infections related to CVC. However, the study show that the majority of students have insufficient knowledge of the procedures accompanying insertion of a catheter, signs that indicate correct functioning of CVC, frequency of flushing a catheter when it is not in use and the reasons for introducing an implanted CVC. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that the second-year nursing students have insufficient knowledge of CVC. In order to correctly and safely handle a CVC, good theoretical knowledge and relevant practical experience are needed. The authors therefore believe that, in future, the classes should be organized in smaller groups with step-by-step demonstrations of individual procedures in handling a CVC, and the students encouraged to learn as actively as possible.

  9. Use of simulation-based education to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2009-08-10

    Simulation-based education improves procedural competence in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. The effect of simulation-based education in CVC insertion on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if simulation-based training in CVC insertion reduces CRBSI. This was an observational education cohort study set in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in an urban teaching hospital. Ninety-two internal medicine and emergency medicine residents completed a simulation-based mastery learning program in CVC insertion skills. Rates of CRBSI from CVCs inserted by residents in the ICU before and after the simulation-based educational intervention were compared over a 32-month period. There were fewer CRBSIs after the simulator-trained residents entered the intervention ICU (0.50 infections per 1000 catheter-days) compared with both the same unit prior to the intervention (3.20 per 1000 catheter-days) (P = .001) and with another ICU in the same hospital throughout the study period (5.03 per 1000 catheter-days) (P = .001). An educational intervention in CVC insertion significantly improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based education is a valuable adjunct in residency education.

  10. Estimating duration of central venous catheter at time of insertion: Clinician judgment and clinical predictors.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Mathias J; Andersen, Lars W; Graver, Amanda; Wright, Sharon B; Yassa, David; Howell, Michael D; Donnino, Michael W; Cocchi, Michael N

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinicians can estimate the length of time a central venous catheter (CVC) will remain in place and to identify variables that may predict CVC duration. We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit over a 1-year period. Clinicians estimated the anticipated CVC duration at time of insertion. We collected demographics, medical history, type of intensive care unit, anatomical site of CVC placement, vital signs, laboratory values, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, mechanical ventilation, and use of vasopressors. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between estimated and actual CVC time. We performed multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of long duration (>5 days). We enrolled 200 patients; median age was 65 years (quartiles 52, 75); 91 (46%) were female; and mortality was 24%. Correlation between estimated and actual CVC time was low (r=0.26; r2=0.07; P<.001). Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.97; P=.009) at time of insertion and a medical history of cancer (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.75; P=.007) were significantly associated with long duration. Our results suggest a low correlation between clinician prediction and actual CVC duration. We did not find any strong predictors of long CVC duration identifiable at the time of insertion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Central venous catheters: legal issues.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, Maurizio; Martina, Valentina; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Gravellone, Luciana; Mobilia, Francesca; Giordano, Antonino; Cusi, Daniele; Genovese, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    In dialysis patients, both central venous catheter (CVC) insertion and CVC use during the dialysis procedure pose important legal issues, because of potentially severe, even fatal, complications. The first issue is the decision of the kind of vascular access that should be proposed to patients: an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, a graft, or a CVC. The second issue, when choosing the CVC option, is the choice of CVC: nontunneled versus tunneled. Leaving a temporary nontunneled CVC for a prolonged time increases the risk of complications and could raise a liability issue. Even when choosing a long-term tunneled CVC, nephrologists should systematically explain its potential harms, presenting them as "unsafe for long-term use" unless there is a clear contraindication to an AV native or prosthetic access. Another critical issue is the preparation of a complete, informative, and easy-to-understand consent form. The CVC insertion procedure has many aspects of legal interest, including the choice of CVC, the use of ECG monitoring, the use of ultrasound guidance for cannulation, and the use of fluoroscopy for checking the position of the metal guidewire during the procedure as well as the CVC tip before the end of the procedure. Use of insertion devices and techniques that can prevent complications should obviously be encouraged. Complications of CVC use are mainly thrombosis and infection. These are theoretically expected as pure complications (and not as malpractice effects), but legal issues might relate to inappropriate catheter care (in both the inpatient and outpatient settings) rather than to the event per se. Thus, in the individual case it is indeed very difficult to establish malpractice and liability with a catheter-related infection or thrombosis. In conclusion, we cannot avoid complications completely when using CVCs, but reducing them to a minimum and adopting safe approaches to their insertion and use will reduce legal liability.

  12. Prospective comparison of two management strategies of central venous catheters in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Kealey, G P; Chang, P; Heinle, J; Rosenquist, M D; Lewis, R W

    1995-03-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with sepsis in burn patients. This study was undertaken to compare two strategies of CVC management in patients with major burn injuries. Forty-two burn patients with major burn injuries were randomly assigned to undergo site change every 48 hours of the CVC or to undergo wire guide exchange of the CVC every 48 hours at the same site. Catheter insertion site, distance from the burn wound, cultures of catheter tips, and blood cultures were obtained from all patients in a prospective manner. There was no difference in the incidence of CVC sepsis between the two groups studied. CVCs inserted less than 5 cm from the burn wound developed bacterial contamination at an earlier time than CVCs inserted more than 5 cm from the burn wound. There was no advantage to changing the CVC insertion site every 48 hours. Changing the CVC using the wire guide technique did not prevent, nor predict, CVC bacterial contamination.

  13. [Central venous catheter-related infections in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Diener, J R; Coutinho, M S; Zoccoli, C M

    1996-01-01

    To determine incidence rate, etiology and risk factors for central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections in critically-ill patients, a prospective cohort study was conducted in the general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a 212 bed Hospital in Florianópolis, Brazil. Patients admitted to ICU between May 1993 and February 1994, exposed to short-term CVC, were included in the study. Quantitative skin culture at CVC insertion site, semi-quantitative CVC tip culture, quantitative hub culture, and peripheral blood-culture were done. Results were submitted to univariate and multivariate analysis. Fifty-seven catheterization periods were analysed in 51 patients. The incidence rate was 21.1% (33.1 per 1,000 catheter-days) for local infection, and 8.7% (14.1 per 1,000 catheter-days) for catheter-associated bacteremia. The skin at the insertion site was colonized in 32.7% and the hub in 29.1% of the patients respectively. Potential sources of infection were the skin in 41.2% of the cases, the hub in 29.4%, remote site in 5.9% and unknown in 23.5%. The hub was implicated in 60% of the catheter-associated bacteremias. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the main isolates. Another intravascular device and purulence at the insertion site were independently associated with local infection. Insertion at internal jugular site and hub colonization were independently associated with bacteremia. Catheter-associated bacteremia is a major complication of central venous catheterization in critically-ill patients. Internal jugular insertion and CVC hub colonization are important risk factors for significant catheter-related infections.

  14. Accuracy of Intravenous Electrocardiography Confirmation of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter for Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mundi, Manpreet S; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; McMahon, Megan T; Okano, Akiko; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Bonnes, Sara L; Andrews, James C; Hurt, Ryan T

    2016-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with intestinal failure. Safe delivery of hyperosmotic solution requires a central venous catheter (CVC) with tip in the lower superior vena cava (SVC) or at the SVC-right atrium (RA) junction. To reduce cost and delay in use of CVC, new techniques such as intravascular electrocardiogram (ECG) are being used for tip confirmation in place of chest x-ray (CXR). The present study assessed for accuracy of ECG confirmation in home PN (HPN). Records for all patients consulted for HPN from December 17, 2014, to June 16, 2015, were reviewed for patient demographics, diagnosis leading to HPN initiation, and ECG and CXR confirmation. CXRs were subsequently reviewed by a radiologist to reassess location of the CVC tip and identify those that should be adjusted. Seventy-three patients were eligible, and after assessment for research authorization and postplacement CXR, 17 patients (30% male) with an age of 54 ± 14 years were reviewed. In all patients, postplacement intravascular ECG reading stated tip in the SVC. However, based on CXR, the location of the catheter tip was satisfactory (low SVC or SVC-RA junction) in 10 of 17 patients (59%). Due to the high osmolality of PN, CVC tip location is of paramount importance. After radiology review of CXR, we noted that 7 of 17 (41%) peripherally inserted central catheter lines were in an unsatisfactory position despite ECG confirmation. With current data available, intravenous ECG confirmation should not be used as the sole source of tip confirmation in patients receiving HPN. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, John H; Chow, Kai-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The success of peritoneal dialysis as renal-replacement therapy depends on a well-functioning peritoneal catheter. Knowledge of best practices in catheter insertion can minimize the risk of catheter complications that lead to peritoneal dialysis failure. The catheter placement procedure begins with preoperative assessment of the patient to determine the most appropriate catheter type, insertion site, and exit site location. Preoperative preparation of the patient is an instrumental step in facilitating the performance of the procedure, avoiding untoward events, and promoting the desired outcome. Catheter insertion methods include percutaneous needle-guidewire with or without image guidance, open surgical dissection, peritoneoscopic procedure, and surgical laparoscopy. The insertion technique used often depends on the geographic availability of material resources and local provider expertise in placing catheters. Independent of the catheter implantation approach, adherence to a number of universal details is required to ensure the best opportunity for creating a successful long-term peritoneal access. Finally, appropriate postoperative care and catheter break-in enables a smooth transition to dialysis therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections using non-technologic strategies.

    PubMed

    Gnass, Silvia Acosta; Barboza, Luisa; Bilicich, Dafne; Angeloro, Pablo; Treiyer, Walter; Grenóvero, Silvia; Basualdo, Juan

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence of nosocomial bacteremias related to the use of non-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) when only non-technologic strategies were used to prevent them. This was a prospective study of infectious complications of CVCs placed in intensive care unit (ICU) patients from April 1997 to December 2001. The medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary-care, university-affiliated hospital in Argentina. We studied all patients admitted to the ICU using non-impregnated CVCs. Maximal sterile barrier precautions (ie, use of cap, mask, sterile gown, sterile gloves, and large sterile drape), strict handwashing, preparation of the patients' skin with antiseptic solutions, insertion and management of catheters by trained personnel, and continuing quality improvement programs aimed at appropriate insertion and maintenance of catheters were employed. During the study period, 2,525 patients were admitted to the ICU. Eight hundred sixty-eight patients had 1,037 CVCs inserted. The number of CVC-related bloodstream infections (BSIs), acquired in the ICU, was 2.7 per 1,000 CVC-days (13 nosocomial CVC-related BSIs during 4,770 days of CVC use). Microorganisms isolated included methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (n = 2), coagulase-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1). A low rate of catheter-related BSI was achieved without antimicrobial-impregnated catheters. The incidence of CVC-associated bacteremias corresponded to the 10th to 20th percentile range of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System hospitals for the same type of ICU.

  17. Thrombotic complications of central venous catheters in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kuter, David J

    2004-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs), such as the tunneled catheters and the totally implanted ports, play a major role in general medicine and oncology. Aside from the complications (pneumothorax, hemorrhage) associated with their initial insertion, all of these CVCs are associated with the long-term risks of infection and thrombosis. Despite routine flushing with heparin or saline, 41% of CVCs result in thrombosis of the blood vessel, and this markedly increases the risk of infection. Only one-third of these clots are symptomatic. Within days of insertion, almost all CVCs are coated with a fibrin sheath, and within 30 days, most CVC-related thrombi arise. Aside from reducing the function of the catheter, these CVC-related thrombi can cause postphlebitic syndrome in 15%-30% of cases and pulmonary embolism in 11% (only half of which are symptomatic). Risk factors for CVC thrombosis include the type of malignancy, type of chemotherapy, type of CVC, and locations of insertion site and catheter tip, but not inherited thrombophilic risk factors. Efforts to reduce CVC thrombosis with systemic prophylactic anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin have failed. Low-dose warfarin prophylaxis remains controversial; all studies are flawed, with older studies, but not newer ones, showing benefit. Currently, less than 10% of patients with CVCs receive any systemic prophylaxis. Although its general use cannot be recommended, low-dose warfarin may be a low-risk treatment in patients with good nutrition and adequate hepatic function. Clearly, additional studies are required to substantiate the prophylactic use of low-dose warfarin. Newer anticoagulant treatments, such as pentasaccharide and direct thrombin inhibitors, need to be explored to address this major medical problem.

  18. Hemodialysis tunneled central venous catheters: five-year outcome analysis.

    PubMed

    Mandolfo, Salvatore; Acconcia, Pasqualina; Bucci, Raffaella; Corradi, Bruno; Farina, Marco; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (tCVCs) are considered inferior to arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and grafts in all nephrology guidelines. However, they are being increasingly used as hemodialysis vascular access. The purpose of this study was to document the natural history of tCVCs and determine the rate and type of catheter replacement. This was a prospective study of 141 patients who underwent hemodialysis with tCVCs between January 2008 and December 2012. The patients used 154 tCVCs. Standard protocols about management of tCVCs, according to European Renal Best Practice, were well established. All catheters were inserted in the internal jugular vein. Criteria for catheter removal were persistent bloodstream infection, detection of an outbreak of catheter-related bloodstream (CRBS) infections, or catheter dysfunction. Event rates were calculated per 1,000 catheter days; tCVC cumulative survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Catheter replacement occurred in 15 patients (0.29 per 1,000 days); catheter dysfunction was the main cause of replacement (0.18 per 1,000 days), typically within 12 months of surgical insertion. A total of 53 CRBS events in 36 patients were identified (0.82 per 1,000 days); 17 organisms, most commonly Gram-positive pathogens, were isolated; 87% of CVC infections were treated by systemic antibiotics associated with lock therapy. tCVC cumulative survival was 91% at 1 year, 88% at 2 years and 85% at 4 years. Our data show a high survival rate of tCVCs in hemodialysis patients, with low incidence of catheter dysfunction and CRBS events. These data justify tCVC use for hemodialysis vascular access, also as first choice, especially in patients with exhausted peripheral access and limited life expectancy.

  19. The accuracy of peres’ formula and topography anatomy in predicting the depth of CVC for installation in the right subclavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambey, B. I.; Perdana, A.; Pryambodho

    2017-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is a routine procedure in either intensive care or in perioperative circumstances. A simple and accurate method or rule is needed to predict the optimum depth of the CVC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the position and depth of CVCs using Peres’ formula ([height/10]-2) and landmark measurements, as well as assessing the incidence of malpositions of CVC installation. This research was an analytic observational study. Fifty patients undergoing central venous catheter (CVC) installation with the right subclavian vein approach were divided into two groups: a Peres’ formula ([height/10]-2) and an anatomy topography measurement group. The results of the calculations were used to determine the boundary prediction of skin fixation. CVC depth was evaluated by measuring the distance between the distal end of the CVC and the carina, from chest radiographs. The measurement results were analyzed by a Bland and Altman plot. The patient’s characteristics were equal for both groups. In the Peres’ formula group we found that the mean of the distal CVC was 1.5 (0.82) cm under the carina (CI 95%: 1.2 to 1.9 cm), with the limit of agreement as 0.0 cm to 3.0 cm. The mean of the landmark group was 0.85 (0.73) cm (CI 95%: 0.5 to 1.1 cm) with the limit of agreement as -0.5 cm to 2.2 cm. The incidence of malposition was found to be similar in both groups. The results showed that both prediction methods are not accurate enough to predict the depth of CVC insertion in Indonesian people.

  20. Complications of intra-cardial placement of silastic central venous catheter in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Soong, W J; Jeng, M J; Hwang, B

    1996-01-01

    A three-year prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence and early complications from intra-cardiac placement of percutaneous central venous catheter (CVC). CVC was inserted by using "Catheter-through-needle" technique, and the insertion length was measured by body surface landmark. CVC course and tip location were routinely checked by roentgenography. Echocardiography was performed in case of arrhythmia. After analysis of 784 CVCs, 104 (13.3%) were proved to be intra-cardial, as located by either roentgenography or echocardiography. However, catheters passed via the upper trunk (14.5%) were significantly (p < 0.05) more intra-cardially located than those via the lower trunk (4.8%). Catheters which passed via the right upper trunk veins (basilic, cephalic, or external jugular veins) were also more intra-cardially located than those via their left veins counterparts, but the finding was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean body weight (3.1 +/- 2.4 kg) in the intra-cardial placement group was significantly (p < 0.05) less than that in the non-intracardial placement group (7.9 +/- 4.5 kg). In intra-cardial placement patients, 32 cases (30.8%) had episode(s) of cardiac arrhythmia including 31 premature ventricular depolarization and 1 supra-ventricular tachycardia. All cases showed the presence of intra-ventricular catheter. All arrhythmias ceased abruptly after the catheters were pulled from the hearts. No other early complications were observed. the incidence of the intracardiac placement of CVC is high, especially in small infants or when the insertion via the upper trunk. Short term intra-cardiac catheter placement has a benign clinical course except that the intraventricular catheter may cause arrhythmia. However, this kind of arrhythmia can be resolved spontaneously by withdrawing the catheter.

  1. Skin disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride for central venous catheter site care: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dettenkofer, M; Wilson, C; Gratwohl, A; Schmoor, C; Bertz, H; Frei, R; Heim, D; Luft, D; Schulz, S; Widmer, A F

    2010-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of two commercially available, alcohol-based antiseptic solutions for preparation and care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites, with and without octenidine dihydrochloride, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken in the haematology units and in one surgical unit of two university hospitals. Adult patients with a non-tunnelled CVC were randomly assigned to two different skin disinfection regimens at the insertion site: 0.1% octenidine with 30% 1-propanol and 45% 2-propanol, and as control 74% ethanol with 10% 2-propanol. Endpoints were (i) skin colonization at the insertion site; (ii) positive culture from the catheter tip (> or = 15 CFU); and (iii) occurrence of CVC-associated bloodstream infection (defined according to criteria set by the CDC). Four hundred patients with inserted CVC were enrolled from May 2002 through April 2005. Both groups were similar in respect of patient characteristics and co-morbidities. Skin colonization at the CVC insertion site during the first 10 days was significantly reduced by octenidine treatment (relative difference octenidine vs. control: 0.21; 95%CI: 0.11-0.39, p <0.0001). Positive culture of the catheter tip was significantly less frequent in the octenidine group (7.9%) than in the control group (17.8%): OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.20-0.80, p 0.009). Patients treated with octenidine had a non-significant reduction in catheter-associated bloodstream infections (4.1% vs. 8.3%; OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.18-1.08, p 0.081). Side effects were similar in both groups. This randomized controlled trial supports the results of two observational studies demonstrating octenidine in alcoholic solution to be a better option than alcohol alone for the prevention of CVC-associated infections.

  2. Catheter-related bloodstream infection with removal of catheter in pediatric oncology patients: a 10-year experience in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Yang, Chao-Ping; Jaing, Tang-Her; Lai, Jin-Yao; Hung, Iou-Jih

    2012-04-01

    Long-term central venous catheter (CVC) implantation has become more affordable in Taiwan since 1995. Surgical removal of the catheter may be the essential treatment for catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and microbial isolates in pediatric cancer patients with removal of CVC for CRBSI. The records of positive blood culture from hospitalized pediatric oncology patients between 1995 and 2004 were reviewed. One hundred and forty-three patients implanted with a long-term CVC were further identified. Seventeen catheters in 16 patients developed catheter-related bacteremia that needed catheter removal. The rate of catheter removal was 11.9%. The median device life was 7.7 months. Six catheters were removed within 3 months of insertion. Nine of the 17 catheters were removed from patient younger than 2 years. Eight infections occurred during severe neutropenia, and 6 patients had refractory or relapsed underlying disease. The cultural isolates were Gram-negative bacilli in 7, Gram-positive in 5, fungi in 5, and atypical mycobacterium in 1. The frequency of catheter removal for infection control was significantly higher in the first 5 years (1994-1999) compared to the last 5 years (2000-2004) (30.9 vs. 4.0%, p = 2.3 × 10(-4)). Factors such as microbiological isolates, age of infection, the status of malignancy, and neutropenia are related to catheter outcome. The reduction in patients with positive cultures needing removal of the catheters can be related to improved nursing care and more aggressive antibiotic therapy.

  3. [NEOCAT, surveillance network of catheter-related bloodstream infections in neonates: 2010 data].

    PubMed

    L'Hériteau, F; Lacavé, L; Leboucher, B; Decousser, J-W; De Chillaz, C; Astagneau, P; Aujard, Y

    2012-09-01

    The NEOCAT surveillance network was implemented in 2006 in order to address catheter-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonates. The results for 2010 surveillance are presented herein. Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) participated in the study on a voluntary basis. Umbilical catheters (UCs) and central venous catheters (CVCs) were analyzed separately. In 2010, 26NICUs participated. Overall, 2953 neonates were included (median weight, 1550 g; median gestational age, 32 weeks). These neonates had 2551UCs (median insertion duration, 4 days) and 2147CVCs (median insertion duration, 12 days). Thirty-three BSIs associated with UCs were reported, yielding a 2.9/1000UC-day incidence density, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) (1.9-3.8). UC-associated BSIs appeared after a median period of 5 days after UC insertion. The main microorganism isolated from blood cultures was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, n=27), S. aureus (n=3), and Enterobacteriaceae (n=5). Three hundred and six CVC-associated BSIs were recorded, yielding a 11.2/1000 CVC-day incidence density (95%CI, 10.0-12.5). These BSIs occurred after a median period of 12 days after CVC insertion. The main microorganisms were CNS (83%), S. aureus (6%), and Enterobacteriaceae (5%). The NEOCAT network provides a useful benchmark for participating wards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of hospital infections by intervention and training (PROHIBIT): results of a pan-European cluster-randomized multicentre study to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Tjallie; Sax, Hugo; Pittet, Didier; van Dissel, Jaap; van Benthem, Birgit; Walder, Bernhard; Cartier, Vanessa; Clack, Lauren; de Greeff, Sabine; Wolkewitz, Martin; Hieke, Stefanie; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van de Kassteele, Jan; Van den Abeele, Annemie; Boo, Teck Wee; Diab-Elschahawi, Magda; Dumpis, Uga; Ghita, Camelia; FitzGerald, Susan; Lejko, Tatjana; Leleu, Kris; Martinez, Mercedes Palomar; Paniara, Olga; Patyi, Márta; Schab, Paweł; Raglio, Annibale; Szilágyi, Emese; Ziętkiewicz, Mirosław; Wu, Albert W; Grundmann, Hajo; Zingg, Walter

    2018-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of a central venous catheter (CVC) insertion strategy and a hand hygiene (HH) improvement strategy to prevent central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in European intensive care units (ICUs), measuring both process and outcome indicators. Adult ICUs from 14 hospitals in 11 European countries participated in this stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled multicentre intervention study. After a 6 month baseline, three hospitals were randomised to one of three interventions every quarter: (1) CVC insertion strategy (CVCi); (2) HH promotion strategy (HHi); and (3) both interventions combined (COMBi). Primary outcome was prospective CRBSI incidence density. Secondary outcomes were a CVC insertion score and HH compliance. Overall 25,348 patients with 35,831 CVCs were included. CRBSI incidence density decreased from 2.4/1000 CVC-days at baseline to 0.9/1000 (p < 0.0001). When adjusted for patient and CVC characteristics all three interventions significantly reduced CRBSI incidence density. When additionally adjusted for the baseline decreasing trend, the HHi and COMBi arms were still effective. CVC insertion scores and HH compliance increased significantly with all three interventions. This study demonstrates that multimodal prevention strategies aiming at improving CVC insertion practice and HH reduce CRBSI in diverse European ICUs. Compliance explained CRBSI reduction and future quality improvement studies should encourage measuring process indicators.

  5. Use of peripherally inserted central catheters as an alternative to central catheters in neurocritical care units.

    PubMed

    DeLemos, Christi; Abi-Nader, Judy; Akins, Paul T

    2011-04-01

    Patients in neurological critical care units often have lengthy stays that require extended vascular access and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The traditional approach for these patients has relied heavily on central venous and pulmonary artery catheters. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripherally inserted central catheters as an alternative to central venous catheters in neurocritical care settings. Data on 35 patients who had peripherally inserted central catheters rather than central venous or pulmonary artery catheters for intravascular access and monitoring were collected from a prospective registry of neurological critical care admissions. These data were cross-referenced with information from hospital-based data registries for peripherally inserted central catheters and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Complete data were available on 33 patients with Hunt-Hess grade IV-V aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Catheters remained in place a total of 649 days (mean, 19 days; range, 4-64 days). One patient (3%) had deep vein thrombosis in an upper extremity. In 2 patients, central venous pressure measured with a peripherally inserted catheter was higher than pressure measured concurrently with a central venous catheter. None of the 33 patients had a central catheter bloodstream infection or persistent insertion-related complications. CONCLUSIONS Use of peripherally inserted central catheters rather than central venous catheters or pulmonary artery catheters in the neurocritical care unit reduced procedural and infection risk without compromising patient management.

  6. Venous thrombosis and stenosis after peripherally inserted central catheter placement in children.

    PubMed

    Shin, H Stella; Towbin, Alexander J; Zhang, Bin; Johnson, Neil D; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2017-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) can lead to development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. The presence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis may preclude children with chronic medical conditions from receiving lifesaving therapies, from hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease to total parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome. Several adult studies have found an association between PICCs and venous thrombosis and/or stenosis, but none has evaluated for this association in children. To determine the incidence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis after PICC placement and identify factors that increase the risk of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis after PICC placement in children. We conducted a retrospective review of children ages 1-18 years with a PICC placed between January 2010 and July 2013 at our center, and included those who had at least one vascular imaging study of the ipsilateral extremity (Doppler ultrasound, venogram or MR angiogram) after PICC placement. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. One thousand, one hundred and ten upper extremity PICCs were placed, with 703 PICCs in the right and 407 PICCs in the left. Eight hundred fifty-one imaging studies (609 Doppler ultrasounds, 193 contrast venograms and 49 MR angiograms) were performed in 376 patients. The incidence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis in the imaged cohort was 26.3%. PICC laterality, insertion site, duration, patient height to PICC diameter ratio, and number of PICCs per patient were not associated with development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. Additionally, primary diagnosis and symptoms at the time of imaging did not predict findings of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. However, patients exposed to non-PICC central venous catheters (CVC) were more likely to develop venous thrombosis and/or stenosis (odds ratio 1.95, 1.10-3.45). More than a quarter of the vascular imaging studies

  7. Radiological Tenckhoff catheter insertion for peritoneal dialysis: A cost-effective approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, James; Mott, Nigel; Mahmood, Usman; Clouston, John; Summers, Kara; Nicholas, Pauline; Gois, Pedro Henrique França; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2018-04-01

    Radiological insertion of Tenckhoff catheters can be an alternative option for peritoneal dialysis access creation, as compared to surgical catheter insertion. This study will review the outcomes and complications of radiological Tenckhoff catheter insertion in a metropolitan renal service and compare costs between surgical and radiological insertion. Data were collected prospectively for all patients who had a Tenckhoff catheter insertion for peritoneal dialysis (PD) under radiological guidance at our hospital from May 2014 to November 2016. The type of catheter used and complications, including peri-catheter leak, exit site infection and peritonitis were reviewed. Follow-up data were also collected at points 3, 6 and 12 months from catheter insertion. Costing data were obtained from Queensland Health Electronic Reporting System (QHERS) data, average staff salaries and consumable contract price lists. In the 30-month evaluation period, 70 catheters were inserted. Two patients had an unsuccessful procedure due to the presence of abdominal adhesions. Seven patients had an episode of peri-catheter leak, and four patients had an exit site infection following catheter insertion. Peritonitis was observed in nine patients during the study period. The majority of patients (90%) remained on peritoneal dialysis at 3-month follow-up. The average costs of surgical and radiological insertion were noted to be AUD$7788.34 and AUD$1597.35, respectively. Radiological Tenckhoff catheter insertion for peritoneal dialysis appears to be an attractive and cost-effective option given less waiting periods for the procedure, the relatively low cost of insertion and comparable rates of complications. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. The mid-sternal length, a practical anatomical landmark for optimal positioning of long-term central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshte; Imani, Mohammad Reza; Ghasemi, Navab; Keshavarzian, Amir; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term tunneled catheters are used for the hemodialysis or chemotherapy in many patients. Proper placement of the catheter tip could reduce early and late catheter related complications. Aim of the present study was to evaluate a new formula for proper placement of tunneled hemodialysis or infusion port device by using an external anatomic landmark. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled Central Venous Catheter (CVC) requiring hemodialysis or chemotherapy were enrolled in this prospective study during 2011-2012 in the university hospital. The catheter length to be inserted in the right internal jugular vein (IJV) was calculated by adding two measurements (the shortest straight length between the insertion point of the needle and the suprasternal notch plus and half of sternal length). The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium (RA) or Superior vena cava (SVC)-RA junction. Results: The patients were 55.28 ± 19.85 years of age, weighed 5.78 ± 16.62 kg and were 166.07 ± 10.27 cm tall. Catheters were inserted successfully in 88% of patients (n = 56). Catheter tip positions in the failures were SVC (n = 5), tricuspid valve (n = 2), and right ventricle (n = 1) in our patients. Conclusion: Long-term hemodialysis or port CVC could easily insert in the right IJV by using half of the sternal length as an external land marks among adult patients. PMID:24174941

  9. Urethral catheter insertion forces: a comparison of experience and training.

    PubMed

    Canales, Benjamin K; Weiland, Derek; Reardon, Scott; Monga, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the insertion forces utilized during simulated placement of a urethral catheter by healthcare individuals with a variety of catheter experience. A 21F urethral catheter was mounted to a metal spring. Participants were asked to press the tubing spring against a force gauge and stop when they met a level of resistance that would typically make them terminate a catheter placement. Simulated catheter insertion was repeated fives times, and peak compression forces were recorded. Healthcare professionals were divided into six groups according to their title: urology staff, non-urology staff, urology resident/ fellow, non-urology resident/ fellow, medical student, and registered nurse. A total of fifty-seven healthcare professionals participated in the study. Urology staff (n = 6) had the lowest average insertion force for any group at 6.8 +/- 2.0 Newtons (N). Medical students (n = 10) had the least amount of experience (1 +/- 0 years) and the highest average insertion force range of 10.1 +/- 3.7 N. Health care workers with greater than 25 years experience used significantly less force during catheter insertions (4.9 +/- 1.8 N) compared to all groups (p < 0.01). We propose the maximum force that should be utilized during urethral catheter insertion is 5 Newtons. This force deserves validation in a larger population and should be considered when designing urethral catheters or creating catheter simulators. Understanding urethral catheter insertion forces may also aid in establishing competency parameters for health care professionals in training.

  10. Simulation-based medical education training improves short and long-term competency in, and knowledge of central venous catheter insertion: A before and after intervention study.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Vanessa; Inan, Cigdem; Zingg, Walter; Delhumeau, Cecile; Walder, Bernard; Savoldelli, Georges L

    2016-08-01

    Multimodal educational interventions have been shown to improve short-term competency in, and knowledge of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. To evaluate the effectiveness of simulation-based medical education training in improving short and long-term competency in, and knowledge of CVC insertion. Before and after intervention study. University Geneva Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, between May 2008 and January 2012. Residents in anaesthesiology aware of the Seldinger technique for vascular puncture. Participants attended a half-day course on CVC insertion. Learning objectives included work organization, aseptic technique and prevention of CVC complications. CVC insertion competency was tested pretraining, posttraining and then more than 2 years after training (sustainability phase). The primary study outcome was competency as measured by a global rating scale of technical skills, a hand hygiene compliance score and a checklist compliance score. Secondary outcome was knowledge as measured by a standardised pretraining and posttraining multiple-choice questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using paired Student's t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Thirty-seven residents were included; 18 were tested in the sustainability phase (on average 34 months after training). The average global rating of skills was 23.4 points (±SD 4.08) before training, 32.2 (±4.51) after training (P < 0.001 for comparison with pretraining scores) and 26.5 (±5.34) in the sustainability phase (P = 0.040 for comparison with pretraining scores). The average hand hygiene compliance score was 2.8 (±1.0) points before training, 5.0 (±1.04) after training (P < 0.001 for comparison with pretraining scores) and 3.7 (±1.75) in the sustainability phase (P = 0.038 for comparison with pretraining scores). The average checklist compliance was 14.9 points (±2.3) before training, 19.9 (±1.06) after training (P < 0.001 for comparison with pretraining scores) and

  11. Successful Salvage of Central Venous Catheters in Patients with Catheter-Related or Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections by Using a Catheter Lock Solution Consisting of Minocycline, EDTA, and 25% Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Zakhour, Ramia; Jordan, Mary; Al Hamal, Zanaib; Jiang, Ying; Yousif, Ammar; Garoge, Kumait; Mulanovich, Victor; Viola, George M.; Kanj, Soha; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Rosenblatt, Joel; Hachem, Ray

    2016-01-01

    In cancer patients with long-term central venous catheters (CVC), removal and reinsertion of a new CVC at a different site might be difficult because of the unavailability of accessible vascular sites. In vitro and animal studies showed that a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol (M-EDTA-EtOH) lock solution may eradicate microbial organisms in biofilms, hence enabling the treatment of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) while retaining the catheter in situ. Between April 2013 and July 2014, we enrolled 30 patients with CLABSI in a prospective study and compared them to a historical group of 60 patients with CLABSI who had their CVC removed and a new CVC inserted. Each catheter lumen was locked with an M-EDTA-EtOH solution for 2 h administered once daily, for a total of 7 doses. Patients who received locks had clinical characteristics that were comparable to those of the control group. The times to fever resolution and microbiological eradication were similar in the two groups. Patients with the lock intervention received a shorter duration of systemic antibiotic therapy than that of the control patients (median, 11 days versus 16 days, respectively; P < 0.0001), and they were able to retain their CVCs for a median of 74 days after the onset of bacteremia. The M-EDTA-EtOH lock was associated with a significantly decreased rate of mechanical and infectious complications compared to that of the CVC removal/reinsertion group, who received a longer duration of systemic antimicrobial therapy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01539343.) PMID:27001822

  12. Peripherally inserted central catheters. Guidewire versus nonguidewire use: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Loughran, S C; Edwards, S; McClure, S

    1992-01-01

    To date, no research articles have been published that explore the practice of using guidewires for placement of peripherally inserted central catheters. The literature contains speculations regarding the pros and cons of guidewire use. However, no studies to date have compared patient outcomes when peripherally inserted central catheter lines are inserted with and without guidewires. To examine the use of guidewires for peripherally inserted central lines, a comparative study was conducted at two acute care facilities, one using guidewires for insertion and one inserting peripherally inserted central catheter lines without guidewires. 109 catheters were studied between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 1991. The primary focus of this study was to examine whether guidewire use places patients at higher risk for catheter-related complications, particularly phlebitis. No significant differences in phlebitis rates between the two study sites were found. Other catheter-related and noncatheter-related complications were similar between the two facilities. The results of this study do not support the belief that guidewire use increases complication rates.

  13. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing Gram positive infections associated with long-term central venous catheters in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, Marianne D; van Woensel, Job B M; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2013-11-25

    This is an updated version of the review which was first published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2006. Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs), including tunnelled CVCs (TCVCs) and totally implanted devices or ports (TIDs), are increasingly used when treating oncology patients. Despite international guidelines on sterile insertion and appropriate CVC maintenance and use, infection remains a common complication. These infections are mainly caused by Gram positive bacteria. Antimicrobial prevention strategies aimed at these micro-organisms could potentially decrease the majority of CVC infections. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics in the prevention of Gram positive infections in long-term CVCs. To determine the efficacy of administering antibiotics prior to the insertion of long-term CVCs, or flushing or locking long-term CVCs with a combined antibiotic and heparin solution, or both, to prevent Gram positive catheter-related infections in adults and children receiving treatment for cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to June 2013) and the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966 to 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylactic antibiotics given prior to long-term CVC insertion with no antibiotics, RCTs comparing a combined antibiotic and heparin solution with a heparin-only solution to flush or lock newly inserted long-term CVCs, and RCTs comparing a combination of these interventions in adults and children receiving treatment for cancer. Two authors independently selected studies, classified them and extracted data on to a pre-designed data collection form. We pooled data using the RevMan software version 5.2 and used random-effects (RE) model methods for meta-analyses. We included 11 trials with a total of 828 oncology patients (adults and children). We assessed most included studies to be at a low or unclear risk of bias. Five trials compared the use

  14. A crossover randomized prospective pilot study evaluating a central venous catheter team in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Secola, Rita; Azen, Colleen; Lewis, Mary Ann; Pike, Nancy; Needleman, Jack; Sposto, Richard; Doering, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for most children with cancer includes the use of a central venous catheter (CVC). CVCs provide reliable venous access for delivery of chemotherapy and supportive care. This advantage is mitigated by an increased risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs). Despite the ubiquitous use of CVCs, few prospective studies have been conducted to address infection prevention strategies in pediatric oncology patients. Prospective, crossover pilot study of a CVC team intervention versus standard care. Two inpatient oncology units in a metropolitan children's hospital. A total of 41 patients/135 admissions for the experimental unit (EU) and 41/129 admissions for the control unit (CU). Patients received a CVC blood draw bundle procedure by a CVC registered nurse (RN) team member (experimental intervention: EU) for 6 months and by the assigned bedside RN (standard care: CU) for 6 months. Feasibility of implementing a CVC RN team; a significant difference in CVC-related BSIs between the team intervention versus standard care and risk factors associated in the development of CVC-related BSIs were determined. There were 7 CVC-related BSIs/1238 catheter days in the EU group (5.7/1000 catheter days) versus 3 CVC-related BSIs/1419 catheter days in the CU group (2.1/1000 catheter days; P = .97). Selected risk factors were not significantly associated with the development of a CVC-related BSI. A CVC team in the care of pediatric oncology patients is feasible; however, a larger cohort will be required to adequately determine the effectiveness of the team reducing CVC-related BSIs.

  15. Simulation improves procedural protocol adherence during central venous catheter placement: a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Peltan, Ithan D.; Shiga, Takashi; Gordon, James A.; Currier, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Simulation training may improve proficiency at and reduces complications from central venous catheter (CVC) placement, but the scope of simulation’s effect remains unclear. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of a pragmatic CVC simulation program on procedural protocol adherence, technical skill, and patient outcomes. Methods Internal medicine interns were randomized to standard training for CVC insertion or standard training plus simulation-based mastery training. Standard training involved a lecture, a video-based online module, and instruction by the supervising physician during actual CVC insertions. Intervention-group subjects additionally underwent supervised training on a venous access simulator until they demonstrated procedural competence. Raters evaluated interns’ performance during internal jugular CVC placement on actual patients in the medical intensive care unit. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for outcome clustering within trainees. Results We observed 52 interns place 87 CVCs. Simulation-trained interns exhibited better adherence to prescribed procedural technique than interns who received only standard training (p=0.024). There were no significant differences detected in first-attempt or overall cannulation success rates, mean needle passes, global assessment scores or complication rates. Conclusions Simulation training added to standard training improved protocol adherence during CVC insertion by novice practitioners. This study may have been too small to detect meaningful differences in venous cannulation proficiency and other clinical outcomes, highlighting the difficulty of patient-centered simulation research in settings where poor outcomes are rare. For high-performing systems, where protocol deviations may provide an important proxy for rare procedural complications, simulation may improve CVC insertion quality and safety. PMID:26154250

  16. A Contemporary Assessment of Mechanical Complication Rates and Trainee Perceptions of Central Venous Catheter Insertion.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Lauren; Nathani, Niket; Sagana, Rommel; Chopra, Veneet; Heung, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Limited data exist regarding rates of mechanical complications of ultrasound-guided, nontunneled central venous catheters (CVC). Similarly, trainee perceptions surrounding CVC complications are largely unknown. To evaluate contemporary CVC mechanical complication rates, associated risk factors, and trainee perspectives. A single-center retrospective review of CVC procedures between June 1, 2014, and May 1, 2015. Electronic survey distributed to internal medicine trainees. Intensive care units and the emergency department at an academic hospital. Electronic health records of patients with CVC procedures were reviewed for complications. Demographic and procedural characteristics were compared for complicated vs uncomplicated procedures. Student t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Of the 730 reviewed records, 14 serious mechanical complications occurred due to pneumothorax (n = 5), bleeding (n = 3), vascular injury (n = 3), stroke (n = 1), and death (n = 2). Risk factors for complicated vs uncomplicated CVC placement included subclavian location (21.4% vs 7.8%, = 0.001), number of attempts (2.2 vs 1.5, = 0.02), unsuccessful CVC (21.4% vs. 4.3%, = 0.001), attending supervision (61.5% vs 34.7%, = 0.04), low body mass index (mean 25.7 kg/ m² vs 31.5 kg/m², = 0.001), anticoagulation (28.6% vs 20.6%, = 0.048), and ventilation (78.5% vs 66.5%, = 0.001). Survey data suggested deficiencies in managing unsuccessful CVC procedures; specifically, only 35% (N = 21/60) of trainees regularly perform chest x-rays after failed CVC attempt. We observed a 1.9% rate of mechanical complications associated with CVC placement. Our study confirms historical data that unsuccessful CVC attempts are an important risk factor for complications. Education regarding unsuccessful CVC placement may improve patient safety. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  17. Peripherally inserted central catheters in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Ibrahim; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Otcu, Selcuk; Ozturk, Hayrettin

    2011-10-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) have been extensively used in neonates. However, insertion of these thinnest catheters is a very delicate procedure associated with a high failure rate. In our Neonatal Surgical Intensive Care Unit, we developed a very easy new PICC insertion and evaluated the neonates treated with PICCs which were inserted by using our technique as well as catheter features such as success rate, number of insertion attempts, reason for removal and complications. Information was retrospectively collected on all 40 PICCs inserted at Kutahya Evliya Celebi Goverment Hospital and Dicle University Hospital during a 6-years period from September 2004 to September 2010. A total of 40 PICCs were inserted in 37 patients (26, 70% males, 11, 30% females) by using new technique. The median age of patients was 8.3 days (range 1 to 66 days) and the median weight of patients was 2365 g (range 600 to 5000 g). The vein most commonly accessed was long saphenous vein (85%). The length of PICCs in the body was 19.6 cm (range 5 cm to 30 cm). The tip was located in a central vein in all patients. Surgical abdomen was the most common cause for PICC insertion (38%). Duration of catheterization was 7.7±5.6 days (1-F 5.5 days, 2-F 8.6 days). Almost all of the PICCs were inserted successfully (40/42, success rate 95%) and in the first venipucture (36/42, 86%). Completion of therapy and removed after death were achieved with 87% of PICCs. Three minor complications were noted. Minor bleeding in the insertion site which was stopped via compression occurred in two neonates. Major complication was not seen. No deaths were directly attributed to PICCs use. The new insertion technique of the neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters may be one of the easiest and safest techniques, in comparison to previous techniques reported in the literature.

  18. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Harsha V.; Patil, Virendra C.; Ramteerthkar, M. N.; Kulkarni, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    maximum susceptibility to amikacin, doxycycline and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid and was susceptible to vancomycin (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Escherichia coli was susceptible to amikacin and cefotaxime. Conclusions: The overall incidence of CRI was 27.77% (15/54). Catheter-associated BSIs were 47.31 per 1000 catheter-days. CRI was low in the catheters inserted by the experienced venipuncturists, elective procedure and CVC kept in situ for ≤3 days. S. epidermidis was the most common isolate. PMID:22346032

  19. Comparative effectiveness of 30 % trisodium citrate and heparin lock solution in preventing infection and dysfunction of hemodialysis catheters: a randomized controlled trial (CITRIM trial).

    PubMed

    Correa Barcellos, Franklin; Pereira Nunes, Bruno; Jorge Valle, Luciana; Lopes, Thiago; Orlando, Bianca; Scherer, Cintia; Nunes, Marcia; Araújo Duarte, Gabriela; Böhlke, Maristela

    2017-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are the only option when hemodialysis is needed for patients without definitive vascular access. However, CVC is associated with complications, such as infection, thrombosis, and dysfunction, leading to higher mortality and expenditures. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 30 % trisodium citrate (TSC30 %) with heparin as CVC lock solutions in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Randomized, double-blind controlled trial comparing the event-free survival of non-tunneled CVC locked with heparin or TSC30 % in adult hemodialysis patients. The study included 464 catheters, 233 in heparin group, and 231 in TSC30 % group. The CRBSI-free survival of TSC30 % group was significantly shorter than that of heparin group. When stratified by insertion site, heparin was better than TSC30 % only in subclavian CVC. The dysfunction-free survival was not different between groups in the main analysis, but there is also a shorter survival among subclavian CVC locked with TSC30 % in stratified analysis. There was no difference on CRBSI-free or dysfunction-free survival between jugular vein CVC locked with heparin or 30 % citrate. However, subclavian CVC locked with 30 % citrate presented shorter event-free survival. This difference may be related to anatomical and positional effects, CVC design, and hydraulic aspects of the lock solution. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02563041.

  20. Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a pediatric intensive care unit: effect of the location of catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Anil; Soothill, James; Wade, Angie; Mok, Quen Q; Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan

    2012-05-01

    To compare the rate of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections between pediatric intensive care unit admissions where central venous catheters were inserted within the same hospital (internal central venous catheters) and those where central venous catheters were inserted before transfer from other hospitals (external central venous catheters). Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. A tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit in London, UK. Consecutive pediatric intensive care unit admissions between May 2007 and March 2009. None. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections were identified using a widely accepted surveillance definition. The rate and time to occurrence of catheter-associated bloodstream infection were compared between internal and external nontunneled central venous catheters. A multilevel Cox-regression model was used to study the association between location of central venous catheter insertion and time to catheter-associated bloodstream infection. In total, 382 central venous catheters were studied (245 internal; 137 external) accounting for a total of 1,737 central venous catheter days. There was a higher catheter-associated bloodstream infection incidence density among external central venous catheters (23.1 [95% confidence interval 11.0-35.2] vs. 9.7 [95% confidence interval 3.9-15.5] per 1,000 catheter-days). Multivariable analyses demonstrated higher infection risk with external central venous catheters (hazard ratio 2.65 [95% confidence interval 1.18-5.96]) despite adjustment for confounding variables. The rate of catheter-associated bloodstream infections in the pediatric intensive care unit is significantly affected by external insertion of the central venous catheter. Future interventions to reduce nosocomial infections on pediatric intensive care units will need to be specifically targeted at this high-risk patient group.

  1. Prophylactic teicoplanin during insertion of Hickman catheters.

    PubMed

    Lim, S H; Smith, M P; Machin, S J; Goldstone, A H

    1990-12-01

    With the extensive use of Hickman catheters in patients requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy there is now a resurgence of Gram-positive septicaemia among these patients during the neutropenic periods. We are currently running a prospective randomized study of prophylactic teicoplanin during insertion of Hickman catheters to determine if it reduces the incidence of Gram-positive septicaemia. A total of 44 patients have completed the study (23 in the teicoplanin group and 21 in the control group). The diagnoses were: acute myelogenous leukaemia (13), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (16), Hodgkin's disease (11), chronic granulocytic leukaemia (3) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (1). The number of days between insertion of Hickman catheters and the development of neutropenia was: teicoplanin group: mean 14.7, median 11, range 0-53; control group: mean 11.8, median 10, range 0-37. In the treated patients, there were four episodes of line-associated Gram-positive septicaemia and a total of four organisms were isolated. In the control group, 10 organisms were isolated from a total of nine episodes of line-associated Gram-positive septicaemia. The organisms were: coagulase-negative staphylococci (8), Streptococcus B, (1), Strep. faecalis (1), Strep. mitis (1), alpha streptococcus (1), diphtheriods (1) and Staphylococcus aureus (1). All organisms were sensitive to teicoplanin. No adverse reaction was observed in any patient. Prophylactic teicoplanin during insertion of Hickman catheters may therefore reduce the incidence of line-associated Gram-positive septicaemia in neutropenic patients.

  2. Infective and thrombotic complications of central venous catheters in patients with hematological malignancy: prospective evaluation of nontunneled devices.

    PubMed

    Worth, Leon J; Seymour, John F; Slavin, Monica A

    2009-07-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) is a significant complication in hematology patients. A range of CVC devices may be used, and risks for the development of complications are not uniform. The objectives of this study were to determine the natural history and rate of CVC-related complications and risk factors for CR-BSI and to compare device-specific complications in a hematology population. An observational cohort of patients with hematologic malignancy was prospectively studied following CVC insertion. Participants were reviewed until a CVC-related complication necessitated device removal, completion of therapy, death, or defined end-of-study date. The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance definition for CR-BSI was used. Overall and device-specific rates of infective and noninfective complications were calculated and potential risk factors were captured. One hundred six CVCs (75 peripherally inserted central venous catheters [PICCs], 31 nontunneled CVCs) were evaluated in 66 patients, over 2,399 CVC days. Thrombosis occurred in 16 cases (15.1%), exit-site infection in two (1.9%), and CR-BSI in 18 (7.5 per 1,000 CVC days). No significant differences were found when complication rates in PICC and nontunneled devices were compared. An underlying diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was negatively associated with CR-BSI (odds ratio (OR) 0.14, p = 0.046), and a previous diagnosis of fungal infection was associated with infection (OR 22.82, p = 0.031). CR-BSI rates in our hematology population are comparable to prior reports. A low rate of exit-site infection and high proportion of thrombotic complications were observed. No significant differences in thrombotic or infective complications were evident when PICC and nontunneled devices were compared. PICC devices are a practical and safe option for management of hematology patients.

  3. A comprehensive approach to the prevention of central venous catheter complications: results of 10-year prospective surveillance in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Cavaliere, Mara; Pegoraro, Anna; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Zadra, Nicola; Tridello, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    We report our decennial experience with 1161 newly-placed long-term central venous catheters inserted in 919 hematology-oncology patients for a total of 413,901 CVC-days of observation. Most of the CVCs were partially-implanted, open-ended, Broviac-Hickman type of CVC (95 %). One thousand and twenty-four complications were recorded equal to 2.47 per 1000 CVC-days. The frequency of complications per CVC, the rate of episodes per 1000 CVC-days, and removal rate were malfunction/occlusion 42 %, 1.18/1000, and 2.3 %; mechanical (dislodgement/rupture/kinking) 18.3 %, 0.51/1000, and 77.4 %; bacteremia 14.8 %, 0.42/1000, and 18.6 %; exit-site/tunnel infection 11.5 %, 0.32/1000, and 9.7 %; thrombosis 0.86 %, 0.02/1000, and 30 %; pneumothorax 0.52 %, 0.01/1000, and 0. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors were for mechanical complications, a younger age <6.1 years at CVC insertion (HR 1.8, p = 0.0006); for bacteremia, a double lumen CVC (HR 3.1, p < 0.0001) and the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.5, p = 0.03); for exit-site/tunnel infection, a double lumen CVC (HR 2.1, p = 0.0003) and a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.8, p = 0.01); for malfunction/occlusion, an age <6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0003), the diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.9, p < 0.0001) and double lumen CVC (HR 1.33, p = 0.023). The cumulative incidence of premature CVC removal was 29.2 % and the risk factors associated with this event were the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.4, p = 0.0153) and an age at CVC positioning less than 6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0025). We conclude that a best-practice set of rules resulted in reduced CVC complications.

  4. What features of educational interventions lead to competence in aseptic insertion and maintenance of CV catheters in acute care? BEME Guide No. 15.

    PubMed

    Cherry, M Gemma; Brown, Jeremy M; Neal, Timothy; Ben Shaw, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Up to 6000 patients per year in England acquire a central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection (Shapey et al. 2008 ). Implementation of Department of Health guidelines through educational interventions has resulted in significant and sustained reductions in CVC-related blood stream infections (Pronovost et al. 2002), and cost (Hu et al. 2004 ). This review aimed to determine the features of structured educational interventions that impact on competence in aseptic insertion technique and maintenance of CV catheters by healthcare workers. We looked at changes in infection control behaviour of healthcare workers, and considered changes in service delivery and the clinical welfare of patients involved, provided they were related directly to the delivery method of the educational intervention. A total of 9968 articles were reviewed, of which 47 articles met the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest implications for practice: First, educational interventions appear to have the most prolonged and profound effect when used in conjunction with audit, feedback, and availability of new clinical supplies consistent with the content of the education provided. Second, educational interventions will have a greater impact if baseline compliance to best practice is low. Third, repeated sessions, fed into daily practice, using practical participation appear to have a small, additional effect on practice change when compared to education alone. Active involvement from healthcare staff, in conjunction with the provision of formal responsibilities and motivation for change, may change healthcare worker practice.

  5. Are central venous catheter tip cultures reliable after 6-day refrigeration?

    PubMed

    Bouza, Emilio; Guembe, Maria; Gómez, Haydee; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Rivera, Marisa; Alcalá, Luis

    2009-07-01

    Present guidelines recommend culturing only central venous catheter (CVC) tips from patients with suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, a high proportion of these suspicions are not confirmed. Moreover, CVC tip culture increases laboratory workload, and reports of colonization may be meaningless or misleading for the clinician. Our working hypothesis was that CVC tips should be refrigerated and cultured only in patients with positive blood cultures. We evaluated the effect of 6-day refrigeration of 215 CVC tips. We selected all the catheters with a significant count according to the Maki's roll-plate technique and randomly assigned them to 2 groups. In group A, the catheters were recultured after 24 h of refrigeration, and in group B, the catheters were recultured after 6 days more of refrigeration, so that the refrigeration time evaluated would be of 6 days. The yield of refrigerated CVC tips that grow significant colony counts of primary culture in group B was compared with the yield of refrigerated catheter tips in group A. The difference showed that 6-day refrigeration reduced the number of significant CVCs by 15.2%. Only 61 CVCs were obtained from patients with CR-BSI, and in most of them, blood cultures were already positive before CVC culture, so only 0.91% of the CR-BSI episodes would have been misdiagnosed as culture negative after refrigeration. Refrigeration of CVC tips sent for culture and culturing only those from patients with positive blood cultures reduce the workload in the microbiology laboratory without misdiagnosing CR-BSI.

  6. Modified Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion: Comparison with a Conventional Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Kyu; Yang, Pil-Sung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-07-01

    The conventional trocar and cannula method in peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion has its limitation in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare a modified method for percutaneous PD catheter insertion with the conventional method, and demonstrate advantages of the modified method. Patients at a single center who had percutaneous PD catheters inserted by nephrologists from January 2006 until September 2012, using either a modified method (group M) or the conventional trocar and cannula method (group C), were retrospectively analyzed, in terms of baseline characteristics, complications experienced up to 3 months after the procedure, and the suitability of the procedure for patients. Group M included 82 subjects, while group C included 66 cases. The overall early complication rate in group M (1.2%) was significantly lower than that in group C (19.7%) (p<0.001). The catheter revision rate during timeframe for early complications was significantly lower in group M (0%) than in group C (6.1%) (p=0.024). When comparing Procedure time (1 h 3 min±16 min vs. 1 h 36 min±19 min, p<0.01), immediate post-procedural pain (2.43±1.80 vs. 3.14±2.07, p<0.05), and post-procedure days until ambulation (3.95±1.13 days vs. 6.17±1.34 days, p<0.01), group M was significantly lower than group C. There was no significant difference in total hospitalization period (14.71±7.05 days vs. 13.86±3.7 days). Our modified PD catheter insertion method shows its advantages in early complication rate, early complications revision rate, and the patients' conveniences.

  7. Factors Associated with Continuous Low Dose Heparin Infusion for Central Venous Catheter Patency in Critically Ill Children Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Onyeama, Sara-Jane N; Hanson, Sheila J; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Faustino, Edward Vincent S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify patient, hospital and central venous catheter (CVC) factors that may influence the use of low dose heparin infusion (LDHI) for CVC patency in critically ill-children. Design Secondary analysis of an international multicenter observational study. Setting 59 Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) over four study dates in 2012, involving 7 countries. Patients Children less than 18 years of age with a CVC, admitted to a participating unit and enrolled in the completed PROTRACT study were included. All overflow patients were excluded. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of the 2,484 patients in the PROTRACT study, 1,312 patients had a CVC. 507 of those patients used LDHI. The frequency of LDHI was compared across various patient, hospital and CVC factors using chi-squared, Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests. In the multivariate analysis, age was not a significant factor for LDHI use. Patients with pulmonary hypertension had decreased LDHI use while those with active surgical or trauma diagnoses had increased LDHI use. All central CVC insertion sites were more likely to use LDHI when compared to peripherally inserted CVCs. The Asia-Pacific region showed increased LDHI use, along with community hospitals and smaller ICUs (<10 beds). Conclusion Patient, CVC, and hospital factors are associated with the use of LDHI in critically ill children. Further study is needed to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of LDHI use. PMID:27362853

  8. Cost savings from reduced catheter-related bloodstream infection after simulation-based education for residents in a medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elaine R; Feinglass, Joe; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Barnard, Cynthia; O'Donnell, Anna; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2010-04-01

    Interventions to reduce preventable complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) can also decrease hospital costs. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of simulation-based education. The aim of this study was to estimate hospital cost savings related to a reduction in CRBSI after simulation training for residents. This was an intervention evaluation study estimating cost savings related to a simulation-based intervention in central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at an urban teaching hospital. After residents completed a simulation-based mastery learning program in CVC insertion, CRBSI rates declined sharply. Case-control and regression analysis methods were used to estimate savings by comparing CRBSI rates in the year before and after the intervention. Annual savings from reduced CRBSIs were compared with the annual cost of simulation training. Approximately 9.95 CRBSIs were prevented among MICU patients with CVCs in the year after the intervention. Incremental costs attributed to each CRBSI were approximately $82,000 in 2008 dollars and 14 additional hospital days (including 12 MICU days). The annual cost of the simulation-based education was approximately $112,000. Net annual savings were thus greater than $700,000, a 7 to 1 rate of return on the simulation training intervention. A simulation-based educational intervention in CVC insertion was highly cost-effective. These results suggest that investment in simulation training can produce significant medical care cost savings.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore hospital-based nurses' intention to use peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC): a survey study.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Laura; Carone, Maria; Caricati, Luca; Demaria, Serena; Fantuzzi, Silvia; Guarasci, Alessandro; Pirazzoli, Luca

    2016-11-22

    The peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) have become an alternative to the traditional CVC. PICCs are usually inserted by trained nurses who decided to attend and complete a special training on PICC insertion and management. The present work aimed to investigate the intention of using PICC in a sample of hospital-based nurses using the theory of planned behavior as theoretical framework. A cross-sectional design was used in which a questionnaire was delivered to 199 nurses. According to the theory of planned behavior, the attitude toward the use of PICC, subjective norms and perceived self-efficacy predicted the intention to use PICC. Contrary to the expectations, the effect of subjective norms on intention to use PICC was mediated by attitude and self-efficacy. Finally, age of participants was negatively related to the intention to use the PICC. The theory of planned behavior offers a useful framework to explain nurses' intention to use PICC. Shared norms favoring the use of PICC seem to increase both nurse's positive attitudes and self-efficacy whit respect to the use of these devices. Thus, it appears that to train professionals individually does not necessarily results in an increased use of PICC.

  10. [Incidence of phlebitis due to peripherally inserted venous catheters: impact of a catheter management protocol].

    PubMed

    Ferrete-Morales, C; Vázquez-Pérez, M A; Sánchez-Berna, M; Gilabert-Cerro, I; Corzo-Delgado, J E; Pineda-Vergara, J A; Vergara-López, S; Gómez-Mateos, J

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact on the incidence of PPIVC by implementing a catheter management protocol and to determine risk factors for PPIVC development in hospitalized patients. A total of 3978 episodes of venous catheterization were prospectively included from September 2002 to December 2007. A catheter management protocol was implemented during this period of time. The incidence and variables associated to the occurrence of PPIVC were determined. The incidence of PPIVC from 2002 to 2007 was 4.8%, 4.3%, 3.6%, 2.5%, 1.3% and 1.8% (p<0.001). Perfusion of amiodarone [adjusted OR (AOR) 25.97; 95% CI=7.29-92.55, p=0.0001] and cefotaxime (AOR 2.90; 95% CI=1.29-6.52, p=0.01) and the shift when the catheters were placed (AOR for morning vs. night shift 0.60; 95% CI=0.35-1.02, p=0.063) were independently associated to the development of PPIVC. A history of phlebitis was the only factor independently associated to phlebitis due to peripherally inserted central venous catheters (AOR 3.24; CI at 95% CI= 1.05-9.98, p=0.04). A catheter management protocol decreases the incidence of PPIVC in hospitalized patients. The risk of PPIVC increases for peripherally inserted central venous catheters when the patients have a history of phlebitis and for peripheral venous catheters when amiodarone or cefotaxime are infused. Catheterization of peripheral veins performed during morning shifts is associated with a lower incidence of PPIVC when compared with night shift catheterizations.

