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Sample records for catla catla hamilton

  1. Inactivated Probiotic Bacteria Stimulate Cellular Immune Responses of Catla, Catla catla (Hamilton) In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kamilya, Dibyendu; Baruah, Arunjyoti; Sangma, Timothy; Chowdhury, Supratim; Pal, Prasenjit

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro immunostimulatory effects of inactivated form of two potential probiotics, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FPTB16 and B. subtilis FPTB13 in catla (Catla catla). Catla head kidney leukocytes (HK) were incubated with the bacteria alive or inactivated with heat shock (2 h at 60 °C), UV light (for 2.5 h) and formalin (1.0%, v/v) treatment (for 24 h at 4 °C) at different concentrations (10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) cells ml(-1)). After incubation, different cellular immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, nitric oxide production, leukocyte peroxidase content and proliferative response were analyzed. The inactivated probiotic preparations stimulated all the cellular immune parameters of catla HK leukocytes in vitro. Among the different inactivated preparations, heat-treated form exhibited the best result. The lowest dose (10(7) cells ml(-1)) of both the strains showed the maximum stimulation. The results collectively suggest the efficacy of inactivated preparations to be used as immunostimulant in aquaculture. PMID:25736432

  2. Development and characterization of cell lines derived from rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), and catla, Catla catla (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Chandra, V; Sudhakaran, R; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Babu, V Sarath; Ramesh, B; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2009-03-01

    Two new cell lines, designated RE and CB, were derived from the eye of rohu, Labeo rohita, and the brain of catla, Catla catla, respectively. The cell lines were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. The RE cell line was sub-cultured for more than 70 passages and the CB cell line for more than 35 passages. The RE cells are rounded and consist predominantly of epithelial cells. The CB cell line consists of predominantly fibroblastic-like cells. Both cell lines are able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of the cells increased as the foetal bovine serum concentration increased from 2% to 20% at 28 degrees C, with optimum growth at concentrations of 15% or 20% foetal bovine serum. The cells were successfully cryopreserved and revived at different passage levels. The cell lines were not susceptible to four marine fish viruses. Extracellular products from Aeromonas sp. were toxic to the cell lines. When the cells were transfected with plasmid eukaryotic green fluorescent protein (pEGFP [Clontech, Carlsbad, CA, USA]) vector DNA, a significant fluorescent signal was observed suggesting that these cell lines could be a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA from rohu and catla confirmed that the cell lines originated from these fish species. The cell lines were further characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:19236559

  3. Dietary Bacillus subtilis FPTB13 and chitin, single or combined, modulate systemic and cutaneous mucosal immunity and resistance of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton) against edwardsiellosis.

    PubMed

    Sangma, Timothy; Kamilya, Dibyendu

    2015-12-01

    Effects of dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis FPTB13 and chitin, single or combined, on the systemic immunity, mucosal immunity and resistance of catla (Catla catla) against Edwardsiella tarda infection were investigated. The probiotic attributes of B. subtilis was tested by conducting antagonism study, safety in catla, in vitro immunomodulation and dietary immunomodulation. Results of these studies indicated the probiotic potential of the strain. From the preliminary dietary immunomodulation study, a dose of 10(9) B. subtilis cells g(-1) was selected for inclusion into diets for subsequent experiments. Experimental diets were prepared by adding B. subtilis (10(9) cells g(-1)), chitin (2%) and their combination to the basal diet. Different systemic and mucosal immunological parameters viz. oxygen radical production, myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity, total protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity showed significant enhancement (p<0.05) after 2 weeks of feeding with the combined diet. B. subtilis and chitin alone also significantly elevated most of the immune responses. All the diets significantly increased the resistance of catla against E. tarda challenge. The highest post-challenge survival was observed in combined group (i.e. 63.33%). In conclusion, B. subtilis and chitin, alone or combined, had a health ameliorating effect in catla. The results also collectively suggest the usefulness of applying a combined probiotic and immunostimulant supplemented diet to achieve greater benefits. PMID:26616655

  4. Cytogenotoxicity assessment of monocrotophos and butachlor at single and combined chronic exposures in the fish Catla catla (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenotoxic effects in the form of micronuclei and deformed nucleus, nuclear buds, binucleated cells, vacuolated nucleus, vacuolated cytoplasm, echinocytes, and enucleus induced by two compounds belonging to two different chemical classes of agrochemicals (monocrotophos and butachlor) at sublethal concentrations (0.625, 1.3, and 2.3 ppm and 0.016, 0.032, and 0.064 ppm) in single and combined chronic exposures were studied under laboratory conditions for a period of 35 days in the economically important Indian fish Catla catla. Statistically significant duration-dependent increases in the frequencies of micronucleus (MN) and other cytological anomalies were observed. Compared to single exposures, a twofold increase in micronuclei frequency was noted at combined exposures indicating the synergistic phenomenon. Binucleated and enucleated cells appeared only in fishes exposed to sublethal concentrations of butachlor. The present study is the first of its kind in exploring a significant positive correlation between micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies suggesting them as new possible biomarkers of genotoxicity after agrochemical exposures. The study highlights the sensitivity of the assay in exploring various predictive biomarkers of genotoxic and cytotoxic events and also elicits the synergistic effects of agrochemicals in apparently healthy fishes. C. catla can be considered as a suitable aquatic biomonitoring sentinel species of contaminated water bodies.

  5. Growth and development of catla (Catla catla) fed with different levels of diet containing Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Harish; Gajaria, S C; Radha, K S

    2004-10-01

    The effect of Spirogyra sp. incorporated into diet formulations on the growth and body composition of Indian major carp, catla (Catla catla) was investigated in a 45 days feeding trial. Spirogyra dry powder was mixed with different feed ingredients in different amounts (0%, 10%, 25%, 37% and 40% of the total feed). Carps fed with Spirogyra demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio. The study also revealed a direct relationship between the amount of Spirogyra in the diet, and muscle protein and fat contents in the fish. In general, this study demonstrated the benefits of incorporating Spirogyra into carp feeds.

  6. Dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Catla catla (Hamilton) based on growth, protein deposition, lysine retention efficiency, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Zehra, Seemab; Khan, Mukhtar A

    2013-06-01

    A 12-week experiment was conducted to quantify dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Catla catla (3.65 ± 0.05 cm; 0.58 ± 0.02 g) by feeding casein-gelatine-based diets (33.0 % crude protein; 14.3 kJ/g digestible energy) with six levels of L-lysine (1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 % dry diet). The experiment was conducted in eighteen 70-L indoor polyvinyl circular troughs provided with a water flow-through system (1-1.5 L/min). Live weight gain (LWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein deposition (PD), lysine retention efficiency (LRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were used as the response criteria. Second-degree polynomial regression analysis at 95 % maximum and minimum response of LWG and FCR data exhibited the lysine requirement between 1.8 and 1.9 % dry diet, corresponding to 5.5-5.7 % dietary protein. Regression analysis of PD, LRE and RNA/DNA ratio yielded the requirement between 1.7 and 1.8 % dry diet, corresponding to 5.2-5.5 % dietary protein. Since live weight gain and protein deposition are the key parameters for estimating nutrient requirement, these tools were used to recommend the lysine requirement of fingerling C. catla which ranges between 1.7 and 1.8 % dry diet. Data generated during this study will be useful to formulate lysine-balanced feed for intensive culture of this fish.

  7. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... Regulations, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS. Full compliance with...

  8. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

  9. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens [corrected] FPTB16 on systemic and cutaneous mucosal immune responses and disease resistance of catla (Catla catla).

    PubMed

    Das, Anushree; Nakhro, Khriezhato; Chowdhury, Supratim; Kamilya, Dibyendu

    2013-11-01

    Effects of dietary administration of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FPTB16 on systemic and mucosal immunity and disease resistance of catla (Catla catla) against Edwardsiella tarda infection were evaluated in the present study. The laboratory maintained B. amyloliquefaciens was used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy catla were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. For preparation of probiotic supplemented diet, the bacteria were added to the basal diet (control) at three different inclusion levels i.e., 1 × 10(9), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(7) CFU/g diet. Fish (weight 25-30 g) were fed with these diets and various immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 4 weeks and 8 weeks post-feeding. The bacterial antagonism study showed inhibition zone against E. tarda, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi. B. amyloliquefaciens was harmless to catla as neither mortalities nor morbidities were observed after the challenge. Study of different systemic and mucosal immunological parameters viz. superoxide anion production and nitric oxide production, myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity and total protein content showed significant enhancement (p < 0.05) in fish fed with 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/g B. amyloliquefaciens at both time points with the highest values observed in case of 10(9) CFU/g. For fish fed with 10(7) CFU/g B. amyloliquefaciens, all the parameters showed significant enhancement (p < 0.05) at both time points except the lysozyme activity of serum at 8 weeks. Diet containing 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/g B. amyloliquefaciens significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) the resistance of catla against bacterial challenge at both time points. These results collectively suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve health status and disease resistance with an optimal dietary supplementation of 10

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3% oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754

  11. Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone Beta Subunit (lhb) Gene in Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. In the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. The lhb full-length of cDNA sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) 447bp, ORF(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-UTR respectively. The coding region of lhb gene encoded a peptide of 148 amino acids. The coding sequence of lhb gene consist of a single N-linked glycosylation site (NET) and 12 cysteine knot residues. Phylogenetic analysis of C. catla Lhβ deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with Carassius auratus followed by Gobiocypris rarus. 3D structure Lhβ protein comprises of five β-sheets and six coils/loops. The qPCR results revealed lhb mRNA is mainly expressed in the pituitary, ovary while moderate expression was observed in brain and testis. To best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification, molecular characterization and structural information regarding luteinizing hormone in Indian major carp. PMID:26980432

  12. Genotoxicity evaluation of 1,2 dichlorobenzene in the Indian major carp, Catla catla L. using alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Nirmala; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Sathya, T N

    2013-12-01

    The genotoxic effect of 1,2 dichlorobenzene (1,2 DCB), a volatile organic compound in the Indian Major Carp, Catla catla L. was assessed using the alkaline comet assay in the gills and blood. Fish were exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations of 1,2 DCB in vivo. At 24 h, DNA damage scores (expressed as arbitrary units) increased at 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L whereas at 28 days, there was a statistically significant increase in the DNA damage score at all the doses tested (0.175, 0.23, 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L). When the DNA damage scores were considered in the blood samples, the trend was similar to that observed in the gills - significant increase at 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L at 24 h and at all doses at 28 days. The results indicate that 1,2 DCB induces genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of fish as evidenced by the alkaline comet assay.

  13. Molecular cloning of IgZ heavy chain isotype in Catla catla and comparative expression profile of IgZ and IgM following pathogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhakti; Banerjee, Rajanya; Basu, Madhubanti; Lenka, Saswati; Samanta, Mrinal; Das, Surajit

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulins serve as a crucial arm of the adaptive immune system against detrimental pathogenic threats in teleosts. However, whether the novel Ig isotype IgZ is present in the Indian major carp, Catla catla, has not yet been elucidated. The present study reports the presence of IgZ ortholog in C. catla (CcIgZ) and further demonstrates its comparative tissue specific expression with IgM (CcIgM) in response to bacterial and parasitic stimulation. The putative 139 amino acid sequence of IgZ heavy chain cDNA of C. catla showed homology with IgZ constant domains of other teleosts. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted IgZ transcript sequence clustered with previously identified IgZ heavy chain sequences of Cyprinidae family members. The inductive expression profiles of IgZ and IgM genes were evaluated in immunologically relevant tissues at 24, 48 and 72 hr post infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus uberis and Argulus sp. Both CcIgZ and CcIgM were expressed most strongly in the kidneys of healthy fish. Basal expression of CcIgM transcript was higher than that of CcIgZ in all the examined tissues. Stimulation with bacteria triggered significant increase of IgZ in the intestine (P < 0.001) and spleen (P < 0.01), whereas IgM was relatively up-regulated in blood (P < 0.001) after stimulation with each of the three pathogens assessed. The study is the first to report identification of IgZ in C. catla. Further, it provides insights into the differential expression profiles of IgZ and IgM isotypes against various pathogenic infection in C. catla, which may facilitate better prophylaxis again such infections. PMID:27301776

  14. In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

  15. In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. Health risks associated with pesticide residues in water, sediments and the muscle tissues of Catla catla at Head Balloki on the River Ravi.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Shahid; Niazi, Fakhra; AlGhanim, K; Sultana, Salma; Al-Misned, F; Ahmed, Z

    2015-03-01

    A study of the levels of six pesticide residues (endosulfan, carbofuran, cypermethrin, profenofos, triazophos, and deltamethrin) was conducted to determine possible environmental and health risks in surface waters, sediment, and fish Catla catla. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The total concentration of pesticides in water, sediment, and fish ranged from 0.005 to 3.17 μg/l, 0.61 to 23.06 ng/g dry weight, and 0.35 to 19.15 μg/g lipid-normalized units, respectively. According to the concentrations and detection frequencies, endosulfan and profenofos were the most dominant pesticides recorded in fish tissue and sediment samples. Profenofos and cypermethrin, meanwhile, were the most abundant pesticides recorded in water samples at these sites. Cypermethrin and triazophos were not detected in the sediment samples. The concentration of endosulfan, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were higher than the permissible limits for fish set by international agencies and pose a potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem and a consequent hazard to human health. PMID:25655128

  17. Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-03-01

    The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P < 0.001) among the sampling sites and seasons were observed. The river appeared to be polluted as indicated by the high values of total suspended solids (909 mg/l) and sulphate (964 mg/l) in comparison to the respective values of 150 and 600 mg/l being suggested as the safer values of drinking water of the National Environmental Quality Standards. Most trace and macro elements in fish muscles were increased with the increasing pollution loads from the upstream to the downstream sites of this river. The remarkable increases in the levels of all the investigated minerals in fish muscles from the polluted sites raise concerns about the long-term health of the river Ravi ecosystem and consequently the fish and its consumer's health. The results contradict the opinion of the local population that the riverine fish are natural, more health-promoting and precious than the pond fish. Therefore, we strongly argue for the utilization of an effect-based monitoring approach to alleviate the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on fish and the fish consumers' health.

  18. Neural regulation of dark-induced abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and melatonin in the carp (Catla catla) pineal: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2011-08-01

    In all the vertebrates, synthesis of melatonin and its rhythm-generating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) reaches its peak in the pineal during the night in a daily light-dark cycle, but the role of different neuronal signals in their regulation were unknown for any fish. Hence, the authors used specific agonist and antagonists of receptors for different neuronal signals and regulators of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in vitro to study their effects on the abundance of AANAT and titer of melatonin in the carp (Catla catla) pineal. Western blot analysis followed by quantitative analysis of respective immunoblot data for AANAT protein, radioimmunoassay of melatonin, and spectrophotometric analysis of Ca(2+) in the pineal revealed stimulatory effects of both adrenergic (α(1) and β(1)) and dopaminergic (D(1)) agonists and cholinergic (both nicotinic and muscarinic) antagonists, inhibition by both adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists and cholinergic agonists, but independent of the influence of any agonists or antagonists of α(2)-adrenergic receptors. Band intensity of AANAT and concentration of melatonin in the pineal were also enhanced by the intracellular calcium-releasing agent, activators of both calcium channel and adenylate cyclase, and phophodiesterase inhibitor, but suppressed by inhibitor of calcium channel and adenylate cyclase as well as activator of phophodiesterase. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of light on the pineal AANAT and melatonin was blocked by both cAMP and proteasomal proteolysis inhibitor MG132. Collectively, these data suggest that dark-induced abundance of AANAT and melatonin synthesis in the carp pineal are a multineuronal function, in which both adrenergic (α(1) and β(1), but not α(2)) and dopaminergic signals are stimulatory, whereas cholinergic signals are inhibitory. This study also provides indications, though arguably not conclusive evidence, that in either case

  19. Effects of starvation, re-feeding and timing of food supply on daily rhythm features of gut melatonin in carp (Catla catla).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Influences of starvation, re-feeding and time of food supply on daily rhythm features of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) and its key regulator AANAT (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase) protein in the gut tissues were separately evaluated in carp Catla catla. The first experiment was aimed at demonstration of duration dependent effects of starvation and re-feeding after starvation on the daily profiles and rhythm features of gut melatonin and AANAT. Accordingly, juvenile carp were randomly distributed in three groups, which were (a) provided with balanced diet daily at a fixed time, that is, 10:00 clock hour or zeitgeber time (ZT) 4 (control), or (b) starved (for 2-, 4-, 6- or 8 days), or (c) initially starved for 8 days and then re-fed (for 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 12- or 16 days) daily with the same food and at the time (ZT4) used for control fish. The carp in each group were sampled for collection of gut tissues at six different time points at a regular interval of 4 h in a daily cycle. In another experiment, the influences of timing of food supply were separately examined in four fish groups, which were provided with a fixed amount of food once daily either at 06:00 or 12:00 or 18:00 or 24:00 clock hour corresponding to ZT0 or ZT6 or ZT12 or ZT18, respectively, for 7 days before sampling at 12 different time points with a regular interval of 2 h in a 24-h cycle. The study revealed a gradual increase in the mesor and amplitude values of melatonin and AANAT in gut with the progress of starvation till their values reached maximum at day-6 and remained steady thereafter. In contrast, re-feeding of 8-day starved fish resulted in a sharp decrease in their mesor and amplitude values after 2 days and then followed by a steady-state increase till re-attainment of their values close to control fish at the end of 16 days. The acrophase of these gut variables in each control, starved and re-fed fish was noted mostly at midday or ZT6. However, the results of another

  20. Myxozoan infections of the three Indian major carps in fish ponds around Meerut, UP, India, with descriptions of three new species, Myxobolus basuhaldari sp. n., M. kalavatiae sp. n. and M. meerutensis sp. n., and the redescription of M. catlae and M. bhadrensis.

    PubMed

    Székely, Csaba; Cech, Gábor; Chaudhary, Anshu; Borzák, Réka; Singh, Hridaya S; Molnár, Kálmán

    2015-04-01

    New myxosporean species are described from Indian fishes cultured in pond farms of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (UP) state. Based upon plasmodia found in the Indian major carps (Catla catla, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Labeo rohita and their hybrids), three new Myxobolus spp., Myxobolus basuhaldari sp. n., Myxobolus kalavatiae sp. n. and Myxobolus meerutensis sp. n., are described, and two species, Myxobolus catlae and Myxobolus bhadrensis, are redescribed. Plasmodia of M. basuhaldari sp. n., M. kalavatiae sp. n., M. meerutensis sp. n. and M. catlae developed in small cysts in the gill lamellae, while plasmodia and scattered spores of M. bhadrensis were found in the muscles and kidney, respectively. Plasmodia and spores found in these fishes differed from each other with respect to their morphology, tissue tropism and 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequence. No major pathological changes were found, but severe infections were observed.

  1. Synthetic pyrethroid effect on blood plasma biomarker enzymes and histological changes in Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Hwang, Inho; Anita, Vanattayen; Malarani, Pattabiraman S; Selvam, Chandrasekar; Hemalatha, Moorthy; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

    2013-04-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is an isoform of cypermethrin; it is an active pyrethroid used extensively to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and animal breeding. In this study four groups of six fish were examined. The first group served as a control in fresh water alone, with no pyrethroid. The second, third and fourth groups were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin for 4, 8 and 96 h respectively. At the end of the each exposure period, the fish were sacrificed, and the required muscle tissues were collected for histological examination. The blood was drawn with heparinized needles and processed for serum enzymatic studies. Serum enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), amylase, acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at 4, 8 and 96 h. AST enzyme activity was significantly increased at 4 h, whereas ALT and amylase enzyme activities were significantly reduced at all the time points. ACP enzyme activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 h, whereas GGT enzyme activity was significantly increased at all the time points. Hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degeneration, rupture of blood vessels, and necrosis was found at all time points. Congestion of blood vessels, bulging, distortion of filaments, erosion and disintegration of blood corpuscles and hyperplasia of epithelium were found in treated gills at 4, 8 and 96 h. Breakdown of muscle fibres, vacuolation and accumulation of lipids and melanin in white muscle were observed in treated fish muscle at 4, 8 and 96 h.

  2. Hamilton, Ritz, and elastodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of Ritz is applied to the equation that Hamilton called the 'Law of Varying Action'. Direct analytical solutions are obtained for the transient motion of beams, both conservative and nonconservative. The results obtained are compared to exact solutions obtained by the use of rigorously exact free-vibration modes in the differential equations of Lagrange and to an approximate solution obtained through the application of Gurtin's principles for linear elastodynamics. A brief discussion of Hamilton's law and Hamilton's principle is followed by examples of results for both free-free and cantilever beams with various loadings.

  3. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  4. Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.

  5. Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

    PubMed

    Roncadelli, Marco; Schulman, L S

    2007-10-26

    Quantum canonical transformations have attracted interest since the beginning of quantum theory. Based on their classical analogues, one would expect them to provide a powerful quantum tool. However, the difficulty of solving a nonlinear operator partial differential equation such as the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) has hindered progress along this otherwise promising avenue. We overcome this difficulty. We show that solutions to the QHJE can be constructed by a simple prescription starting from the propagator of the associated Schrödinger equation. Our result opens the possibility of practical use of quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory. As an application, we develop a surprising relation between operator ordering and the density of paths around a semiclassical trajectory. PMID:17995307

  6. Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter

    2016-05-21

    Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [abcd] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of "higher-order" relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original coefficient and can be calculated with exactly the same type of recursive equations. Secondly I observe that for models in which the population is not too large and local genetic renewal is rare (e,g, rare mutation), these higher order coefficients are not needed even with non-additive interactions; in fact the synergistic interaction is entirely equivalent to a closely-related additive one. The overall conclusion is that in the study of synergistic binary social interactions (2-player games) in a finite homogeneous population with weak selection and rare genetic renewal, a standard inclusive-fitness analysis is able to predict the direction of allele-frequency change. I apply this result to analyze a recent model of Allen and Nowak (2015).

  7. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-Jun; Qin, Mao-Chang; Mei, Feng-Xiang

    2005-11-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10272021 and the Doctoral Program Foundation of Institution of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20040007022

  8. Hamilton optics: transformational theory of optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Roland; Ge, Wenjun

    2013-09-01

    In 1824 William Rowan Hamilton presented a memoir to the Royal Irish Academy on Optics(Trans. R. Irish. Acacamy, XV, 1828), which was the foundation for transformational optics, classical mechanics, nonimaging optics and thermodynamical foundation of nonimaging optics,etc. It is useful for us even in 2013 to revisit the Hamilton resolution.

  9. Basic Theatrical Understanding: Considerations for James Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Noel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Hamilton's idea of "basic understanding" of a theatrical performance. The author finds it hard to grasp this conception. He worries, although perhaps only on the basis of misunderstanding, that Hamilton's conception of the basic understanding of theatrical performances will not do the work he wants it to do as…

  10. Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon, Michele

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational

  11. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'.

  12. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669

  13. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  14. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  15. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  16. Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  17. Hamilton-Jacobi meet Möbius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to quantum mechanics leads to a cocycle condition, which is invariant under D-dimensional Mobius transformations with Euclidean or Minkowski metrics. In this paper we aim to provide a pedagogical presentation of the proof of the Möbius symmetry underlying the cocycle condition. The Möbius symmetry implies energy quantization and undefinability of quantum trajectories, without assigning any prior interpretation to the wave function. As such, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, augmented with the global Möbius symmetry, provides an alternative starting point, to the axiomatic probability interpretation of the wave function, for the formulation of quantum mechanics and the quantum spacetime. The Möbius symmetry can only be implemented consistently if spatial space is compact, and correspondingly if there exist a finite ultraviolet length scale. Evidence for nontrivial space topology may exist in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  18. The mercury emergency in Hamilton, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.; Hunter, W.; Scott, F.E.; Siracusa, L.; Buffett, C.; Ostofi, G.; Zinkewich, R.; Cole, D.C.

    1996-04-01

    In September 1993, a public health emergency occurred in Hamilton, Ontario after a break-in at an abandoned scrap-metal recycling plant. A few school children entered the plant laboratory, played with lab equipment and chemicals, then removed and distributed mercury within the community. This paper describes the emergency intervention which halted distribution and exposure. The intervention was effective as a result of the high degree of cooperation among public health department staff and staff from other city, regional, and provincial governments and agencies, school personnel, children, and their parents. The event illustrates a number of public health issues regarding both emergency response to and environmental protection from hazardous materials.