  11. Modified Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion: Comparison with a Conventional Method

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Kyu; Yang, Pil-Sung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Kyu Hun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The conventional trocar and cannula method in peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion has its limitation in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare a modified method for percutaneous PD catheter insertion with the conventional method, and demonstrate advantages of the modified method. Materials and Methods Patients at a single center who had percutaneous PD catheters inserted by nephrologists from January 2006 until September 2012, using either a modified method (group M) or the conventional trocar and cannula method (group C), were retrospectively analyzed, in terms of baseline characteristics, complications experienced up to 3 months after the procedure, and the suitability of the procedure for patients. Results Group M included 82 subjects, while group C included 66 cases. The overall early complication rate in group M (1.2%) was significantly lower than that in group C (19.7%) (p<0.001). The catheter revision rate during timeframe for early complications was significantly lower in group M (0%) than in group C (6.1%) (p=0.024). When comparing Procedure time (1 h 3 min±16 min vs. 1 h 36 min±19 min, p<0.01), immediate post-procedural pain (2.43±1.80 vs. 3.14±2.07, p<0.05), and post-procedure days until ambulation (3.95±1.13 days vs. 6.17±1.34 days, p<0.01), group M was significantly lower than group C. There was no significant difference in total hospitalization period (14.71±7.05 days vs. 13.86±3.7 days). Conclusion Our modified PD catheter insertion method shows its advantages in early complication rate, early complications revision rate, and the patients' conveniences. PMID:26069120

  12. Direction of catheter insertion and the incidence of paresthesia during continuous epidural anesthesia in the elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hak; Lee, Jun Seop

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous epidural anesthesia is useful for endoscopic urologic surgery, as mostly performed in the elderly patients. In such a case, it is necessary to obtain successful sacral anesthesia, and the insertion of epidural catheter in the caudad direction may be needed. However, continuous epidural catherization has been related to paresthesias. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the direction of the catheter insertion on the incidence of paresthesias in the elderly patients. Methods Two hundred elderly patients scheduled for endoscopic urologic surgery were enrolled. The epidural catheter was inserted at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 using the Tuohy needle. In Group I (n = 100), the Tuohy needle with the bevel directed the cephalad during the catheter insertion. In Group II (n = 100), it directed the caudad. During the catheter insertion, an anesthesiologist evaluated the presence of paresthesias and the ease or difficulty during the catheter insertion. Results In Group I (n = 97), 15.5% of the patients had paresthesias versus 18.4% in Group II (n = 98), and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In paresthesia depending on the insertion site and the ease or difficulty during the catheter insertion, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions Our results concluded that the direction of epidural catheter insertion did not significantly influence the incidence of paresthesias in the elderly patients. PMID:23741568

  13. Environmental Exposures and the Risk of Central Venous Catheter Complications and Readmissions in Home Infusion Therapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Sara C.; Williams, Deborah; Gavgani, Mitra; Hirsch, David; Adamovich, John; Hohl, Dawn; Krosche, Amanda; Cosgrove, Sara; Perl, Trish M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients are frequently discharged with central venous catheters (CVCs) for home infusion therapy. OBJECTIVE To study a prospective cohort of patients receiving home infusion therapy to identify environmental and other risk factors for complications. DESIGN Prospective cohort study between March and December 2015. SETTING Home infusion therapy after discharge from academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Of 368 eligible patients discharged from 2 academic hospitals to home with peripherally inserted central catheters and tunneled CVCs, 222 consented. Patients remained in the study until 30 days after CVC removal. METHODS Patients underwent chart abstraction and monthly telephone surveys while the CVC was in place, focusing on complications and environmental exposures. Multivariable analyses estimated adjusted odds ratios and adjusted incident rate ratios between clinical, demographic, and environmental risk factors and 30-day readmissions or CVC complications. RESULTS Of 222 patients, total parenteral nutrition was associated with increased 30-day readmissions (adjusted odds ratio, 4.80 [95% CI, 1.51–15.21) and CVC complications (adjusted odds ratio, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.09–5.33]). Exposure to soil through gardening or yard work was associated with a decreased likelihood of readmissions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01–0.74]). Other environmental exposures were not associated with CVC complications. CONCLUSIONS complications and readmissions were common and associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition. Common environmental exposures (well water, cooking with raw meat, or pets) did not increase the rate of CVC complications, whereas soil exposures were associated with decreased readmissions. Interventions to decrease home CVC complications should focus on total parenteral nutrition patients. PMID:27697084

  14. Environmental Exposures and the Risk of Central Venous Catheter Complications and Readmissions in Home Infusion Therapy Patients.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sara C; Williams, Deborah; Gavgani, Mitra; Hirsch, David; Adamovich, John; Hohl, Dawn; Krosche, Amanda; Cosgrove, Sara; Perl, Trish M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients are frequently discharged with central venous catheters (CVCs) for home infusion therapy. OBJECTIVE To study a prospective cohort of patients receiving home infusion therapy to identify environmental and other risk factors for complications. DESIGN Prospective cohort study between March and December 2015. SETTING Home infusion therapy after discharge from academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Of 368 eligible patients discharged from 2 academic hospitals to home with peripherally inserted central catheters and tunneled CVCs, 222 consented. Patients remained in the study until 30 days after CVC removal. METHODS Patients underwent chart abstraction and monthly telephone surveys while the CVC was in place, focusing on complications and environmental exposures. Multivariable analyses estimated adjusted odds ratios and adjusted incident rate ratios between clinical, demographic, and environmental risk factors and 30-day readmissions or CVC complications. RESULTS Of 222 patients, total parenteral nutrition was associated with increased 30-day readmissions (adjusted odds ratio, 4.80 [95% CI, 1.51-15.21) and CVC complications (adjusted odds ratio, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.09-5.33]). Exposure to soil through gardening or yard work was associated with a decreased likelihood of readmissions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01-0.74]). Other environmental exposures were not associated with CVC complications. CONCLUSIONS complications and readmissions were common and associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition. Common environmental exposures (well water, cooking with raw meat, or pets) did not increase the rate of CVC complications, whereas soil exposures were associated with decreased readmissions. Interventions to decrease home CVC complications should focus on total parenteral nutrition patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-8.

  15. A phase III, open-label, single-arm study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Tebbi, Cameron; Costanzi, John; Shulman, Robert; Dreisbach, Luke; Jacobs, Brian R; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in a phase III, single-arm study, the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic agent tenecteplase in restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). Pediatric and adult patients with dysfunctional CVCs were eligible to receive as much as 2 mL (2 mg) of intraluminal tenecteplase, which was left to dwell in the CVC lumen for a maximum of 120 minutes. If CVC function was not restored at 120 minutes, a second dose was instilled for an additional 120 minutes. Tenecteplase was administered to 246 patients. Mean patient age was 44 years (range, 0-92 y); 72 patients (29%) were younger than 17 years of age. Chemotherapy was the most common reason for catheter insertion. Restoration of CVC function was achieved in 177 patients (72%) within 120 minutes after the first dose. After instillation of a maximum of two doses of tenecteplase, CVC function was restored in 200 patients (81%), with similar frequencies in pediatric (83%) and adult (80%) patients. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 31 patients (13%); fever (2%), neutropenia (1%), and nausea (0.8%) were most common. One serious AE, an allergic hypersensitivity reaction, was judged to be related to tenecteplase and/or a chemotherapeutic agent that the patient was receiving concurrently. Consecutive administration of one or two doses of tenecteplase into CVCs showed efficacy in the restoration of catheter function in patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hub qualitative blood culture is useful for diagnosis of catheter-related infections in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Michèle; Seguin, Philippe; Laviolle, Bruno; Desbordes, Laurent; Mallédant, Yannick

    2005-05-01

    To assess clinical safety and accuracy of qualitative blood culture drawn through the hub for ruling out catheter-related infection (CRI). Prospective observational study in a surgical intensive care unit. All patients with sepsis of unknown origin and possibly due to a CRI. Blood culture drawn through a central venous catheter (CVC) just before the catheter was cultured. In 126 patients we investigated 135 cases of sepsis of unknown origin. Using a clinical and bacteriological approach as the reference, the performance of the CVC blood culture was evaluated by the calculation of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. When CVC blood culture was positive, the time to positivity was considered. Using standard definitions, seven CRIs were diagnosed. CVC blood culture identified five CRIs including the three episodes of catheter-related bacteremia. The method missed two coagulase-negative staphylococcus CRIs without bacteremia. Thirteen false-positive results occurred, including seven bacteremias from a distant source. The CVC blood culture had a sensitivity of 71% (CI 30-95%), specificity of 90% (CI 83-94%), negative predictive value of 98% (CI 93-100%), and positive predictive value of 28% (CI 11-54%). In cases of catheter-related bacteremia the time to positivity of CVC blood culture was 24 h or less. Negative CVC blood culture at 24 h seems useful for management of CVC in selected critically ill surgical patients developing a clinical sepsis. The subsequent risk of catheter-related bacteremia cannot be excluded advocating for an uninterrupted clinical and bacteriological survey.

  17. Laparoscopic versus Open Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Sander M.; Lafranca, Jeffrey A.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dialysis is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. Key to successful peritoneal dialysis is a well-functioning catheter. The different insertion techniques may be of great importance. Mostly, the standard operative approach is the open technique; however, laparoscopic insertion is increasingly popular. Catheter malfunction is reported up to 35% for the open technique and up to 13% for the laparoscopic technique. However, evidence is lacking to definitely conclude that the laparoscopic approach is to be preferred. This review and meta-analysis was carried out to investigate if one of the techniques is superior to the other. Methods Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2012, issue 10). Reference lists were searched manually. The methodology was in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for interventional systematic reviews, and written based on the PRISMA-statement. Results Three randomized controlled trials and eight cohort studies were identified. Nine postoperative outcome measures were meta-analyzed; of these, seven were not different between operation techniques. Based on the meta-analysis, the proportion of migrating catheters was lower (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.63; P = 0.006), and the one-year catheter survival was higher in the laparoscopic group (OR 3.93, CI 1.80 to 8.57; P = 0.0006). Conclusions Based on these results there is some evidence in favour of the laparoscopic insertion technique for having a higher one-year catheter survival and less migration, which would be clinically relevant. PMID:23457554

  18. Is it feasible to diagnose catheter-related candidemia without catheter withdrawal?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Suárez-Salas, Marisol; Rojas-Wettig, Loreto; Pérez, María Jesús; Guinea, Jesús; Guembe, María; Peláez, Teresa; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    Many bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) are not catheter-related (CR). Assessment of catheter involvement without catheter withdrawal has not been studied in candidemia. We assessed the value of conservative techniques to evaluate catheters as the origin of candidemia in patients with CVC in a prospective cohort study (superficial Gram stain and culture, Kite technique (Gram stain and culture of the first 1 cm blood drawn from the CVC), proportion of positive blood cultures (PPBCs), differential time to positivity (DTP), and minimal time to positivity (MTP)). All catheters were cultured at withdrawal. From June 2008 to January 2012, 22 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CR-candidemia (CRC) was confirmed in 10. Validity values for predicting CRC were: superficial Gram stain (S, 30%; Sp, 81.83%; PPV, 60%; NPV, 56.3%; Ac, 57.1%), superficial cultures (S, 40%; Sp, 75%; PPV, 57.1%; NPV, 60%; Ac, 59.1%), Kite Gram stain (S, 33.3%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 50%; NPV, 50%; Ac, 50%), Kite culture (S, 80%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 80%; Ac, 72.7%), PPBC (S, 50%; Sp, 41.7%; PPV, 41.7%; NPV, 50.0%; Ac, 45.5%), DTP (S, 100%; Sp, 33.3%; PPV, 55.6%; NPV, 100%; Ac, 63.6%), and MTTP (S, 70%; Sp, 58.3%; PPV, 58.3%; NPV, 70%; Ac, 63.6%). While combinations of two tests improved sensitivity and NPV, more than two tests did not improve validity values. Classic tests to assess CR-BSI caused by bacteria cannot be reliably used to diagnose CRC. Combinations of tests could be useful, but more and larger studies are required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. An intervention to improve the catheter associated urinary tract infection rate in a medical intensive care unit: Direct observation of catheter insertion procedure.

    PubMed

    Galiczewski, Janet M; Shurpin, Kathleen M

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare associated infections from indwelling urinary catheters lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if direct observation of the urinary catheter insertion procedure, as compared to the standard process, decreased catheter utilization and urinary tract infection rates. This case control study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit. During phase I, a retrospective data review was conducted on utilsiation and urinary catheter infection rates when practitioners followed the institution's standard insertion algorithm. During phase II, an intervention of direct observation was added to the standard insertion procedure. The results demonstrated no change in utilization rates, however, CAUTI rates decreased from 2.24 to 0 per 1000 catheter days. The findings from this study may promote changes in clinical practice guidelines leading to a reduction in urinary catheter utilization and infection rates and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barnacle, Alex M., E-mail: alexbarnacle@yahoo.co.uk; Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  1. Small bowel injury after suprapubic catheter insertion presenting 3 years after initial insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kevin M; Good, Daniel W; Brush, John P; Al-hasso, Ammar; Stewart, Grant D

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to urology with blockages of her suprapubic catheter (SPC). The catheter was replaced easily in the emergency department, however, no urine was draining, only a cloudy green fluid was visible. On cystoscopy bilious material was identified in the bladder. There was no catheter visible. There seemed to be a fistulous tract entering the bladder at the left dome. The urethra was dilated, a urethral catheter was placed and the SPC was removed. A CT demonstrated that the SPC tract transfixed a loop of pelvic small bowel and entered the bladder with no intraperitoneal contrast leak. The patient recovered well and did not require laparotomy. This case emphasises that bowel perforation, although rare, must be considered as a complication of SPC placement even years after initial insertion when catheter problems arise. Unusually, we learn that this complication may not present with abdominal pain or peritonism. PMID:24326435

  2. Cross sectional survey of ultrasound use for central venous catheter insertion among resident physicians.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Jason T; Sierzenski, Paul R; Nace, Jason E; Bollinger, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    Use of ultrasound guidance for Central Venous Catheter insertion has been associated with decreased complications and increased success rates. Previous reports show low rates of use among physicians. Evaluation of the frequency of Ultrasound Guidance use for Central Venous Catheter insertion among residents at a teaching institution. A cross sectional electronic survey of resident physicians at a tertiary care teaching hospital was conducted to evaluate use of Ultrasound Guidance for Central Venous Catheterization. Assessment included self reported frequency of ultrasound guidance use, and volume of central venous catheter placement. Attitudes toward the use of ultrasound were assessed using Likert scales. There is a high rate. over 90%, of ultrasound guidance use for Internal Jugular central venous catheters among residents. The majority of residents use sterile real-time imaging with a single operator with a reported success rate greater then 80%. Resident use of ultrasound guidance for Internal Jugular central venous catheter insertion can be much higher than previously reported in the literature.

  3. Prediction of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified Infection Probability Score (mIPS).

    PubMed

    Schalk, Enrico; Hanus, Lynn; Färber, Jacqueline; Fischer, Thomas; Heidel, Florian H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the probability of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified version of the Infection Probability Score (mIPS). In order to perform a prospective, mono-centric surveillance of complications in clinical routine due to short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in consecutive patients receiving chemotherapy from March 2013 to September 2014, IPS was calculated at CVC insertion and removal (mIPSin and mIPSex, respectively). We used the 2012 Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO/DGHO) criteria to define CRBSI. In total, 143 patients (mean 59.5 years, 61.4 % male) with 267 triple-lumen CVCs (4044 CVC days; mean 15.1 days, range 1-60 days) were analysed. CVCs were inserted for therapy of acute leukaemia (53.2 %), multiple myeloma (24.3 %) or lymphoma (11.2 %), and 93.6 % were inserted in the jugular vein. A total of 66 CRBSI cases (24.7 %) were documented (12 definite/13 probable/41 possible). The incidence was 16.3/1000 CVC days (2.9/3.1/10.1 per 1000 CVC days for definite/probable/possible CRBSI, respectively). In CRBSI cases, the mIPSex was higher as compared to cases without CRBSI (13.1 vs. 7.1; p < 0.001). The best mIPSex cutoff for CRBSI prediction was 8 points (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.77; sensitivity = 84.9 %, specificity = 60.7 %, negative predictive value = 92.4 %). For patients with an mIPSex ≥8, the risk for a CRBSI was high (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9; p < 0.001) and even increased if, additionally, CVC had been in use for about 10 days (OR = 9.8; p < 0.001). In case other causes of infection are excluded, a mIPSex ≥8 and duration of CVC use of about 10 days predict a very high risk of CRBSI. Patients with a mIPSex <8 have a low risk of CRBSI of 8 %.

  4. Clinical implications of acute pelvicaliceal hematoma formation during percutaneous catheter nephrostomy insertion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jessica K; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    To determine the clinical implications of acute pelvicaliceal hematoma formation during percutaneous catheter nephrostomy (PCN) insertion. Collecting system hematoma burden was retrospectively assessed for 694 PCN insertions in 502 patients. Pelvicaliceal hematoma formation occurred in 146 kidneys (21%) in 136 patients. Clinically significant blood loss occurred in 3 patients with hematomas within one week compared to 4 patients without hematomas (p=0.39). Twenty-four patients with hematomas underwent catheter exchange within one week, compared to 55 patients without hematomas (p=0.49). Pelvicaliceal hematoma formation after PCN insertion is not uncommon and is associated with very rare clinical sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization in cancer patients improves the success rate of cannulation and reduces mechanical complications: A prospective observational study of 1,978 consecutive catheterizations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A central venous catheter (CVC) currently represents the most frequently adopted intravenous line for patients undergoing infusional chemotherapy and/or high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and parenteral nutrition. CVC insertion represents a risk for pneumothorax, nerve or arterial punctures. The aim of this prospective observational study was to explore the safety and efficacy of CVC insertion under ultrasound (US) guidance and to confirm its utility in clinical practice in cancer patients. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the oncology-hematology department were eligible if they had solid or hematologic malignancies and required CVC insertion. Four types of possible complication were defined a priore: mechanical, thrombotic, infection and malfunctioning. The patient was placed in Trendelenburg's position, a 7.5 MHZ puncturing US probe was placed in the supraclavicular site and a 16-gauge needle was advanced under real-time US guidance into the last portion of internal jugular vein. The Seldinger technique was used to place the catheter, which was advanced into the superior vena cava until insertion into right atrium. Within two hours after each procedure, an upright chest X-ray and ultrasound scanning were carried out to confirm the CVC position and to rule out a pneumotorax. CVC-related infections, symptomatic vein thrombosis and malfunctioning were recorded. Results From December 2000 to January 2009, 1,978 CVC insertional procedures were applied to 1,660 consecutive patients. The procedure was performed 580 times in patients with hematologic malignancies and 1,398 times those with solid tumors. A single-needle puncture of the vein was performed on 1,948 of 1,978 procedures (98.48%); only eighteen attempts among 1,978 failed (0.9%). No pneumotorax, no major bleeding, and no nerve puncture were reported; four cases (0.2%) showed self-limiting hematomas. The mean lifespan of CVC was 189.7 +/- 18.6 days (range

  6. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Desai, Shamit S., E-mail: shamit.desai@northwestern.edu; Konanur, Meghana; Foltz, Gretchen

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared andmore » externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.« less

  7. Complications of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jose Amo-Setién, Francisco; Herrero-Montes, Manuel; Olavarría-Beivíde, Encarnación; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Torres-Manrique, Blanca; Rodríguez-de la Vega, Carlos; Caso-Álvarez, Vanesa; González-Parralo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim The use of venous catheters is a widespread practice, especially in oncological and oncohematological units. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complications associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in a cohort of patients. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we included all patient carrying PICCs (n = 603) inserted at our institute between October 2010 and December 2013. The main variables collected were medical diagnosis, catheter care, location, duration of catheterization, reasons for catheter removal, complications, and nursing care. Complications were classified as infection, thrombosis, phlebitis, migration, edema, and/or ecchymosis. Results All patients were treated according to the same “nursing care” protocol. The incidence rate of complications was two cases per 1000 days of catheter duration. The most relevant complications were infection and thrombosis, both with an incidence of 0.17 cases per 1000 days of the total catheterization period. The total average duration of catheterization was 170 days [SD 6.06]. Additionally to “end of treatment” (48.42%) and “exitus”, (22.53%) the most frequent cause of removal was migration (displacement towards the exterior) of the catheter (5.80%). Conclusions PICCs are safe devices that allow the administration of long-term treatment and preserve the integrity of the venous system of the patient. Proper care of the catheter is very important to improve the quality life of patients with oncologic and hematologic conditions. Therefore, correct training of professionals and patients as well as following the latest scientific recommendations are particularly relevant. PMID:27588946

  8. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients: factors associated with catheter removal and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Yaniv, Isaac; Solter, Ester; Freud, Enrique; Samra, Zmira; Stein, Jerry; Fisher, Salvador; Levy, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the factors associated with antibiotic failure leading to tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) removal during catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) and with recurrence and reinfection in children with cancer. All cases of CABSI in patients attending the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between November 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed. A total of 207 episodes of CABSI, including multiple episodes involving the same catheter, were identified in 146 of 410 tunneled CVCs (167 Hickman, 243 implantable ports). The most common organism isolated was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS). The CVC was removed in 96 (46%) episodes. Hypotension, persistent bacteremia, previous stem cell transplantation, multiple CABSIs in the same CVC, exit-site infection, inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy, and Candida infection were all significantly associated with increased risk of catheter removal (P < 0.05, odds ratios 7.81, 1.14, 2.22, 1.93, 3.04, 2.04 and 24.53, respectively). There were 12 episodes of recurrent infection, all except 1 caused by CONS (odds ratio 20.5, P = 0.006). Inappropriate empiric therapy, especially in implantable ports, was the only mutable risk factor for antibiotic failure. Because CONS was the predominant isolate in these devices, adding glycopeptides to the empiric therapy for suspected implantable-port CABSI might decrease the removal rate. This issue should be explored in future controlled trials.

  9. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Debourdeau, P; Farge, D; Beckers, M; Baglin, C; Bauersachs, R M; Brenner, B; Brilhante, D; Falanga, A; Gerotzafias, G T; Haim, N; Kakkar, A K; Khorana, A A; Lecumberri, R; Mandala, M; Marty, M; Monreal, M; Mousa, S A; Noble, S; Pabinger, I; Prandoni, P; Prins, M H; Qari, M H; Streiff, M B; Syrigos, K; Büller, H R; Bounameaux, H

    2013-01-01

    Although long-term indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) and loss of the CVC, there is lack of consensus on management of CVC-related thrombosis (CRT) in cancer patients and heterogeneity in clinical practices worldwide. To establish common international Good Clinical Practices Guidelines (GCPG) for the management of CRT in cancer patients. An international working group of experts was set up to develop GCPG according to an evidence-based medicine approach, using the GRADE system. For the treatment of established CRT in cancer patients, we found no prospective randomized studies, two non-randomized prospective studies and one retrospective study examining the efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). One retrospective study evaluated the benefit of CVC removal and two small retrospective studies were on thrombolytic drugs. For the treatment of symptomatic CRT, anticoagulant treatment (AC) is recommended for a minimum of 3 months; in this setting, LMWHs are suggested. VKAs can also be used, in the absence of direct comparisons of these two types of anticoagulants in this setting [Guidance]. The CVC can be kept in place if it is functional, well-positioned and non-infected and there is good resolution under close surveillance; whether the CVC is kept or removed, no standard approach in terms of AC duration has been established [Guidance]. For the prophylaxis of CRT in cancer patients, we found six randomized studies investigating the efficacy and safety of VKA vs. placebo or no treatment, one on the efficacy and safety of unfractionnated heparin, six on the value of LMWH, one double-blind randomized and one non randomized study on thrombolytic drugs and six meta-analyses of AC and CVC thromboprophylaxis. Type of catheter (open-ended like the Hickman(®) catheter vs. closed-ended catheter with a valve like the Groshong(®) catheter), its position (above, below or at the

  10. Neonatal atrial flutter after insertion of an intracardiac umbilical venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Marcos Moura; Tavares, Wládia Gislaynne de Sousa; Furtado, Maria Mônica Alencar Araripe; Fontenele, Maria Marcia Farias Trajano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe a case of neonatal atrial flutter after the insertion of an intracardiac umbilical venous catheter, reporting the clinical presentation and reviewing the literature on this subject. Case description: A late-preterm newborn, born at 35 weeks of gestational age to a diabetic mother and large for gestational age, with respiratory distress and rule-out sepsis, required an umbilical venous access. After the insertion of the umbilical venous catheter, the patient presented with tachycardia. Chest radiography showed that the catheter was placed in the position that corresponds to the left atrium, and traction was applied. The patient persisted with tachycardia, and an electrocardiogram showed atrial flutter. As the patient was hemodynamically unstable, electric cardioversion was successfully applied. Comments: The association between atrial arrhythmias and misplaced umbilical catheters has been described in the literature, but in this case, it is noteworthy that the patient was an infant born to a diabetic mother, which consists in another risk factor for heart arrhythmias. Isolated atrial flutter is a rare tachyarrhythmia in the neonatal period and its identification is essential to establish early treatment and prevent systemic complications and even death. PMID:26525686

  11. Access technique and its problems in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 9

    PubMed Central

    Jauch, K. W.; Schregel, W.; Stanga, Z.; Bischoff, S. C.; Braß, P.; Hartl, W.; Muehlebach, S.; Pscheidl, E.; Thul, P.; Volk, O.

    2009-01-01

    Catheter type, access technique, and the catheter position should be selected considering to the anticipated duration of PN aiming at the lowest complication risks (infectious and non-infectious). Long-term (>7–10 days) parenteral nutrition (PN) requires central venous access whereas for PN <3 weeks percutaneously inserted catheters and for PN >3 weeks subcutaneous tunnelled catheters or port systems are appropriate. CVC (central venous catheter) should be flushed with isotonic NaCl solution before and after PN application and during CVC occlusions. Strict indications are required for central venous access placement and the catheter should be removed as soon as possible if not required any more. Blood samples should not to be taken from the CVC. If catheter infection is suspected, peripheral blood-culture samples and culture samples from each catheter lumen should be taken simultaneously. Removal of the CVC should be carried out immediately if there are pronounced signs of local infection at the insertion site and/or clinical suspicion of catheter-induced sepsis. In case PN is indicated for a short period (max. 7–10 days), a peripheral venous access can be used if no hyperosmolar solutions (>800 mosm/L) or solutions with a high titration acidity or alkalinity are used. A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) can remain in situ for as long as it is clinically required unless there are signs of inflammation at the insertion site. PMID:20049083

  12. Evaluation of a central venous catheter tip placement for superior vena cava–subclavian central venous catheterization using a premeasured length

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Jeong, Young-Il; Jun, In-Gu; Moon, Young-Jin; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Subclavian central venous catheterization is a common procedure for which misplacement of the central venous catheter (CVC) is a frequent complication that can potentially be fatal. The carina is located in the mid-zone of the superior vena cava (SVC) and is considered a reliable landmark for CVC placement in chest radiographs. The C-length, defined as the distance from the edge of the right transverse process of the first thoracic spine to the carina, can be measured in posteroanterior chest radiographs using a picture archiving and communication system. To evaluate the placement of the tip of the CVC in subclavian central venous catheterizations using the C-length, we reviewed the medical records and chest radiographs of 122 adult patients in whom CVC catheterization was performed (from January 2012 to December 2014) via the right subclavian vein using the C-length. The tips of all subclavian CVCs were placed in the SVC using the C-length. No subclavian CVC entered the right atrium. Tip placement was not affected by demographic characteristics such as age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index. The evidence indicates that the C-length on chest radiographs can be used to determine the available insertion length and place the right subclavian CVC tip into the SVC. PMID:29480861

  13. Management of complications related to central venous catheters in cancer patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are important for the treatment of patients with cancer, especially in the perioperative and palliative care settings. These devices not only allow for the administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and other intravenous therapies, but they may also improve the patients' quality of life by reducing the need for repeated peripheral venipunctures. Thrombotic and infectious complications are common, especially in the long-term use of CVCs. There are different types of thrombotic complications associated with CVCs, that is, a thrombotic occlusion of the catheter, a mural thrombus at the catheter tip and classical deep vein thrombosis, which occurs most frequently in the upper extremity where the majority of long-term catheters are inserted. Infections are common complications associated with CVCs. Patients with cancer who receive intensive chemotherapy and those patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a markedly increased risk for insertion site and bloodstream infections. In this review, the epidemiology and risk factors that predispose patients to CVC-related thrombosis and infection are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the published data and the current guidelines are summarized and data for establishing primary and secondary preventative strategies are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Ultrasound confirmation of central venous catheter position via a right supraclavicular fossa view using a microconvex probe: an observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Heinze, Ingo; Schmiedel, Alexandra; Baumgarten, Georg; Knuefermann, Pascal; Hoeft, Andreas; Weber, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Visualisation of a central venous catheter (CVC) with ultrasound is restricted to the internal jugular vein (IJV). CVC tip position is confirmed by chest radiography, intracardiac ECG or transoesophageal/transthoracic echocardiography (TEE/TTE). We explored the feasibility, safety and accuracy of a right supraclavicular view for visualisation of the lower superior vena cava (SVC) and the right pulmonary artery (RPA) as an ultrasound landmark for real-time ultrasound-guided CVC tip positioning via the right IJV. Ultrasound was then compared with chest radiography. An observational pilot study. Bonn, University Hospital, Germany. From July to October 2012. Fifty-one patients scheduled for elective surgery. Reasons for exclusion were emergency procedure, thrombosis or small IJV lumen and mechanical obstacle to guidewire advancement. In 48 patients, CVC insertion via the right IJV and progress of the guidewire into the lower SVC were continuously guided by an ultrasound transducer in the right supraclavicular fossa. CVC tip position in lower SVC and tip-to-carina distance were assessed with chest radiography as a reference method and additionally with TEE in cardiothoracic patients. Insertion depth was compared with intracardiac ECG and body-height formula. The guidewire tip was seen in the SVC of all patients. In four patients, the tip was not visible in proximity of the RPA. Chest radiography and TEE confirmed CVC tip position in the lower SVC (zone A). Bland-Altman analysis revealed an average of difference of 1.6 cm for ultrasound versus ECG (95% limit of agreement -2 to 5 cm) and an average of difference of 1 cm for ultrasound versus body-height formula (95% limit of agreement -2 to 4 cm). Ultrasound via a right supraclavicular view is a feasible, well tolerated and accurate approach and should be further explored. Chest radiography confirmed CVC position in the lower SVC.

  15. Comparison of delayed complications of central venous catheters placed surgically or radiologically in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Basford, Tavis J; Poenaru, Dan; Silva, Mariana

    2003-05-01

    Pediatric central venous catheters (CVCs) traditionally have been placed surgically, guided by anatomic landmarks. Increasingly, interventional radiology services are inserting CVCs using ultrasound image guidance. This study compares the frequency of delayed complications in CVCs placed surgically or radiologically in a pediatric oncology population. Data on CVCs placed in one academic institution over 10 years were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Main outcomes assessed were infectious complications, mechanical complications, and premature catheter removal. Ninety-eight CVCs-comprising 52 external tunneled catheters (ETCs) and 46 subcutaneous ports-were assessed in 67 patients. Median patient age was 6.1 years for children with external catheters and 7.8 years for those with ports. Both infectious and mechanical complications were significantly more common among surgically placed ETCs than those placed radiologically (P <.05). Complications per 1,000 catheter days and premature removal showed a trend toward greater frequency among surgical ETCs, although this did not reach statistical significance. No consistent trends were seen in complications among ports. Pediatric patients with CVCs, especially those with external catheters, experience frequent delayed complications. Patients with radiologically inserted ETCs may encounter fewer complications than those with surgically placed ones. This corroborates previous reports in the literature suggesting image-guided CVC placement as a preferable alternative to traditional techniques. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The ISP (Safe Insertion of PICCs) protocol: a bundle of 8 recommendations to minimize the complications related to the peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC)].

    PubMed

    Emoli, Alessandro; Cappuccio, Serena; Marche, Bruno; Musarò, Andrea; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The ISP (Safe Insertion of PICCs) protocol: a bundle of 8 recommendations to minimize the complications related to the peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC). The insertion of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is not without risks. The Italian Group for the Study of Long-Term Central Venous Access Devices (GAVeCeLT) has developed a protocol (SIP: Safe Implantation of PICCs) with the aim of minimizing the risks which may be associated with the placement of PICCs. The protocol is based on recommendations available in the literature and on the main clinical practice guidelines. The SIP protocol, a bundle of evidence-based recommendations, it is is easy to use, inexpensive, and cost-effective. If routinely used and carefully inplemented, it greatly reduces complications such as failure of venipuncture, accidental arterial puncture, damage of median nerve, infection and catheter related venous thrombosis.

  17. The effect of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) valve technology on catheter occlusion rates--the 'ELeCTRiC' study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Andrew J; Streater, Carmel T; Noorani, Remy; Crofts, Joanne L; Del Mundo, Aldwin B; Parker, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) are increasingly being used to provide short to medium-term central venous access. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that PICC valve technology does not influence PICC occlusion rates. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients who required a PICC were randomized to one of three types of dual lumen PICC (open ended non-valved, Groshong valve, PASV valve). PICC occlusions were recorded and managed with a protocol that used urokinase. A total of 102 patients were recruited to the study. The overall risk of occlusion per catheter was 35% (95% CI 26% to 44%). The overall rate of occlusion was 76 occlusions per 1000 catheter days (95% CI 61 to 95). Presence or type of valve did not significantly influence this rate (open-ended non-valved PICC 38% of catheters, 79 occlusions per 1000 catheter days; Groshong 38% of catheters, 60 occlusions per 1000 catheter days; PASV 27% of catheters, 99 occlusions per 1000 catheter days). The dose of urokinase required to treat PICC occlusions did not significantly differ between PICC types. Valved PICCs do not appear to influence PICC occlusion rates.

  18. Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Reise, Gesche; James, Claudia; Gittelbauer, Kirsten; Gosch, Jutta; Alpers, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral venous catheters are frequently used in hospitalized patients but increase the risk of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Evidence-based guidelines describe specific steps that are known to reduce infection risk. However, the degree of guideline implementation in clinical practice is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the use of specific steps for insertion of peripheral venous catheters in clinical practice and to implement a multimodal intervention aimed at improving both compliance and the optimum order of the steps. The study was conducted at University Hospital Hamburg. An optimum procedure for inserting a peripheral venous catheter was defined based on three evidence-based guidelines (WHO, CDC, RKI) including five steps with 1A or 1B level of evidence: hand disinfection before patient contact, skin antisepsis of the puncture site, no palpation of treated puncture site, hand disinfection before aseptic procedure, and sterile dressing on the puncture site. A research nurse observed and recorded procedures for peripheral venous catheter insertion for healthcare workers in four different departments (endoscopy, central emergency admissions, pediatrics, and dermatology). A multimodal intervention with 5 elements was established (teaching session, dummy training, e-learning tool, tablet and poster, and direct feedback), followed by a second observation period. During the last observation week, participants evaluated the intervention. In the control period, 207 insertions were observed, and 202 in the intervention period. Compliance improved significantly for four of five steps (e.g., from 11.6% to 57.9% for hand disinfection before patient contact; p<0.001, chi-square test). Compliance with skin antisepsis of the puncture site was high before and after intervention (99.5% before and 99.0% after). Performance of specific steps in the correct order also improved (e.g., from 7.7% to 68.6% when three of five steps were done; p<0.001). The

  19. Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Reise, Gesche; James, Claudia; Gittelbauer, Kirsten; Gosch, Jutta; Alpers, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Peripheral venous catheters are frequently used in hospitalized patients but increase the risk of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Evidence-based guidelines describe specific steps that are known to reduce infection risk. However, the degree of guideline implementation in clinical practice is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the use of specific steps for insertion of peripheral venous catheters in clinical practice and to implement a multimodal intervention aimed at improving both compliance and the optimum order of the steps. Methods: The study was conducted at University Hospital Hamburg. An optimum procedure for inserting a peripheral venous catheter was defined based on three evidence-based guidelines (WHO, CDC, RKI) including five steps with 1A or 1B level of evidence: hand disinfection before patient contact, skin antisepsis of the puncture site, no palpation of treated puncture site, hand disinfection before aseptic procedure, and sterile dressing on the puncture site. A research nurse observed and recorded procedures for peripheral venous catheter insertion for healthcare workers in four different departments (endoscopy, central emergency admissions, pediatrics, and dermatology). A multimodal intervention with 5 elements was established (teaching session, dummy training, e-learning tool, tablet and poster, and direct feedback), followed by a second observation period. During the last observation week, participants evaluated the intervention. Results: In the control period, 207 insertions were observed, and 202 in the intervention period. Compliance improved significantly for four of five steps (e.g., from 11.6% to 57.9% for hand disinfection before patient contact; p<0.001, chi-square test). Compliance with skin antisepsis of the puncture site was high before and after intervention (99.5% before and 99.0% after). Performance of specific steps in the correct order also improved (e.g., from 7.7% to 68.6% when three of five steps

  20. Percutaneous insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters using ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance: A single centre experience and review of literature.

    PubMed

    De Boo, Diederick W; Mott, Nigel; Tregaskis, Peter; Quach, Trung; Menahem, Solomon; Walker, Rowan G; Koukounaras, Jim

    2015-12-01

    Various methods of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion are available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a percutaneous insertion technique using ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopy performed under conscious sedation and as day case procedure. Data of 87 percutaneous inserted dialysis catheters were prospectively collected, including patients' age, gender, body mass index, history of previous abdominal surgery and cause of end stage renal failure. Length of hospital stay, early complications and time to first use were also recorded. Institutional review board approval was obtained. A 100% technical success rate was observed. Early complications included bleeding (n = 3), catheter dysfunction (n = 6), exit site infection (n = 1) and exit site leakage (n = 1). All cases of catheter dysfunction and one case of bleeding required surgical revision. Median time of follow-up was 18 months (range 3-35), and median time from insertion to first use was days 14 (1-47). Of the 82 patients who started dialysis, 20 (23%) ceased PD at some stage during follow-up. Most frequently encountered reasons include deteriorating patient cognitive or functional status (n = 5), successful transplant kidney (n = 4) and pleuro-peritoneal fistula (n = 4). Sixty-two (71%) PD catheter insertions were performed as day case. The remaining insertions were performed on patients already admitted to the hospital. Percutaneous insertion of dialysis catheter using US and fluoroscopy is not only safe but can be performed as day case procedure in most patients, even with a medical history of abdominal surgery and/or obesity. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  1. Incidence of upper limb venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC).

    PubMed

    Abdullah, B J J; Mohammad, N; Sangkar, J V; Abd Aziz, Y F; Gan, G G; Goh, K Y; Benedict, I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) in the upper limbs in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We prospectively investigated the incidence of VT in the upper limbs of 26 patients who had PICC inserted. The inclusion criteria were all patients who had a PICC inserted, whilst the exclusion criterion was the inability to perform a venogram (allergies, previous contrast medium reaction and inability of gaining venous access). Both valved and non-valved catheters were evaluated. Prior to removal of the PICC, an upper limb venogram was performed. The number of segments involved with VT were determined. The duration of central venous catheterization was classified as; less than 6 days, between 6 days and 14 days and more than 14 days. VT was confirmed in 38.5% (10/26) of the patients. The majority 85.7% (12/14) were complete occlusive thrombi and the majority of VT only involved one segment. There was no statistical correlation between the site of insertion of the PICC and the location of VT. Neither was there any observed correlation between the occurrence of VT with the patient's history of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac insufficiency, smoking or cancer. There was also no statistical correlation with the size of the catheter. In conclusion, PICCs are associated with a significant risk of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEVT).

  2. Use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in children receiving autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, Stefano; Ceresoli, Rosanna; Boroni, Giovanni; Parolini, Filippo; Porta, Fulvio; Alberti, Daniele

    2018-03-01

    The aim of our study was to present our experience with the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in pediatric patients receiving autologous or allogenic blood stem-cell transplantation. The insertion of the device in older children does not require general anesthesia and does not require a surgical procedure. From January 2014 to January 2017, 13 PICCs were inserted as a central venous device in 11 pediatric patients submitted to 14 autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Children's Hospital of Brescia. The mean age of patients at the time of the procedure was 11.3 years (range 3-18 years). PICCs remained in place for an overall period of 4104 days. All PICCs were positioned by the same specifically trained physician and utilized by nurses of our stem-cell transplant unit. No insertion-related complications were observed. Late complications were catheter ruptures and line occlusions (1.2 per 1000 PICC days). No rupture or occlusion required removal of the device. No catheter-related venous thrombosis, catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), accidental removal or permanent lumen occlusion were observed. Indications for catheter removal were completion of therapy (8 patients) and death (2 patients). Three PICCs are currently being used for blood sampling in follow-up patients after transplantation. Our data suggest that PICCs are a safe and effective alternative to conventional central venous catheters even in pediatric patients with high risk of infectious and hemorrhagic complications such as patients receiving stem-cell transplantation.

  3. An adverse event of suprapubic catheter SPC insertion. A call for updating the existing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Rozh; Mukundan, Chandrika; Bhatti, Tahir S

    2012-11-15

    The suprapubic catheter (SPC) is a useful and widely used tool in urological practice. However, complications can arise from its insertion or ongoing care. We add to the literature a case of an adverse event of its insertion where it has gone through a vascular graft and recommending updating the SPC insertion guidelines.

  4. [Peripherally inserted central catheter antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Betegnie, A-L; Cracowski, C; Bedouch, P; Segond, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Allenet, B

    2014-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are more and more used for intravenous antibiotic infusions in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the Grenoble area (France). The aim of this study was to assess the use of this technique in this indication. 1. Retrospective evaluation of 102 consecutive PICC insertions over 3years and the incidence of adverse events during the therapy. 2. Prospective evaluation of 12 patient's satisfaction and their nurses over a 3-month period. 3. Comparative analysis of single domiciliary treatment costs using PICC versus peripheral catheter (PC). 102 PICC insertions were attempted in 31 patients. Seven failures and 7 complications occurred during the treatment requiring removal of the PICC, i.e. an overall success rate of 86.2% (88/102). Pain during PICC introduction was 4.2/10 (visual analogical scale). Mean satisfaction levels during therapy were 9.3/10 for patients and 8.7/10 for nurses. Compared with PC, all the patients said that PICC was "more comfortable". Differential costs of treatment with PC and with PICC at home were estimated at 57.15€ and 590.16€ respectively. PICC is an alternative to CP for intravenous antibiotherapy in CF patients, providing better safety and comfort. PICC use should be promoted in this indication. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of catheter-related large vein thrombosis in centrally inserted versus peripherally inserted central venous lines in the neurological intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas J; Stetler, William R; Fletcher, Jeffrey J

    2013-07-01

    To compare cumulative complication rates of peripherally (PICC) and centrally (CICVC) inserted central venous catheters, including catheter-related large vein thrombosis (CRLVT), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and line insertion-related complications in neurological intensive care patients. Retrospective cohort study and detailed chart review for 431 consecutive PICCs and 141 CICVCs placed in patients under neurological intensive care from March 2008 through February 2010. Cumulative incidence of CRLVT, CLABSI, and line insertion-related complications were compared between PICC and CICVC groups. Risk factors for CRLVT including mannitol therapy during dwell time, previous history of venous thromboembolism, surgery longer than 1h during dwell time, and line placement in a paretic arm were also compared between groups. During the study period, 431 unique PICCs were placed with cumulative incidence of symptomatic thrombosis of 8.4%, CLABSI 2.8%, and line insertion-related complications 0.0%. During the same period, 141 unique CICVCs were placed with cumulative incidence of symptomatic thrombosis of 1.4%, CLABSI 1.4%, and line insertion-related complications 0.7%. There was a statistically significant difference in CRLVT with no difference in CLABSI or line insertion-related complications. In neurological critical care patients, CICVCs appear to have a better risk profile compared to PICCs, with a decreased risk of CRLVT. As use of PICCs in critical care patients increases, a prospective randomized trial comparing PICCs and CICVCs in neurological critical care patients is necessary to assist in choosing the appropriate catheter and to minimize risks of morbidity and mortality associated with central venous access. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. REcanalisation and Balloon-Oriented Puncture for Re-Insertion of Dialysis Catheter in Nonpatent Central Veins (REBORN)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: toochowwei@gmail.com; Sayani, Raza; Lim, Elvin Yuan Ting

    PurposeTo describe a technique involving REcanalisation and Balloon-Oriented puncture for Re-insertion of dialysis catheter in Nonpatent central veins (REBORN) and to report long-term results.Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study of ten subjects in whom dialysis catheters were inserted using the REBORN technique from March 2012 to October 2014 and followed up till April 2016. Data on the duration of catheter usage, complications and reasons for removal were obtained. Seven patients had partially occluded lower internal jugular veins (IJV) recanalised in an antegrade fashion via a more cranial puncture. The balloon was then inflated at usual puncture site with anmore » 18G needle. The collapsed balloon was cannulated with a guide wire, and both balloon and guide wire were advanced together into the superior vena cava. This was followed by tunnelled catheter placement using standard techniques. Two patients had catheters placed in the subclavian vein using a similar antegrade technique, and one patient had catheter placed via the left IJV following retrograde recanalisation from a right femoral puncture.ResultsMean duration of catheter use was 278 days (range 32–503). Three catheters were removed due to matured arteriovenous accesses. Four patients had successful catheter change over the same subcutaneous track due to catheter malfunction. One catheter was removed after 7 months because of sepsis. No complications were reported.ConclusionThe REBORN technique allows for the preservation of central veins for future haemodialysis access, which can be challenging in patients requiring long-term dialysis.« less

  7. Guidewire Catheter Exchange in Pediatric Oncology: Indications, Postoperative Complications, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pineda, I; Ortega-Laureano, L; Wu, H; Wu, J; Sandoval, J A; Rao, B N; Shochat, S J; Davidoff, A M

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in children undergoing chemotherapy can be challenging. Guidewire catheter exchange (GCE) replaces a CVC without repeat venipuncture. This study evaluated the indications, success rate, and complications of GCE in a large cohort of pediatric cancer patients. Medical records of pediatric cancer patients who underwent GCE at our institution between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Variables analyzed included gender, age at GCE, primary cancer diagnosis, indication for GCE, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at GCE, vein used, success rate, and postoperative complications (<30 days after exchange). A total of 435 GCEs performed in 407 patients (230 males and 177 females) were reviewed. Median age at GCE was 8 years (range, 0.2-24). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the most common diagnosis (50.6%). The primary indication for GCE was the desire to have an alternative type of CVC (71%). Other indications included catheter displacement (17%), catheter malfunction (11%), and catheter infection (1%). Median ANC at GCE was 2,581/mm(3) (range, 0-43,400). Left subclavian vein was more commonly used (57.7%). The success rate of GCE was 93.4% (406 of 435 procedures, 95% confidence interval: 91.0-97.5%). A total of 33 (7.5%) postoperative complications occurred including central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) (n = 20, 4.5%), catheter dislodgement (n = 6, 1.4%), and catheter malfunction (n = 7, 1.6%). We conclude that GCE in pediatric cancer patients is associated with a high success rate and a low risk of complications. The most common postoperative complication, CLABSI, occurred at a rate significantly lower than following de novo CVC placement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Patients in Tertiary Care Setting: A Developing Country Experience.

    PubMed

    Fadoo, Zehra; Nisar, Muhammad I; Iftikhar, Raza; Ali, Sajida; Mushtaq, Naureen; Sayani, Raza

    2015-10-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) have been successfully used to provide central access for chemotherapy and frequent transfusions. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of PICCs and determine PICC-related complications in pediatric hematology/oncology patients in a resource-poor setting. All pediatric patients (age below 16 y) with hematologic and malignant disorders who underwent PICC line insertion at Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2008 to June 2010 were enrolled in the study. Demographic features, primary diagnosis, catheter days, complications, and reasons for removal of device were recorded. Total of 36 PICC lines were inserted in 32 pediatric patients. Complication rate of 5.29/1000 catheter days was recorded. Our study showed comparable complication profile such as infection rate, occlusion, breakage, and dislodgement. The median catheter life was found to be 69 days. We conclude that PICC lines are feasible in a resource-poor setting and recommend its use for chemotherapy administration and prolonged venous access.

  9. [Evaluation of practices for the prevention and control of bloodstream infections in a government hospital].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Jaquelline Maria; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Soares, Naury de Jesus Danzi; Nunes, Bruna Kosar

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to observe clinical procedures in order to evaluate the practices used for the control and prevention of bloodstream infections associated with short-term central venous catheters (BSI-ACVC). The study data came from 5877 assessments distributed among selected practices. The results revealed the following adherence rates among the practices selected: 91.6% for recording the indication and permanence time of the CVC, 51.5% for adhering to the care and maintenance of the dressing at the CVC insertion site and its devices, 10.7% for hand hygiene practices while performing procedures related to the CVC, and 0.0% for the practices related to the insertion of the central venous catheter (CVC). The results demonstrate the need for further elaboration of strategies that ensure sustainable compliance practices for prevention and control BSI-ACVC in the institution being assessed.

  10. Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections among pediatric oncology patients lacking a peripheral culture, using differential time to detection.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Aditya H; Flynn, Patricia M; Heine, Daniel J; Giannini, Mary Anne; Shenep, Jerry L; Hayden, Randall T

    2005-05-01

    Current methods for in situ diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections require concurrent collection of central venous catheter (CVC) and peripheral vein (PV) blood cultures. Both the pain and inconvenience of PV cultures are undesirable. A prospective study was conducted (August 2002 to March 2004) to assess the accuracy of diagnosing catheter-related bloodstream infections based on the difference in time to detection of blood cultures drawn concurrently from 2 lumens of a multilumen CVC. This difference in time to detection between 2 lumens was compared with results of the standard criterion with paired CVC and PV blood cultures. Twenty-one infectious episodes were categorized as catheter-related bloodstream infections and 38 as non-catheter-related bloodstream infections. With a cutoff in difference in time to detection between 2 lumens of > or =180 minutes, the sensitivity of this test to diagnose a catheter-related bloodstream infection was 61% (95% confidence interval, 39-80%) and the specificity was 94% (95% confidence interval, 82-99%). In 4 of 7 episodes with false-negative results, the colony counts in cultures from both lumens were >400 colony-forming units/mL (maximal value reported), indicating the limitation of this method when both lumens of the catheter are colonized. With the pretest probability of catheter-related bloodstream infections ranging from 28% to 54%, the positive predictive value of a difference in time to detection between 2 lumens of > or =180 minutes for diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections ranged from 81% to 93% and the negative predictive value ranged from 67% to 86%. Within the context of its limitations, this novel method provides an alternative for diagnosing catheter-related bloodstream infections among patients with a CVC, without PV cultures.

  11. Clinical guidelines on central venous catheterisation. Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Frykholm, P; Pikwer, A; Hammarskjöld, F; Larsson, A T; Lindgren, S; Lindwall, R; Taxbro, K; Oberg, F; Acosta, S; Akeson, J

    2014-05-01

    Safe and reliable venous access is mandatory in modern health care, but central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, This paper describes current Swedish guidelines for clinical management of CVCs The guidelines supply updated recommendations that may be useful in other countries as well. Literature retrieval in the Cochrane and Pubmed databases, of papers written in English or Swedish and pertaining to CVC management, was done by members of a task force of the Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. Consensus meetings were held throughout the review process to allow all parts of the guidelines to be embraced by all contributors. All of the content was carefully scored according to criteria by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We aimed at producing useful and reliable guidelines on bleeding diathesis, vascular approach, ultrasonic guidance, catheter tip positioning, prevention and management of associated trauma and infection, and specific training and follow-up. A structured patient history focused on bleeding should be taken prior to insertion of a CVCs. The right internal jugular vein should primarily be chosen for insertion of a wide-bore CVC. Catheter tip positioning in the right atrium or lower third of the superior caval vein should be verified for long-term use. Ultrasonic guidance should be used for catheterisation by the internal jugular or femoral veins and may also be used for insertion via the subclavian veins or the veins of the upper limb. The operator inserting a CVC should wear cap, mask, and sterile gown and gloves. For long-term intravenous access, tunnelled CVC or subcutaneous venous ports are preferred. Intravenous position of the catheter tip should be verified by clinical or radiological methods after insertion and before each use. Simulator-assisted training of CVC insertion should precede bedside training in patients. Units inserting and managing CVC should

  12. [Feasibility and safety evaluation of retrograde inserting of ureteric catheter via flexible cystoscope].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-dong; Li, Zhong-yi; Luo, Xue-hong; Chen, Zhao-dian; Cai, Song-liang; Xie, Li-ping

    2008-06-24

    To introduce a method of retrograde ureteric catheter placement via flexible cystoscope , and to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this method. 112 patients, 62 males and 50 females undergoing retrograde ureteropyelography by 2 same physicians in cooperation were randomly divided into two equal groups with 31 males and 25 females each: one group via flexible cystoscope and the other group via rigid cystoscope. The catheterizing time, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, gross hematuria rate, and fever rate were compared between these 2 groups. Fifty-five patients underwent ureteric catheter placement successfully via flexible cystoscope (98%, 55/56), while 53 cases were technically successful by rigid cystoscope (95%, 53/56). The inserting time in women patients of the flexible cystoscopy group was (7.6 +/- 1.8) min, significantly shorter than that of the men [(8.0 +/- 1.8) min, P < 0.05]. The inserting time in women patients of the rigid cystoscopy group was (7.4 +/- 1.5) min, significantly shorter than that of the men [(8.2 +/- 1.2) min, P < 0.05]. However, there were not significant differences in the inserting times in both men and women between these 2 groups (both P > 0.05). The VAS pain scores in men and women of the flexible cystoscope group were 3. 5 and 2. 3 respectively, both significantly lower than those of the rigid cystoscopy group (7.2 and 3.3 respectively, both P < 0.05). The gross hematuria rate of the flexible cystoscope group was 8.6% (5/56), significantly lower than that of the rigid cystoscopy group (25.0%, 14/56, P < 0.05). Four patients had a fever after flexible cystoscopy while 6 cases did after rigid cystoscopy, however, without significant difference between these 2 groups (P > 0.05). Retrograde placement of ureteric catheter via flexible cystoscope is safe and reliable as rigid cystoscopy. Meanwhile, inserting ureteric catheter via flexible cystoscope causes the patients less pain and less chance of hematuria.

  13. Risk factors for upper extremity venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Marnejon, Thomas; Angelo, Debra; Abu Abdou, Ahmed; Gemmel, David

    2012-01-01

    To identify clinically important risk factors associated with upper extremity venous thrombosis following peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC). A retrospective case control study of 400 consecutive patients with and without upper extremity venous thrombosis post-PICC insertion was performed. Patient data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, site of insertion, size and lumen of catheter, internal length, infusate, and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and renal failure. Additional risk factors analyzed were active cancer, any history of cancer, recent trauma, smoking, a history of prior deep vein thrombosis, and recent surgery, defined as surgery within three months prior to PICC insertion. The prevalence of trauma, renal failure, and infusion with antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was higher among patients exhibiting upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT), when compared to controls. Patients developing UEVT were also more likely to have PICC line placement in a basilic vein and less likely to have brachial vein placement (P<.001). Left-sided PICC line sites also posed a greater risk (P=.026). The rate of standard DVT prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin and the use of warfarin was similar in both groups. Average length of hospital stay was almost double among patients developing UEVT, 19.5 days, when compared to patients undergoing PICC line insertion without thrombosis, 10.8 days (t=6.98, P<.001). In multivariate analysis, trauma, renal failure, left-sided catheters, basilic placement, TPN, and infusion with antibiotics, specifically vancomycin, were significant risk factors for UEVT associated with PICC insertion. Prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin or use of warfarin did not prevent the development of venous thrombosis in patients with PICCs. Length of hospital stay and cost are markedly increased in

  14. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Solmaz; Sezgin, Melike Evim; Cakır, Deniz; Baytan, Birol; Demirkaya, Metin; Sevinir, Betul; Bozdemir, Sefika Elmas; Gunes, Adalet Meral; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-04-01

    Catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) are common complications encountered with cancer treatment. The aims of this study were to analyze the factors associated with recurrent infection and catheter removal in pediatric hematology-oncology patients. All cases of CABSIs in patients attending the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between January 2008 and December 2010 were reviewed. A total of 44 episodes of CABSIs, including multiple episodes involving the same catheter, were identified in 31 children with cancer. The overall CABSIs rate was 7.4 infections per 1000 central venous catheter (CVC) days. The most frequent organism isolated was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS). The CVC was removed in nine (20.4%) episodes. We found that hypotension, persistent bacteremia, Candida infection, exit-side infection, neutropenia, and prolonged duration of neutropenia were the factors for catheter removal. There were 23 (52.2%) episodes of recurrence or reinfection. Mortality rate was found to be 9.6% in children with CABSIs. In this study, we found that CABSIs rate was 7.4 infections per 1000 catheter-days. CABSIs rates in our hematology-oncology patients are comparable to prior reports. Because CONS is the most common isolated microorganism in CABSIs, vancomycin can be considered part of the initial empirical regimen.

  15. In situ diagnostic methods for catheter related bloodstream infection in burns patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Evans, O; Gowardman, J; Rabbolini, D; McGrail, M; Rickard, C M

    2016-03-01

    One of the most common and potentially fatal complications in critically ill burns patients is catheter related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Lack of in situ diagnostic techniques requires device removal if CR-BSI is suspected with 75-85% of catheters withdrawn unnecessarily. To assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of two in situ diagnostic methods for CR-BSI in an adult ICU burns population: Differential Time to Positivity (DTP) and Semi-Quantitative Superficial Cultures (SQSC). Both arterial (AC) and central venous (CVC) catheters were studied. On clinicians' suspicion of CR-BSI, the CVC and AC were removed. Superficial semi-quantitative cultures were taken by removing the dressings and swabbing within a 3cm radius of the CVC and AC insertion sites, as well as inside each hub of the CVC and AC. Peripheral blood was taken for qualitative culture and the catheter tip sent for semi-quantitative culture. DTP was considered positive if culture of lumen blood became positive at least 120min before peripheral blood with an identical pathogen. Superficial and tip cultures were identified as positive if ≥15 CFUs were grown. CR-BSI was confirmed when both catheter tip culture and peripheral blood culture were positive with the same micro-organism. Sixteen patients (88% male) with an APACHE II score of 22.0 (7.3) were enrolled. The mean age was 45.7 (16.9) years with mean total burn surface area 32.9 (19.4)%. Fifty percent had airway burns. ICU stay was 19.9 (11.1) days. All 16 survived ICU discharge with a hospital survival of 93%. There were 20 episodes of CR-BSI in these 16 patients. For these 20 episodes the exposure time (line days) was 113.15. The CR-BSI rate was 15.6 per 1000 catheter days (95% CI 1.9-56.4). For diagnosis of CR-BSI in either AC and CVC, SQSC had a sensitivity of 50% [95% CI 3-97], specificity 83.3% [95% CI 67-93], PPV 14.3 [95% CI 1-58], NPV 96.8 [95% CI 81-100], accuracy of 81.6% [95%CI 65-92] and diagnostic odds ratio 5.0 [95% CI 0

  16. Assessing nursing students' knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, C; Klang-Söderkvist, B; Johansson, E; Björkholm, M; Löfmark, A

    2017-03-01

    Venepuncture and the insertion of peripheral venous catheters are common tasks in health care, and training in these procedures is included in nursing programmes. Evidence of nursing students' knowledge and skills in these procedures is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess nursing students' knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters. Potential associations between level of knowledge and skills, self-training, self-efficacy, and demographic characteristics were also investigated. The assessment was performed by lecturers at a university college in Sweden using the two previously tested instruments "Assess Venepuncture" and "Assess Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion". Between 81% and 100% of steps were carried out correctly by the students. The step with the highest rating was "Uses gloves", and lowest rating was 'Informs the patients about the possibility of obtaining local anaesthesia'. Significant correlations between degree of self-training and correct performance were found in the group of students who registered their self-training. No associations between demographic characteristics and correct performances were found. Assessing that students have achieved adequate levels of knowledge and skills in these procedures at different levels of the nursing education is of importance to prevent complications and support patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Central vein perforation during tunneled dialysis catheter insertion: principles of acute management.

    PubMed

    Pua, Uei

    2014-10-01

    Central venous perforation during dialysis catheter insertion is a potentially fatal complication. Prompt recognition and judicious initial steps are important in optimizing the outcome. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the imaging features and steps in initial management. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  18. Improved ex vivo blood compatibility of central venous catheter with noble metal alloy coating.

    PubMed

    Vafa Homann, Manijeh; Johansson, Dorota; Wallen, Håkan; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality induced by the use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Nobel metal alloy (NMA) coating is an advanced surface modification that prevents microbial adhesion and growth on catheters and thereby reduces the risk of infection. In vitro microbiological analyses have shown up to 90% reduction in microbial adhesion on coated CVC compared to uncoated ones. This study aimed to assess the blood compatibility of NMA-coated CVC according to ISO 10993-4. Hemolysis, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex, platelet counts, fibrin deposition, and C3a and SC5b-9 complement activation were analyzed in human blood exposed to the NMA-coated and control CVCs using a Chandler-loop model. NMA-coated CVC did not induce hemolysis and fell in the "nonhemolytic" category according to ASTM F756-00. Significantly lower amounts of TAT were generated and less fibrin was deposited on NMA-coated CVC than on uncoated ones. Slightly higher platelet counts and lower complement markers were observed for NMA-coated CVC compared to uncoated ones. These data suggest that the NMA-coated CVC has better ex vivo blood compatibility compared to uncoated CVC. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1359-1365, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Risk factors and biofilm detection on central venous catheters of patients attended at tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Zárate, Pamela; Aragón-Piña, Antonio; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; González-Amaro, Ana María; Pérez-Urizar, José; Pérez-González, Luis Fernando; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2015-11-01

    To determinate the significance of risk factors with the presence of biofilm on catheters of patients attended at tertiary hospital cares. A total of 126 patients were included, data collection by observing the handling of the CVC, clinical history and microbiological isolation methods of CVCs tips (Roll-plate, sonication and scanning electron microscopy) were evaluated. Certain factors, such as the lack of proper hand washing, the use of primary barriers and preparing medications in the same hospital service, showed an important relationship between biofilm formation in CVCs. The sonication method presented that most of the samples had isolation of multispecies 29 samples (64%); in contrast with the roll-plate method, just one sample (3%) was isolated. The importance of the strict aseptic techniques of insertion and of the handlings of CVC was highlighted, the failure of both techniques was related to the biofilm formation and was evidenced using the scanning electron microscopy. Since this tool is not available in most hospitals, we present the correlation of those evidences with other standard microbiological methods and risk factors, which are necessary for the sensible detection of the different steps of the biofilm formation on CVC and their correct interpretation with clinical evidences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound guidance for central venous catheter placement in Australasian emergency departments: potential barriers to more widespread use.

    PubMed

    Matera, Jakub T; Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Meek, Robert

    2010-12-01

    To survey Fellows of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (FACEMs) in order to describe current ultrasound (US) usage during central venous catheter (CVC) placement and to compare practice and opinions between FACEMs routinely using US and those not. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional electronic survey of all FACEMs. Baseline variables including hospital type, US availability, frequency of CVC insertion, US usage and technique are presented descriptively. US practice and opinions on usage are compared between routine and non-routine users. Responses were obtained from 486 (42.4%) of 1146 FACEMs emailed. Whereas 88.5% of respondents had US available and 70% had done an US course, only 37% routinely used US for CVC placement. Completion of an US course and performance of >11 CVC per year were strongly associated with routine US use (odds ratio 10.0 [5.5-18.4] and 2.6 [1.7-3.9], respectively). Common barriers to more frequent US use were not having completed an US course (20%) and US-guided CVC placement taking too long (18%). Eighty-five per cent of FACEMs agreed that there should be ED access to US and US training but only 34% thought its use should be mandatory. We found that only 37% of FACEM respondents routinely used US to guide placement of CVCs and a number of barriers to more frequent use are identified. Practices and opinions regarding US use differed significantly between routine and non-routine users. © 2010 The Authors. EMA © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. Risk of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with peripherally inserted central catheters.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Bob L; Vaidean, Georgeta; Broyles, Joyce; Reaves, Anne B; Shorr, Ronald I

    2009-09-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are increasingly used in hospitalized patients. The benefit can be offset by complications such as upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). Retrospective study of patients who received a PICC while hospitalized at the Methodist University Hospital (MUH) in Memphis, TN. All adult consecutive patients who had PICCs inserted during the study period and who did not have a UEDVT at the time of PICC insertion were included in the study. A UEDVT was defined as a symptomatic event in the ipsilateral extremity, leading to the performance of duplex ultrasonography, which confirmed the diagnosis of UEDVT. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was defined as a symptomatic event prompting the performance of ventilation-perfusion lung scan or spiral computed tomography (CT). Among 777 patients, 38 patients experienced 1 or more venous thromboembolisms (VTEs), yielding an incidence of 4.89%. A total of 7444 PICC-days were recorded for 777 patients. This yields a rate of 5.10 VTEs/1000 PICC-days. Compared to patients whose PICC was inserted in the SVC, patients whose PICC was in another location had an increased risk (odds ratio = 2.61 [95% CI = 1.28-5.35]) of VTE. PICC related VTE was significantly more common among patients with a past history of VTE (odds ratio = 10.83 [95% CI = 4.89-23.95]). About 5% of patients undergoing PICC placement in acute care hospitals will develop thromboembolic complications. Thromboembolic complications were especially common among persons with a past history of VTE. Catheter tip location at the time of insertion may be an important modifiable risk factor. Copyright 2009 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  2. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter-Related Infections in a Cohort of Hospitalized Adult Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bouzad, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.bouzad@gmail.com; Duron, Sandrine, E-mail: duronsandrine@yahoo.fr; Bousquet, Aurore, E-mail: aurorebousquet@yahoo.fr

    PurposeTo determine the incidence and the risks factors of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related infectious complications.Materials and MethodsMedical charts of every in-patient that underwent a PICC insertion in our hospital between January 2010 and October 2013 were reviewed. All PICC-related infections were recorded and categorized as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), exit-site infections, and septic thrombophlebitis.ResultsNine hundred and twenty-three PICCs were placed in 644 unique patients, mostly male (68.3 %) with a median age of 58 years. 31 (3.4 %) PICC-related infections occurred during the study period corresponding to an infection rate of 1.64 per 1000 catheter-days. We observed 27 (87.1 %) CR-BSI, corresponding tomore » a rate of 1.43 per 1000 catheter-days, 3 (9.7 %) septic thrombophlebitis, and 1 (3.2 %) exit-site infection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher PICC-related infection rate with chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 7.2–confidence interval (CI) 95 % [1.77–29.5]), auto/allograft (OR 5.9–CI 95 % [1.2–29.2]), and anti-coagulant therapy (OR 2.2–95 % [1.4–12]).ConclusionChemotherapy, auto/allograft, and anti-coagulant therapy are associated with an increased risk of developing PICC-related infections.Clinical AdvanceChemotherapy, auto/allograft, and anti-coagulant therapy are important predictors of PICC-associated infections. A careful assessment of these risk factors may be important for future success in preventing PICC-related infections.« less

  3. Comparative study on fixation of central venous catheter by suture versus adhesive device.

    PubMed

    Molina-Mazón, C S; Martín-Cerezo, X; Domene-Nieves de la Vega, G; Asensio-Flores, S; Adamuz-Tomás, J

    2018-03-27

    To assess the efficacy of a central venous catheter adhesive fixation device (CVC) to prevent associated complications. To establish the need for dressing changes, number of days' catheterization and reasons for catheter removal in both study groups. To assess the degree of satisfaction of personnel with the adhesive system. A, randomized, prospective and open pilot study, of parallel groups, with comparative evaluation between CVC fixation with suture and with an adhesive safety system. The study was performed in the Coronary Unit of the Universitari de Bellvitge Hospital, between April and November 2016. The population studied were patients with a CVC. The results were analyzed using SPSS Statistics software. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee. 100 patients (47 adhesive system and 53 suture) were analyzed. Both groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic variables, anticoagulation and days of catheterization. The frequency of complications in the adhesive system group was 21.3%, while in the suture group it was 47.2% (P=.01). The suture group had a higher frequency of local signs of infection (p=.006), catheter displacement (p=.005), and catheter-associated bacteraemia (P=.05). The use of adhesive fixation was associated with a lower requirement for dressing changes due to bleeding (P=.006). Ninety-six point seven percent of the staff recommended using the adhesive safety system. The catheters fixed with adhesive systems had fewer infectious complications and less displacement. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Proteinuria with Central Venous Catheter Use at Initial Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Ken J; Johnson, Eric S; Smith, Ning; Mosen, David M; Thorp, Micah L

    2017-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with increased mortality and complications in hemodialysis recipients. Although prevalent CVC use has decreased, incident use remains high. To examine characteristics associated with CVC use at initial dialysis, specifically looking at proteinuria as a predictor of interest. Retrospective cohort of 918 hemodialysis recipients from Kaiser Permanente Northwest who started hemodialysis from January 1, 2004, to January 1, 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine an association of proteinuria with the primary outcome of CVC use. More than one-third (36%) of patients in our cohort started hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, and 64% started with a CVC. Proteinuria was associated with starting hemodialysis with a CVC (likelihood ratio test, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, sex, race, and length of predialysis care. However, on pairwise comparison, only patients with midgrade proteinuria (0.5-3.5 g) had lower odds of starting hemodialysis with a CVC (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.65). Proteinuria was associated with use of CVC at initial hemodialysis. However, a graded association did not exist, and only patients with midgrade proteinuria had significantly lower odds of CVC use. Our findings suggest that proteinuria is an explanatory finding for CVC use but may not have pragmatic value for decision making. Patients with lower levels of proteinuria may have a higher risk of starting dialysis with a CVC.

  5. Horner's syndrome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit that have undergone central venous catheterization: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Butty, Z; Gopwani, J; Mehta, S; Margolin, E

    2016-01-01

    PurposeCentral venous catheterization (CVC) is estimated to be performed in millions of patients per year. Swan-Ganz catheters used for CVC are most often inserted into the internal jugular vein and during this procedure they may come into contact with the sympathetic chain. This study aims to determine the incidence of Horner's syndrome in patients admitted to intensive care unit that have undergone internal jugular CVC insertion during their admission and to determine whether ultrasonography-assisted insertion has decreased the frequency of this complication.Patients and methodsA total of 100 prospective patients admitted to the ICU were examined for the presence of anisocoria and ptosis after undergoing recent CVC. Presence of Horner's syndrome was confirmed by testing with 0.5% apraclonidine and looking for the reversal of anisocoria.ResultsFrequency of Horner's syndrome after CVC was 2% in a sample of 100 prospectively examined patients.ConclusionHorner's syndrome remains a relatively rare but definitive complication of CVC. ICU physicians should be educated about its existence and prevalence and ophthalmologists should inquire about any history of ICU admission necessitating CVC insertion in any patient presenting with Horner's syndrome.

  6. Relationship between peripheral insertion site and catheter-related phlebitis in adult hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Blot, Stijn; Tomietto, Marco; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the anatomical site of peripheral venous catheterization and risk of catheter-related phlebitis. Peripheral venous catheterization is frequently associated with phlebitis. Recent guidelines, recommend the use of an upper-extremity site for catheter insertion but no univocal consensus exists on the anatomical site with lower risk of phlebitis. Systematic review. We searched Medline (PubMed) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost) databases until the end of January 2017. We also reviewed the reference lists of retrieved articles and gray literature was excluded. Searches were limited to articles published in English with no restriction imposed to date of publication. The primary outcome was the incidence of phlebitis associated with anatomical site of peripheral catheterization. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies on adult patients who required a peripheral catheter for the administration of medi- cation, intermittent or continuous fluid infusion. Antecubital fossa veins are associated with lower phlebitis rates, while hands veins are the most risky sites to develop phlebitis. There is no consensus regarding vein in forearm. Choosing the right anatomical site to insert a peripheral venous catheter is important to decrease phlebitis rate. Further studies should compare indwelling time in different anatomical sites with phlebitis rate. A more standardized approach in defining and assessing phlebitis among studies is recommended.

  7. Peripheral venous catheter insertion simulation training: A randomized controlled trial comparing performance after instructor-led teaching versus peer-assisted learning.

    PubMed

    Pelloux, Sophie; Grégoire, Arnaud; Kirmizigul, Patrice; Maillot, Sandrine; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Llorca, Guy; Boet, Sylvain; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Rimmelé, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Peripheral venous catheter insertion is a procedural skill that every medical student should master. Training is often limited to a small number of students and is poorly evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of peer-assisted learning in comparison to instructor-led teaching for peripheral venous catheter insertion training. Students were randomized to the control group attending a traditional instructor-led training session (slideshow and demonstration by an anesthetist instructor, followed by training on a procedural simulator) or to the test group attending a peer-assisted training session (slideshow and demonstration video-recorded by the same instructor, followed by training on a procedural simulator). The primary endpoint was the performance of peripheral venous catheter insertion, assessed on procedural simulator one week later by blinded experts using a standardized 20-item grid. Students self-evaluated their confidence levels using a numeric 10-point scale. Eighty-six students were included, 73 of whom attended the assessment session. The median performance score was 12/20 [8-15] in the instructor-led teaching group versus 13/20 [11-15] in the peer-assisted learning group (P=0.430). Confidence levels improved significantly after the assessment session and were significantly higher in the peer-assisted learning group (7.6/10 [7.0-8.0] versus 7.0/10 [5.0-8.0], P=0.026). Peer-assisted learning is effective for peripheral venous catheter insertion training and can be as effective as instructor-led teaching. Given the large number of students to train, this finding is important for optimizing the cost-effectiveness of peripheral venous catheter insertion training. Copyright © 2017 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Proteinuria with Central Venous Catheter Use at Initial Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ken J; Johnson, Eric S; Smith, Ning; Mosen, David M; Thorp, Micah L

    2018-01-01

    Context Central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with increased mortality and complications in hemodialysis recipients. Although prevalent CVC use has decreased, incident use remains high. Objective To examine characteristics associated with CVC use at initial dialysis, specifically looking at proteinuria as a predictor of interest. Design Retrospective cohort of 918 hemodialysis recipients from Kaiser Permanente Northwest who started hemodialysis from January 1, 2004, to January 1, 2014. Main Outcome Measures Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine an association of proteinuria with the primary outcome of CVC use. Results More than one-third (36%) of patients in our cohort started hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, and 64% started with a CVC. Proteinuria was associated with starting hemodialysis with a CVC (likelihood ratio test, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, sex, race, and length of predialysis care. However, on pairwise comparison, only patients with midgrade proteinuria (0.5–3.5 g) had lower odds of starting hemodialysis with a CVC (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.24–0.65). Conclusion Proteinuria was associated with use of CVC at initial hemodialysis. However, a graded association did not exist, and only patients with midgrade proteinuria had significantly lower odds of CVC use. Our findings suggest that proteinuria is an explanatory finding for CVC use but may not have pragmatic value for decision making. Patients with lower levels of proteinuria may have a higher risk of starting dialysis with a CVC. PMID:29236655

  9. Bench-to-bedside review: Challenges of diagnosis, care and prevention of central catheter-related bloodstream infections in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are indispensable in modern pediatric medicine. CVCs provide secure vascular access, but are associated with a risk of severe complications, in particular bloodstream infection. We provide a review of the recent literature about the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in children and its prevention. Variations in blood sampling and limitations in blood culturing interfere with accurate and timely diagnosis of CRBSI. Although novel molecular testing methods appear promising in overcoming some of the present diagnostic limitations of conventional blood sampling in children, they still need to solidly prove their accuracy and reliability in clinical practice. Standardized practices of catheter insertion and care remain the cornerstone of CRBSI prevention although their implementation in daily practice may be difficult. Technology such as CVC impregnation or catheter locking with antimicrobial substances has been shown less effective than anticipated. Despite encouraging results in CRBSI prevention among adults, the goal of zero infection in children is still not in range. More high-quality research is needed in the field of prevention, accurate and reliable diagnostic measures and effective treatment of CRBSI in children. PMID:24041298

  10. Insertion of tunneled hemodialysis catheters without fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Motta Elias, Rosilene; da Silva Makida, Sonia Cristina; Abensur, Hugo; Martins Castro, Manuel Carlos; Affonso Moysés, Rosa Maria; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Bueno de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Luders, Cláudio; Romão, João Egidio

    2010-01-01

    The tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) is used as a bridge access for hemodialysis. Few prospective studies have been designed to evaluate conversion from non-tunneled to TCC without the use of fluoroscopy when performed by nephrologists. We performed an observational prospective cohort in incident patients receiving hemodialysis through a non-tunneled right jugular vein catheter. 130 procedures were performed in 122 patients (51+/-18 years). The success rate was 100%. There was a total of 26,546 catheter days. Ninety-one of the 130 catheters were removed during the study period. Life table analysis revealed primary patency rates of 92%, 82%, and 68% at 30, 60, and 120 days, respectively. Infection requiring catheter removal occurred at a frequency of 0.09 per 100 catheter days. Catheter malfunction requiring intervention occurred at a rate of 0.03 per 100 catheter days. Hypertension and duration of existing non-tunneled catheter of less than 2 weeks were independently associated with better TCC survival. The conversion from non-tunneled to TCC performed by nephrologists and without fluoroscopy may be safe by using the internal right jugular vein. The ideal time to do this procedure is within less than 2 weeks of existing non-tunneled catheter.

  11. Efficacy and safety of using L-cysteine as a catheter-clearing agent for nonthrombotic occlusions of central venous catheters in children.

    PubMed

    Pai, Vinita B; Plogsted, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Critically ill pediatric patients, especially in the intensive care unit, receive multiple medications and have a higher risk of central venous catheter (CVC) occlusion. If an occlusion occurs immediately after the administration of multiple medications or incompatible medications, either an acidic solution such as 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (HCl) or a basic solution of 1 mEq/mL sodium bicarbonate or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide can be used. However, compounding and storing of 0.1 N HCl has become more complex due to USP <797> guidelines for sterile compounding, and an alternative is needed. We report a series of cases in which L-cysteine was used instead of HCl to clear CVCs occluded due to administration of multiple medications. L-cysteine is a commercially available, sterile solution with a pH of 1–2.5. CVC occlusion was resolved in 10 of the 16 episodes in 13 patients. Two of the 16 occlusions were phenytoin related and would not have responded. An L-cysteine dose of 50 mg was used during 10 of the 16 episodes, 100 mg during 5 episodes, and 25 mg during 1 episode. A correlation between catheter clearance and dose was not observed. Occlusion resolution due to L-cysteine was not correlated to the prior use of tissue plasminogen activator. Metabolic acidosis, adverse effects, or damage to the catheters due to L-cysteine were not observed. On the basis of this limited experience, we propose L-cysteine as an effective alternative to 0.1 N HCl for clearing CVC occlusions caused by drugs with an acidic pKa.

  12. Post-thrombotic syndrome after central venous catheter removal in childhood cancer survivors: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Polen, E; Weintraub, M; Stoffer, C; Jaffe, D H; Burger, A; Revel-Vilk, S

    2015-02-01

    Although the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) has greatly improved the quality of care of children with cancer, these catheters increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the potential long-term complication of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). We aimed to study PTS post-CVC removal using physical, functional and health related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in childhood cancer and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors. We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of childhood cancer and BMT survivors post-CVC use. Participants were evaluated for PTS with the Modified Villalta Score (MVS) and the Manco-Johnson Instrument (MJI). HRQoL was assessed using the PedsQL™ questionnaire. A total of 158 children were enrolled at a median of 41 (4-149) months from CVC removal. Signs and symptoms of PTS were present in 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27-43%) (MVS criteria) and 30.5% (95% CI 23.1-37.8%) (MJI criteria). Diagnosis of PTS was associated with history of CVC occlusion, history of CVC-related DVT and the use of ≥2 CVCs. The presence of signs and symptoms of PTS was a predictor for low HRQoL tested by the PedsQL™ Total Scale scores and Physical Health Summary scores. PTS post-CVC removal in pediatric cancer survivors is not a rare event. The association between PTS and the history of CVC occlusion confirms earlier findings, and suggests that CVC occlusion may indicate asymptomatic DVT. PTS is also associated with lower HRQoL scores highlighting the need to study preventive measures, especially for high risk groups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:285-290. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. "Targeting to zero" in pediatric oncology: a review of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Secola, Rita; Lewis, Mary Ann; Pike, Nancy; Needleman, Jack; Doering, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing or eliminating hospital acquired infections is a national quality of care priority. The majority of the 12,400 children diagnosed with cancer each year require long-term intravenous access to receive intensive and complex therapies. These children are at high risk for infection by nature of their disease and treatment, which often involves use of a central venous catheter (CVC). Throughout the nation, nurses assume frontline responsibility for safe, quality CVC care to minimize the risk of potentially life-threatening infections. Substantial financial and human costs are associated with CVC-related bloodstream infections, including prolonged hospital lengths of stay and increased care required to treat these infections. The purpose of this review of the literature is to summarize existing adult and pediatric data on CVC-related bloodstream infections and explore nursing models of CVC care that may improve pediatric oncology patient outcomes.

  14. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: literature review: part 1.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Bonnie J; Maneval, Rhonda E

    2014-01-01

    This is part 1 of a 2-part series of articles that report on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine the risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. This article provides an extensive review and critique of the literature that serves to explicate what is currently known about risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT. Risk factors such as anticoagulant use, cancer, infection, hypertension, catheter tip placement, and catheter size were identified most frequently in the literature as being associated with UEDVT development. Other risk factors--such as obesity, smoking history, surgery, and presence of pain or edema--were examined in a limited number of studies and lacked consistent evidence of their impact on UEDVT development. The subsequent study that evolved from the review of the literature investigates the relationship between identified risk factors and UEDVT development.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Determine the Appropriate Time to Initiate Peritoneal Dialysis after Insertion of Catheter (Timely PD Study).

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; John, George T; Yeoh, Edward; Williams, Nicola; O'Loughlin, Barry; Han, Thin; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Ramanathan, Kavitha; Healy, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The optimal time for the commencement of peritoneal dialysis (PD) after PD catheter insertion is unclear. If dialysis is started too soon after insertion, dialysate leaks and infection could occur. However, by starting PD earlier, morbidity and costs can be reduced through lesser hemodialysis requirements. This is the first randomized controlled trial to determine the safest and shortest interval to commence PD after catheter insertion. All consecutive patients undergoing PD catheter insertion at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and Rockhampton Hospital from 1 March 2008 to 31 May 2013 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were invited to participate in the trial. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 (G1) commenced PD at 1 week, group 2 (G2) at 2 weeks and group 3 (G3) at 4 weeks after PD catheter insertion. These groups were stratified by hospital and the presence of diabetes. Primary outcomes were the incidence of peritoneal fluid leaks or PD-related infection during the 4 weeks after commencement of PD. In total 122 participants were recruited, 39, 42, and 41 randomized to G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The primary outcome catheter leak was significantly higher in G1 (28.2%) compared with G3 (2.4%, p = 0.001) but not compared with G2 (9.5%, p = 0.044), based on intention to treat analysis. These differences were even more marked when analyzed with per protocol method: G1 had a significantly higher percentage (32.4 %) compared with G3 (3.3%, p = 0.003) but not compared with G2 (10.5%, p = 0.040). Event percentages of leak were statistically higher in G1 and occurred significantly earlier compared with other groups ( p = 0.002). Amongst diabetics, technique failure was significantly higher (28.6%) in G3 compared with 0% in G1 and 7.1% in G2 ( p = 0.036) and earlier in G3 at 163.2 days vs 176.8 and 175.8 ( p = 0.037) for G1 and G2, respectively. Leaks were higher in participants commencing PD at 1 week after catheter insertion

  16. Implementation of a children's hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle.

    PubMed

    Helder, Onno; Kornelisse, René; van der Starre, Cynthia; Tibboel, Dick; Looman, Caspar; Wijnen, René; Poley, Marten; Ista, Erwin

    2013-10-14

    Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals' behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children's hospital. An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers' willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635.

  17. A comparison of buffered lidocaine versus ELA-Max before peripheral intravenous catheter insertions in children.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Janet; Hurt, Sarah; Shootman, Mario; Kennedy, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is a common, painful experience for many children in the pediatric emergency department. Although local anesthetics such as injected buffered lidocaine have been shown to be effective at reducing pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion, they are not routinely used. ELA-Max, a topical local anesthetic, has the advantage of needle-free administration but has not been compared with buffered lidocaine for PIV insertion. To compare the reduction of pain and anxiety during PIV insertion provided by subcutaneous buffered 1% lidocaine or topical ELA-Max in children. A randomized trial in children 4 to 17 years old undergoing PIV insertion with 22-gauge catheters was conducted. Children received either buffered lidocaine or ELA-Max. Buffered lidocaine was administered by using 30-gauge needles to inject 0.1 to 0.2 mL subcutaneously just before PIV insertion. ELA-Max was applied to the skin and occluded with Tegaderm 30 minutes before PIV insertion. Self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaires (rating on a scale of 1-10; 1 = no pain, anxiety) were completed by patients and their parents before PIV insertion to assess baseline perceptions about pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion and immediately after PIV insertion to assess pain and anxiety associated with the experience. After PIV insertion, the nurse who inserted the PIV also completed a VAS questionnaire assessing technical difficulty and satisfaction with the local anesthesia. A blinded observer also completed a VAS questionnaire to assess pain and anxiety associated with the PIV insertion. Data were analyzed by using chi2 and t tests. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled, and questionnaires were competed by all (mean age: 12.1 +/- 4.5 years; 61% female). There were no differences for buffered lidocaine and ELA-Max groups in age, gender, race, prior IV experience, or baseline pain and anxiety. There were no significant differences between buffered

  18. Central Venous Catheter-related Fungemia Caused by Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Fabio; Letizia Faneschi, Maria; Braione, Adele; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infection due to Rhodotorula glutinis is extremely rare and mostly associated with underlying immunosuppression or cancer. Vascular access devices provide the necessary surfaces for biofilm formation and are currently responsible for a significant percentage of human infections. In this work, we describe a rare case of central venous catheter-related Rhodotorula glutinis fungemia in a female patient with acute myelogenous leukemia in remission. The timely removal of central venous catheter was an essential element for overcoming this CVC-related Rhodotorula fungemia.

  19. Management of central venous catheters in pediatric onco-hematology using 0.9% sodium chloride and positive-pressure-valve needleless connector.

    PubMed

    Buchini, Sara; Scarsini, Sara; Montico, Marcella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Ronfani, Luca; Decorti, Cinzia

    2014-08-01

    To describe, in a sample of pediatric onco-hematological patients, the rate of occlusions in unused central venous catheters (CVC) flushed once a week with a 0.9% sodium chloride solution through a positive-pressure-valve needleless connector. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects aged 0-17 years were identified through a manual search in medical and nursing records and were observed for two years or until the occurrence of one of the following events: start or resume of continuous infusion; CVC removal; death. The primary study outcome was the frequency of CVC occlusion (partial or complete). Fifty-one patients were identified (median age 6 years). The median duration of follow-up was 169 days (IQR 111-305). During the follow up period, 14 patients (27%) had one CVC occlusion, in 2 cases (4%) the occlusion was complete, in 12 (23%) partial. All the occlusions were solved without the need for catheter removal. The lumen diameter ≤ 4.2 vs > 4.2 French showed a statistically significant association with occlusion at multivariate analysis (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.1-14.7). Our findings are reassuring with respect to the management of the CVC using the adopted protocol. The study provides useful information for patient care, by verifying the performance of the adopted CVC management protocol and by identifying critical areas for nursing care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of Infection Using Peripherally Inserted Central and Umbilical Catheters in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Shalabi, Mohamed; Adel, Mohamed; Yoon, Eugene; Aziz, Khalid; Lee, Shoo; Shah, Prakesh S

    2015-12-01

    To compare the rates of catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI) in preterm infants born at <30 weeks' gestation who received a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) versus an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) immediately after birth as their primary venous access. This retrospective matched cohort study examined data from infants born at <30 weeks' gestation and admitted between January 2010 and December 2013 to neonatal units in the Canadian Neonatal Network. Eligible infants who received a PICC on the first day after birth (day 1) were matched with 2 additional groups of infants, those who received a UVC on day 1 and those who received a UVC on day 1 that was then changed for a PICC after 4 days or more. The primary outcome was number of infants with CABSI per 1000 catheter days, which was compared between the 3 groups using multivariable analyses. Data from 540 eligible infants were reviewed (180 per group). There was no significant difference in infants with CABSI/1000 catheter days between the 3 groups (9.3 vs 7.8 vs 8.2/1000 catheter days, respectively; P > .05) despite lower rates of late onset sepsis in the group of infants who received only a UVC. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CABSI between very preterm neonates who received a PICC, UVC, or UVC followed by PICC as the primary mode of venous access after birth. A prospective randomized controlled trial is justified to further guide practice regarding primary venous access and reduction of infection. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Is traditional reading of the bedside chest radiograph appropriate to detect intraatrial central venous catheter position?

    PubMed

    Wirsing, Melanie; Schummer, Claudia; Neumann, Rotraud; Steenbeck, Jörg; Schmidt, Peter; Schummer, Wolfram

    2008-09-01

    Traditionally, the positioning of central venous catheters (CVCs) outside the right atrium (RA) in patients receiving intensive care is determined by surrogate landmarks on bedside chest radiographs (CXRs). The validity of this method was examined by comparing readings of radiologists with the results of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Prospective study at university hospital. Two hundred thirteen adults scheduled for cardiothoracic surgery were randomized to right or left internal jugular vein catheterization under ECG guidance. One senior radiologist and two radiologists in training independently read the CXRs, and determined whether the CVC tip ended in the RA and measured the vertical distance from the CVC tip to the carina (TC-distance). Two hundred twelve CVC tips could be identified by TEE. Only left-sided CVCs (n = 5) ended in the upper RA (2.4%). Three of those patients were shorter than 160 cm. Specificity was 94% for senior radiologist, 44% for the first radiologist in training, and 60% for the second radiologist in training. The TC-distance of intraatrial catheters was 39, 55, 59, 80, and 83 mm, respectively. Thus, a TC-distance < or = 55 mm ensured extraatrial tip position in four of five intraatrial CVCs (80%, p = 0.002). The TC-distance of extraatrial catheters ranged from - 26 to 102 mm. Reading of a bedside CXR alone is not very accurate to identify intraatrial CVC tip position. TC-distance is a helpful marker, and its specificity is as good as that of an experienced radiologist if a cutoff value of 55 mm is chosen.

  2. Catheter-Related Complications in Children With Cancer Receiving Parenteral Nutrition: Change in Risk Is Moderated by Catheter Type.

    PubMed

    Shenep, Melissa A; Tanner, Mary R; Sun, Yilun; Culley, Tina; Hayden, Randall T; Flynn, Patricia M; Tang, Li; Wolf, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Although central venous catheters (CVCs) are essential to pediatric cancer care, complications are common (eg, occlusion, central line-associated bloodstream infection [CLABSI]). Parenteral nutrition (PN) and external CVCs are associated with an increased complication risk, but their interaction is unknown. A retrospective matched cohort study of pediatric oncology patients who received PN through subcutaneous ports or external CVCs. Complication rates were compared between CVC types during PN and non-PN periods (log-negative binomial model). Risk of CLABSI was higher during PN for children with ports (relative risk [RR] = 39.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.0-309) or external CVCs (RR = 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-7.4). This increased risk during PN was greater for ports than for external CVCs (ratio of relative risks = 13.6). Occlusion risk was higher during PN in both groups (RR = 10.0 for ports; RR = 2.0 for external CVCs), and the increase was significantly greater in ports (ratio of relative risks, 4.9). Overall, complication rates for ports were much lower than for external CVCs during the non-PN period but similar during the PN period. Children with cancer who receive PN have increased risk of CLABSI and occlusion. The risk increase is greatest in children with ports: a 40- and 10-fold increase in infection risk and occlusion, respectively, resulting in similar complication rates during PN regardless of CVC type and negating the usual benefits of ports. Children with cancer who will require PN should have primary insertion of external CVCs where possible.

  3. Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters Do Not Change Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Buckman, Sara A; Horn, Christopher B; Bochicchio, Grant V; Mazuski, John E

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) decrease the incidence of infection in high-risk patients. However, use of these catheters carries the hypothetical risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that routine use of minocycline and rifampin-impregnated catheters (MR-CVC) in a single intensive care unit (ICU) would change the resistance profile for Staphylococcus aureus. We reviewed antibiotic susceptibilities of S. aureus isolates obtained from blood cultures in a large urban teaching hospital from 2002-2015. Resistance patterns were compared before and after implementation of MR-CVC use in the surgical ICU (SICU) in August 2006. We also compared resistance patterns of S. aureus obtained in other ICUs and in non-ICU patients, in whom MR-CVCs were not used. Data for rifampin, oxacillin, and clindamycin were available for 9,703 cultures; tetracycline resistance data were available for 4,627 cultures. After implementation of MR-CVC use in the SICU, rifampin resistance remained unchanged, with rates the same as in other ICU and non-ICU populations (3%). After six years of use of MR-CVCs in the SICU, the rate of tetracycline resistance was unchanged in all facilities (1%-3%). The use of MR-CVCs was not associated with any change in S. aureus oxacillin-resistance rates in the SICU (66% vs. 60%). However, there was a significant decrease in S. aureus clindamycin resistance (59% vs. 34%; p < 0.05) in SICU patients. Routine use of rifampin-minocycline-impregnated CVCs in the SICU was not associated with increased resistance of S. aureus isolates to rifampin or tetracyclines.

  4. Severe neutropenia at time of port insertion is not a risk factor for catheter-associated infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Beatriz L P; Connolly, Bairbre; Abla, Oussama; Tomlinson, George; Amaral, Joao G

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether severe neutropenia on the day of port-a-catheter (PORT) insertion was a risk factor for catheter-associated infection (CAI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This was a retrospective study of children with ALL who had a PORT insertion between January 2005 and August 2008. Early (≤ 30 days) and late (>30 days) postprocedure complications were reviewed. The length of follow-up ranged between 7 months and 42 months. In total, 192 PORTs were inserted in 179 children. There were 43 CAIs (22%), and the infection rate was 0.35 per 1000 catheter-days. The CAI rate (15%) in children who had severe neutropenia on the day of the procedure did not differ statistically from the CAI rate (24%) in children who did not have severe neutropenia (P = .137). Conversely, patients with severe neutropenia who had a CAI were more likely to have their PORT removed (P = .019). The most common organisms to cause catheter removal were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Patients with high-risk ALL had a statistically significant higher incidence of late CAI than patients with standard-risk ALL (P = .012). Age (P = .272), positive blood culture preprocedure (P = 1.0), and dexamethasone use (P = .201) were not risk factors for CAI. Patients who had an early CAI did not have a greater chance of having a late CAI. The catheter infection-free survival rate at 1 year was 88.6%. The current results indicated that severe neutropenia on the day of PORT insertion does not increase the risk of CAI in children with ALL. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  5. Vitamin K antagonists in children with central venous catheter on chronic haemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, Fabio; Artoni, Andrea; Braham, Simon; Consolo, Silvia; Giannini, Alberto; Chidini, Giovanna; Napolitano, Luisa; Martinelli, Ida; Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To date, no study has investigated the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in children undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD) with a central venous catheter (CVC). Consecutive patients aged <18 years with a newly placed tunnelled CVC for chronic HD were enrolled over a 3-year period. Children with active nephrotic syndrome or a history of venous thrombosis received warfarin (VKA group) with therapeutic target international normalised ratios of between 2.0 and 3.0. Patients at standard risk of CVC malfunction were not treated with VKA (standard group). The primary end-point was overall CVC survival. The VKA group consisted of nine patients (median age 10.6 years; range 1.2-15.3 years) with 11 CVC, and the standard group comprised eight patients (11.8 years; 6.1-17.3 years) with ten CVC. The 6- and 12-month CVC survival was significantly longer in the VKA group than in the standard group (100 vs. 60 % and 83.3 vs. 16.7 %, respectively; p < 0.05), with a median survival of 369 and 195 days, respectively (p < 0.05). None of the CVC in the VKA group required removal due to malfunction, as compared to four in the standard group. No major bleeding episodes occurred in either group. Therapy with VKA would appear to be safe in children on chronic HD and may improve CVC survival in patients at increased risk of CVC thrombosis.

  6. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nurses take the following actions. Catheter insertion o Catheters are put in only when necessary and they are removed as soon as possible. o Only properly trained persons insert catheters using sterile (“ ...

  7. Between the lines: The 50th anniversary of long-term central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Gow, Kenneth W; Tapper, David; Hickman, Robert O

    2017-05-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (CVC) were developed five decades ago. Since then, several clinician-inventors have created a variety of catheters with different functions. Indeed, many catheters have been named after their inventor. Many have wondered who the inventors were of each catheter, and what specifically inspired their inventions. Many of these compelling stories have yet to be told. A literature review of common catheters and personal communication with inventors. Only first person accounts from inventors or those close to the invention were used. CVCs are now essential devices that have saved countless lives. Though the inventors have earned the honor of naming their catheters, it may be reasonable to consider more consistent terminology to describe these catheters to avoid confusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Difficulties of Distal Catheter Insertion of Ventriculoatrial Shunting in Infants and Little Children.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hakan; Altun, Adnan; Kuruoglu, Enis; Kaya, Ahmet Hilmi; Dagcinar, Adnan

    2017-09-26

    Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunting is a well-described cerebrospinal fluid diversion method for the treatment of hydrocephalus. However, it may be very challenging in infants and little children because of atrial catheter placement difficulties. This study aimed to create an algorithm to solve problems faced during open surgical procedures based on the present authors' experience. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 18 infants and children who underwent VA shunt insertion at the Department of Neurosurgery, Ondokuz Mayıs University School of Medicine Hospital between 2005 and 2012. Complications, clinical outcomes, revisions, and solutions for overcoming distal catheter placement difficulties were evaluated. Twenty-six VA shunt operations were performed in 18 patients. Six patients required eight VA shunt revisions. VA shunting was primarily performed from the internal jugular, facial, cephalic, and subclavian veins to the right atrium. In revision procedures, the internal jugular, cephalic, and subclavian veins were used. VA shunting in infants and little children requires careful surgical techniques. Neurosurgeons should necessarily have an appropriate strategy for VA shunting considering the complications and revisions. Our results suggest open surgical solutions to overcome distal catheter placement difficulties in this age group.

  9. Indwelling catheters and medical implants with FXIIIa inhibitors: a novel approach to the treatment of catheter and medical device-related infections

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Nooshin; Collighan, Russell; Perrie, Yvonne; Lambert, Peter; Rathbone, Dan; Lowry, Deborah; Griffin, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are being utilized with increasing frequency in intensive care and general medical wards. In spite of the extensive experience gained in their application, CVCs are related to the long-term risks of catheter sheath formation, infection and thrombosis (of the catheter or vessel itself) during catheterisation. Such CVC-related-complications are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, duration of hospitalisation and medical care cost [1]. The present study incorporates a novel group of Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa, plasma transglutaminase) inhibitors into a lubricious silicone elastomer in order to generate an optimized drug delivery system whereby a secondary sustained drug release profile occurs following an initial burst release for catheters and other medical devices. We propose that the incorporation of FXIIIa inhibitors into catheters, stents and other medical implant devices would reduce the incidence of catheter sheath formation, thrombotic occlusion and associated staphylococcal infection. This technique could be used as a local delivery system for extended release with an immediate onset of action for other poorly aqueous soluble compounds. PMID:23022540

  10. Emergent Start Peritoneal Dialysis for End-Stage Renal Disease: Outcomes and Advantages.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K Shivanand; Subhramanyam, Sreepada V; Pavankumar, Navva; Antony, Sinoj; Sarfaraz Khan, M A

    2018-01-01

    Initiating renal replacement therapy in late referred patients with central venous catheter (CVC) hemodialysis (HD) causes serious complications. In urgent start peritoneal dialysis, initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD) within 14 days of catheter insertion still needs HD with CVC. We initiated Emergent start PD (ESPD) with Automated PD (APD) at our center within 48 h from the time of presentation. A prospective, case-controlled, intention-to-treat study with 56 patients was conducted between March 2016 and August 2017. Group A (24 patients) underwent conventional PD 14 days after catheter insertion. Group B (32 patients), underwent ESPD with APD. Exit site leak (ESL), catheter blockage, and peritonitis at 90 days were primary outcomes. Technique survival was secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics were similar with 3 episodes of ESLs (9.4%) in the study group and none in the control group (p = 0.123). Catheter blockage (16.7%-Group A, 25%-Group B) and peritonitis (none vs. 9.4% in study group) were similar in terms of statistical details just as technique survival (95%-Group A, 88.2%-Group B at 90 days). ESPD with APD in the unplanned patient is an appropriate approach. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Heparin for clearance of peripherally inserted central venous catheter in newborns: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Balaminut, Talita; Venturini, Danielle; da Silva, Valéria Costa Evangelista; Rossetto, Edilaine Giovanini; Zani, Adriana Valongo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of two concentrations of heparin to clear the lumen of in vitro clotted neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Methods: This is an in vitro, experimental quantitative study of 76 neonatal 2.0-Fr PICCs coagulated in vitro. The catheters were divided into two groups of 38 PICCs each. In both groups an infusion of low molecular weight heparin was administered with a dose of 25IU/mL for Group 1 and 50IU/mL for Group 2. The negative pressure technique was applied to the catheters of both groups at 5, 15 and 30min and at 4h to test their permeability. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to verify the outcome of the groups according to time intervals. Results: The comparison between both groups in the first 5min showed that more catheters from Group 2 were cleared compared to Group 1 (57.9 vs. 21.1%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that less time was needed to clear catheters treated with 50IU/mL of heparin (p<0.001). Conclusions: The use of low molecular weight heparin at a concentration of 50IU/mL was more effective in restoring the permeability of neonatal PICCs occluded in vitro by a clot, and the use of this concentration is within the safety margin indicated by scientific literature. PMID:26116325

  12. Dialysis catheter associated cardiac tamponade: quick diagnosis by extemporaneous echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ervo, R; Angeletti, S; Turrini Dertenois, L; Cavatorta, F

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of pericardial tamponade associated with over the wire exchange of a central venous catheter (CVC) for hemodialysis (HD). The complication was quickly diagnosed due to an extemporaneous echocardiogram with a linear probe, before other laboratory and radiologic tests could detect it. The described approach allowed a suitable therapy with a positive result.

  13. [Risk factors of deep venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheter in upper extremity in ICU].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Jiale; Jiang, Ting; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jianning; Ding, Chengzhi; Liu, Fen; Qian, Kejian; Jiang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the incidence and its risk factors of peripherally inserted central venous catheter related upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (PICC-UEDVT) in intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical data of the patients received PICCs in ICU of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from August 2013 to August 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The inclusion criteria in the study included: the age > 18 years old, catheter indwelling time > 1 week and the complete relevant information. The gender, age, history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PICC; number of illness involved organs; complicated with hypertension, diabetes, infection or not; and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), duration of mechanical ventilation; D-dimer, platelet count (PLT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were recorded. According to the occurrence of PICC-UEDVT, univariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of PICC-UEDVT and variables with statistical difference were selected to do multivariate binary logistic regression analysis for the confirmable independence risk factors. Six patients of the 61 cases occurred PICC-UEDVT with the occurrence rate of 9.8%. Time of occurrence was 9 days, 14 days (2 cases), 22 days, 28 days, 62 days after inserted catheter respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that previous DVT, D-dimer and big diameter PICC were risk factors associated with PICC-UEDVT [the previous DVT: 50.00% vs. 7.27%, P = 0.017; D-dimer > 5 mg/L: 66.67% vs. 18.18%, P = 0.021; 5F catheter: 83.33% vs. 29.09%, P = 0.016]. It was shown by multivariate logistic regression analysis that the previous DVT [odds ratio (OR) = 20.539, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.733-243.875, P = 0.017] and increasing size of catheter (OR = 18.070, 95%CI = 1.317-247.875, P = 0.030) were independent risk factors associated with the development of PICC-UEDVT. For critical patients with a history of DVT and D-dimer > 5 mg

  14. Slime production by clinical isolates of Blastoschizomyces capitatus from patients with hematological malignancies and catheter-related fungemia.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, D; Parruti, G; Pontieri, E; Di Bonaventura, G; Manzoli, L; Sferra, R; Vetuschi, A; Piccolomini, R; Romano, F; Staniscia, T

    2004-10-01

    In order to expand the present knowledge of the pathogenic potential of Blastoschizomyces capitatus in central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infections, six strains of the organism recovered from three leukemic patients with CVC-related fungemia in different years were investigated. Isolates and control strains were tested for their genetic relatedness and for their ability to produce slime in glucose-containing solutions. DNA restriction enzyme analysis revealed that all strains of B. capitatus were identical, whereas slime production assays and examination of ex vivo material showed that they were able to produce large amounts of slime. Slime production may therefore play a relevant pathogenic role in cases of CVC-related fungemia caused by B. capitatus.

  15. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness from the funding body's point of view of ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion compared with the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Zigaib, Rogério; Ranzani, Otavio T; Teich, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness, from the funding body's point of view, of real-time ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion compared to the traditional method, which is based on the external anatomical landmark technique. A theoretical simulation based on international literature data was applied to the Brazilian context, i.e., the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). A decision tree was constructed that showed the two central venous catheter insertion techniques: real-time ultrasonography versus external anatomical landmarks. The probabilities of failure and complications were extracted from a search on the PubMed and Embase databases, and values associated with the procedure and with complications were taken from market research and the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). Each central venous catheter insertion alternative had a cost that could be calculated by following each of the possible paths on the decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by dividing the mean incremental cost of real-time ultrasound compared to the external anatomical landmark technique by the mean incremental benefit, in terms of avoided complications. When considering the incorporation of real-time ultrasound and the concomitant lower cost due to the reduced number of complications, the decision tree revealed a final mean cost for the external anatomical landmark technique of 262.27 Brazilian reals (R$) and for real-time ultrasound of R$187.94. The final incremental cost of the real-time ultrasound-guided technique was -R$74.33 per central venous catheter. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -R$2,494.34 due to the pneumothorax avoided. Real-time ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion was associated with decreased failure and complication rates and hypothetically reduced costs from the view of the funding body, which in this case was the SUS.

  16. Analysis of risk factors for central venous catheter-related complications: a prospective observational study in pediatric patients with bone sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Abate, Massimo Eraldo; Sánchez, Olga Escobosa; Boschi, Rita; Raspanti, Cinzia; Loro, Loretta; Affinito, Domenico; Cesari, Marilena; Paioli, Anna; Palmerini, Emanuela; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications reported in pediatric sarcoma patients is not established as reports in available literature are limited. The analysis of risk factors is part of the strategy to reduce the incidence of CVC complications. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of CVC complications in children with bone sarcomas and if defined clinical variables represent a risk factor. During an 8-year period, 155 pediatric patients with bone sarcomas were prospectively followed up for CVC complications. Incidence and correlation with clinical features including gender, age, body mass index, histology, disease stage, and use of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin were analyzed. Thirty-three CVC complications were recorded among 42 687 CVC-days (0.77 per 1000 CVC-days). No correlation between the specific clinical variables and the CVC complications was found. A high incidence of CVC-related sepsis secondary to gram-negative bacteria was observed. The analysis of CVC complications and their potential risk factors in this sizable and relatively homogeneous pediatric population with bone sarcomas has led to the implementation of a multimodal approach by doctors and nurses to reduce the incidence and morbidity of the CVC-related infections, particularly those related to gram-negative bacteria. As a result of this joint medical and nursing study, a multimodal approach that included equipping faucets with water filters, the reeducation of doctors and nurses, and the systematic review of CVC protocol was implemented.

  17. Complicated vascular access port removals: incidence, antecedents and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick J; Fouad, Dina; Munro, Fraser D; McCabe, Amanda J

    2015-09-01

    Port removal is usually a straightforward procedure delegated to trainees. However, some port removals are complicated by central venous catheter (CVC) fragmentation, a challenge for even experienced surgeons. This study aimed to determine the incidence of, and risk factors for, complicated port removal in children. A single-centre study assessed the outcome of removal for all paediatric ports inserted from 1996 to 2012. Data were recorded detailing patient, insertion, device and removal characteristics. Risk factors for complicated removals were scrutinised using Chi-square tests; p < 0.05 significant. Of 628 ports inserted from 1996 to 2012, 443 were subsequently removed at the same centre. 8/443 (1.8%) removals were complicated by CVC fragmentation, a median of 3.3 (2.4-3.9) years after insertion. Of complicated cases, 8/8 underwent formal neck dissection, 3/8 intravascular dissection, and 1/8 endovascular retrieval. 2/8 cases have retained intravascular CVC fragments. Risk factors for complication were CVC caliber <6Fr (p < 0.001) and use duration >2 years (p < 0.001). Greatest care and senior supervision should be ensured when removing ports with CVC caliber <6Fr and/or >2 years since insertion. However, complications also occur with larger CVCs or after shorter durations. Therefore, the key to avoiding complicated port removal may simply be: preparation, preparation, neck preparation.

  18. Soft J-tipped guide wire-induced cardiac perforation in a patient with right ventricular lipomatosis and wall thinning.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yuki; Tajima, Katsushi; Shiono, Yousuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Kohno, Kei; Kato, Yuichi; Shunji, Kawamura; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade caused by perforation is a rare but potentially lethal complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. We herein report a case of cardiac perforation associated with the use of a soft J-tipped guide wire. Twenty minutes after the insertion of a CVC, the patient developed unexpected cardiac arrest. An autopsy revealed 400 mL of pericardial blood. The right ventricular wall was 1 mm thick with about 10 myocyte layers, which is one-third that of the normal heart. A histological analysis revealed widespread fatty infiltration of the right ventricular wall (right ventricular lipomatosis).

  19. Percutaneous retrieval of centrally embolized fragments of central venous access devices or knotted Swan-Ganz catheters. Clinical report of 14 retrievals with detailed angiographic analysis and review of procedural aspects

    PubMed Central

    Chmielak, Zbigniew; Dębski, Artur; Kępka, Cezary; Rudziński, Piotr N.; Bujak, Sebastian; Skwarek, Mirosław; Kurowski, Andrzej; Dzielińska, Zofia; Demkow, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Totally implantable venous access systems (TIVAS), Swan-Ganz (SG) and central venous catheters (CVC) allow easy and repetitive entry to the central cardiovascular system. Fragments of them may be released inadvertently into the cardiovascular system during their insertion or as a result of mechanical complications encountered during long-term utilization. Aim To present results of percutaneous retrieval of embolized fragments of central venous devices or knotted SG and review the procedural aspects with a series of detailed angiographies. Material and methods Between January 2003 and December 2012 there were 14 (~0.025%) successful retrievals in 13 patients (44 ±16 years, 15% females) of embolized fragments of TIVAS (n = 10) or CVC (n = 1) or of dislodged guide-wires (n = 2) or knotted SG (n = 1). Results Foreign bodies with the forward end located in the right ventricle (RV), as well as those found in the pulmonary artery (PA), often required repositioning with a pigtail catheter as compared to those catheter fragments which were located in the right atrium (RA) and/or great vein and possessed an accessible free end allowing their direct ensnarement with the loop snare (57.0% (4/7) vs. 66.7% (2/3) vs. 0.0% (0/3); p = 0.074 respectively). Procedure duration was 2–3 times longer among catheters retrieved from the PA than among those with the forward edge located in the RV or RA (30 (18–68) vs. 13.5 (11–37) vs. 8 min (8–13); p = 0.054 respectively). The SG catheter knotted in the vena cava superior (VCS) was encircled with the loop snare introduced transfemorally, subsequently cut at its skin entrance and then pulled down inside the 14 Fr vascular sheath. Conclusions By using the pigtail catheter and the loop snare, it is feasible to retrieve centrally embolized fragments or knotted central venous access devices. PMID:27279874

  20. Preventing central venous catheter-associated primary bloodstream infections: characteristics of practices among hospitals participating in the Evaluation of Processes and Indicators in Infection Control (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Braun, Barbara I; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Wong, Edward S; Solomon, Steve L; Steele, Lynn; Richards, Cheryl L; Simmons, Bryan P

    2003-12-01

    To describe the conceptual framework and methodology of the Evaluation of Processes and Indicators in Infection Control (EPIC) study and present results of CVC insertion characteristics and organizational practices for preventing BSIs. The goal of the EPIC study was to evaluate relationships among processes of care, organizational characteristics, and the outcome of BSI. This was a multicenter prospective observational study of variation in hospital practices related to preventing CVC-associated BSIs. Process of care information (eg, barrier use during insertions and experience of the inserting practitioner) was collected for a random sample of approximately 5 CVC insertions per month per hospital during November 1998 to December 1999. Organization demographic and practice information (eg, surveillance activities and staff and ICU nurse staffing levels) was also collected. Medical, surgical, or medical-surgical ICUs from 55 hospitals (41 U.S. and 14 international sites). Process information was obtained for 3,320 CVC insertions with an average of 58.2 (+/- 16.1) insertions per hospital. Fifty-four hospitals provided policy and practice information. Staff spent an average of 13 hours per week in study ICU surveillance. Most patients received nontunneled, multiple lumen CVCs, of which fewer than 25% were coated with antimicrobial material. Regarding barriers, most clinicians wore masks (81.5%) and gowns (76.8%); 58.1% used large drapes. Few hospitals (18.1%) used an intravenous team to manage ICU CVCs. Substantial variation exists in CVC insertion practice and BSI prevention activities. Understanding which practices have the greatest impact on BSI rates can help hospitals better target improvement interventions.

  1. [Unilateral pleural effusion caused by vessel perforation due to peripherally inserted central catheter: Indocyanine green as a diagnostic tool].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Baena, L; Duque, P; Ramos, R; Zarain Obrador, L; Fernández-Quero, L

    2016-01-01

    A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) was inserted into a 44-year-old man to provide parenteral nutrition in a protein-calorie malnutrition secondary to a benign pyloric stenosis. On the fifth day while monitoring the catheter, the patient presented with a massive whitish pleural effusion after undergoing gastric endoscopy in order to treat pyloric stenosis. Chylothorax was initially suspected, and the patient was admitted to a recovery unit. Indocyanine green was administered through the PICC, obtaining a greenish discoloration in the pleural effusion 30 min later. This led to the diagnosis of a pleural effusion caused by a vessel perforation due to the PICC, leading to parenteral nutrition extravasation. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography was performed, which confirmed an innominate vein perforation due to the PICC. PICC insertion may be associated with severe complications, such as central vessel perforation, and therefore the correct position of a central catheter should be always checked. Intravenous computed tomography contrast is the gold standard for central vascular perforation diagnosis. However if a pleural effusion occurs in this context, it is possible to use a dye, which administered intravenously can lead us to the correct diagnosis in situ. Indocyanine green was used for this purpose in this case. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in senile male patients: New risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Fu, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Ping; Li, Shi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC)-related venous thrombosis is a common but serious clinical complication, thus prevention and treatment on this problem should be extensively investigated. In this research, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile patients and give a further discussion on the related risk factors and predictors. A total of 324 hospitalized senile male patients subjected to CVC were selected. Retrospective investigation and analysis were conducted on age, underlying diseases, clinical medications, catheterization position and side, catheter retention time, and incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis complications. Basic laboratory test results during catheterization and thrombogenesis were also collected and analyzed. Among the 324 patients, 20 cases (6.17%) of CVC-related venous thrombosis were diagnoseds. The incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in subclavian vein catheterization was significantly lower than that in femoral vein catheterization (P<0.01) and that in internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between femoral vein catheterization and internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). Previous venous thrombosis history (P<0.01), high lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.01), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P<0.05), and low albumin level (P<0.05) were found as risk factors or predictors of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile male patients. Subclavian vein catheterization was the most appropriate choice among senile patients to decrease the incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis. Previous venous thrombosis history, high lactate dehydrogenase level, low HDL level, and low albumin level were important risk factors in predicting CVC-related venous thrombosis.

  3. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Use in Skilled Nursing Facilities: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Vineet; Montoya, Ana; Joshi, Darius; Becker, Carol; Brant, Amy; McGuirk, Helen; Clark, Jordyn; Harrod, Molly; Kuhn, Latoya; Mody, Lona

    2015-09-01

    To describe patterns of use, care practices, and outcomes related to peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Prospective cohort study. Two community SNFs. Adult SNF residents with PICCs (N = 56). Information on indication for PICC use, device characteristics (e.g., lumens, gauge), and participant data (comorbidities, medications) were obtained from medical records. Care practices (e.g., frequency of flushing, dressing care) and problems related to PICCs were recorded. Major (central line-associated bloodstream infection, venous thromboembolism, catheter dislodgement) and minor (migration, dressing disruption, lumen occlusion, exit site infection) complications and process measures (flushing of PICC, assessment of necessity) were recorded. Bivariate analyses with t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fischer exact tests were used for continuous and categorical data. Participants were enrolled from two SNFs. The most common indication for PICC use was intravenous antibiotic delivery. The average PICC dwell time was 43 days, and most devices were single-lumen PICCs. Major and minor complications were common and occurred in 11 (20%) and 18 (32%) participants, respectively. Occlusion (23%, n = 13), accidental dislodgement (12%, n = 7), and dressing disruption (11%, n = 6) were the commonest complications observed. Documentation regarding catheter care practices occurred in 41% of cases. Quality improvement efforts that seek to benchmark practice, identify gaps, and institute efforts to improve PICC care and practice in SNFs appear necessary. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Variables associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection in high risk newborn infants 1

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Uesliz Vianna; Gomes, Saint Clair dos Santos; Costa, Ana Maria Aranha Magalhães; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate the variables from a surveillance form for intravenous devices in high risk newborn infants with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection. METHODOLOGY: approximately 15 variables were studied, being associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection, this being defined by blood culture results. The variables analyzed were obtained from the surveillance forms used with intravenous devices, attached to the medical records of newborn infants weighing between 500 and 1,499 g. The statistical association was defined using the Chi-squared and Student t tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira under process N. 140.703/12. RESULTS: 63 medical records were analyzed. The infection rate observed was 25.4%. Of the variables analyzed, only three had a statistically-significant relationship with the blood culture - the use of drugs capable of inhibiting acid secretion, post-natal steroid use, and undertaking more than one invasive procedure (p-value of 0.0141, 0.0472 and 0.0277, respectively). CONCLUSION: the absence of significance of the variables of the form may be related to the quality of the records and to the absence of standardization. It is recommended that the teams be encouraged to adhere to the protocol and fill out the form. PMID:25493681

  5. Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a pair of sterile gloves. Remove the cap on the saline syringe and set the cap down on the paper towel. DO NOT let ... It is a good idea to change the caps at the end of your catheter (called the " ...

  6. A suitable Xylella fastidiosa CVC strain for post-genome studies.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva do Carmo; Rocha, Sanvai Regina Prado; de Santos, Mateus Almeida; Mariano, Anelise Galdino; Li, Wen Bin; Monteiro, Patricia Brant

    2004-12-01

    The genome sequence of the pathogen Xylella fastidiosa Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC) strain 9a5c has revealed many genes related to pathogenicity mechanisms and virulence determinants. However, strain 9a5c is resistant to genetic transformation, impairing mutant production for the analysis of pathogenicity mechanisms and virulence determinants of this fastidious phytopathogen. By screening different strains, we found out that cloned strains J1a12, B111, and S11400, all isolated from citrus trees affected by CVC, are amenable to transformation, and J1a12 has been used as a model strain in a functional genomics program supported by FAPESP (São Paulo State Research Foundation). However, we have found that strain J1a12, unlike strains 9a5c and B111, was incapable of inducing CVC symptoms when inoculated in citrus plants. We have now determined that strain B111 is an appropriate candidate for post-genome studies of the CVC strain of X. fastidiosa.

  7. A randomized controlled comparison of flushing protocols in home care patients with peripherally inserted central catheters.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Margaret G; Phalen, Ann G

    2014-01-01

    Research has failed to demonstrate an optimal flushing solution or frequency for central catheters. In a 2002 study of 50 000 home care patients, catheter dysfunction with loss of patency was the most common complication and occurred in 29% of the peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) tracked. With the advent of the Affordable Care Act and the promise of expanded home care services, this study offers evidence as to a preferred flushing protocol to prevent catheter patency complications for home infusion patients with PICCs. This prospective, randomized, 1-way, single-blinded posttest with control group study was performed to compare 3 commonly used flushing protocols in home infusion patients with PICCs. The independent variable was the flushing protocol, and dependent variables included the development of patency-related complications and other significant issues such as sluggishness, occlusion, missed medication doses, catheter replacement, additional nursing visits, and the use of alteplase (Cathflo Activase). Each of the study groups had patients who experienced 1 or more patency-related complications. Additional factors that may affect catheter function, including patient age, gender, diagnosis, therapy type, frequency of catheter use, catheter brand/size/number of lumens, concomitant use of anticoagulant medications, and whether PICCs were used for routine lab testing, were analyzed, and no statistical significance was determined. Catheter dwell time (catheter days) was statistically significant (p = .003, confidence interval = 95%; assuming equal variance) and confirmed the assumption that the longer a home care patient's catheter was in place, the more complications occurred. There were no cases of heparin allergy, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, or line infection. The data provide some evidence to support the elimination of heparin flushing in home care patients with PICCs, although data in the saline-only group that related to additional

  8. The alternative sigma factor sigma B of Staphylococcus aureus modulates virulence in experimental central venous catheter-related infections.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Udo; Hüttinger, Christian; Schäfer, Tina; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Thiede, Arnulf; Hacker, Jörg; Engelmann, Susanne; Hecker, Michael; Ohlsen, Knut

    2008-03-01

    The impact of the alternative sigma factor sigma B (SigB) on pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus is not conclusively clarified. In this study, a central venous catheter (CVC) related model of multiorgan infection was used to investigate the role of SigB for the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections and biofilm formation in vivo. Analysis of two SigB-positive wild-type strains and their isogenic mutants revealed uniformly that the wild-type was significantly more virulent than the SigB-deficient mutant. The observed difference in virulence was apparently not linked to the capability of the strains to form biofilms in vivo since wild-type and mutant strains were able to produce biofilm layers inside of the catheter. The data strongly indicate that the alternative sigma factor SigB plays a role in CVC-associated infections caused by S. aureus.

  9. Use of Electronic Tablets for Patient Education on Flushing Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters.

    PubMed

    Petroulias, Patricia L

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using an electronic tablet to provide patient education for flushing peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) as a way to reduce the incidence of occlusion. Eleven patients, newly diagnosed with cancer, participated in a pilot study that used a video on PICC flushing and remote coaching using FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) to teach patients how to maintain their PICCs in their homes. At the end of the 6-week intervention, no adverse outcomes (occlusions or infections) were noted among the patients who participated in the study.

  10. Need for tissue plasminogen activator for central venous catheter dysfunction is significantly associated with thrombosis in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Jessica; MacDonald, Tamara; Digout, Carol; Smith, Nadine; Rigby, Krista; Kulkarni, Ketan

    2018-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) dysfunction is a common complication among pediatric cancer patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is administered to resolve CVC dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine risk factors associated with requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction and to assess the clinical impact of CVC dysfunction in terms of CVC loss and venous thrombotic events (VTE). Case records of all pediatric patients with cancer from the Maritimes, Canada were reviewed following ethics approval. Data regarding demographics, clinical diagnosis, CVC dysfunction, characteristics of CVCs, and VTE were pooled from multiple data sources. Seven hundred and forty-one patients required ≥1 CVC. 26.3% of patients required tPA for ≥1 episodes of CVC dysfunction. Requirement of one or more doses of tPA for episodes of CVC dysfunction increased the odds of VTE by two times (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.6). Patients that required ≥1 doses of tPA required significantly more CVCs (2.05 ± 1.29 per individual patient, 55% of the patients needed >1 CVCs) as compared to the remainder (1.52 ± 0.95 per individual patient, 32% needed >1 CVCs) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed age > 10 years, diagnosis of sarcoma, and tunneled line were independently associated with tPA requirement. We determined independent risk factors associated with requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction. Requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction was associated with significantly increased risk of VTE and requirement of more CVCs. These observations can assist in identification of patients at increased risk of CVC dysfunction and inform approaches to reduce CVC loss and VTE. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reduction of catheter-associated bloodstream infections through procedures in newborn babies admitted in a university hospital intensive care unit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Resende, Daiane Silva; Ó, Jacqueline Moreira do; Brito, Denise von Dolinger de; Abdallah, Vânia Olivetti Steffen; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CA-BSI) is the most common nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units. There is evidence that care bundles to reduce CA-BSI are effective in the adult literature. The aim of this study was to reduce CA-BSI in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit by means of a care bundle including few strategies or procedures of prevention and control of these infections. An intervention designed to reduce CA-BSI with five evidence-based procedures was conducted. A total of sixty-seven (26.7%) CA-BSIs were observed. There were 46 (32%) episodes of culture-proven sepsis in group preintervention (24.1 per 1,000 catheter days [CVC days]). Neonates in the group after implementation of the intervention had 21 (19.6%) episodes of CA-BSI (14.9 per 1,000 CVC days). The incidence of CA-BSI decreased significantly after the intervention from the group preintervention and postintervention (32% to 19.6%, 24.1 per 1,000 CVC days to 14.9 per 1,000 CVC days, p=0.04). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of more than 3 antibiotics and length of stay >8 days were independent risk factors for BSI. A stepwise introduction of evidence-based intervention and intensive and continuous education of all healthcare workers are effective in reducing CA-BSI.