  19. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2014-10-01

    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  20. 78 FR 30795 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... 14RF, 14SF, 247F, and 568F series propellers. This proposed AD was prompted by the amount of...

  1. A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.

    2008-09-01

    We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.

  2. Hamilton-Jacobi Theory in Cauchy Data Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, CéAdric M.; de Leóan, Manuel; de Diego, David Martín; Vaquero, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Recently, M. de LeóAn et al. [8] have developed a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for classical fields in the setting of multisymplectic geometry. Our purpose in the current paper is to establish the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory in the Cauchy data space, and relate both approaches.

  3. WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Zhao, G.

    2013-10-01

    We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Å.

  4. Lifted tensors and Hamilton-Jacobi separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeyaert, G.; Sarlet, W.

    2014-12-01

    Starting from a bundle τ : E → R, the bundle π :J1τ∗ → E, which is the dual of the first jet bundle J1 τ and a sub-bundle of T∗ E, is the appropriate manifold for the geometric description of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Based on previous work, we recall properties of the complete lifts of a type (1 , 1) tensor R on E to both T∗ E and J1τ∗. We discuss how an interplay between both lifted tensors leads to the identification of related distributions on both manifolds. The integrability of these distributions, a coordinate free condition, is shown to produce exactly Forbat's conditions for separability of the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in appropriate coordinates.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  8. VIEW OF GRIMES STREET, LOOKING ACROSS HAMILTON FIELD AT FACILITIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GRIMES STREET, LOOKING ACROSS HAMILTON FIELD AT FACILITIES 737 THROUGH 740 (1918 CORNER-ENTRY SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSING TYPES), VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Wilikina Drive & Kunia Road, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to cosmology with nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Richard; van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-05-01

    We start with a short introduction of the role that constraints and Lagrange multiplers play in variational calculus. After recalling briefly the properties of the nonlinear sigma model, we show how the Hamilton-Jacobi method can be applied to find its solutions. We discuss the importance of the Hamiltonian constraint in the standard cosmological model, and finally, apply the Hamilton-Jacobi method to the solution of coupled gravitational and sigma-field equations.

  10. A possible generalization of the field-theoretical Hamilton's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Savchin, V.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The development of classical dynamics as well as many branches of physics shows that the solution or analysis of variety of problems can be greatly simplified if the basic equations admit an analytic representation in terms of Hamilton's equations. The author proposes a generalization of Hamilton's equations in field theory which is applicable to partial differential equations of physical relevance. It is shown that the equations constitute a conceivable basis for the generalization of the theory of contact transformations and of Poisson's method.

  11. Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.

  12. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  13. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Wolf, Jason B; Brodie, Edmund D; Moore, Allen J

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing--with good reason--almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930

  14. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  15. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  16. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Wolf, Jason B; Brodie, Edmund D; Moore, Allen J

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing--with good reason--almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution.

  17. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes.

  18. A generalization of Hamilton's rule--love others how much?

    PubMed

    Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2012-04-21

    According to Hamilton's (1964a, b) rule, a costly action will be undertaken if its fitness cost to the actor falls short of the discounted benefit to the recipient, where the discount factor is Wright's index of relatedness between the two. We propose a generalization of this rule, and show that if evolution operates at the level of behavior rules, rather than directly at the level of actions, evolution will select behavior rules that induce a degree of cooperation that may differ from that predicted by Hamilton's rule as applied to actions. In social dilemmas there will be less (more) cooperation than under Hamilton's rule if the actions are strategic substitutes (complements). Our approach is based on natural selection, defined in terms of personal (direct) fitness, and applies to a wide range of pairwise interactions.

  19. Quantum Hamilton mechanics: Hamilton equations of quantum motion, origin of quantum operators, and proof of quantization axiom

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.-D. . E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-12-15

    This paper gives a thorough investigation on formulating and solving quantum problems by extended analytical mechanics that extends canonical variables to complex domain. With this complex extension, we show that quantum mechanics becomes a part of analytical mechanics and hence can be treated integrally with classical mechanics. Complex canonical variables are governed by Hamilton equations of motion, which can be derived naturally from Schroedinger equation. Using complex canonical variables, a formal proof of the quantization axiom p {sup {yields}} p = -ih{nabla}, which is the kernel in constructing quantum-mechanical systems, becomes a one-line corollary of Hamilton mechanics. The derivation of quantum operators from Hamilton mechanics is coordinate independent and thus allows us to derive quantum operators directly under any coordinate system without transforming back to Cartesian coordinates. Besides deriving quantum operators, we also show that the various prominent quantum effects, such as quantization, tunneling, atomic shell structure, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and spin, all have the root in Hamilton mechanics and can be described entirely by Hamilton equations of motion.

  20. Extending Fourier transformations to Hamilton's quaternions and Clifford's geometric algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-10-01

    We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton's algebra of quaternions. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class of Clifford's geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data.

  1. INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND MARBLE SCULPTURE IN SOME OF THE HEMICYCLE NICHES. ONE OF THE NICHES HOUSED A “CANNON STOVE” FOR HEATING THE ROOM IN THE COLDER MONTHS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) LEFT CENTER BUILDING 31 RIGGER'S SHOP (1890) CENTER BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (1853) RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  3. Rehearsal and Hamilton's "Ingredients Model" of Theatrical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, David

    2009-01-01

    One among the many virtues of James Hamilton's book, "The Art of Theater," is that it challenges the hegemony of the classical paradigm in the performing arts by questioning its applicability to theatrical performances. He argues instead for an "ingredients model" of the relationship between a literary script and a theatrical work. According to…

  4. 75 FR 37293 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... additional controlled airspace at Hamilton Municipal Airport (75 FR 20794) Docket No. FAA-2009-0190... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  5. Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…

  6. 78 FR 9001 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Corporation Propellers ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), DOT. SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation 14SF-7, 14SF-15, and 14SF-23 series...

  7. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen of higher thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Adhikari, Basudam; Dhara, Santanu

    2010-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in animal body and widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, its applicability is severely limited due to high cost. Fish processing waste, which otherwise cause serious environmental pollution, is a promising cost effective collagen source. In the present study, collagen was isolated from scales of Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla (Catla). It is first time that these species are used as sources of collagen. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed maximum demineralization achieved after 48h of EDTA treatment of intact scale. The isolated protein was confirmed as collagen by different physico-chemical techniques like FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and CD. Further amino acid analysis corroborates isolation of type I collagen. A major characteristic of obtained collagen was found to have denaturation temperature (T(d)) of 36.5 degrees C, which is promising as an advantage for biomedical application due to closeness in T(d) to mammalian collagen.

  8. Composite fish culture for mosquito control in rice fields in southern India.

    PubMed

    Victor, T J; Chandrasekaran, B; Reuben, R

    1994-09-01

    Composite culture of edible fishes (common carp, Cryprinus carpio; silver carp, Hypopthalmithys molitrix, grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; catla, Catla catla; rohu, Labeo rohita; and mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala) in rice fields in the Cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu, southern India, resulted in 81.0% reduction in the immature mosquito population of anophelines and 83.5% of culicines. Analysis of fish feces for mosquito larval head capsules showed that common carp and silver carp are effective larvivores. The selective feeding of common carp on culicines and silver carp on anophelines is correlated to their trophic niches. Net profit in the fish-cum-rice fields was 2.5 times greater than fields in which rice alone was cultured. Hence, rice-cum-fish culture can be recommended to the farming community in this area.

  9. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80302; phone: (303)...

  10. Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.

    PubMed

    Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila

    2016-01-01

    The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved. PMID:27516930

  11. John C. Hamilton Greeted By Astronauts and MSFC Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Aiea, Hawaii high school student, John C. Hamilton, is greeted by (left to right): Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, and Owen K. Garriott; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Skylab Program Manager, Leland Belew; and MSFC Director of Administration and Technical Services, David Newby, during a tour of MSFC. Hamilton was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  12. Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.

  13. Bäcklund transformations relating different Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozonov, A. P.; Tsiganov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss one of the possible finite-dimensional analogues of the general Bäcklund transformation relating different partial differential equations. We show that different Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be obtained from the same Lax matrix. We consider Hénon-Heiles systems on the plane, Neumann and Chaplygin systems on the sphere, and two integrable systems with velocity-dependent potentials as examples.

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.

  15. Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D

    2007-06-01

    In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian."

  16. The Hamiltonization of nonholonomic systems and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Oscar E.

    A nonholonomic mechanical system is a pair (L, D ), where L : TQ → R is a mechanical Lagrangian and D ⊂ TQ is a distribution which is non-integrable (in the Frobenius sense). Although such mechanical systems are manifestly not Hamiltonian (their mechanics are described by the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle, not Hamilton's principle), one can nevertheless attempt to formulate the mechanics of certain classes of nonholonomic systems as almost-Hamiltonian. In this dissertation we study various methods of so-called Hamiltonization of nonholonomic systems and discuss their application to optimal control and the quantization of nonholonomic systems. We begin by constructing second-order associated systems for a class of nonholonomic systems and solving the Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations to derive Hamiltonians whose canonical equations, when restricted to certain invariant submanifolds, reproduce the original nonholonomic mechanics. We also introduce the idea of conditionally variational nonholonomic systems, which arise from a comparison with the variational nonholonomic equations, and show that these systems give a straightforward Hamiltonization for certain classes of systems. Lastly, we extend a classical theorem of S. A. Chaplygin, which allows a larger class of nonholonomic systems to be Hamiltonized by reparameterizing time, to higher dimensions. Moreover, in some cases we show that the requirement that the original system possess an invariant measure can be removed. The results are then applied to show that under certain conditions the equations of motion of nonholonomic systems can be derived by considering an associated first-order optimal control problem, similar to the situation in holonomic systems. Moreover, the methods are illustrated throughout by various well known examples of nonholonomic systems. Several future directions based on the research presented are also discussed, among them the relatively new problem of quantizing a

  17. Hamilton's law and the stability of nonconservative continuous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    The application of Hamilton's law of varying action to a nonconservative continuous system (a beam column) was demonstrated without the use of variational principles, D'Alembert's principle, differential equations, or work functions. Eigenvalues from the direct analytical solution are compared to eigenvalues from the exact solution for a wide range of the load parameter. Curves of eigenvalues vs load magnitude for the lowest four modes of the Beck problem are presented. First and second normalized modes for a tension load, no load, and the critical compressive load are plotted.

  18. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  19. Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.

    2006-12-01

    We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, William H.

    1997-08-01

    I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an ``inverted'' polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation.

  1. Hamilton-Jacobi solutions for strongly coupled gravity and matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salopek, D. S.

    1998-05-01

    A Green function method is developed for solving strongly coupled gravity and matter in the semiclassical limit. In the strong-coupling limit, one assumes that Newton's constant approaches infinity, 0264-9381/15/5/009/img1. As a result, one may neglect second-order spatial gradients, and each spatial point evolves like a homogeneous universe. After constructing the Green function solution to the Hamiltonian constraint, the momentum constraint is solved using functional methods in conjunction with the superposition principle for Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Exact and approximate solutions are given for a dust field or a scalar field interacting with gravity.

  2. Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for quasigeostrophic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.D.; Zeitlin, V.

    1998-04-01

    We show that the equation of quasigeostrophic (QG) potential vorticity conservation in geophysical fluid dynamics follows from Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for stationary variations of an action for geodesic motion in the f-plane case or its prolongation in the {beta}-plane case. This implies a new momentum equation and an associated Kelvin circulation theorem for QG motion. We treat the barotropic and two-layer baroclinic cases, as well as the continuously stratified case. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Hamilton's Principle for External Viscous FLUID-STRUCTURE Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BENAROYA, H.; WEI, T.

    2000-11-01

    Hamilton's principle is extended so as to be able to model external flow-structure interaction. This is accomplished by using Reynold's Transport theorem. In this form Hamilton's principle is hybrid in the sense that it has an analytical part as well as a part that depends on experimentally derived functions. Examples are presented. The discussion on implications and extensions is extensive. In this work, a general theory is developed for the case where the configuration is not prescribed at the end times of the variational principle. This leads to a single governing equation of motion. This limitation can be removed by prescribing the end times, as usually done. This is outlined in the present paper, and will be the subject of a future paper.A detailed discussion is also presented of the experimental work performed in parallel with and in support of the theoretical developments. As a true fluid-structural model, it is necessary to fully couple the dynamics. This has been the foundation of our formulation.

  4. A hybrid-stress element based on Hamilton principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Song; Zhang, Tao; Li, Chen-Feng; Fu, Xiang-Rong; Long, Yu-Qiu

    2010-08-01

    A novel hybrid-stress finite element method is proposed for constructing simple 4-node quadrilateral plane elements, and the new element is denoted as HH4-3 β here. Firstly, the theoretical basis of the traditional hybrid-stress elements, i.e., the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, is replaced by the Hamilton variational principle, in which the number of the stress variables is reduced from 3 to 2. Secondly, three stress parameters and corresponding trial functions are introduced into the system equations. Thirdly, the displacement fields of the conventional bilinear isoparametric element are employed in the new models. Finally, from the stationary condition, the stress parameters can be expressed in terms of the displacement parameters, and thus the new element stiffness matrices can be obtained. Since the required number of stress variables in the Hamilton variational principle is less than that in the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, and no additional incompatible displacement modes are considered, the new hybrid-stress element is simpler than the traditional ones. Furthermore, in order to improve the accuracy of the stress solutions, two enhanced post-processing schemes are also proposed for element HH4-3 β. Numerical examples show that the proposed model exhibits great improvements in both displacement and stress solutions, implying that the proposed technique is an effective way for developing simple finite element models with high performance.

  5. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2010-04-01

    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  6. Sense of Belonging and Mental Health in Hamilton, Ontario: An Intra-Urban Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic variations in sense of community belonging in Hamilton, Ontario. It also identifies the most significant health and social factors associated with belonging in the city. The research employs data from the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey for respondents aged 18 or over living in the Hamilton Census…

  7. A Celebration of Voices: The Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the establishment of, changes in, and discussions that have taken place at the Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth, celebrating its 17th year of stimulating dialogue on children's books. The conference honors author Virginia Hamilton, winner of almost every major award in the field of children's…

  8. Unified formalism for the generalized kth-order Hamilton-Jacobi problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; de Léon, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2014-08-01

    The geometric formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory enables us to generalize it to systems of higher-order ordinary differential equations. In this work we introduce the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on higher-order autonomous dynamical systems described by regular Lagrangian functions.

  9. 77 FR 52135 - Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion...) approved the application of Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland to convert to the stock form of...

  10. Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141

  11. Particle dynamics inside shocks in Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

    PubMed

    Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2010-04-13

    The characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action-minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. For non-smooth 'viscosity' solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this description is usually pursued only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we show that, for any convex Hamiltonian, there exists a uniquely defined canonical global non-smooth coalescing flow that extends particle trajectories and determines the dynamics inside shocks. We also provide a variational description of the corresponding effective velocity field inside shocks, and discuss the relation to the 'dissipative anomaly' in the limit of vanishing viscosity. PMID:20211875

  12. Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.

  13. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  14. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets.

  16. Characterization and physical mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in Indian major carps (Pisces, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S

    2013-06-01

    Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species.

  17. The World She Dreamed, Generations She Shared, Visions She Wrote: A Tribute to Virginia Hamilton 1936-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tribute to Virginia Hamilton. Notes that at a time when Black people, especially girls, were seriously beginning to struggle with self-acceptance and self-worth, Hamilton's "bold and imaginative writing was nothing short of revolutionary." (SG)

  18. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  19. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle

    PubMed Central

    Drapaca, Corina S.

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin–Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin–Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented. PMID:26236195

  20. The Hamilton depression scale. Evaluation of objectivity using logistic models.

    PubMed

    Bech, P; Allerup, P; Gram, L F; Reisby, N; Rosenberg, R; Jacobsen, O; Nagy, A

    1981-03-01

    The consistency of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) as a measure of the severity of depressive states has been examined when the scale was used weekly during a trial when imipramine. By use of logistic models (Rasch) the consistency of the HDS has been considered across patient-variables as age, sex, plasma levels of imipramine, and diagnosis. The results showed that the original 17-item HDS was without adequate consistency, i.e. the total score of the sample of items was no one-dimensional measure of depressive states. However, a melancholia subscale of the HDS contained items the total of which can be used to compare patients quantitatively, although in some part of the analysis one of these items showed ceiling effect. It was concluded that the melancholia subscale (containing the items depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, retardation, psychic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms) can form the basis for further improvements in the field of quantitative rating scales for depressive states.

  1. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Drapaca, Corina S

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin-Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented.

  2. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin. PMID:26249452

  3. Alternative method for Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoutte, A.; Salat, H.; Vachier, C.

    2011-03-01

    Multiscale signal analysis has been used since the early 1990s as a powerful tool for image processing, notably in the linear case. However, nonlinear PDEs and associated nonlinear operators have advantages over linear operators, notably preserving important features such as edges in images. In this paper, we focus on nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs defined with adaptive speeds or, alternatively, on adaptive morphological fiters also called semi-flat morphological operators. Semi-flat morphology were instroduced by H. Heijmans and studied only in the case where the speed (or equivalently the filtering parameter) is a decreasing function of the luminance. It is proposed to extend the definition suggested by H. Heijmans in the case of non decreasing speeds. We also prove that a central property for defining morphological filters, that is the adjunction property, is preserved while dealing with our extended definitions. Finally experimental applications are presented on actual images, including connection of thin lines by semi-flat dilations and image filtering by semi-flat openings.

  4. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems.

  5. On Dynamics of Lagrangian Trajectories for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2016-02-01

    Characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. However this description is valid only for smooth solutions. For nonsmooth "viscosity" solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this picture holds only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we discuss two physically meaningful regularization procedures, one corresponding to vanishing viscosity and another to weak noise limit. We show that for any convex Hamiltonian, a viscous regularization allows us to construct a nonsmooth flow that extends particle trajectories and determines dynamics inside the shock manifolds. This flow consists of integral curves of a particular "effective" velocity field, which is uniquely defined everywhere in the flow domain and is discontinuous on shock manifolds. The effective velocity field arising in the weak noise limit is generally non-unique and different from the viscous one, but in both cases there is a fundamental self-consistency condition constraining the dynamics.

  6. Quantum vortices within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-06-21

    Quantum vortices are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in the complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. It is shown that the Polya vector field of the quantum momentum function is parallel to contours of the probability density. A nonstationary state constructed from eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the formation of a transient excited state quantum vortex, and the coupled harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate quantization of the circulation integral in the multidimensional complex space. This study not only analyzes the formation of quantum vortices but also demonstrates the local structures for the quantum momentum field and for the Polya vector field near a node of the wave function. PMID:18570490

  7. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems. PMID:19045012

  8. Stochastic homogenization of nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Tran, Hung V.; Yu, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    We prove stochastic homogenization for a general class of coercive, nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension. Some properties of the effective Hamiltonian arising in the nonconvex case are also discussed.

  9. Some suggested approaches to solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation associated with constrained rigid body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.

  10. Holographic Wilson loops, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and regularizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontello, Diego; Trinchero, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The minimal area for surfaces whose borders are rectangular and circular loops are calculated using the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. This amounts to solving the HJ equation for the value of the minimal area, without calculating the shape of the corresponding surface. This is done for bulk geometries that are asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). For the rectangular contour, the HJ equation, which is separable, can be solved exactly. For the circular contour an expansion in powers of the radius is implemented. The HJ approach naturally leads to a regularization which consists in locating the contour away from the border. The results are compared with the ɛ -regularization which leaves the contour at the border and calculates the area of the corresponding minimal surface up to a diameter smaller than the one of the contour at the border. The results for the circular loop do not coincide if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the contour at the border. It is shown that using this expansion parameter the ɛ -regularization leads to incorrect results for certain solvable non-AdS cases. However, if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the minimal surface whose area is computed, then the results coincide with the HJ scheme. This is traced back to the fact that in the HJ case the expansion parameter for the area of a minimal surface is intrinsic to the surface; however, the radius of the contour at the border is related to the way one chooses to regularize in the ɛ -scheme the calculation of this area.

  11. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Markus; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule). In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory.

  12. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Markus; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule). In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory. PMID:21559320

  13. On the Hamilton-Jacobi method in classical and quantum nonconservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, A. de Souza; Correa, R. A. C.; Moraes, P. H. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we show how to complete some Hamilton-Jacobi solutions of linear, nonconservative classical oscillatory systems which appeared in the literature, and we extend these complete solutions to the quantum mechanical case. In addition, we obtain the solution of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an electric charge in an oscillating pulsing magnetic field. We also argue that for the case where a charged particle is under the action of an oscillating magnetic field, one can apply nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in order to find experimental results regarding this problem. We obtain all results analytically, showing that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is a powerful tool to describe quantum mechanics.

  14. Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Porfirio

    2013-12-01

    We study the behavior of solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a minimax framework of game theory. The solutions of this problem represent the optimal payoff of a zero-sum game of two players, where the number of moves between the players converges to infinity. A real number, called the critical value, plays a central role in this work; this number is the asymptotic average action of optimal trajectories. The aim of this paper is to show the existence and characterization of solutions of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this kind of games.

  15. Numerical Approach of Hamilton Equations on Double Pendulum Motion with Axial Forcing Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indiati, Intan; Saefan, Joko; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    Double pendulum with axial forcing constraint is considered by using Hamilton equations. In this case, the total Hamiltonian is complicated because of its constraint. There is additional terms which is add to the usual Hamiltonian. Four equations of motion is obtained from the Hamilton equations since the degree of freedom is four. Solutions of the equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. The results are plotted in poincare maps. In this case, the maps is displayed in various initial value. The chaotic behavior can be indicated which depends on given time function forcing constraint.

  16. Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2013-05-01

    Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. When the well-behaved Painleve coordinate system and Eddington coordinate are used, we get the correct result of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy before and after radiation but a direct computation will lead to a wrong result via Hamilton-Jacobi method. Our results show that the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal but it is consistent with underlying unitary theory.

  17. 77 FR 5501 - City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... Filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: City of Hamilton, Ohio and American Municipal Power, Inc. e... serve a copy of the document on that resource agency. k. Description of Request: The City of...

  18. Exact treatment of the relativistic double ring-shaped Kratzer potential using the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharbi, A.; Touloum, S.; Bouda, A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the Klein-Gordon equation with noncentral and separable potential under the condition of equal scalar and vector potentials and we obtain the corresponding relativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to the double ring-shaped Kratzer potential leads to its relativistic energy spectrum as well as the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  19. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  20. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  1. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  2. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  3. Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton: Black Women Writers and Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Gregory Jerome; Brooks, Wanda M.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that African American literature has always had science fiction elements in its focus on narratives of the alienated and marginalized "other." Contends that Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton are two African American writers of science fiction who examine the connections between the stories of a culture and the genre of science fiction.…

  4. Application of Hamilton's Principle to the Study of the Anharmonic Oscillator in Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)

  5. 78 FR 3024 - Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS; Intent To Prepare a Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... of issues to consider in the planning process. DATES: To ensure consideration, we must receive your... determine how the public can use each refuge. The planning process is a way for us and the public to... our process for developing a CCP for Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee NWR in Mississippi. This notice...

  6. A theory for the gyrohorizon-compass in terms of the Rodriques-Hamilton parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelnokov, Iu. N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the equations of motion for the gyrohorizon-compass in terms of the Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters are close to linear equations and have a near-symmetric structure. A condition is derived for which the motion of the gyrohorizon-compass is described by linear differential equations. Some aspects of the gyrohorizon-compass stability are examined.