  12. Management of traumatic hemothorax by closed thoracic drainage using a central venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jian-hua; Liu, Hua-bo; Zhang, Mao; Wu, Jun-song; Yang, Jian-xin; Chen, Jin-ming; Xu, Shan-xiang; Wang, Jian-an

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of traumatic hemothorax by closed pleural drainage using a central venous catheter (CVC), compared with using a conventional chest tube. Methods: A prospective controlled study with the Ethics Committee approval was undertaken. A total of 407 patients with traumatic hemothorax were involved and they were randomly assigned to undergo closed pleural drainage with CVCs (n=214) or conventional chest tubes (n=193). The Seldinger technique was used for drainage by CVC, and the conventional technique for drainage by chest tube. If the residual volume of the hemothorax was less than 200 ml after the daily volume of drainage decreased to below 100 ml for two consecutive days, the treatment was considered successful. The correlative data of efficacy and safety between the two groups were analyzed using t or chi-squared tests with SPSS 13.0. A P value of less than 0.05 was taken as indicating statistical significance. Results: Compared with the chest tube group, the operation time, fraction of analgesic treatment, time of surgical wound healing, and infection rate of surgical wounds were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the CVC group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the success rate of treatment and the incidence of serious complications (P>0.05), or in the mean catheter/tube indwelling time and mean medical costs of patients treated successfully (P>0.05). Conclusions: Management of medium or large traumatic hemothoraxes by closed thoracic drainage using CVC is minimally invasive and as effective as using a conventional large-bore chest tube. Its complications can be prevented and it has the potential to replace the large-bore chest tube. PMID:22205619

  13. A retrospective comparative study of tunneled haemodialysis catheters inserted through occluded or collateral veins versus conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Powell, Steven; Chan, Tze Yuan; Bhat, Rammohan; Lam, Kimberly; Narlawar, Ranjeet S; Cullen, Nicola; Littler, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Tunneled hemodialysis catheters become essential in dialysis access when there is no possibility of using a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Collateral or occluded veins visible on ultrasound are used for puncture and passage of catheters into the central venous system. Chronically occluded veins are crossed with guidewires to allow dilatation and subsequent passage of hemodialysis catheters. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient demographics, comorbidities, procedural complications, functional survival, performance, and history of previous vascular access. The study group was compared with two control groups in which dialysis catheters were inserted either by radiologists in the interventional suite or by clinicians on the wards. Nineteen patients from the study group were compared with same number of patients in both control groups. The mean age of the study group was higher compared with the control groups. There was no significant difference in mean functional survival, infection rates, dialysis pump speeds in the first 2 weeks, and procedural complications between the study group and the controls. The study group had a significantly higher number of previous vascular access interventions, longer dialysis careers, and more comorbidities. Tunneled dialysis catheter placement by way of collateral or occluded veins appears safe and effective. These techniques give the operator further options when faced with patients possessing challenging vascular access. Indeed, there may be a case for preferential use of these veins to keep patent central veins in reserve.

  14. Catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed.

  15. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract. This..., coude catheters, balloon retention type catheters, straight catheters, upper urinary tract catheters...

  16. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A 15-Year Population-based Review From Maritimes, Canada.

    PubMed

    Borretta, Lisa; MacDonald, Tamara; Digout, Carol; Smith, Nadine; Fernandez, Conrad V; Kulkarni, Ketan

    2018-01-01

    The present population-based study evaluates the management and complications of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in all pediatric oncology patients diagnosed in Maritimes, Canada from 2000 to 2014. A total of 107 PICCs were placed in 87 (10.1%) pediatric oncology patients. A high percentage (33% and 44%, respectively) of the first and second PICC lines was associated with complications. Thrombosis, occlusion, and infection were the most frequent complications. Age above 10 years and left body side of insertion were significantly associated with PICC complications. Given the frequent use of PICCs and the high incidence (>33%) of complications, there is a need to mitigate PICC line complications.

  17. Percutaneous transfemoral repositioning of malpositioned central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, G G; Roizental, M

    1995-04-01

    Central venous catheters inserted by blind surgical placement may not advance into a satisfactory position and may require repositioning. Malpositioning via surgical insertion is common in patients in whom central venous catheters have previously been placed, as these patients are more likely to have central venous thrombosis and distortion of central venous anatomy. This is less of a problem when catheter placement is guided by imaging; however, even when insertion is satisfactory, central venous catheters may become displaced spontaneously after insertion (Fig. 1). Repositioning can be effected by direct manipulation using guidewires or tip-deflecting wires [1, 2], by manipulation via a transfemoral venous approach [3-5], and by injection of contrast material or saline [6]. Limitations of the direct approach include (1) the number and type of maneuvers that can be performed to effect repositioning when anatomy is distorted, (2) difficulty in accessing the catheter, and (3) the risk of introducing infection. Moreover, these patients are often immunosuppressed, and there is a risk of introducing infection by exposing and directly manipulating the venous catheter. Vigorous injection of contrast material or saline may be unsuccessful for the same reasons: It seldom exerts sufficient force to reposition large-caliber central venous catheters and may cause vessel damage or rupture if injection is made into a small or thrombosed vessel. We illustrate several alternative methods for catheter repositioning via a transfemoral venous approach.

  18. Effect of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in an intensive care unit with a low blood stream infection rate after implementation of an educational program: a before-after trial.

    PubMed

    Schuerer, Douglas J E; Zack, Jeanne E; Thomas, James; Borecki, Ingrid B; Sona, Carrie S; Schallom, Marilyn E; Venker, Melissa; Nemeth, Jennifer L; Ward, Myrna R; Verjan, Linda; Warren, David K; Fraser, Victoria J; Mazuski, John E; Boyle, Walter A; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Current guidelines recommend using antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) if, following a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI), infection rates remain above institutional goals based on benchmark values. The purpose of this study was to determine if chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated CVCs could decrease the CR-BSI rate in an intensive care unit (ICU) with a low baseline infection rate. Pre-intervention and post-intervention observational study in a 24-bed surgical/trauma/burn ICU from October, 2002 to August, 2005. All patients requiring CVC placement after March, 2004 had a chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheter inserted (post-intervention period). Twenty-three CR-BSIs occurred in 6,960 catheter days (3.3 per 1,000 catheter days)during the 17-month control period. After introduction of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters, 16 CR-BSIs occurred in 7,732 catheter days (2.1 per 1,000 catheter days; p = 0.16). The average length of time required for an infection to become established after catheterization was similar in the two groups (8.4 vs. 8.6 days; p = 0.85). Chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters did not result in a statistically significant change in the microbiological profile of CR-BSIs, nor did they increase the incidence of resistant organisms. Although chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters are useful in specific patient populations, they did not result in a statistically significant decrease in the CR-BSI rate in this study, beyond what was achieved with education alone.

  19. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Pediatric Patients: To Repair or Not Repair

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gnannt, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.gnannt@usz.ch; Patel, Premal; Temple, Michael

    IntroductionPreservation of venous access in children is a major concern in pediatric interventional radiology. If a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) breaks, there are two options: repair the line with a repair kit or exchange the line over a wire in the interventional suite. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome of PICC repairs in children and to compare these with the outcomes of PICC exchange.Materials and MethodsThis is a single-center, retrospective study of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) following management of externally broken PICCs (2010–2014). The occurrence of CLABSI within 30 days after repair (Group A) ormore » exchange (Group B) of a line was analyzed, as well as PICCs exchanged following an initial and failed repair.ResultsA total of 235 PICC breaks were included in the study, of which 161 were repaired, and 116 of whom were successful (68%, Group A). No repair was performed in 74 PICCs—55/74 of these were exchanged over a wire (74%, Group B), and 19/74 lines were removed. The 30 days post-repair CLABSI rate (Group A) was 2.0 infections per 1000 catheter days, and the calculated risk was 4.3%. In comparison the 30 days post-exchange CLABSI rate (Group B) was 4.0 per 1000 catheter days and the calculated risk 10.9%. This difference was significant when adjusted for antibiotic use (OR 3.87; 95% CI 1.07–14.0, p = 0.039).ConclusionThe results of this study support repairing a broken PICC instead of removing or replacing the line.« less

  20. Disabling Outcomes After Peripheral Vascular Catheter Insertion in a Newborn Patient: A Case of Medical Liability?

    PubMed Central

    Bolcato, Matteo; Russo, Marianna; Donadello, Damiano; Rodriguez, Daniele; Aprile, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, newborn Final Diagnosis: Loss of falange of the hand Symptoms: Manual disability • Pain Medication: Ampicilline Clinical Procedure: Insert vascular catheter Specialty: Forenscic Medicine Objective: Rare disease Background: The positioning of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) is an invasive procedure commonly performed in pediatrics hospital wards to obtain vascular access for the administration of fluids, medications and other intravenous (IV) therapies. Many studies exist about management of peripheral venous access in adults. On the contrary, scientific evidence on the management of this procedure in children and newborns, especially regarding the optimal duration of infusion and the possible related side effects, is still poor. To minimize the risk of phlebitis, the guidelines of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest the replacement of the catheter every 72–96 hours in adult patients, while in pediatric patients the catheter can remain in place for the entire duration of the IV therapy, unless complications arise. Case Report: In the presented case, after the positioning of a PVC in a newborn, no clear signs/symptoms of phlebitis were registered before the sixth day and, despite the immediate removal of the catheter, the thrombotic process, secondary to phlebitis, was already occurring, causing serious and permanent disabling outcomes, susceptible to legal medical evaluation and financial compensation. Conclusions: The knowledge of this case is particularly interesting to clinicians working in the field of neonatal care and to clinical risk management services inside hospital structures, since similar cases may be the source of requests for extremely high financial compensations due to medical liability. PMID:29056746

  1. Post-thrombotic syndrome after central venous catheter removal in childhood cancer survivors is associated with a history of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Menahem, Motti; Stoffer, Chanie; Weintraub, Michael

    2010-07-15

    A potential long-term complication of central venous catheter (CVC)-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT), both symptomatic and asymptomatic, is development of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) characterized by persistent pain, swelling, and skin changes. Signs and symptoms of PTS were reported after CVC removal. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for development of PTS in childhood cancer survivors. Children followed at the after cancer follow-up clinic were enrolled. The patients were screened for PTS using Kuhle's PTS pediatric score. Patient's records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and CVC-related data. Fifty-one children were enrolled at a median of 2.3 (range 0.33-7.5) years after removal of their CVC. The median age of the children the time of treatment was 6.5 (range 0.25-18) years. Mild PTS was present in 20 children (39%, 95% CI 26-54%). Pain symptoms were reported in five children (9.5%, 95% CI 3.3-21.4%). Higher rate of PTS was found in children with history of CVC occlusion. The odd ratio (95% CI) for PTS in children with history of occlusion was 3.7 (95% CI 1.1-12.5%) (P = 0.029). The occurrence of PTS was not associated with age at the time of treatment, time from CVC removal, duration of CVC, and history of infection. Screening cancer survivors for PTS after CVC removal should be integrated to the after cancer follow-up clinic. Obstruction of CVC may indicate for asymptomatic DVT. Whether thromboprophylaxis and/or prevention of CVC occlusion can decrease the rate of PTS needs to be studied.

  2. A Simulation-Based Blended Curriculum for Short Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion: An Industry-Practice Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Glover, Kevin R; Stahl, Brian R; Murray, Connie; LeClair, Matthew; Gallucci, Susan; King, Mary Anne; Labrozzi, Laura J; Schuster, Catherine; Keleekai, Nowai L

    2017-09-01

    Despite peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) insertion being a commonly performed skill, practicing nurses may receive little substantive education, training, or opportunities to practice this skill at a competent level. This article describes a collaboration between private industry and a hospital to modify, implement, and evaluate a simulation-based blended PIVC insertion continuing education program for staff nurses. Included is an overview of the practical and theoretical rationale for the initial development of the curriculum to address an identified PIVC insertion education gap, the collaborative modification and implementation of the program, and an evaluation of the program. The curriculum combined self-paced e-learning and classroom-based deliberate practice with simulation tools of varying fidelity in a peer-to-peer learning environment. Given the mutual challenges of resource allocation in industry training and clinical nursing education departments, interprofessional partnerships may be an effective option for sharing instructional knowledge and resources to promote innovation and improve patient care. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(9):397-406. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Greece reports prototype intervention with first peripherally inserted central catheter: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Stafylarakis, Emmanuil; Kapritsou, Maria; Mitsos, Aristotelis P; Fotis, Theofanis G; Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros; Argyras, Eriphyli; Nomikou, Irini Th; Dimitrakopoulos, Antonios

    2012-09-01

    Placement of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), definitely offers a clear advantage over any other method regarding central venous catheterization. Its ultrasonographic orientation enhances significantly its accuracy, safety and efficacy, making this method extremely comfortable for the patient who can continue his or her therapy even in an outpatient basis. We present the first reported case of a PICCS insertion in Greece, which has been performed by a university-degree nurse. The aim of this review of literature was to present the evolution in nursing practice in Greece. A PICC was inserted in a 77-year-old male patient suffering from a recent chemical pneumonia with a history of Alzheimer's disease. A description of all the technical details of this insertion is reported, focusing on the pros and cons of the method and a thorough review of the history and advances in central venous catheterization throughout the years is also presented. PICCs provide long-term intravenous access and facilitate the delivery of extended antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition. We strongly believe that PICCs are the safest and most effective method of peripherally inserted central venous catheterization. Larger series are necessary to prove the above hypothesis, and they are under construction by our team. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoscopic-Assisted Burr Hole Reservoir and Ventricle Catheter Placement.

    PubMed

    Antes, Sebastian; Tschan, Christoph A; Heckelmann, Michael; Salah, Mohamed; Senger, Sebastian; Linsler, Stefan; Oertel, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    Accurate positioning of a ventricle catheter is of utmost importance. Various techniques to ensure optimal positioning have been described. Commonly, after catheter placement, additional manipulation is necessary to connect a burr hole reservoir or shunt components. This manipulation can lead to accidental catheter dislocation and should be avoided. Here, we present a new technique that allows direct endoscopic insertion of a burr hole reservoir with an already mounted ventricle catheter. Before insertion, the ventricle catheter was slit at the tip, shortened to the correct length, and connected to the special burr hole reservoir. An intracatheter endoscope was then advanced through the reservoir and the connected catheter. This assemblage allowed using the endoscope as a stylet for shielded ventricular puncture. To confirm correct placement of the ventricle catheter, the endoscope was protruded a few millimeters beyond the catheter tip for inspection. The new technique was applied in 12 procedures. The modified burr hole reservoir was inserted for first-time ventriculoperitoneal shunting (n = 1), cerebrospinal fluid withdrawals and drug administration (n = 2), or different stenting procedures (n = 9). Optimal positioning of the catheter was achieved in 11 of 12 cases. No subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid collection or fluid leakage through the wound occurred. No parenchymal damage or bleeding appeared. The use of the intracatheter endoscope combined with the modified burr hole reservoir provides a sufficient technique for accurate and safe placement. Connecting the ventricle catheter to the reservoir before the insertion reduces later manipulation and accidental dislocation of the catheter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent achievements using chemical vapor composite silicon carbide (CVC SiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, William A.; Tanaka, Clifford

    2009-08-01

    This annual review documents our progress towards inexpensive mass production of silicon carbide mirrors and optical structures. Results are provided for a NASA Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) X-Ray Mirror project. Trex partnered with the University of Alabama-Huntsville Center for Advanced Optics (UAH-CAO) to develop fabrication methods for polished cylindrical and conical chemical vapor composite (CVCTM) SiC mandrels. These mandrels are envisioned as pre-forms for the replication of fused silica x-ray optics to be eventually used in the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO). CVC SiCTM offers superior high temperature stability, thermal and mechanical performance and polishability required for this precision replication process. In this program, Trex fabricated prototype mandrels with design diameters of 10.5cm, 20cm and 45cm. UAH-CAO was Trex's university partner in this effort and worked on polishing and metrology of the unusual x-ray mandrel geometries. UAH-CAO successfully developed an innovative interferometric method for measuring the CVC SiCTM x-ray mandrels based on a precision cylindrical lens system. UAH-CAO also developed finishing and polishing methods for CVC SiCTM that utilized a Zeeko IRP200 computer controlled polishing tool. The three technologies key technologies demonstrated in this program (near net shape forming of CVC SiCTM mandrels, the x-ray mandrel metrology and free-form polishing capability on CVC SiCTM) could enable cost-effective manufacture of the x-ray mandrels required for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO).

  6. Characterization of central venous catheter-associated deep venous thrombosis in infants.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; Gonzalez, Raquel; Warrier, Kavita S; Stephens, Lauren A; Drongowski, Robert A; Pipe, Steven W; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-06-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent complication in infants with central venous catheters (CVCs). We performed this study to identify risk factors and risk-reduction strategies of CVC-associated DVT in infants. Infants younger than 1 year who had a CVC placed at our center from 2005 to 2009 were reviewed. Patients with ultrasonically diagnosed DVT were compared to those without radiographic evidence. Of 333 patients, 47% (155/333) had femoral, 33% (111/333) had jugular, and 19% (64/333) had subclavian CVCs. Deep venous thromboses occurred in 18% (60/333) of patients. Sixty percent (36/60) of DVTs were in femoral veins. Femoral CVCs were associated with greater DVT rates (27%; 42/155) than jugular (11%; 12/111) or subclavian CVCs (9%; 6/64; P < .01). There was a 16% DVT rate in those with saphenofemoral Broviac CVCs vs 83% (20/24) in those with percutaneous femoral lines (P < .01). Multilumen CVCs had higher DVT rates than did single-lumen CVCs (54% vs 6%, P < .01), and mean catheter days before DVT diagnosis was shorter for percutaneous lines than Broviacs (13 ± 17 days vs 30 ± 37 days, P = .02). Patients with +DVT had longer length of stay (86 ± 88 days vs 48 ± 48 days, P < .01) and higher percentage of intensive care unit admission (82% vs 70%, P = .02). Deep venous thrombosis reduction strategies in infants with CVCs include avoiding percutaneous femoral and multilumen CVCs, screening percutaneous lines, and early catheter removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk Factors for Intracardiac Thrombosis in the Right Atrium and Superior Vena Cava in Critically Ill Neonates who Required the Installation of a Central Venous Catheter.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Ricardez, Alfredo; Romero-Espinoza, Lizett; Estrada-Loza, María de Jesús; González-Cabello, Héctor Jaime; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) installation is essential for the treatment of critically ill neonates; however, it is associated with the development of neonatal intracardiac thrombosis, which is a complication that is associated with a poor prognosis. We aimed to identify specific risk factors for the development of intracardiac thrombosis in the right atrium (RA) and superior vena cava (SVC) related to the use of CVC in critically ill neonates. A case-control study was conducted at the tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit of the Pediatric Hospital Siglo XXI in Mexico City, Mexico from 2008 to 2013. The included cases (n = 43) were de novo patients with intracardiac thrombosis in the RA and SVC diagnosed by echocardiography. The controls (n = 43) were neonates without intracardiac thrombosis or thrombosis at other sites. A logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The independent risk factors for intracardiac thrombosis in the RA and SVC were the surgical cut-down insertion technique (OR = 2.98; 95% CI: 1.18-9.10), a maternal history of gestational diabetes/diabetes mellitus (OR = 10.64; 95% CI: 1.13-121.41), Staphylococcus epidermidis infection (OR = 7.09; 95% CI: 1.09-45.92), and CVC placement in the SVC (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.10-30.18). This study allowed us to identify several contributing factors to the development of intracardiac thrombosis in the RA and SVC related to the installation of a CVC in a subgroup of critically ill neonates. Multicenter and well-designed studies with a larger number of patients could help validate our findings and/or identify other risk factors that were not identified in the present study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: a prospective observational cohort study: part 2.

    PubMed

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Clemence, Bonnie J

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a 2-part series that reports on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Part 1, published in the May/June 2014 issue of the Journal of Infusion Nursing, provided an extensive review and critique of the literature regarding risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT and identified 28 suspected risk factors. A study was undertaken to examine each of the risk factors among 203 acute care patients with PICCs, 13 of whom experienced a UEDVT, yielding an incidence of 6.4%. The most common reason for admission was infection (33.5%), and the primary reason for insertion of the PICC was venous access (58.6%). Hypertension (P = .022) and obesity (P = .008), defined as a body mass index ≥30, were associated with UEDVT. The clinical symptoms of edema (P < .001) and a 3-cm or more increase in arm circumference (P < .001) in the PICC arm after PICC placement were associated with UEDVT. All other variables were not statistically significant. The results suggest that patients who are obese and hypertensive may be at greater risk for the development of UEDVT and that the physical finding of edema and increased arm circumference in the PICC arm are possibly suggestive of UEDVT.

  9. Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Following Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Exchange: An Analysis of 23,000 Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Vineet; Kaatz, Scott; Grant, Paul; Swaminathan, Lakshmi; Boldenow, Tanya; Conlon, Anna; Bernstein, Steven J; Flanders, Scott A

    2018-02-01

    Catheter exchange over a guidewire is frequently performed for malfunctioning peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Whether such exchanges are associated with venous thromboembolism is not known. We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the association between PICC exchange and risk of thromboembolism. Adult hospitalized patients that received a PICC during clinical care at one of 51 hospitals participating in the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety consortium were included. The primary outcome was hazard of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (radiographically confirmed upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in those that underwent PICC exchange vs those that did not. Of 23,010 patients that underwent PICC insertion in the study, 589 patients (2.6%) experienced a PICC exchange. Almost half of all exchanges were performed for catheter dislodgement or occlusion. A total of 480 patients (2.1%) experienced PICC-associated deep vein thrombosis. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was greater in those that underwent PICC exchange vs those that did not (3.6% vs 2.0%, P < .001). Median time to thrombosis was shorter among those that underwent exchange vs those that did not (5 vs 11 days, P = .02). Following adjustment, PICC exchange was independently associated with twofold greater risk of thrombosis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-2.85) vs no exchange. The effect size of PICC exchange on thrombosis was second in magnitude to device lumens (HR 2.06; 95% CI, 1.59-2.66 and HR 2.31; 95% CI, 1.6-3.33 for double- and triple-lumen devices, respectively). Guidewire exchange of PICCs may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. As some exchanges may be preventable, consideration of risks and benefits of exchanges in clinical practice is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Adherence of staphylococcus aureus to catheter tubing inhibition by quaternary ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Okombe, Daniel Tassa; Zakanda, Francis Nsimba; Malongo, Trésor Kimbeni; Unya, Joseph Welo; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; Kikuni, Ntondo Za Balega Takaisi

    2016-01-01

    S. aureus is a Gram positive bacterium which is responsible for a wide range of infections. This pathogen has also the ability to adhere to biotic or abiotic surface such as central venous catheter (CVC) and to produce a biofilm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and Hexadecylbetainate chloride (HBC) on Staphylococcus aureus adherence to the catheter tubing and on bacteria growth. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The detection of slime production was done by Congo Red Agar method, and the adherence of bacteria to the catheter tubing was evaluated by the enumeration of bacteria on plate counts. The results of this study showed that the MICs of HTAB were ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 µg/mL, and those of HBC fluctuated between 2 to 8 µg/mL. HTAB and HBC inhibited bacteria adhesion on the surface of the catheter tubing. This study showed that HTAB and HBC can prevent the adherence of S. aureus strains to the surface of catheter tubing, suggesting that they could be used to prevent the risk of catheter related bloodstream infections.

  11. 'Matching Michigan': a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England.

    PubMed

    Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

    2013-02-01

    Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438 887 (404 252 adult and 34 635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20 months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20 months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (κ 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care.

  12. Efficacy of Prophylactic Antibiotics at Peritoneal Catheter Insertion on Early Peritonitis: Data from the Catheter Section of the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry.

    PubMed

    Lanot, Antoine; Lobbedez, Thierry; Bechade, Clémence; Verger, Christian; Fabre, Emmanuel; Dratwa, Max; Vernier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    International guidelines recommend the use of a prophylactic antibiotic before the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter can be inserted. The main objective of this study was to assess whether this practice is associated with a lower risk of early peritonitis and to estimate the magnitude of the centre effect. A retrospective, multi-centric study was conducted, in which data from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry was analysed. Patients were separated into 2 groups based on whether or not prophylactic antibiotics were used prior to catheter placement. Out of the 2,014 patients who had a PD catheter placed between February 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014, 1,105 were given a prophylactic antibiotic. In a classical logit model, the use of prophylactic antibiotics was found to protect the individual against the risk of early peritonitis (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.92). However, this association lost significance in a mixed logistic regression model with centre as a random effect: OR 0.73 (95% CI 0.48-1.09). Covariates associated with the risk of developing early peritonitis were age over 65: OR 0.73 (95% CI 0.39-0.85), body mass index over 35 kg/m2: OR 1.99 (95% CI 1.13-3.47), transfer to PD due to graft failure: OR 2.24 (95% CI 1.22-4.11), assisted PD: OR 1.96 (95% CI 1.31-2.93), and the use of the Moncrief technique: OR 3.07 (95% CI 1.85-5.11). There is a beneficial effect of prophylactic antibiotic used prior to peritoneal catheter placement, on the occurence of early peritonitis. However, the beneficial effect could be masked by a centre effect. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cumulative Evidence of Randomized Controlled and Observational Studies on Catheter-Related Infection Risk of Central Venous Catheter Insertion Site in ICU Patients: A Pairwise and Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Kostoula; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Blot, Stijn; Apostolidou-Kiouti, Fani; Koulenti, Despoina; Haidich, Anna-Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Selection of central venous catheter insertion site in ICU patients could help reduce catheter-related infections. Although subclavian was considered the most appropriate site, its preferential use in ICU patients is not generalized and questioned by contradicted meta-analysis results. In addition, conflicting data exist on alternative site selection whenever subclavian is contraindicated. To compare catheter-related bloodstream infection and colonization risk between the three sites (subclavian, internal jugular, and femoral) in adult ICU patients. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational ones. Extracted data were analyzed by pairwise and network meta-analysis. Twenty studies were included; 11 were observational, seven were randomized controlled trials for other outcomes, and two were randomized controlled trials for sites. We evaluated 18,554 central venous catheters: 9,331 from observational studies, 5,482 from randomized controlled trials for other outcomes, and 3,741 from randomized controlled trials for sites. Colonization risk was higher for internal jugular (relative risk, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.84-2.75]; I = 0%) and femoral (relative risk, 2.92 [95% CI, 2.11-4.04]; I = 24%), compared with subclavian. Catheter-related bloodstream infection risk was comparable for internal jugular and subclavian, higher for femoral than subclavian (relative risk, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.25-4.75]; I = 61%), and lower for internal jugular than femoral (relative risk, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.34-0.89]; I = 61%). When observational studies that did not control for baseline characteristics were excluded, catheter-related bloodstream infection risk was comparable between the sites. In ICU patients, internal jugular and subclavian may, similarly, decrease catheter-related bloodstream infection risk, when compared with femoral. Subclavian could be suggested as the most

  14. Portuguese Lexical Clusters and CVC Sequences in Speech Perception and Production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Conceição

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates similarities between lexical consonant clusters and CVC sequences differing in the presence or absence of a lexical vowel in speech perception and production in two Portuguese varieties. The frequent high vowel deletion in the European variety (EP) and the realization of intervening vocalic elements between lexical clusters in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) may minimize the contrast between lexical clusters and CVC sequences in the two Portuguese varieties. In order to test this hypothesis we present a perception experiment with 72 participants and a physiological analysis of 3-dimensional movement data from 5 EP and 4 BP speakers. The perceptual results confirmed a gradual confusion of lexical clusters and CVC sequences in EP, which corresponded roughly to the gradient consonantal overlap found in production. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Heart catheter cable and connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. R.; Cota, F. L.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraminiature catheter cables that are stiff enough for intravenous insertion yet flexible at the tip, sterilizable, and economical are fabricated entirely from commercially available parts. Assembly includes air passageway for reference pressures and coaxial cable for transmission of signals from the tip of catheter.

  16. Task analysis method for procedural training curriculum development.

    PubMed

    Riggle, Jakeb D; Wadman, Michael C; McCrory, Bernadette; Lowndes, Bethany R; Heald, Elizabeth A; Carstens, Patricia K; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2014-06-01

    A central venous catheter (CVC) is an important medical tool used in critical care and emergent situations. Integral to proper care in many circumstances, insertion of a CVC introduces the risk of central line-associated blood stream infections and mechanical adverse events; proper training is important for safe CVC insertion. Cognitive task analysis (CTA) methods have been successfully implemented in the medical field to improve the training of postgraduate medical trainees, but can be very time-consuming to complete and require a significant time commitment from many subject matter experts (SMEs). Many medical procedures such as CVC insertion are linear processes with well-documented procedural steps. These linear procedures may not require a traditional CTA to gather the information necessary to create a training curriculum. Accordingly, a novel, streamlined CTA method designed primarily to collect cognitive cues for linear procedures was developed to be used by medical professionals with minimal CTA training. This new CTA methodology required fewer trained personnel, fewer interview sessions, and less time commitment from SMEs than a traditional CTA. Based on this study, a streamlined CTA methodology can be used to efficiently gather cognitive information on linear medical procedures for the creation of resident training curricula and procedural skills assessments.

  17. In Search of the Wild Things: The Choice, Voice, and Challenge (CVC) Model for Creative Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Emma Gillespie; Carter, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the Choice, Voice, and Challenge (CVC) Instruction, an instructional model that encourages creativity or "wild things". CVC Instruction defines ways in which classroom teachers may provide vehicles for their students' mental journeys that can lead to creative and imaginative actions and outcomes. The CVC model provides a…

  18. Changing concepts in long-term central venous access: catheter selection and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Horattas, M C; Trupiano, J; Hopkins, S; Pasini, D; Martino, C; Murty, A

    2001-02-01

    Long-term central venous access is becoming an increasingly important component of health care today. Long-term central venous access is important therapeutically for a multitude of reasons, including the administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics, and total parenteral nutrition. Central venous access can be established in a variety of ways varying from catheters inserted at the bedside to surgically placed ports. Furthermore, in an effort to control costs, many traditionally inpatient therapies have moved to an outpatient setting. This raises many questions regarding catheter selection. Which catheter will result in the best outcome at the least cost? It has become apparent in our hospital that traditionally placed surgical catheters (ie, Hickmans and central venous ports) may no longer be the only options. The objective of this study was to explore the various modalities for establishing central venous access comparing indications, costs, and complications to guide the clinician in choosing the appropriate catheter with the best outcome at the least cost. We evaluated our institution's central venous catheter use during a 3-year period from 1995 through 1997. Data was obtained retrospectively through chart review. In addition to demographic data, specific information regarding catheter type, placement technique, indications, complications, and catheter history were recorded. Cost data were obtained from several departments including surgery, radiology, nursing, anesthesia, pharmacy, and the hospital purchasing department. During a 30-month period, 684 attempted central venous catheter insertions were identified, including 126 surgically placed central venous catheters, 264 peripherally inserted central catheters by the nursing service, and 294 radiologically inserted peripheral ports. Overall complications were rare but tended to be more severe in the surgical group. Relative cost differences between the groups were significant. Charges for peripherally inserted

  19. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5350 - Nasal oxygen catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasal oxygen catheter. 868.5350 Section 868.5350...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5350 Nasal oxygen catheter. (a) Identification. A nasal oxygen catheter is a device intended to be inserted through a patient's nostril to...

  4. Influence of Initial and Final Consonants on Vowel Duration in CVC Syllables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeser, Margaret A.

    This study investigates the influence of initial and final consonants /p, b, s, z/ on the duration of four vowels /I, i, u, ae/ in 64 CVC syllables uttered by eight speakers of English from the same dialect area. The CVC stimuli were presented to the subjects in a frame sentence from a master tape. Subjects repeated each sentence immediately after…

  5. Central vein stenosis: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil K

    2009-09-01

    Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of the central venous catheter (CVC) placement. The prevalence of CVS has mostly been studied in those who present with symptoms such as swelling of the extremity, neck and breast. CVS compromises arteriovenous access and can be resistant to treatment. A previous history of CVC placement is the most important risk factor for the development of CVS later. Pacemaker and defibrillator wires are associated with a high incidence of CVS. Increasingly liberal use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is likely to increase the incidence of CVS. The trauma and inflammation related to the catheter placement is thought to result in microthrombi formation, intimal hyperplasia and fibrotic response, with development of CVS. Treatment of CVS by endovascular procedures involves angioplasty of the stenosis. An elastic or recurrent stenosis may require a stent placement. The long-term benefits of the endovascular procedures, although improved with newer technology, remain modest. Surgical options are usually limited. Future studies to explore the pathogenesis and the use of novel therapies to prevent and treat CVS are needed. The key to reducing the prevalence of CVS is in reducing CVC placement and placement of arteriovenous accesses prior to initiating dialysis. Early referral of the patients to the nephrologists by the primary care physicians is important. Timely vein mapping and referral to the surgeon for fistula creation can obviate the need for a CVC and decrease incidence of CVS.

  6. Black pepper essential oil to enhance intravenous catheter insertion in patients with poor vein visibility: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kristiniak, Susan; Harpel, Jean; Breckenridge, Diane M; Buckle, Jane

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of topically applied black pepper essential oil on easing intravenous catheter insertion (IVC) in patients with no palpable or visible veins compared to a control group (standard nursing practice). Randomized, controlled study. One hundred twenty hospitalized patients, who were referred to a hospital vascular team because of difficulty in accessing veins for IVC insertion. Topical application of 20% essential oil of black pepper in aloe vera gel or standard nursing care (hot packs with or without vigorous tactile stimulation). Pre- and post-test vein visibility and/or palpability and number of attempts at IVC insertion. A higher percentage of patients achieved optimal scoring (vein score=2) or improved scoring (vein score of 1 or 2) to black pepper intervention than standard nursing care. The black pepper group also reduced the number of patients whose veins were still not visible or palpable after the intervention to nearly half that of the control group (p<0.05). The number of IVC attempts following black pepper was also half that of the control group. Topical application of black pepper is a viable and effective way to enhance vein visibility and palpability prior to intravenous insertion in patients with limited vein accessibility; it also improves ease of IVC insertion.

  7. Understanding the Patient Experience of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter-Related Deep Vein Thrombosis Using Interpretive Phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britt M

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to determine what it means to patients to live with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related deep vein thrombosis and to describe the influence of the experience on the individual's quality of life. The sample included 11 adult patients from an acute care setting who developed a PICC-related symptomatic thrombus between November 2014 and March 2016, using purposive sampling. Three distinct themes emerged from the data in this study: a loss of trust in health care providers, additional burdens to existing problems, and a yearning for understanding.

  8. Adherence of staphylococcus aureus to catheter tubing inhibition by quaternary ammonium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Okombe, Daniel Tassa; Zakanda, Francis Nsimba; Malongo, Trésor Kimbeni; Unya, Joseph Welo; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega Takaisi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction S. aureus is a Gram positive bacterium which is responsible for a wide range of infections. This pathogen has also the ability to adhere to biotic or abiotic surface such as central venous catheter (CVC) and to produce a biofilm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and Hexadecylbetainate chloride (HBC) on Staphylococcus aureus adherence to the catheter tubing and on bacteria growth. Methods Broth microdilution method was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The detection of slime production was done by Congo Red Agar method, and the adherence of bacteria to the catheter tubing was evaluated by the enumeration of bacteria on plate counts. Results The results of this study showed that the MICs of HTAB were ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 µg/mL, and those of HBC fluctuated between 2 to 8 µg/mL. HTAB and HBC inhibited bacteria adhesion on the surface of the catheter tubing. Conclusion This study showed that HTAB and HBC can prevent the adherence of S. aureus strains to the surface of catheter tubing, suggesting that they could be used to prevent the risk of catheter related bloodstream infections. PMID:28250874

  9. Foley catheter placement for induction of labor with or without stylette: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Forgie, Marie M; Greer, Danielle M; Kram, Jessica J F; Vander Wyst, Kiley B; Salvo, Nicole P; Siddiqui, Danish S

    2016-03-01

    Foley catheters are used for cervical ripening during induction of labor. Previous studies suggest that use of a stylette (a thin, rigid wire) to guide catheter insertion decreases insertion failure. However, stylette effects on insertion outcomes have been sparsely studied. The purpose of this study was to compare catheter insertion times, patient-assessed pain levels, and insertion failure rates between women who received a digitally placed Foley catheter for cervical ripening with the aid of a stylette and women who received the catheter without a stylette. We conducted a randomized clinical trial of women aged ≥ 18 years who presented for induction of labor. Inclusion criteria were singletons with intact membranes and cephalic presentation. Women received a computer-generated random assignment of a Foley catheter insertion with a stylette (treatment group, n = 62) or without a stylette (control group, n = 61). For all women, a standard insertion technique protocol was used. Three primary outcomes were of interest, including the following: (1) insertion time (total minutes to successful catheter placement), (2) patient-assessed pain level (0-10), and (3) failure rate of the randomly assigned insertion method. Treatment control differences were first examined using the Pearson's test of independence and the Student t test. Per outcome, we also constructed 4 regression models, each including the random effect of physician and fixed effects of stylette use with patient nulliparity, a history of vaginal delivery, cervical dilation at presentation, or postgraduate year of the performing resident physician. Women who received the Foley catheter with the stylette vs without the stylette did not differ by age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or any of several other characteristics. Regression models revealed that insertion time, patient pain, and insertion failure were unrelated to stylette use, nulliparity, and history of vaginal delivery. However, overall insertion

  10. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ≥1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ≥2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112

  11. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endovascular technique using a snare and suture for retrieving a migrated peripherally inserted central catheter in the left pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Sueda, Takashi; Fujii, Yuichi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Toyota, Yasushi; Nomura, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Keigo

    2013-01-01

    We report a successful endovascular technique using a snare with a suture for retrieving a migrated broken peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in a chemotherapy patient. A 62-year-old male received monthly chemotherapy through a central venous port implanted into his right subclavian area. The patient completed chemotherapy without complications 1 mo ago; however, he experienced pain in the right subclavian area during his last chemotherapy session. Computed tomography on that day showed migration of a broken PICC in his left pulmonary artery, for which the patient was admitted to our hospital. We attempted to retrieve the ectopic PICC through the right jugular vein using a gooseneck snare, but were unsuccessful because the catheter was lodged in the pulmonary artery wall. Therefore, a second attempt was made through the right femoral vein using a snare with triple loops, but we could not grasp the migrated PICC. Finally, a string was tied to the top of the snare, allowing us to curve the snare toward the pulmonary artery by pulling the string. Finally, the catheter body was grasped and retrieved. The endovascular suture technique is occasionally extremely useful and should be considered by interventional cardiologists for retrieving migrated catheters. PMID:24109502

  13. 21 CFR 880.5200 - Intravascular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 880.5200 Intravascular catheter. (a) Identification. An intravascular catheter is a device that consists of a slender tube and any necessary connecting fittings and that is inserted into the patient's vascular system for short term use (less than 30 days) to sample blood, monitor blood pressure, or...

  14. Cholorhexidine, octenidine or povidone iodine for catheter related infections: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Ayten; Yelken, Birgül; Erkan, Ayse

    2013-06-01

    Protection of the catheter site by antimicrobial agents is one of the most important factors in the prevention of infection. Povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate are the most common used agents for dressing. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of povidone iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine hydrochloride in preventing catheter related infections. Patients were randomized to receive; 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 10% povidone iodine or octenidine hydrochlorodine for cutaneous antisepsis. Cultures were taken at the site surrounding catheter insertion and at the catheter hub after removal to help identify the source of microorganisms. Catheter related sepsis was 10.5% in the povidone iodine and octenidine hydrochlorodine groups. Catheter related colonization was 26.3% in povidone iodine group and 21.5% in octenidine hydrochlorodine group. 4% chlorhexidine or octenidine hydrochlorodine for cutaneous disinfection before insertion of an intravascular device and for post-insertion site care can reduce the catheter related colonization.

  15. Cholorhexidine, octenidine or povidone iodine for catheter related infections: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Ayten; Yelken, Birgül; Erkan, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Background: Protection of the catheter site by antimicrobial agents is one of the most important factors in the prevention of infection. Povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate are the most common used agents for dressing. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of povidone iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine hydrochloride in preventing catheter related infections. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomized to receive; 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 10% povidone iodine or octenidine hydrochlorodine for cutaneous antisepsis. Cultures were taken at the site surrounding catheter insertion and at the catheter hub after removal to help identify the source of microorganisms. Results: Catheter related sepsis was 10.5% in the povidone iodine and octenidine hydrochlorodine groups. Catheter related colonization was 26.3% in povidone iodine group and 21.5% in octenidine hydrochlorodine group. Conclusion: 4% chlorhexidine or octenidine hydrochlorodine for cutaneous disinfection before insertion of an intravascular device and for post-insertion site care can reduce the catheter related colonization. PMID:24250702

  16. ‘Matching Michigan’: a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England

    PubMed Central

    Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438 887 (404 252 adult and 34 635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20 months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20 months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (κ 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care. PMID:22996571

  17. Renal access in PNL under sonographic guidance: Do we really need to insert an open end ureteral catheter in dilated renal systems? A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Eryildirim, Bilal; Tuncer, Murat; Camur, Emre; Ustun, Fatih; Tarhan, Fatih; Sarica, Kemal

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the true necessity of open end ureteral catheter insertion in patients with moderate to severe pelvicalyceal system dilation treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) under sonographic guidance. 50 cases treated with PNL under sonographic guidance in prone position for solitary obstructing renal stones were evaluated. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group 1: Patients in whom a open end ureteral catheter was inserted prior to the procedure; Group 2: Patients receiving no catheter before PNL. In addition to the duration of the procedure as a whole and also all relevant stages as well, radiation exposure time, hospitalization period, mean nephrostomy tube duration, mean drop in Hb levels and all intra and postoperative complications have been evaluated. Mean size of the stones was 308.5 ± 133.2 mm2. Mean total duration of the PNL procedure in cases with open end ureteral catheter was significantly longer than the other cases (p < 0.001). Evaluation of the outcomes of the PNL procedures revealed no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the stone-free rates (86% vs 84%). Additionally, there was no significant difference with respect to the duration of nephrostomy tube, hospitalization period and secondary procedures needed, complication rates as well as the post-operative Hb drop levels in both groups (p = 0.6830). Our results indicate that the placement of an open end ureteral catheter prior to a PNL procedure performed under sonographic access may not be indicated in selected cases presenting with solitary obstructing renal pelvic and/or calyceal stones.

  18. Comparing catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric and adult cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zakhour, Ramia; Hachem, Ray; Alawami, Hussain M; Jiang, Ying; Michael, Majd; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Raad, Issam

    2017-10-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are essential to treatment of children with cancer. There are no studies comparing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in pediatric cancer patients to those in adults, although current guidelines for management of CRBSI do not give separate guidelines for the pediatric population. In this study, we compared CRBSIs in both the pediatric and adult cancer population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 92 pediatric and 156 adult patients with CRBSI cared for at MD Anderson Cancer Center between September 2005 and March 2014. We evaluated 248 patients with CRBSI. There was a significant difference in etiology of CRBSI between pediatric and adult patients (P = 0.002), with the former having less Gram-negative organisms (27 vs. 46%) and more polymicrobial infections (10 vs. 1%, P = 0.003). Pediatric patients had less hematologic malignancies (58 vs. 74%) and less neutropenia at presentation (40 vs. 54%) when compared with adult patients. Peripheral blood cultures were available in only 43% of pediatric cases. CVC was removed in 64% of pediatric cases versus 88% of adult cases (P < 0.0001). We found higher rates of Gram-negative organisms in adults and higher rates of polymicrobial in children. Because of the low rates of peripheral blood cultures and the low rates of CVC removal, CRBSI diagnosis could be challenging in pediatrics. A modified CRBSI definition relying more on clinical criteria may be warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Counterbalancing clinical supervision and independent practice: case studies in learning thoracic epidural catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T

    2010-12-01

    Thoracic epidural catheter placement is an example of a demanding and high-risk clinical skill that junior anaesthetists need to learn by experience and under the supervision of consultants. This learning is known to present challenges that require further study. Ten consultant and 10 trainee anaesthetists in a teaching hospital were interviewed about teaching and learning this skill in the operating theatre, and a phenomenological analysis of their experience was performed. Trainee participation was limited by time pressure, lack of familiarity with consultants, and consultants' own need for clinical experience. There was a particular tension between safe and effective consultant practice and permitting trainees' independence. Three distinct stages of participation and assistance were identified from reports of ideal practice: early (part-task or basic procedure, consultant always present giving instruction and feedback), middle (independent practice with straightforward cases without further instruction), and late (skill extension and transfer). Learning assistance provided by consultants varied, but it was often not matched to the trainees' stages of learning. Negotiation of participation and assistance was recognized as being useful, but it did not happen routinely. There are many obstacles to trainees' participation in thoracic epidural catheter insertion, and learning assistance is not matched to need. A more explicit understanding of stages of learning is required to benefit the learning of this and other advanced clinical skills.

  20. Enhanced central venous catheter bundle for pediatric parenteral-dependent intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Ormsby, Jennifer A; Bukoye, Bola; Lajoie, Debra; Shermont, Herminia; Martin, Lisa; Leger, Kierrah; Mahoney, Judy; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Carpenter, Jane; Ozonoff, Al; Lee, Grace M

    2018-05-16

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) cause substantial morbidity and increase antimicrobial use and length of stay among hospitalized children in the United States. CLABSI occurs more frequently among high-risk pediatric patients, such as those with intestinal failure (IF) who are parenteral nutrition (PN) dependent. Following an increase in CLABSI rates, a quality improvement (QI) initiative was implemented. Using QI methodology, an enhanced central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance bundle was developed and implemented on 2 units for pediatric PN-dependent patients with IF. CLABSI rates were prospectively monitored pre- and postimplementation, and bundle element adherence was monitored. Enhanced bundle elements included chlorhexidine-impregnated patch, daily bathing, ethanol locks, 2 nurses for CVC care in a distraction-free zone, peripheral laboratory draws, bundling routine laboratory tests, and PN administration set changes every 24 hours. Adherence to enhanced bundle elements increased to >90% over 3 months. CLABSI rates averaged 1.41 per 1,000 central line days preimplementation compared with 0.40 per 1,000 device days postimplementation (P = .003), an 85% absolute reduction in CLABSI rates over 12 months. Patients with IF are at an increased risk for CLABSI. Enhanced CVC maintenance bundles that specifically target prevention practices in this population may be beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Outcomes of Single-Port Laparoscopic Placement of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Alan; Poi, Mun J; Matos, Jesus; Jiang, Jenny S; Kfoury, Elias; Echeverria, Angela; Bechara, Carlos F; Lin, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Laparoscopic insertion of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter has become a preferred method compared to the traditional open technique for PD catheter insertion. We retrospectively report the outcome of 1-port laparoscopic placement PD catheters in our institution. A total of 263 patients with end-stage renal disease who underwent single-trocar laparoscopic PD catheter insertion during a recent 6-year period were reviewed. Laparoscopic technique involves introducing a PD catheter over a stiff guidewire into the abdominal cavity through a 10-mm laparoscopic port. Pertinent clinical variables, procedural complications, and follow-up outcome were analyzed. There were 182 men and 81 women. The mean age was 56 years. Technical success was 95.8%. Catheter occlusion was the most common early complications (<6 months) that occurred in 4 (1.5%) patients. Late complications (> 6 months) including catheter occlusion, cuff extrusion, catheter leakage, catheter migration, infection, and hernia occurred in 5 patients (1.9%), 2 patients (0.8%), 3 patients (1.1%), 3 patients (1.1%), 6 patients (2.3%), and 4 patients (1.5), respectively. Mean follow-up time was 39 ± 18 months. Catheter survival rate at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years was 96%, 94%, 90%, 85%, and 82%, respectively. Laparoscopic PD catheter implantation via a single-trocar utilizing a stiff guidewire technique is feasible and safe. This method can result in low complication and high catheter survival rate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Teaching aseptic technique for central venous access under ultrasound guidance: a randomized trial comparing didactic training alone to didactic plus simulation-based training.

    PubMed

    Latif, Rana K; Bautista, Alexander F; Memon, Saima B; Smith, Elizabeth A; Wang, Chenxi; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Akca, Ozan

    2012-03-01

    Our goal was to determine whether simulation combined with didactic training improves sterile technique during ultrasound (US)-guided central venous catheter (CVC) insertion compared with didactic training alone among novices. We hypothesized that novices who receive combined didactic and simulation-based training would perform similarly to experienced residents in aseptic technique, knowledge, and perception of comfort during US-guided CVC insertion on a simulator. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention. Fifty-four novices were randomized into either the didactic group or the simulation combined with didactic group. Both groups received didactic training but the simulation combined with didactic group also received simulation-based CVC insertion training. Both groups were tested by demonstrating US-guided CVC insertion on a simulator. Aseptic technique was scored on 8 steps as "yes/no" and also using a 7-point Likert scale with 7 being "excellent technique" by a rater blinded to subject randomization. After initial testing, the didactic group was offered simulation-based training and retesting. Both groups also took a pre- and posttraining test of knowledge and rated their comfort with US and CVC insertion pre- and posttraining on a 5-point Likert scale. Subsequently, 18 experienced residents also took the test of knowledge, rated their comfort level, and were scored while performing aseptic US-guided CVC insertion using a simulator. The simulation combined with didactic group achieved a 167% (95% confidence interval [CI] 133%-167%) incremental increase in yes/no scores and 115% (CI 112%-127%) incremental increase in Likert scale ratings on aseptic technique compared with novices in the didactic group. Compared with experienced residents, simulation combined with didactic trained novices achieved an increase in aseptic scores with a 33.3% (CI 16.7%-50%) increase in yes/no ratings and a 20% (CI 13

  3. Development of X-ray micro-focus computed tomography to image and quantify biofilms in central venous catheter models in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Wilmari L; Howlin, Robert P; Johnston, David A; Bull, Daniel J; Jones, Gareth L; Calton, Elizabeth; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Clarke, Stuart C; Thurner, Philipp J; Faust, Saul N; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections of central venous catheters (CVCs) cause much morbidity and mortality, and are usually diagnosed by concordant culture of blood and catheter tip. However, studies suggest that culture often fails to detect biofilm bacteria. This study optimizes X-ray micro-focus computed tomography (X-ray µCT) for the quantification and determination of distribution and heterogeneity of biofilms in in vitro CVC model systems.Bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms grown on catheters in vitro in both flow and static biofilm models. Alongside this, X-ray µCT techniques were developed in order to detect biofilms inside CVCs. Various contrast agent stains were evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to further optimize these methods. Catheter material and biofilm were segmented using a semi-automated matlab script and quantified using the Avizo Fire software package. X-ray µCT was capable of distinguishing between the degree of biofilm formation across different segments of a CVC flow model. EDS screening of single- and dual-compound contrast stains identified 10 nm gold and silver nitrate as the optimum contrast agent for X-ray µCT. This optimized method was then demonstrated to be capable of quantifying biofilms in an in vitro static biofilm formation model, with a strong correlation between biofilm detection via SEM and culture. X-ray µCT has good potential as a direct, non-invasive, non-destructive technology to image biofilms in CVCs, as well as other in vivo medical components in which biofilms accumulate in concealed areas.

  4. A simplified technique of percutaneous hepatic artery port-catheter insertion for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Ah Hyun; Kim, Kyung Ah; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Kwang-Hun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the outcomes of a simplified technique for the percutaneous placement of a hepatic artery port-catheter system for chemotherapy infusion in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion. From February 2003 to February 2008, percutaneous hepatic artery port-catheter insertion was performed in 122 patients who had hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion. The arterial access route was the common femoral artery. The tip of the catheter was wedged into the right gastroepiploic artery without an additional fixation device. A side hole was positioned at the distal common hepatic artery to allow the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the hepatic arteries. Coil embolization was performed only to redistribute to the hepatic arteries or to prevent the inadvertent delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into extrahepatic arteries. The port chamber was created at either the supra-inguinal or infra-inguinal region. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Proper positioning of the side hole was checked before each scheduled chemotherapy session by port angiography. Catheter-related complications occurred in 19 patients (16%). Revision was achieved in 15 of 18 patients (83%). This simplified method demonstrates excellent technical feasibility, an acceptable range of complications, and is hence recommended for the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis.

  5. A novel, inexpensive, double lumen suprapubic catheter for urodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andrew A; Godley, Margaret L; Duffy, Patrick G; Ransley, Philip G

    2004-03-01

    We describe a novel, double lumen, intravesical, suprapubic catheter designed to meet the requirements of pediatric urodynamics that is easy to use and has minimal complications. A commercially available 10Fr pediatric suprapubic pigtail catheter forms the outer lumen for instilling filling media. A 16 gauge epidural catheter is inserted through the outer catheter providing an inner lumen for measuring intravesical pressures. The resultant double-lumen catheter is inserted suprapubically using a peel away needle supplied with the 10Fr catheter, with the patient under general anesthetic. The catheter has been used for 15 years in more than 700 patients with good reliability and few complications. The concentric construction of the double lumens and the rigidity of the inner intravesical pressure channel ensure there is no transmission of pressure from the filling channel to the inner lumen. The catheter has a circular cross section and a pigtail distal end which help to retain it within the bladder. There is low resistance to filling that allows adequate filling rates to be achieved by gravity rather than necessitating a pump. The catheter is easily made from readily available components and is less expensive than other double-lumen catheters suitable for suprapubic use. A reliable, double lumen catheter that fulfills criteria not found in commercially available alternatives can be inexpensively made for urodynamics.

  6. It all unraveled from there: case report of a central venous catheter guidewire unraveling.

    PubMed

    Zerkle, Samuel; Emdadi, Vanessa; Mancinelli, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters can present challenges to emergency physicians in the process of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. A 68-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with severe shortness of breath and was intubated. A central line was placed after the intubation to facilitate peripheral access. A CVC guidewire unraveled during placement after getting caught on an IVC filter. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians should be aware of the complications that IVC filters can cause in the placement of CVCs. Imaging and identification of IVC filters beforehand will allow for proper planning of how to manage the case in which a filter catches on the guidewire. Simple anecdotal techniques, such as advancing the guidewire and spinning the guidewire between the fingers, can facilitate the removal of the guide wire from the IVC filter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Tension haemothorax after removal of pleural pigtail catheter].

    PubMed

    Siegel, Hanna; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg

    2014-07-07

    Today, standard treatment of pleural effusion is ultrasound guided insertion of a pleural pigtail catheter. This procedure is known to have a low complication rate, but complications as pneumothorax, haemorrhage and infection are occurring. The most frequent complications are seen at the time of insertion. We present a case of a 68-year-old woman in the intensive care unit with normal coagulation status who after an uneventful removal of a pleural pigtail catheter developed a tension haemothorax requiring acute evacuation.

  8. Paravertebral block catheter breakage by electrocautery during thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Noboru; Sugimoto, Yuki; Mori, Yoko; Kato, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Ryuji; Koga, Tomomichi

    2017-06-01

    Advantages of thoracic paravertebral analgesia (TPA) include placement of the catheter closer to the surgical field; however, the catheter can become damaged during the operation. We experienced a case of intraoperative TPA catheter breakage that prompted us to perform an experiment to investigate possible causes. A 50-year-old male underwent a thoracoscopic lower lobectomy under general anesthesia with TPA via an intercostal approach. Following surgery, it was discovered that the catheter had become occluded, as well as cut and fused, so we reopened the incision and removed the residual catheter. From that experience, we performed an experiment to examine electrocautery-induced damage in normal (Portex™, Smith's Medical), radiopaque (Perifix SoftTip™, BBraun), and reinforced (Perifix FX™, BBraun) epidural catheters (n = 8 each). Chicken meat was penetrated by each catheter and then cut by electrocautery. In the normal group, breakage occurred in 8 and occlusion in 6 of the catheters, and in the radiopaque group breakage occurred in 8 and occlusion in 7. In contrast, breakage occurred in only 3 and occlusion in none in the reinforced group, with the 5 without breakage remaining connected only by the spring coil. Furthermore, in 7 of the reinforced catheters, electric arc-induced thermal damage was observed at the tip of the catheter. A TPA catheter for thoracic surgery should be inserted via the median approach, or it should be inserted after surgery to avoid catheter damage during surgery.

  9. Brachial arteriovenous fistula as a complication of placement of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang S; Burrows, Brian J; Zang, William A; Han, David C

    2006-09-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) lines have become a frequently used method of intravenous access for long-term administration of antibiotics, chemotherapy, and parenteral nutrition. Catheter-related complications involving the arterial tree are rare. We report a case of a 25-year-old woman with a history of difficult PICC line placement that presented with an arteriovenous fistula in the left arm. Duplex ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of a brachial artery-to-brachial vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and the patient underwent surgical repair. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an AVF resulting from PICC line placement. Correction of AVF is indicated to alleviate symptoms as well as to prevent future complications.

  10. Managing malignant pleural effusion with an indwelling pleural catheter: factors associated with spontaneous pleurodesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, W M; Tam, T Cc; Wong, M Ky; Lui, M Ms; Ip, M Sm; Lam, D Cl

    2016-08-01

    Malignant pleural effusion can be recurrent despite active anti-cancer treatment. Significant malignant pleural effusion leads to debilitating dyspnoea and worsening quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. An indwelling pleural catheter offers a novel means to manage recurrent malignant pleural effusion and may remove the need for repeated thoracocentesis. Spontaneous pleurodesis is another unique advantage of indwelling pleural catheter placement but the factors associated with its occurrence are not clearly established. The aims of this study were to explore the safety of an indwelling pleural catheter in the management of symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion, and to identify the factors associated with spontaneous pleurodesis. This case series with internal comparisons was conducted in the Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. All patients who underwent insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter from the initiation of such service from January 2010 to December 2014 were included for data analysis. Patients were monitored until December 2014, with the last catheter inserted in July 2014. Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 23 indwelling pleural catheters were inserted in 22 consecutive patients with malignant pleural effusion, including 15 (65.2%) cases with malignant pleural effusion as a result of metastatic lung cancer. Ten (43.5%) cases achieved minimal output according to defined criteria, in five of whom the pleural catheter was removed without subsequent re-accumulation of effusion (ie spontaneous pleurodesis). Factors associated with minimal output were the absence of trapped lung (P=0.036), shorter time from first appearance of malignant pleural effusion to catheter insertion (P=0.017), and longer time from catheter insertion till patient's death or end of study (P=0.007). An indwelling pleural catheter provides a safe means to manage symptomatic malignant pleural effusion

  11. Hydrophilic Catheters

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To review the evidence on the effectiveness of hydrophilic catheters for patients requiring intermittent catheterization. Clinical Need There are various reasons why a person would require catheterization, including surgery, urinary retention due to enlargement of the prostate, spinal cord injuries, or other physical disabilities. Urethral catheters are the most prevalent cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections, that is, those that start or occur in a hospital. A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria adheres to the opening of the urethra. Most infections arise from Escherichia coli, from the colon. The bacteria spread into the bladder, resulting in the development of an infection. The prevalence of UTIs varies with age and sex. There is a tenfold increase in incidence for females compared with males in childhood and throughout adult life until around 55 years, when the incidence of UTIs in men and women is equal, mostly as a consequence of prostatic problems in men. Investigators have reported that urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) is found in 2% to 19% of patients practising intermittent catheterization. The Technology Hydrophilic catheters have a polymer coating that binds o the surface of the catheter. When the polymer coating is submersed in water, it absorbs and binds the water to the catheter. The catheter surface becomes smooth and very slippery. This slippery surface remains intact upon insertion into the urethra and maintains lubrication through the length of the urethra. The hydrophilic coating is designed to reduce the friction, as the catheter is inserted with the intention of reducing the risk of urethral damage. It has been suggested that because the hydrophilic catheters do not require manual lubrication they are more sterile and thus less likely to cause infection. Most hydrophilic catheters are prepackaged in sterile water, or there is a pouch of sterile water that is broken and released into the

  12. A successful model to learn and implement ultrasound-guided venous catheterization in apheresis.

    PubMed

    Gopalasingam, Nigopan; Thomsen, Anna-Marie Eller; Folkersen, Lars; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Sloth, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Apheresis treatments can be performed with peripheral venous catheters (PVC), although central venous catheters (CVC) are inserted when PVCs fail or patient with history of difficult vascular access prior to the apheresis. Ultrasound guidance for PVC has shown promising results in other settings. To investigate if ultrasound guidance for PVC could be implemented among apheresis nurses. Second, how implementation of ultrasound guidance affected the number of CVCs used for apheresis per patient. Apheresis nurses completed a systematic training program for ultrasound-guided vascular access. All independent catheterizations were registered during the implementation stage. The number of CVCs in the pre- and postimplementation stages of the ultrasound guidance was compared. Six nurses completed the training program within a median of 48 days (range 38-83 days). In 77 patients, 485 independent ultrasound-guided PVC placements were performed during the implementation stage. All apheresis treatments (485/485) were accomplished using PVCs without requiring CVC as rescue. During the preimplementation stage, 125 of 273 (45.8%) procedures required a CVC for completion of apheresis procedures; during the postimplementation stage only 30 of 227 (13.2%) procedures required a CVC (p < 0.001). In the postimplementation stage, no CVCs were placed as rescue caused by failed PVCs but were only placed for patients where the ultrasound machine was unavailable. It indicates an effective success rate of 100% for ultrasound-guided PVC use. This study showed that ultrasound guidance could be implemented among apheresis nurses as a routine tool eliminating the need of CVC as a rescue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Project work: formation of health-care personnel for self-care of tunnelled central venous catheters in hemodialysis patients of the territory].