  7. Metaphor, Ambiguity, and Motive in Evolutionary Biology: W. D. Hamilton and the "Gene's Point of View"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journet, Debra

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the power of ambiguous metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…

  8. The Code Red Project: Engaging Communities in Health System Change in Hamilton, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Patrick F.; Buist, Steve; Johnston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The communication of determinants of health and health outcomes normally executed through academic channels often fail to reach lay audiences. In April of 2010, the results of collaboration between academe and mass media were published in the Hamilton Spectator, one of Canada's 10 largest English-language daily newspapers as a 7-day series. The…

  9. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  10. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  11. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  12. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were highlighted as…

  13. Helping in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a test of Hamilton's rule

    PubMed Central

    Hatchwell, Ben J.; Gullett, Philippa R.; Adams, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory provides the conceptual framework for our current understanding of social evolution, and empirical studies suggest that kin selection is a critical process in the evolution of animal sociality. A key prediction of inclusive fitness theory is that altruistic behaviour evolves when the costs incurred by an altruist (c) are outweighed by the benefit to the recipient (b), weighted by the relatedness of altruist to recipient (r), i.e. Hamilton's rule rb > c. Despite its central importance in social evolution theory, there have been relatively few empirical tests of Hamilton's rule, and hardly any among cooperatively breeding vertebrates, leading some authors to question its utility. Here, we use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus to examine whether helping behaviour satisfies Hamilton's condition for the evolution of altruism. We show that helpers are altruistic because they incur survival costs through the provision of alloparental care for offspring. However, they also accrue substantial benefits through increased survival of related breeders and offspring, and despite the low average relatedness of helpers to recipients, these benefits of helping outweigh the costs incurred. We conclude that Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruistic helping behaviour is satisfied in this species. PMID:24686941

  14. Helping in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a test of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Hatchwell, Ben J; Gullett, Philippa R; Adams, Mark J

    2014-05-19

    Inclusive fitness theory provides the conceptual framework for our current understanding of social evolution, and empirical studies suggest that kin selection is a critical process in the evolution of animal sociality. A key prediction of inclusive fitness theory is that altruistic behaviour evolves when the costs incurred by an altruist (c) are outweighed by the benefit to the recipient (b), weighted by the relatedness of altruist to recipient (r), i.e. Hamilton's rule rb > c. Despite its central importance in social evolution theory, there have been relatively few empirical tests of Hamilton's rule, and hardly any among cooperatively breeding vertebrates, leading some authors to question its utility. Here, we use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus to examine whether helping behaviour satisfies Hamilton's condition for the evolution of altruism. We show that helpers are altruistic because they incur survival costs through the provision of alloparental care for offspring. However, they also accrue substantial benefits through increased survival of related breeders and offspring, and despite the low average relatedness of helpers to recipients, these benefits of helping outweigh the costs incurred. We conclude that Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruistic helping behaviour is satisfied in this species.

  15. Helping in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a test of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Hatchwell, Ben J; Gullett, Philippa R; Adams, Mark J

    2014-05-19

    Inclusive fitness theory provides the conceptual framework for our current understanding of social evolution, and empirical studies suggest that kin selection is a critical process in the evolution of animal sociality. A key prediction of inclusive fitness theory is that altruistic behaviour evolves when the costs incurred by an altruist (c) are outweighed by the benefit to the recipient (b), weighted by the relatedness of altruist to recipient (r), i.e. Hamilton's rule rb > c. Despite its central importance in social evolution theory, there have been relatively few empirical tests of Hamilton's rule, and hardly any among cooperatively breeding vertebrates, leading some authors to question its utility. Here, we use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus to examine whether helping behaviour satisfies Hamilton's condition for the evolution of altruism. We show that helpers are altruistic because they incur survival costs through the provision of alloparental care for offspring. However, they also accrue substantial benefits through increased survival of related breeders and offspring, and despite the low average relatedness of helpers to recipients, these benefits of helping outweigh the costs incurred. We conclude that Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruistic helping behaviour is satisfied in this species. PMID:24686941

  16. A Perturbation Theory for Hamilton's Principal Function: Applications to Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoa, Oier Penagaricano

    This thesis introduces an analytical perturbation theory for Hamilton's principal function and Hamilton's characteristic function. Based on Hamilton's principle and the research carried out by Sir William Rowan Hamilton, a perturbation theory is developed to analytically solve two-point boundary value problems. The principal function is shown to solve the two-point boundary value problem through simple differentiation and elimination. The characteristic function is related to the principal function through a Legendre transformation, and can also be used to solve two-point boundary value problems. In order to obtain the solution to the perturbed two-point boundary value problem the knowledge of the nominal solution is sufficient. The perturbation theory is applied to the two body problem to study the perturbed dynamics in the vicinity of the Hohmann transfer. It is found that the perturbation can actually offer a lower cost two-impulse transfer to the target orbit than the Hohmann transfer. The numerical error analysis of the perturbation theory is shown for different orders of calculation. Coupling Hamilton's principal and characteristic functions yields an analytical perturbation theory for the initial value problem, where the state of the perturbed system can be accurately obtained. The perturbation theory is applied to the restricted three-body problem, where the system is viewed as a two-body problem perturbed by the presence of a third body. It is shown that the first order theory can be sufficient to solve the problem, winch is expressed in terms of Delaunay elements. The solution to the initial value problem is applied to derive a Keplerian periapsis map that can be used for low-energy space mission design problems.

  17. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development.

  18. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921

  19. Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness maximization, and the goal of individual behaviour in symmetric two-player games.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Martens, J

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters.

  20. Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness maximization, and the goal of individual behaviour in symmetric two-player games.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Martens, J

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. PMID:26679493

  1. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328

  2. Value-oriented citizenship index: New extensions of Kelman and Hamilton's theory to prevent autocracy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Davide; Passini, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    In Crimes of obedience, Kelman and Hamilton argue that societies can be protected by the degeneration of authority only when citizenship is based on a strong values orientation. This reference to values may be the weakest point in their theory because they do not explicitly define these values. Nevertheless, their empirical findings suggest that the authors are referring to specific democratic principles and universal values (e.g., equality, fairness, harmlessness). In this article, a composite index known as the value-oriented citizenship (VOC) index is introduced and empirically analysed. The results confirm that the VOC index discriminates between people who relate to authority based on values rather than based on their role or on rules in general. The article discusses the utility of the VOC index to develop Kelman and Hamilton's framework further empirically as well as its implications for the analysis of the relationship between individuals and authority.

  3. Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, Stanley; Sethian, James A.

    1987-01-01

    New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.

  4. From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2013-07-01

    A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.

  5. In celebration of the 60th birthday of Professor Andrew D. Hamilton FRS.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sam; Wilson, Andrew J; Battersby, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    An on-line collection of articles celebrating the 60th birthday of Professor Andrew D. Hamilton FRS has been published featuring contributions from students and colleagues past and present. This article hopes to provide an insight into the rise of a star in molecular recognition, ground breaking discoveries, and on a more light-hearted note, some fond reminiscences of research in Cambridge, Princeton, Pittsburgh, Yale and Oxford.

  6. A TVD-type method for 2D scalar Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lingyan; Song, Songhe

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a TVD-type difference scheme which satisfies maximum principle is developed for 2D scalar Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured triangular meshes. The main ideas are node-based approximations and derivative-limited reconstruction with quadratic interpolation polynomial. The solution's slope satisfies maximum principle. Numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate high-order accuracy in smooth fields and good resolution of derivative singularities. The new method is simpler than WENO.

  7. A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.

  8. Compressed Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kurganov, Alexander; Levy, Doron; Petrova, Guergana

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new family of Godunov-type semi-discrete central schemes for multidimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These schemes are a less dissipative generalization of the central-upwind schemes that have been recently proposed in series of works. We provide the details of the new family of methods in one, two, and three space dimensions, and then verify their expected low-dissipative property in a variety of examples.

  9. The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, Stanley

    1989-01-01

    Simple inequalities for the Riemann problem for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimension when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave) are presented. The initial data is globally continuous, affine in each orthant, with a possible jump in normal derivative across each coordinate plane, x sub i = 0. The inequalities become equalities wherever a maxmin equals a minmax and thus an exact closed form solution to this problem is then obtained.

  10. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to Study the Hawking Radiation of Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng

    Taking the self-gravitation interaction and unfixed background space-time into account, we study the Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one, which is accordant with that obtained using Parikh and Wilczek's method and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of the black hole.

  12. Complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Bohmian trajectories: Application to the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2014-03-14

    The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics.

  13. Spatial and temporal variability in metal bioavailability and toxicity of sediment from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Krantzberg, G. )

    1994-10-01

    Trace metals in sediment from nearshore urban and industrialized centers of the Great Lakes are frequently at concentrations well above geological background values. Total metal content in sediment, however, is a weak predictor of sediment toxicity. This study examined the bioavailability of metals from Hamilton Harbor in Lake Ontario and considered variability in metal forms on a temporal basis. Sediment from regions within Hamilton Harbor is highly contaminated with metals; nevertheless, not all metal-contaminated sites were toxic to test organisms. Most sediment did elicit sublethal and/or lethal responses in bioassay organisms. Metal bioavailability, as measured by weak acid extractions, metal bioaccumulation by fathead minnows, and sediment toxicity, was greater in sediment collected in the fall as compared to sediment collected in the spring. Results of analyses of tissue residues in test organisms and the reduced toxicity observed in sediment collected from some stations in the spring as compared to the fall implicate trace metals and sediment oxygen demand as contributing to sediment toxicity. The suitability for colonization by benthic invertebrates of sediment in some areas of Hamilton Harbor appears to be limited by both contaminants and high sediment oxygen demand. Improving the oxygen regime of the harbor should result in improvements in the benthic invertebrate community directly, by providing a suitable oxygen regime for organisms less tolerant of temporal anoxia, and indirectly by decreasing metal bioavailability, possibly through the co-precipitation of trace metals with iron and manganese hydroxides.

  14. Complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Bohmian trajectories: application to the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2014-03-14

    The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics. PMID:24628169

  15. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near-field aspects.

    PubMed

    Keller, O

    2008-02-01

    After having briefly reviewed the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of classical point-particle mechanics, its extension to the quantum regime and the formal identity between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function and the eikonal equation of geometrical optics, an eikonal theory for free photons is established. The space-time dynamics of the photon is described on the basis of the six-component Riemann-Silberstein energy wave function. Form-identical eikonal equations are obtained for the positive and negative helicity dynamics. Microscopic response theory is used to describe the linear photon-matter interaction. In the presence of matter the free-photon concept is replaced by a quasi-photon concept, and there is a quasi-photon for each of the two helicity states. After having established integro-differential equations for the wave functions of the two quasi-photons, the eikonal conditions for the quasi-photons are determined. It appears that the eikonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eikonal over volumes of near-field domain size. In these space integrals the dynamics of the electrons (matter particles) appears via transverse transition current densities between pairs of many-body states. Generalized microscopic polarization and magnetization fields are introduced to establish the connection between the quasi-photon and macroscopic eikonal theories. PMID:18304094

  16. Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: Properties, classification and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Blasco, A.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2015-04-01

    We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in González-López, Kamran, and Olver (1992) [23] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. By determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. We also analyse biomathematical models, the Milne-Pinney equations, second-order Kummer-Schwarz equations, complex Riccati equations and Buchdahl equations.

  17. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

  18. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology.

  19. Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Haq, S; Srivastava, H C; Sharma, V P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable.

  20. Prevalence, site and tissue preference of myxozoan parasites infecting gills of cultured fish in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Katoch, Anu

    2016-02-25

    Native carp species cultured in Indian farms in Punjab (catla Catla catla, rohu Labeo rohita, mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic carps such as silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio and a catfish Sperata seenghala) were examined for the presence of myxozoan parasites infecting gills. Firstly, the gills were examined under a zoom-stereomicroscope for the presence of plasmodia. The number of plasmodia per gill was counted to determine the index for the intensity of infection. Infected tissues were processed for histology, and 3-4 µm sections of infected gills were stained with haematoxylin & eosin and Luna's method. A total of 19 species of myxosporean were found infecting various cell types in the gills. Of these, 14 species belonged to the genus Myxobolus, 3 species to the genus Thelohanellus and 2 species to the genus Henneguya. Species belonging to the genus Myxobolus formed the interlamellar and intralamellar vascular (LV) type plasmodia, and species belonging to the genus Thelohanellus and Henneguya formed intrafilamental vascular (FV) type plasmodia. Mixed infections comprising 2, 3 or 4 different myxozoan species were noted in individual fish. The most common type of parasitism was polyparasitism due to 4 myxobolids co-occuring in fish with an infection rate of 23.16%. All species caused mild to severe haemorrhagic gill disease with little clinical symptomatology. PMID:26912043

  1. On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.

  2. Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on triangulated domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive triangulation algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.

  3. Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A

    2000-05-23

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. PMID:10811874

  4. The method of Ritz applied to the equation of Hamilton. [for pendulum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    Without any reference to the theory of differential equations, the initial value problem of the nonlinear, nonconservative double pendulum system is solved by the application of the method of Ritz to the equation of Hamilton. Also shown is an example of the reduction of the traditional eigenvalue problem of linear, homogeneous, differential equations of motion to the solution of a set of nonhomogeneous algebraic equations. No theory of differential equations is used. Solution of the time-space path of the linear oscillator is demonstrated and compared to the exact solution.

  5. Classical field theories from Hamiltonian constraint: Canonical equations of motion and local Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Václav

    2016-04-01

    Classical field theory is considered as a theory of unparametrized surfaces embedded in a configuration space, which accommodates, in a symmetric way, spacetime positions and field values. Dynamics is defined by a (Hamiltonian) constraint between multivector-valued generalized momenta, and points in the configuration space. Starting from a variational principle, we derive local equations of motion, that is, differential equations that determine classical surfaces and momenta. A local Hamilton-Jacobi equation applicable in the field theory then follows readily. The general method is illustrated with three examples: non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics, De Donder-Weyl scalar field theory, and string theory.

  6. Fast methods for the eikonal and related Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.A.; Vladimirsky, A.

    1999-12-01

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in R{sup n} and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  7. Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A

    2000-05-23

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  8. The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardi, Martino; Osher, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    Simple inequalities are presented for the viscosity solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimensions when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave). The initial data are uniformly Lipschitz and can be written as the sum of a convex function in a group of variables and a concave function in the remaining variables, therefore including the nonconvex Riemann problem. The inequalities become equalities wherever a 'maxmin' equals a 'minmax', and thus a representation formula for this problem is obtained, generalizing the classical Hopi formulas.

  9. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.

    PubMed

    Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C

    2008-08-01

    The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378

  10. Scalar particles emission from black holes with topological defects using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2015-11-01

    We study quantum tunneling of charged and uncharged scalar particles from the event horizon of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes pierced by an infinitely long spinning cosmic string and a global monopole. In order to find the Hawking temperature and the tunneling probability we solve the Klein-Gordon equation by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation. We show that Hawking temperature is independent of the presence of topological defects in both cases.

  11. Coordinates Used in Derivation of Hawking Radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; He, Xiaokai; Liu, Wenbiao

    2009-05-01

    Coordinates used in derivation of Hawking radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi method are investigated more deeply. In the case of a 4-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole, a direct computation leads to a wrong result. In the meantime, making use of the isotropic coordinate or invariant radial distance, we can get the correct conclusion. More coordinates including Painleve and Eddington-Finkelstein are tried to calculate the semi-classical Hawking emission rate. The reason of the discrepancy between naive coordinate and well-behaved coordinates is also discussed.

  12. Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the least-action/least-time dynamical path based on fast marching method.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bijoy K; Janicki, Marek R; Ayers, Paul W

    2004-10-01

    Classical dynamics can be described with Newton's equation of motion or, totally equivalently, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here, the possibility of using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to describe chemical reaction dynamics is explored. This requires an efficient computational approach for constructing the physically and chemically relevant solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation; here we solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations on a Cartesian grid using Sethian's fast marching method. Using this method, we can--starting from an arbitrary initial conformation--find reaction paths that minimize the action or the time. The method is demonstrated by computing the mechanism for two different systems: a model system with four different stationary configurations and the H+H(2)-->H(2)+H reaction. Least-time paths (termed brachistochrones in classical mechanics) seem to be a suitable chioce for the reaction coordinate, allowing one to determine the key intermediates and final product of a chemical reaction. For conservative systems the Hamilton-Jacobi equation does not depend on the time, so this approach may be useful for simulating systems where important motions occur on a variety of different time scales.

  13. MHC, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Buczek, M; Okarma, H; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Radwan, J

    2016-03-01

    The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. Infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. However, the link between immune genes, infection and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. Here, we explored whether the presence and identity of functional variants (supertypes) of the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is responsible for the recognition of parasites, predict the load of lung and gut parasites and antler development in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). While we found MHC supertypes to be associated with infection by a number of parasite species, including debilitating lung nematodes, we did not find support for the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. On the contrary, we found that lung nematode load was positively associated with antler development. We also found that the supertypes that were associated with resistance to certain parasites at the same time cause susceptibility to others. Such trade-offs may undermine the potential genetic benefits of mate choice for resistant partners. PMID:26687843

  14. From classical Lagrangians to Hamilton operators in the standard model extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate whether a theory based on a classical Lagrangian for the minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) can be quantized such that the result is equal to the corresponding low-energy Hamilton operator obtained from the field-theory description. This analysis is carried out for the whole collection of minimal Lagrangians found in the literature. The upshot is that the first quantization can be performed consistently. The unexpected observation is made that at first order in Lorentz violation and at second order in the velocity, the Lagrangians are related to the Hamilton functions by a simple transformation. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that this holds universally. That result is used successfully to obtain classical Lagrangians for two complicated sectors of the minimal SME that have not been considered in the literature so far. Therefore, it will not be an obstacle anymore to derive such Lagrangians even for involved sets of coefficients—at least to the level of approximation stated above.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic compound profiles from extracts of Dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods coexisting in Hamilton Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Aggregates of dreissenid mussels were collected in Hamilton Harbour (western Lake Ontario) from a south shore site (Randle Reef) in an area characterized by coal tar-contaminated sediments, and from a site on the north shore exposed to particulates circulating in the harbour water column. Samples were separated into three components: dreissend mussels, gammarid amphipods (Gammarus fasciatus), and particulate material. The samples were freeze-dried, and extracted using ultrasonication in dichloromethane. The organic solvent extracts were subjected to an open-column alumina and Sephadex LH-20 gel column clean-up procedure, and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles of all sample extracts were dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentrations of the individual compounds were normalized for contaminant profile comparison of the extracts of dreissenids, amphipods, and particulates associated with aggregates of dreissenid mussels. These profiles were also compared with extracts of coal tar-contaminated sediment from the Randle Reef area, and extracts of suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates in Hamilton Harbour are being accumulated by dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods.

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework for optimal control in multistage energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2000-03-01

    We enunciate parallelism for structures of variational principles in mechanics and thermodynamics in terms of the duality for thermoeconomic problems of maximizing of production profit and net profit which can be transferred to duality for least action and least abbreviated action which appear in mechanics. With the parallelism in mind, we review theory and macroscopic applications of a recently developed discrete formalism of Hamilton-Jacobi type which arises when Bellman's method of dynamic programming is applied to optimize active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multistage energy systems with free intervals of an independent variable. Our original contribution develops a generalized theory for discrete processes in which these intervals can reside in the model inhomogeneously and can be constrained. We consider applications to multistage thermal machines, controlled unit operations, spontaneous relaxations, nonlinear heat conduction, and self-propagating reaction-diffusion fronts. They all satisfy a basic functional equation that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJB equation) and a related discrete optimization algorithm with a maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. Correspondence is shown with the well-known HJB theory for continuous processes when the number of stages approaches an infinity. We show that a common unifying criterion, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy, can be proven to act locally in the majority of considered cases, although the related global statements can be invalid far from equilibrium. General limits are found which bound the consumption of the classical work potential (exergy) for finite durations.

  17. A practical approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvang, Henriette; Hadjiantonis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the subject of holographic renormalization for asymptotically AdS spacetimes. For many applications of holography, one has to handle the divergences associated with the on-shell gravitational action. The brute force approach uses the Fefferman- Graham (FG) expansion near the AdS boundary to identify the divergences, but subsequent reversal of the expansion is needed to construct the infinite counterterms. While in principle straightforward, the method is cumbersome and application/reversal of FG is formally unsatisfactory. Various authors have proposed an alternative method based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. However, this approach may appear to be abstract, difficult to implement, and in some cases limited in applicability. In this paper, we clarify the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization and present a simple algorithm for its implementation to extract cleanly the infinite counterterms. While the derivation of the method relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the actual application of our algorithm does not. The work applies to any D-dimensional holographic dual with asymptotic AdS boundary, Euclidean or Lorentzian, and arbitrary slicing. We illustrate the method in several examples, including the FGPW model, a holographic model of 3d ABJM theory, and cases with marginal scalars such as a dilaton-axion system.

  18. Structure and metamorphism of the Franciscan Complex, Mt. Hamilton area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C., Jr.; Wentworth, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Truncation of metamorphic isograds and fold axes within coherent terranes of Franciscan metagraywacke by intervening zones of melange indicate that the melange is tectonic and formed after the subduction-related metamorphism and folding. These relations are expressed in two terranes of blueschist-facies rocks of the Franciscan Complex in the Mt. Hamilton area, northern California-the Jurassic Yolla Bolly terrane and the structurally underlying Cretaceous Burnt Hills terrane. Local preservation in both terranes of basal radiolarian chert and oceanic basalt beneath continent-derived metagraywacke and argillite demonstrates thrust repetition within the coherent terranes, although these relations are scarce near Mt. Hamilton. The metagraywackes range from albite-pumpellyite blueschists to those containing well-crystallized jadeitic pyroxene, and a jadeite-in isograd can be defined in parts of the area. Primary bedding defines locally coherent structural orientations and folds within the metagraywacke units. These units are crosscut by thin zones of tectonic melange containing blocks of high-grade blueschist, serpentinite, and other exotic rocks, and a broader, but otherwise identical melange zone marks the discordant boundary between the two terranes.

  19. Expanded social fitness and Hamilton's rule for kin, kith, and kind.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C

    2011-06-28

    Inclusive fitness theory has a combination of simplicity, generality, and accuracy that has made it an extremely successful way of thinking about and modeling effects on kin. However, there are types of social interactions that, although covered, are not illuminated. Here, I expand the inclusive fitness approach and the corresponding neighbor-modulated approach to specify two other kinds of social selection. Kind selection, which includes greenbeards and many nonadditive games, is where selection depends on an actor's trait having different effects on others depending on whether they share the trait. Kith selection includes social effects that do not require either kin or kind, such as mutualism and manipulation. It involves social effects of a trait that affect a partner, with feedback to the actor's fitness. I derive expanded versions of Hamilton's rule for kith and kind selection, generalizing Hamilton's insight that we can model social selection through a sum of fitness effects, each multiplied by an appropriate association coefficient. Kinship is, thus, only one of the important types of association, but all can be incorporated within an expanded inclusive fitness.

  20. Assessment of Anxiety in Clinical Trials with Depressed Patients Using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, C.; Guelfi, J.D.; Sheehan, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) is an outcome measure widely used in major depressive disorder (MDD) clinical trials. The objective of this analysis was to assess the validity of the anxiety/somatisation factor of the HAMD17 as a measure of anxiety in patients with MDD. Methods We pooled data from 1466 outpatients with MDD from four 8-week controlled studies of duloxetine. We performed a factor analysis of the HAMD17 to investigate the anxiety/somatisation factor. Results The HAMD17 factor analysis yielded 6 factors, but did not yield the pre-specified anxiety/somatisation factor. This latter factor showed weak correlation with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale total and subscale scores at baseline (0.46), but higher correlation coefficients over the trials up to 0.81. We identified another anxiety factor that included the hypochondriasis item in this sample. Conclusion Findings from this large sample suggest that the factor structure of the HAMD17 is unstable in MDD and that the anxiety/somatisation subscale should not be routinely used for anxiety assessment in depressed patients.

  1. Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks

  2. Refraction seismic studies in the Miami River, Whitewater River, and Mill Creek valleys, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Joel S.

    1963-01-01

    Between September 17 and November 9, 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Ohio Division of Water, Miami Conservancy District, and c,ty of Cincinnati, Ohio, co.,:ducted a refraction seismic study in Hamilton and Butler Counties, southwest Ohio. The area lies between Hamilton, Ohio, and the Ohio River and includes a preglacial valley now occupied by portions of the Miami River, Whitewater River, and Mill Creek. The valley is partially filled with glacial debris which yields large quantities of good-quality water. The object of the study was to determine the thickness of these glacial deposits and the shape of the preglacial valley.

  3. Massless Spin-Zero Particle and the Classical Action via Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Gödel Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2012-08-01

    In this letter we investigate the separability of the Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Gödel universe. We show that the Klein-Gordon eigen modes are quantized and the complete spectrum of the particle's energy is a mixture of an azimuthal quantum number, m and a principal quantum number, n and a continuous wave number k. We also show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation gives a closed function for classical action. These results may be used to calculate the Casimir vacuum energy in Gödel universe.

  4. Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions. PMID:24320362

  6. Nice to kin and nasty to non-kin: revisiting Hamilton's early insights on eusociality.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    When helping behaviour is costly, Hamiltonian logic implies that animals need to direct helpful acts towards kin, so that indirect fitness benefits justify the costs. We revisit inferences about nepotism and aggression in Hamilton's 1964 paper to argue that he overestimated the general significance of nepotism, but that other issues that he raised continue to suggest novel research agendas today. We now know that nepotism in eusocial insects is rare, because variation in genetic recognition cues is insufficient. A lower proportion of individuals breeding and larger clutch sizes selecting for a more uniform colony odour may explain this. Irreversible worker sterility can induce both the fiercest possible aggression and the highest likelihood of helping random distant kin, but these Hamiltonian contentions still await large-scale testing in social animals. PMID:24132094

  7. Hybrid massively parallel fast sweeping method for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrixhe, Miles; Gibou, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The fast sweeping method is a popular algorithm for solving a variety of static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Fast sweeping algorithms for parallel computing have been developed, but are severely limited. In this work, we present a multilevel, hybrid parallel algorithm that combines the desirable traits of two distinct parallel methods. The fine and coarse grained components of the algorithm take advantage of heterogeneous computer architecture common in high performance computing facilities. We present the algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of example problems including optimal control, dynamic games, and seismic wave propagation. We give results for convergence, parallel scaling, and show state-of-the-art speedup values for the fast sweeping method.

  8. Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: applications and superposition rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Alfonso; Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Sardón, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    A Lie-Hamilton (LH) system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We provide new algebraic/geometric techniques to easily determine the properties of such Lie algebras on the plane, e.g., their associated Poisson bivectors. We study new and known LH systems on {{{R}}}2 with physical, biological and mathematical applications. New results cover Cayley-Klein Riccati equations, the here defined planar diffusion Riccati systems, complex Bernoulli differential equations and projective Schrödinger equations. Constants of motion for planar LH systems are explicitly obtained which, in turn, allow us to derive superposition rules through a coalgebra approach.

  9. A Penalty Method for the Numerical Solution of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) Equations in Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. H.; Reisinger, C.

    2010-09-01

    We present a simple and easy to implement method for the numerical solution of a rather general class of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations. In many cases, the considered problems have only a viscosity solution, to which, fortunately, many intuitive (e.g. finite difference based) discretisations can be shown to converge. However, especially when using fully implicit time stepping schemes with their desireable stability properties, one is still faced with the considerable task of solving the resulting nonlinear discrete system. In this paper, we introduce a penalty method which approximates the nonlinear discrete system to an order of O(1/ρ), where ρ>0 is the penalty parameter, and we show that an iterative scheme can be used to solve the penalised discrete problem in finitely many steps. We include a number of examples from mathematical finance for which the described approach yields a rigorous numerical scheme and present numerical results.

  10. Classification of Hamilton-Jacobi separation in orthogonal coordinates with diagonal curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaratnam, Krishan McLenaghan, Raymond G.

    2014-08-15

    We find all orthogonal metrics where the geodesic Hamilton-Jacobi equation separates and the Riemann curvature tensor satisfies a certain equation (called the diagonal curvature condition). All orthogonal metrics of constant curvature satisfy the diagonal curvature condition. The metrics we find either correspond to a Benenti system or are warped product metrics where the induced metric on the base manifold corresponds to a Benenti system. Furthermore, we show that most metrics we find are characterized by concircular tensors; these metrics, called Kalnins-Eisenhart-Miller metrics, have an intrinsic characterization which can be used to obtain them on a given space. In conjunction with other results, we show that the metrics we found constitute all separable metrics for Riemannian spaces of constant curvature and de Sitter space.

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for inflation with non-minimal derivative coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhahmadi, Haidar; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Aghamohammadi, Ali; Saaidi, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    In inflation with nonminimal derivative coupling there is not a conformal transformation to the Einstein frame where calculations are straightforward, and thus in order to extract inflationary observables one needs to perform a detailed and lengthy perturbation investigation. In this work we bypass this problem by performing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis, namely rewriting the cosmological equations considering the scalar field to be the time variable. We apply the method to two specific models, namely the power-law and the exponential cases, and for each model we calculate various observables such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the spectral index and its running. We compare them with 2013 and 2015 Planck data, and we show that they are in a very good agreement with observations.

  12. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.

  13. Matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for aeroassisted plane-change maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Melamed, Nahum

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general procedure for constructing a matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation based on the method of characteristics. The development is for a class of perturbation problems whose solution exhibits two-time-scale behavior. A regular expansion for problems of this type is inappropriate since it is not uniformly valid over a narrow range of the independent variable. Of particular interest here is the manner in which matching and boundary conditions are enforced when the expansion is carried out to first order. Two cases are distinguished - one where the left boundary condition coincides with or lies to the right of the singular region and one where the left boundary condition lies to the left of the singular region. A simple example is used to illustrate the procedure, and its potential application to aeroassisted plane change is described.

  14. Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease with involvement of multiple epiphyses of both feet.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826

  15. The classical limit of minimal length uncertainty relation: revisit with the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2016-05-01

    The existence of a minimum measurable length could deform not only the standard quantum mechanics but also classical physics. The effects of the minimal length on classical orbits of particles in a gravitation field have been investigated before, using the deformed Poisson bracket or Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we first use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to derive the deformed equations of motion in the context of Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. We then employ them to study the precession of planetary orbits, deflection of light, and time delay in radar propagation. We also set limits on the deformation parameter by comparing our results with the observational measurements. Finally, comparison with results from previous papers is given at the end of this paper.

  16. On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

  17. Variation in helper effort among cooperatively breeding bird species is consistent with Hamilton's Rule

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jonathan P.; Freckleton, Robert P.; Hatchwell, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604

  18. Filtered schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations: A simple construction of convergent accurate difference schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberman, Adam M.; Salvador, Tiago

    2015-03-01

    We build a simple and general class of finite difference schemes for first order Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) Partial Differential Equations. These filtered schemes are convergent to the unique viscosity solution of the equation. The schemes are accurate: we implement second, third and fourth order accurate schemes in one dimension and second order accurate schemes in two dimensions, indicating how to build higher order ones. They are also explicit, which means they can be solved using the fast sweeping method. The accuracy of the method is validated with computational results for the eikonal equation and other HJ equations in one and two dimensions, using filtered schemes made from standard centered differences, higher order upwinding and ENO interpolation.

  19. Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J), level set, and Eikonal equations on triangulated domains are presented. The first scheme is a provably monotone discretization for certain forms of the H-J equations. Unfortunately, the basic scheme lacks proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. By employing a virtual edge flipping technique, Lipschitz continuity of the numerical flux is restored on acute triangulations. Next, schemes are introduced and developed based on the weaker concept of positive coefficient approximations for homogeneous Hamiltonians. These schemes possess a discrete maximum principle on arbitrary triangulations and naturally exhibit proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. Finally, a class of Petrov-Galerkin approximations are considered. These schemes are stabilized via a least-squares bilinear form. The Petrov-Galerkin schemes do not possess a discrete maximum principle but generalize to high order accuracy.

  20. A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for termination of seizure-like bursting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2014-10-01

    We use Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods to find minimum-time and energy-optimal control strategies to terminate seizure-like bursting behavior in a conductance-based neural model. Averaging is used to eliminate fast variables from the model, and a target set is defined through bifurcation analysis of the slow variables of the model. This method is illustrated for a single neuron model and for a network model to illustrate its efficacy in terminating bursting once it begins. This work represents a numerical proof-of-concept that a new class of control strategies can be employed to mitigate bursting, and could ultimately be adapted to treat medically intractible epilepsy in patient-specific models. PMID:24965911

  1. Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for dynamical horizons in different coordinate gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, Roberto; Hayward, Sean A.; Nadalini, Mario; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on dynamical black hole instability is further elucidated within the Hamilton-Jacobi method for horizon tunneling and the reconstruction of the classical action by means of the null expansion method. Everything is based on two natural requirements, namely that the tunneling rate is an observable and therefore it must be based on invariantly defined quantities, and that coordinate systems which do not cover the horizon should not be admitted. These simple observations can help to clarify some ambiguities, like the doubling of the temperature occurring in the static case when using singular coordinates and the role, if any, of the temporal contribution of the action to the emission rate. The formalism is also applied to FRW cosmological models, where it is observed that it predicts the positivity of the temperature naturally, without further assumptions on the sign of energy.

  2. Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath

    SciTech Connect

    Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2005-06-15

    Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.

  3. Variation in helper effort among cooperatively breeding bird species is consistent with Hamilton's Rule.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan P; Freckleton, Robert P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604

  4. Gauge symmetry of the N-body problem in the Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Goldreich, Peter

    2003-12-01

    In most books the Delaunay and Lagrange equations for the orbital elements are derived by the Hamilton-Jacobi method: one begins with the two-body Hamilton equations in spherical coordinates, performs a canonical transformation to the orbital elements, and obtains the Delaunay system. A standard trick is then used to generalize the approach to the N-body case. We reexamine this step and demonstrate that it contains an implicit condition which restricts the dynamics to a 9(N-1)-dimensional submanifold of the 12(N-1)-dimensional space spanned by the elements and their time derivatives. The tacit condition is equivalent to the constraint that Lagrange imposed ``by hand'' to remove the excessive freedom, when he was deriving his system of equations by variation of parameters. It is the condition of the orbital elements being osculating, i.e., of the instantaneous ellipse (or hyperbola) being always tangential to the physical velocity. Imposure of any supplementary condition different from the Lagrange constraint (but compatible with the equations of motion) is legitimate and will not alter the physical trajectory or velocity (though will alter the mathematical form of the planetary equations). This freedom of nomination of the supplementary constraint reveals a gauge-type internal symmetry instilled into the equations of celestial mechanics. Existence of this internal symmetry has consequences for the stability of numerical integrators. Another important aspect of this freedom is that any gauge different from that of Lagrange makes the Delaunay system noncanonical. In a more general setting, when the disturbance depends not only upon positions but also upon velocities, there is a ``generalized Lagrange gauge'' wherein the Delaunay system is symplectic. This special gauge renders orbital elements that are osculating in the phase space. It coincides with the regular Lagrange gauge when the perturbation is velocity independent.

  5. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...

  6. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number RP12-220... docket number, RP12-220-000 and give the proceeding a new docket number. This notice changes the...

  7. Charles Hamilton Houston: The Legal Scholar Who Laid the Foundation for Integrated Higher Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blight, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the story of Charles Hamilton Houston, an African American legal scholar who led a crusade focused on equal educational opportunities and facilities for African American students. He used the courts to force Americans to listen to his message about racial subjugation, segregation, and lynch law. (SM)

  8. The spacetime models with dust matter that admit separation of variables in Hamilton-Jacobi equations of a test particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetrin, Konstantin; Filippov, Altair; Osetrin, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of dust matter in spacetime models, admitting the existence of privilege coordinate systems are given, where the single-particle Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be integrated by the method of complete separation of variables. The resulting functional form of the 4-velocity field and energy density of matter for all types of spaces under consideration is presented.

  9. Hamilton/Jacobi perturbation methods applied to the rotational motion of a rigid body in a gravitational field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.

  10. Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks

  11. Deformed Hamilton-Jacobi Equations and the Tunneling Radiation of the Higher-Dimensional RN-(A)dS Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhongwen; Li, Guoping; Jiang, Pengying; Pan, Yang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations from the generalized Klein-Gordon equation and generalized Dirac equation. Then, we study the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and entropy of the higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordström de Sitter black hole via the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our results show that the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for charged scalar particles and charged fermions have the same expressions. Besides, the modified Hawking temperatures and entropy are related to the mass and charge of the black hole, the cosmology constant, the quantum number of emitted particles, and the term of GUP effects β.

  12. Dimensional structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Meier, Beat; Hand, Iver; Schick, Mildred; Jahn, Holger

    2004-02-15

    Comorbid depression is frequent in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is acknowledged as a major confound in biological and neurocognitive investigations in OCD. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of depressive symptoms in a large OCD sample (n=162) and to analyze the dimensional structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) in OCD. Major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria was apparent in approximately one third of the patients. Frequent symptoms were depressed mood, reduced ability to work, anxiety symptoms and guilt feelings. HDRS scores were submitted to a varimax-rotated factor analysis. In accordance with studies conducted with depressed samples, multi-dimensional solutions suggesting three to six factors emerged. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis revealed satisfactory fit indices for a four-factorial solution comprising core depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anxiety and gastrointestinal problems. Aggression-related obsessions as well as the overall severity of obsessions were related to core depressive symptoms. Anxiety symptoms were associated with excessive rituals. Greater recognition of depressive sub-components may help to raise the replicability of empirical findings in OCD research as there is evidence from both depression and OCD samples that distinct depressive syndromes have different biological correlates.

  13. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Möbius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.

  14. Killing tensors, warped products and the orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaratnam, Krishan McLenaghan, Raymond G.

    2014-01-15

    We study Killing tensors in the context of warped products and apply the results to the problem of orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This work is motivated primarily by the case of spaces of constant curvature where warped products are abundant. We first characterize Killing tensors which have a natural algebraic decomposition in warped products. We then apply this result to show how one can obtain the Killing-Stäckel space (KS-space) for separable coordinate systems decomposable in warped products. This result in combination with Benenti's theory for constructing the KS-space of certain special separable coordinates can be used to obtain the KS-space for all orthogonal separable coordinates found by Kalnins and Miller in Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. Next we characterize when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in coordinates decomposable in a warped product by showing that the conditions originally given by Benenti can be reduced. Finally, we use this characterization and concircular tensors (a special type of torsionless conformal Killing tensor) to develop a general algorithm to determine when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in a special class of separable coordinates which include all orthogonal separable coordinates in spaces of constant curvature.

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-437-1818, Champion International Corporation, Hamilton, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Tubbs, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    In response to a request from employees at the Champion International Corporation paper mill located in Hamilton, Ohio, a study was made of possible excessive noise hazards arising in the small cutter area of the facility. One paper cutter, considered by workers to be louder than the others, was scheduled to have an enclosure installed for the rotary knife blade. Noise surveys were conducted in July before the installation and in November after the installation of the enclosure. Data gathered in July indicated noise levels of 108 decibels-A (dB-A), while the octave-band analysis demonstrated the majority of the sound energy to be in the midfrequency range from 250 to 4000 hertz (Hz). In November, tests showed the level to be 95dB-A with a corresponding decrease in the midfrequency sound intensities. Enclosing the rotary knife blade did reduce the potential for noise exposure, but noise measurements in excess of the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit of 85dB-A for an 8-hour day were common. The author concludes that a noise hazard existed in the small cutter area. The author recommends that engineering controls be continuously sought to further reduce the noise level from this particular machine. The use of nonmetallic drive gears should be considered, along with filling of the hollow knife blade cylinder with a lightweight acoustical material. An effective hearing-conservation program should be implemented and employees trained in the proper use of hearing protective devices.

  16. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164

  17. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Möbius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented. PMID:21861551

  19. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, Robert E.; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Moebius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.

  20. Solving quantum trajectories in Coulomb potential by quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ciann-Dong

    We show that the quantum central-force problems can be modeled and solved exactly by quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formulation, from which the quantum operators z, 2, and can be derived without using the quantization principle p ? (/i)?/?x. Quantum conservation laws expressed by the Poisson bracket show that the eigenvalues of these quantum operators are just equal to the constants of motion along the eigen-trajectories defined in a complex domain. The shell structure observed in bound systems, such as the hydrogen atom, is found to stem from the structure of the quantum potential, by which the quantum forces acting on the electron can be uniquely determined, the stability of atomic configuration can be justified, and the quantum trajectories of the electron can be obtained by integrating the related quantum Lagrange equations. On solving the quantum equations of motion, the solution of the Schrödinger equation serves as the first integration of the second-order quantum Lagrange equations. The stable equilibrium points of the derived first-order nonlinear quantum dynamics are shown to be identical to the positions with maximum probability predicted by standard quantum mechanics. The internal mechanism of how the quantum dynamics evolve continuously to classical dynamics and of how the quantum conservation laws transit continuously to the classical conservation laws as n ? ? are analyzed in detail. The construction of the quantum scattering trajectory by searching for an unbound solution for the Schrödinger equation is investigated.

  1. Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Ren, Zhanmei

    2015-09-01

    We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second order differential system (SODS) and the first order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which exhibit some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different from the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison- Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but not introduced by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.

  2. Directly solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations by Hermite WENO Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a class of new Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) schemes based on finite volume framework to directly solve the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. For HWENO reconstruction, both the cell average and the first moment of the solution are evolved, and for two dimensional case, HWENO reconstruction is based on a dimension-by-dimension strategy which is the first used in HWENO reconstruction. For spatial discretization, one of key points for directly solving HJ equation is the reconstruction of numerical fluxes. We follow the idea put forward by Cheng and Wang (2014) [3] to reconstruct the values of solution at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points and numerical fluxes at the interfaces of cells, and for neither the convex nor concave Hamiltonian case, the monotone modification of numerical fluxes is added, which can guarantee the precision in the smooth region and converge to the entropy solution when derivative discontinuities come up. The third order TVD Runge-Kutta method is used for the time discretization. Extensive numerical experiments in one dimensional and two dimensional cases are performed to verify the efficiency of the methods.

  3. Integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations by wavefront expansion and phase space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Eric R.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2000-11-01

    In this paper we report upon our computational methodology for numerically integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations using hydrodynamic trajectories. Our method builds upon the moving least squares method developed by Lopreore and Wyatt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190 (1999)] in which Lagrangian fluid elements representing probability volume elements of the wave function evolve under Newtonian equations of motion which include a nonlocal quantum force. This quantum force, which depends upon the third derivative of the quantum density, ρ, can vary rapidly in x and become singular in the presence of nodal points. Here, we present a new approach for performing quantum trajectory calculations which does not involve calculating the quantum force directly, but uses the wavefront to calculate the velocity field using mv=∇S, where S/ℏ is the argument of the wave function ψ. Additional numerical stability is gained by performing local gauge transformations to remove oscillatory components of the wave function. Finally, we use a dynamical Rayleigh-Ritz approach to derive ancillary equations-of-motion for the spatial derivatives of ρ, S, and v. The methodologies described herein dramatically improve the long time stability and accuracy of the quantum trajectory approach even in the presence of nodes. The method is applied to both barrier crossing and tunneling systems. We also compare our results to semiclassical based descriptions of barrier tunneling.

  4. Computing tunneling paths with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bijoy K.; Ayers, Paul W.

    We present a new method for computing the most probable tunneling paths based on the minimum imaginary action principle. Unlike many conventional methods, the paths are calculated without resorting to an optimization (minimization) scheme. Instead, a fast marching method coupled with a back-propagation scheme is used to efficiently compute the tunneling paths. The fast marching method solves a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the imaginary action on a discrete grid where the action value at an initial point (usually the reactant state configuration) is known in the beginning. Subsequently, a back-propagation scheme uses a steepest descent method on the imaginary action surface to compute a path connecting an arbitrary point on the potential energy surface (usually a state in the product valley) to the initial state. The proposed method is demonstrated for the tunneling paths of two different systems: a model 2D potential surface and the collinear reaction. Unlike existing methods, where the tunneling path is based on a presumed reaction coordinate and a correction is made with respect to the reaction coordinate within an 'adiabatic' approximation, the proposed method is very general and makes no assumptions about the relationship between the reaction coordinate and tunneling path.

  5. The Montgomery Asberg and the Hamilton ratings of depression: a comparison of measures.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Thomas J; Rush, A John; Bernstein, Ira; Warden, Diane; Brannan, Stephen; Burnham, Daniel; Woo, Ada; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2006-12-01

    The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD(17)) and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) are two widely used clinician-rated symptom scales. A 6-item version of the HRSD (HRSD(6)) was created by Bech to address the psychometric limitations of the HRSD(17). The psychometric properties of these measures were compared using classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. IRT methods were used to equate total scores on any two scales. Data from two distinctly different outpatient studies of nonpsychotic major depression: a 12-month study of highly treatment-resistant patients (n=233) and an 8-week acute phase drug treatment trial (n=985) were used for robustness of results. MADRS and HRSD(6) items generally contributed more to the measurement of depression than HRSD(17) items as shown by higher item-total correlations and higher IRT slope parameters. The MADRS and HRSD(6) were unifactorial while the HRSD(17) contained 2 factors. The MADRS showed about twice the precision in estimating depression as either the HRSD(17) or HRSD(6) for average severity of depression. An HRSD(17) of 7 corresponded to an 8 or 9 on the MADRS and 4 on the HRSD(6). The MADRS would be superior to the HRSD(17) in the conduct of clinical trials.

  6. Quantized Hamilton dynamics describes quantum discrete breathers in a simple way

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2011-08-15

    We study the localization of energy in a nonlinear coupled system, exhibiting so-called breather modes, using quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD). Already at the lowest order, which is only twice as complex as classical mechanics, this simple semiclassical method incorporates quantum-mechanical effects. The transition between the localized and delocalized regimes is instantaneous in classical mechanics, while it is gradual due to tunneling in both quantum mechanics and QHD. In contrast to classical mechanics, which predicts an abrupt appearance of breathers, quantum mechanics and QHD show an alternation of localized and delocalized behavior in the transient region. QHD includes zero-point energy that is reflected in a shifted energy asymptote for the localized states, providing another improvement on the classical perspective. By detailed analysis of the distribution and transfer of energy within classical mechanics, QHD, and quantum dynamics, we conclude that QHD is an efficient approach that accounts for moderate quantum effects and can be used to identify quantum breathers in large nonlinear systems.

  7. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  8. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.

  9. Self-gravitation interaction of IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz gravity via new Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Molin; Xu, Yin; Lu, Junwang; Yang, Yuling; Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo

    2014-06-01

    The apparent discovery of logarithmic entropies has a significant impact on IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz (IRDHL) gravity in which the original infrared (IR) property is improved by introducing three-geometry's Ricci scalar term "μ4 R" in action. Here, we reevaluate the Hawking radiation in IRDHL by using recent new Hamilton-Jacobi method (NHJM). In particular, a thorough analysis is considered both in asymptotically flat Kehagias-Sfetsos and asymptotically non-flat Park models in IRDHL. We find the NHJM offers simplifications on the technical side. The modification in the entropy expression is given by the physical interpretation of self-gravitation of the Hawking radiation in this new Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) perspectives.

  10. The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids : a renovated Hamilton-Crosser model.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.; Choi, S. U.-S.; Energy Technology

    2004-08-01

    We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton-Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity.

  11. On cell problems for Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-coercive Hamiltonians and their application to homogenization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamuki, Nao; Nakayasu, Atsushi; Namba, Tokinaga

    2015-12-01

    We study a cell problem arising in homogenization for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is not coercive. We introduce a generalized notion of effective Hamiltonians by approximating the equation and characterize the solvability of the cell problem in terms of the generalized effective Hamiltonian. Under some sufficient conditions, the result is applied to the associated homogenization problem. We also show that homogenization for non-coercive equations fails in general.

  12. Two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo with meridional circulation and an associated Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. P.

    2015-08-01

    A two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo is constructed, taking into account meridional flows. A Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the resulting system of magnetic-field generation equatons is constructed using an asymptotic method analogous to the WKB method. This equation makes it possible to analytically study the influence of meridional flows on the duration of the solar magnetic-activity cycle and the evolution of magnetic waves.

  13. Hamilton and Zuk meet heterozygosity? Song repertoire size indicates inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Janem; Arcese, Peter; Cassidy, Alicel E V; Marr, Amyb; Smith, Jamesn M; Keller, Lukasf

    2005-03-01

    Hamilton and Zuk's influential hypothesis of parasite-mediated sexual selection proposes that exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments indicate a male's addictive genetic immunity to parasites. However, genetic correlated of ornaments and immunity have rarely been explicitly identified. Evidence supporting Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis has instead been gathered by looking for positive phenotypic correlations between ornamentation and immunity; such correlations are assumed to reflect causal, addictive relationships between these traits. We show that in a song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, increased with his cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to an experimental challenge. However, this phenotypic correlation could be explained because both repertoire size and CMI declined with a male's inbreeding level. Repertoire size therefore primarily indicated a male's relative heterozygosity, a non-addictive genetic predictor of immunity. Caution may therefore be required when interpreting phenotypic correlations as support for Hamilton and Zuk's addictive model of sexual selection. However, our results suggest that female song sparrows choosing with large repertoires would on average acquire more outbred and therefore more heterozygous mates. Such genetic dominance effects on ornamentation are likely to influence evolutionary trajectories of female choice, and should be explicitly incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:15799943

  14. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: The making of a “gold standard” and the unmaking of a chronic illness, 1960–1980

    PubMed Central

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the ‘Gold Standard’ for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. Methods: My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. Results: The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a ‘Gold Standard’ ‘from below’, from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Discussion: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of ‘standard’, being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings. PMID:23172888

  15. Rating depression over brief time intervals with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: standard vs. abbreviated scales.