    PubMed

    Morale, Walter; Patanè, D; Incardona, C; Seminara, G; Malfa, P; L'Anfusa, G; Calcara, G; Bisceglie, P; Puliatti, D; Di Landro, D

    2013-01-01

    Scientific data from current literature demonstrate an incidence of bacteraemia due to tunnelled central venous catheter (tCVC) use accounting for 1.6 / 1000 days per tCVC, with a range of 1.5 to 1.8. In Sicily no data on the incidence of tCVC- related bacteraemia are available. In our hospital, tCVC infection occurs 2.4 times in 1000 days during CVC use. A retrospective analysis carried out from 2006 to 2012 was performed on 650 patients with tunnelled catheters. Of the subjects who received tCVC in our hospital, 90% were destined to undergo haemodialysis in a private health care environment outside our hospital. In order to improve the aforementioned infection outcome, we planned and implemented a specific work project. The work project (WP) was subdivided into two steps: 1) The first step was further subdivided into two sub-phases. The first was principally concerned with the implementation of educational courses, conducted directly on the ward and aimed at the implementation of meticulous nursing regimes for the care of tCVC by our health care nurse. The courses were entitled Management of Vascular Access: from doing - to teaching to do!. These educational courses were organized by the Nephrology Department, which takes care of the management and handling of the major complications of tCVCs for the maintenance of haemodialysis. After this first step, the nurses who had participated became the promoters of the second part of the course, which concerned the development of know-how within an outpatient clinic, which deals exclusively with the nursing management of tCVCs. 2) The title of the second phase was Therapeutic Education: self-Care and understanding and managing your venous access at home. The aim of this step was the integration of correct in-hospital care with that available in outsourced private institutions, via the involvement of the patient in the management of their own central venous access. During our training project, a more detailed analysis of

  14. Staphylococcus aureus healthcare associated bacteraemia: An indicator of catheter related infections.

    PubMed

    Bonnal, C; Birgand, G; Lolom, I; Diamantis, S; Dumortier, C; L'Heriteau, F; Armand-Lefevre, L; Lucet, J C

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance of preventable healthcare associated infections and feedback of the results to clinicians is central in the efforts to improve performance. We assessed Staphylococcus aureus healthcare associated bloodstream infection (HA-BSI) as an indicator of healthcare quality. Between 2002 and 2012, we carried out a ten-year prospective bedside surveillance of S. aureus healthcare associated bacteraemia in a 940-bed university hospital using standard definitions. Overall, 2784 HA-BSI were identified during the study period, among which 573 (18%) were due to S. aureus. Among these 573 S. aureus bacteraemias, 189 originated from intravascular catheters (32.8%) of which 84% (158/189) in patients outside intensive care units. The proportion of catheter related HA-BSI due to S. aureus was 56% (61/109) in PVC-related HA-BSI and 34% (103/301) in CVC-related HA-BSI. A sharp decrease of PVC-related HA-BSI from 20 to 7 per year was obtained during the same period. In our experience, S. aureus HA-BSI is a simple and useful indicator of catheter associated infections, and therefore of healthcare quality, especially in units not covered by other type of surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Robotic positioning of standard electrophysiology catheters: a novel approach to catheter robotics.

    PubMed

    Knight, Bradley; Ayers, Gregory M; Cohen, Todd J

    2008-05-01

    Robotic systems have been developed to manipulate and position electrophysiology (EP) catheters remotely. One limitation of existing systems is their requirement for specialized catheters or sheaths. We evaluated a system (Catheter Robotics Remote Catheter Manipulation System [RCMS], Catheter Robotics, Inc., Budd Lake, New Jersey) that manipulates conventional EP catheters placed through standard introducer sheaths. The remote controller functions much like the EP catheter handle, and the system permits repeated catheter disengagement for manual manipulation without requiring removal of the catheter from the body. This study tested the hypothesis that the RCMS would be able to safely and effectively position catheters at various intracardiac sites and obtain thresholds and electrograms similar to those obtained with manual catheter manipulation. Two identical 7 Fr catheters (Blazer II; Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts) were inserted into the right femoral veins of 6 mongrel dogs through separate, standard 7 Fr sheaths. The first catheter was manually placed at a right ventricular endocardial site. The second catheter handle was placed in the mating holder of the RCMS and moved to approximately the same site as the first catheter using the Catheter Robotics RCMS. The pacing threshold was determined for each catheter. This sequence was performed at 2 right atrial and 2 right ventricular sites. The distance between the manually and robotically placed catheters tips was measured, and pacing thresholds and His-bundle recordings were compared. The heart was inspected at necropsy for signs of cardiac perforation or injury. Compared to manual positioning, remote catheter placement produced the same pacing threshold at 7/24 sites, a lower threshold at 11/24 sites, and a higher threshold at only 6/24 sites (p > 0.05). The average distance between catheter tips was 0.46 +/- 0.32 cm (median 0.32, range 0.13-1.16 cm). There was no difference between right atrial

  16. UK Renal Registry 15th annual report: Chapter 8 UK multisite peritoneal dialysis access catheter audit for first PD catheters 2011.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Victoria; Pitcher, David; Braddon, Fiona; Fogarty, Damian; Wilkie, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The central paradigm of effective peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an appropriate standard of PD catheter function. The aim of the project was to develop an effective national PD access audit which would identify an 'appropriate standard' of PD catheter function. The UK Renal Registry collected centre specific information on various PD access outcome measures including catheter functionality and post-insertion complications. The first PD access audit covering England, Northern Ireland and Wales was conducted during April to June 2012 looking at incident dialysis patients in 2011. Forty three data collection spreadsheets were returned from a total of 65 centres describing 917 PD catheter placements. The median age of PD patients was 61 years and 61.5% were male. The proportion of patients initiated on PD in comparison to HD was lower in socially deprived areas. There was a relationship between the timing of nephrology referral and the likelihood of surgical assessment regarding PD catheter placement. Patients with diabetes did not have higher rates of PD catheter failure or of early peritonitis. A comparative PD catheter audit has the potential to provide valuable information on an important patient related outcome measure and lead to an improvement in patient experience. There was wide variation between centres of PD catheter use for late presenting patients. Overall patients were more likely to get a PD catheter if they had been known to the service for more than 1 year. The percutaneous insertion technique was associated with a higher early (less than 2 week) peritonitis rate and more catheter flow problems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Evaluation of a Device Combining an Inferior Vena Cava Filter and a Central Venous Catheter for Preventing Pulmonary Embolism Among Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Victor F; Hazelton, Joshua P; Myers, John; Robertson, Claudia; Gilani, Ramyar; Dunn, Julie A; Bukur, Marko; Croce, Martin A; Peick, Ann; West, Sonlee; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Doucet, Jay; Miller, Preston R; Crookes, Bruce; Gandhi, Rajesh R; Croft, Chasen A; Manasia, Anthony; Hoey, Brian A; Lieberman, Howard; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Novack, Victor; Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of a novel device that combines an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter and central venous catheter (CVC) for prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in critically ill patients. In a multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical trial, the device was inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopy and subsequently retrieved before transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU). The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from clinically significant PE or fatal PE 72 hours after device removal or discharge, whichever occurred first. Secondary endpoints were incidence of acute proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT), catheter-related thrombosis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, major bleeding events, and clinically significant thrombus (occupying > 25% of volume of filter) detected by cavography before retrieval. The device was placed in 163 critically ill patients with contraindications to anticoagulation; 151 (93%) were critically ill trauma patients, 129 (85%) had head or spine trauma, and 102 (79%) had intracranial bleeding. The primary efficacy endpoint was achieved for all 163 (100%) patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.8%-100%, P < .01). Diagnosis of new or worsening acute proximal DVT was time dependent with 11 (7%) occurring during the first 7 days. There were no (0%) catheter-related bloodstream infections. There were 5 (3.1%) major bleeding events. Significant thrombus in the IVC filter occurred in 14 (8.6%) patients. Prophylactic anticoagulation was not initiated for a mean of 5.5 days ± 4.3 after ICU admission. This novel device prevented clinically significant and fatal PE among critically ill trauma patients with low risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Ultrasound on Short Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement on Vein Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Holder, Max R; Stutzman, Sonja E; Olson, DaiWai M

    Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients have a short peripheral intravenous catheter (SPC) placed. Methods of inserting the catheter have evolved over time and now include the use of ultrasound (US)-guided procedures for placement. Little is known about the impact that US-guided procedures have on the vein. This study compared the rate of venous thrombosis in patients with and without US-guided catheter placement. This prospective, single-blind, observational study assessed for venous thrombosis in 153 veins from 135 patients. Veins were evaluated by a research nurse blinded to the method of placement between 48 and 72 hours after the SPC was placed. The Fisher exact test showed a significant difference between vessel compressibility and catheter insertion method (P = .0012). The proportion of noncompressible veins was significantly greater when US was used in comparison with freehand SPC insertion. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square value of 10.34 (P = .0013) showed that US insertion technique is associated with a higher likelihood of noncompressible veins. This pilot study provides compelling evidence that the use of US to assist with catheter placement is associated with a higher rate of noncompressible veins at day 2 or 3. Further studies are needed with a larger sample to determine the generalizability of the results from this pilot study.

  19. Advanced Imaging Catheter: Final Project Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krulevitch, P; Colston, B; DaSilva, L

    2001-07-20

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is an approach whereby procedures conventionally performed with large and potentially traumatic incisions are replaced by several tiny incisions through which specialized instruments are inserted. Early MIS, often called laparoscopic surgery, used video cameras and laparoscopes to visualize and control the medical devices, which were typically cutting or stapling tools. More recently, catheter-based procedures have become a fast growing sector of all surgeries. In these procedures, small incisions are made into one of the main arteries (e.g. femoral artery in the thigh), and a long thin hollow tube is inserted and positioned near the target area.more » The key advantage of this technique is that recovery time can be reduced from months to a matter of days. In the United States, over 700,000 catheter procedures are performed annually representing a market of over $350 million. Further growth in this area will require significant improvements in the current catheter technology. In order to effectively navigate a catheter through the tortuous vessels of the body, two capabilities must exist: imaging and positioning. In most cases, catheter procedures rely on radiography for visualization and manual manipulation for positioning of the device. Radiography provides two-dimensional, global images of the vasculature and cannot be used continuously due to radiation exposure to both the patient and physician. Intravascular ultrasound devices are available for continuous local imaging at the catheter tip, but these devices cannot be used simultaneously with therapeutic devices. Catheters are highly compliant devices, and manipulating the catheter is similar to pushing on a string. Often, a guide wire is used to help position the catheter, but this procedure has its own set of problems. Three characteristics are used to describe catheter maneuverability: (1) pushability -- the amount of linear displacement of the distal end (inside body

  20. Chemical reactivity of CVC and CVD SiC with UO2 at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-05-01

    Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition processes were embedded in UO2 pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO2. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO2 was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 °C, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC did not show any such reactivity. However, both CVD and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO2 at a higher temperature (1500 °C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive than CVD SiC at 1500 °C. Furthermore, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi2, and U3Si2 as a result of SiC reaction with UO2.

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of surgical placement of PD catheters with regard to other methods.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, B

    2006-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is underused for various reasons. One reason may be problems with insertion of catheters for access. Another reason is the delayed start (break-in period) of about 2 weeks after operation. This review describes various approaches to the insertion of a peritoneal dialysis catheter. The optimal conditions to strive for are given as is an overview of various techniques. This article favours surgical placement while others might prefer other techniques. Described is the use a 3-purse string suture technique that allows immediate start of dialysis after catheter insertion both for acute dialysis indications as well as for acute start in chronic dialysis patients. A key to lesser complications is to establish a team devoted to the insertions rather than to allow various physicians to perform insertions as a training procedure. An optimal access is one of the important life lines for these patients.

  2. Related factors with extravasation of non-cytostatic agents in peripheral vein catheters.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Cristina; Mata-Peón, Esther; Avanzas-Fernández, Sara

    To know the independent variables related to the occurrence of extravasation in patients with peripheral vein catheters (PVC). Retrospective study carried out in 6 longitudinal cuts between July 2013 an January 2014. A total of 1,442 PVC were reviewed, of which 730 met the inclusion criteria, and were divided into 2 groups: extravasation and not extravasation, with 365 cases each. The variables of age, gender, admission unit, catheter gauge, insertion site, previous insertion into the same limb, hospital unit where the insertion took place, communication difficulties, personal health history and analyzed parenterally drug administered were considered. Risk factors to develop extravasation were: female gender, with previous insertion in the same limb, <72h PVC of insertion, communication difficulties, personal health history of neoplasia and KCl, gentamicin or beta lactam treatment. Our study allows to know the variables that are related to the emergence of extravasations in patients with non-cancer treatments (gender, medical service of admission, catheter gauge, elapsed time since the insertion, patient communication difficulties, personal health history, and intravenous treatments), as well as the factors that may be considered protective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis].

    PubMed

    van der Sar-van der Brugge, Simone; Posthuma, E F M Ward

    2011-01-01

    Phlebitis is a very common complication of the use of intravenous catheters. Two patients with an i.v. catheter complicated by thrombophlebitis are described. Patient A was immunocompromised due to chronic lymphatic leukaemia and developed septic thrombophlebitis with positive blood cultures for S. Aureus. Patient B was being treated with flucloxacillin because of an S. Aureus infection and developed chemical phlebitis. Septic phlebitis is rare, but potentially serious. Chemical or mechanical types of thrombophlebitis are usually less severe, but happen very frequently. Risk factors include: female sex, previous episode of phlebitis, insertion at (ventral) forearm, emergency placement and administration of antibiotics. Until recently, routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters after 72-96 h was recommended, but randomised controlled trials have not shown any benefit of this routine. A recent Cochrane Review recommends replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated only.

  4. Determining the best catheter for sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    Dessole, S; Farina, M; Capobianco, G; Nardelli, G B; Ambrosini, G; Meloni, G B

    2001-09-01

    To compare the characteristics of six different catheters for performing sonohysterography (SHG) to identify those that offer the best compromise between reliability, tolerability, and cost. Prospective study. University hospital. Six hundred ten women undergoing SHG. We performed SHG with six different types of catheters: Foleycath (Wembley Rubber Products, Sepang, Malaysia), Hysca Hysterosalpingography Catheter (GTA International Medical Devices S.A., La Caleta D.N., Dominican Republic), H/S Catheter Set (Ackrad Laboratories, Cranford, NJ), PBN Balloon Hystero-Salpingography Catheter (PBN Medicals, Stenloese, Denmark), ZUI-2.0 Catheter (Zinnanti Uterine Injection; BEI Medical System International, Gembloux, Belgium), and Goldstein Catheter (Cook, Spencer, IN). We assessed the reliability, the physician's ease of use, the time requested for the insertion of the catheter, the volume of contrast medium used, the tolerability for the patients, and the cost of the catheters. In 568 (93%) correctly performed procedures, no statistically significant differences were found among the catheters. The Foleycath was the most difficult for the physician to use and required significantly more time to position correctly. The Goldstein catheter was the best tolerated by the patients. The Foleycath was the cheapest whereas the PBN Balloon was the most expensive. The choice of the catheter must be targeted to achieving a good balance between tolerability for the patients, efficacy, cost, and the personal preference of the operator.

  5. Embracing Errors in Simulation-Based Training: The Effect of Error Training on Retention and Transfer of Central Venous Catheter Skills.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Aimee K; Abdelfattah, Kareem; Wiersch, John; Ahmed, Rami A; Willis, Ross E

    2015-01-01

    Error management training is an approach that encourages exposure to errors during initial skill acquisition so that learners can be equipped with important error identification, management, and metacognitive skills. The purpose of this study was to determine how an error-focused training program affected performance, retention, and transfer of central venous catheter (CVC) placement skills when compared with traditional training methodologies. Surgical interns (N = 30) participated in a 1-hour session featuring an instructional video and practice performing internal jugular (IJ) and subclavian (SC) CVC placement with guided instruction. All interns underwent baseline knowledge and skill assessment for IJ and SC (pretest) CVC placement; watched a "correct-only" (CO) or "correct + error" (CE) instructional video; practiced for 30 minutes; and were posttested on knowledge and IJ and SC CVC placement. Skill retention and transfer (femoral CVC placement) were assessed 30 days later. All skills tests (pretest, posttest, and transfer) were videorecorded and deidentified for evaluation by a single blinded instructor using a validated 17-item checklist. Both the groups exhibited significant improvements (p < 0.001) in knowledge and skills after the 1-hour training program, but the increase of items achieved on the performance checklist did not differ between conditions (CO: IJ Δ = 35%, SC Δ = 29%; CE: IJ Δ = 36%, subclavian Δ = 33%). However, 1 month later, the CO group exhibited significant declines in skill retention on IJ CVC placement (from 68% at posttraining to 44% at day 30; p < 0.05) and SC CVC placement (from 63% at posttraining to 49% at day 30; p < 0.05), whereas the CE group did not have significant decreases in performance. The CE group performed significantly better on femoral CVC placement (i.e., transfer task; 62% vs 38%; p < 0.01) and on 2 of the 3 complication scenarios (p < 0.05) when compared with the CO group. These data indicate that incorporating

  6. Evaluation of two different epidural catheters in clinical practice. narrowing down the incidence of paresthesia!

    PubMed

    Bouman, E A C; Gramke, H F; Wetzel, N; Vanderbroeck, T H T; Bruinsma, R; Theunissen, M; Kerkkamp, H E M; Marcus, M A E

    2007-01-01

    Although epidural anesthesia is considered safe, several complications may occur during puncture and insertion of a catheter. Incidences of paresthesia vary between 0.2 and 56%. A prospective, open, cohort-controlled pilot study was conducted in 188 patients, ASA I-III, age 19-87 years, scheduled for elective surgery and epidural anesthesia. We evaluated a 20 G polyamide (standard) catheter and a 20 G combined polyurethane-polyamide (new) catheter. Spontaneous reactions upon catheter-insertion, paresthesia on questioning, inadvertent dural or intravascular puncture, and reasons for early catheter removal were recorded. The incidence of paresthesia reported spontaneously was 21.3% with the standard catheter and 16.7% with the new catheter. Systematically asking for paresthesia almost doubled the paraesthesia rate. Intravascular cannulation occurred in 5%. No accidental dural punctures occurred. An overall incidence of 13.3% of technical problems led to early catheter removal. The new catheter was at least equivalent to the standard regarding epidural success rate and safety : rate of paresthesia, intravascular and dural cannulation.

  7. A pilot study to assess adductor canal catheter tip migration in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jody C; Harrison, T Kyle; Miller, Brett; Howard, Steven K; Conroy, Myles; Udani, Ankeet; Shum, Cynthia; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-04-01

    An adductor canal catheter may facilitate early ambulation after total knee arthroplasty, but there is concern over preoperative placement since intraoperative migration of catheters may occur from surgical manipulation and result in ineffective analgesia. We hypothesized that catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may influence tip migration for preoperatively inserted adductor canal catheters. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 20 catheter insertion trials were divided randomly into one of four groups: flexible epidural catheter either tunneled or not tunneled; or rigid stimulating catheter either tunneled or not tunneled. Intraoperative patient manipulation was simulated by five range-of-motion exercises of the knee. Distance and length measurements were performed by a blinded regional anesthesiologist. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.225) and length of catheter within the adductor canal (p = 0.467) were not different between the four groups. Two of five non-tunneled stimulating catheters (40 %) were dislodged compared to 0/5 in all other groups (p = 0.187). A cadaver model may be useful for assessing migration of regional anesthesia catheters; catheter type and subcutaneous tunneling may not affect migration of adductor canal catheters based on this preliminary study. However, future studies involving a larger sample size, actual patients, and other catheter types are warranted.

  8. Chemical reactivity of CVC and CVD SiC with UO 2 at high temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Katoh, Yutai; Voit, Stewart L.; ...

    2015-02-11

    Two types of silicon carbide (SiC) synthesized using two different vapor deposition processes were embedded in UO 2 pellets and evaluated for their potential chemical reaction with UO 2. While minor reactivity between chemical-vapor-composited (CVC) SiC and UO 2 was observed at comparatively low temperatures of 1100 and 1300 C, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC did not show any such reactivity, according to microstructural investigations. But, both CVD and CVC SiCs showed some reaction with UO 2 at a higher temperature (1500 C). Elemental maps supported by phase maps obtained using electron backscatter diffraction indicated that CVC SiC was more reactive thanmore » CVD SiC at 1500 C. Moreover, this investigation indicated the formation of uranium carbides and uranium silicide chemical phases such as UC, USi 2, and U 3Si 2 as a result of SiC reaction with UO 2.« less

  9. A novel infection prevention approach: Leveraging a mandatory electronic communication tool to decrease peripherally inserted central catheter infections, complications, and cost.

    PubMed

    Kim-Saechao, Sue J; Almario, Earl; Rubin, Zachary A

    2016-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) removed prematurely for unconfirmed infection or thrombosis lead to subsequent reinsertions and associated complications. To improve clinical quality, a mandatory electronic communication tool (MECT) based on clinical practice guidelines was mandated for all inpatient adult PICCs in an academically affiliated tertiary medical center. This MECT facilitated early communication and specialized evaluation with the PICC team for any complications related to PICCs. A historical cohort study was conducted. Quality and cost measurements for 200 PICCs postinstitution of a MECT were compared with 200 PICCs 12 months prior. PICC removal and complication rates were compared for the 2 cohorts. Significant outcomes included a central-line associated blood stream infection rate that changed from 1.38/1,000 catheter days to 0/1,000 catheter days, 0 provider-led premature PICC removals, an overall 84% decrease in premature PICC removals (from 16%-2.5%; P < .0001), a decrease in the total complication rate from 45.5%-24% (P < .0001), and 25% reduction in radiology costs. A novel infection prevention approach leveraging a MECT resulted in 0 central line-associated bloodstream infections and provider-led premature PICC removals. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal jugular vein thrombosis associated with venous hypoplasia and protein S deficiency revealed by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Gun; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Lee, Mi Kyoung

    2011-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman, who had no thrombotic risk factors and past history except congenital scoliosis, underwent central venous catheterization (CVC) before correction of the scoliosis. When internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization using the anatomical landmark technique failed, CVC under ultrasound guidance was tried. As a consequence, thrombosis and hypoplasia of the right IJV were incidentally detected by ultrasonography. Central venous catheters were then successfully placed in other veins under ultrasound guidance. Also, after examinations to rule out the possibility of pulmonary embolism and to clarify the causes of the IJV thrombosis, the patient was found to have protein S deficiency. CVC under ultrasound guidance should be recommended to prevent the failure of cannulation and complications such as thromboembolism in patients who could possibly have anomalies of vessels as a result of anatomical deformities caused by severe scoliosis, even if patients do not have thrombotic risk factors such as a history of central catheter insertion or intravenous drug abuse, cancer, advanced age, cerebral infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction. Also, if venous thrombosis is found in patients without predisposing risk factors, one should ascertain the cause of the hypercoagulable state, for example protein S deficiency, and perform appropriate treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

  11. Central Venous Occlusion in the Hemodialysis Patient.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Vinay Narasimha; Eason, Joseph B; Allon, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Central venous stenosis (CVS) is encountered frequently among hemodialysis patients. Prior ipsilateral central venous catheterization and cardiac rhythm device insertions are common risk factors, but CVS can also occur in the absence of this history. Chronic CVS can cause thrombosis with partial or complete occlusion of the central vein at the site of stenosis. CVS is frequently asymptomatic and identified as an incidental finding during imaging studies. Symptomatic CVS presents most commonly as an upper- or lower-extremity edema ipsilateral to the CVS. Previously unsuspected CVS may become symptomatic after placement of an ipsilateral vascular access. The likelihood of symptomatic CVS may be affected by the central venous catheter (CVC) location; CVC side; duration of CVC dependence; type, location, and blood flow of the ipsilateral access; and extent of collateral veins. Venous angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement can improve the stenosis and alleviate symptoms, but CVS typically recurs frequently, requiring repeated interventions. Refractory symptomatic CVS may require ligation of the ipsilateral vascular access. Because no available treatment option is curative, the goal should be to prevent CVS by minimizing catheters and central vein instrumentation in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

  13. The practice of platelet transfusion prior to central venous catheterization in presence of coagulopathy: a national survey among clinicians.

    PubMed

    van de Weerdt, E K; Peters, A L; Goudswaard, E J; Binnekade, J M; van Lienden, K P; Biemond, B J; Vlaar, A P J

    2017-05-01

    Correction of coagulopathy prior to central venous catheter (CVC) placement is advocated by guidelines, while retrospective studies support restrictive use of transfusion products. We conducted a mixed vignette and questionnaire web survey to investigate current practice and preferences for CVC placement. Clinical vignettes were used to quantify the tendency to administer platelet concentrate. A positive ß-coefficient is in favour of administering platelet concentrate. Ninety-seven physicians answered the survey questions (36 critical care physicians, 14 haematologists, 20 radiologists and 27 anaesthesiologist). Eighty-six physicians subsequently completed the clinical vignettes (response rate 71%). Preferences in favour of correcting thrombocytopenia prior CVC placement were platelet counts of 10 × 10 9 /L and 20 × 10 9 /L (ß = 3·9; ß = 3·2, respectively), the subclavian insertion site (ß = 0·8). An elevated INR (INR = 3; ß = 0·6) and an elevated aPTT (aPTT = 60 s; ß = 0·4) showed a positive trend towards platelet transfusion. Platelet transfusion was less likely in an emergency setting (ß = -0·4). Reported transfusion thresholds for CVC placement varied from <10 × 10 9 /L to 80 × 10 9 /L for platelet count, from 1·0 to 10·0 for INR and from 25 s to 150 s for aPTT. Implementation of ultrasound guidance as standard practice was limited. Current transfusion practice prior to CVC placement is highly variable. Physicians adjust the decision to correct coagulopathy prior CVC placement based on clinical parameters, insertion site and technique applied. © 2017 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Peritoneal dialysis catheter implantation by nephrologists is associated with higher rates of peritoneal dialysis utilization: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Perl, Jeffrey; Pierratos, Andreas; Kandasamy, Gokulan; McCormick, Brendan B; Quinn, Robert R; Jain, Arsh K; Huang, Anjie; Paterson, J Michael; Oliver, Matthew J

    2015-02-01

    The likelihood of peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization following a PD catheter insertion attempt is poorly described. We explored the risk factors for PD nonuse, focusing on the method of PD catheter implantation. This population-based retrospective cohort study employed Ontario administrative health data to identify 3886 predialysis adults who had an incident PD catheter implantation between 2002 and 2010. The impact of the method of catheter implantation including open-surgical (open, n = 1884), surgical-laparoscopic (laparoscopic, n = 1154), nephrology-percutaneous (nephrology, n = 498) and radiology-percutaneous (radiology, n = 350) on rates of PD utilization (defined as four consecutive weeks of PD) was examined. Eighty-three percent of study patients received PD. After adjustment, relative to patients with openly inserted catheters, PD utilization was greater for those with nephrology-inserted catheters [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.95] and similar for radiology-inserted catheters [aHR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.43] or laparoscopic-inserted catheters [aHR 0.97 (95% CI 0.86-1.09)]. Among PD nonusers, death occurred in 10% of the open group, 6% of the laparoscopic group, 27% of the radiology group and in fewer than 3% of the nephrology group. Sixty-nine percent received hemodialysis in the open group, 63% in the laparoscopic group, 61% in the radiology group and 88% in the nephrology group. Those remaining predialysis comprised 12% of the open group, 22% of the laparoscopic group, 11% of the radiology group and <3% of the nephrology group. Nephrology insertion resulted in lower overall rates of PD nonuse, particularly due to death or remaining predialysis. Greater use may be related to insertion timing, technique or greater commitment on the part of nephrologists to the success of PD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomized clinical trial of pigtail catheter versus chest tube in injured patients with uncomplicated traumatic pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Kulvatunyou, N; Erickson, L; Vijayasekaran, A; Gries, L; Joseph, B; Friese, R F; O'Keeffe, T; Tang, A L; Wynne, J L; Rhee, P

    2014-01-01

    Small pigtail catheters appear to work as well as the traditional large-bore chest tubes in patients with traumatic pneumothorax, but it is not known whether the smaller pigtail catheters are associated with less tube-site pain. This study was conducted to compare tube-site pain following pigtail catheter or chest tube insertion in patients with uncomplicated traumatic pneumothorax. This prospective randomized trial compared 14-Fr pigtail catheters and 28-Fr chest tubes in patients with traumatic pneumothorax presenting to a level I trauma centre from July 2010 to February 2012. Patients who required emergency tube placement, those who refused and those who could not respond to pain assessment were excluded. Primary outcomes were tube-site pain, as assessed by a numerical rating scale, and total pain medication use. Secondary outcomes included the success rate of pneumothorax resolution and insertion-related complications. Forty patients were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of 20 patients in the pigtail catheter group were similar to those of 20 patients in the chest tube group. No patient had a flail chest or haemothorax. Pain scores related to chest wall trauma were similar in the two groups. Patients with a pigtail catheter had significantly lower mean(s.d.) tube-site pain scores than those with a chest tube, at baseline after tube insertion (3.2(0.6) versus 7.7(0.6); P < 0.001), on day 1 (1.9(0.5) versus 6.2(0.7); P < 0.001) and day 2 (2.1(1.1) versus 5.5(1.0); P = 0.040). The decreased use of pain medication associated with pigtail catheter was not significantly different. The duration of tube insertion, success rate and insertion-related complications were all similar in the two groups. For patients with a simple, uncomplicated traumatic pneumothorax, use of a 14-Fr pigtail catheter is associated with reduced pain at the site of insertion, with no other clinically important differences noted compared with chest tubes. NCT01537289 (http

  16. Factors Influencing Intracavitary Electrocardiographic P-Wave Changes during Central Venous Catheter Placement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guorong; Guo, Ling; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Min; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude changes in the P-wave of intracavitary electrocardiography have been used to assess the tip placement of central venous catheters. The research assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this sign in comparison with standard radiographic techniques for tip location, focusing on factors influencing its clinical utility. Both intracavitary electrocardiography guided tip location and X-ray positioning were used to verify catheter tip locations in patients undergoing central venous catheter insertion. Intracavitary electrocardiograms from 1119 patients (of a total 1160 subjects) showed specific amplitude changes in the P-wave. As the results show, compared with X-ray positioning, the sensitivity of electrocardiography-guided tip location was 97.3%, with false negative rate of 2.7%; the specificity was 1, with false positive rate of zero. Univariate analyses indicated that features including age, gender, height, body weight, and heart rate have no statistically significant influence on P-wave amplitude changes (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that catheter insertion routes (OR = 2.280, P = 0.003) and basal P-wave amplitude (OR = 0.553, P = 0.003) have statistically significant impacts on P-wave amplitude changes. As a reliable indicator of tip location, amplitude change in the P-wave has proved of good sensitivity and excellent specificity, and the minor, zero, false positive rate supports the clinical utility of this technique in early recognition of malpositioned tips. A better sensitivity was achieved in placement of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) than that of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). In clinical practice, a combination of intracavitary electrocardiography, ultrasonic inspection and the anthropometric measurement method would further improve the accuracy. PMID:25915758

  17. Indwelling urinary catheter management and catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention practices in Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fink, Regina; Gilmartin, Heather; Richard, Angela; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Boltz, Marie; Wald, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) are commonly used in hospitalized patients, especially elders. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for 34% of all health care associated infections in the United States, associated with excess morbidity and health care costs. Adherence to CAUTI prevention practices has not been well described. This study used an electronic survey to examine IUC care practices for CAUTI prevention in 3 areas-(1) equipment and alternatives and insertion and maintenance techniques; (2) personnel, policies, training, and education; and (3) documentation, surveillance, and removal reminders-at 75 acute care hospitals in the Nurses Improving the Care of Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) system. CAUTI prevention practices commonly followed included wearing gloves (97%), handwashing (89%), maintaining a sterile barrier (81%), and using a no-touch insertion technique (73%). Silver-coated catheters were used to varying degrees in 59% of the hospitals; 4% reported never using a catheter-securing device. Urethral meatal care was provided daily by 43% of hospitals and more frequently that that by 41% of hospitals. Nurses were the most frequently reported IUC inserters. Training in aseptic technique and CAUTI prevention at the time of initial nursing hire was provided by 64% of hospitals; however, only 47% annually validated competency in IUC insertion. Systems for IUC removal were implemented in 56% of hospitals. IUC documentation and routine CAUTI surveillance practices varied widely. Although many CAUTI prevention practices at NICHE hospitals are in alignment with evidence-based guidelines, there is room for improvement. Further research is needed to identify the effect of enhanced compliance with CAUTI prevention practices on the prevalence of CAUTI in NICHE hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of central venous catheter colonization using surveillance culture of withdrawn connectors and insertion site skin.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Granda, María Jesús; Guembe, María; Cruces, Raquel; Barrio, José María; Bouza, Emilio

    2016-02-02

    Culture of catheter hubs and skin surrounding the catheter entry site has a negative predictive value for catheter tip colonization. However, manipulation of the hub for culture requires the hubs to be swabbed, introducing potential dislodging of biofilm and subsequent migration of microorganisms. Hubs are usually closed with needleless connectors (NCs), which are replaced regularly. Our objective was to evaluate whether culture of flushed withdrawn NCs is an alternative to hub culture when investigating central venous catheter colonization. The study population comprised 49 intensive care unit patients whose central venous catheters had been in place for at least 7 days. Cultures of NCs and skin were obtained weekly. We included 82 catheters with more than 7 days' indwelling time. The catheter tip colonization rate was 18.3% (15/82). Analysis of skin and NC cultures revealed a 92.5% negative predictive value for catheter colonization. Three episodes of catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI) occurred in patients with colonized catheters. Surveillance of NC and skin cultures could help to identify patients at risk for C-RBSI.

  19. Insertion of a straight peritoneal catheter in an arcuate subcutaneous tunnel by a tunneler: long-term experience.

    PubMed

    Favazza, A; Petri, R; Montanaro, D; Boscutti, G; Bresadola, F; Mioni, G

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the results of the insertion of a straight Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter (PC) in an arcuate, caudally concave tunnel using a tunneler designed by the authors. It has a semicircular shape and a bending radius of 4.5 cm. A hospital renal unit. From June 1988 to February 1994, 112 straight Tenckhoff PCs, 62 with one deep cuff (single-cuff PC) and 50 with two cuffs (double-cuff PC), were inserted as first catheters in 112 patients (mean age 62 +/- 13 years), who underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The follow-up was 1099 months (mean 18 +/- 13 months) for single-cuff PCs and 1264 months (mean 25 +/- 15 months) for double-cuff PCs, respectively. After intraperitoneal placement of the PCs by median laparotomy, a 180 degrees arc bend tunnel, with both external and peritoneal exits directed downwards, was created by means of the tunneler. The rate of exit-site infection (ESI) was 0.27 episodes/year (epis/year). The probability of remaining ESI-free was 76%, 60%, and 55% at 1, 2, and 3 years. The rate of tunnel infection (TI) was 0.046 epis/year. The incidence of the double-cuff PC-related ESI and TI tended to be lower than the incidence observed with the single-cuff PC. Episodes of peritonitis were 60 (0.30 epis/year), where 6 were subsequent to ESI and/or TI. Two PCs were lost due to ESI, 3 due to TI, and 11 due to peritonitis. Drainage failure, due to displacement of the PC caused by straightening, involved 3 PCs; 2 were lost. PC survival was 92%, 82%, and 74% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. By an easily used semicircular tunneler, the standard straight Tenckhoff PC can be stably positioned in an arcuate tunnel with both inner and outer exits directed downwards. This tunnel shape, as already suggested by some authors, appears to be an effective technical solution to reducing the PC-related complication rates.

  20. The dangers of long-term catheter drainage.

    PubMed

    Lowthian, P

    There are many dangers associated with long-term urinary bladder drainage by catheter. For various reasons, the choice of catheter is important, and its initial insertion can be particularly hazardous. All catheterizations should, however, be safer when there is some urine (or other fluid) in the bladder. The appropriate choice of drainage system attached to the catheter can delay bacterial invasion of the bladder. Great care is needed to prevent blockage of the system, particularly when bacteriuria is present. Recent evidence indicates that some bacteria encourage the development of encrustations, so that, in some circumstances, catheters may become blocked within 24 hours. This, together with other considerations, strongly suggests that indwelling catheters should be changed at intervals of not more than 5 days. The practical implications of this are considered, as are the benefits that may accrue. Accidental catheter traction is another danger, and some possible methods of avoiding this are discussed. Finally, the need for a new kind of drainage-bag support is highlighted.

  1. [Complications of double j catheters and their endourological management].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fentes, D

    2016-10-01

    The insertion of a double J catheter (DJ) has widespread, becoming a usual procedure and standard of care in urology. Despite its relative simplicity it is not free from intraoperative risks or problems during the weeks after the implant. Conversely, despite great advances in design of these catheters the ideal material has not been discovered yet, one that is perfectly biocompatible with urine and avoids completely the advent of complications. The range of problems associated with DJs is variable: from mild self-limited dysuria or hematuria to more complex situations with higher risk, such as catheter migration, complete calcification, breakage, obstruction and renal unit loss. The treatment of theses complications must combine maximal efficacy for their resolution with the least possible surgical aggression. Accordingly, the different options of endourological approach become very important and they are the cornerstone for the treatment of the complications associated with ureteral catheters. The objective of this review is to present the main complications derived from the insertion of a DJ, their diagnosis, prevention and treatment, focusing mainly in the different endourological techniques.

  2. Sodium citrate 4% versus heparin as a lock solution in hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Yon, Calantha K; Low, Chai L

    2013-01-15

    The effects of heparin versus sodium citrate 4% as a lock solution on catheter-related infections (CRIs), catheter patency, and hospitalizations in long-term hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) were compared. Data for patients receiving heparin lock solutions were collected from July 2008 to July 2009. Data on patients receiving sodium citrate 4% lock solution were collected from September 2009 through December 2010. Patients who were receiving the heparin lock solution who continued to have a CVC in September 2009 were transitioned from heparin to sodium citrate catheter 4% lock solution. New patients with CVCs placed after September 2009 received sodium citrate 4% without a period of using heparin lock solution. Pertinent information on patient medical history, bleeding or clotting events, infections, and hospitalization was collected. Data were collected retrospectively for the heparin group and prospectively for the sodium citrate group. Data were collected from 360 patient-months among 60 patients during the heparin treatment period and from 451 patient-months among 58 patients during the sodium citrate period. Thirty-three patients were common to both study groups. There were significantly more CRIs and CRIs per 1000 catheter-days in the heparin than the sodium citrate treatment group. Secondary outcomes of hospitalizations and catheter thrombosis were comparable. CRIs and thrombosis led to significantly more catheter exchanges or removals in the heparin group than the sodium citrate group. In patients with long-term hemodialysis catheters, a lock solution of sodium citrate 4% was associated with fewer CRIs and similar effectiveness when compared with heparin 5000 units/mL.

  3. A Study of Use of “PORT” Catheter in Patients with Cancer: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Madabhavi, Irappa; Patel, Apurva; Sarkar, Malay; Anand, Asha; Panchal, Harsha; Parikh, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective and reliable venous access is one of the cornerstones of modern medical therapy in oncology. Materials and methods: This is a prospective observational study, which collected data of patients who require “PORT” catheter insertion for any cancer, at a tertiary care oncology hospital in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India, during a 2-year period. Aims and objectives: The main objective of this study was to study the various complications and outcomes related to “PORT” catheters. Results: “PORT” catheter was inserted in 100 patients and was most commonly used in solid malignancies (n = 86, 86%), followed by hematologic malignancies (n = 14, 14%). Among the solid malignancies, breast cancer (38, 38%) was the most common underlying disease, whereas among the hematologic malignancies, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (6, 6%) was the most common underlying disease for “PORT” catheter insertion. Chemotherapy was started on the first day of “PORT” catheter in 74% of patients in the “PORT” study group. The various complications developed in the “PORT” study group in the descending order are as follows: 4 patients (4%) developed early infection (⩽30 days after “PORT” placement), 4 (4%) late infection (⩾30 days after “PORT” placement), 4 (4%) bloodstream infection, 2 (2%) local skin infection at the “PORT” insertion site, 2 (2%) dislodgment of the “PORT” catheter, 2 (2%) fracture of the “PORT” catheter, and 1 recurrent pleural effusion. One patient (1%) developed thrombosis as the complication of “PORT” catheter insertion. Conclusions: The most disturbing aspect of treatment for a patient with cancer is multiple painful venipunctures made for administration of cytotoxic agents, antibiotics, blood products, and nutritional supplements. The focus of this prospective observational research is to study the various underlying diseases for which “PORT” catheter is needed in different solid and hematologic

  4. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Central Venous Catheter Positioning and Exclusion of Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Amir, Rabia; Knio, Ziyad O; Mahmood, Feroze; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Leibowitz, Akiva; Bose, Ruma; Shaefi, Shahzad; Mitchell, John D; Ahmed, Muneeb; Bardia, Amit; Talmor, Daniel; Matyal, Robina

    2017-07-01

    Although real-time ultrasound guidance during central venous catheter insertion has become a standard of care, postinsertion chest radiograph remains the gold standard to confirm central venous catheter tip position and rule out associated lung complications like pneumothorax. We hypothesize that a combination of transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound is noninferior to chest radiograph when used to accurately assess central venous catheter positioning and screen for pneumothorax. All operating rooms and surgical and trauma ICUs at the institution. Single-center, prospective noninferiority study. Patients receiving ultrasound-guided subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheters. During ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement, correct positioning of central venous catheter was accomplished by real-time visualization of the guide wire and positive right atrial swirl sign using the subcostal four-chamber view. After insertion, pneumothorax was ruled out by the presence of lung sliding and seashore sign on M-mode. Data analysis was done for 137 patients. Chest radiograph ruled out pneumothorax in 137 of 137 patients (100%). Lung ultrasound was performed in 123 of 137 patients and successfully screened for pneumothorax in 123 of 123 (100%). Chest radiograph approximated accurate catheter tip position in 136 of 137 patients (99.3%). Adequate subcostal four-chamber views could not be obtained in 13 patients. Accurate positioning of central venous catheter with ultrasound was then confirmed in 121 of 124 patients (97.6%) as described previously. Transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound are noninferior to chest x-ray for screening of pneumothorax and accurate central venous catheter positioning. Thus, the point of care use of ultrasound can reduce central venous catheter insertion to use time, exposure to radiation, and improve patient safety.

  5. Bacteremia in nonneutropenic pediatric oncology patients with central venous catheters in the ED.

    PubMed

    Moskalewicz, Risha L; Isenalumhe, Leidy L; Luu, Cindy; Wee, Choo Phei; Nager, Alan L

    2017-01-01

    To examine clinical characteristics associated with bacteremia in febrile nonneutropenic pediatric oncology patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) in the emergency department (ED). Fever is the primary reason pediatric oncology patients present to the ED. The literature states that 0.9% to 39% of febrile nonneutropenic oncology patients are bacteremic, yet few studies have investigated infectious risk factors in this population. This was a retrospective cohort study in a pediatric ED, reviewing medical records from 2002 to 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients with cancer, temperature at least 38°C, presence of a CVC, absolute neutrophil count greater than 500 cells/μL, and age less than 22 years. Exclusion criteria were repeat ED visits within 72 hours, bloodwork results not reported by the laboratory, and patients without oncologic history documented at the study hospital. The primary outcome measure is a positive blood culture (+BC). Other variables include age, sex, CVC type, cancer diagnosis, absolute neutrophil count, vital signs, upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms, and amount of intravenous (IV) normal saline (NS) administered in the ED. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a multiple logistic regression model. A total of 1322 ED visits were sampled, with 534 enrolled, and 39 visits had +BC (7.3%). Variables associated with an increased risk of +BC included the following: absence of URI symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 2.30; 95% CI, 1.13-4.69), neuroblastoma (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.47-9.09), "other" cancer diagnosis (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.93-10.76), tunneled externalized CVC (OR, 5.04; 95% CI, 2.25-11.28), and receiving at least 20 mL/kg IV NS (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.2-4.55). The results of a multiple logistic regression model also showed these variables to be associated with +BC. The absence of URI symptoms, presence of an externalized CVC, neuroblastoma or other cancer diagnosis, and receiving at least 20 mL/kg IV NS in the ED are

  6. Dosimetric equivalence of nonstandard HDR brachytherapy catheter patterns

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cunha, J. A. M.; Hsu, I-C.; Pouliot, J.

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To determine whether alternative high dose rate prostate brachytherapy catheter patterns can result in similar or improved dose distributions while providing better access and reducing trauma. Materials and Methods: Standard prostate cancer high dose rate brachytherapy uses a regular grid of parallel needle positions to guide the catheter insertion. This geometry does not easily allow the physician to avoid piercing the critical structures near the penile bulb nor does it provide position flexibility in the case of pubic arch interference. This study used CT datasets with 3 mm slice spacing from ten previously treated patients and digitized new cathetersmore » following three hypothetical catheter patterns: conical, bi-conical, and fireworks. The conical patterns were used to accommodate a robotic delivery using a single entry point. The bi-conical and fireworks patterns were specifically designed to avoid the critical structures near the penile bulb. For each catheter distribution, a plan was optimized with the inverse planning algorithm, IPSA, and compared with the plan used for treatment. Irrelevant of catheter geometry, a plan must fulfill the RTOG-0321 dose criteria for target dose coverage (V{sub 100}{sup Prostate}>90%) and organ-at-risk dose sparing (V{sub 75}{sup Bladder}<1 cc, V{sub 75}{sup Rectum}<1 cc, V{sub 125}{sup Urethra}<<1 cc). Results: The three nonstandard catheter patterns used 16 nonparallel, straight divergent catheters, with entry points in the perineum. Thirty plans from ten patients with prostate sizes ranging from 26 to 89 cc were optimized. All nonstandard patterns fulfilled the RTOG criteria when the clinical plan did. In some cases, the dose distribution was improved by better sparing the organs-at-risk. Conclusion: Alternative catheter patterns can provide the physician with additional ways to treat patients previously considered unsuited for brachytherapy treatment (pubic arch interference) and facilitate robotic guidance

  7. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  8. Dexmedetomidine in a surgically inserted catheter for transversus abdominis plane block in donor hepatectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Aboelela, Mohamed Adel; Kandeel, Al-Refaey; Elsayed, Usama; Elmorshedi, Mohamed; Elsarraf, Waleed; Elsayed, Eman; Elgawalby, Ahmed; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Yassen, Amr

    2018-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a promising technique for analgesia after abdominal surgery. This prospective, randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in TAP block for donor hepatectomy. We hypothesized that this would improve postoperative morphine consumption and reduce analgesia related complication and inflammation. A total of 50 donor hepatectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients divided into two equal groups according to drugs used for TAP block. Group (B) received 20 ml of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25%, Group (BD) received 20 ml of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% and 0.3 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, on both sides at the end of surgery and every 8 h for 48 h at right side only through inserted catheter. Primary outcome objective was morphine consumption at first 72 h. Secondary outcome objectives were morphine requirement, numbers of intake, time to first intake, pain score numerical analog scale (NAS), postoperative analgesia related complications, recovery of intestinal motility, and inflammatory markers. Data were analyzed, rescue morphine analgesia was significantly lower in (BD) group compared with (B) groups as considering total morphine consumption (B 4 ± 1.9, BD 1.5 ± 0.5, P = 0.03), numbers of morphine intake ( P = 0.04), morphine requirement ( P = 0.03), and first time of analgesia intake ( P = 0.04). NAS was significantly lower in group (BD) compared with group (B) group in the first 12 h (NAS 0 - P = 0.001, NAS 1 - P = 0.03). Adding dexmedetomidine improved gut motility, first oral intake without detectable anti-inflammatory effect. Adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacine in a surgically inserted catheter for TAP block in donor hepatectomy reduced morphine consumption without detectable anti-inflammatory effect.

  9. The blind pushing technique for peripherally inserted central catheter placement through brachial vein puncture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Myeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Kim, Han Myun; Song, Myung Gyu; Song, Soon-Young; Yeon, Jae Woo; Yoon, Dae Young; Lee, Sam Yeol

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a prospective clinical trial evaluating the technical feasibility and short-term clinical outcome of the blind pushing technique for placement of pretrimmed peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) through brachial vein access. Patients requiring PICC placement at any of the three participating institutions were prospectively enrolled between January and December 2016. The review boards of all participating institutions approved this study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. PICC placement was performed using the blind pushing technique and primary brachial vein access. The following data were collected from unified case report forms: access vein, obstacles during PICC advancement, procedure time, and postprocedural complications. During the 12-month study period, 1380 PICCs were placed in 1043 patients. Of these, 1092 PICCs placed in 837 patients were enrolled, with 834 PICCs (76%) and 258 PICCs (34%) placed through brachial vein and nonbrachial vein access, respectively. In both arms, obstacles were most commonly noted in the subclavian veins (n = 220) and axillary veins (n = 94). Successful puncture of the access vein was achieved at first try in 1028 PICCs (94%). The technical success rate was 99%, with 1055 PICCs (97%) placed within 120 seconds of procedure time and 1088 PICCs (99%) having the tip located at the ideal position. Follow-up Doppler ultrasound detected catheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) for 18 PICCs in 16 patients and late symptomatic UEDVT for 16 PICCs in 16 patients (3.1%). Catheter-associated UEDVT was noted for 28 PICCs (82%) and 6 PICCs (18%) placed through brachial vein and nonbrachial vein access, respectively. The incidence of obstacles and the procedure time (<120 seconds) differed significantly between brachial vein and nonbrachial vein access (P = .001). There was no statistically significant difference between brachial vein and

  10. Double Guiding Catheters for Complex Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shing-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Pin; Lin, Yen-Chen; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Lin, Ming-Shyan; Chang, Chi-Jen

    2012-01-01

    A large-lumen guiding catheter is often used for complex percutaneous coronary intervention—particularly when a final kissing-balloon or 2-stent technique is required. However, catheter insertion is sometimes restricted by diseased vascular access sites or a tortuous vascular route. We report 2 cases in which a unique double guiding catheter technique was used to create a lumen of sufficient size for complex percutaneous coronary intervention. In each patient, two 6F guiding catheters were used concurrently to engage the ostium of 1 target vessel. In 1 patient, these catheters were used for the delivery of 2 balloons to complete kissing-balloon dilation after single-stent placement. In the other patient, the catheters were used to deliver 2 stents sequentially to their respective target lesions. The stents were then deployed simultaneously as kissing stents, followed by high-pressure kissing-balloon postdilation. PMID:22412243

  11. Association of thrombophilia and catheter-associated thrombosis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neshat-Vahid, S; Pierce, R; Hersey, D; Raffini, L J; Faustino, E V S

    2016-09-01

    Essentials It is unclear if thrombophilia increases the risk of catheter-associated thrombosis in children. We conducted a meta-analysis on thrombophilia and pediatric catheter-associated thrombosis. Presence of ≥1 trait confers additional risk of venous thrombosis in children with catheters. Limitations of included studies preclude us from recommending routine thrombophilia testing. Background The association between thrombophilia and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) associated with central venous catheter (CVC) use, the most important pediatric risk factor for thrombosis, is unclear in children. Pediatric studies with small sample sizes have reported conflicting results. We sought to evaluate whether, among children with CVCs, thrombophilia increases the risk of CVC-associated DVT (CADVT). Materials and methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials, PubMed and reference lists for controlled studies published from the inception of the database until September 2015. Included were studies of children aged <21 years with CVCs who were systematically tested for thrombophilic traits that are commonly screened for in clinical practice. Pooled prevalence rates and pooled odds ratios (pORs) of CADVT with thrombophilia were estimated by use of a random effects model. Results We analyzed 16 cohort studies with 1279 children, 277 of whom had CADVT, and with 12 traits tested. There was significant heterogeneity in the included studies. The presence of one or more traits was associated with CADVT (pOR 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-6.54). Although the prevalence of most traits was < 0.10, children with protein C deficiency, elevated factor VIII levels and the FV Leiden mutation had an increased prevalence of CADVT. The association with thrombophilia seemed to be stronger for symptomatic CADVT (pOR 6.71; 95% CI 1.93-23.37) than for asymptomatic CADVT (pOR 2.14; 95% CI 1.10-4.18). Conclusions On

  12. Intrathecal catheters with subcutaneous port systems in patients with severe cancer-related pain managed out of hospital: the risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Holmfred, Anette; Vikerfors, Thomas; Berggren, Lars; Gupta, Anil

    2006-06-01

    Intrathecal catheters have been used for many years to treat severe pain resistant to conventional treatment modalities. Previous studies have found a rate of serious infection of 2%-3% using these catheters in home situations. However, many authors used prophylactic antibiotics routinely in this group of patients, which are both costly and associated with a risk of developing antibiotic resistance. We were interested in studying whether improved hygiene during insertion and care of these catheters in the hospice or home environment would reduce the incidence of catheter-related infections. The results show that prophylactic antibiotic is not necessary, but a careful handling of the system with aseptic technique is important. The infections we registered appeared more than 2 weeks after insertion of the catheters. We now use this method routinely when inserting an intrathecal catheter with a subcutaneous port.

  13. Attitudes and knowledge of urethral catheters: a targeted educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew; Nottingham, Charles; Packiam, Vignesh; Jaskowiak, Nora; Gundeti, Mohan

    2016-10-01

    To assess the training of medical students and their confidence in urethral catheter placement, given growing evidence of unnecessary urology consults and iatrogenic injury. A third-year medical school class was queried about their attitudes and knowledge of catheter placement before and after the Clinical Biennium. The Clinical Biennium introduces hands-on skills prior to clinical clerkships. Urethral catheterisation is one of the skill stations that students rotate through, and urology residents provide a didactic session and supervised simulation. Confidence was self-rated regarding catheter technique, knowledge, troubleshooting, and comfort with placement in the same and opposite gender. Factual questions were posed about proper insertion and malfunctioning catheters. In all, 92 students participated in the initial survey, 41% female and 59% male, and 87% of the students had never placed a catheter. Students desired high confidence in catheter skills (4.4/5). There were no significant differences in responses for those with a desire to pursue urology vs other specialties, or procedural fields compared with non-procedural fields. Prior independent learning was reported by 38% of students and was a predictor for increased confidence across all domains (P < 0.05). In all, 16.7% of students initially identified proper male urethral insertion distance, which improved to 95.6% after the session. Student interest in urology modestly increased after the educational session (P = 0.028). At 3-6 months follow-up, students had performed a median (interquartile range) of 4 (2-7) urethral catheter placements, and 74.2% of students rated training useful or extremely useful. Indeed, 54.8% desired more instruction. Knowledge assessment indicated that 93% of students retained comprehension of proper male urethral insertion distance. Clinical Foley training rarely contradicted instruction from the Clinical Biennium (6.5%). At all time-points, medical student knowledge for

  14. Iatrogenic chylothorax due to pleural cavity extravasation of total parenteral nutrition in two adults receiving nutrition through a peripherally inserted central catheter.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas J; Jamous, Fady G; Kooistra, Alma; Zawada, Edward T

    2010-02-01

    Extravasation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) delivered via central lines is a known potential complication, but significant extravasations of infusate into the pleural space when using peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have not been reported in adults. We report 2 cases ofpleural cavity extravasation ofTPN delivered via a PICC. Measurement of the glucose level of the effusate is a quick way to determine the presence of TPN and should be considered in any patient receiving TPN via any type of central line with a rapidly developing effusion.

  15. Dissemination of an innovative mastery learning curriculum grounded in implementation science principles: a case study.

    PubMed

    McGaghie, William C; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Wayne, Diane B

    2015-11-01

    Dissemination of a medical education innovation, such as mastery learning, from a setting where it has been used successfully to a new and different medical education environment is not easy. This article describes the uneven yet successful dissemination of a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum on central venous catheter (CVC) insertion for internal medicine and emergency medicine residents across medical education settings. The dissemination program was grounded in implementation science principles. The article begins by describing implementation science which addresses the mechanisms of medical education and health care delivery. The authors then present a mastery learning case study in two phases: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SBML CVC curriculum at a tertiary care academic medical center; and (2) the dissemination of the SBML CVC curriculum to an academic community hospital setting. Contextual information about the drivers and barriers that affected the SBML CVC curriculum dissemination is presented. This work demonstrates that dissemination of mastery learning curricula, like all other medical education innovations, will fail without active educational leadership, personal contacts, dedication, hard work, rigorous measurement, and attention to implementation science principles. The article concludes by presenting a set of lessons learned about disseminating an SBML CVC curriculum across different medical education settings.

  16. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. Methods To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. Results 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, p<0.001) using a reminder or stop order, with five studies also including interventions to decrease initial UC placement. The pooled (nine studies) standardised mean difference (SMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was −1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD −0.37; p<0.001) but not in reminder studies (SMD, −1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. Conclusions UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits. PMID:24077850

  17. Long-term outcome of permanent hemodialysis catheters: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Charra, B; Chazot, C; Vanel, T; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M

    2001-01-01

    Hemodialysis tunneled catheters are widely used nowadays. However, their complications, infection and dysfunction, remain much too frequent. Different types of tunneled silicone hemodialysis catheters are available. We prospectively compared the long-term outcome of the two most popular devices, Permcath cuffed double catheter and TwinCath uncuffed twin catheter, both inserted percutaneously. From January 1994 to April 1998, 125 tunneled catheters were inserted in the internal jugular vein of 86 chronic hemodialysis patients, 63 TwinCath MedComp (TC) and 62 Permcath Quinton (PC). They were prospectively followed looking for technical patency, infection and dysfunction rate. TC were used more often for iterative access (52 vs. 25%, p = 0.01) and were inserted more frequently in the left internal jugular vein (59 vs. 16% p < 0.001). Their median technical survival rate was longer (869 vs. 433 days for PC, p < 0.01) with a 1-year patency rate of 80 vs. 53% (p = 0.002). Total catheter extrusion was also slightly less frequent with TC (4.7 vs. 9.6%), but partial extrusion happened more frequently (43 vs. 16%, p = 0.02). No significant difference in infection rate was observed, 0.77 for TC vs. 1.3 local infection/1,000 catheter days; 1.08 vs. 1.30 bacteremia/1,000 catheter days. A persistent catheter thrombosis was observed in 7.9 vs. 20.9% in PC (p = 0.04), the number of dysfunction was 10.5 vs. 24/1,000 days in use (p = 0.0001) and the number of urokinase infusion was 4.4 vs. 12/1,000 days (p = 0.001). PC needed more radiological interventions for dysfunction with endolumenal brushes (4 vs. 0) or fibrin sleeve removal (4 vs. 0). The vena cava thrombosis incidence was not different (2 vs. 3). Although the study was not randomized, TC appears more efficient allowing for a longer patency with a lower dysfunction rate than PC. This was reinforced by less favorable conditions of TC including more left jugular side and more iterative catheters. The cuff does not offer a

  18. Central Venous Catheter Insertion Site and Colonization in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-04

    Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI); Central Venous Catheter Associated Bloodstream Infection; Heart; Surgery, Heart, Functional Disturbance as Result; Congenital Heart Disease; Newborn; Infection

  19. Clinical evaluation of the use of an intracardiac electrocardiogram to guide the tip positioning of peripherally inserted central catheters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruiyi; Chen, Chunfang; Jin, Jingfen; Sharma, Komal; Jiang, Nan; Shentu, Yingqin; Wang, Xingang

    2016-06-01

    The use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) provides important central venous accesses for clinical treatments, tests and monitoring. Compared with the traditional methods, intracardiac electrocardiogram (ECG)-guided method has the potential to guide more accurate tip positioning of PICCs. This study aimed to clinically evaluate the effectiveness of an intracardiac ECG to guide the tip positioning by monitoring characteristic P-wave changes. In this study, eligible patients enrolled September 2011 to May 2012 according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria received the catheterization monitored by intracardiac ECG. Then chest radiography was performed to check the catheter position. The results revealed that, with 117 eligible patients, all bar one patient who died (n = 116) completed the study, including 60 males and 56 females aged 51.2 ± 15.1 years. Most (n = 113, > 97%) had characteristic P-wave changes. The intracardiac ECG-guided positioning procedure achieved correct placement for 112 patients (96.56%), demonstrating 99.12% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, the intracardiac ECG can be a promising technique to guide tip positioning of PICCs. However, since the sample size in this study is limited, more experience and further study during clinical practice are needed to demonstrate achievement of optimal catheterization outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. [Seven cases of port-a-cath contamination caused by Pantoea agglomerans in the Oncological Service of Iseo Hospital, Brescia (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Izzo, Ilaria; Lania, Donatella; Castro, Antonino; Lanzini, Fernanda; Bella, Daniele; Pagani, Adriano; Colombini, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gram negative bacillus in the Enterobacteriaceae family, has been isolated from feculent material, plants and soil. Soft tissue and bone-joint infections due to P. agglomerans following penetrating trauma by vegetation and bacteraemia in association with intravenous fluid, total parenteral nutrition, blood products and anaesthetic agent contamination have been reported. Between October 2009 and January 2010 seven cases of port a cath contamination caused by P. agglomerans were observed in the Oncological Service of our hospital. All patients presented with septic fever after heparinization of the central venous catheter. 5/7 patients were female; mean age was 67 years (range 58-75). 6/7 patients were affected by colorectal adenocarcinoma, 1/7 by mammarian cancer. Mean time from CVC insertion was 23.8 months (range 13-42) at the time of fever. In three cases, port a cath was removed following the oncologist prescription. P. agglomerans was isolated from the catheter tip in one case and from CVC blood culture in 6-7 cases. In all cases peripheral blood cultures were negative. Patients were treated with ciprofloxacin lock therapy and systemic therapy (per os), obtaining negative cultures from port a cath. Notwithstanding the absence of isolation of Pantoea strains from environmental cultures, after educational intervention, which underlined some faulty procedures in CVC management, no further cases were observed.