    PubMed

    Luckenbaugh, David A; Ameli, Rezvan; Brutsche, Nancy E; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    Although antidepressant trials typically use weekly ratings to examine changes in symptoms over six to 12 weeks, antidepressant treatments may improve symptoms more quickly. Thus, rating scales must be adapted to capture changes over shorter intervals. We examined the use of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) to evaluate more rapid changes. Data were examined from 58 patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies who received a single infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo over 40 min then crossed over to the other condition. HDRS subscales, a single HDRS Depressed mood item, and a visual analogue scale were used at baseline, after a brief interval (230 min), and one week post-infusion. Effect sizes for the ketamine-placebo difference were moderate (d > 0.50), but one and two-item HDRS subscales had the smallest effects. Response rates on active drug were lowest for the complete HDRS (43%); the remaining scales had higher response rates to active drug, but the shortest subscales had higher response rates to placebo. Correlations between the changes from baseline to 230 min post-ketamine across scores were similar for most subscales (r = 0.82-0.97), but correlations using the single items were lower (r < 0.74). Overall, effect sizes for drug-placebo differences and correlations between changes were lower for one- and two-item measures. Response rates were lower with the full HDRS scale. The data suggest that, to best identify rapid antidepressant effects, a scale should have more than two items, but fewer items than a full scale.

  16. Hydrology of the Cave Springs area near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, Arthur D.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrology of Cave Springs, the second largest spring in East Tennessee,was investigated from July 1987 to September 1989. Wells near the spring supply about 5 million gallons per day of potable water to people in Hamilton County near Chattanooga. Discharge from the spring averaged about 13.5 cubic feet per second (8.72 million gallons per day) during the study period. Withdrawals by the Hixson Utility District from wells upgradient from the outflow averaged 8.6 cubic feet per second (5.54 million gallons per day). Aquifer tests using wells intersecting a large solution cavity supplying water to the spring showed a drawdown of less than 3 feet with a discharge of 9,000 gallons per minute or 20 cubic feet per second. Temperature and specific conductance of ground water near the spring outflow were monitored hourly. Temperatures ranged from 13.5 to 18.2 degrees celsius, and fluctuated seasonally in response to climate. Specific-conductance values ranged from 122 to 405 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, but were generally between 163 to 185 microsiemensper centimeter. The drainage area of the basin recharging the spring system was estimated to be 1O squaremiles. A potentiometric map of the recharge basin was developed from water levels measured at domestic and test wells in August 1989. Aquifer tests at five test wells in the study area indicated that specific-capacity values for these wells ranged from 4.1 to 261 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Water-quality characteristics of ground water in the area were used in conjunction with potentiometric-surface maps to delineate the approximate area contributing recharge to Cave Springs.

  17. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation within Spar Mountain Member of Ste. Genevieve Limestone, Hamilton County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Pryor, W.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Spar Mountain Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) in Hamilton County, Illinois, consists of 40-60 ft (12-18 m) of interbedded limestones, shales, and sandstones. Five cores and 1400 electric logs were used to delineate two shallowing-upward carbonate cycles and 2 major clastic pulses within the Spar Mountain. Eight lithofacies representing 6 depositional environments were identified. They are: (A) echinoderm-brachiopod dolostone to packstone (outer ramp), (B) ooid-peloidal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (C) skeletal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (D) ooid-molluscan-intraclastic wackestone to grainstone (inner ramp), (E) pelletal-skeletal wackestone (inner ramp), (F) quartzarenite (channelized nearshore), (G) quartz-sublithic arenite to wacke (delta platform), and (H) quartz mudstone (prodelta, delta platform). Deposition occurred on a southwest-dipping carbonate ramp, with siliciclastic sediments originating from the northeast. The sequence of facies and their inferred depositional environments record 2 major progradational episodes. Oolitic facies are interpreted to be of tidal-bar belt origin and quartzarenite facies are interpreted to be of delta-distributary channel origin. Their distribution is partially controlled by antecedent and syndepositional topography. Many of these paleotopographic highes are positive features today and yield pinch-out stratigraphic relationships. Paleogeographic reconstructions demonstrate that the primary control on facies distribution was the position of the delta proper along strike. However, depositional topography also influenced sedimentation, particularly in the sand-sized fraction. Using this concept, better prediction of underlying porous buildups (ooid shoals) is possible if thickness of the overlying siliciclastic is known. Within buildups, a complex diagenetic history complicates the distribution of porosity.

  18. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  19. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  20. Contaminant and genotoxicity profiles of sediments and zebra mussels as indicators of chemical contamination in Hamilton Harbour

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.M.; Marvin, C.H.; Villella, J.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and Zebra mussels were collected from Hamilton Harbour, an embayment of western Lake Ontario. In addition, sediment samples were collected from creeks which flow into the Harbour. These sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic extract was cleaned up prior to analysis for PAH and thia-arenes by GC-MS. These extracts were also subjected to genotoxicity bioassays (Ames assays) in two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (a TA98-like strain, YG1024-S9 and a TA100-like strain, YG1025 + S9). The sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected near sites of heavy coal tar contamination showed PAH, thia-arene and genotoxicity profiles that are very similar to the corresponding profiles for coal tar. These observations are consistent with the resuspension and distribution of coal tar-contaminated bottom sediments in the water column. The sediment samples collected in a major creek entering the Harbor and the sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected in Windemere Arm near the mouth of this creek showed very different chemical and genotoxicity profiles. Thus, the chemical and genotoxicity burdens on Hamilton Harbour posed by the resuspension of coal tar-contaminated sediments and the inputs from urban activity into a major creek and the Harbor can be differentiated.

  1. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-01

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  2. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bran R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present high-order semi-discrete central-upwind numerical schemes for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. This scheme is based on the use of fifth-order central interpolants like those developed in [1], in fluxes presented in [3]. These interpolants use the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) approach to avoid spurious oscillations near singularities, and become "central-upwind" in the semi-discrete limit. This scheme provides numerical approximations whose error is as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those in previous WENO-based fifth-order methods [2, 1]. Thee results are discussed via examples in one, two and three dimensions. We also pregnant explicit N-dimensional formulas for the fluxes, discuss their monotonicity and tl!e connection between this method and that in [2].

  3. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  4. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    SciTech Connect

    Sakalli, I. Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-15

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  5. Hawking non-thermal and thermal radiations of Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias

    2013-06-01

    The massive particles tunneling method has been used to investigate the Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. Considering the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has been derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Using the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum we have showed that the non-thermal and purely thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The result obtained for SAdS black hole is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SAdS black hole.

  6. Business establishment mobility behavior in urban areas: a microanalytical model for the City of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2007-09-01

    We present a microanalytical firm mobility model for the City of Hamilton, Canada, developed with data from the Statistics Canada Business Register. Contributing to the scarce literature on firm migration behavior, we explore and model the determinants of mobility among small and medium size firms who retained less than 200 employees between 1996 and 1997. Our exploratory results suggest that short distance moves are more common and tend to occur among smaller firms. Econometric modeling results support these assertions and indicate that the willingness to move can be explained by a firm’s internal characteristics (e.g. age, size, growth and industry type) as well as location factors related to the urban environment where the firm is located. The modeling results will serve as input for the development of an agent-based firmographic decision support system that can be used to inform the planning process in the study area.

  7. Relations between rainfall amount, soil moisture and landslides in Hamilton County, Ohio, measured by strain survey and tensiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, B.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The movement of water through fill material and natural colluvium in a cut slope is being monitored at two sites with past landslide activity adjacent to I-275 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Quadrilaterals and an array of wooden stakes were placed immediately adjacent to the slide area to monitor movement of the slope at Site 1. To correlate any movement with soil moisture levels, rain gauges were installed. Changes in line-length measurements over a 3-month period are < 14 mm, and most differences average about 4 mm. Since measurement errors of up to 5--6 mm can be expected using a steel tape, more measurements over time will be needed to determine if significant displacement is occurring. Tensiometers were placed at 12 and 36 inches depth in the soil from mid-September through early November 1992, in order to measure matric suction. The 36 inch tensiometer indicated that the soil remained saturated at that depth. The 12 inch tensiometer measured 8 centibars, which occurred following a week of rain-free weather. Gravimetric measurements of soil samples show that surface soil moisture ranges from 14--39% immediately following a storm to 7--29% following at least 10 days of dry weather. At Site 2, quadrilaterals were set up in mid-August 1992; resurveys of the quadrilaterals shows very little, if any, movement. Movement of 38 mm occurred in one quadrilateral; movement in other quadrilaterals averaged close to 5 mm. The slide is not steadily moving, and may be following a pattern, where slides in Hamilton County were more likely to move in late winter or early spring.

  8. Analytical Mechanics in Stochastic Dynamics: Most Probable Path, Large-Deviation Rate Function and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation dXt = b(Xt)dt+ɛdWt, where Wt is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small ɛ, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than ˙ {x} = b(x) are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurrence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with L = \\Vert ˙ {q}-b(q)\\Vert 2/4 and Hamiltonian equations with H(p, q) = \\dvbr p\\dvbr2+b(q)ṡp. Hamiltonian conservation law implies that the most probable trajectory for a "rare" event has a uniform "excess kinetic energy" along its path. Rare events can also be characterized by the principle of large deviations which expresses the probability density function for Xt as f(x, t) = e-u(x, t)/ɛ, where u(x, t) is called a large-deviation rate function which satisfies the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. An irreversible diffusion process with ∇×b≠0 corresponds to a Newtonian system with a Lorentz force ḋ {q} = (∇ × b)× ˙ {q}+({1}/{2})∇ \\Vert b\\Vert 2. The connection between stochastic motion and analytical mechanics can be explored in terms of various techniques of applied mathematics, for example, singular perturbations, viscosity solutions and integrable systems.

  9. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Smith, Morgan L.; Manord, Jodi M.; Clark, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771

  10. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  11. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96%). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. PMID:23644520

  12. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order.

  13. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order. PMID:26530161

  14. Neil Hamilton Fairley KBE FRCP FRS (1891-1966): an outstanding tropical physician in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2014-11-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, British physicians led the way in tropical medicine research. Several years later scientific advances had slowed, and Fairley's numerous contributions were thus most welcome. Neil Hamilton Fairley was born of Scottish parents at Victoria, Australia. After qualification at Melbourne, he joined the Australian Army Medical Service (AAMS) and after several minor research projects, made valuable contributions to the understanding of tropical sprue at Bombay (now Mumbai), India. However, Fairley's major researches were carried out during World War II (1939-45). Together with J S K Boyd he demonstrated the great value of sulphaguanidine in bacillary dysentery. Working in northern Australia and the south-Pacific region, he both contributed to elucidation of the Plasmodium vivax life-cycle, and more importantly demonstrated the value of alternative anti-malarial compounds to quinine (which was not readily available). Back in London after the war, Fairley briefly occupied the Wellcome Chair of Tropical Medicine, strongly supported London's clinical tropical medicine, and was subsequently knighted in 1950.

  15. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  16. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides.

  17. Performance on the Hamilton search task, and the influence of lateralization, in captive orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2014-07-01

    Psittacines are generally considered to possess cognitive abilities comparable to those of primates. Most psittacine research has evaluated performance on standardized complex cognition tasks, but studies of basic cognitive processes are limited. We tested orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) on a spatial foraging assessment, the Hamilton search task. This task is a standardized test used in human and non-human primate studies. It has multiple phases, which require trial and error learning, learning set breaking, and spatial memory. We investigated search strategies used to complete the task, cognitive flexibility, and long-term memory for the task. We also assessed the effects of individual strength of motor lateralization (foot preference) and sex on task performance. Almost all (92%) of the parrots acquired the task. All had significant foot preferences, with 69% preferring their left foot, and showed side preferences contralateral to their preferred limb during location selection. The parrots were able to alter their search strategies when reward contingencies changed, demonstrating cognitive flexibility. They were also able to remember the task over a 6-month period. Lateralization had a significant influence on learning set acquisition but no effect on cognitive flexibility. There were no sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first cognitive study using this particular species and one of the few studies of cognitive abilities in any Neotropical parrot species.

  18. The effects of environmental enrichment and age-related differences on inhibitory avoidance in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Gorissen, Marnix; Stokkermans, Mitchel; Zethof, Jan; Ebbesson, Lars O E; van de Vis, Hans; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory avoidance paradigm allows the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton). For zebrafish, the physiology and behavior associated with this paradigm are as yet poorly understood. We therefore assessed the effects of environmental enrichment and fish age on inhibitory avoidance learning. Fish raised in an environmentally enriched tank showed decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploration. Enrichment greatly reduced inhibitory avoidance in 6-month (6M)- and 12-month (12 M)-old fish. Following inhibitory avoidance, telencephalic mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), neurogenic differentiation (neurod), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript 4 (cart4), and cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) were lower in enriched-housed fish, while the ratios of mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2)/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] and glucocorticoid receptor β [nr3c1(β)]/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] were higher. This was observed for 6M-old fish only, not for 24-month (24 M) old fish. Instead, 24 M-old fish showed delayed inhibitory avoidance, no effects of enrichment, and reduced expression of neuroplasticity genes. Overall, our data show strong differences in inhibitory avoidance behavior between zebrafish of different ages and a clear reduction in avoidance behavior following housing under environmental enrichment.

  19. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae. PMID:24699571

  20. Genetic characterization of Clupisoma garua (Hamilton 1822) from six Indian populations using mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Darpan; Lakra, W S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Goswami, Mukunda; Shyamakant, Komal; Malakar, Abhishekh

    2014-02-01

    Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of six Indian populations of C. garua using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We sequenced cyt b gene of 64 individuals collected from five distant rivers: Ganga, Gomti, Betwa, Gandak and Brahmaputra. Sequencing of 1054 bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 19 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 1.000 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.0258 ± 0.00164. The Gandak river fish population showed highest nucleotide diversity. The fixation index analysis indicated significant genetic divergence among populations from different geographical areas. Both the neighbor-joining tree and median-joining network analysis of the haplotype data showed distinct patterns of phylo-geographic structure. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that intra-group variation among populations was highly significant. The results of this study suggest that C. garua populations, especially geographically isolated groups, have developed significant genetic structures within the population. In addition, tests of neutrality suggest that C. garua may have experienced a population expansion. The study results establish cyt b as polymorphic and a potential marker to determine the population structure of C. garua. Information of genetic variation and population structure generated from this study would be useful for planning effective strategies for the conservation and rehabilitation of Schilibid cat fishes.

  1. Generalized hamilton-jacobi-bellman formulation -based neural network control of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of nonlinear networks towards obtaining nearly optimal solutions to the control of nonlinear discrete-time (DT) systems. The method is based on least squares successive approximation solution of the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (GHJB) equation which appears in optimization problems. Successive approximation using the GHJB has not been applied for nonlinear DT systems. The proposed recursive method solves the GHJB equation in DT on a well-defined region of attraction. The definition of GHJB, pre-Hamiltonian function, HJB equation, and method of updating the control function for the affine nonlinear DT systems under small perturbation assumption are proposed. A neural network (NN) is used to approximate the GHJB solution. It is shown that the result is a closed-loop control based on an NN that has been tuned a priori in offline mode. Numerical examples show that, for the linear DT system, the updated control laws will converge to the optimal control, and for nonlinear DT systems, the updated control laws will converge to the suboptimal control. PMID:18269941

  2. Interactive visualization of volumetric white matter connectivity in DT-MRI using a parallel-hardware Hamilton-Jacobi solver.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Fletcher, P Thomas; Tao, Ran; Whitaker, Ross

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to compute and visualize volumetric white matter connectivity in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) using a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) solver on the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). Paths through the volume are assigned costs that are lower if they are consistent with the preferred diffusion directions. The proposed method finds a set of voxels in the DTI volume that contain paths between two regions whose costs are within a threshold of the optimal path. The result is a volumetric optimal path analysis, which is driven by clinical and scientific questions relating to the connectivity between various known anatomical regions of the brain. To solve the minimal path problem quickly, we introduce a novel numerical algorithm for solving H-J equations, which we call the Fast Iterative Method (FIM). This algorithm is well-adapted to parallel architectures, and we present a GPU-based implementation, which runs roughly 50-100 times faster than traditional CPU-based solvers for anisotropic H-J equations. The proposed system allows users to freely change the endpoints of interesting pathways and to visualize the optimal volumetric path between them at an interactive rate. We demonstrate the proposed method on some synthetic and real DT-MRI datasets and compare the performance with existing methods. PMID:17968100

  3. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides. PMID:17717997

  4. Genetic characterization of Clupisoma garua (Hamilton 1822) from six Indian populations using mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Darpan; Lakra, W S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Goswami, Mukunda; Shyamakant, Komal; Malakar, Abhishekh

    2014-02-01

    Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of six Indian populations of C. garua using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We sequenced cyt b gene of 64 individuals collected from five distant rivers: Ganga, Gomti, Betwa, Gandak and Brahmaputra. Sequencing of 1054 bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 19 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 1.000 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.0258 ± 0.00164. The Gandak river fish population showed highest nucleotide diversity. The fixation index analysis indicated significant genetic divergence among populations from different geographical areas. Both the neighbor-joining tree and median-joining network analysis of the haplotype data showed distinct patterns of phylo-geographic structure. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that intra-group variation among populations was highly significant. The results of this study suggest that C. garua populations, especially geographically isolated groups, have developed significant genetic structures within the population. In addition, tests of neutrality suggest that C. garua may have experienced a population expansion. The study results establish cyt b as polymorphic and a potential marker to determine the population structure of C. garua. Information of genetic variation and population structure generated from this study would be useful for planning effective strategies for the conservation and rehabilitation of Schilibid cat fishes. PMID:23676141

  5. Characterization of mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 genes in wild Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and mapping of natural genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    We characterized mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) 6 and 8 genes in Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and determined genetic variation in wild populations across the natural distribution in Indian rivers. A total of 206 individuals were sampled from 11 riverine sites belonging to distinct geographical locations covering five major river basins. Sequencing of 842 base pairs of ATPase 6/8 revealed 21 haplotypes with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.1250 (River Satluj) to 0.8846 (River Bhagirathi). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data revealed significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.192, p < 0.0001) which was indicative of moderate level of genetic structuring in the wild L. calbasu populations. The patterns of genetic divergence and haplotype network of mtDNA revealed distinct clades present in Indian rivers. The analysis of data demonstrated the potential of ATPase 6/8 genes in determining the genetic diversity and indicated considerable sub-structuring in wild calbasu populations present in different rivers.

  6. Impact of environmental and genetic factors on the scale shape of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822): a geometric morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Staszny, A; Havas, Enikő; Kovács, R; Urbányi, B; Paulovits, G; Bencsik, Dóra; Ferincz, A; Müller, T; Specziár, A; Bakos, Katalin; Csenki, Zs

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific morphological variability may reflect either genetic divergence among groups of individuals or response of individuals to environmental circumstances within the frame of phenotypic plasticity. Several studies were able to discriminate wild fish populations based on their scale shape. Here we examine whether the variations in the scale shape in fish populations could be related to genetic or environmental factors, or to both of them. In the first experiment, two inbred lines of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822) reared under identical environmental conditions were compared. Secondly, to find out what effect environmental factors might have, offsprings were divided into two groups and reared on different diets for 12 weeks. Potential recovery of scales from an environmental effect was also assessed. Experimental groups could successfully be distinguished according to the shape of scales in both experiments, and the results showed that both genetic and environmental factors may notably influence scale shape. It was concluded that scale shape analysis might be used as an explanatory tool to detect potential variability of environmental influences impacting genetically homogeneous groups of fish. However, due to its sensitivity to environmental heterogeneity, the applicability of this technique in identifying intraspecific stock membership of fish could be limited.

  7. Measurement of bridge scour at the SR-32 crossing of the Sacramento River at Hamilton City, California, 1987-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; Harris, Carroll D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the State Route 32 crossing of the Sacramento River near Hamilton City, California, is being made to determine those channel and bridge factors that contribute to scour at the site. Three types of scour data have been measured-channel bed (natural) scour, constriction (general) scour, and local (bridge-pier induced) scour. During the years 1979-93, a maximum of 3.4 ft of channel bed scour, with a mean of 1.4 ft, has been measured. Constriction scour, which may include channel bed scour, has been measured at the site nine times during the years 1987-92. The calculated amount of constriction scour ranged from 0.2 to 3.0 ft, assuming the reference is the mean bed elevation. Local scour was measured four times at the site in 1991 and 1992 and ranged from -2.1 (fill) to 11.6 ft , with the calculated amounts dependent on the bed reference elevation and method of computation used. Surveys of the channel bed near the bridge piers indicate the horizontal location of lowest bed elevation (maximum depth of scour) may vary at least 17 ft between different surveys at the same pier and most frequently is located downstream from the upstream face of the pier.

  8. The robustness of Hamilton's rule with inbreeding and dominance: kin selection and fixation probabilities under partial sib mating.

    PubMed

    Roze, Denis; Rousset, François

    2004-08-01

    Assessing the validity of Hamilton's rule when there is both inbreeding and dominance remains difficult. In this article, we provide a general method based on the direct fitness formalism to address this question. We then apply it to the question of the evolution of altruism among diploid full sibs and among haplodiploid sisters under inbreeding resulting from partial sib mating. In both cases, we find that the allele coding for altruism always increases in frequency if a condition of the form rb>c holds, where r depends on the rate of sib mating alpha but not on the frequency of the allele, its phenotypic effects, or the dominance of these effects. In both examples, we derive expressions for the probability of fixation of an allele coding for altruism; comparing these expressions with simulation results allows us to test various approximations often made in kin selection models (weak selection, large population size, large fecundity). Increasing alpha increases the probability of fixation of recessive altruistic alleles (h<1/2), while it can increase or decrease the probability of fixation of dominant altruistic alleles (h>1/2). PMID:15278845

  9. Separation of variables in the special diagonal Hamilton-Jacobi equation: Application to the dynamical problem of a particle constrained on a moving surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. L.; Chan, F. K.

    1973-01-01

    For a time-dependent, n-dimensional, special diagonal Hamilton-Jacobi equation a necessary and sufficient condition for the separation of variables to yield a complete integral of the form was established by specifying the admissible forms in terms of arbitrary functions. A complete integral was then expressed in terms of these arbitrary functions and also the n irreducible constants. As an application of the results obtained for the two-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, analysis was made for a comparatively wide class of dynamical problems involving a particle moving in Euclidean three-dimensional space under the action of external forces but constrained on a moving surface. All the possible cases in which this equation had a complete integral of the form were obtained and these are tubulated for reference.

  10. Genetic fragmentation in India's third longest river system, the Narmada.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Jamdade, Rahul; Kalyankar, Amol; Tiknaik, Anita; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2014-01-01

    India's third longest river, the Narmada, is studied here for the potential effects on native fish populations of river fragmentation due to various barriers including dams and a waterfall. The species we studied include a cyprinid fish, Catla catla, and a mastacembelid, Mastacembelus armatus, both of which are found in the Narmada. Our goal was to use DNA sequence information from the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA to explore how this fragmentation could impact the genetic structure of these fish populations. Our results clearly show that these barriers can contribute to the fragmentation of the genetic structure of these fish communities, Furthermore, these barriers enhance the effects of natural isolation by distance and the asymmetry of dispersal flows. This may be a slow process, but it can create significant isolation and result in genetic disparity. In particular, populations furthest upstream having low migration rates could be even more subject to genetic impoverishment. This study serves as a first report of its kind for a river system on the Indian subcontinent. The results of this study also emphasize the need for appropriate attention towards the creation of fish passages across the dams and weirs that could help in maintaining biodiversity.

  11. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage.

  12. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage. PMID:24741158

  13. Genetic fragmentation in India's third longest river system, the Narmada.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Jamdade, Rahul; Kalyankar, Amol; Tiknaik, Anita; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2014-01-01

    India's third longest river, the Narmada, is studied here for the potential effects on native fish populations of river fragmentation due to various barriers including dams and a waterfall. The species we studied include a cyprinid fish, Catla catla, and a mastacembelid, Mastacembelus armatus, both of which are found in the Narmada. Our goal was to use DNA sequence information from the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA to explore how this fragmentation could impact the genetic structure of these fish populations. Our results clearly show that these barriers can contribute to the fragmentation of the genetic structure of these fish communities, Furthermore, these barriers enhance the effects of natural isolation by distance and the asymmetry of dispersal flows. This may be a slow process, but it can create significant isolation and result in genetic disparity. In particular, populations furthest upstream having low migration rates could be even more subject to genetic impoverishment. This study serves as a first report of its kind for a river system on the Indian subcontinent. The results of this study also emphasize the need for appropriate attention towards the creation of fish passages across the dams and weirs that could help in maintaining biodiversity. PMID:25126486

  14. Spatial analysis of air pollution and childhood asthma in Hamilton, Canada: comparing exposure methods in sensitive subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. Methods A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994–95 (N ~1467). Exposure to air pollution was estimated in four ways: (1) distance from roadways; (2) interpolated surfaces for ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrous oxides from seven to nine governmental monitoring stations; (3) a kriged nitrogen dioxide (NO2) surface based on a network of 100 passive NO2 monitors; and (4) a land use regression (LUR) model derived from the same monitoring network. Logistic regressions were used to test associations between asthma and air pollution, controlling for variables including neighbourhood income, dwelling value, state of housing, a deprivation index and smoking. Results There were no significant associations between any of the exposure estimates and asthma in the whole population, but large effects were detected the subgroup of children without hayfever (predominately in girls). The most robust effects were observed for the association of asthma without hayfever and NO2LUR OR = 1.86 (95%CI, 1.59–2.16) in all girls and OR = 2.98 (95%CI, 0.98–9.06) for older girls, over an interquartile range increase and controlling for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that traffic-related pollutants, such as NO2, are associated with asthma without overt evidence of other atopic disorders among female children living in a medium-sized Canadian city. The effects were sensitive to the method of exposure estimation. More refined exposure models produced the most robust associations. PMID:19338672

  15. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

  16. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies.

  17. Hamilton Way Community Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-20

    This case study describes an energy efficient showcase community in the Hartford, Connecicut, area, aiming for a minimum 40% source energy savings focusing on the thermal enclosure and air tightness of the homes.

  18. Evaluation of anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Byerly, Matthew J; Carmody, Thomas J; Grannemann, Bruce D; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-06-01

    Anhedonia or inability to experience pleasure not only is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also is identified as an important component of the positive valence system in the NIMH Research Domain Criteria. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) has been developed for the assessment of hedonic experience or positive valence, but has not been well-studied in depressed outpatient populations. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the SHAPS using a sample of adult outpatients with treatment resistant MDD. Data for the current study were obtained from 122 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of MDD and non-response to adequate treatment with an SSRI and who participated in Project TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). A Principal Components Analysis was used to define the dimensionality of the SHAPS. Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated via correlations of the SHAPS total score with "gold standard" measures of depression severity and quality of life. The SHAPS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = .82). A Principal Components Analysis suggests that the SHAPS is mainly "unidimensional" and limited to hedonic experience among adult outpatients with MDD. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by examining the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient between the SHAPS total score and the HRSD17 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), IDS-C30 (rs = 0.26, p < .01), IDS-SR30 (rs = 0.23, p < .02), QIDS-C16 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), QIDS-SR16 (rs = 0.17, p < .10), QLES-Q (rs = -0.32, p < .002), and the pleasure/enjoyment item (sub-item 21) of the IDS-C (rs = 0.44, p < .0001) and IDS-SR (rs = 0.38, p < .0002). The self-administered SHAPS showed modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (54%) with the self-administered pleasure/enjoyment single item (sub-item 21) of IDS-SR30. The current study shows that the SHAPS is a reliable and valid

  19. Large Deviations for Finite State Markov Jump Processes with Mean-Field Interaction Via the Comparison Principle for an Associated Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaij, Richard

    2016-07-01

    We prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the trajectory of a broad class of finite state mean-field interacting Markov jump processes via a general analytic approach based on viscosity solutions. Examples include generalized Ehrenfest models as well as Curie-Weiss spin flip dynamics with singular jump rates. The main step in the proof of the LDP, which is of independent interest, is the proof of the comparison principle for an associated collection of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Additionally, we show that the LDP provides a general method to identify a Lyapunov function for the associated McKean-Vlasov equation.

  20. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada. PMID:17958610

  1. An examination of the sensitivity of the six-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in a sample of patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, C L; Bakish, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the sensitivity of the 6-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD6) with the more widely used 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) in patients suffering from major depressive disorder, with or without melancholia and/or dysthymic disorder. A secondary objective was to compare the sensitivity of the HRSD6 to the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 4 clinical trials that tested antidepressant therapies. SETTING: Outpatient treatment in a major psychiatric hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and forty-three male and female outpatients meeting the criteria of the DSM-III-R or DSM-IV for major depressive disorder. OUTCOME MEASURES: HRSD17, HRSD6 and MADRS. RESULTS: The HRSD6 correlated strongly with the HRSD17, both at baseline and termination of treatment, and for the subgroups of double depression and melancholia. The HRSD6 was also correlated significantly with the MADRS at both measurement times, and for the subgroups. Paired t-tests with the HRSD6, HRSD17 and MADRS demonstrated equal sensitivity to change over the course of treatment, both in the full sample and in the dysthymic and melancholic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The HRSD6 appears to be as sensitive to change over treatment as the HRSD17 and the MADRS. A shorter, less time-consuming measure of depression may have utility in clinical practice and research. PMID:10740991

  2. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada.

  3. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  4. Highly elevated levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorinated acids found in biota and surface water downstream of an international airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Solla, S R; De Silva, A O; Letcher, R J

    2012-02-01

    Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs), which include perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs) and various precursors, are used in a wide variety of industrial, commercial and domestic products. This includes aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is used by military and commercial airports as fire suppressants. In a preliminary assessment prior to this study, very high concentrations (>1 ppm wet weight) of the PFSA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were discovered in the plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) collected in 2008 from Lake Niapenco in southern Ontario, Canada. We presently report on a suite of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, several PFC precursors (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonamide, PFOSA), and a cyclic perfluorinated acid used in aircraft hydraulic fluid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in surface water from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, downstream of the John C. Munro International Airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Amphipods, shrimp, and water were sampled from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, as well as local references. The same suite of PFCs in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco was compared to those from other southern Ontario sites. PFOS dominated the sum PFCs in all substrates (e.g., >99% in plasma of turtles downstream the Hamilton Airport, and 72.1 to 94.1% at all other sites). PFOS averaged 2223(±247.1SE) ng/g in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco, and ranged from 9.0 to 171.4 elsewhere. Mean PFOS in amphipods and in water were 518.1(±83.8)ng/g and 130.3(±43.6) ng/L downstream of the airport, and 19.1(±2.7) ng/g and 6.8(±0.5) ng/L at reference sites, respectively. Concentrations of selected PFCs declined with distance downstream from the airport. Although there was no known spill event or publicly reported use of AFFF associated with a fire event at the Hamilton airport, the airport is a likely major source of PFC contamination in the Welland River. PMID

  5. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  6. Revised diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Labeonini) with redescription of G. latius (Hamilton) and revalidation of G. wattanah (Sykes).

    PubMed

    Ciccotto, Patrick J; Page, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    A new diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland 1838 from South Asia is proposed. Seven species are contained in the genus: G. latius (Hamilton 1822), G. diplochilus (Heckel 1838), G. wattanah (Sykes 1839), G. macmahoni (Zugmayer 1912), G. burmanicus (Hora 1936), G. bicornis (Wu 1977), and G. periyarensis (Menon & Jacob 1996). Gonorhynchus latius, a senior synonym of the type species G. brevis M'Clelland 1839 is redescribed. Crossocheilus gohama (M'Clelland 1839) and Crossochilus rostratus Günther 1868 are considered junior synonyms of G. latius, and a neotype is designated for G. latius. Gonorhynchus wattanah (Sykes 1839) from the Krishna and Godavari River basins in western India is revalidated and redescribed with the designation of a neotype. Akrokolioplax Zhang & Kottelat 2006 is a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus. PMID:27395636

  7. Hawking non-thermal and thermal radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilias Hossain, M.; Atiqur Rahman, M.

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal Radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. The spacetime background has taken as dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We have supposed that energy and angular momentum are conserved and have shown that the non-thermal and thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The results for RNAdS black hole is also in the same manner with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and explored the new result for Hawking radiation of RNAdS black hole.

  8. Molecular characterization of Hb Hamilton Hill (HBA2: c.388delC), a novel HBA2 variant generating a premature termination codon and truncated HBA2 chain.

    PubMed

    Qadah, Talal; Finlayson, Jill; North, Emma; Ghassemifar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the identification of α-thalassemias caused by nondeletional mutations has increased significantly due to the advancement of sensitive molecular genetics tools. We report clinical and experimental data for a novel frameshift mutation caused by a single base deletion at position 388 in exon 3 of the α2-globin gene (HBA2: c.388delC; Hb Hamilton Hill), resulting in the phenotype of α-thalassemia (α-thal). Hb Hamilton Hill was identified in an adult female of unknown ethnicity investigated for unexplained microcytosis. Direct DNA sequencing of the HBA2 gene revealed a heterozygous mutation, HBA2: c.388delC, and the molecular effect of this mutation was assessed experimentally using our previously described in vitro model. The experimental analysis involved transfection of a human bladder carcinoma (5637) cell line with expression vectors carrying either HBA2-wild type (HBA2-WT) or HBA2: c.388delC followed by total RNA purification and cDNA synthesis. Both wild type and mutant gene expression was studied and compared at the transcriptional and translational levels using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qReTi-PCR) and immunofluorochemistry (IFC), respectively. Our experimental data showed a significant reduction by 25.0% (p = 0.04) in the transcriptional activity generated from HBA2: c.388delC compared to HBA2-WT. As a result of this base deletion, a frameshift in the open reading frame generates a premature termination codon (PTC) at codon 132 of exon 3 resulting in the formation of a truncated α-globin chain. The truncated α-globin chain, observed by the IFC technique, is most likely unstable and undergoes a rapid turnover resulting in the thalassemic phenotype.

  9. Contrasts in Structural and Bonding Representations among Polar Intermetallic Compounds. Strongly Differentiated Hamilton Populations for Three Related Condensed Cluster Halides of the Rare-Earth Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shalabh; Meyer, Gerd; Corbett, John D.

    2010-10-01

    The crystal and electronic structures of three related R{sub 3}TnX{sub 3} phases (R = rare-earth metal, Tn = transition metal, X = Cl, I) containing extended mixed-metal chains are compared and contrasted: (1) Pr{sub 3}RuI{sub 3} (P2{sub 1}/m), (2) Gd{sub 3}MnI{sub 3} (P2{sub 1}/m), and (3) Pr{sub 3}RuCl{sub 3} (Pnma). The structures all feature double chains built of pairs of condensed R{sub 6}(Tn) octahedral chains encased by halogen atoms. Pr{sub 3}RuI{sub 3} (1) lacks significant Ru-Ru bonding, evidently because of packing restrictions imposed by the large closed-shell size of iodine. However, the vertex Pr2 atoms on the chain exhibit a marked electronic differentiation. These are strongly bound to the central Ru (and to four I), but very little to four neighboring Pr in the cluster according to bond populations, in contrast to Pr2-Pr 'bond' distances that are very comparable to those elsewhere. In Gd{sub 3}MnI{sub 3} (2), the smaller metal atoms allow substantial distortions and Mn-Mn bonding. Pr{sub 3}RuCl{sub 3} (3), in contrast to the iodide (1), can be described in terms of a more tightly bound superstructure of (2) in which both substantial Ru-Ru bonding and an increased number of Pr-Cl contacts in very similar mixed-metal chains are favored by the smaller closed-shell contacts of chlorine. Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) Linearized Muffin-Tin Orbital (LMTO)-ASA calculations and Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) analyses show that the customary structural descriptions in terms of condensed, Tn-stuffed, R-R bonded polyhedral frameworks are poor representations of the bonding in all. Hamilton bond populations (-ICOHP) for the polar mixed-metal R-Tn and the somewhat smaller R-X interactions account for 75-90% of the total populations in each of these phases, together with smaller contributions and variations for R-R and Tn-Tn interactions. The strength of such R-Tn contributions in polar intermetallics was first established or anticipated by

  10. Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations of thermal-wave propagation under the dual-phase lagging model of heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Zambrano-Arjona, Miguel A.

    2010-02-15

    Dual-phase lagging model is one of the most promising approaches to generalize the Fourier heat conduction equation, and it can be reduced in the appropriate limits to the hyperbolic Cattaneo-Vernotte and to the parabolic equations. In this paper it is shown that the Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations that have been developed to study the thermal-wave propagation in the Fourier framework can be extended to include the more general approach based on dual-phase lagging. It is shown that the problem of solving the heat conduction equation can be treated as a thermal harmonic oscillator. In the classical approach a formulation in canonical variables is presented. This formalism is used to introduce a quantum mechanical approach from which the expectation values of observables such as the temperature and heat flux are obtained. These formalisms permit to use a methodology that could provide a deeper insight into the phenomena of heat transport at different time scales in media with inhomogeneous thermophysical properties.

  11. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole Michael; Timmerby, Nina; Søndergaard, Susan; Andreasson, Kate; Bech, Per

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression. The traditional HAM-D17 version was compared with the shorter HAM-D6 and the longer HAM-D21 or HAM-D24 in a fixed-dose placebo-controlled vortioxetine study. Clinical Global Impression of Severity scores were used to establish standardized cutoff scores for remission across each scale. Using these cutoff scores, we compared the ability of each scale to separate drug-placebo remission rates, evaluated by the number needed to treat for clinical evidence. The HAM-D6 was superior to HAM-D17 in separating drug-placebo remission rates at the end point, defined as number needed to treat of less than 10. More items in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability and in discriminating antidepressants from placebo.

  12. Theoretical considerations on the validity of the Stewart-Hamilton principle in measuring cycle-averaged flows via histogram of indicator in the pulsating compartment.

    PubMed

    Eterović, D; Dujić, Z

    1994-02-01

    It has been heuristically shown that the Stewart-Hamilton principle, adapted to external counting observables of system indicator histogram, A(t), its cycle-averaged equilibrium count rate, A(equ), and indicator volume of distribution in the body, V(body), is F/V(body) = A(equ)/integral of o infinity A(t)dt, where F is the cycle-averaged cardiac output. Since the method lacks the theoretical plausibility, it remained unclear whether it is an approximation and what conditions warrant its usability. This paper presents an exact derivation of the above equation. To fulfill it the generalizations of the stationary theory of indicator kinetics were set up that allowed for the conditions of pulsatile flows and volumes and the dependence of the distribution of transit times of indicator on the phase of the cardiac cycle. The assumptions utilized were that the tracer enters the compartment well mixed and convectively carried by the blood in concentrations that do not vary in the single cycle to a material extent. The method yields the cardiac output, even when the flow to a compartment is only a part of it, provided that the fraction of indicator that traversed the system equals the fraction of cardiac output that perfuses the compartment. It was shown that, when applied to a regurgitant ventricle, the method obtains the forward flow and that separate application of the method to each of the ventricles provides the theoretical basis for evaluation of the central-circulatory shunts. PMID:8177163

  13. Decentralized optimal control of a class of interconnected nonlinear discrete-time systems by using online Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation.

    PubMed

    Mehraeen, Shahab; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the direct neural dynamic programming technique is utilized to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation forward-in-time for the decentralized near optimal regulation of a class of nonlinear interconnected discrete-time systems with unknown internal subsystem and interconnection dynamics, while the input gain matrix is considered known. Even though the unknown interconnection terms are considered weak and functions of the entire state vector, the decentralized control is attempted under the assumption that only the local state vector is measurable. The decentralized nearly optimal controller design for each subsystem consists of two neural networks (NNs), an action NN that is aimed to provide a nearly optimal control signal, and a critic NN which evaluates the performance of the overall system. All NN parameters are tuned online for both the NNs. By using Lyapunov techniques it is shown that all subsystems signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and that the synthesized subsystems inputs approach their corresponding nearly optimal control inputs with bounded error. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:21965197

  14. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole Michael; Timmerby, Nina; Søndergaard, Susan; Andreasson, Kate; Bech, Per

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression. The traditional HAM-D17 version was compared with the shorter HAM-D6 and the longer HAM-D21 or HAM-D24 in a fixed-dose placebo-controlled vortioxetine study. Clinical Global Impression of Severity scores were used to establish standardized cutoff scores for remission across each scale. Using these cutoff scores, we compared the ability of each scale to separate drug-placebo remission rates, evaluated by the number needed to treat for clinical evidence. The HAM-D6 was superior to HAM-D17 in separating drug-placebo remission rates at the end point, defined as number needed to treat of less than 10. More items in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability and in discriminating antidepressants from placebo. PMID:27525966

  15. Design of Free Parameters of State-Dependent Coefficient Form Based on the Relation between State-Dependent Riccati Inequality and Hamilton Jacobi Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakayanagi, Yoshihiro; Nakaura, Shigeki; Sampei, Mitsuji

    The solvable condition of nonlinear H∞ control problems is given by the Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI). The state-dependent Riccati inequality (SDRI) is one of the approaches used to solve the HJI. The SDRI contains the state-dependent coefficient (SDC) form of a nonlinear system. The SDC form is not unique. If a poor SDC form is chosen, then there is no solution for the SDRI. In other words, there exist free parameters of the SDC form that affect the solvability of the SDRI. This study focuses on the free parameters of the SDC form. First, a representation of the free parameters of the SDC form is introduced. The solvability of an SDRI is a sufficient condition for that of the related HJI, and the free parameters affect the conservativeness of the SDRI approach. In addition, a new method for designing the free parameters that reduces the conservativeness of the SDRI approach is introduced. Finally, numerical examples to verify the effect of this method are presented.

  16. Development of monoclonal antibodies to rohu [Labeo rohita] immunoglobulins for use in immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Gaurav; Kumar, Gokhlesh; Sood, Neeraj; Kapoor, D; Lakra, W S

    2008-12-01

    Serum immunoglobulins [Ig] of rohu [Labeo rohita] were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. The purified rohu Ig [r-Ig] had a molecular weight [MW] of 880 kDa as determined with gel filtration chromatography. The heavy chain of r-Ig had an MW of 77.8 kDa and that of light chain was 26.4 kDa in SDS-PAGE. Purified r-Ig was used for the production of two anti-rohu Ig monoclonal antibodies [D7 and H4] that belonged to subclass IgG2b and IgG1, respectively. Both the MAbs were specific to heavy chain of r-Ig as seen in Western blotting. Anti-rohu Ig MAb was used as a diagnostic reagent in ELISA and immunocytochemical assays to demonstrate its application for sero-surveillance and for immunological studies in rohu. A competitive ELISA was used to demonstrate the antigenic relatedness of r-Ig with whole serum Ig of other fish species. Cross reactivity of anti-rohu Ig MAb was observed with serum Ig of Catla catla and Cirrihinus mrigala. No reactivity to serum Ig of Ophiocephalus striatus and Clarias gariepinus was seen. Anti-rohu Ig MAb was found to be suitable for the detection of pathogen specific [Edwardsiella tarda] antibodies in serum of immunized rohu by an indirect ELISA. In flow cytometry using D7 MAb, the mean percentage [+/-SE] of Ig positive cells in spleen and blood of rohu were found to be 64.85% [+/-2.34] and 51.84% [+/-2.55] of gated lymphocytes, respectively. Similarly, D7 MAb also stained 52.84% [+/-1.30] and 10.5% of gated lymphocytes in kidney and thymus, respectively. The anti-rohu Ig MAbs also showed specific staining of Ig bearing cells in spleen sections by the indirect immunoperoxidase test.

  17. New host record of five Flavobacterium species associated with tropical fresh water farmed fishes from North India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Yellow pigmented, filamentous, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genus Flavobacterium are commonly associated with infections in stressed fish. In this study, inter-species diversity of Flavobacterium was studied in apparently healthy freshwater farmed fishes. For this, ninety one yellow pigmented bacteria were isolated from skin and gill samples (n = 38) of three farmed fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio. Among them, only twelve bacterial isolates (13.18%) were identified as Flavobacterium spp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests, partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, all the 12 isolates were 97.6-100% similar to six different formally described species of genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis grouped these strains into six different clades. Of the 12 isolates, six strains (Fl9S1-6) grouped with F. suncheonense, two strains (Fl6I2, Fl6I3) with F. indicum and the rest four strains (Fl1A1, Fl2G1, Fl3H1 and Fl10T1) clustered with F. aquaticum, F. granuli, F. hercynium and F. terrae, respectively. None of these species except, F. hercynium were previously reported from fish. All the isolated Flavobacterium species possessed the ability of adhesion and biofilm formation to colonize the external surface of healthy fish. The present study is the first record of tropical freshwater farmed fishes as hosts to five environmentally associated species of the Flavobacterium. PMID:26691454

  18. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  19. New host record of five Flavobacterium species associated with tropical fresh water farmed fishes from North India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Yellow pigmented, filamentous, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to genus Flavobacterium are commonly associated with infections in stressed fish. In this study, inter-species diversity of Flavobacterium was studied in apparently healthy freshwater farmed fishes. For this, ninety one yellow pigmented bacteria were isolated from skin and gill samples (n = 38) of three farmed fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio. Among them, only twelve bacterial isolates (13.18%) were identified as Flavobacterium spp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical tests, partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, all the 12 isolates were 97.6-100% similar to six different formally described species of genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis grouped these strains into six different clades. Of the 12 isolates, six strains (Fl9S1-6) grouped with F. suncheonense, two strains (Fl6I2, Fl6I3) with F. indicum and the rest four strains (Fl1A1, Fl2G1, Fl3H1 and Fl10T1) clustered with F. aquaticum, F. granuli, F. hercynium and F. terrae, respectively. None of these species except, F. hercynium were previously reported from fish. All the isolated Flavobacterium species possessed the ability of adhesion and biofilm formation to colonize the external surface of healthy fish. The present study is the first record of tropical freshwater farmed fishes as hosts to five environmentally associated species of the Flavobacterium.

  20. The constraints of fisheries management in Punjab (Pakistan)

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, and sherpa and for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were conducted. Mortalities and LC50-96 hr values for Barilus vagra and Cyprinus carpio exposed to pesticides were variable. Long-term exposure to pesticides modified morphology and behavior. The LC50-96 hr values for Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe were low for small fish. Selected metal residues were significantly greater in whole juvenile carp following exposure to sublethal concentrations. Water samples from selected industrial drainages and receiving streams showed abnormal pH and oxygen levels. Selected metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg) were higher in all effluents. Static bioassays of the undiluted industrial effluents from three sites caused 100% mortality in carp during the first 24 hrs and some mortality when effluents were diluted by 50%. A mesh size vulnerability model using the girth retention function for the Mangla Lake Fishery was developed. The impact of variable mesh size on fish harvest was evaluated. Probability of encountering the net was proportional to the distance travelled by fish, and a corrected size distribution improved the use of the model. Dynamic changes in the population, permissible harvest, number of fingerlings stocked and maintenance of year classes would allow the development of a better management model. Three supplementary feeds from inexpensive ingredients were developed and their relative ability to increase the growth of three indigenous carp (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala) and two exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were compared. The growth of indigenous carp was low on all three feeds. All species of fish grew best on feed three. Information is needed on the ecological niches and nutrient requirements of the native carps.