  1. Impact of quality management monitoring and intervention on central venous catheter dysfunction in the outpatient chemotherapy infusion setting.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anu; Binkert, Christoph A; Robinson, Malcolm K; Shulman, Lawrence N; Pellerin, Linda; Davison, Brian

    2008-08-01

    To assess the utility of maintaining and analyzing a quality-management database while investigating a subjectively perceived increase in the incidence of tunneled catheter and port dysfunction in a cohort of oncology outpatients. All 152 patients undergoing lytic therapy (2-4 mg alteplase) of a malfunctioning indwelling central venous catheter (CVC) from January through June 2004 at a single cancer center in the United States were included in a quality-management database. Patients were categorized by time to device failure and the initial method of catheter placement (surgery vs interventional radiology). Data were analyzed after 3 months, and areas of possible improvement were identified and acted upon. Three months of follow-up data were then collected and similarly analyzed. In a 6-month period, 152 patients treated for catheter malfunction received a total of 276 doses of lytic therapy. A 3-month interim analysis revealed a disproportionately high rate (34%) of early catheter malfunction (ECM; <30 days from placement). Postplacement radiographs demonstrated suboptimal catheter positioning in 67% of these patients, all of whom had surgical catheter placement. There was a 50% absolute decrease in the number of patients presenting with catheter malfunction in the period from April through June (P < .001). Evaluation of postplacement radiographs in these patients demonstrated a 50% decrease in the incidence of suboptimal positioning (P < .05). Suboptimal positioning was likely responsible for some, but not all, cases of ECM. Maintenance of a quality-management database is a relatively simple intervention that can have a clear and important impact on the quality and cost of patient care.

  2. Use of fluoroscopy-guided wire manipulation and/or laparoscopic surgery in the repair of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Myung Jae

    2002-01-01

    Peritoneal catheter is the lifeline for the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Over the years, obstruction or displacement of the CAPD catheter has been one of the common complications of CAPD. Fluoroscopy-guided wire manipulation or laparoscopic surgery has been developed to manage outflow obstruction. We analyzed the catheter outcome of fluoroscopy-guided wire manipulation or laparoscopic surgery to determine the ultimate benefit of these procedures. From June 1996 to August 2000, catheter complications were manipulated in 24 patients. Eleven (46%) of these patients were initially managed by guide wire under fluoroscopic control. The remaining 13 (54%) patients were manipulated by laparoscopic surgery. A successful outcome was defined as maintained normal peritoneal catheter function at 30 days after the manipulations. Among the catheters manipulated, 18 (75%) were inserted by nephrologist and 6 (25%) by surgeons at the initiation of CAPD. Tenckhoff double-cuff peritoneal catheters were inserted to all patients. The time elapsed between catheter insertion and manipulation varied from 1 to 60 days with a mean of 11 days. The primary causes of catheter malfunction were kinking in 1 case, omental wrapping with adhesions in 9 cases, and catheter displacements in the remaining 14 cases. Thirty-day catheter function was achieved in 50% (12/24) of initial catheter manipulations, with guide wire under fluoroscopic control (46%, 5/11) and laparoscopic surgery (54%, 7/13). Overall success rate of repeated manipulation was 71% (17 of 24). The successful outcome in repairing of the malfunctioning CAPD catheters could be increased by the combination of fluoroscopy-guided wire manipulation and laparoscopic surgery. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Emergency Department Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention: Multisite Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Implemented Strategies.

    PubMed

    Carter, Eileen J; Pallin, Daniel J; Mandel, Leslie; Sinnette, Corine; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2016-02-01

    Existing knowledge of emergency department (ED) catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention is limited. We aimed to describe the motivations, perceived risks for CAUTI acquisition, and strategies used to address CAUTI risk among EDs that had existing CAUTI prevention programs. In this qualitative comparative case study, we enrolled early-adopting EDs, that is, those using criteria for urinary catheter placement and tracking the frequency of catheters placed in the ED. At 6 diverse facilities, we conducted 52 semistructured interviews and 9 focus groups with hospital and ED participants. All ED CAUTI programs originated from a hospitalwide focus on CAUTI prevention. Staff were motivated to address CAUTI because they believed program compliance improved patient care. ED CAUTI prevention was perceived to differ from CAUTI prevention in the inpatient setting. To identify areas of ED CAUTI prevention focus, programs examined ED workflow and identified 4 CAUTI risks: (1) inappropriate reasons for urinary catheter placement; (2) physicians' limited involvement in placement decisions; (3) patterns of urinary catheter overuse; and (4) poor insertion technique. Programs redesigned workflow to address risks by (1) requiring staff to specify the medical reason for catheter at the point of order entry and placement; (2) making physicians responsible for determining catheter use; (3) using catheter alternatives to address patterns of overuse; and (4) modifying urinary catheter insertion practices to ensure proper placement. Early-adopting EDs redesigned workflow to minimize catheter use and ensure proper insertion technique. Assessment of ED workflow is necessary to identify and modify local practices that may increase CAUTI risk.

  4. Catheter tip force transducer for cardiovascular research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Silver, R. H.; Culler, V. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A force transducer for measuring dynamic force activity within the heart of a subject essentially consists of a U-shaped beam of low elastic compliance material. Two lines extend from the beams's legs and a long coil spring is attached to the beam. A strain gauge is coupled to one of the beam's legs to sense deflections thereof. The beam with the tines and most of the spring are surrounded by a flexible tube, defining a catheter, which is insertable into a subject's heart through an appropriate artery. The tines are extractable from the catheter for implantation into the myocardium by pushing on the end of the spring which extends beyond the external end of the catheter.

  5. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter-associated complications exert negative effects on body weight gain in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jie; Yu, Qun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Niannian; Huang, Shourong; Cai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The placement of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is an essential procedure in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of PICC complications in NICU, and further identify the effects of PICC complications on body weight gain in premature infants. A total of 304 premature infants who had a PICC inserted in NICU were enrolled in this study. The weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at the time of PICC insertion and removal were calculated, and changes of WAZ in different groups were compared using a t-test. Risk factors for PICC complications were assessed using the chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Thirty (9.97%) PICCs were removed due to complications. Of them, 14 PICCs were removed because of non-infectious complications and 16 PICCs were removed for central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that premature infants with birth weight >1,500 g were less likely to have PICC complications than infants with birth weight <=1,500 g (OR, 0.29; 95% CI: 0.10-0.82; p=0.020). In addition, the changes in WAZ between PICC insertion and removal were significantly different in both infectious (-0.144±0.122, p<0.005) and non-infectious (-0.65±0.528, p<0.001) complications groups, compared with the no complications group (0.291±0.552). Findings from this study suggest that birth weight is a risk factor for PICC-associated complications in the NICU, and both infectious and non-infectious PICC complications are associated with poor body weight gain in premature infants.

  6. Health-related quality of life of cancer patients with peripherally inserted central catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Junren; Chen, Wei; Sun, Wenyan; Ge, Ruibin; Li, Hailong; Ma, Enling; Su, Qingxia; Cheng, Fang; Hong, Jinhua; Zhang, Yuanjuan; Lei, Cheng; Wang, Xinchuan; Jin, Aiyun; Liu, Wanli

    2017-09-11

    This pilot exploratory study aimed to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients diagnosed with different types of cancer receiving peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). A multicenter cross-section study of cancer patients with PICCs was performed from February 1, 2013 to April 24, 2014. The primary objective of this study was to compare HRQOL in different cancer type patients with PICC. HRQOL was examined based on European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Multiple linear regression models were conducted for coping with potential confounding variables. We also examined PICC-related quality of daily life with a self-made questionnaire. Three hundred and fifty-seven cancer patients with PICC completed the survey in nine teaching hospitals. Lung cancer patients with PICC reported the worst dyspnea. Digestive tract cancer patients reported the worst appetite loss. Patients with hematologic malignancy reported the worst emotional, social function, fatigue and financial impact. Breast cancer patients reported better HRQOL. Baseline variables were proven not significant predictors of EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status. In self-made survey, pain after PICC insertion was null or a little in 98.6% of cancer patients. Limitation of upper extremity activity was null or a little in 94.1% of patients. HRQOL varies in different types of cancer patients with PICC. PICC may have a low impact on cancer patients' HRQOL. Further large sample studies are needed.

  7. Routine Chest Radiographs After Central Line Insertion: Mandatory Postprocedural Evaluation or Unnecessary Waste of Resources?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lucey, Brian; Varghese, Jose C.; Haslam, Philip

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To study the cost and impact on patient management of the routine performance of chest radiographs in patients undergoing imaged-guided central venous catheter insertion. Methods: Six hundred and twenty-one catheters placed in 489 patients over a 42-month period formed the study group. Catheters were placed in the right internal jugular vein (425), left internal jugular vein (133), and subclavian veins (63). At the end of the procedure fluoroscopy was used to assess catheter position and check for complications. A postprocedural chest radiograph was obtained in all patients. Results: Postprocedural chest fluoroscopy showed no evidence of pneumothorax, hemothorax, or mediastinalmore » hematoma. Inappropriate catheter tip position or catheter kinks were noted with 90 catheters. These problems were all corrected while the patient was on the interventional table. Postprocedural chest radiographs showed no complications but proximal catheter tip migration was noted in six of 621 catheters (1%). These latter six catheters required further manipulation. The total technical and related charges for the postprocedural chest radiographs in this series were estimated at Pounds 15,525. Conclusion: Postprocedural chest radiographs after image-guided central venous catheter insertion are not routinely required. A postprocedural chest radiograph can be performed on a case-by-case basis at the discretion of the interventional radiologist.« less

  8. Success Rate and Complications of Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization With and Without Ultrasonography Guide

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). Conclusions: The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications. PMID:25741514

  9. Success rate and complications of internal jugular vein catheterization with and without ultrasonography guide.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza

    2014-12-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications.

  10. Prospective study of incidence and predictors of peripheral intravenous catheter-induced complications

    PubMed Central

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Salam, Mahmoud; Bani-Mustafa, Ala’a; White, David; Balkhy, Hanan H

    2014-01-01

    Background Although intravenous therapy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in hospitalized patients, it remains susceptible to infectious and noninfectious complications. Previous studies investigated peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) complications mainly in pediatrics, but apparently none were investigated among Saudi adult populations. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and complications of PIVCs at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods An observational prospective cohort study investigated PIVCs pattern and complications among adults with PIVCs, admitted to various wards at KAMC. PIVCs-related clinical outcomes (pain, phlebitis, leaking, and others) were recorded in 12-hour intervals, using the Visual Inspection Phlebitis scale. Density incidence (DI) and cumulative incidence (CI) of complications and their relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Regression analyses were applied and significance limits were set at P<0.05. Results During the study period, 359 adults were included, mounting to 842 PIVCs and 2,505 catheter days. The majority of patients, 276 (76.9%), had medical, chief admission complaints, whereas 83 (23.1%) were trauma/surgical and infectious cases. Complicated catheters were found in 141 (39.3%) patients, with 273 complications (32.4/100 catheters), in 190 complicated catheters (CI =22.56/100 catheters and DI =75.84/1,000 catheter days). Phlebitis ranked first among complications, 148 (CI =17.6%), followed by pain 64 (CI =7.6%), leaking 33 (CI =3.9%), dislodgement 20 (CI =2.4%), and extravasations and occlusion 4 (CI =0.5% each). Phlebitis was predicted with female sex (P<0.001), insertion in fore/upper arm (P=0.024), and infusion of medication (P=0.02). Removal time for PIVCs insertion was not a significant predictor of phlebitis (RR =1.46, P=0.08). Conclusion Incidence of complications in this study was significantly higher than rates in previous studies. Better insertion techniques may

  11. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Cesar A Restrepo; Villa, Carlos A Buitrago; Cardona, Jose A Chacon

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter. Methods All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used. Results Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found. Conclusion The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy

  12. Nurses' guide to early detection of umbilical arterial catheter complications in infants.

    PubMed

    Furdon, Susan Arana; Horgan, Michael J; Bradshaw, Wanda Todd; Clark, David A

    2006-10-01

    Umbilical arterial catheters (UAC) are routinely used in the care of critically ill newborns. Complications related to UACs include vascular compromise, hemorrhage, complications related to malposition, severance of the catheter itself, and infection. This article is Part II in a series dedicated to assessing infants with an umbilical catheter. Part I focused on infants with umbilical venous catheters; this article will focus on the physical assessment relevant to infants with an UAC. Complications related to UACs can occur during any phase of treatment: insertion, while indwelling, or after discontinuing the catheter. Review of clinical signs of complications along with clinical photographs, will assist caregivers in promptly recognizing UAC-related complications.

  13. Catheter-tip force transducer for cardiovascular research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Silver, R. H.; Culler, V. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sensor can be installed in left ventricle by means of procedures available for inserting catheter into an artery at body's extremities and manipulating it through vessel and past aortic valve. Metallic tines of device can be used as internal electrode for electrocardiogram.

  14. Durability of Anti-Infective Effect of Long-Term Silicone Sheath Catheters Impregnated with Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tcholakian, Robert K.; Raad, Issam I.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to test the long-term antimicrobial efficacy of impregnated silicone catheters comprising an antimicrobial layer sandwiched between an external surface sheath and a luminal surface silicone sheath. The design of the catheter permits the introduction of various antimicrobials in addition to anticoagulants or antifibrins in the antimicrobial layer and allows their gradual release over a period of months after insertion. The in vitro data presented show that the catheter can provide antimicrobial activity for 90 days, after being replated for 15 7-day cycles of replating. When the catheters were immersed in human serum and incubated at 37°C, they demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity after more than 325 days of incubation. The significant long-term in vitro antimicrobial activity observed may imply effective in vivo activity for almost 1 year after insertion and could serve as a cost-effective alternative to surgically implantable silicone catheters. PMID:11408213

  15. A 6-Fr Guiding Catheter (Slim Guide®) for Use with Multiple Microdevices

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Y.; Ohmori, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Kaku, Y.; Morioka, M.; Hirano, T.; Yano, S.; Kawano, T.; Hamada, J-I.; Kuratsu, J-I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A modified technique is required in patients with wide-necked aneurysms whose treatment by the single microcatheter technique is difficult. We developed a 6-Fr guiding catheter (Slim Guide®) that features a large lumen (0.072 inch) for performing the modified technique. To evaluate the usefulness of Slim Guide® we carried out experiments using three types of 6-Fr guiding catheter. In experiment 1, the shaft hardness and kink resistance were compared among three different guiding catheters (Slim Guide®, Launcher®, Envoy®). In experiment 2, we inserted a microballoon catheter and a microcatheter into the three different guiding catheters and recorded the maximal infusion pressure. In experiment 3, we inserted 13 different types of microdevices into the three different guiding catheters and evaluated the resistance of the microdevices. Although the shaft of the Slim Guide® was softer than that of the other two guiding catheters, its kink resistance was comparable. The maximal infusion pressure was significantly lower than with Launcher® or Envoy® catheters. Furthermore, with Slim Guide®, in 136 of 143 microdevice combinations examined (95.1%) there was no resistance; this was true for 125 (87.4%) and 116 (81.1%) combinations using the Launcher® - and the Envoy® guiding catheters, respectively. There was a significant difference between Slim Guide® and the other two guiding catheters with respect to their accommodation of double microsystems (p<0.05). Although the inner diameter of Slim Guide® is slightly larger than of the other two guiding catheters, it significantly increased the combination of microdevices that could be used for the coil embolization of difficult aneurysms. PMID:23472717

  16. Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nassaji-Zavareh, M; Ghorbani, R

    2007-08-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis is a common and significant problem in clinical practice. This study aims to investigate the incidence of phlebitis and to evaluate some important related factors. 300 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of hospitals in Semnan, Iran from April 2003 to February 2004 were prospectively studied. Variables evaluated were age, gender, site and size of catheter, type of insertion and underlying conditions (diabetes mellitus, trauma, infectious disease and burns). Phlebitis was defined when at least four criteria were fulfilled (erythema, pain, tenderness, warmth, induration, palpable cord and swelling). Any patient who was discharged or their catheter removed before three days were excluded. Phlebitis occurred in 26 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 21- 31 percent) of patients. There was no significant relationship between age, catheter bore size, trauma and phlebitis. Related risk factors were gender (odds-ratio [OR] 1.50, 95 percent CI 1.01-2.22), site (OR 3.25, 95 percent CI 2.26-4.67) and type of insertion (OR 2.04, 95 percent CI 1.36-3.05) of catheter, diabetes mellitus (OR 7.78, 95 percent CI 4.59-13.21), infectious disease (OR 6.21, 95 percent CI 4.27-9.03) and burns (OR 3.96, 95 percent CI 3.26-4.82). Phlebitis is still an important and ongoing problem in medical practice. In patients with diabetes mellitus and infectious diseases, more attention is needed.

  17. Missed signs of autonomic dysreflexia in a tetraplegic patient after incorrect placement of urethral Foley catheter: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Oo, Tun; Hughes, Peter L; Singh, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is poorly recognised outside of spinal cord injury centres, and may result in adverse outcomes including mortality from delayed diagnosis and treatment. We present a spinal cord injury patient, who developed autonomic dysreflexia following incorrect placement of urethral Foley catheter. Health professionals failed to recognise signs and symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia as well as its significance in this tetraplegic patient. A tetraplegic patient started sweating profusely following insertion of a Foley catheter per urethra. The catheter was draining urine; there was no bypassing, no bleeding per urethra, and no haematuria. Patient's wife, who had been looking after her tetraplegic husband for more than forty years, told the health professionals that the catheter might have been placed incorrectly but her concerns were ignored. Ultrasound scan of urinary tract revealed no urinary calculi, no hydronephrosis. The balloon of Foley catheter was not seen in urinary bladder but this finding was not recognised by radiologist and spinal cord physician. Patient continued to sweat profusely; therefore, CT of pelvis was performed, but there was a delay of ten days. CT revealed the balloon of Foley catheter in the over-stretched prostate-membranous urethra; the tip of catheter was not located within the urinary bladder but was lying distal to bladder neck. Flexible cystoscopy was performed and Foley catheter was inserted into the bladder over a guide wire. The intensity of sweating decreased; noxious stimuli arising from traumatised urethra might take a long while to settle. Inserting a catheter in a tetraplegic patient should be carried out by a senior health professional, who is familiar with spasm of bladder neck which occurs frequently in tetraplegic patients. Facilities for urgent CT scan should be available to check the position of Foley catheter in spinal cord injury patients when a patient manifests signs and symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia

  18. Bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology outpatients: a new healthcare systems challenge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Theresa L; Pullen, Gregg T; Crouse, Vonda; Rosenberg, Jon; Jarvis, William R

    2002-05-01

    To investigate a perceived increase in central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) among pediatric hematology-oncology outpatients. A case-control study. A pediatric hematology-oncology outpatient clinic at Fresno Children's Hospital. Pediatric hematology-oncology clinic outpatients with CVCs at Fresno Children's Hospital between November 1994 and October 1997. A case-patient was defined as any hematology-oncology outpatient with a CVC-associated BSI at Fresno Children's Hospital from November 1996 to October 1997 (study period) without a localizable infection. To identify case-patients, we reviewed Fresno Children's Hospital records for all hematology-oncology clinic patients, those with CVCs and those with CVCs and BSIs. Control-patients were randomly selected hematology-oncology outpatients with a CVC but no BSI during the study period. Case-patient and control-patient demographics, diagnoses, caretakers, catheter types, catheter care, and water exposure were compared. Twenty-five case-patients had 42 CVC-associated BSIs during the study period. No significant increase in CVC-associated BSI rates occurred among pediatric hematology-oncology patients. However, there was a statistically significant increase in nonendogenous, gram-negative (eg, Pseudomonas species) BSIs during summer months (May-October) compared with the rest of the year. Case-patients and control-patients differed only in catheter type; case-patients were more likely than control-patients to have a transcutaneous CVC. Summertime recreational water exposures were similar and high in the two groups. Hematology-oncology clinic patients with transcutaneous CVCs are at greater risk for CVC-associated BSI, particularly during the summer. Caretakers should be instructed on proper care of CVCs, particularly protection of CVCs during bathing and recreational summer water activities, to reduce the risk of nonendogenous, gram-negative BSIs.

  19. Peripherally inserted central catheter thrombosis incidence and risk factors in cancer patients: a double-center prospective investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuxiu; Gao, Yufang; Wei, Lili; Chen, Weifen; Ma, Xiaoyan; Song, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are widely used in chemotherapy, but the reported PICC thrombosis incidence varies greatly, and risks of PICC thrombosis are not well defined. This study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of PICC-related upper extremity vein thrombosis in cancer patients. Methods This was a prospective study conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals from May 2010 to February 2013. Cancer patients who were subject to PICC placement were enrolled and checked by Doppler ultrasound weekly for at least 1 month. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied for identification of risk factors. Results Three hundred and eleven cancer patients were enrolled in the study. One hundred and sixty (51.4%) developed PICC thrombosis, of which 87 (54.4%) cases were symptomatic. The mean time interval from PICC insertion to thrombosis onset was 11.04±5.538 days. The univariable logistic regression analysis showed that complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.686, P=0.032), less activity (OR 1.476, P=0.006), obesity (OR 3.148, P=0.000), and chemotherapy history (OR 3.405, P=0.030) were associated with PICC thrombosis. Multivariate analysis showed that less activity (OR 9.583, P=0.000) and obesity (OR 3.466, P=0.014) were significantly associated with PICC thrombosis. Conclusions The incidence of PICC thrombosis is relatively high, and nearly half are asymptomatic. Less activity and obesity are risk factors of PICC-related thrombosis. PMID:25673995

  20. Phlebitis and infiltration: vascular trauma associated with the peripheral venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Luciene Muniz; Parreira, Pedro Miguel; Oliveira, Anabela de Sousa Salgueiro; Mónico, Lisete dos Santos Mendes; Arreguy-Sena, Cristina; Henriques, Maria Adriana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the incidence rate and risk factors for the nursing-sensitive indicators phlebitis and infiltration in patients with peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). Method: cohort study with 110 patients. Scales were used to assess and document phlebitis and infiltration. Socio-demographic variables, clinical variables related to the PVC, medication and hospitalization variables were collected. Descriptive and inferential analysis and multivariate logistic models were used. Results: the incidence rate of phlebitis and infiltration was respectively 43.2 and 59.7 per 1000 catheter-days. Most PVCs with these vascular traumas were removed in the first 24 hours. Risk factors for phlebitis were: length of hospital stay (p=0.042) and number of catheters inserted (p<0.001); risk factors for infiltration were: piperacillin/tazobactan (p=0.024) and the number of catheters inserted (p<0.001). Conclusion: the investigation documented the incidence of nursing-sensitive indicators (phlebitis and infiltration) and revealed new risk factors related to infiltration. It also allowed a reflection on the nursing care necessary to prevent these vascular traumas and on the indications and contraindications of the PVC, supporting the implementation of the PICC as an alternative to PVC. PMID:29791668

  1. Pacing threshold changes after transvenous catheter countershock.

    PubMed

    Yee, R; Jones, D L; Klein, G J

    1984-02-01

    The serial changes in pacing threshold and R-wave amplitude were examined after insertion of a countershock catheter in 12 patients referred for management of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In 6 patients, values before and immediately after catheter countershock were monitored. Pacing threshold increased (from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.4 +/- 0.5 V, mean +/- standard error of the mean, p less than 0.05) while the R-wave amplitude decreased (bipolar R wave from 5.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.4 +/- 0.7 mV, p less than 0.01; unipolar R wave recorded from the distal ventricular electrode from 8.9 +/- 1.8 to 4.6 +/- 1.2 mV, p less than 0.01; and proximal ventricular electrode from 7.7 +/- 1.5 to 5.0 +/- 1.0 mV, p less than 0.01). A return to control values occurred within 10 minutes. In all patients, pacing threshold increased by 154 +/- 30% (p less than 0.001) during the first 7 days that the catheter was in place. It is concluded that catheter countershock causes an acute increase in pacing threshold and decrease in R-wave amplitude. A catheter used for countershock may not be acceptable as a backup pacing catheter.

  2. Peritoneal dialysis catheter implantation: avoiding problems and optimizing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, John H

    2015-01-01

    The success of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as renal replacement therapy is dependent upon the patient having a functional long-term peritoneal access. There are a number of identified best practices that must be adhered to during PD catheter placement to achieve a durable and infection-resistant access. The clinical setting, available resources, and the employed catheter insertion method may not always permit complete adherence to these practices; however, an attempt should be made to comply with them as closely as possible. Although omission of any one of the practices can lead to catheter loss, departures from some are committed more frequently, manifesting as commonly occurring clinical problems, such as drain pain, catheter tip migration, omental entrapment, pericatheter leaks and hernias, and poor exit-site location. Understanding the technical pitfalls in PD catheter placement that lead to these problems, enable the provider to modify practice habits to avoid them and optimize outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intravenous insertion site protection: moisture accumulation in intravenous site protectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, W E; Vallino, L M

    1996-01-01

    Stabilizing the intravenous catheter after insertion is a significant part of intravenous therapy. Dislodgments of the cannula from its optimal position in the vein can lead to complications such as phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, infiltration, and infection. Intravenous site protector shields are designed to protect the catheter from impact and tissue trauma at the insertion site. Nurses have requested ventilation in these shields to avoid moisture build up that may increase the risk of infections. To address this issue, experimental laboratory testing was performed to determine if moisture accumulation as evidenced by increased weight of the shield and visible evidence of condensation occurred. No moisture condensation problems with the ventilated intravenous site protectors were found.

  4. Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Removal Post-Transplant - A Rare Case of Delayed Bowel Perforation.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Andrew P; Davies, Brian; Colliver, Daniel; Williams, Alun; Lunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a well-established form of renal replacement therapy and the practice of leaving catheters in situ post-transplantation widely accepted. We present a rare complication: a child presenting with anal protrusion of the PD catheter.The patient is an 11-year-old boy with a background of renal dysplasia and congenital cutis laxa. Twenty-three weeks after dialysis was commenced, the patient underwent a renal transplant. Thirteen weeks post-transplant, the patient felt an unusual sensation after defecation. The curled end of the catheter was seen protruding from the anus. He was admitted, and investigations showed stable graft function, with abdominal X ray showing no free air.Intraoperative findings showed a small perforation of the sigmoid colon sealed off by adherence of several small intestinal loops. This was repaired laparoscopically after removal of the distal part of the catheter per rectum. No peritoneal contamination was seen. He was treated with 5 days of intravenous antibiotics and gradual introduction of enteral feeds. His graft function remained stable throughout.Timing of catheter removal varies, from the time of transplantation to over 3 months post-transplantation. Bowel perforation due to PD catheter insertion is rare and tends to occur at the time of insertion. Anal protrusion of a PD catheter in childhood is extremely rare and unrecorded in a pediatric patient with a connective tissue disorder. Our case highlights that serious complications can occur in the period between transplantation and elective PD catheter removal and that, in the immunocompromised patient, signs can be subtle. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  5. [Assertiveness and peripheral intravenous catheters dwell time with ultrasonography-guided insertion in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; da Pedreira, Mavilde Luz Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Randomized controlled trial which aimed to verify whether the use of vascular ultrasound (VUS) increases assertiveness in the use of peripheral venous catheter in children, and the catheter dwell time, when compared to traditional puncture. Data were collected after approval of theethical merit. Children and adolescents undergoing VUS-guided peripheral intravenous (GVUS) or puncture guided by clinical assessment of the venous conditions(CG) were included in the study. Significance level was set at p< or =0.05. The sample was composed of 382 punctures, 188 (49.2%) in VUS Gand 194 (50.8%) in CG, performed in 335 children. Assertiveness was found in 73 (71.6%) GVUS catheters and in 84(71.8%) of the CG (p=0.970), and catheter dwell time presented a median of less than one day in both groups (p=0.121), showing nostatistically significant difference. VUS did not significantly influence the results of the dependent variables investigated. ClinicalTrials.govNCT00930254.

  6. Distal Superficial Femoral Vein Cannulation for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Placement in Infants with Cardiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Richter, Robert P; Law, Mark A; Borasino, Santiago; Surd, Jessica A; Alten, Jeffrey A

    2016-12-01

    To describe a novel real-time ultrasound (US)-guided distal superficial femoral vein (DSFV) cannulation technique for insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in critically ill infants with congenital heart disease. Descriptive retrospective cohort study SETTING: Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a pediatric tertiary hospital PATIENTS: First 28 critically ill infants that received DSFV PICCs via this new technique. Thirty-seven US-guided DSFV PICCs were attempted on 31 infants from September 2012 to November 2014; 34 PICCs were placed in 28 patients (success rate 92%). Twenty-six of 28 patients underwent cardiac surgery. Median (IQR) age at time of PICC placement 39 days (13, 151); weight 3.4 kg (3.2, 5.3). 25/34 PICCs were placed in patients with STAT 4 or 5 category. Median PICC duration 16 days (11, 29); maximum duration 123 days. Ten infants (36%) had DSFV PICCs placed as the primary central venous access in perioperative period. Ten of 28 patients underwent cardiac catheterization while DSFV PICC was in place, four of which were performed through ipsilateral common femoral vein. Two patients had femoral arterial lines placed in the ipsilateral femoral artery while DSFV PICC was in place. There were no reported inadvertent arterial punctures. The PICC-associated infection rate was 4.6 per 1000 line days. Four of 34 DSFV PICCs (11.8%) were associated with deep venous thrombosis. DSFV is a novel venous access site for PICC placement with high success rate and sufficient longevity and flexibility for critically ill infants with cardiac disease. More experience and larger studies are needed to confirm its potential advantages. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Port in oncology practice: 3-monthly locking with normal saline for catheter maintenance, a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Gianfranca; Platini, Francesca; Trivellato, Maurizio; Rigo, Carla; Alabiso, Oscar; Galetto, Alessandra S

    2017-07-14

    Patients with cancer need stable venous access using central vascular devices like central venous ports and peripherally inserted central catheters that can be used for a wide range of indications. Numerous flushing protocols exist including different frequencies for catheter locking to maintain catheter patency. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of lumen occlusion of central venous ports in a group of adult cancer patients, adopting a policy of locking with normal saline every three months. This is a single-center retrospective observational study. During follow-up, we analyzed adult cancer patients who had undergone port insertion from January 1st, 2007 to August 31st, 2014. Flushing and locking were performed every three months with a syringe containing normal saline. We collected data from 381 patients with ports inserted in subclavian vein (379 patients) and in the right jugular vein (2 patients). Locking was performed during 3-monthly follow-up visits. Median follow-up was 810 days (90-2700 days). Among 381 ports, 59 were removed; the reasons for removal were: end of use (45 cases), catheter rupture (9 cases), dislocation (3 cases) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (2 cases). We had no reports of lumen occlusion. Our data suggest that locking ports with normal saline every three months is not associated with an increased risk of lumen occlusion.

  8. Improving Nurses' Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion Knowledge, Confidence, and Skills Using a Simulation-Based Blended Learning Program: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Keleekai, Nowai L; Schuster, Catherine A; Murray, Connie L; King, Mary Anne; Stahl, Brian R; Labrozzi, Laura J; Gallucci, Susan; LeClair, Matthew W; Glover, Kevin R

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) insertion is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in a hospital, but most nurses receive little formal training in this area. Blended PIVC insertion training programs that incorporate deliberate simulated practice have the potential to improve clinical practice and patient care. The study was a randomized, wait-list control group with crossover using nurses on three medical/surgical units. Baseline PIVC knowledge, confidence, and skills assessments were completed for both groups. The intervention group then received a 2-hour PIVC online course, followed by an 8-hour live training course using a synergistic mix of three simulation tools. Both groups were then reassessed. After crossover, the wait-list group received the same intervention and both groups were reassessed. At baseline, both groups were similar for knowledge, confidence, and skills. Compared with the wait-list group, the intervention group had significantly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills upon completing the training program. After crossover, the wait-list group had similarly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills than the intervention group. Between the immediate preintervention and postintervention periods, the intervention group improved scores for knowledge by 31%, skills by 24%, and decreased confidence by 0.5%, whereas the wait-list group improved scores for knowledge by 28%, confidence by 16%, and skills by 15%. Results demonstrate significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, confidence, and skills with the use of a simulation-based blended learning program for PIVC insertion. Transferability of these findings from a simulated environment into clinical practice should be further explored.

  9. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of epidural and regional anaesthesia catheters in injured UK military personnel.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paul; Gill, M; Edwards, D; Clifton, P; Bullock, C; Aldington, D

    2016-08-01

    The adoption of regional and epidural analgesia in UK military personnel injured in action during Op HERRICK increased from 2008, in line with structural and environmental developments in the UK medical treatment facility. Historically, there have been concerns that invasive analgesic techniques could carry an increased risk of infection, due to the mechanism of injury and the environmental conditions in which the injuries were sustained. Consequently, the epidural and continuous peripheral nerve blockade (CPNB) catheters that were inserted in UK military personnel during a 33-month period of Op HERRICK were clinically and microbiologically examined, after subsequent admission to the University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Trust. Data on epidural and CPNB insertions were collected via the specialist pain service at UHB over the study period, including de novo and replacement insertions performed in both Afghanistan and the UK. Patients were regularly reviewed and relevant clinical concerns were documented in patients' case notes as necessary. The anatomical site, duration of placement and the results of microbiological culture of the epidural and CPNB catheter tips were all recorded. Overall, 236 catheters were assessed, of which 151 catheter tips (64%) were cultured (85 epidural, 66 CPNB). Of these, 48 grew bacteria (34% of cultured epidurals and 29% of cultured CPNB). There was no difference between the colonisation rates of epidurals inserted in Afghanistan and the UK. Only one infection related to a misplaced epidural catheter was confirmed. With the exception of the epidural (34%) and proximal sciatic (42%) catheters, these figures, in a military cohort characterised by significant injury scores, are consistent with those reported for civilian surgical patients. The results strongly support the expansion of regional analgesia during Op HERRICK from 2008 onwards. The outcomes suggest a possible translation into civilian major trauma practice. Published by the

  10. Using electrical impedance to predict catheter-endocardial contact during RF cardiac ablation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan; Choy, Young Bin; Tsai, Jang-Zern; Vorperian, Vicken R; Webster, John G

    2002-03-01

    During radio-frequency (RF) cardiac catheter ablation, there is little information to estimate the contact between the catheter tip electrode and endocardium because only the metal electrode shows up under fluoroscopy. We present a method that utilizes the electrical impedance between the catheter electrode and the dispersive electrode to predict the catheter tip electrode insertion depth into the endocardium. Since the resistivity of blood differs from the resistivity of the endocardium, the impedance increases as the catheter tip lodges deeper in the endocardium. In vitro measurements yielded the impedance-depth relations at 1, 10, 100, and 500 kHz. We predict the depth by spline curve interpolation using the obtained calibration curve. This impedance method gives reasonably accurate predicted depth. We also evaluated alternative methods, such as impedance difference and impedance ratio.

  11. Flow Rate Through Pigtail Catheter Used for Left Heart Decompression in an Artificial Model of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Hong, Tae Hee; Byun, Joung Hun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Sung Hwan; Moon, Sung Ho; Park, Hyun Oh; Choi, Jun Young; Yang, Jun Ho; Jang, In Seok; Lee, Chung Eun; Yun, Jeong Hee

    In refractory cardiogenic shock, veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be initiated. Although left heart decompression can be accomplished by insertion of a left atrial (LA) or left ventricular (LV) cannula using a percutaneous pigtail catheter, the venting flow rate according to catheter size and ECMO flow rate is unknown. We developed an artificial ECMO circuit. One liter saline bag with its pressure set to 20 mm Hg was connected to ECMO to mimic LV failure. A pigtail catheter was inserted into the 1 L saline bag to simulate LV unloading. For each pigtail catheter size (5-8 Fr) and ECMO flow rate (2.0-4.0 L/min), the moving distance of an air bubble that was injected through a three-way stopcock was measured in the arterial pressure line between the pigtail catheter and ECMO inflow limb. The flow rate was then calculated. We obtained the following equation to estimate the pigtail catheter flow rate.Pigtail vent catheter flow rate (ml/min) = 8×ECMOflow rate(L /min)+9×pigtail catheter size(Fr)- 57This equation would aid in designing of a further study to determine optimal venting flow rate. To achieve optimal venting flow, our equation would enable selection of an adequate catheter size.

  12. A prospective randomized study of prophylactic teicoplanin to prevent early Hickman catheter-related sepsis in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lim, S H; Smith, M P; Machin, S J; Goldstone, A H

    1993-01-01

    In all, 88 patients with haematological malignancies requiring Hickman catheters for intensive chemotherapy were randomized to receive either one single bolus intravenous injection of teicoplanin, 400 mg, or no teicoplanin immediately before insertion of a double-lumen Hickman catheter. Lower incidences of catheter-related Gram-positive sepsis were recorded in patients receiving prophylactic teicoplanin; exit site infection, tunnel infection and catheter-related Gram-positive septicaemia were all reduced. The benefit of prophylactic teicoplanin was observed particularly among patients who were already neutropenic at the time of catheterization. All Gram-positive organisms isolated from infected skin sites or from blood cultures taken from Hickman catheters were susceptible to teicoplanin. No adverse reaction was reported in any of the patients receiving prophylaxis. Prophylactic teicoplanin, therefore, may be used routinely for patients requiring insertion of Hickman catheters for intensive chemotherapy, to reduce the early incidence of catheter-related sepsis, particularly during the period of neutropenia following chemotherapy.

  13. A prospective randomized study of prophylactic teicoplanin to prevent early Hickman catheter-related sepsis in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lim, S H; Smith, M P; Salooja, N; Machin, S J; Goldstone, A H

    1991-07-01

    Eighty-eight patients with haematological malignancies requiring Hickman catheters for intensive chemotherapy were randomized to receive either one single bolus intravenous injection of teicoplanin or no teicoplanin immediately before insertion of a double lumen Hickman catheter. There were lower incidences of catheter-related Gram-positive sepsis in patients receiving prophylactic teicoplanin. There were less exit site infections, tunnel infections and catheter-related Gram-positive septicaemia. The benefit of prophylactic teicoplanin was observed especially among patients who were already neutropenic at the time of catheterization. All Gram-positive organisms isolated from the infected skin sites or from blood cultures taken from the Hickman catheters were sensitive to teicoplanin. No adverse reaction was reported in any of the patients in the prophylactic group. Prophylactic teicoplanin therefore may be used routinely for patients requiring insertion of Hickman catheters for intensive chemotherapy to reduce the early incidence of catheter-related sepsis, especially during the associated period of neutropenia following chemotherapy.

  14. A 6-fr guiding catheter (slim guide(®)) for use with multiple microdevices. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kai, Y; Ohmori, Y; Watanabe, M; Kaku, Y; Morioka, M; Hirano, T; Yano, S; Kawano, T; Hamada, J-I; Kuratsu, J-I

    2013-03-01

    A modified technique is required in patients with wide-necked aneurysms whose treatment by the single microcatheter technique is difficult. We developed a 6-Fr guiding catheter (Slim Guide(®)) that features a large lumen (0.072 inch) for performing the modified technique. To evaluate the usefulness of Slim Guide(®) we carried out experiments using three types of 6-Fr guiding catheter. In experiment 1, the shaft hardness and kink resistance were compared among three different guiding catheters (Slim Guide(®), Launcher(®), Envoy(®)). In experiment 2, we inserted a microballoon catheter and a microcatheter into the three different guiding catheters and recorded the maximal infusion pressure. In experiment 3, we inserted 13 different types of microdevices into the three different guiding catheters and evaluated the resistance of the microdevices. Although the shaft of the Slim Guide(®) was softer than that of the other two guiding catheters, its kink resistance was comparable. The maximal infusion pressure was significantly lower than with Launcher(®) or Envoy(®) catheters. Furthermore, with Slim Guide(®), in 136 of 143 microdevice combinations examined (95.1%) there was no resistance; this was true for 125 (87.4%) and 116 (81.1%) combinations using the Launcher(®) - and the Envoy(®) guiding catheters, respectively. There was a significant difference between Slim Guide(®) and the other two guiding catheters with respect to their accommodation of double microsystems (p<0.05). Although the inner diameter of Slim Guide(®) is slightly larger than of the other two guiding catheters, it significantly increased the combination of microdevices that could be used for the coil embolization of difficult aneurysms.

  15. Placement of central venous port catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters in the routine clinical setting of a radiology department: analysis of costs and intervention duration learning curve.

    PubMed

    Rotzinger, Roman; Gebauer, Bernhard; Schnapauff, Dirk; Streitparth, Florian; Wieners, Gero; Grieser, Christian; Freyhardt, Patrick; Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H

    2017-12-01

    Background Placement of central venous port catheters (CVPS) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) is an integral component of state-of-the-art patient care. In the era of increasing cost awareness, it is desirable to have more information to comprehensively assess both procedures. Purpose To perform a retrospective analysis of interventional radiologic implantation of CVPS and PICC lines in a large patient population including a cost analysis of both methods as well as an investigation the learning curve in terms of the interventions' durations. Material and Methods All CVPS and PICC line related interventions performed in an interventional radiology department during a three-year period from January 2011 to December 2013 were examined. Documented patient data included sex, venous access site, and indication for CVPS or PICC placement. A cost analysis including intervention times was performed based on the prorated costs of equipment use, staff costs, and expenditures for disposables. The decrease in intervention duration in the course of time conformed to the learning curve. Results In total, 2987 interventions were performed by 16 radiologists: 1777 CVPS and 791 PICC lines. An average implantation took 22.5 ± 0.6 min (CVPS) and 10.1 ± 0.9 min (PICC lines). For CVPS, this average time was achieved by seven radiologists newly learning the procedures after performing 20 CVPS implantations. Total costs per implantation were €242 (CVPS) and €201 (PICC lines). Conclusion Interventional radiologic implantations of CVPS and PICC lines are well-established procedures, easy to learn by residents, and can be implanted at low costs.

  16. The impact of an "acute dialysis start" on the mortality attributed to the use of central venous catheters: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tennankore, Karthik K; Soroka, Steven D; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2012-07-30

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with early mortality in dialysis patients. However, some patients progress to end stage renal disease after an acute illness, prior to reaching an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at which one would expect to establish alternative access (fistula/peritoneal dialysis catheter). The purpose of this study was to determine if exclusion of this "acute start" patient group alters the association between CVCs and mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 406 incident dialysis patients from 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2009. Patients were classified as acute starts if 1) the eGFR was >25 ml/min/1.73 m2, ≤ 3 months prior to dialysis initiation and declined after an acute event (n = 45), or 2) in those without prior eGFR measurements, there was no supporting evidence of chronic kidney disease on history or imaging (n = 12). Remaining patients were classified as chronic start (n = 349). 98 % and 52 % of acute and chronic starts initiated dialysis with a CVC. There were 148 deaths. The adjusted mortality hazard ratio (HR) for acute vs. chronic start patients was 1.84, (95 % CI [1.19-2.85]). The adjusted mortality HR for patients dialyzing with a CVC compared to alternative access was 1.19 (95 % CI [0.80-1.77]). After excluding acute start patients, the adjusted HR fell to 1.03 (95 % CI [0.67-1.57]). A significant proportion of early dialysis mortality occurs after an acute start. Exclusion of this population attenuates the mortality risk associated with CVCs.

  17. Modelling catheter-vein biomechanical interactions during an intravenous procedure.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dar; Gefen, Amit; Einav, Shmuel

    2016-02-01

    A reliable intravenous (IV) access into the upper extremity veins requires the insertion of a temporary short peripheral catheter (SPC). This so common procedure is, however, associated with a risk of developing short peripheral catheter thrombophlebitis (SPCT) which causes distress and potentially prolongs patient hospitalization. We have developed and studied a biomechanical SPC-vein computational model during an IV procedure, and explored the biomechanical effects of repeated IV episodes on onset and reoccurrences of SPCT. The model was used to determine the effects of different insertion techniques as well as inter-patient biological variability on the catheter-vein wall contact pressures and wall deformations. We found that the maximal pressure exerted upon the vein wall was inhomogeneously distributed, and that the bending region was exposed to significantly greater pressures and deformations. The maximal exerted contact pressure on the inner vein's wall was 2938 Pa. The maximal extent of the SPC penetration into the vein wall reached 3.6 μm, which corresponds to approximately 100% of the average height of the inner layer, suggesting local squashing of endothelial cells at the contact site. The modelling describes a potential biomechanical damage pathway that can explain the reoccurrence of SPCT.

  18. Guidewire exchange vs new site placement for temporary dialysis catheter insertion in ICU patients: is there a greater risk of colonization or dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Coupez, Elisabeth; Timsit, Jean-François; Ruckly, Stéphane; Schwebel, Carole; Gruson, Didier; Canet, Emmanuel; Klouche, Kada; Argaud, Laurent; Bohe, Julien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Mariat, Christophe; Vincent, François; Cayot, Sophie; Cointault, Olivier; Lepape, Alain; Darmon, Michael; Boyer, Alexandre; Azoulay, Elie; Bouadma, Lila; Lautrette, Alexandre; Souweine, Bertrand

    2016-07-30

    Intensive care unit (ICU) patients require dialysis catheters (DCs) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). They carry a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease, and therefore their vascular access must be preserved. Guidewire exchange (GWE) is often used to avoid venipuncture insertion (VPI) at a new site. However, the impact of GWE on infection and dysfunction of DCs in the ICU is unknown. Our aim was to compare the effect of GWE and VPI on DC colonization and dysfunction in ICU patients. Using data from the ELVIS randomized controlled trial (RCT) (1496 ICU adults requiring DC for RRT or plasma exchange) we performed a matched-cohort analysis. Cases were DCs inserted by GWE (n = 178). They were matched with DCs inserted by VPI. Matching criteria were participating centre, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II +/-10, insertion site (jugular or femoral), side for jugular site, and length of ICU stay before DC placement. We used a marginal Cox model to estimate the effect of DC insertion (GWE vs. VPI) on DC colonization and dysfunction. DC colonization rate was not different between GWE-DCs and VPI-DCs (10 (5.6 %) for both groups) but DC dysfunction was more frequent with GWE-DCs (67 (37.6 %) vs. 28 (15.7 %); hazard ratio (HR), 3.67 (2.07-6.49); p < 0.01). Results were similar if analysis was restricted to DCs changed for dysfunction. GWE for DCs in ICU patients, compared with VPI did not contribute to DC colonization or infection but was associated with more than twofold increase in DC dysfunction. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00563342 . Registered 2 April 2009.

  19. Ultrasound Pulsed-Wave Doppler Detects an Intrathecal Location of an Epidural Catheter Tip: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Saasouh, Wael; Patel, Bimal; Babazade, Rovnat

    2018-04-01

    Currently, no gold standard method exists for localization of an epidural catheter after placement. The technique described in this report uses pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) ultrasound to identify intrathecal location of an epidural catheter. A thoracic epidural catheter was inserted after multiple trials with inconclusive aspiration and test dose. Ultrasound PWD confirmed no flow in the epidural space and positive flow in the intrathecal space. A fluid aspirate was positive for glucose, reconfirming intrathecal placement. PWD is a potential tool that can be used to locate the tip of an epidural catheter.

  20. Acute Urinary Obstruction in a Tetraplegic Patient from Misplacement of Catheter in Urethra.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter L; Soni, Bakul M

    2016-01-01

    A male tetraplegic patient attended accident and emergency with a blocked catheter; on removing the catheter, he passed bloody urine. After three unsuccessful attempts were made to insert a catheter by nursing staff, a junior doctor inserted a three-way Foley catheter with a 30-mL balloon but inflated the balloon with 10 mL of water to commence the bladder irrigation. The creatinine level was mostly 19 µmol/L (range: 0-135 µmol/L) but increased to 46 µmol/L on day 7. Computerized tomography urogram revealed that the bilateral hydronephrosis with hydroureter was extended down to urinary bladder, the bladder was distended, prostatic urethra was dilated and filled with urine, and although the balloon of Foley catheter was not seen in the bladder, the tip of the catheter was seen lying in the urethra. Following the re-catheterization, the creatinine level decreased to 21 µmol/L. A follow-up ultrasound scan revealed no evidence of hydronephrosis in both kidneys. Flexible cystoscopy revealed inflamed bladder mucosa, catheter reaction, and tiny stones. There was no bladder tumor. This case report concludes that the cause of bilateral hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and distended bladder was inadequate drainage of urinary bladder as the Foley balloon that was under-filled slipped into the urethra resulting in an obstruction to urine flow. Urethral catheterization in tetraplegic patients should be performed by senior, experienced staff in order to avoid trauma and incorrect positioning. Tetraplegic subjects with decreased muscle mass have low creatinine level. Increase in creatinine level (>1.5 times the basal level) indicates acute kidney injury, although peak creatinine level may still be within laboratory reference range. While scanning the urinary tract of spinal cord injury patients with indwelling urinary catheter, if Foley balloon is not seen within the bladder, urethra should be scanned to locate the Foley balloon.

  1. Central venous access by trainees: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of simulation to improve success rate on patients.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Arin L; Solis, Carolina V; de Moya, Marc A

    2014-02-01

    Simulation training for invasive procedures may improve patient safety by enabling efficient training. This study is a meta-analysis with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria designed to assess the real patient procedural success of simulation training for central venous access. Published randomized controlled trials and prospective 2-group cohort studies that used simulation for the training of procedures involving central venous access were identified. The quality of each study was assessed. The primary outcome was the proportion of trainees who demonstrated the ability to successfully complete the procedure. Secondary outcomes included the mean number of attempts to procedural success and periprocedural adverse events. Proportions were compared between groups using risk ratios (RRs), whereas continuous variables were compared using weighted mean differences. Random-effects analysis was used to determine pooled effect sizes. We identified 550 studies, of which 5 (3 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective 2-group cohort studies) studies of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion were included in the meta-analysis, composed of 407 medical trainees. The simulation group had a significantly larger proportion of trainees who successfully placed CVCs (RR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.16, P<0.01). In addition, the simulation group had significantly fewer mean attempts to CVC insertion (weighted mean difference, -1.42; 95% CI, -2.34 to -0.49, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the rate of adverse events between the groups (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.19-1.29; P=0.15). Training programs should consider adopting simulation training for CVC insertion to improve the real patient procedural success of trainees.

  2. Intraluminal pneumatic lithotripsy for the removal of encrusted urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Canby-Hagino, E D; Caballero, R D; Harmon, W J

    1999-12-01

    Urologists frequently treat patients requiring long-term urinary drainage with a percutaneous nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent. When such tubes are neglected and become encrusted, removal challenges even experienced urologists. We describe a new, minimally invasive technique for safely and rapidly removing encrusted, occluded tubes using the Swiss Lithoclast pneumatic lithotriptor. Patients presenting with an encrusted urinary catheter were evaluated by excretory urography for renal function and obstruction. Gentle manual extraction of the tube was attempted, followed by traditional extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and/or ureteroscopy. When the tube was not extracted, patients were then treated with intraluminal insertion of a pneumatic lithotripsy probe. One patient presented with an encrusted, occluded nephrostomy tube and 2 had an encrusted, occluded, indwelling ureteral stent. None was removed by manual traction. Intraluminal encrustations prevented the pigtail portions of these tubes from uncoiling and removal. In each case a pneumatic lithotripsy probe was inserted into the lumen of the catheter and advanced in a jackhammer-like fashion. This technique resulted in disruption of the intraluminal encrustations and straightening of the tubes so that they were removed in an atraumatic manner. Intraluminal pneumatic lithotripsy is a safe, easy and rapid technique for removing encrusted urinary catheters. It is unique in that the pneumatic lithotripsy probe functions in an aqueous and nonaqueous environment, and dislodges intraluminal calcifications. We recommend its use as first line treatment for removing encrusted urinary catheters.

  3. Use of laparoscopy in the management of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Brandt, C P; Ricanati, E S

    1996-01-01

    The proper function of peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters can be compromised by catheter malposition, fibrin clot, or omental wrapping. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of laparoscopy in the treatment of malfunctioning PD catheters. All patients undergoing laparoscopy for catheter dysfunction at MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1991 to 1995, were reviewed. Twenty-six laparoscopies were performed in 22 patients, for malfunction occurring an average of 3.9 months following insertion (range 0.5-18 months). Omental and/or small below wrapping as present in all but three cases. Lysis of adhesions was required in 19 of 26 cases, with repositioning only in seven. Eight patients had failed attempts at stiff wire manipulation prior to laparoscopy. Perioperative complications occurred in seven cases, consisting of temporary dialysate leakage (2), enterotomy (1), and early reocclusion (4). Repeat laparoscopy was successful in three of these four reocclusions. The overall success rate (catheter function > 30 days after laparoscopy) was 21/22 (96%). Laparoscopy is highly accurate and effective in the management of peritoneal dialysis catheter dysfunction and results in prolongation of catheter life.

  4. Use of Flexible Cystoscopy to Insert a Foley Catheter over a Guide Wire in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Special Precautions to be Observed.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Oo, Tun

    2011-01-01

    When urethral catheterisation is difficult or impossible in spinal cord injury patients, flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire can be performed on the bedside, thus obviating the need for emergency suprapubic cystostomy. Spinal cord injury patients, who undergo flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire, may develop potentially serious complications. (1) Persons with lesion above T-6 are susceptible to develop autonomic dysreflexia during cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire; nifedipine 5-10 milligrams may be administered sublingually just prior to the procedure to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. (2) Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk for getting urine infections as compared to able-bodied individuals. Therefore, antibiotics should be given to patients who get haematuria or urethral bleeding following urethral catheterisation over a guide wire. (3) Some spinal cord injury patients may have a small capacity bladder; in these patients, the guide wire, which is introduced into the urinary bladder, may fold upon itself with the tip of guide wire entering the urethra. If this complication is not recognised and a catheter is inserted over the guide wire, the Foley catheter will then be misplaced in urethra despite using cystoscopy and guide wire.

  5. Use of Flexible Cystoscopy to Insert a Foley Catheter over a Guide Wire in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Special Precautions to be Observed

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Oo, Tun

    2011-01-01

    When urethral catheterisation is difficult or impossible in spinal cord injury patients, flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire can be performed on the bedside, thus obviating the need for emergency suprapubic cystostomy. Spinal cord injury patients, who undergo flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire, may develop potentially serious complications. (1) Persons with lesion above T-6 are susceptible to develop autonomic dysreflexia during cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire; nifedipine 5–10 milligrams may be administered sublingually just prior to the procedure to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. (2) Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk for getting urine infections as compared to able-bodied individuals. Therefore, antibiotics should be given to patients who get haematuria or urethral bleeding following urethral catheterisation over a guide wire. (3) Some spinal cord injury patients may have a small capacity bladder; in these patients, the guide wire, which is introduced into the urinary bladder, may fold upon itself with the tip of guide wire entering the urethra. If this complication is not recognised and a catheter is inserted over the guide wire, the Foley catheter will then be misplaced in urethra despite using cystoscopy and guide wire. PMID:22110492

  6. Comparison of nitinol urethral stent infections with indwelling catheter-associated urinary-tract infections.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Tulga; Aridogan, I Atilla; Yachia, Daniel; Hassin, David

    2006-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of intraurethral metal stents in preventing or eradicating urinary-tract infections (UTI) during the management of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) by comparing the frequency and nature of the infections with indwelling-catheter-associated UTI. The SAS relative-risk test was used to compare the risks of UTI in 76 patients with temporary urethral stents, 60 patients with BOO who had never been catheterized nor stented, and 34 patients with a permanent indwelling urethral catheter (PIUC). Infection was assessed 1 month after placement of the devices. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the proximal and distal pieces of the stents removed from five patients with and five patients without UTI was carried out in a search for predisposing changes on the surfaces. After insertion of the catheter, UTI developed in 79.4% of the patients who originally had sterile urine. However, after insertion of the stent, UTI developed in only 40.9% of the patients with sterile urine. In 21 (44.6%) of the catheterized patients who had infected urine, UTI was eradicated after stent insertion. The SEM analysis of the stents showed that a thick organic layer had formed only on the infected devices but with no sign of erosion. Urinary infection is a significant problem in patients with PIUC but is significantly less frequent and less severe in patients with urethral stents. This advantage of stents over the conventional urethral catheter, in addition to their obvious convenience for the patient, make them good alternatives to reduce the risk of UTI.

  7. Image-guided Ommaya reservoir insertion for intraventricular chemotherapy: a retrospective series.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jonathan C; Kosteniuk, Suzanne E; Macdonald, David R; Megyesi, Joseph F

    2018-03-01

    Ayub Ommaya proposed a surgical technique for subcutaneous reservoir and pump placement in 1963 to allow access to intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Currently, the most common indication for Ommaya reservoir insertion (ORI) in adults is for patients with hematologic or leptomeningeal disorders requiring repeated injection of chemotherapy into the CSF space. Historically, the intraventricular catheter has been inserted blindly based on anatomical landmarks. The purpose of this study was to examine short-term complication rates with ORI with image guidance (IG) and without image guidance (non-IG). We retrospectively evaluated all operative cases of ORI from 2000 to 2014 by the senior author. Patient demographic data, surgical outcomes, and peri-operative complications were collected. Accurate placement and early (30-day) morbidity or mortality were considered primary outcomes. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent ORI by the senior author over the study period (43.5 ± 16.6 years; 40.0% female). Indications for placement included acute lymphoblastic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. There were seven (12.7%) total complications: three (37.5%) with no-IG versus four (8.5%) with IG. Catheter malpositions were significantly higher in the non-IG group at 37.5% compared to 2.1%. Catheters were also more likely to require multiple passes with non-IG at 25% compare to 0% with IG. There were no early infections in either group. We demonstrate improved accuracy and decreased complications using an image-guided approach compared with a traditional approach. Our results support routine use of intra-operative image guidance for proximal catheter insertion in elective ORI for intraventricular chemotherapy.

  8. The PrOSTE: identifying key components of effective procedural teaching.

    PubMed

    McSparron, Jakob I; Ricotta, Daniel N; Moskowitz, Ari; Volpicelli, Frank M; Roberts, David H; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Huang, Grace C

    2015-02-01

    Novel approaches for faculty development and assessment of procedural teaching skills are needed to improve the procedural education of trainees. The Objective Structured Teaching Exercise (OSTE) entails a simulated encounter in which faculty are observed teaching a standardized student and has been used to evaluate teaching skills. Use of an OSTE to assess the teaching of central venous catheterization has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedural OSTE for subclavian central venous catheter (CVC) insertion and to determine specific aspects of procedural teaching associated with improved skills in novices. Critical care faculty/fellows taught a standardized student to insert a CVC in a simulator. We assessed the instructor's teaching skills using rating scales to generate a procedural teaching score. After this encounter, the instructor taught novice medical students to place CVCs in simulators. Novices then independently placed catheters in simulators and were evaluated by trained observers using a checklist. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the correlation between specific teaching behaviors and the novices' skills in CVC placement. We recruited 10 participants to serve as teachers and 30 preclinical medical students to serve as novice learners. The overall mean procedural teaching score was 85.5 (±15.4). Improved student performance was directly related to the degree to which the teacher "provided positive feedback" (β = 1.53, SE = 0.44, P = 0.001), "offered learner suggestions for improvement" (β = 1.40, SE = 0.35, P < 0.001), and "demonstrated the procedure in a step-by-step manner" (β = 2.50, SE = 0.45, P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between total scores and student skills (β = 0.06, SE = 0.46, P = 0.18). The OSTE is a standardized method to assess procedural teaching skills. Our findings suggest that specific aspects of procedural

  9. Fibrin Sheath Angioplasty: A Technique to Prevent Superior Vena Cava Stenosis Secondary to Dialysis Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Robert I.; Garcia, Lorena De Marco; Chawla, Ankur; Panetta, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin sheaths are a heterogeneous matrix of cells and debris that form around catheters and are a known cause of central venous stenosis and catheter failure. A total of 50 cases of central venous catheter fibrin sheath angioplasty (FSA) after catheter removal or exchange are presented. A retrospective review of an outpatient office database identified 70 eligible patients over a 19-month period. After informed consent was obtained, the dialysis catheter exiting the skin was clamped, amputated, and a wire was inserted. The catheter was then removed and a 9-French sheath was inserted into the superior vena cava, a venogram was performed. If a fibrin sheath was present, angioplasty was performed using an 8 × 4 or 10 × 4 balloon along the entire length of the fibrin sheath. A completion venogram was performed to document obliteration of the sheath. During the study, 50 patients were diagnosed with a fibrin sheath, and 43 had no pre-existing central venous stenosis. After FSA, 39 of the 43 patient's (91%) central systems remained patent without the need for subsequent interventions; 3 patients (7%) developed subclavian stenoses requiring repeat angioplasty and stenting; 1 patent (2.3%) developed an occlusion requiring a reintervention. Seven patients with prior central stenosis required multiple angioplasties; five required stenting of their central lesions. Every patient had follow-up fistulograms to document long-term patency. We propose that FSA is a prudent and safe procedure that may help reduce the risk of central venous stenosis from fibrin sheaths due to central venous catheters. PMID:23997555

  10. [Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Foley catheter pre-induction of labor].

    PubMed

    Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemińska, Anita; Janicki, Radosław; Fórmaniak, Jacek; Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Grabiec, Marek

    2013-03-01

    result perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis was administered before insertion of the catheter The study group was divided into two subgroups according to parity: primiparous and multiparous. Indications for induction, method of pregnancy termination, the pregnancy and its complications were evaluated. The condition of the newborns was evaluated using the Apgar score, cord blood pH and infant birth weight. We analyzed cervical ripeness (Bishop score) before the insertion and after the removal of the catheter and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) before and 20 hours after insertion. CRP was not studied in pregnant women diagnosed with GBS colonization. The results were compared between the subgroups. An increase in the Bishop score to> 5 and delivery within 12 hours since the planned removal of the catheter regardless of the method of pregnancy and the use of oxytocin, was considered as successful induction of labor Catheter pre-induction was performed in 109 pregnant women, what amounted to 7.87% all of deliveries in our department during the analyzed period. Mean patient age was 29.3 +/- 5.35 years, mean duration of pregnancy 40 weeks of gestation (+/- 1 week 5 days), and primiparas constituted 66.06% of all cases. The most common indication for labor induction was post-term pregnancy (55.05%), hypertension and preeclampsia (16.51%). The following complications were observed in the study group after insertion of the catheter: 8 (7.34%) cases of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), but none of them occurred in the process of inserting the catheter 11 (10.09%) women had the catheter removed (patients request) due to pain and the feeling of discomfort before the scheduled time, 2 (1.84%) cases of bleeding (in the first case the cesarean section was performed and the baby was born in a good overall condition, in the second case the bleeding subsided spontaneously). There was a statistically significant increase in the Bishop score for the entire study group and in the two

  11. Use of a national continuing medical education meeting to provide simulation-based training in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion skills: a pre-test post-test study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and

  12. Accidental dural puncture, postdural puncture headache, intrathecal catheters, and epidural blood patch: revisiting the old nemesis.