  1. Concentrations of pesticide residues in tissues of fish from Kolleru Lake in India.

    PubMed

    Amaraneni, S R; Pillala, R R

    2001-01-01

    Kolleru Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake of Andhra Pradesh in India. It is situated between latitudes 16 degrees 32' and 16 degrees 47'N and longitudes 81 degrees 05' and 81 degrees 27'E. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes is widespread in the Kolleru Lake region. The biological indicators like fish help in the studies of aquatic pollution by pesticides. Fish species Channa striata and Catla catla and water samples were collected from Kolleru Lake in each of three seasons over a period of three years. Fish samples were analyzed according to a modified method which is proposed for the gas chromatographic determination for the pesticides viz., alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, malathion, chloirpyrifos, isodrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, and p,p-DDT. Water samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical parameters. The extraction efficiency for the selected pesticides is between 82.8% and 91.2%. The maximum concentrations of pesticide residues in Kolleru Lake fish on wet weight basis are 123.8 micrograms/g for alpha-BHC, 98.7 micrograms/g for gamma-BHC, 2.5 micrograms/g for malathion, 88.6 micrograms/g for chlorpyrifos, 0.91 microgram/g for isodrin, 76.5 micrograms/g for endosulfan, 1.98 micrograms/g for dieldrin, and 157.4 micrograms/g for p,p'-DDT. These analyses were used to evaluate the baseline data and the pesticide pollution in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:11769254

  2. Factors of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items) at 2 weeks correlated with poor outcome at 1 year in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaiwu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chunxue; Luo, Ben Yan; Shi, Yuzhi; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-02-01

    There was fewer paper about the relation between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 Items, HDRS-17) factors and stroke outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of total score and factors of HDRS-17 on outcome of ischemic stroke at 1 year. A total of 1,953 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into a multicentered and prospective cohort study. The HDRS-17 was used to assess symptoms at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke. The Modified Ranking Scale (mRS) scores of 3-6 points and 0-2 points were regarded as poor outcome and benign outcome, respectively. At 1 year, 1,753 (89.8 %) patients had mRS score data. After adjusting for the confounders, patients with a total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8 had a worse outcome at 1 year (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23). Symptoms of suicide (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.27-2.83), decreased or loss of interest of work (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.38-2.58), retardation (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.27-2.38), psychic anxiety (OR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.26-2.34), and agitation (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.40) increased the risks for poor outcome by >60 %, respectively. Depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia also increased the risk for poor outcome by nearly 50 %, respectively. A total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8, and suicide, decreased or loss of interest of work, anxiety, agitation, retardation, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia of the HDRS-17 factors at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke increase the risk for poor outcome at 1 year.

  3. Feynman formulae and phase space Feynman path integrals for tau-quantization of some Lévy-Khintchine type Hamilton functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butko, Yana A.; Grothaus, Martin; Smolyanov, Oleg G.

    2016-02-01

    Evolution semigroups generated by pseudo-differential operators are considered. These operators are obtained by different (parameterized by a number τ) procedures of quantization from a certain class of functions (or symbols) defined on the phase space. This class contains Hamilton functions of particles with variable mass in magnetic and potential fields and more general symbols given by the Lévy-Khintchine formula. The considered semigroups are represented as limits of n-fold iterated integrals when n tends to infinity. Such representations are called Feynman formulae. Some of these representations are constructed with the help of another pseudo-differential operator, obtained by the same procedure of quantization; such representations are called Hamiltonian Feynman formulae. Some representations are based on integral operators with elementary kernels; these are called Lagrangian Feynman formulae. Langrangian Feynman formulae provide approximations of evolution semigroups, suitable for direct computations and numerical modeling of the corresponding dynamics. Hamiltonian Feynman formulae allow to represent the considered semigroups by means of Feynman path integrals. In the article, a family of phase space Feynman pseudomeasures corresponding to different procedures of quantization is introduced. The considered evolution semigroups are represented as phase space Feynman path integrals with respect to these Feynman pseudomeasures, i.e., different quantizations correspond to Feynman path integrals with the same integrand but with respect to different pseudomeasures. This answers Berezin's problem of distinguishing a procedure of quantization on the language of Feynman path integrals. Moreover, the obtained Lagrangian Feynman formulae allow also to calculate these phase space Feynman path integrals and to connect them with some functional integrals with respect to probability measures.

  4. Delivering oxytetracycline to first-feeding zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), and goby, Asterropteryx semipunctata Rüppell, larvae using lipid spray beads.

    PubMed

    Temple, E; Langdon, C

    2009-03-01

    Lipid spray beads (LSB) were evaluated for delivery of the low-molecular weight, water-soluble antibiotic, oxytetracycline.HCl (OTC) to fish larvae. Various OTC core-to-lipid ratios and OTC core concentrations were evaluated to maximize OTC delivery efficiency by LSB. Acceptability and digestion of LSB containing OTC and riboflavin by larval zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), and larval gobies, Asterropteryx semipunctata Rüppell, were also evaluated. Increasing LSB core-to-lipid ratios from 1:3 to 1:1 v/v resulted in an increase in encapsulation efficiency (EE) from 2.33 to 3.68% w/w. Increasing OTC concentrations of core solutions from 0.1 to 0.5 g OTC mL(-1) increased EE from 3.95 to 18.77% w/w, respectively. Although retention efficiency (RE) was unaffected by this increase, delivery efficiency was increased to 7.9 +/- 0.7% w/w, after correcting for leakage losses because of the suspension of beads in water for 60 min. Consumption of LSB containing OTC by first-feeding zebrafish and goby larvae was confirmed by analysis of feeding incidence and gut fullness. Visual observations of larvae fed on LSB containing riboflavin indicated that larvae of both species digested LSB. Zebrafish larvae fed on OTC LSB contained 39.3 +/- 2.5 ng OTC after purging LSB from their guts. Use of LSB provides an effective means of delivering therapeutics to fish larvae and could greatly reduce required doses compared with current methods of immersing larvae in solutions of therapeutic agents.

  5. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date.

  6. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  7. Total mercury, methylmercury, and selected elements in soils of the Fishing Brook watershed, Hamilton County, New York, and the McTier Creek watershed, Aiken County, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.

  8. Hb O-Tibesti [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Lys; beta11(A8)Val-->Ile], a hemoglobin variant carrying in the same beta chain the substitutions of Hb O-Arab and Hb Hamilton, found in combination with Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val].

    PubMed

    Préhu, Claude; Riou, Jean; Sartelet, Isabelle; Promé, Danielle; Claparols, Catherine; Denier, Mathias; Motte, Jacques; Galactéros, Frederic; Wajcman, Henri

    2002-02-01

    Hb O-Tibesti, carries in the same chain the substitution of Hb O-Arab [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Lys] and that of Hb Hamilton [beta11(A8)Val-->Ile]. Hb O-Tibesti may be distinguished from Hb O-Arab by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of urea and Triton-X100, and by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. It was found in a compound heterozygous condition with Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val] in a child of Chad-Sudanese descent, suffering from a sickle cell syndrome. Compared to the classical description of the Hb S/Hb O-Arab association, the additional Hb Hamilton mutation does not seem to modify the clinical presentation. PMID:11939508

  9. Variation in susceptibility pattern of fish to Argulus siamensis: Do immune responses of host play a role?

    PubMed

    Kar, Banya; Moussa, Cisse; Mohapatra, Amruta; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar

    2016-05-15

    Branchiuran ectoparasites of the genus Argulus can have extensive damaging effects on cultured fish. There exist no systematic studies that evaluate susceptibility or resistance of various carp species to Argulus sp. and the underlying mechanisms. The present study aimed at identifying the most susceptible and resistant cultured species, studying settlement and survival of parasite on these species, and finally unravelling the variations of immune response in both resistant and susceptible species. Fish from eight species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Carassius auratus, Labeo fimbriatus) were individually challenged with metanauplii of A. siamensis (100 metanauplii/fish) before rearing them in single tank in triplicate for 45 days. Based on the observed parasite load on each species, L. rohita was found to be the most susceptible and C. idella the resistant species. The settlement and survival of the parasite on L. rohita and C. idella was compared at 24, 48, 72 and 96h post experimental infection. Survival was significantly low at 72h onwards in C. idella indicating it is an unsuitable/poorly preferred host for A. siamensis. The inflammatory responses which are known to be related to susceptibility were analysed. Individuals of both the species were exposed to A. siamensis (100 parasites/fish), and after 24h and 3 d, skin samples directly from the attachment site and non-attachment sites were assessed for transcriptomic profiles of selected innate defence genes. Artificial skin abrasion permitted comparisons between abrasion associated injury and louse-associated injury. The inflammatory responses varied significantly between both species indicating their role in determining susceptibility of a host to A. siamensis. The expression of major histocompatibility class II and matrix metalloproteinase 2 was significantly higher in C. idella compared to L. rohita and therefore

  10. Photoreceptor proteins and melatonin rhythm generating AANAT in the carp pineal: Temporal organization and correlation with natural photo-thermal cues.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2010-04-01

    We studied temporal organization of both the photoreceptor (rod-like opsin, alpha subunit of the G protein transducin or alpha-TD) and melatonin generating (AANAT) proteins in the same pineal of a tropical surface dwelling free-living carp Catla catla, and analyzed possible correlation between them as well as with natural photo-thermal variables in an annual cycle. The pineal from individual fish was collected at four different time points (06.00 h, 12.00 h, 18.00 h, and 24.00 h) in a 24.00 h cycle and the same was repeated in four distinct seasons in an annual reproductive cycle to study each protein following Western blot and densitometric analyses of respective immunoblots. The rod-like opsin was represented by four distinct bands, a closely spaced doublet of 39 kDa and bands of 78 and 115 kDa. Two separate bands, one at 43 kDa and another at 65 kDa, were detected for alpha-TD, and a single band at 23 kDa for AANAT. Both the pineal photoreceptor proteins exhibited an identical pattern of diurnal variations with a peak at midday (12.00 h) and fall at midnight (24.00 h), while maximum band intensity of AANAT was noted in midnight (24.00 h) and minimum at midday (12.00 h) depicting a significant negative correlation (p<0.001) between them. Likewise, in an annual cycle, a significant (p<0.01) negative correlation was found between the expression of each pineal photoreceptor protein (being highest during the spawning phase) and AANAT (maximum during the post-spawning phase). Seasonal fluctuations of both the photoperiod and water temperature exhibited a significant (p<0.01) positive correlation with the expression of pineal photoreceptor proteins and a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with the pineal AANAT. Collectively, the present phenological study is the first report on temporal organization of pineal photoreceptor proteins and their correlation with the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme AANAT as well as environmental photo-thermal cues depicting their

  11. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  12. The Inventory Of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C(28)) is more sensitive to changes in depressive symptomatology than the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD(17)) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2011-08-01

    Depression rating scales play a decisive role in the assessment of the severity of depression and the evaluation of the efficacy of antidepressant treatments. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is regarded as the 'gold standard'; nevertheless, studies suggest that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) is more sensitive to detect symptom changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the IDS is more sensitive in detecting changes in depression symptoms in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C(28) and HAMD(17) data from 340 patients of a 10-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural therapy in patients with MIND were analysed. We investigated sensitivity to change for both scales (1) from assessment-to-assessment, (2) in relation to depression severity level, and (3) in relation to DSM-IV depression criterion symptoms. The IDS-C(28) was more sensitive in detecting changes in depression symptomatology over the treatment course as well as for different severity levels, especially in patients with a low depression severity. It assesses the DSM-IV criteria more thoroughly, is better able to track the change of cognitive symptoms and to identify residual symptoms. Both scales are well able to assess depressive symptomatology. However, the IDS-C(28) surpasses the HAMD(17) in detecting small changes especially in the core symptoms of depression. This is important for an optimal treatment by capturing early improvements, enabling prompt reactions and detecting residual symptoms.

  13. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  14. Development of Canonical Transformations from Hamilton's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quade, C. Richard

    1979-01-01

    The theory of canonical transformations and its development are discussed with regard to its application to Hutton's principle. Included are the derivation of the equations of motion and a lack of symmetry in the formulaion with respect to Lagrangian and the fundamental commutator relations of quantum mechanics. (Author/SA)

  15. Republication of: On Hamilton's canonical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebodziński, Władysław

    2010-10-01

    This is an English translation of a paper by Władysław Ślebodziński, first published in French in 1931, in which he introduced the general definition of what is today called the Lie derivative of tensors (strangely enough, he gave no name to this object). The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Andrzej Trautman and Ślebodziński’s brief biography written by Witold Roter.

  16. 78 FR 45956 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Hamilton County Department of Parks and Recreation, Hamilton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... bear maxilla; 1 bear tooth; 2 lots of bone awl fragments; 2 lots of bone beamers, partial; 1 bone fish hook fragment; 1 bone indeterminate tool fragment; 1 bone tool fragment; 1 lot of bone tool making... ochre; 1 scribed bone tool fragment; 1 scribed elk scapula fragments; 1 lot of shells; 1 shell......

  17. 78 FR 49660 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 30795). The NPRM proposed to require incorporating inspections, based on a calendar time... developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (78 FR 30795, May 23, 2013) or on the determination... (78 FR 30795, May 23, 2013) for correcting the unsafe condition; and Do not add any additional...

  18. 78 FR 63852 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... October 25, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013) remains September 19... 2013-16-10, Amendment 39-17548 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013), currently requires incorporating... published in the Federal Register. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15,...

  19. Evaluation of possible health risks of heavy metals by consumption of foodstuffs available in the central market of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Narottam; Zaman, M R

    2013-05-01

    Considering the human health risk due to the consumption of foodstuffs, the concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic) are investigated in vegetables, fruits, and fish species collected from the central market (called Shaheb Bazar) of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. The foodstuffs examined for metal constituents are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. The highest concentrations of Mn and As in vegetables (onion and pointed gourd, respectively), Cr and Cd in fruits (black berry and mango, respectively), and Pb in fish (catla) are recorded. Health risks associated with these heavy metals are evaluated due to dietary intake. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) are calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk from individual and combined heavy metals. The THQ values for individual heavy metals are below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health risks if they ingest a single heavy metal from one kind of foodstuff (e.g., vegetables). However, consumption of several of the foodstuffs could lead a potential health risk to human population since HI value is higher than 1. The relative contributions of vegetables, fishes, and fruits to HI are 49.44, 39.07, and 11.53 %, respectively. Also, the relative contributions of Pb, Cd, As, Mn, and Cr to HI are 51.81, 35.55, 11.73, 0.85, and 0.02 %, respectively. The estimation shows that the carcinogenic risk of arsenic exceeds the accepted risk level of 1 × 10(-6). Thus, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for consumers is a matter of concern. PMID:22933105

  20. Evaluation of possible health risks of heavy metals by consumption of foodstuffs available in the central market of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Narottam; Zaman, M R

    2013-05-01

    Considering the human health risk due to the consumption of foodstuffs, the concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic) are investigated in vegetables, fruits, and fish species collected from the central market (called Shaheb Bazar) of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. The foodstuffs examined for metal constituents are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. The highest concentrations of Mn and As in vegetables (onion and pointed gourd, respectively), Cr and Cd in fruits (black berry and mango, respectively), and Pb in fish (catla) are recorded. Health risks associated with these heavy metals are evaluated due to dietary intake. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) are calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk from individual and combined heavy metals. The THQ values for individual heavy metals are below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health risks if they ingest a single heavy metal from one kind of foodstuff (e.g., vegetables). However, consumption of several of the foodstuffs could lead a potential health risk to human population since HI value is higher than 1. The relative contributions of vegetables, fishes, and fruits to HI are 49.44, 39.07, and 11.53 %, respectively. Also, the relative contributions of Pb, Cd, As, Mn, and Cr to HI are 51.81, 35.55, 11.73, 0.85, and 0.02 %, respectively. The estimation shows that the carcinogenic risk of arsenic exceeds the accepted risk level of 1 × 10(-6). Thus, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for consumers is a matter of concern.

  1. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  2. Hermann-Bernoulli-Laplace-Hamilton-Runge-Lenz Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramanian, P. R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A way for students to refresh and use their knowledge in both mathematics and physics is presented. By the study of the properties of the "Runge-Lenz" vector the subjects of algebra, analytical geometry, calculus, classical mechanics, differential equations, matrices, quantum mechanics, trigonometry, and vector analysis can be reviewed. (KR)

  3. Availability of ground water near Carmel, Hamilton County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillies, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Flow in the unconsolidated glacial deposits near the city of Carmel in central Indiana was simulated by a digital-computer model in a study of hydraulic characteristics of the deposits. The study shows that 21.3 million gallons per day (933 litres per second) of additional water could be withdrawn from the aquifer for an indefinite period of time. This pumpage is approximately 5 million gallons per day (219 1itres per second) above the projected water needs of Carmel for 1990. Saturated thickness, transmissivity, and storage coefficient of the outwash aquifer along the White River east of Carmel were determined, using available data supplemented by test drilling . The saturated thickness of the aquifer ranges f r om 10 to 110 feet 0 to 34 me tres); transmissivity ranges from 1,000 feet squared per day (93 metres squared per day) to 24 ,000 feet squared per day (2 ,230 metres squared per day); and the average storage coefficient is 0.11.

  4. Hamilton's Magic Sunflower Garden: An Approach to Urban Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Mary D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an urban environmental education program in which an overgrown vacant lot has been used for environmental study and for the development of a productive garden. The program has been successful in providing elementary school children with positive experiences in their own urban environment. (JR)

  5. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  6. The Characterization of Restriction Endonucleases: the Work of Hamilton Smith

    PubMed Central

    Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of the HhaII Restriction Endonuclease from an Overproducer Escherichia coli Clone (Kelly, S., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., and Smith, H. O. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 15339–15344) Catalytic Properties of the HhaII Restriction Endonuclease (Kaddurah-Daouk, R., Cho, P., and Smith, H. O. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 15345–15351) PMID:21491685

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome organization of Tor tor (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Goel, Chirag; Kumari Sahoo, Prabhati; Singh, Atul K; Barat, Ashoktaru

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Tor tor, a threatened "Mahseer" was sequenced for the first time. The mitochondrial genome size determined to be 16,554 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes and a control region or displacement loop (D-Loop) region, resembling the typical organizational pattern of most of the teleost. The overall base composition found was A: 31.8%, T: 25%, G: 15.7% and C: 27.4%; A + T: 56.9% and G + C: 43.1%. The phylogenetic tree constructed using 11 other cyprinids' total mtDNA datasets confirmed the location of present species among mahseers. The total sequence data could support further study in molecular systematics, species identification, evolutionary and conservation genetics.

  8. 78 FR 43838 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... proposed to amend 14 CFR part 39 with a proposed AD (78 FR 9001, February 7, 2013). The proposed AD had... after an engine in-flight shutdown. Since we issued the NPRM (78 FR 9001, February 7, 2013), additional.... Withdrawal of the NPRM (78 FR 9001, February 7, 2013) constitutes only such ] action, and does not...

  9. Hamilton's Principle and Approximate Solutions to Problems in Classical Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlitt, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shows how to use the Ritz method for obtaining approximate solutions to problems expressed in variational form directly from the variational equation. Application of this method to classical mechanics is given. (MLH)

  10. Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from

  11. Present status and approaches for the sustainable development of community based fish culture in seasonal floodplains of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Jalal, K C A; Jahan, Nasrin; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ara, R; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from

  12. Some Inverse Problems in Periodic Homogenization of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Songting; Tran, Hung V.; Yu, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    We look at the effective Hamiltonian {overline{H}} associated with the Hamiltonian {H(p,x)=H(p)+V(x)} in the periodic homogenization theory. Our central goal is to understand the relation between {V} and {overline{H}}. We formulate some inverse problems concerning this relation. Such types of inverse problems are, in general, very challenging. In this paper, we discuss several special cases in both convex and nonconvex settings.

  13. Hamilton Standard Q-fan demonstrator dynamic pitch change test program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demers, W. J.; Nelson, D. J.; Wainauski, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a full scale variable pitch fan engine to obtain data on the structural characteristics, response times, and fan/core engine compatibility during transient changes in blade angle, fan rpm, and engine power is reported. Steady state reverse thrust tests with a take off nozzle configuration were also conducted. The 1.4 meter diameter, 13 bladed controllable pitch fan was driven by a T55 L 11A engine with power and blade angle coordinated by a digital computer. The tests demonstrated an ability to change from full forward thrust to reverse thrust in less than one (1) second. Reverse thrust was effected through feather and through flat pitch; structural characteristics and engine/fan compatibility were within satisfactory limits.

  14. 76 FR 48178 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University... Anthropology has completed an inventory of a human remain, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes... Anthropology at the address below by September 7, 2011. ADDRESSES: Dr. Jordan Kerber, Longyear Museum...

  15. Toxic Effects of Zinc Chloride on the Bone Development in Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822)

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Antonio; Marino, Fabio; Albano, Marco; Pecoraro, Roberta; Camiolo, Giuseppina; Tibullo, Daniele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Lombardo, Bianca M.; Saccone, Salvatore; Mazzei, Veronica; Brundo, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    The increase of heavy metals in the environment involves a high exposure of aquatic organisms to these pollutants. The present study is planned to investigate the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) on the bone embryonic development of Danio rerio and confirm the use of zebrafish as a model organism to study the teratogenic potential of this pollutant. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different ZnCl2 concentrations and analyzed by ICP-MS. The skeletal anomalies were evaluated to confocal microscope after staining with calcein solution and RhodZinTM-3,AM. The data show a delay in hatching compared with the controls, malformations in the process of calcification and significant defects in growth. In conclusion, the current work demonstrates for the first time the Zn toxic effects on calcification process and confirm zebrafish (Danio rerio) as suitable alternative vertebrate model to study the causes and the mechanisms of the skeletal malformations. PMID:27199768

  16. Sense of Place and Health in Hamilton, Ontario: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allison; Kitchen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The concept of sense of place has received considerable attention by social scientists in recent years. Research has indicated that a person's sense of place is influenced by a number of factors including the built environment, socio-economic status (SES), well-being and health. Relatively few studies have examined sense of place at the…

  17. 77 FR 27272 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hamilton and Clermont Counties, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Segment 3 of the proposed Oasis Rail Line which would share the right-of-way with relocated SR-32. Tier 1... proposed Segments II-III SR 32 project and proposed Oasis Rail Line Segment 3 will involve more detailed... Oasis rail transit (a portion of which parallels the Segment II-III corridor), a ] multi-modal...

  18. Use of RAPD fingerprinting for delineating populations of hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Brahmane, M P; Das, M K; Sinha, M R; Sugunan, V V; Mukherjee, A; Singh, S N; Prakash, S; Maurye, P; Hajra, A

    2006-01-01

    RAPD was used to delineate the hilsa populations sampled from the Ganga, Yamuna, Hooghly, and Narmada Rivers at six different locations. Six degenerate primers were used to generate the fragment patterns from the samples collected. All primers were highly polymorphic and generated high numbers of amplification products. Nei's genetic distances were calculated between locations. The overall average genetic distance among all the six locations was 0.295. The Fst value within the Ganga was 0.469 and within the Hooghly it was 0.546. The overall Fst value for the six populations analyzed was 0.590. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered the hilsa into two distinct clusters: Ganga and Yamuna populations and the Hooghly and Narmada populations. PMID:17183476

  19. Toxic Effects of Zinc Chloride on the Bone Development in Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Antonio; Marino, Fabio; Albano, Marco; Pecoraro, Roberta; Camiolo, Giuseppina; Tibullo, Daniele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Lombardo, Bianca M; Saccone, Salvatore; Mazzei, Veronica; Brundo, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    The increase of heavy metals in the environment involves a high exposure of aquatic organisms to these pollutants. The present study is planned to investigate the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) on the bone embryonic development of Danio rerio and confirm the use of zebrafish as a model organism to study the teratogenic potential of this pollutant. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different ZnCl2 concentrations and analyzed by ICP-MS. The skeletal anomalies were evaluated to confocal microscope after staining with calcein solution and RhodZin(TM)-3,AM. The data show a delay in hatching compared with the controls, malformations in the process of calcification and significant defects in growth. In conclusion, the current work demonstrates for the first time the Zn toxic effects on calcification process and confirm zebrafish (Danio rerio) as suitable alternative vertebrate model to study the causes and the mechanisms of the skeletal malformations. PMID:27199768

  20. Hamilton's Equations with Euler Parameters for Rigid Body Dynamics Modeling. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivarama, Ravishankar; Fahrenthold, Eric P.

    2004-01-01

    A combination of Euler parameter kinematics and Hamiltonian mechanics provides a rigid body dynamics model well suited for use in strongly nonlinear problems involving arbitrarily large rotations. The model is unconstrained, free of singularities, includes a general potential energy function and a minimum set of momentum variables, and takes an explicit state space form convenient for numerical implementation. The general formulation may be specialized to address particular applications, as illustrated in several three dimensional example problems.