    PubMed

    Kaddoum, Roland; Motlani, Faisal; Kaddoum, Romeo N; Srirajakalidindi, Arvi; Gupta, Deepak; Soskin, Vitaly

    2014-08-01

    One of the controversial management options for accidental dural puncture in pregnant patients is the conversion of labor epidural analgesia to continuous spinal analgesia by threading the epidural catheter intrathecally. No clear consensus exists on how to best prevent severe headache from occurring after accidental dural puncture. To investigate whether the intrathecal placement of an epidural catheter following accidental dural puncture impacts the incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and the subsequent need for an epidural blood patch in parturients. A retrospective chart review of accidental dural puncture was performed at Hutzel Women's Hospital in Detroit, MI, USA for the years 2002-2010. Documented cases of accidental dural punctures (N = 238) were distributed into two groups based on their management: an intrathecal catheter (ITC) group in which the epidural catheter was inserted intrathecally and a non-intrathecal catheter (non-ITC) group that received the epidural catheter inserted at different levels of lumbar interspaces. The incidence of PDPH as well as the necessity for epidural blood patch was analyzed using two-tailed Fisher's exact test. In the non-ITC group, 99 (54 %) parturients developed PDPH in comparison to 20 (37 %) in the ITC [odds ratio (OR), 1.98; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06-3.69; P = 0.03]. Fifty-seven (31 %) of 182 patients in the non-ITC group required an epidural blood patch (EBP) (data for 2 patients of 184 were missing). In contrast, 7 (13 %) of parturients in the ITC group required an EBP. The incidence of EBP was calculated in parturients who actually developed headache to be 57 of 99 (57 %) in the non-ITC group versus 7 of 20 (35 %) in the ITC group (OR, 2.52; 95 % CI, 0.92-6.68; P = 0.07). The insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture decreases the incidence of PDPH but not the need for epidural blood patch in parturients.

  13. In vivo dose verification method in catheter based high dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Jaselskė, Evelina; Adlienė, Diana; Rudžianskas, Viktoras; Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis; Inčiūra, Arturas

    2017-12-01

    In vivo dosimetry is a powerful tool for dose verification in radiotherapy. Its application in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is usually limited to the estimation of gross errors, due to inability of the dosimetry system/ method to record non-uniform dose distribution in steep dose gradient fields close to the radioactive source. In vivo dose verification in interstitial catheter based HDR brachytherapy is crucial since the treatment is performed inserting radioactive source at the certain positions within the catheters that are pre-implanted into the tumour. We propose in vivo dose verification method for this type of brachytherapy treatment which is based on the comparison between experimentally measured and theoretical dose values calculated at well-defined locations corresponding dosemeter positions in the catheter. Dose measurements were performed using TLD 100-H rods (6 mm long, 1 mm diameter) inserted in a certain sequences into additionally pre-implanted dosimetry catheter. The adjustment of dosemeter positioning in the catheter was performed using reconstructed CT scans of patient with pre-implanted catheters. Doses to three Head&Neck and one Breast cancer patient have been measured during several randomly selected treatment fractions. It was found that the average experimental dose error varied from 4.02% to 12.93% during independent in vivo dosimetry control measurements for selected Head&Neck cancer patients and from 7.17% to 8.63% - for Breast cancer patient. Average experimental dose error was below the AAPM recommended margin of 20% and did not exceed the measurement uncertainty of 17.87% estimated for this type of dosemeters. Tendency of slightly increasing average dose error was observed in every following treatment fraction of the same patient. It was linked to the changes of theoretically estimated dosemeter positions due to the possible patient's organ movement between different treatment fractions, since catheter reconstruction was

  14. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Placement with the Sonic Flashlight: Initial Clinical Trial by Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David; Amesur, Nikhil; Shukla, Gaurav; Bayless, Angela; Weiser, David; Scharl, Adam; Mockel, Derek; Banks, Christopher; Mandella, Bernadette; Klatzky, Roberta; Stetten, George

    2010-01-01

    Objective We describe a case series comprising the first clinical trial by intravenous (IV) team nurses using the Sonic Flashlight for ultrasound guidance of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement. Methods Two IV team nurses with more than 10 years experience placing PICCs and from 3–6 years experience with ultrasound (US) attempted to place PICCs under US guidance in patients requiring long-term IV access. One of two methods of US guidance was used: conventional ultrasound (CUS) (60 patients) or a new device called the Sonic Flashlight (SF) (44 patients). The number of needle punctures required to gain IV access was recorded for each subject. Results In both methods, 87% of the cases resulted in successful venous access on the first attempt. The average number of needle sticks per patient was 1.18 for SF-guided procedures, as compared to 1.20 for CUS-guided procedures. No significant difference was found in the distribution of the number of attempts between the two methods. Anecdotal comments by the nurses indicated the comparative ease of use of the SF display, although relatively small scale of the SF image compared to the CUS image was also noted. Conclusions We have shown that the Sonic Flashlight is a safe and effective device for guidance of PICC placement in the hands of experienced IV team nurses. The advantage of placing the ultrasound image at its actual location must be balanced against the relatively small scale of the SF image. PMID:19389904

  15. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections and other infections in patients hospitalized for acute stroke: A prospective cohort study of two different silicone catheters.

    PubMed

    Stenzelius, Karin; Laszlo, Liselott; Madeja, Magdalena; Pessah-Rasmusson, Hélène; Grabe, Magnus

    2016-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common healthcare-associated infection. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a silicone catheter coated with an ultrathin layer of a combination of the noble metals gold, palladium and silver (BIP™-silicone catheter) could reduce the incidence of CAUTI and antibiotic prescription compared with a standard silicone catheter in a cohort of acute neurological patients suffering primarily from stroke. At the same time, all infectious events requiring prescription of an antimicrobial agent were registered and are reported. The study was designed as a crossover cohort study enrolling men and women aged over 18 years, requiring emergency management for stroke including the insertion of an indwelling catheter. Data on patient characteristics, urinary tract infections (UTIs), other infectious events and all antibiotic prescriptions were recorded prospectively. The patients' characteristics differed in the two centres in terms of age but not in diagnosis distribution. UTIs were recorded in 78 (24.2%) of the patients, ahead of pulmonary tract infections (n = 65; 20.2%). There was no difference in terms of CAUTI in the two catheter groups, even in subgroups with catheter treatment for 1 week or less. The patients with a diagnosed UTI required 3.5 more days of hospitalization than those without a UTI. CAUTIs were the most frequent healthcare-associated infections, slightly ahead of pulmonary tract infections. No advantages of the coated catheter could be found in this cohort of critically ill patients.

  16. Urinary catheters: history, current status, adverse events and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Feneley, Roger C. L.; Hopley, Ian B.; Wells, Peter N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For more than 3500 years, urinary catheters have been used to drain the bladder when it fails to empty. For people with impaired bladder function and for whom the method is feasible, clean intermittent self-catheterization is the optimal procedure. For those who require an indwelling catheter, whether short- or long-term, the self-retaining Foley catheter is invariably used, as it has been since its introduction nearly 80 years ago, despite the fact that this catheter can cause bacterial colonization, recurrent and chronic infections, bladder stones and septicaemia, damage to the kidneys, the bladder and the urethra, and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. In terms of medical, social and economic resources, the burden of urinary retention and incontinence, aggravated by the use of the Foley catheter, is huge. In the UK, the harm resulting from the use of the Foley catheter costs the National Health Service between £1.0–2.5 billion and accounts for ∼2100 deaths per year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative indwelling catheter system. The research agenda is for the new catheter to be easy and safe to insert, either urethrally or suprapubically, to be retained reliably in the bladder and to be withdrawn easily and safely when necessary, to mimic natural physiology by filling at low pressure and emptying completely without damage to the bladder, and to have control mechanisms appropriate for all users. PMID:26383168

  17. Number and location of drainage catheter side holes: in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, D H; Alexander, J S; Weisman, J A; Orchard, M A; Williams, J T; D'Agostino, H B

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of number and location of catheter shaft side holes regarding drainage efficiency in an in vitro model. Three different drainage catheter models were constructed: open-ended model with no side holes (one catheter), unilateral side hole model (six catheters with one to six unilateral side holes), and bilateral side hole model (six catheters with one to six bilateral side holes). Catheters were inserted into a drainage output-measuring device with a constant-pressure reservoir of water. The volume of water evacuated by each of the catheters at 10-second intervals was measured. A total of five trials were performed for each catheter. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. The open-ended catheter had a mean drainage volume comparable to the unilateral model catheters with three, four, and five side holes. Unilateral model catheters had significant drainage volume increases up to three side holes; unilateral model catheters with more than three side holes had no significant improvement in drainage volume. All bilateral model catheters had significantly higher mean drainage volumes than their unilateral counterparts. There was no significant difference between the mean drainage volume with one, two, or three pairs of bilateral side holes. Further, there was no drainage improvement by adding additional bilateral side holes. The present in vitro study suggests that beyond a critical side hole number threshold, adding more distal side holes does not improve catheter drainage efficiency. These results may be used to enhance catheter design towards improving their drainage efficiency. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rectus sheath catheter infusions for post-operative pain management.

    PubMed

    Layzell, Mandy

    2014-06-24

    Managing pain following major abdominal surgery remains a challenge. Traditionally, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural analgesia have been used, which have improved post-operative pain and the patient experience, but have presented some problems in recovery. PCA can cause adverse effects, including sedation, nausea, vomiting, and prolonged gastric ileus. While epidurals do have some advantages over PCA, there are risks involved related to catheter insertion and adverse effects, such as hypotension and motor blocks which limit mobility. This article examines rectus sheath catheter infusions, a relatively new and alternative technique to epidural analgesia, and presents some early audit data related to pain scores, analgesic use and mobility.

  19. Minimally Invasive Catheter Procedures to Assist Complicated Pacemaker Lead Extraction and Implantation in the Operating Room

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S., E-mail: rotemshlomo@yahoo.de; Miese, Falk R.

    2011-04-15

    We report on percutaneous catheter procedures in the operating room (OR) to assist complicated manual extraction or insertion of pacemaker (PM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads. We retrospectively reviewed complicated PM revisions and implantations performed between 2004 and 2009 that required percutaneous catheter procedures performed in the OR. The type of interventional procedure, catheter and retrieval system used, venous access, success rates, and procedural complications were analyzed. In 41 (12 female and 29 male [mean age 62 {+-} 17 years]) of 3021 (1.4%) patients, standard manual retrieval of old leads or insertion of new leads was not achievable and thusmore » required percutaneous catheter intervention for retrieval of misplaced leads and/or recanalisation of occluded central veins. Thirteen of 18 (72.2%) catheter-guided retrieval procedures for misplaced (right atrium [RA] or ventricle [RV; n = 3], superior vena cava [n = 2], brachiocephalic vein [n = 5], and subclavian vein [n = 3]) lead fragments in 16 patients were successful. Percutaneous catheter retrieval failed in five patients because there were extremely fixed or adhered lead fragments. Percutaneous transluminal angiography (PTA) of central veins for occlusion or high-grade stenosis was performed in 25 patients. In 22 of 25 patients (88%), recanalization of central veins was successful, thus enabling subsequent lead replacement. Major periprocedural complications were not observed. In the case of complicated manual PM lead implantation or revision, percutaneous catheter-guided extraction of misplaced lead fragments or recanalisation of central veins can be performed safely in the OR, thus enabling subsequent implantation or revision of PM systems in the majority of patients.« less

  20. CT-Guided Placement of a Drainage Catheter Within a Pelvic Abscess Using a Transsacral Approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Asami, Shinya; Kubo, Shinichiro

    2007-11-15

    A 66-year-old man underwent CT-guided drainage catheter placement within a pelvic abscess with a diameter of 46 mm. We performed the drainage by a transsacral approach because it was considered the safest and most feasible approach. An 8G bone marrow biopsy needle was used to penetrate the sacrum to create a path for subsequent drainage catheter insertion. After withdrawal of the biopsy needle, a 6 Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the path using the Seldinger technique. Except for bearable pain, no procedure-related complications occurred. Twenty-nine days after the placement, the catheter was withdrawn safely and themore » abscess cavity had shrunk remarkably.« less

  1. Fecal containment in bedridden patients: economic impact of 2 commercial bowel catheter systems.

    PubMed

    Kowal-Vem, Areta; Poulakidas, Stathis; Barnett, Barbara; Conway, Deborah; Culver, Daniel; Ferrari, Michelle; Potenza, Bruce; Koenig, Michael; Mah, John; Majewski, Mary; Morris, Linda; Powers, Jan; Stokes, Elizabeth; Tan, Michael; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Zaletel, Cindy; Ambutas, Shirley; Casey, Kathleen; Stein, Jayne; DeSane, Mary; Berry, Kathy; Konz, Elizabeth C; Riemer, Michael R; Cullum, Malford E

    2009-05-01

    Fecal contamination is a major challenge in patients in acute/critical care settings that is associated with increased cost of care and supplies and with development of pressure ulcers, incontinence dermatitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections. To assess the economic impact of fecal containment in bedridden patients using 2 different indwelling bowel catheters and to compare infection rates between groups. A multicenter, observational study was done at 12 US sites (7 that use catheter A, 5 that use catheter B). Patients were followed from insertion of an indwelling bowel catheter system until the patient left the acute/critical care unit or until 29 days after enrollment, whichever came first. Demographic data, frequency of bedding/dressing changes, incidence of infection, and Braden scores (risk of pressure ulcers) were recorded. The study included 146 bedridden patients (76 with catheter A, 70 with catheter B) who had similar Braden scores at enrollment. The rate of bedding/dressing changes per day differed significantly between groups (1.20 for catheter A vs 1.71 for catheter B; P = .004). According to a formula that accounted for personnel resources and laundry cycle costs, catheter A cost $13.94 less per patient per day to use than did catheter B. Catheter A was less likely than was catheter B to be removed during the observational period (P = .03). Observed infection rates were low. Catheter A may be more cost-effective than catheter B because it requires fewer unscheduled linen changes per patient day.

  2. Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45 h (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under these study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Videolaparoscopic Catheter Placement Reduces Contraindications to Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Stefano; Zeiler, Matthias; Monteburini, Tania; Agostinelli, Rosa Maria; Marinelli, Rita; Degano, Giorgio; Ceraudo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background: Videolaparoscopy is considered the reference method for peritoneal catheter placement in patients with previous abdominal surgery. The placement procedure is usually performed with at least two access sites: one for the catheter and the second for the laparoscope. Here, we describe a new one-port laparoscopic procedure that uses only one abdominal access site in patients not eligible for laparotomic catheter placement. ♦ Method: We carried out one-port laparoscopic placement in 21 patients presenting contraindications to blind surgical procedures because of prior abdominal surgery. This technique consists in the creation of a single mini-laparotomy access through which laparoscopic procedures and placement are performed. The catheter, rectified by an introducer, is inserted inside the port. Subsequently, the port is removed, leaving the catheter in pelvic position. The port is reintroduced laterally to the catheter, confirming or correcting its position. Laparotomic placement was performed in a contemporary group of 32 patients without contraindications to blind placement. Complications and long-term catheter outcome in the two groups were evaluated. ♦ Results: Additional interventions during placement were necessary in 12 patients of the laparoscopy group compared with 5 patients of the laparotomy group (p = 0.002). Laparoscopy documented adhesions in 13 patients, with need for adhesiolysis in 6 patients. Each group had 1 intraoperative complication: leakage in the laparoscopy group, and intestinal perforation in the laparotomy group. During the 2-year follow-up period, laparoscopic revisions had to be performed in 6 patients of the laparoscopy group and in 5 patients of the laparotomy group (p = 0.26). The 1-year catheter survival was similar in both groups. Laparoscopy increased by 40% the number of patients eligible to receive peritoneal dialysis. ♦ Conclusions: Videolaparoscopy placement in patients not eligible for blind surgical

  4. High-precision {beta} decay half-life measurements of proton-rich nuclei for testing the CVC hypothesis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Collaboration: NEX Group of CENBG

    2011-11-30

    The experimental study of super-allowed nuclear {beta} decays serves as a sensitive probe of the conservation of the weak vector current (CVC) and allows tight limits to be set on the presence of scalar or right-handed currents. Once CVC is verified, it is possible to determine the V{sub ud} element of the CKM quark-mixing matrix. Similarly, the study of nuclear mirror {beta} decays allows to arrive at the same final quantity V{sub ud}. Whereas dedicated studies of 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} decays are performed for several decades now, the potential of mirror transitions was only rediscovered recently. Therefore, it can bemore » expected that important progress is possible with high-precision studies of different mirror {beta} decays. In the present piece of work the half-life measurements performed by the CENBG group of the proton-rich nuclei {sup 42}Ti, {sup 38-39}Ca, {sup 30-31}S and {sup 29}P are summarised.« less

  5. Risk factor analysis for long-term tunneled dialysis catheter-related bacteremias.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Charra, B; Chazot, C; Vanel, T; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M; Laurent, G

    2002-07-01

    Infection, mainly related to vascular access, is one of the main causes of morbidity and a preventable cause of death in hemodialysis patients. From January 1994 to April 1998 we conducted a prospective study to assess the incidence and risk factors of catheter-related bacteremia. One hundred and twenty-nine tunneled dual-lumen hemodialysis catheters were inserted percutaneously into the internal jugular vein in 89 patients. Bacteremia (n = 56) occurred at least once with 37 (29%) of the catheters (an incidence of 1.1/1,000 catheter-days); local infection (n = 45, 1/1,000 catheter-days) was associated with bacteremia in 18 cases. Death in 1 case was directly related to Staphylococcus aureus (SA) septic shock, and septicemia contributed to deaths in 2 additional cases. Catheters were removed in 48% of the bacteremic episodes. Treatment comprised intravenous double antimicrobial therapy for 15-20 days. Bacteriological data of bacteremia showed 55% involvement of SA. Nasal carriage of SA was observed in 35% of the patients with catheters. Bacteremic catheters were more frequently observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03), peripheral atherosclerosis (p = 0.001), a previous history of bacteremia (p = 0.05), nasal carriage of SA (p = 0.0001), longer catheter survival time (p = 0.001), higher total intravenous iron dose (p = 0.001), more frequent urokinase catheter infusion (p < 0.01), and local infection (p < 0.001) compared with non-bacteremic catheters. Monovariate survival analysis showed that significant initial risk factors for bacteremia were nasal carriage of SA (p = 0.00001), previous bacteremia (p = 0.0001), peripheral atherosclerosis (p = 0.005), and diabetes (p = 0.04). This study confirms the relatively high incidence of bacteremia with tunneled double-lumen silicone catheters and its potential complications. Possible preventive actions are discussed according to the risk factors. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. A prospective study of central venous catheters placed in a tertiary care Emergency Department: indications for use, infectious complications, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Katrina; Kelly, Sean G; Smith, Barbara; Malani, Preeti N; Younger, John G

    2012-02-01

    Despite successful efforts to improve overall central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) rates, little is known about CLABSI rates or even central venous catheter insertion practices in the Emergency Department. We sought to determine the baseline CLABSI rate for Emergency Department-inserted central venous catheters and to describe indications for placement, duration of use, and the natural history of these devices. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Empyema and effusion: outcome of image-guided small-bore catheter drainage.

    PubMed

    Keeling, A N; Leong, S; Logan, P M; Lee, M J

    2008-01-01

    Empyema and complicated pleural effusion represent common medical problems. Current treatment options are multiple. The purpose of this study was to access the outcome of image-guided, small-bore catheter drainage of empyema and effusion. We evaluated 93 small-bore catheters in 82 patients with pleural effusion (n = 30) or empyema (n = 52), over a 2-year period. Image guidance was with ultrasound (US; n = 56) and CT (n = 37). All patients were followed clinically, with catheter dwell times, catheter outcome, pleural fluid outcome, reinsertion rates, and need for urokinase or surgery recorded. Ninety-three small-bore chest drains (mean=10.2 Fr; range, 8.2-12.2 Fr) were inserted, with an average dwell time of 7.81 days for empyemas and 7.14 days for effusions (p > 0.05). Elective removal rates (73% empyema vs 86% effusions) and dislodgement rates (12% empyema vs 13% effusions) were similar for both groups. Eight percent of catheters became blocked and 17% necessitated reinsertion in empyemas, with no catheters blocked or requiring reinsertion in effusions (p < 0.05). Thirty-two patients (51%) required urokinase in the empyema group, versus 2 patients (6%) in the effusion group (p < 0.05). All treatment failures, requiring surgery, occurred in the empyema group (19%; n = 12; p < 0.05). In conclusion, noninfected pleural collections are adequately treated with small-bore catheters, however, empyemas have a failure rate of 19%. The threshold for using urokinase and larger-bore catheters should be low in empyema.

  8. Transoesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of central venous catheter positioning using Peres' formula or a radiological landmark-based approach: a prospective randomized single-centre study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J H; Kim, I S; Yang, J H; Lee, I G; Seo, D H; Kim, S P

    2017-02-01

    The lower superior vena cava (SVC), near its junction with the right atrium (RA), is considered the ideal location for the central venous catheter tip to ensure proper function and prevent injuries. We determined catheter insertion depth with a new formula using the sternoclavicular joint and the carina as radiological landmarks, with a 1.5 cm safety margin. The accuracy of tip positioning with the radiological landmark-based technique (R) and Peres' formula (P) was compared using transoesophageal echocardiography. Real-time ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion was done through the right internal jugular or subclavian vein. Patients were randomly assigned to either the P group (n=93) or the R group (n=95). Optimal catheter tip position was considered to be within 2 cm above and 1 cm below the RA-SVC junction. Catheter tip position, abutment, angle to the vascular wall, and flow stream were evaluated on a bicaval view. The distance from the skin insertion point to the RA-SVC junction and determined depth of catheter insertion were more strongly correlated in the R group [17.4 (1.2) and 16.7 (1.5) cm; r=0.821, P<0.001] than in the P group [17.3 (1.2) and 16.4 (1.1) cm; r=0.517, P<0.001], with z=3.96 (P<0.001). More tips were correctly positioned in the R group than in the P group (74 vs 93%, P=0.001). Abutment, tip angle to the lateral wall >40°, and disrupted flow stream were comparable. Catheter tip position was more accurate with a radiological landmark-based technique than with Peres' formula. Clinical Trial Registry of Korea: https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp KCT0001937. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of the epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia].

    PubMed

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Filho, Augusto Diogo; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45hours (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under this study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) recommendations "Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Grünewald, Miriam; Otto, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) updated the recommendations for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 2015. This article will describe the implementation of these recommendations in Frankfurt's hospitals in autumn, 2015. In two non-ICU wards of each of Frankfurt's 17 hospitals, inspections were performed using a checklist based on the new KRINKO recommendations. In one large hospital, a total of 5 wards were inspected. The inspections covered the structure and process quality (operating instructions, training, indication, the placement and maintenance of catheters) and the demonstration of the preparation for insertion of a catheter using an empty bed and an imaginary patient, or insertion in a model. Operating instructions were available in all hospital wards; approximately half of the wards regularly performed training sessions. The indications were largely in line with the recommendations of the KRINKO. Alternatives to urinary tract catheters were available and were used more often than the urinary tract catheters themselves (15.9% vs. 13.5%). In accordance with the recommendations, catheters were placed without antibiotic prophylaxis or the instillation of antiseptic or antimicrobial substances or catheter flushing solutions. The demonstration of catheter placement was conscientiously performed. Need for improvement was seen in the daily documentation and the regular verification of continuing indication for a urinary catheter, as well as the omission of regular catheter change. Overall, the recommendations of the KRINKO on the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were adequately implemented. However, it cannot be ruled out that in situations with time pressure and staff shortage, the handling of urinary tract catheters may be of lower quality than that observed during the inspections, when catheter insertion was done by two nurses. Against this background, a sufficient

  11. Aortic occlusion balloon catheter technique is useful for uncontrollable massive intraabdominal bleeding after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Takenori; Asano, Takehide; Kenmochi, Takashi; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2006-04-01

    Massive intraabdominal hemorrhage sometimes requires urgent hemostatic surgical intervention. In such cases, its rapid stabilization is crucial to reestablish a general hemodynamic status. We used an aortic occlusion balloon catheter in patients with massive intraabdominal hemorrhage occurring after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. An 8-French balloon catheter was percutaneously inserted into the aorta from the femoral artery, and the balloon was placed just above the celiac artery. Fifteen minutes inflation and 5 minutes deflation were alternated during surgery until the bleeding was surgically controlled. An aortic occlusion balloon catheter was inserted on 13 occasions in 10 patients undergoing laparotomy for hemostasis of massive hemorrhage. The aorta was successfully occluded on 12 occasions in nine patients. Both systolic pressure and heart rate were normalized during aortic occlusion, and the operative field became clearly visible after adequate suction of leaked blood. Bleeding sites were then easily found and controlled. Hemorrhage was successfully controlled in 7 of 10 patients (70%), and they were discharged in good condition. The aortic occlusion balloon catheter technique was effective for easily controlling massive intraabdominal bleeding by hemostatic procedure after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery.

  12. Prospective short-term feasibility study of perioperative suprapubic catheters in laparoscopic colectomy.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Sayaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Asako; Higuchi, Tadashi; Moriyama, Hodaka; Niituma, Toru; Watanabe, Manabu; Asai, Koji; Kusachi, Shinya

    2018-05-16

    Here we report a prospective study on whether a temporary suprapubic catheter (SPC) can be safely inserted as a substitute for transurethral balloon catheterization during laparoscopy-assisted colectomy. Our subjects included 52 cases who gave informed consent to have an SPC inserted. These subjects were selected from cases who underwent laparoscopy-assisted surgery for primary colorectal cancer from October 2014 to August 2015. An SPC was inserted into 45 of the original 52 cases. The median surgical duration was 220 min (range, 11-438 min), and the SPC insertion was performed at a median of 133 min (range, 9-384 min) after the start of surgery. Insertion required a median duration of 116 s. In one case (2.2%), the bladder was perforated by the paracentesis needle, and in two cases (4.4%), hematuria was observed at the time of insertion; however, surgery was completed without any incident in these three cases. Six of the remaining 42 cases (13.3%) demonstrated neither micturition desire nor independent urination on the day the catheter was clamped. In these cases, the clamp was released two to four times, and draining of an average of 586-mL urine, micturition desire, and independent urination were confirmed 2-4 days later. Transurethral balloon catheterization is a simple procedure that is commonly used on surgical patients, but it can cause pain, discomfort, and infection. In contrast, SPC insertion is a procedure that avoids crossing the urethra and its associated disadvantages. Here we were able to demonstrate that the procedure can be safely used in laparoscopic surgery patients. © 2018 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Performance evaluation of a robot-assisted catheter operating system with haptic feedback.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Guo, Shuxiang; Yin, Xuanchun; Zhang, Linshuai; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori; Tamiya, Takashi

    2018-06-20

    In this paper, a novel robot-assisted catheter operating system (RCOS) has been proposed as a method to reduce physical stress and X-ray exposure time to physicians during endovascular procedures. The unique design of this system allows the physician to apply conventional bedside catheterization skills (advance, retreat and rotate) to an input catheter, which is placed at the master side to control another patient catheter placed at the slave side. For this purpose, a magnetorheological (MR) fluids-based master haptic interface has been developed to measure the axial and radial motions of an input catheter, as well as to provide the haptic feedback to the physician during the operation. In order to achieve a quick response of the haptic force in the master haptic interface, a hall sensor-based closed-loop control strategy is employed. In slave side, a catheter manipulator is presented to deliver the patient catheter, according to position commands received from the master haptic interface. The contact forces between the patient catheter and blood vessel system can be measured by designed force sensor unit of catheter manipulator. Four levels of haptic force are provided to make the operator aware of the resistance encountered by the patient catheter during the insertion procedure. The catheter manipulator was evaluated for precision positioning. The time lag from the sensed motion to replicated motion is tested. To verify the efficacy of the proposed haptic feedback method, the evaluation experiments in vitro are carried out. The results demonstrate that the proposed system has the ability to enable decreasing the contact forces between the catheter and vasculature.

  14. Catheter use and infection reduction in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Zach J; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infection and can result in increased health care costs, morbidity and even mortality. In 2009, The Scott & White Memorial Hospital/Texas A&M Health Science Center (Texas, USA) system’s CAUTI rate placed it in the upper quartile (ie, highest rate) for the country, necessitating a system-wide change. OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a guideline to reduce the incidence of CAUTI. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team was formed and completed both a root cause analysis and a review of the available literature. Consolidating the best evidence, the team formulated a best practice guideline detailing the proper indications for insertion of, improper use of and techniques to minimize infection with catheters. Included as part of this protocol was nursing and patient education, changes in identifying patients with a catheter and automatic termination orders. Three-, six- and 12-month reviews identifying additional opportunities for improvement at the end of 2010 were completed. RESULTS: In 2009, the hospital’s CAUTI rate was 1.46 per 1000 catheter days. In 2011 – the first complete year of the finalized guideline – the hospital’s CAUTI rate was 0.52 per 1000 catheter days, ranking the institution in the bottom quartile (ie, lowest rate) for the country. The surgery and plastic surgery subgroup analyses also demonstrated statistically significant reduction in both catheter use and CAUTI. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAUTI was successfully reduced at The Texas A&M Healthcare Center. The guideline, its development and how it applies to plastic surgery patients are discussed. PMID:24431946

  15. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  16. Prospective study of catheter-related central vein thrombosis in home parenteral nutrition patients with benign disease using serial venous Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Joly, Francisca; Corcos, Olivier; Concejo, Javier; Puiggrós, Carolina; Gil, Carmen; Pironi, Loris

    2016-02-01

    Catheter-related central vein thrombosis (CRVT) is a severe complication of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) that may be clinically manifest or subclinical. The aims of the study were to prospectively investigate the incidence of CRVT in patients on HPN with benign disease and determine the influence of different variables on this complication. A prospective, multicentre, observational study in the Home Artificial Nutrition-Chronic Intestinal Failure ESPEN group was performed. Patients with benign disease starting HPN or already on HPN after the insertion of a new catheter, were recruited and followed up with Color Doppler Duplex Sonography (CDDS) evaluations at baseline, 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months after catheter insertion. Fisher's exact test was used to calculate the association of different variables (related to the patient, type of catheter, vascular access, insertion method, catheter care and anticoagulant treatment) with CRVT events. Sixty-two patients (31 males, 31 females) aged 50 ± 19 (19-83) years were included and followed for a median 363 days, with an Inter Quartile Range of 180-365 days, and a total of 16,186 catheter-days. Six patients had previous CRVT and 16 had history of thromboembolic disease (pulmonary and mesenteric). Forty one patients were receiving anticoagulant treatment. Fifty two patients had tunneled catheters and 10 implanted ports. Two patients had symptomatic thrombosis at 3 and 12 months of follow-up (2 and 3 weeks after normal routine CDDS evaluation). The incidence of CRVT was 0.045/catheter/year. CRVT was not significantly associated with any of the variables analyzed. The incidence of CRVT in patients on HPN for benign disease followed by CDDS is low in the first year of catheterization. We did not observe any case of asymptomatic CRVT. Based on our data, CDDS seems to have low effectiveness as a screening tool for CRVT in asymptomatic patients on HPN with benign disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for

  17. First Person Point of View Augmented Reality for Central Line Insertion Training: A Usability and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Rochlen, Lauryn R.; Levine, Robert; Tait, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The value of simulation in medical education and procedural skills training is well recognized. Despite this, many mannequin-based trainers are limited by the inability of the trainee to view the internal anatomical structures. This study evaluates the usability and feasibility of a 1st person point of view (POV) augmented reality (AR) trainer on needle insertion as a component of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Methods Forty subjects, including medical students and anesthesiology residents and faculty participated. AR glasses were provided through which the relevant internal anatomical landmarks were projected. Following a practice period, participants were asked to place the needle in the mannequin without the benefit of the AR projected internal anatomy. The ability of the trainees to correctly place the needle was documented. Participants also completed a short survey describing their perceptions of the AR technology. Results Participants reported that the AR technology was realistic (77.5%) and that the ability to view the internal anatomy was helpful (92.5%). Furthermore, 85% and 82.1%, respectively, believed that the AR technology promoted learning and should be incorporated into medical training. The ability to successfully place the needle was similar between experienced and non-experienced participants, however, less experienced participants were more likely to inadvertently puncture the carotid artery. Conclusions Results of this pilot study demonstrated the usability and feasibility of AR technology as a potentially important adjunct to simulated medical skills training. Further development and evaluation of this innovative technology under a variety of simulated medical training settings would be an important next step. PMID:27930431

  18. Reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitals: study protocol for a multi-site randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brett G; Fasugba, Oyebola; Gardner, Anne; Koerner, Jane; Collignon, Peter; Cheng, Allen C; Graves, Nicholas; Morey, Peter; Gregory, Victoria

    2017-11-28

    Despite advances in infection prevention and control, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are common and remain problematic. A number of measures can be taken to reduce the risk of CAUTI in hospitals. Appropriate urinary catheter insertion procedures are one such method. Reducing bacterial colonisation around the meatal or urethral area has the potential to reduce CAUTI risk. However, evidence about the best antiseptic solutions for meatal cleaning is mixed, resulting in conflicting recommendations in guidelines internationally. This paper presents the protocol for a study to evaluate the effectiveness (objective 1) and cost-effectiveness (objective 2) of using chlorhexidine in meatal cleaning prior to catheter insertion, in reducing catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria and CAUTI. A stepped wedge randomised controlled trial will be undertaken in three large Australian hospitals over a 32-week period. The intervention in this study is the use of chlorhexidine (0.1%) solution for meatal cleaning prior to catheter insertion. During the first 8 weeks of the study, no hospital will receive the intervention. After 8 weeks, one hospital will cross over to the intervention with the other two participating hospitals crossing over to the intervention at 8-week intervals respectively based on randomisation. All sites complete the trial at the same time in 2018. The primary outcomes for objective 1 (effectiveness) are the number of cases of CAUTI and catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria per 100 catheter days will be analysed separately using Poisson regression. The primary outcome for objective 2 (cost-effectiveness) is the changes in costs relative to health benefits (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio) from adoption of the intervention. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and presentations at relevant conferences.A dissemination plan it being developed. Results will be published in the peer review literature

  19. Accuracy of chest radiography for positioning of the umbilical venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Adriana F M; Souza, Aline A C G de; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F; Meira, Zilda M A

    To evaluate the accuracy of the simultaneous analysis of three radiographic anatomical landmarks - diaphragm, cardiac silhouette, and vertebral bodies - in determining the position of the umbilical venous catheter distal end using echocardiography as a reference standard. This was a cross-sectional, observational study, with the prospective inclusion of data from all neonates born in a public reference hospital, between April 2012 and September 2013, submitted to umbilical venous catheter insertion as part of their medical care. The position of the catheter distal end, determined by the simultaneous analysis of three radiographic anatomical landmarks, was compared with the anatomical position obtained by echocardiography; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. Of the 162 newborns assessed by echocardiography, only 44 (27.16%) had the catheter in optimal position, in the thoracic portion of the inferior vena cava or at the junction of the inferior vena cava with the right atrium. The catheters were located in the left atrium and interatrial septum in 54 (33.33%) newborns, in the right atrium in 26 (16.05%), intra-hepatic in 37 (22.84%), and intra-aortic in-one newborn (0.62%). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the radiography to detect the catheter in the target area were 56%, 71%, and 67.28%, respectively. Anteroposterior radiography of the chest alone is not able to safely define the umbilical venous catheter position. Echocardiography allows direct visualization of the catheter tip in relation to vascular structures and, whenever possible, should be considered to identify the location of the umbilical venous catheter. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Linezolid Compared with Eperezolid, Vancomycin, and Gentamicin in an In Vitro Model of Antimicrobial Lock Therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis Central Venous Catheter-Related Biofilm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, John; Cormican, Martin; Fleming, Gerard; Keelehan, John; Colleran, Emer

    2003-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection (CVC-RI) is a common complication of CVC use. The most common etiological agents of CVC-RI are gram-positive organisms, in particular, staphylococci. An in vitro model for the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 on polyurethane coupons in a modified Robbins device was established. Biofilm formation was confirmed by electron microscopy and was quantified by determination of viable counts. Mueller-Hinton broth was replaced with sterile physiological saline (control) or a solution of vancomycin (10 mg/ml), gentamicin (10 mg/ml), linezolid (2 mg/ml), or eperezolid (4 mg/ml). Viable counts were performed with the coupons after exposure to antimicrobials for periods of 24, 72, 168, and 240 h. The mean viable count per coupon following establishment of the biofilm was 4.6 × 108 CFU/coupon, and that after 14 days of exposure to physiological saline was 2.5 × 107 CFU/coupon. On exposure to vancomycin (10 mg/ml), the mean counts were 2.5 × 107 CFU/coupon at 24 h, 4.3 × 106 CFU/coupon at 72 h, 1.4 × 105 CFU/coupon at 168 h, and undetectable at 240 h. With gentamicin (10 mg/ml) the mean counts were 2.7 × 107 CFU/coupon at 24 h, 3.7 × 106 CFU/coupon at 72 h, 8.4 × 106 CFU/coupon at 168 h, and 6.5 × 106 CFU/coupon at 240 h. With linezolid at 2 mg/ml the mean counts were 7.1 × 105 CFU/coupon at 24 h and not detectable at 72, 168, and 240 h. With eperezolid (4 mg/ml) no viable cells were recovered after 168 h. These data suggest that linezolid (2 mg/ml) and eperezolid (4 mg/ml) achieve eradication of S. epidermidis biofilms more rapidly than vancomycin (10 mg/ml) and gentamicin (10 mg/ml). PMID:14506022

  1. Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation.

  2. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... drainage bag. The condom catheter must be changed every day. INTERMITTENT CATHETERS You would use an intermittent catheter ... and the catheter itself with soap and water every day. Also clean the area after every bowel movement ...

  3. [Urinary catheters prevalence study in a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Carrouget, J; Legeay, C; Poirier, A; Azzouzi, A-R; Zahar, J-R; Bigot, P

    2017-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common healthcare-association infection, especially because of urinary catheter. We evaluated our practices concerning catheter insertion and management in our institution. We conducted a single-centre descriptive cross-sectional study during 1 week in September 2014 in all adult departments. We noted prevalence, indications, length, management of urinary catheter (UC) and symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections (SCAUTI). Amongst 1046 patients audited, 125 (12%) had UC. The mean age was 72 years (64.8-79.2). UC prevalence was higher in surgical (88%) and medical (87%) intensive care, urology (50%), geriatrics (18%) and long-term care (18%) departments. The average catheterisation length was 7.8 days (3.8-11.8); it was shorter in surgery than in medicine departments (3.6 vs 9.7 days, P<0.001). Catheters were present for more than 4 days in 60% of the cases. Acute urinary retention was the most frequent indication (59%), significantly more in medical than surgical departments (75% vs 26%). Others indications were perioperative (17%), diuresis monitoring (12%), strict immobilization (4%) and unnecessary indications or staff comfort (4%). A SCAUTI was present in 10% of cases, mostly in medicine department (30% vs 8%). The prevalence of our institution is higher than the national prevalence (8.1%), but still below the European average (17.2%). Control of the risk of CAUTI requires compliance with UC appropriate indications, UC management, and prompt removal of unnecessary UC. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Proximal Versus Distal Continuous Adductor Canal Blocks: Does Varying Perineural Catheter Location Influence Analgesia? A Randomized, Subject-Masked, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sztain, Jacklynn F; Khatibi, Bahareh; Monahan, Amanda M; Said, Engy T; Abramson, Wendy B; Gabriel, Rodney A; Finneran, John J; Bellars, Richard H; Nguyen, Patrick L; Ball, Scott T; Gonzales, Francis B; Ahmed, Sonya S; Donohue, Michael C; Padwal, Jennifer A; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2018-07-01

    A continuous adductor canal block provides analgesia after surgical procedures of the knee. Recent neuroanatomic descriptions of the thigh and knee led us to speculate that local anesthetic deposited in the distal thigh close to the adductor hiatus would provide superior analgesia compared to a more proximal catheter location. We therefore tested the hypothesis that during a continuous adductor canal nerve block, postoperative analgesia would be improved by placing the perineural catheter tip 2-3 cm cephalad to where the femoral artery descends posteriorly to the adductor hiatus (distal location) compared to a more proximal location at the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and the superior border of the patella (proximal location). Preoperatively, subjects undergoing total knee arthroplasty received an ultrasound-guided perineural catheter inserted either in the proximal or distal location within the adductor canal in a randomized, subject-masked fashion. Subjects received a single injection of lidocaine 2% via the catheter preoperatively, followed by an infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% (8 mL/h basal, 4 mL bolus, 30 minutes lockout) for the study duration. After joint closure, the surgeon infiltrated the entire joint using 30 mL of ropivacaine (0.5%), ketorolac (30 mg), epinephrine (5 μg/mL), and tranexamic acid (2 g). The primary end point was the median level of pain as measured on a numeric rating scale (NRS) during the time period of 8:00 AM to 12:00 PM the day after surgery. For the primary end point, the NRS of subjects with a catheter inserted at the proximal location (n = 24) was a median (10th, 25th-75th, 90th quartiles) of 0.5 (0.0, 0.0-3.2, 5.0) vs 3.0 (0.0, 2.0-5.4, 7.8) for subjects with a catheter inserted in the distal location (n = 26; P = .011). Median and maximum NRSs were lower in the proximal group at all other time points, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There were no clinically relevant or

  5. Identification of Targets for Prevention of Peritoneal Catheter Tunnel and Exit-Site Infections in Low Incidence Settings.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clara; Pérez-Fontán, Miguel; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Calvo-Rodríguez, María; López-Muñiz, Andrés; López-Calviño, Beatriz; García-Falcón, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Peritoneal catheter tunnel and exit-site infection (TESI) complicates the clinical course of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Adherence to recommendations for catheter insertion, exit-site care, and management of Staphylococcus aureus (SAu) carriage reduces, but does not abrogate the risk of these infections. ♦ To reappraise the risk profile for TESI in an experienced center with a long-term focus on management of SAu carriage and a low incidence of these infections. ♦ Following a retrospective, observational design, we investigated 665 patients incident on PD. The main study variable was survival to the first episode of TESI. We considered selected demographic, clinical, and technical variables, applying multivariate strategies of analysis. ♦ The overall incidence of TESI was 1 episode/68.5 patient-months. Staphylococcus aureus carriage disclosed at inception of PD (but not if observed sporadically during follow-up) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, p = 0.009), PD started shortly after catheter insertion (HR 0.98 per day, p = 0.011), PD after kidney transplant failure (HR 2.18, p = 0.017), lower hemoglobin levels (HR 0.88 per g/dL, p = 0.013) and fast peritoneal transport rates (HR 2.92, p = 0.03) portended an increased risk of TESI. Delaying PD ≥ 30 days after catheter insertion markedly improved the probability of TESI. Carriage of methicillin-resistant SAu since the start of PD was associated with a high incidence of TESI by these bacteria. On the contrary, resistance to mupirocin did not predict such a risk, probably due to the use of an alternative regime in affected patients. ♦ Adherence to current recommendations results in a low incidence of TESI in PD patients. Interventions on specific risk subsets have a potential to bring incidence close to negligible levels. Despite systematic screening and management, SAu carriage is still a predictor of TESI. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns may help to refine stratification of the risk of TESI by these

  6. WE-G-17A-05: Real-Time Catheter Localization Using An Active MR Tracker for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel active MR-tracking system which can provide accurate and rapid localization of brachytherapy catheters, and assess its reliability and spatial accuracy in comparison to standard catheter digitization using MR images. Methods: An active MR tracker for brachytherapy was constructed by adding three printed-circuit micro-coils to the shaft of a commercial metallic stylet. A gel phantom with an embedded framework was built, into which fifteen 14-Gauge catheters were placed, following either with parallel or crossed paths. The tracker was inserted sequentially into each catheter, with MR-tracking running continuously. Tracking was also performed during the tracker's removal frommore » each catheter. Catheter trajectories measured from the insertion and the removal procedures using the same micro-coil were compared, as well as trajectories obtained using different micro-coils. A 3D high-resolution MR image dataset of the phantom was acquired and imported into a treatment planning system (TPS) for catheter digitization. A comparison between MR-tracked positions and positions digitized from MR images by TPS was performed. Results: The MR tracking shows good consistency for varying catheter paths and for all micro-coils (mean difference ∼1.1 mm). The average distance between the MR-tracking trajectory and catheter digitization from the MR images was 1.1 mm. Ambiguity in catheter assignment from images due to crossed paths was resolved by active tracking. When tracking was interleaved with imaging, real-time images were continuously acquired at the instantaneous tip positions and displayed on an external workstation. Conclusion: The active MR tracker may be used to provide an independent measurement of catheter location in the MR environment, potentially eliminating the need for subsequent CT. It may also be used to control realtime imaging of catheter placement. This will enable MR-based brachytherapy planning of interstitial implants without

  7. Challenges for Nurses Caring for Patients With Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Skilled Nursing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, Molly; Montoya, Ana; Mody, Lona; McGuirk, Helen; Winter, Suzanne; Chopra, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand frontline nurses’ (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses), unit nurse managers’ and skilled nursing facility (SNF) administrators’ perceived preparedness in providing care for patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in SNFs. Design An exploratory, qualitative pilot study. Setting Two community based SNFs. Participants Patients, frontline nurses (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses), unit nurse managers and SNF administrators. Methods Over 36-weeks, we observed and conducted informal interviews with 56 patients with PICCs and their nurses focusing on PICC care practices and documentation. In addition, we collected baseline PICC data including placement indication (e.g., antimicrobial administration), placement setting (hospital vs. SNF), and dwell time. We then conducted focus groups with frontline nurses and unit nurse managers and semi-structured interviews with SNF administrators to evaluate perceived preparedness for PICC care. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis approach. Results During weekly informal interviews and observations variations in documentation were observed. Differences between patient-reported PICC concerns (quality-of-life) and those described by frontline nurses were noted. Deficiencies in communication between hospitals and SNFs with respect to device care, date of last dressing change and PICC removal time were also noted. During focus group sessions, perceived inadequacy of information at the time of care transitions, limited availability of resources to care for PICCs and gaps in training and education were highlighted as barriers in improving practice and safety. Conclusion Our study suggests that practices for PICC care in SNFs can be improved. Multimodal strategies that enhance staff education, improve information exchange during care transitions and increase resource availability in SNFs appear necessary to enhance PICC care and patient safety. PMID

  8. Challenges for Nurses Caring for Individuals with Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Molly; Montoya, Ana; Mody, Lona; McGuirk, Helen; Winter, Suzanne; Chopra, Vineet

    2016-10-01

    To understand the perceived preparedness of frontline nurses (registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs)), unit nurse managers, and skilled nursing facility (SNF) administrators in providing care for residents with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in SNFs. Exploratory, qualitative pilot study. Two community based SNFs. Residents with PICCs, frontline nurses (RNs, LPNs), unit nurse managers, and SNF administrators. Over 36 weeks, 56 residents with PICCs and their nurses were observed and informally interviewed, focusing on PICC care practices and documentation. In addition, baseline PICC data were collected on placement indication (e.g., antimicrobial administration), placement setting (hospital vs SNF), and dwell time. Focus groups were then conducted with frontline nurses and unit nurse managers, and semistructured interviews were conducted with SNF administrators to evaluate perceived preparedness for PICC care. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis approach. Variations in documentation were observed during weekly informal interviews and observations. Differences were noted between resident self-reported PICC concerns (quality of life) and those described by frontline nurses. Deficiencies in communication between hospitals and SNFs with respect to device care, date of last dressing change, and PICC removal time were also noted. During focus group sessions, perceived inadequacy of information at the time of care transitions, limited availability of resources to care for PICCs, and gaps in training and education were highlighted as barriers to improving practice and safety. Practices for PICC care in SNFs can be improved. Multimodal strategies that enhance staff education, improve information exchange during care transitions, and increase resource availability in SNFs appear necessary to enhance PICC care and safety. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Short-term infection in cuffed versus noncuffed small bore central catheters: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Trerotola, Scott O; Patel, Aalpen A; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Solomon, Jeffrey A; Mondschein, Jeffrey I; Stavropoulos, S William; Soulen, Michael C; Itkin, Maxim; Chittams, Jesse

    2010-02-01

    To determine if a polyester cuff offered benefit in jugular small-bore central catheters (SBCCs). Eighty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive a 5-F single- or 6-F dual-lumen SBCC with (n = 42) or without (n = 42) a polyester cuff. Follow-up was performed at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months or at catheter removal, whichever came first. At scheduled follow-up, catheter function, patient satisfaction, and infection were determined. At catheter removal, tip culture was performed to determine colonization and jugular vein patency was determined with ultrasonography (US). The overall infection rate was 0.4 per 1,000 catheter days. There was one clinical infection (noncuffed catheter). Colonization occurred in two noncuffed catheters and one cuffed catheter. There was one catheter dislodgment in the noncuffed group and none in the cuffed group. Cuffed catheters were no more difficult to insert but took slightly longer to remove (6 minutes +/- 4.7 vs 5 minutes +/- 3, P = .39) and often required local anesthesia for removal, whereas noncuffed catheters did not (41% vs 0%, P = .001). Partial (two cuffed, 0 noncuffed) or complete (two cuffed, one noncuffed) jugular thrombosis was seen on five of 58 completion US studies (8.6%). A polyester cuff on a SBCC confers no significant benefit in short-term colonization rates. Infection in SBCCs is uncommon. Despite their small diameters, SBCCs can result in jugular thrombosis, an important consideration in any patient requiring long-term venous access. Copyright (c) 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ease of intravenous catheterisation in dogs and cats: a comparative study of two peripheral catheters.

    PubMed

    Chebroux, A; Leece, E A; Brearley, J C

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate animal comfort and ease of placement of a veterinary-specific intravenous catheter compared with a catheter manufactured for human use. Fifty-nine veterinary undergraduates were recruited to perform intravenous catheterisations with two brands of over-the-needle catheter [Smiths Medical Jelco® (human use) and Abbott Animal Health catheter® (veterinary use)] in 69 healthy cats (n = 28) and dogs (n = 41) requiring general anaesthesia. After a standardised pre-anaesthetic medication, each animal was randomly allocated to have one of the two brands of catheter placed. Each student was allowed a maximum of three attempts to achieve cephalic vein catheterisation. The student and a single experienced observer evaluated each attempt. Observations related to ease of placement and to the animal's reaction were recorded. Human use catheters were placed in 34 and veterinary use in 35 animals. There was no difference in weight, sex or sedation score between the two groups. The number of failed attempts was similar between the two groups. There was no difference between groups for the number of animals reacting to catheter insertion. The two types of catheters evaluated are equally suitable for intravenous catheterisation of sedated animals by veterinary undergraduate students. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Infection and natural history of emergency department-placed central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, Christopher H; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Pandya, Darshan; Pallin, Daniel J; Silvia, Jennifer; Yokoe, Deborah; Agrawal, Ashish; Hou, Peter C

    2010-11-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI, hereafter referred to in this paper as "bloodstream infection") is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. To our knowledge, there are no previously published studies designed to determine the rate of bloodstream infection among central venous catheters placed in the emergency department (ED). We design a retrospective chart review methodology to determine bloodstream infection and duration of catheterization for central venous catheters placed in the ED. Using hospital infection control, administrative, and ED billing databases, we identified patients with central venous catheters placed in the ED between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008, at one academic, urban ED with an annual census of 57,000. We performed a structured, explicit chart review to determine duration of catheterization and confirm bloodstream infection. We screened 4,251 charts and identified 656 patients with central venous catheters inserted in the ED, 3,622 catheter-days, and 7 bloodstream infections. The rate of bloodstream infection associated with central venous catheters placed in the ED was 1.93 per 1,000 catheter-days (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 3.36). The mean duration of catheterization was 5.5 days (median 4; range 1 to 29 days). Among infected central venous catheters, the mean duration of catheterization was 8.6 days (median 7; range 2 to 19 days). A total of 667 central venous catheters were placed in the internal jugular (392; 59%), subclavian (145; 22%), and femoral (130; 19%) veins. The sensitivity of using ED procedural billing code for identifying ED-placed central venous catheters among patients subsequently admitted to any ICU was 74.9% (95% confidence interval 71.4% to 78.3%). The rate of ED bloodstream infection at our institution is similar to current rates in ICUs. Central venous catheters placed in the ED remain in admitted patients for a substantial period. Copyright © 2010 American College of

  12. Relative incidence of phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters in the lower versus upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Benaya, A; Schwartz, Y; Kory, R; Yinnon, A M; Ben-Chetrit, E

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral venous access in elderly, hospitalized patients is often challenging. The usual alternative is insertion of a central venous catheter, with associated risk for complications. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative incidence of phlebitis secondary to lower as compared to upper extremity intravenous catheters (IVCs) and associated risk factors. A non-randomized, observational, cohort-controlled study was carried out. Consecutive patients receiving a lower extremity IVC were enrolled and compared with patients receiving an upper extremity IVC. Patients were followed from insertion until removal of the IVC. The major endpoint was phlebitis. The incidence of phlebitis secondary to upper extremity IVCs was 3/50 (6 %) compared to 5/53 (9.4 %) in lower extremity IVCs (χ(2) Yates = 0.08, p = 0.776). Age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, site (arm versus leg, left versus right), and size of needle were not found to be risk factors for phlebitis according to univariate analysis. None of the patients developed bloodstream infection. In elderly patients with poor venous access, lower extremity IVCs are a reasonable and low-risk alternative to central venous catheters.

  13. Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Butler, Philip J., E-mail: philip.butler@yale.edu; Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid

    2011-02-15

    Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History ofmore » PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.« less

  14. The Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors and Central Venous Catheter Infections in the Acutely Ill Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    central venous catheter is inserted into the bloodstream, a fibrin sheath forms around the cannula which attracts bacteria . Bacteria can either migrate from...to the fibrin sheath. After colonization of the fibrin sheath, the bacteria replicate and are released into the bloodstream when symptoms may develop...culture." Rose et al. (1988, p. 511) defined catheter site infection as occurring when "cultures at the exit site are identical to bacteria found on

  15. A comparison of the effect of early insertion of standard latex and silver-impregnated latex foley catheters on urinary tract infections in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Newton, Terry; Still, Joseph M; Law, Edward

    2002-04-01

    A retrospective study was designed to compare the incidence of urinary tract infections during two different time periods in burn patients treated with two different types of Foley catheters. In time period 1, latex catheters present on admission were not changed. In time period 2, catheters were replaced on admission with silver alloy-impregnated catheters. In time period 1, the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infections was 7.2 per 1,000 catheter-days. In time period 2, the rate was 4.4 per 1,000 catheter-days. Results, compared using Fisher's exact test, revealed a statistically significant P value of .029. The use of silver-impregnated catheters significantly lowered the rate of urinary tract infection at our burn center.

  16. Inadvertent positioning of suprapubic catheter in urethra: a serious complication during change of suprapubic cystostomy in a spina bifida patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L; Soni, Bakul M; Oo, Tun; Singh, Gurpreet

    2009-12-22

    Spinal cord injury patients are at risk for developing unusual complications such as autonomic dysreflexia while changing suprapubic cystostomy. We report a male patient with spina bifida in whom the Foley catheter was placed in the urethra during change of suprapubic cystostomy with serious consequences. A male patient, born in 1972 with spina bifida and paraplaegia, underwent suprapubic cystostomy in 2003 because of increasing problems with urethral catheter. The patient would come to spinal unit for change of suprapubic catheter every four to six weeks. Two days after a routine catheter change in November 2009, this patient woke up in the morning and noticed that the suprapubic catheter had come out. He went straight to Accident and Emergency. The suprapubic catheter was changed by a health professional and this patient was sent home. But the suprapubic catheter did not drain urine. This patient developed increasing degree of pain and swelling in suprapubic region. He did not pass any urine per urethra. He felt sick and came to spinal unit five hours later. About twenty ml of contrast was injected through suprapubic catheter and X-rays were taken. The suprapubic catheter was patent; the catheter was not blocked. The Foley catheter could be seen going around in a circular manner through the urinary bladder into the urethra. The contrast did not opacify urinary bladder; but proximal urethra was seen. The tip of Foley catheter was lying in proximal urethra. The balloon of Foley catheter had been inflated in urethra. When the balloon of Foley catheter was deflated, this patient developed massive bleeding per urethra. A sterile 22 French Foley catheter was inserted through suprapubic track. The catheter drained bloody urine. He was admitted to spinal unit and received intravenous fluids and meropenem. Haematuria subsided after 48 hours. The patient was discharged home a week later in a stable condition. This case shows that serious complications can occur during

  17. Value of local electrogram characteristics predicting successful catheter ablation of left-versus right-sided accessory atrioventricular pathways by radiofrequency current.

    PubMed

    Lin, J L; Schie, J T; Tseng, C D; Chen, W J; Cheng, T F; Tsou, S S; Chen, J J; Tseng, Y Z; Lien, W P

    1995-01-01

    Despite similar guidance by local electrogram criteria, catheter ablation of right-sided accessory atrioventricular (AV) pathways by radiofrequency current has been less effective than that of left-sided ones. In order to elucidate the possible diversities in local electrosignal criteria, we systematically analyzed the morphological and timing characteristics of 215 bipolar local electrograms from catheter ablation sites of 65 left-sided accessory AV pathways and of 356 from those of 37 right-sided ones in 92 consecutive patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or AV reentrant tachycardia incorporating concealed accessory AV pathways. After stepwise multivariate analysis, we selected the presence of a possible accessory pathway potential, local ventricular activation preceding QRS complex for 20 ms or more during ventricular insertion mapping, and the local retrograde ventriculoatrial (VA) continuity, local retrograde VA interval < or = 50 ms, electrogram stability (left-sided targets only), retrograde accessory pathway potential (right-sided targets only) during atrial insertion mapping, as independent local electrogram predictors for successful ablation of left- and right-sided accessory AV pathways. Combination of all local electrogram predictors could have moderate chance of success (80 and 51%) for the ventricular and atrial insertion ablation of left-sided accessory AV pathways, but only low probability of success (40% in ventricular insertion ablation) or very low sensitivity (12.5% in atrial insertion ablation) for right-sided ones. In conclusion, with the present approach, successful catheter ablation of right-sided accessory AV pathways, compared to left-sided ones, still necessitate a breakthrough in the precision mapping and the efficiency of energy delivery.

  18. An Intelligent Catheter System Robotic Controlled Catheter System

    PubMed Central

    Negoro, M.; Tanimoto, M.; Arai, F.; Fukuda, T.; Fukasaku, K.; Takahashi, I.; Miyachi, S.

    2001-01-01

    Summary We have developed a novel catheter system, an intelligent catheter system, which is able to control a catheter by an externally-placed controller. This system has made from master-slave mechanism and has following three components; 1) a joy stick as a master (for operators) 2)a catheter controller as a slave (for a patient),3)a micro force sensor as a sensing device. This catheter tele-guiding system has abilities to perform intravascular procedures from the distant places. It may help to reduce the radiation exposures to the operators and also to help train young doctors. PMID:20663387

  19. Reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections: a quality-improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Davis, Katherine Finn; Colebaugh, Ann M; Eithun, Benjamin L; Klieger, Sarah B; Meredith, Dennis J; Plachter, Natalie; Sammons, Julia Shaklee; Thompson, Allison; Coffin, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common health care-associated infections in the United States, yet little is known about the prevention and epidemiology of pediatric CAUTIs. An observational study was conducted to assess the impact of a CAUTI quality improvement prevention bundle that included institution-wide standardization of and training on urinary catheter insertion and maintenance practices, daily review of catheter necessity, and rapid review of all CAUTIs. Poisson regression was used to determine the impact of the bundle on CAUTI rates. A retrospective cohort study was performed to describe the epidemiology of incident pediatric CAUTIs at a tertiary care children's hospital over a 3-year period (June 2009 to June 2012). Implementation of the CAUTI prevention bundle was associated with a 50% reduction in the mean monthly CAUTI rate (95% confidence interval: -1.28 to -0.12; P = .02) from 5.41 to 2.49 per 1000 catheter-days. The median monthly catheter utilization ratio remained unchanged; ∼90% of patients had an indication for urinary catheterization. Forty-four patients experienced 57 CAUTIs over the study period. Most patients with CAUTIs were female (75%), received care in the pediatric or cardiac ICUs (70%), and had at least 1 complex chronic condition (98%). Nearly 90% of patients who developed a CAUTI had a recognized indication for initial catheter placement. CAUTI is a common pediatric health care-associated infection. Implementation of a prevention bundle can significantly reduce CAUTI rates in children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Plasma transfusions prior to insertion of central lines for people with abnormal coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David P; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Walsh, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    Background The insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) may be associated with peri- and post-procedural bleeding. People who require a central line often have disorders of coagulation as a result of their underlying illness, co-morbidities or the effects of treatment. Clinical practice in some institutions is to mitigate the risk of bleeding in these patients by prophylactically transfusing fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in order to correct clotting factor deficiencies prior to central line insertion. However, FFP transfusion is not without risk, and it remains unclear whether this intervention is associated with reduced rates of bleeding or other clinically-meaningful outcomes. Objectives To assess the effect of different prophylactic plasma transfusion regimens prior to central line insertion in people with abnormal coagulation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), PubMed (e-publications only), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946), Ovid Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 1 March 2016. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of plasma to prevent bleeding in people of any age with abnormal coagulation requiring insertion of a central venous catheter, published in English. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results We identified four trials eligible for inclusion, of which three are ongoing. We did not exclude any studies because they were not published in English. The included study randomised 81 adults in intensive care whose INR (International Normalised Ratio) was greater than or equal to 1.5 to no FFP or to a single dose of 12 mL/kg FFP prior to undergoing central venous catheterisation (58 participants) or other invasive procedure (23 participants). It is the subgroup of 58 adults undergoing CVC

  1. Central venous catheters: incidence and predictive factors of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Mary; Desai, Amishi; Pasupneti, Shravani; Kress, John; Funaki, Brian; Watson, Sydeaka; Herlitz, Jean; Hines, Jane

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheter access in an acute setting can be a challenge given underlying disease and risk for venous thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are commonly placed but limit sites for fistula creation in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD). The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of venous thrombosis from small bore internal jugular (SBIJ) and PICC line placement. This investigation identifies populations of patients who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC and highlights the importance of peripheral vein preservation in patients with renal failure. A venous Doppler ultrasound was performed at the time of SBIJ insertion and removal to evaluate for thrombosis in the internal jugular vein. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention to ascertain if increased vein preservation knowledge amongst the healthcare team led to less use of PICCs. Demographic factors were collected in the SBIJ and PICC groups and risk factor analysis was completed. 1,122 subjects had PICC placement and 23 had SBIJ placement. The incidence of thrombosis in the PICC group was 10%. One patient with an SBIJ had evidence of central vein thrombosis when the catheter was removed. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a history of transplant, and the indication of total parenteral nutrition was associated with thrombosis (p<0.001). The decrease in PICCs placed in patients with CKD 6 months before and after intervention was significant (p<0.05). There are subsets of patients ith high risk for thrombosis who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC.

  2. Efficacy of Minocycline and EDTA Lock Solution in Preventing Catheter-Related Bacteremia, Septic Phlebitis, and Endocarditis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Raad, Issam; Hachem, Ray; Tcholakian, Robert K.; Sherertz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of antibiotic catheter lock solution in preventing catheter-related infections, silicone catheters were tunneled and inserted into the jugular veins of 18 rabbits. The catheters were challenged with an intraluminal injection of 105 CFU of slime-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in 0.1 ml of water. The catheters were maintained on heparin (100 IU/ml) flush for the first 3 days. On day 3, quantitative blood samples for culture were obtained from the catheters and ear veins, which documented catheter-related bacteremia, and the rabbits were randomized to have their catheters flushed as follows: five animals were continued on heparin (100 IU/ml), five animals received vancomycin (3 mg/ml) with heparin (100 IU/ml), and eight animals received 3 mg of minocycline per ml with 30 mg of EDTA per ml (M-EDTA). All animals were killed at day 7. Blood, catheters, jugular veins, and heart valves were cultured quantitatively. Animals maintained on heparin developed catheter-related colonization, bacteremia, septic phlebitis, and endocarditis. Vancomycin-heparin partially prevented catheter colonization, bacteremia, and phlebitis (P = 0.2). M-EDTA completely prevented catheter colonization, catheter-related bacteremia, and phlebitis in all of the animals (P < 0.01). Tricuspid endocarditis was equally prevented by vancomycin-heparin and M-EDTA (P ≤ 0.06). In conclusion, the M-EDTA catheter flush solution was highly efficacious in preventing catheter-related colonization, bacteremia, septic phlebitis, and endocarditis in rabbits. PMID:11796338

  3. Arterial catheter complications and management problems: observations from AACN's Thunder Project.

    PubMed

    1993-09-01

    Arterial cannulation, while common in critical care, is a procedure with attendant risks of complications. Anecdotal data from the American Association of Critical Care Nurses' Thunder Project provided evidence that catheters, insertion sites, and monitoring systems continue to be sources of complications. The problems have not changed since arterial cannulation began. Line management issues cannot be resolved until low-maintenance systems are developed.

  4. Catheter ablation as a treatment of atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Stephen; Saliba, Walid; Pai, Manjunath; Tchou, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Symptomatic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is typically treated by implantation of a pacemaker. An otherwise healthy AV conduction system can nevertheless develop AV block due to interference from junctional extrasystoles. When present with a high burden, these can produce debilitating symptoms from AV block despite an underlying normal AV node and His-Purkinje system properties. The purpose of this study was to describe a catheter ablation approach for alleviating symptomatic AV block due to a ventricular nodal pathway interfering with AV conduction. Common clinical monitoring techniques such as Holter and event recorders were used. Standard electrophysiological study techniques using multipolar recording and ablation catheters were utilized during procedures. A 55-year-old woman presented with highly symptomatic, high-burden second-degree AV block due to concealed and manifest junctional premature beats. Electrophysiological characteristics indicated interference of AV conduction due to a concealed ventricular nodal pathway as the cause of the AV block. The patient's AV nodal and His-Purkinje system conduction characteristics were otherwise normal. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the pathway was successful in restoring normal AV conduction and eliminating her clinical symptoms. Pathways inserting into the AV junction can interfere with AV conduction. When present at a high burden, this type of AV block can be highly symptomatic. Catheter ablation techniques can be used to alleviate this type of AV block and restore normal AV conduction. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety of a new compact male intermittent catheter: randomized, cross-over, single-blind study in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke; Stilling, Sine; Looms, Dagnia K

    2011-01-01

    A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice with a regular catheter. 28 participants were enrolled. Mean ± SD discomfort (visual analogue scale; primary objective) was 2.25 ± 1.5 and 2.52 ± 1.8 for the compact and regular catheters, respectively (difference -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.73 to 0.19); there was no significant difference in hematuria (p = 0.54) or discomfort/stinging/pain at first micturition (p = 0.56). During insertion, handling was easier (p = 0.0001) and touching the coating was necessary less often (2.2 vs. 81.3% of catheterizations; p < 0.0001) with the compact catheter; it was preferred by nurses for 20 of 23 participants. No adverse events were reported. Short-term safety of the new compact catheter was at least as good as that of the regular male intermittent catheter and handling was improved. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%-60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA.

  7. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%–60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA. PMID:25045278

  8. Ultrasound guided placement of the distal catheter in paediatric ventriculoatrial shunts-an appraisal of efficacy and complications.

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Chakraborty, Aabir; Roebuck, Derek J; Thompson, Dominic N P

    2016-07-01

    Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts are commonly used as a second-line treatment of hydrocephalus when the peritoneum is an unsuitable site for the distal catheter. Many centres now utilise ultrasound and interventional radiology techniques to aid placement of the distal catheter. The purpose of this study was to conduct a contemporary audit of VA shunting in children using interventional radiology techniques for placement of the distal catheter. A retrospective analysis of all patients who had VA shunts inserted between June 2000 and June 2010 was conducted using a prospectively updated surgical database and case notes review. Ninety-four VA shunts were inserted in 38 patients. Thirty-seven patients had been treated initially with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. Twenty-two patients required at least 1 shunt revision (58 %). The 6-month, 1- and 2-year shunt survival rates were 53, 43 and 27 %, respectively. Blockage was the commonest reason for shunt failure (68 %). The site of failure was proximal (ventricular catheter +/- valve) in 32 % and distal (atrial catheter) in 21 % of cases. The overall infection rate was 6 % per procedure and 11 % per patient. There were 7 deaths, of which 3 were shunt related. VA shunting provides a viable second-line option for shunt placement in complex hydrocephalus. The causes of shunt failure (blockage, infection and equipment failure) are similar to VP shunting though shunt survival rates are inferior to VP shunts. Ultrasound guided VA shunt placement provides a relatively safe, second-line alternative to the placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt when this route is unsuitable.

  9. Inadvertent positioning of suprapubic catheter in urethra: a serious complication during change of suprapubic cystostomy in a spina bifida patient - a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Spinal cord injury patients are at risk for developing unusual complications such as autonomic dysreflexia while changing suprapubic cystostomy. We report a male patient with spina bifida in whom the Foley catheter was placed in the urethra during change of suprapubic cystostomy with serious consequences. Case presentation A male patient, born in 1972 with spina bifida and paraplaegia, underwent suprapubic cystostomy in 2003 because of increasing problems with urethral catheter. The patient would come to spinal unit for change of suprapubic catheter every four to six weeks. Two days after a routine catheter change in November 2009, this patient woke up in the morning and noticed that the suprapubic catheter had come out. He went straight to Accident and Emergency. The suprapubic catheter was changed by a health professional and this patient was sent home. But the suprapubic catheter did not drain urine. This patient developed increasing degree of pain and swelling in suprapubic region. He did not pass any urine per urethra. He felt sick and came to spinal unit five hours later. About twenty ml of contrast was injected through suprapubic catheter and X-rays were taken. The suprapubic catheter was patent; the catheter was not blocked. The Foley catheter could be seen going around in a circular manner through the urinary bladder into the urethra. The contrast did not opacify urinary bladder; but proximal urethra was seen. The tip of Foley catheter was lying in proximal urethra. The balloon of Foley catheter had been inflated in urethra. When the balloon of Foley catheter was deflated, this patient developed massive bleeding per urethra. A sterile 22 French Foley catheter was inserted through suprapubic track. The catheter drained bloody urine. He was admitted to spinal unit and received intravenous fluids and meropenem. Haematuria subsided after 48 hours. The patient was discharged home a week later in a stable condition. Conclusion This case shows that

  10. Is Thrombus With Subcutaneous Edema Detected by Ultrasonography Related to Short Peripheral Catheter Failure? A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Murayama, Ryoko; Oe, Makoto; Nakagami, Gojiro; Tanabe, Hidenori; Yabunaka, Koichi; Arai, Rika; Komiyama, Chieko; Uchida, Miho; Sanada, Hiromi

    Short peripheral catheter (SPC) failure is an important clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between SPC failure and etiologies such as thrombus, subcutaneous edema, and catheter dislodgment using ultrasonography and to explore the risk factors associated with the etiologies. Two hundred catheters that were in use for infusion, excluding chemotherapy, were observed. Risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. Sixty catheters were removed as the result of SPC failure. Frequency of thrombus with subcutaneous edema in SPC failure cases was significantly greater than in those cases where therapy was completed without complications (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that 2 or more insertion attempts were significantly associated with thrombus with subcutaneous edema. Results suggest that subsurface skin assessment for catheterization could prevent SPC failure.

  11. Stability and Agreement of a Microtransducer and an Air-Filled Balloon Esophageal Catheter in the Monitoring of Esophageal Pressure.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Renan Maloni; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Jaeger, Thomas; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Caruso, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    The use of esophageal catheters with microtransducer promises advantages over traditional catheters with air-filled balloons. However, performance comparisons between these 2 types of catheters are scarce and incomplete. A catheter with a 9.5-cm air-filled balloon at the distal tip and a catheter with a microtransducer mounted within a flexible silicone rubber were tested in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the response times of both catheters were compared, and the drift of the baseline pressure of the microtransducer catheter was evaluated over a 6-h period. In vivo, 11 healthy volunteers had both catheters inserted, and the drift of the baseline esophageal pressure was measured over a 3-h period. Also, the correlation and agreement of the baseline and changes in the esophageal pressure of both catheters were evaluated. In vitro, the microtransducer catheter had a response time significantly higher (262 × 114 Hz, P < .01) and a good pressure stability, with a mean baseline pressure drift of 1.4 cm H 2 O. In vivo, both catheters presented a small and similar baseline esophageal pressure drift (P = 0.08). For measurements of baseline and changes in esophageal pressure, the correlation and agreement between the catheters were poor, with a large bias between them. The catheter with the microtransducer had a small baseline pressure drift, similar to the air-filled balloon catheter. The low agreement between the catheters does not allow the microtransducer catheter to be used as a surrogate for the traditional air-filled balloon catheter. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Detection of an embolized central venous catheter fragment with endobronchial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Harris, Kassem; Alraiyes, Abdul H; Picone, Anthony L

    2018-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman underwent Convex-probe Endobronchial Ultrasound (CP-EBUS) for 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose avid subcarinal lymphadenopathy on Positron Emission Tomogram (PET) scan. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of the subcarinal lymph node revealed squamous cell lung carcinoma. A small hyperechoic rounded density was noted inside the lumen of the azygous vein. Based on chest computed tomography findings and her clinical history, this was felt to be a broken fragment of a peripherally inserted central catheter, which was placed for intravenous antibiotics, a few months prior to this presentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever CP-EBUS description of a broken fragment of central venous catheter. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration.

    PubMed

    Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

    2014-07-01

    Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance.

  14. Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo

    2016-05-04

    Central venous catheters are commonly used in critically ill patients. Such catheterization may entail mechanical and infectious complications. The interest in catheter-related infection lies in the morbidity, mortality and costs that it involved. Numerous contributions have been made in the prevention of catheter-related infection and the current review focuses on the possible current role of antimicrobial impregnated catheters to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). There is evidence that the use of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CHSS), rifampicin-minocycline, or rifampicin-miconazol impregnated catheters reduce the incidence of CRBSI and costs. In addition, there are some clinical circumstances associated with higher risk of CRBSI, such as the venous catheter access and the presence of tracheostomy. Current guidelines for the prevention of CRBSI recommended the use of a CHSS or rifampicin-minocycline impregnated catheter in patients whose catheter is expected to remain in place > 5 d and if the CRBSI rate has not decreased after implementation of a comprehensive strategy to reduce it.

  15. Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheters are commonly used in critically ill patients. Such catheterization may entail mechanical and infectious complications. The interest in catheter-related infection lies in the morbidity, mortality and costs that it involved. Numerous contributions have been made in the prevention of catheter-related infection and the current review focuses on the possible current role of antimicrobial impregnated catheters to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). There is evidence that the use of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CHSS), rifampicin-minocycline, or rifampicin-miconazol impregnated catheters reduce the incidence of CRBSI and costs. In addition, there are some clinical circumstances associated with higher risk of CRBSI, such as the venous catheter access and the presence of tracheostomy. Current guidelines for the prevention of CRBSI recommended the use of a CHSS or rifampicin-minocycline impregnated catheter in patients whose catheter is expected to remain in place > 5 d and if the CRBSI rate has not decreased after implementation of a comprehensive strategy to reduce it. PMID:27152256

  16. Evaluation of electrical nerve stimulation for epidural catheter positioning in the dog.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L; Sanders, Robert; Shih, Andre C; Sonea, Ioana M; Hauptman, Joseph G

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of epidural catheter placement at different levels of the spinal cord guided solely by electrical nerve stimulation and resultant segmental muscle contraction. Prospective, experiment. Six male and two female Beagles, age (1 ± 0.17 years) and weight (12.9 ± 1.1 kg). Animals were anesthetized with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. An insulated epidural needle was used to reach the lumbosacral epidural space. A Tsui epidural catheter was inserted and connected to a nerve stimulator (1.0 mA, 0.1 ms, 2 Hz) to assess positioning of the tip at specific spinal cord segments. The catheter was advanced to three different levels of the spinal cord: lumbar (L2-L5), thoracic (T5-T10) and cervical (C4-C6). Subcutaneous needles were previously placed at these spinal levels and the catheter was advanced to match the needle location, guided only by corresponding muscle contractions. Catheter position was verified by fluoroscopy. If catheter tip and needle were at the same vertebral body a score of zero was assigned. When catheter tip was cranial or caudal to the needle, positive or negative numbers, respectively, corresponding to the number of vertebrae between them, were assigned. The mean and standard deviation of the number of vertebrae between catheter tip and needle were calculated to assess accuracy. Results are given as mean ± SD. The catheter position in relation to the needle was within 0.3 ± 2.0 vertebral bodies. Positive predictive values (PPV) were 57%, 83% and 71% for lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions respectively. Overall PPV was 70%. No significant difference in PPV among regions was found. Placement of an epidural catheter at specific spinal levels using electrical nerve stimulation was feasible without radiographic assistance in dogs. Two vertebral bodies difference from the target site may be clinically acceptable when performing segmental epidural regional anesthesia. © 2013 Association of Veterinary

  17. Infraclavicular versus axillary nerve catheters: A retrospective comparison of early catheter failure rate.

    PubMed

    Quast, Michaela B; Sviggum, Hans P; Hanson, Andrew C; Stoike, David E; Martin, David P; Niesen, Adam D

    2018-05-01

    Continuous brachial plexus catheters are often used to decrease pain following elbow surgery. This investigation aimed to assess the rate of early failure of infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) nerve catheters following elbow surgery. Retrospective study. Postoperative recovery unit and inpatient hospital floor. 328 patients who received IC or AX nerve catheters and underwent elbow surgery were identified by retrospective query of our institution's database. Data collected included unplanned catheter dislodgement, catheter replacement rate, postoperative pain scores, and opioid administration on postoperative day 1. Catheter failure was defined as unplanned dislodging within 24 h of placement or requirement for catheter replacement and evaluated using a covariate adjusted model. 119 IC catheters and 209 AX catheters were evaluated. There were 8 (6.7%) failed IC catheters versus 13 (6.2%) failed AX catheters. After adjusting for age, BMI, and gender there was no difference in catheter failure rate between IC and AX nerve catheters (p = 0.449). These results suggest that IC and AX nerve catheters do not differ in the rate of early catheter failure, despite differences in anatomic location and catheter placement techniques. Both techniques provided effective postoperative analgesia with median pain scores < 3/10 for patients following elbow surgery. Reasons other than rate of early catheter failure should dictate which approach is performed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A prospective clinical trial to assess peripheral venous catheter-related phlebitis using needleless connectors in a surgery department.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Ohad; Shlomo, Fanny; Ben-Adiva, Gila; Edri, Zehava; Shema-Didi, Lilach

    2017-10-01

    The use of intravascular catheters is often complicated by phlebitis, which is associated with increased morbidity and extended duration of hospitalization. We conducted a study to investigate the impact of needleless intravenous access devices on the rate of phlebitis in peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). We prospectively recruited patients in 2 phases. The first group was treated with a regular cap, and the second group was treated with a needleless connector. The incidence of catheter-related phlebitis (CRP) was recorded as the primary end point. A total of 620 PVCs using regular caps were inserted into 340 patients and CRP rates were recorded. In the second phase of the study, 169 PVCs using needleless connectors were inserted into 135 patients. In the group treated with the regular cap, the CRP rate was 60% compared with 7% in the group treated with the needleless cap (P <.001). Consequently, the number of catheter replacements was decreased from 1.9 on average to 1.3 (P <.001). In both phases, patients who developed phlebitis had a statistically significant longer mean hospitalization period (P <.001), as were patients in the regular cap group (P <.01). The use of needleless connectors was found to be associated with a significant reduction of CRP in peripheral veins in a surgery department setting. The decreased morbidity resulted in a lower number of catheter replacements and duration of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. IR Approaches to Difficult Removals of Totally Implanted Venous Access Port Catheters in Children: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Patel, Premal Amrishkumar; Parra, Dimitri A; Bath, Ramnik; Amaral, Joao G; Temple, Michael J; John, Philip R; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-06-01

    To identify factors associated with adherence of implanted venous access port catheters in children and describe technical strategies for removing "stuck" ports. A retrospective single-center review of port removals was conducted between 2003 and 2012. Cases were identified through radiology reports. Clinical details (eg, demographics, disease, port dwell time, interventional techniques) were obtained through patient charts. Cases were classified as difficult removals if there was documented adherence to soft tissues or vein, or simple removals if no difficulty was recorded. Difficult removals were categorized and graded on increasing invasiveness of techniques required. Successful removal was defined as complete removal of the port catheter. Difficult removals were compared with simple removals for factors associated with difficult removal. Of all removals (N = 1,306), 58 were classified as difficult removals (4%). Using various techniques, 57 of 58 (98%) adherent port catheters were successfully removed. Factors identified with difficult removals included primary diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (78% vs 37%, P < .0001), age at insertion (3.7 y vs 5.4 y, P = .0019), and port dwell time (median 1,087 d vs 616 d, P < .0001). Difficulty removing port catheters in children is uncommon. Port catheters can usually be removed successfully using various IR techniques ranging in invasiveness. There is an association of difficult removal with early age at insertion, ALL diagnosis, and long port dwell time. Awareness of these factors may help physicians inform parents of potential difficulties and plan the removal procedure. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration

    PubMed Central

    Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. Methods: This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. Conclusion: The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance. PMID:25097505

  1. Needle localization using a moving stylet/catheter in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Rohling, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Despite the wide range and long history of ultrasound guided needle insertions, an unresolved issue in many cases is clear needle visibility. A well-known ad hoc technique to detect the needle is to move the stylet and look for changes in the needle appearance. We present a new method to automatically locate a moving stylet/catheter within a stationary cannula using motion detection. We then use this information to detect the needle trajectory and the tip. The differences between the current frame and the previous frame are detected and localized, to minimize the influence of tissue global motions. A polynomial fit based on the detected needle axis determines the estimated stylet shaft trajectory, and the extent of the differences along the needle axis represents the tip. Over a few periodic movements of the stylet including its full insertion into the cannula to the tip, a combination of polynomial fits determines the needle trajectory and the last detected point represents the needle tip. Experiments are conducted in water bath and bovine muscle tissue for several stylet/catheter materials. Results show that a plastic stylet has the best needle shaft and tip localization accuracy in the water bath with RMSE = 0:16 mm and RMSE = 0:51 mm, respectively. In the bovine tissue, the needle tip was best localized with the plastic catheter with RMSE = 0:33 mm. The stylet tip localization was most accurate with the steel stylet, with RMSE = 2:81 mm and the shaft was best localized with the plastic catheter, with RMSE = 0:32 mm.

  2. Observations on the development of the crystalline bacterial biofilms that encrust and block Foley catheters.

    PubMed

    Stickler, D J; Morgan, S D

    2008-08-01

    The care of many patients undergoing long-term bladder catheterisation is complicated when the flow of urine through the catheter is blocked by encrustation. The problem results from infection by urease-producing bacteria, especially Proteus mirabilis, and the subsequent formation of crystalline biofilms on the catheter. The aim of this study was to discover how P. mirabilis initiates the development of these crystalline biofilms. The early stages in the formation of the biofilms were observed on a range of Foley catheters in a laboratory model of the catheterised bladder. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that when all-silicone, silicone-coated latex, hydrogel-coated latex, hydrogel/silver-coated latex and nitrofurazone silicone catheters were inserted into bladder models containing P. mirabilis and alkaline urine, their surfaces were rapidly coated with a microcrystalline foundation layer. X-ray microanalysis showed that this material was composed of calcium phosphate. Bacterial colonisation of the foundation layer followed and by 18h the catheters were encrusted by densely populated crystalline P. mirabilis biofilms. These observations have important implications for the development of encrustation-resistant catheters. In the case of silver catheters for example, bacterial cells can attach to the crystalline foundation layer and continue to grow, protected from contact with the underlying silver. If antimicrobials are to be incorporated into catheters to prevent encrustation, it is important that they diffuse into the urine and prevent the rise in pH that triggers crystal formation.

  3. A Novel Nonantibiotic Nitroglycerin-Based Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Intraluminal Central Venous Catheter Infections in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hachem, Ray; Szvalb, Ariel; Taremi, Mahnaz; Granwehr, Bruno; Viola, George Michael; Sapna, Amin; Assaf, Andrew; Numan, Yazan; Shah, Pankil; Gasitashvili, Ketevan; Natividad, Elizabeth; Jiang, Ying; Slack, Rebecca; Reitzel, Ruth; Rosenblatt, Joel; Mouhayar, Elie; Raad, Issam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). The current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel nonantibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) to receive the study lock solution. The study lock consisted of 15 or 30 μg/ml of nitroglycerin in combination with 4% sodium citrate and 22% ethanol. Each lumen was locked for at least 2 h once daily prior to being flushed. After enrollment of 10 patients at the lower nitroglycerin dose without evidence of toxicity, the dose was escalated to the higher dose (30 μg/ml). There were no serious related adverse events or episodes of hypotension with lock administration. Two patients experienced mild transient adverse events (one headache and one rash) possibly related to the lock and that resolved without residual effect. The CLABSI rate was 0 on lock days versus 1.6/1,000 catheter days (CD) off lock prophylaxis, compared with a rate of 1.9/1,000 CD at the institution in the same patient population. In conclusion, the nitroglycerin-based lock prophylaxis is safe and well tolerated. It may prevent CLABSI when given daily to cancer patients. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to validate these findings. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02577718.) PMID:28416559

  4. Verification of intravenous catheter placement by auscultation--a simple, noninvasive technique.

    PubMed

    Lehavi, Amit; Rudich, Utay; Schechtman, Moshe; Katz, Yeshayahu Shai

    2014-01-01

    Verification of proper placement of an intravenous catheter may not always be simple. We evaluated the auscultation technique for this purpose. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomized for 18G catheter inserted intravenously either in the right (12) or left arm (8), and subcutaneously in the opposite arm. A standard stethoscope was placed over an area approximately 3 cm proximal to the tip of the catheter in the presumed direction of the vein to grade on a 0-6 scale the murmur heard by rapidly injecting 2 mL of NaCl 0.9% solution. The auscultation was evaluated by a blinded staff anesthesiologist. All 20 intravenous injection were evaluated as flow murmurs, and were graded an average 5.65 (±0.98), whereas all 20 subcutaneous injections were evaluated as either crackles or no sound, and were graded an average 2.00 (±1.38), without negative results. Sensitivity was calculated as 95%. Specificity and Kappa could not be calculated due to an empty false-positive group. Being simple, handy and noninvasive, we recommend to use the auscultation technique for verification of the proper placement of an intravenous catheter when uncertain of its position. Data obtained in our limited sample of healthy subjects need to be confirmed in the clinical setting.

  5. Experience with the bonanno catheter in the management of OHSS from IVF-ET Cycles.

    PubMed

    Okohue, J E; Oriji, V K; Ikimalo, J I

    2017-07-01

    To document our experience with the use of the Bonanno catheter as a closed abdominal drain for OHSS Methods: A retrospective study of all IVF embryo transfer (ET) treatment cycles carried out between May 2006 and April 2009 at a dedicated IVF centre. Case notes of patients with OHSS were retrieved and the outcome of the continuous closed abdominal drain with Bonanno catheter documented. Within the period under review, 234 patients had controlled ovarian stimulation with ultrasound guided egg retrieval. Two hundred and twenty eight (228) got to the stage of embryo transfer with 72 clinical pregnancies. The clinical pregnancy rate was 31.58%. Fourteen (6%) of those who were stimulated developed OHSS and had a closed abdominal drain of the ascitic fluid using the Bonanno catheter. The average number of days of the abdominal drainage was 7.5days and the average volume of ascitic fluid drained from a patient per day was 2454.9 + 748mls. Eight (8) patients who had OHSS achieved clinical pregnancy (six intrauterine, one ectopic and one heterotopic pregnancies), giving a clinical pregnancy rate of 57.14% in patients with OHSS. Four patients had blocked Bonanno catheters and three of them had the catheter changed while the fourth had the catheter successfully flushed. Four patients had the insertion site dressing changed due to soaking with ascitic fluid. There was no incidence of injury to intra abdominal organs or broken catheter. Bonanno Catheter is both effective and safe in draining ascitic fluid following OHSS.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Open Versus Laparoscopic Placement of a Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter and Outcomes: The CAPD I Trial.

    PubMed

    van Laanen, Jorinde H H; Cornelis, Tom; Mees, Barend M; Litjens, Elisabeth J; van Loon, Magda M; Tordoir, Jan H M; Peppelenbosch, Arnoud G

    2018-01-01

    To determine the best operation technique, open versus laparoscopic, for insertion of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter with regard to clinical success. Clinical success was defined as an adequate function of the catheter 2 - 4 weeks after insertion. All patients with end-stage renal disease who were suitable for PD and gave informed consent were randomized for either open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. A previous laparotomy was not considered an exclusion criterion. Laparoscopic placement had the advantage of pre-peritoneal tunneling, the possibility for adhesiolysis, and placement of the catheter under direct vision. Catheter fixation techniques, omentopexy, or other adjunct procedures were not performed. Other measured parameters were in-hospital morbidity and mortality and post-operative infections. Between 2010 and 2016, 95 patients were randomized to this study protocol. After exclusion of 5 patients for various reasons, 44 patients received an open procedure and 46 patients a laparoscopic procedure. Gender, age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, current hemodialysis, severe heart failure, and previous an abdominal operation were not significantly different between the groups. However, in the open surgery group, fewer patients had a previous median laparotomy compared with the laparoscopic group (6 vs 16 patients; p = 0.027). There was no statistically significant difference in mean operation time (36 ± 24 vs 38 ± 15 minutes) and hospital stay (2.1 ± 2.7 vs 3.1 ± 7.3 days) between the groups. In the open surgery group 77% of the patients had an adequate functioning catheter 2 - 4 weeks after insertion compared with 70% of patients in the laparoscopic group ( p = not significant [NS]). In the open surgery group there was 1 post-operative death (2%) compared with none in the laparoscopic group ( p = NS). The morbidity in both groups was low and not significantly different. In the open surgery group, 2 patients had an exit-site infection and 1 patient

  7. EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Factors Facilitating Clinical Nurse Engagement in Emergency Department Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Eileen J; Pallin, Daniel J; Mandel, Leslie; Sinnette, Corine; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the actions of nurse leaders that facilitated clinical nurses' active involvement in emergency department (ED) catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention programs. Hospitals face increasing financial pressures to reduce CAUTI. Urinary catheters, often inserted in the ED, expose patients to CAUTI risk. Nurses are the principal champions of ED CAUTI prevention programs. This was a qualitative analysis from a multisite, comparative case study project. A total of 52 interviews and 9 focus groups were analyzed across 6 enrolled EDs. Using a conventional content analysis, members of the research team coded data and developed site summaries to describe themes that had emerged across transcripts. Subsequently, all codes and site summaries were reviewed to identify the actions of nurse leaders that facilitated clinical nurses' engagement in CAUTI prevention efforts. Nurse leaders were the principal champions of CAUTI prevention programs and successfully engaged clinical nurses in CAUTI prevention efforts by (1) reframing urinary catheters as a source of potential patient harm; (2) empowering clinical nurses to identify and address CAUTI improvement opportunities; (3) fostering a culture of teamwork, which facilitated interdisciplinary communication around urinary catheter appropriateness and alternatives; and (4) holding clinical nurses accountable for CAUTI process and outcome measures. The prevention of CAUTI is an important opportunity for nurse leaders to engage clinical nurses in meaningful improvement efforts. Clinical nurses are best positioned to examine urinary catheter insertion workflow and to suggest improvements in avoiding use and improving placement and maintenance. To engage clinical nurses in CAUTI prevention, nurse leaders should focus on how urinary catheters expose patients to potential harm, involve nurses in designing and implementing practice changes, and provide local data to show the impact of

  9. Intraventricular catheter placement by electromagnetic navigation safely applied in a paediatric major head injury patient.

    PubMed

    Aufdenblatten, Christoph Alexander; Altermatt, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    In the management of severe head injuries, the use of intraventricular catheters for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and the option of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is gold standard. In children and adolescents, the insertion of a cannula in a compressed ventricle in case of elevated intracranial pressure is difficult; therefore, a pressure sensor is placed more often intraparenchymal as an alternative option. In cases of persistent elevated ICP despite maximal brain pressure management, the use of an intraventricular monitoring device with the possibility of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is favourable. We present the method of intracranial catheter placement by means of an electromagnetic navigation technique.

  10. Permanent catheters for recurrent ascites-a critical and systematic review of study methodology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lars; Wildgaard, Lorna; Wildgaard, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Management of refractory ascites traditionally includes medical treatment with diuretics or intermittent paracentesis. Patients with recurrent ascites may benefit from the use of permanent intra-abdominal catheters with more frequent drainage without hospitalization. The objective was to systematically asses the methodology of factors and endpoints reported in studies investigating permanent catheters for recurrent ascites treatment. Using a systematic search strategy, we critically assessed the methodology when treating refractory ascites using a permanent catheter. Studies critically assessed included both retro- and prospective studies. A total of 715 unique articles were found via PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Embase. Twenty-nine studies (tunnelled catheter = 12, peritoneal ports = 6 and peritoneovenous shunts = 11) with three distinct types of permanent catheters fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only three studies reported technical success less than 100 %. Data on complications and treatment were not available in all papers; peritonitis (48 %), cellulitis (41 %), prophylactic antibiotics (48 %) and complications to catheter insertion were difficult to distinguish from advanced co-morbidity of patients. Thirteen studies (45 %) reported some type of evaluating patient experience or functional outcome, but only three studies used validated reproducible scales when assessing outcomes. Fifteen of the 29 studies included 30 patients or less. Knowledge is limited because complications and outcomes are poorly defined. The expected increase in catheter treatment of refractory ascites necessitates comparative studies, using validated patient-related outcomes, and the reporting of unambiguous complications. A proposal of variables to include in future studies is presented.

  11. Catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia with HDR brachytherapy for treatment of locally advanced cancer of the prostate and cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Juang, Titania; Scott, Serena; Chen, Xin; Cunha, Adam; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I. C.

    2011-03-01

    A clinical treatment delivery platform has been developed and is being evaluated in a clinical pilot study for providing 3D controlled hyperthermia with catheter-based ultrasound applicators in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Catheter-based ultrasound applicators are capable of 3D spatial control of heating in both angle and length of the devices, with enhanced radial penetration of heating compared to other hyperthermia technologies. Interstitial and endocavity ultrasound devices have been developed specifically for applying hyperthermia within HDR brachytherapy implants during radiation therapy in the treatment of cervix and prostate. A pilot study of the combination of catheter based ultrasound with HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate and cervical cancer has been initiated, and preliminary results of the performance and heating distributions are reported herein. The treatment delivery platform consists of a 32 channel RF amplifier and a 48 channel thermocouple monitoring system. Controlling software can monitor and regulate frequency and power to each transducer section as required during the procedure. Interstitial applicators consist of multiple transducer sections of 2-4 cm length × 180 deg and 3-4 cm × 360 deg. heating patterns to be inserted in specific placed 13g implant catheters. The endocavity device, designed to be inserted within a 6 mm OD plastic tandem catheter within the cervix, consists of 2-3 transducers × dual 180 or 360 deg sectors. 3D temperature based treatment planning and optimization is dovetailed to the HDR optimization based planning to best configure and position the applicators within the catheters, and to determine optimal base power levels to each transducer section. To date we have treated eight cervix implants and six prostate implants. 100 % of treatments achieved a goal of >60 min duration, with therapeutic temperatures achieved in all cases. Thermal dosimetry within the hyperthermia target

  12. Lessons from French National Guidelines on the treatment of venous thrombosis and central venous catheter thrombosis in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farge, Dominique; Durant, Cecile; Villiers, Stéphane; Long, Anne; Mahr, Alfred; Marty, Michel; Debourdeau, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Increased prevalence of Venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), central venous catheter (CVC) related thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) in cancer patients has become a major therapeutic issue. Considering the epidemiology and each national recommendations on the treatment of VTE in cancer patients, we analysed guidelines implementation in clinical practice. Thrombosis is the second-leading cause of death in cancer patients and cancer is a major risk factor of VTE, due to activation of coagulation, use of long-term CVC, the thrombogenic effects of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs. Three pivotal trials (CANTHANOX, LITE and CLOT) and several meta-analysis led to recommend the long term (3 to 6 months) use of LMWH during for treating VTE in cancer patients with a high level of evidence. The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the French "Institut National du Cancer" (INCa), the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCCP) have published specific guidelines for health care providers regarding the prevention and treatment of cancer-associated VTE. Critical appraisal of these guidelines, difficulties in implementation of prophylaxis regimen, tolerance and cost effectiveness of long term use of LMWH may account for large heterogenity in daily clinical practice. Homogenization of these guidelines in international consensus using an adapted independent methodological approach followed by educational and active implementation strategies at each national level would be very valuable to improve the care of VTE in cancer patients.

  13. Emergency physician perspectives on central venous catheterization in the emergency department: a survey-based study.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Dustin W; Reed, Mary E; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Chettipally, Uli K; Offerman, Steven R; Mark, Dustin G; Vinson, David R

    2014-06-01

    2) postresidency, formal 236 of 359 (66%) and informal 260 of 365 (71%). The most commonly self-reported barriers to CVC were procedural time (56%) and complication risk (61%). After multivariate adjustment, the following were significantly associated with greater self-reported CVC use (p < 0.01): 1) informal bedside CVC training after residency, 2) male sex, 3) disagreement with complication-related barrier questions, and 4) self-reported comfort with placing US-guided internal jugular catheters. In this cross-sectional survey-based study, EPs reported varying experience with CVC in the ED and reported high comfort with the US CVC technique. Postresidency informal training experience, male sex, negative responses to complication-related barrier questions, and comfort with placing US-guided internal jugular catheters were associated with yearly CVC volume. These results suggest that higher rates of CVC in eligible patients might be achieved by informal training programs in US and/or by disseminating existing evidence about the low risk of complications associated with the procedure. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. A Novel Nonantibiotic Nitroglycerin-Based Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Intraluminal Central Venous Catheter Infections in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Szvalb, Ariel; Taremi, Mahnaz; Granwehr, Bruno; Viola, George Michael; Sapna, Amin; Assaf, Andrew; Numan, Yazan; Shah, Pankil; Gasitashvili, Ketevan; Natividad, Elizabeth; Jiang, Ying; Slack, Rebecca; Reitzel, Ruth; Rosenblatt, Joel; Mouhayar, Elie; Raad, Issam

    2017-07-01

    For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). The current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel nonantibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) to receive the study lock solution. The study lock consisted of 15 or 30 μg/ml of nitroglycerin in combination with 4% sodium citrate and 22% ethanol. Each lumen was locked for at least 2 h once daily prior to being flushed. After enrollment of 10 patients at the lower nitroglycerin dose without evidence of toxicity, the dose was escalated to the higher dose (30 μg/ml). There were no serious related adverse events or episodes of hypotension with lock administration. Two patients experienced mild transient adverse events (one headache and one rash) possibly related to the lock and that resolved without residual effect. The CLABSI rate was 0 on lock days versus 1.6/1,000 catheter days (CD) off lock prophylaxis, compared with a rate of 1.9/1,000 CD at the institution in the same patient population. In conclusion, the nitroglycerin-based lock prophylaxis is safe and well tolerated. It may prevent CLABSI when given daily to cancer patients. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to validate these findings. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02577718.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of medical grade polyurethane composite catheters for near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, André T; Reese, Laura M; Hill, Tanner K; McGuire, Jeffrey; Mohs, Aaron M; Shekhar, Raj; Bickford, Lissett R; Whittington, Abby R

    2015-06-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are hollow polymeric tubes that transport nutrients, blood and medications to neonates. To determine proper PICC placement, frequent X-ray imaging of neonates is performed. Because X-rays pose severe health risks to neonates, safer alternatives are needed. We hypothesize that near infrared (NIR) polymer composites can be fabricated into catheters by incorporating a fluorescent dye (IRDye 800CW) and visualized using NIR imaging. To fabricate catheters, polymer and dye are dry mixed and pressed, sectioned, and extruded to produce hollow tubes. We analyzed surface roughness, stiffness, dye retention, NIR contrast intensity, and biocompatibility. The extrusion process did not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the polymer composites. Over a period of 23 days, only 6.35 ± 5.08% dye leached out of catheters. The addition of 0.025 wt% dye resulted in a 14-fold contrast enhancement producing clear PICC images at 1 cm under a tissue equivalent. The addition of IRDye 800CW did not alter the biocompatibility of the polymer and did not increase adhesion of cells to the surface. We successfully demonstrated that catheters can be imaged without the use of harmful radiation and still maintain the same properties as the unaltered medical grade equivalent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Superior vena cava syndrome unrelated to central venous catheter in a patient on chronic hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Marco; Mancini, Elena; Salvati, Filippo; Santoro, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease (polycystic kidney disease) who had been on dialysis for 10 years came to our department for a second opinion about upper left arm edema homolateral to the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Because of the suspicion of venous stenosis she had already been submitted to angiographic examination of the AVF which, however, did not show any occlusive process. In addition to the kidney problem, the clinical history included dilated cardiomyopathy, and 2 years earlier a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) had been placed. The patient had never had a central venous catheter (CVC). She presented a typical superior vena cava syndrome picture with arm, neck and hemifacial edema and superficial cutaneous venous reticulum. The venous pressure during extracoroporeal circulation was high and blood recirculation was documented. Angio-CT was performed to look for a compressive process in the chest, but this was excluded. We then performed a new trans-AVF angiography to study extensively the axillary-subclavian-superior vena cava district. At first, no stenosis or thrombosis was observed, but the presence of ICD and its leads (left-sided implanted) in the anonymous vein created obstacles to diagnosis. Repeated injections of contrast medium and focusing imaging on the leads route allowed us to highlight a venous stenosis in the anonymous vein. Transluminal angioplasty was successfully carried out during the same procedure. 1) In hemodialysis patients the appearance of signs of intrathoracic vein drainage obstacles is not always associated with previous CVC implantation; 2) in the hemodialysis patient, any device (PM, ICD) should be implanted contralaterally to the fistula arm in order to avoid the risk that a venous stenosis may cause AVF dysfunction.

  17. CT guided transthoracic catheter drainage of intrapulmonary abscess.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Mahira

    2009-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of CT- guided transthoracic catheter drainage of intrapulmonary abscess considering success rate versus complications. This prospective study was carried out at radiology department of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from 1.1.2003 to 31.12.2005. Nineteen patients were selected for CT guided percutaneous drainage. Under CT guidance catheter placement was carried out using Seldinger technique. Nineteen patients with lung abscess were selected for the percutaneous CT guided drainage. Eight (42.105%) patients encountered no complications and lung abscess completely resolved with no residual cavity. Five (26.31%) patients developed pneumothorax, which was the most common complication of this study. These patients were kept under observation and followed-up by chest X-rays. Three (15.78%) had mild pneumothorax, which resolved and needed no further management, while two (10.52%) patients developed moderate pneumothorax and chest tube was inserted. Two (10.52%) patients developed mild haemoptysis which resolved within two hours, hence, no further management was required. Two (10.52%) patients had residual cavity and surgery was performed. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) was found in both cases. Two patients out of nineteen patients (10.52%) developed bronchopleural fistula and were operated. No mortality occurred during or after the procedure. CT allows optimal placement of catheter and hence enables safe and effective percutaneous evacuation of lung abscess. The morbidity and mortality of patients with percutaneous catheter drainage is lower than with surgical resection. Hence, CT guided drainage should be considered the first therapeutic choice in most patients of lung abscess who do not respond to medical therapy.

  18. Ethanol combined with heparin as a locking solution for the prevention of catheter related blood stream infections in hemodialysis patients: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Sofroniadou, Sofia; Revela, Ioanna; Kouloubinis, Alexandros; Makriniotou, Ioanna; Zerbala, Sinodi; Smirloglou, Despina; Kalocheretis, Petros; Drouzas, Apostolos; Samonis, George; Iatrou, Christos

    2017-10-01

    Ethanol lock solution has been mainly administered in paediatric and home parenteral nutrition patients in order to prevent catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI). Its utility in hemodialysis (HD) patients with non-tunneled-uncuffed catheter (NTC) has been poorly explored. We conducted a prospective randomized study in chronic HD patients requiring a newly inserted NTC-while awaiting for the maturation of an already established arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) or tunneled-cuffed catheter insertion. Patients were randomized in two groups: Group A, where the lock solution was ethanol 70% + unfractionated heparin 2000 U/mL and group B, that received only unfractionated heparin 2000 U/mL. Primary end point was CRBSIs whereas exit site infections, thrombotic and bleeding episodes were the secondary end points. One hundred three HD patients were enrolled in the study (group A, n = 52; group B, n = 51). The median number of catheter days was 32 for group A (range: 23-39) and 34 (range: 27-40) for group B with no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Group A (ethanol + heparin) demonstrated 4/52 episodes (7.69%) of CRBSI whereas Group B (heparin) 11/51 episodes (21.57%) (P = 0.04). CRBSI rates per 1000 catheter days were 2.53/1000 catheter days for group A and 6.7/1000 catheter days for group B (P = 0.04). Mean cumulative infection-free catheter survival in the ethanol group did not differ significantly compared to the heparin group (log-rank test = 2.99, P = 0.08). Thrombotic episodes did not differ between the two groups. Locking of NTCs in HD patients with ethanol 70% + unfractionated heparin reduces CRBSI rates without increasing the thrombotic episodes. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  19. Peroperative electrocardiographic control of catheter tip position during implantation of femoral venous ports.

    PubMed

    Gibault, Pierre; Desruennes, Eric; Bourgain, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) guidance has been shown to be as effective than fluoroscopy to position the tip of central venous devices close to the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium (RA) junction. When SVC access is contraindicated, a femoral access may be used. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of ECG guidance to position the tip of femoral ports at inferior vena cava (IVC)-RA junction. Inclusion criterion was the need for femoral port implantation. After insertion of the dilator in the femoral vein, the catheter with the guide wire inside was introduced and the ECG signal collected at the tip of the guide (Celsite™ ECG, B. Braun, Germany) or via saline injected in the catheter (Nautilus™, Perouse, France). Fluoroscopy was performed at each change of the P-wave from IVC to RA. A final X-ray was performed after withdrawing the catheter 2 cm below the first P-wave change. A total of 18 patients were included between December 2011 and June 2013. The P-wave was most often negative in IVC, biphasic when the catheter entered RA and giant and positive at the top of RA. When the catheter was withdraw 2 cm below the first biphasic P-wave the tip was just below the IVC-RA junction in 17 patients. In one patient P-wave changes were not significant and the final position was adjusted under fluoroscopy. ECG guidance is effective to assess catheter tip position during femoral port placement and avoids the need for radiological methods.

  20. Percutaneous implantation of a Port-Catheter System using the left subclavian artery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen Yong; He Xiaofeng; Chen Weiguo

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a percutaneous Port-Catheter System (PCS) implanted via the subclavian artery (SCA) for regional chemotherapy or chemoembolization of thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic malignant tumors.Methods: Percutaneous puncture of the SCA was performed in 256 patients with thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic malignant tumors; then a catheter was inserted into the target artery. After the first transcatheter chemotherapy or chemoembolization with an emulsion of lipiodol and anticancer agents, an indwelling catheter was introduced with its tip placed in the target artery and its end subcutaneously connected to a port.Results: The procedure was successfully completed in allmore » 256 cases (100%). The indwelling catheter tip was satisfactorily placed in the target arteries in 242 cases (98%). Complications attributable to the procedure occurred in 20 (7.8%) cases, including pneumothorax (n=10, 4%), hemothorax (n=1, 0.4%), infections in the pocket (n=4, 1.6%), and hematoma at the puncture site (n=5, 2%). There were no severe sequelae or deaths. The duration of PCS usage was 1-36 months (median 9.5 months), During the course of treatment, occlusion of the target artery occurred in 20 cases (7.8%). Dislocation of the tip of the indwelling catheter occurred in 12 cases (4.7%); in 10 of the 12, the tip of the indwelling catheter was repositioned into the target artery. In all 10 cases no large symptomatic hematomas developed after the PCS was removed.Conclusion: Percutaneous PCS implantation via the left SCA, a relatively new procedure, is a safe and less invasive treatment approach than surgical placement for malignancies.« less

  1. Percutaneous Implantation of a Port-Catheter System Using the Left Subclavian Artery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen Yong; He Xiaofeng; Chen Weiguo

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a percutaneous Port-Catheter System (PCS) implanted via the subclavian artery (SCA) for regional chemotherapy or chemoembolization of thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic malignant tumors.Methods: Percutaneous puncture of the SCA was performed in 256 patients with thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic malignant tumors; then a catheter was inserted into the target artery. After the first transcatheter chemotherapy or chemoembolization with an emulsion of lipiodol and anticancer agents, an indwelling catheter was introduced with its tip placed in the target artery and its end subcutaneously connected to a port.Results: The procedure was successfully completed in allmore » 256 cases (100%). The indwelling catheter tip was satisfactorily placed in the target arteries in 242 cases (98%). Complications attributable to the procedure occurred in 20 (7.8%) cases, including pneumothorax (n = 10, 4%), hemothorax (n = 1, 0.4%), infections in the pocket (n = 4, 1.6%), and hematoma at the puncture site (n = 5, 2%). There were no severe sequelae or deaths. The duration of PCS usage was 1-36 months (median 9.5 months). During the course of treatment, occlusion of the target artery occurred in 20 cases (7.8%). Dislocation of the tip of the indwelling catheter occurred in 12 cases (4.7%); in 10 of the 12, the tip of the indwelling catheter was repositioned into the target artery. In all 10 cases no large symptomatic hematomas developed after the PCS was removed.Conclusion: Percutaneous PCS implantation via the left SCA, a relatively new procedure, is a safe and less invasive treatment approach than surgical placement for malignancies.« less

  2. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter Noninfectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M.; MacRae, Jennifer M.; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Kappel, Joanne; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; Pike, Pamela; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2016-01-01

    Noninfectious hemodialysis catheter complications include catheter dysfunction, catheter-related thrombus, and central vein stenosis. The definitions, causes, and treatment strategies for catheter dysfunction are reviewed below. Catheter-related thrombus is a less common but serious complication of catheters, requiring catheter removal and systemic anticoagulation. In addition, the risk factors, clinical manifestation, and treatment options for central vein stenosis are outlined. PMID:28270922

  3. Pressure-Guided Positioning of Bicaval Dual-Lumen Catheters for Venovenous Extracorporeal Gas Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    inferior venae cavae , pumped through a respiratory mem- brane, and returned into the right atrium . The insertion of these cathe- ters is...sheath and advanced through the superior vena cava and the right atrium into the inferior vena cava . Correct position was confirmed via fluoroscopy...these catheters, blood is drained from the superior and inferior venae cavae through two dedicated ports and is pumped through a respiratory

  4. Extending the use of the pacing pulmonary artery catheter for safe minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ricardo; Leacche, Marzia; Petracek, Michael R; Deegan, Robert J; Eagle, Susan S; Thompson, Annemarie; Pretorius, Mias; Solenkova, Nataliya V; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Brewer, Zachary E; Byrne, John G

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the therapeutic use of pacing pulmonary artery catheters in association with minimally invasive cardiac surgery was evaluated. A retrospective study. A single institutional university hospital. Two hundred twenty-four consecutive patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery through a small (5-cm) right anterolateral thoracotomy using fibrillatory arrest without aortic cross-clamping. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent mitral valve surgery (97%) alone or in combination with other procedures. Six patients underwent other cardiac operations. In all patients, the pacing pulmonary artery catheter was used intraoperatively to induce ventricular fibrillation during the cooling period, and in the postoperative period it also was used in 37 (17%) patients who needed to be paced, mainly for bradyarrhythmias (51%). There were no complications related to the insertion of the catheters. Six (3%) patients experienced a loss of pacing capture, and 2 (1%) experienced another complication requiring the surgical removal of the catheter. Seven (3%) patients needed postoperative implantation of a permanent pacemaker. In combination with minimally invasive cardiac surgery, pacing pulmonary artery catheters were therapeutically useful to induce ventricular fibrillatory arrest intraoperatively and for obtaining pacing capability in the postoperative period. Their use was associated with a low number of complications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for acute adverse events during ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Theodoro, Daniel; Krauss, Missy; Kollef, Marin; Evanoff, Bradley

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) greatly facilitates cannulation of the internal jugular vein. Despite the ability to visualize the needle and anatomy, adverse events still occur. The authors hypothesized that the technique has limitations among certain patients and clinical scenarios. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of adverse events surrounding US-guided central venous cannulation (CVC). The authors assembled a prospective observational cohort of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing consecutive internal jugular CVC with US. The primary outcome of interest was a composite of acute mechanical adverse events including hematoma, arterial cannulation, pneumothorax, and unsuccessful placement. Physicians performing the CVC recorded anatomical site, reason for insertion, and acute complications. The patients with catheters were followed until the catheters were removed based on radiographic evidence or hospital nursing records. ED charts and pharmacy records contributed variables of interest. A self-reported online survey provided physician experience information. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of an adverse outcome.   Physicians attempted 289 CVCs on 282 patients. An adverse outcome occurred in 57 attempts (19.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.5 to 24.7), the most common being 31 unsuccessful placements (11%, 95% CI = 7.7 to 14.8). Patients with a history of end-stage renal disease (odds ratio [OR] = 3.54, 95% CI = 1.59 to 7.89), and central lines placed by operators with intermediate experience (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.19 to 4.32), were most likely to encounter adverse events. Previously cited predictors such as body mass index (BMI), coagulopathy, and pulmonary hyperinflation were not significant in our final model. Acute adverse events occurred in approximately one-fifth of US-guided internal jugular central line attempts. The study identified both patient (history of end-stage renal disease) and physician (intermediate

  6. De-implementation strategy to Reduce the Inappropriate use of urinary and intravenous CATheters: study protocol for the RICAT-study.

    PubMed

    Laan, Bart J; Spijkerman, Ingrid J B; Godfried, Mieke H; Pasmooij, Berend C; Maaskant, Jolanda M; Borgert, Marjon J; Opmeer, Brent C; Vos, Margreet C; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2017-01-10

    Urinary and (peripheral and central) intravenous catheters are widely used in hospitalized patients. However, up to 56% of the catheters do not have an appropriate indication and some serious complications with the use of these catheters can occur. The main objective of our quality improvement project is to reduce the use of catheters without an appropriate indication by 25-50%, and to evaluate the affecting factors of our de-implementation strategy. In a multicenter, prospective interrupted time series analysis, several interventions to avoid inappropriate use of catheters will be conducted in seven hospitals in the Netherlands. Firstly, we will define a list of appropriate indications for urinary and (peripheral and central) intravenous catheters, which will restrict the use of catheters and urge catheter removal when the indication is no longer appropriate. Secondly, after the baseline measurements, the intervention will take place, which consists of a kick-off meeting, including a competitive feedback report of the baseline measurements, and education of healthcare workers and patients. Additional strategies based on the baseline data and local conditions are optional. The primary endpoint is the percentage of catheters with an inappropriate indication on the day of data collection before and after the de-implementation strategy. Secondary endpoints are catheter-related infections or other complications, catheter re-insertion rate, length of hospital (and ICU) stay and mortality. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of the de-implementation strategy will be calculated. This study aims to reduce the use of urinary and intravenous catheters with an inappropriate indication, and as a result reduce the catheter-related complications. If (cost-) effective it provides a tool for a nationwide approach to reduce catheter-related infections and other complications. Dutch trial registry: NTR6015 . Registered 9 August 2016.

  7. Compensation for Unconstrained Catheter Shaft Motion in Cardiac Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Degirmenci, Alperen; Loschak, Paul M.; Tschabrunn, Cory M.; Anter, Elad; Howe, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization with ultrasound (US) imaging catheters provides real time US imaging from within the heart, but manually navigating a four degree of freedom (DOF) imaging catheter is difficult and requires extensive training. Existing work has demonstrated robotic catheter steering in constrained bench top environments. Closed-loop control in an unconstrained setting, such as patient vasculature, remains a significant challenge due to friction, backlash, and physiological disturbances. In this paper we present a new method for closed-loop control of the catheter tip that can accurately and robustly steer 4-DOF cardiac catheters and other flexible manipulators despite these effects. The performance of the system is demonstrated in a vasculature phantom and an in vivo porcine animal model. During bench top studies the robotic system converged to the desired US imager pose with sub-millimeter and sub-degree-level accuracy. During animal trials the system achieved 2.0 mm and 0.65° accuracy. Accurate and robust robotic navigation of flexible manipulators will enable enhanced visualization and treatment during procedures. PMID:27525170

  8. Liquid- and Air-Filled Catheters without Balloon as an Alternative to the Air-Filled Balloon Catheter for Measurement of Esophageal Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alysson R.; Zin, Walter Araujo; Carvalho, Nadja C.; Huhle, Robert; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-01-01

    Background Measuring esophageal pressure (Pes) using an air-filled balloon catheter (BC) is the common approach to estimate pleural pressure and related parameters. However, Pes is not routinely measured in mechanically ventilated patients, partly due to technical and practical limitations and difficulties. This study aimed at comparing the conventional BC with two alternative methods for Pes measurement, liquid-filled and air-filled catheters without balloon (LFC and AFC), during mechanical ventilation with and without spontaneous breathing activity. Seven female juvenile pigs (32–42 kg) were anesthetized, orotracheally intubated, and a bundle of an AFC, LFC, and BC was inserted in the esophagus. Controlled and assisted mechanical ventilation were applied with positive end-expiratory pressures of 5 and 15 cmH2O, and driving pressures of 10 and 20 cmH2O, in supine and lateral decubitus. Main Results Cardiogenic noise in BC tracings was much larger (up to 25% of total power of Pes signal) than in AFC and LFC (<3%). Lung and chest wall elastance, pressure-time product, inspiratory work of breathing, inspiratory change and end-expiratory value of transpulmonary pressure were estimated. The three catheters allowed detecting similar changes in these parameters between different ventilation settings. However, a non-negligible and significant bias between estimates from BC and those from AFC and LFC was observed in several instances. Conclusions In anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, the three catheters are equivalent when the aim is to detect changes in Pes and related parameters between different conditions, but possibly not when the absolute value of the estimated parameters is of paramount importance. Due to a better signal-to-noise ratio, and considering its practical advantages in terms of easier calibration and simpler acquisition setup, LFC may prove interesting for clinical use. PMID:25247308

  9. Liquid- and air-filled catheters without balloon as an alternative to the air-filled balloon catheter for measurement of esophageal pressure.

    PubMed

    Beda, Alessandro; Güldner, Andreas; Carvalho, Alysson R; Zin, Walter Araujo; Carvalho, Nadja C; Huhle, Robert; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-01-01

    Measuring esophageal pressure (Pes) using an air-filled balloon catheter (BC) is the common approach to estimate pleural pressure and related parameters. However, Pes is not routinely measured in mechanically ventilated patients, partly due to technical and practical limitations and difficulties. This study aimed at comparing the conventional BC with two alternative methods for Pes measurement, liquid-filled and air-filled catheters without balloon (LFC and AFC), during mechanical ventilation with and without spontaneous breathing activity. Seven female juvenile pigs (32-42 kg) were anesthetized, orotracheally intubated, and a bundle of an AFC, LFC, and BC was inserted in the esophagus. Controlled and assisted mechanical ventilation were applied with positive end-expiratory pressures of 5 and 15 cmH2O, and driving pressures of 10 and 20 cmH2O, in supine and lateral decubitus. Cardiogenic noise in BC tracings was much larger (up to 25% of total power of Pes signal) than in AFC and LFC (<3%). Lung and chest wall elastance, pressure-time product, inspiratory work of breathing, inspiratory change and end-expiratory value of transpulmonary pressure were estimated. The three catheters allowed detecting similar changes in these parameters between different ventilation settings. However, a non-negligible and significant bias between estimates from BC and those from AFC and LFC was observed in several instances. In anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, the three catheters are equivalent when the aim is to detect changes in Pes and related parameters between different conditions, but possibly not when the absolute value of the estimated parameters is of paramount importance. Due to a better signal-to-noise ratio, and considering its practical advantages in terms of easier calibration and simpler acquisition setup, LFC may prove interesting for clinical use.

  10. Clavanin A-bioconjugated Fe3O4/Silane core-shell nanoparticles for thermal ablation of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Kalline L; Frías, Isaac A M; Franco, Octavio L; Dias, Simoni C; Sousa-Junior, Ailton A; Silva, Osmar N; Bakuzis, Andris F; Oliveira, Maria D L; Andrade, Cesar A S

    2018-04-27

    The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is highly associated with nosocomial blood infections and its use largely requires a systematic assessment of benefits and risks. Bacterial contamination of these tubes is frequent and may result in development of microbial consortia also known as biofilm. The woven nature of biofilm provides a practical defense against antimicrobial agents, facilitating bacterial dissemination through the patient's body and development of antimicrobial resistance. In this work, the authors describe the modification of CVC tubing by immobilizing Fe 3 O 4 -aminosilane core-shell nanoparticles functionalized with antimicrobial peptide clavanin A (clavA) as an antimicrobial prophylactic towards Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Its anti-biofilm-attachment characteristic relies in clavA natural activity to disrupt the bacterial lipidic membrane. The aminosilane shell prevents iron leaching, which is an important nutrient for bacterial growth. Fe 3 O 4 -clavA-modified CVCs showed to decrease Gram-negative bacteria attachment up to 90% when compared to control clean CVC. Additionally, when hyperthermal treatment is triggered for 5 min at 80 °C in a tubing that already presents bacterial biofilm (CVC-BF), the viability of attached bacteria reduces up to 88%, providing an efficient solution to avoid changing catheter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A central venous catheter coated with benzalkonium chloride for the prevention of catheter-related microbial colonization.

    PubMed

    Moss, H A; Tebbs, S E; Faroqui, M H; Herbst, T; Isaac, J L; Brown, J; Elliott, T S

    2000-11-01

    In an attempt to overcome infections associated with central venous catheters, a new antiseptic central venous catheter coated with benzalkonium chloride on the internal and external surfaces has been developed and evaluated in a clinical trial. Patients (235) randomly received either a triple-lumen central venous catheter coated with benzalkonium chloride (117) or a polyurethane non-antiseptic catheter (118). The incidence of microbial colonization of both catheters and retained antiseptic activity of the benzalkonium chloride device following removal were determined. The benzalkonium chloride resulted in a significant reduction of the incidence of microbial colonization on both the internal and external catheter surfaces. The reduction in colonization was detected at both the intradermal (21 benzalkonium chloride catheters vs. 38 controls, P = 0.0016) and distal segments of the antiseptic-coated catheters. Following catheter removal retained activity was demonstrated in benzalkonium chloride catheters which had been in place for up to 12 days. No patients developed adverse reactions to the benzalkonium chloride catheters. The findings demonstrate that the benzalkonium chloride catheter significantly reduced the incidence of catheter-associated colonization.

  12. Reduction of Urinary Tract Infections Caused By Urethral Catheter through the Implementation of Hydrophobic Coating and Geometrical Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gare, Aya

    2013-11-01

    Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the U.S. healthcare system. The obstruction of urine caused by confined air b