  1. Management Review of the Library of Congress: The 1996 Booz Allen and Hamilton Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the methodology and findings of the "Management Review of the Library of Congress" completed in 1996. Highlights include mission statements; organizational structure; lack of strategic planning; performance measurement for support staff; the need for distributed leadership roles; the future of the Library of Congress; and implications for…

  2. 75 FR 20794 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    .... You may also submit comments through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . You may review the... provide the factual basis supporting the views and suggestions presented are particularly helpful in... through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . Recently published rulemaking documents can also...

  3. 75 FR 12594 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption in Hamilton County, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... includes the stations of Hyde Park and Mariemont. ] NSR states that the line does not contain federally...., Washington, DC 20423-0001; and (2) Daniel G. Kruger, Norfolk Southern Railway Corporation, Three...

  4. 78 FR 22872 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ...-high concrete gravity dam with a 690-foot-long spillway; (2) an existing impoundment having a surface... electronically via the Internet. See 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web site... the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/elibrary.asp . Enter the docket number...

  5. 78 FR 22873 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... impoundment having a surface area of 50 acres and a storage capacity of 371 acre-feet at an elevation of 240... instructions on the Commission's Web site http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling.asp . Commenters can submit... printed on the ``eLibrary'' link of the Commission's Web site at...

  6. Third Gordon Hamilton-Fairley Memorial Lecture. Tumour markers--where do we go from here?

    PubMed Central

    Bagshawe, K. D.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the application of markers for solid tumours is presented. Some of the potential problems with general cancer tests are considered as well as the ways in which the more specific markers have been applied. The limited specificities of markers defined so far remain a serious limitation but they have found useful clinical application. Their use in radioimmunolocalisation provides an interesting challenge to the physical methods of tumour localisation and the possibilities of drug targeting by antibodies are as exciting as the difficulties are formidable. It is, I suggest, a field that will continue to evolve and be productive. PMID:6192836

  7. Energy engineering analysis program, Ainsworth Clinic, Fort Hamilton, New York: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-01-01

    This report reflects a joint effort between the field investigation team and the Clinic staff. The scope of this study included the following objectives: (1) Perform a complete energy audit and analysis of the entire facility. (2) Identify all energy conservation opportunities, including low cost/no cost items and perform complete evaluations of each. (3) Prepare programming documentation for all energy conservation investment program projects including DD Form 1391, a life cycle cost analysis summary sheet with backup calculations and a Project Development Brochure. (4) Prepare implementation documentation for all justifiable energy conservation opportunities. (5) List and prioritize all recommended energy conservation opportunities.

  8. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial genome in great snakehead, Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Pathak, Abhinav; Lal, Kuldeep K; Jena, J K

    2015-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of mitogenome of the great snakehead, Channa marulius (Channidae), was determined and found to be 16,569 base pairs in length. The content and arrangement of different genes on the mitogenome was found similar to other typical teleosts. The overall base composition of the L-strand was found to be T (19.1%), C (31.5%), A (34.8%) and G (14.6%). The control region was 915 nt long and without any repetitive region. The mitogenome sequence data would be useful for studying phylogenetic relationship of C. marulius with other perciform species.

  9. 75 FR 62333 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... S/N blades. We published the proposed AD in the Federal Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7833... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet... the proposed AD in the Federal Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7833). That action proposed...

  10. 76 FR 7101 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... October 8, 2010 (75 FR 62333). That SNPRM proposed to require removing affected propeller blades from... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska..., FR2111, FR2123, FR2183, FR2187, FR2262, FR2276 through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to...

  11. 76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2011-04-02, amendment 39-16602 (76 FR..., FR2183, FR2187, FR2262, FR2276 through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710... Propellers Model 247F Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  12. Efficient High Order Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Talk Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Brian R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents information on the attempt to produce high-order, efficient, central methods that scale well to high dimension. The central philosophy is that the equations should evolve to the point where the data is smooth. This is accomplished by a cyclic pattern of reconstruction, evolution, and re-projection. One dimensional and two dimensional representational methods are detailed, as well.

  13. Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. We consider the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles and show that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum when energy and angular momentum are conserved. Our result is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SdS black hole.

  14. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Longyear Museum of Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    .... Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan; ] Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma; Shawnee Tribe, Oklahoma... Wyandotte Nation, Oklahoma. History and Description of the Remains At an unknown date, human remains... Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Michigan; Shawnee Tribe, Oklahoma; and the Wyandotte Nation,...

  15. Singular Lagrangian, Hamiltonization and Jacobi last multiplier for certain biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Partha; Ghose Choudhury, Anindya

    2013-07-01

    We study the construction of singular Lagrangians using Jacobi's last multiplier (JLM). We also demonstrate the significance of the last multiplier in Hamiltonian theory by explicitly constructing the Hamiltonian of the Host-Parasite model and a Lotka-Volterra mutualistic system, both of which are well known first-order systems of differential equations arising in biology.

  16. 78 FR 73750 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2... radio beacon (NDB) at Butler County Regional Airport has made reconfiguration necessary for...

  17. The kids at Hamilton Elementary School: Purposes and practices for co-opting science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Loaiza

    The purpose of this study was to explore youth's purposes and motivations for engaging in science through the lens of science practices. The construct of science practices allowed me to see science in youths' lives in a holistic way, shaped by social, political, historical, economic and cultural forces. The framework for understanding urban youths' science practices is grounded in the intersections of critical and feminist theory, sociocultural learning theories, especially as applied in research in urban science education, and recent work in critical literacy studies. As I explored the answers to my research questions---(1) When 5th grade youth, living in predominantly Latino communities struggling with urban poverty, engage in science how and why do they co-opt science in ways that result in changes in participation in science? (2) What are the science practices that facilitate youths' coopting of science? And how are those practices framed by context (school, out-of-school), content (LiFE curriculum), and funds of knowledge? (3) In what ways are science practices expressions of youths' scientific literacy? And (4) In what ways do youth use science practices as tools for expressing identities and agency?---I engaged in feminist ethnography with embedded case studies. Data were collected in 2004 in school and in out of school settings. I recorded numerous informal conversations, interviews, and observations both during after-school and students' regular science and non-science classes. Findings describe how and why students co-opted science for purposes that make sense for their lives. These purposes included gaining and activating resources, building and maintaining social relationships, bridging home and school knowledge, positioning themselves with authority, and constructing science identities. Findings also explored what practices facilitated youth's co-opting of science. I highlighted three practices: making ideas public, storytelling and prioritizing and using evidence. Finally, I present an in-depth analysis of the science practice of storytelling. Analysis revealed that students engaged in storytelling to facilitate co-opting of science by: allowing them to change the discourse of the science classroom, to seek legitimacy, and to position themselves with authority. I end with implications for urban science education, teacher education and for future research.

  18. Use of RAPD fingerprinting for delineating populations of hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Brahmane, M P; Das, M K; Sinha, M R; Sugunan, V V; Mukherjee, A; Singh, S N; Prakash, S; Maurye, P; Hajra, A

    2006-10-31

    RAPD was used to delineate the hilsa populations sampled from the Ganga, Yamuna, Hooghly, and Narmada Rivers at six different locations. Six degenerate primers were used to generate the fragment patterns from the samples collected. All primers were highly polymorphic and generated high numbers of amplification products. Nei's genetic distances were calculated between locations. The overall average genetic distance among all the six locations was 0.295. The Fst value within the Ganga was 0.469 and within the Hooghly it was 0.546. The overall Fst value for the six populations analyzed was 0.590. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered the hilsa into two distinct clusters: Ganga and Yamuna populations and the Hooghly and Narmada populations.

  19. M2-F1 fabrication by Grierson Hamilton, Bob Green, and Ed Browne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Flight Research Center discretionary funds paid for the M2-F-1's construction. NASA mechanics, sheet-metal smiths, and technicians did much of the work in a curtained-off area of a hangar called the 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47 aircraft and released. These initial car-tow tests produced enough flight data about the M2-F1 to proceed with flights behind the C-47 tow plane at greater altitudes. The C-47 took the craft to an altitude of 12,000 where free flights back to Rogers Dry Lake began. Pilot for the first series of flights of the M2-F1 was NASA research pilot Milt Thompson. Typical glide flights with the M2-F1 lasted about two minutes and reached speeds of 110 to l20 mph. A small solid landing rocket, referred to as the 'instant L/D rocket,' was installed in the rear base of the M2-F1. This rocket, which could be ignited by the pilot, provided about 250 pounds of thrust for about 10 seconds. The rocket could be used to extend the flight time near landing if needed. More than 400 ground tows and 77 aircraft tow flights were carried out with the M2-F1. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and Langley research centers--the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation, and the U.S. Air Force's X-24 program, with an X-24A and -B built by Martin. The Lifting Body program also heavily influenced the Space Shuttle program. The M2-F1 program demonstrated the feasibility of the lifting body concept for horizontal landings of atmospheric entry vehicles. It also demonstrated a procurement and management concept for prototype flight test vehicles that produced rapid results at very low cost (approximately $50,000, excluding salaries of government employees assigned to the project).

  20. Preliminary evidence of the contribution of the intestinal microflora to biotin supply in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan).

    PubMed

    Yossa, Rodrigue; Sarker, Pallab K; Vandenberg, Grant W

    2011-12-01

    A study was conducted to preliminarily assess the contribution of the intestinal microflora to biotin supply in zebrafish. Biotin and avidin were added to three isonitrogenous and isocaloric purified diets to provide molar avidin: biotin ratios of 0:0 (basal diet), 0:1 (biotin-supplemented diet), and 120:0. Another diet was made by supplementing the antibiotic succinylsulfathiazole (1%, wt/wt) to the basal diet. A fifth diet was the Zeigler commercial diet for zebrafish. Each diet was fed to a triplicate group of fish (mean initial mass 0.266 g) for 8 weeks. The condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR), percentage weight gain, and survival were similar in fish groups fed the commercial and the biotin-supplemented diets, but energy conversion efficiency and whole-body biotin content were highest in the fish fed the commercial diet (p<0.05). Reduced growth and survival, and increased FCR were noted in fish fed basal diet compared with those fed biotin-supplemented diet. The supplementation of avidin in diet led to lower survival and condition factor, and higher FCR than that observed with basal diet. Intestinal microbial synthesis is assumed to be a significant source of biotin to the zebrafish, as fish fed the antibiotic-supplemented diet showed the lowest growth, health condition, and feed utilization.

  1. 75 FR 24938 - City of Hamilton, Ohio American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... 100, Columbus, OH 43229, phone (614) 540-0855, e-mail: mgerken@amppartners.org . FERC Contact: Patricia W. Gillis, (202) 502-8735. Deadline for filing comments and motions to intervene: 30 days from...

  2. Hamilton's equations of motion of a vortex filament in the rotating Bose-Einstein condensate and their "soliton" solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    The equation of motion of a quantized vortex filament in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate [A. A. Svidzinsky and A. L. Fetter, Phys. Rev. A 62, 063617 (2000)] has been generalized to the case of an arbitrary anharmonic anisotropic rotating trap and presented in the variational form. For condensate density profiles of the form ρ = f( x 2 + y 2 + ReΨ( x + iy)) in the presence of the plane of symmetry y = 0, the solutions x( z) describing stationary vortices of U and S types coming to the surface and solitary waves have been found in quadratures. Analogous three-dimensional configurations of the vortex filament uniformly moving along the z axis have also been found in strictly cylindrical geometry. The dependence of solutions on the form of the function f( q) has been analyzed.

  3. Differential expression profiling of orange-spotted grouper larvae, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), that survived a betanodavirus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Wu, M-S; Chen, C-W; Lin, C-H; Tzeng, C-S; Chang, C-Y

    2012-03-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a piscine nodavirus, has caused serious viral nervous necrosis and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide range of marine teleost species worldwide in the last two decades. Although the mortality of NNV-infected larvae is nearly 100%, there are still some larvae that survive this catastrophe. To comprehensively understand the variations of these survivors at the molecular level, we collected orange-spotted grouper larvae that survived an NNV outbreak in an indoor hatchery in southern Taiwan to study differential gene expression. Healthy larvae with high, medium and low levels of detected NNV were compared with morbid larvae using a 9600-clone-containing grouper larva cDNA microarray, and differential gene expression was further confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation exists in healthy larvae. The following genes were upregulated: adenylate kinase 1-2, myosin binding protein H-like, myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, fast/white muscle troponin T embryonic isoform, and parvalbumin 1 and 2 genes. The following genes were downregulated: apolipoprotein A-I, trypsinogen, pyruvate kinase and astacin-like metalloprotease. Moreover, immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene transcription was significantly higher in healthy larvae that had high virus levels, indicating that humoral immunity might protect organisms from viral infection. These results suggest that some non-immune-related genes may have played important roles in survival during the larval metamorphosis stage, after betanodavirus infection. PMID:22324345

  4. Retina Image Analysis and Ocular Telehealth: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Hamilton Eye Institute Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Giancardo, Luca; Li, Yaquin; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Automated retina image analysis has reached a high level of maturity in recent years, and thus the question of how validation is performed in these systems is beginning to grow in importance. One application of retina image analysis is in telemedicine, where an automated system could enable the automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and other eye diseases as a low-cost method for broad-based screening. In this work we discuss our experiences in developing a telemedical network for retina image analysis, including our progression from a manual diagnosis network to a more fully automated one. We pay special attention to how validations of our algorithm steps are performed, both using data from the telemedicine network and other public databases.

  5. Parasite fauna of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Epinephelidae) as environmental indicator under heavily polluted conditions in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Kilian; Yulianto, Irfan; Theisen, Stefan; Kleinertz, Sonja; Palm, Harry W

    2016-09-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental conditions of a heavily polluted marine habitat using descriptors of fish parasites. Epinephelus coioides from Jakarta Bay as well as off Jakarta Bay was studied for metazoan parasites. Based on 70 fish and considering previous studies (230 fish), an environmental indicator system was designed. Including the recent study, a total of 51 parasite species have been recorded for E. coioides in Indonesian waters. Seven of them combined with five parasitological indices are useful descriptors for the environmental status of marine ecosystems. The results are visualized in a star graph. A significant different parasite infection between nine analyzed localities demonstrates the negative influence of the megacity Jakarta onto the coastal environment. We herewith complete a parasite based indicator system for Indonesian coastal waters, and suggest that it can be used in other marine habitats as well as for further epinephelids.

  6. Application of Lean Six Sigma for patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the Hamilton Health Sciences experience.

    PubMed

    Aldarrab, Ayad

    2006-01-01

    Most patients with symptomatic acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the leading cause of death in western industrialized nations, use the emergency department (ED) as their point of entry. Yet, one identified barrier to early recognition of patients with AMI is ED overcrowding. In this paper, the author presents a quality improvement model that applies Lean Six Sigma guidelines to the clinical setting.

  7. A resolution commemorating the 200th anniversary of the chartering of Hamilton College in Clinton, New York.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2012-06-05

    06/05/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S3736-3637; text as passed Senate: CR S3736; text of measure as introduced: CR S3732-3733) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Assessment of DNA damage and molecular responses in Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) following short-term exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Niti; Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Ajima, Malachy N O; Gireesh-Babu, P; Kumar, Kundan; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-10-01

    The increasing application of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) both in industries and in agricultural fields has led to its accumulation in the aquatic ecosystem through water run-off. In the present study, the effects of Ag-NPs in the liver of Labeo rohita, were investigated at genomic and cellular level for seven days at the concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg l(-1) by using 18 and 29 nm sizes of Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs sizes of 18 and 29 nm were synthesized by a chemical method using atomic force microscopy with the zeta potential of -55 mV and-31.4 mV respectively. They were found to be spherical with smooth surfaces. Assessment of genotoxic effects of the particles in the fish using single-cell gel electrophoresis showed DNA damage on exposure to concentrations of 400 and 800 μg l(-1). Histopathological examination of the liver revealed vacuolar degeneration, hepatocytes have undergone total degeneration and high accumulation of Ag-NPs that depicted both time and dose-dependent relationships. Furthermore, the expression study of stress-related genes showed down-regulation, due to the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Ag-NPs can cause both DNA damage and affect the cellular responses of L. rohita. PMID:27346854

  9. Three new species in the leafhopper genus Pedionis Hamilton (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) from China, with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Three new species, Pedionis (Pedionis) tribrachyblasta, P. (P.) dentiforma and P. (P.) dinghuensis spp. nov. are recorded from China. Images of adults and genitalia of the three species are provided, with a key to distinguish all male species in this genus from China. 

  10. A revision of the subgenus Pedionis (Pedionis) Hamilton from China, with description of two new species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Twenty species of the subgenus Pedionis occurring in the Chinese fauna are recognized, including two new species, P. aculeata sp. nov., P. papillata sp. nov. from Guizhou Prov., China. And, P. nankunshanensis Li, Dai & Li, 2011 is here considered as a junior synonym of P. yunnana Zhang & Viraktamath, 2010. A key to Chinese species of subgenus Pedionis is also provided as well as a checklist.

  11. A bill to redesignate the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge as the Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Cochran, Thad [R-MS

    2011-02-03

    07/20/2011 Placed on the House Calendar, Calendar No. 56. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.588, which became Public Law 112-94 on 2/14/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Ground-water hydrology of the lower Wolftever Creek basin, with emphasis on the Carson Spring area, Hamilton County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Carmichael, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water-flow system that supplies Carson Spring and the surrounding lower Wolftever Creek basin northeast of Chattanooga, Tennessee, was conducted from September 1986 through December 1989. About two-thirds of the lower basin is underlain by the Chepultepec Dolomite of Ordovician age. Test drilling within a few miles of the spring showed that numerous solution cavities have developed in this formation; many are partly or completely plugged with cherty gravels and mud. In the recharge area to the spring, the formation can provide yields of 100 to perhaps 600 gallons of water per minute to bedrock wells. A well that penetrated a well-integrated cavity system underlying Carson Spring was tested at 2,000 gallons per minute. From May 1987 through December 1989, mean daily withdrawals from four wells at Carson Spring ranged from 4.78 to 5.83 cubic feet per second; mean daily spring discharge, which includes withdrawals, ranged from 5.53 to 5.79 cubic feet per second. For a 16-month drought period during 1987 and 1988, withdrawals from these wells exceeded natural spring discharge, and demonstrates that for a period of many consecutive months, the aquifer supplying the spring is capable of yielding more water than the spring would have discharged under natural conditions. Although the lower basin encompasses 17 square miles, the Carson Spring recharge area probably is not greater than 9 square miles. Most water not captured by cavities supplying the spring is discharged to Wolftever Creek. In the lower basin, the rate of ground-water discharge to the creek is about twice the average rate of discharge (0.25 cubic foot per second per square mile of drainage area) to area streams. Principal constituents in ground water in the lower basin are calcium and bicarbonate, or calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Specific conductance commonly ranges from 100 to 700 microsiemens per centimeter, and pH usually ranges from about 7 to 8. Overall, the ground water is of good quality and suitable for most uses. Several potential sources of degradation are present and arise from industrial, municipal, and domestic activities.

  13. Podcasts: Are They an Effective Tool to Enhance Student Learning? A Case Study from McMaster University, Hamilton Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajoczki, Susan; Watt, Susan; Marquis, Nick; Holshausen, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    As universities turn to technology to become more learner-centred and address challenges created by increasing class sizes, changing consumer expectations, and increasing numbers of disability accommodation requests it is important to test the utility of technology solutions. This presentation describes a study to determine the effects of…

  14. Molecular identification of a new myxozoan, Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting scales of Labeo rohita Hamilton in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection. PMID:27330981

  15. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Hamilton Standard cam/harmonic drive variable pitch fan actuation system detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A variable pitch fan actuation system was designed which incorporates a remote nacelle-mounted blade angle regulator. The regulator drives a rotating fan-mounted mechanical actuator through a flexible shaft and differential gear train. The actuator incorporates a high ratio harmonic drive attached to a multitrack spherical cam which changes blade pitch through individual cam follower arms attached to each blade trunnion. Detail design parameters of the actuation system are presented. These include the following: design philosophies, operating limits, mechanical, hydraulic and thermal characteristics, mechanical efficiencies, materials, weights, lubrication, stress analyses, reliability and failure analyses.

  16. Effect of dietary supplemented andrographolide on growth, non-specific immune parameters and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Basha, Kusunur Ahamed; Raman, Ram Prakash; Prasad, Kurcheti Pani; Kumar, Kundan; Nilavan, Ezhil; Kumar, Saurav

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in NBT levels, myeloperoxidase activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antiprotease activity when compared to the control group. The weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of fishes fed with andrographolide were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) differed compared with control. Dietary andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher RPS (74.06%) against A. hydrophila infection than control. The results revealed that andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings.

  17. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  18. Variation in the life-history traits of a Schilbid catfish, Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) in the coastal waters of southern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddik, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Chaklader, Md Reaz; Hanif, Md Abu; Nahar, Ashfaqun; Ilham, Ilham; Cole, Anthony; Fotedar, Ravi

    2016-10-01

    For the first time, the present study reports the life-history traits, comprising length-frequency distribution (LFD), sex ratio (SR), length-weight relationships (LWRs), condition factors (CFs), and relative growth (W R), of Clupisoma garua in the coastal waters of Bangladesh. A total of 150 specimens ranging from 8.60 to 25.20 cm total length (TL) and 4.26 to 128.80 g body weight (BW) were collected using traditional fishing gear from August 2013 to July 2014. The overall sex ratio of males to females in the study did not differ significantly from the expected value of 1:1 (χ2 =0.96, P <0.05) but there were significant sex differences (P <0.05) in the intercepts and slopes of graphs characterizing traits in Clupisoma garua. The calculated b values for the LWRs were 2.955, 2.893 and 2.927 for males, females and combined sexes, respectively, and there was negative allometric growth in all cases (b <3). The condition factors (K A, K F, K R) and relative growth (W R) also did not differ significantly (P <0.05) between the sexes. This study provides a useful tool for fishery specialists to evaluate the relative condition of fish and to initiate early management strategies and regulations for the sustainable management of the remaining stocks of this species in the entire coastal region of southern Bangladesh.

  19. Revelation of ZnS Nanoparticles Induces Follicular Atresia and Apoptosis in the Ovarian Preovulatory Follicles in the Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822)

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana

    2016-01-01

    Important physicochemical characteristics of water like dissolved oxygen content, pH, and so forth were found to change in a dose dependent manner, showing a negative correlation with the nanoparticle concentration, when ZnS nanoparticle (NP) was exposed to water. This observation could be attributed to the enhanced photooxidation property associated with ZnS in its NP form. Under this situation, the catfish Mystus tengara was forced to live in hypoxia in its habitat. This condition was found to hamper the natural oogenesis process of the fish. Due to exposure at relatively lower concentration of ZnS NPs (250 μg/L), most of the maturing follicles of M. tengara failed to complete the process of vitellogenesis properly and underwent preovulatory atresia followed by oocytic apoptosis. For relatively higher concentration of ZnS nanoparticles (500 μg/L), the previtellogenic process continued with increasing number of apoptotic cells; however the vitellogenic process was found to be totally blocked. This unusual reproductive behaviour in female M. tengara can be attributed to the decreased metabolism of the fishes under ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia. PMID:27051555

  20. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Duck Creek, Madison, Tipton, and Hamilton counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Duck Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The major point-source waste load affecting Duck Creek is the Elwood wastewater-treatment facility. Natural streamflow during the low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Natural reaeration at the low-flow condition (approximately 3 cubic feet per second), also low, is estimated to be less than 1 per day (base e at 20 Celsius). Consequently, the wasteload assimilative capacity of the stream is low. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (2.5 milligrams per liter from April to October and 4.0 milligrams per liter from November through March). The projected effluent ammonia-nitrogen load will also result in the present Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) not being met. Benthic-oxygen demand may also affect stream water quality. During the summer low-flow, a benthic-oxygen demand of only 0.6 gram per square meter per day would utilize all the streams 's available assimilative capacity. (USGS)

  1. Effects of nickel chloride and oxygen depletion on behaviour and vitality of zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cypriniformes) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Cornelia; Köhler, H-R; Filser, Juliane; Gerhardt, Almut

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute (2 h exposure of 5-day-old larvae) and subchronic (exposure from fertilization up to an age of 11 days) effects of NiCl(2).6H2O on embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio), both alone and in combination with oxygen depletion. The following endpoints were recorded: acute exposure: locomotory activity and survival; subchronic exposure: hatching rate, deformations, locomotory activity (at 5, 8 and 11 days) and mortality. In acute exposures nickel chloride (7.5-15 mg Ni/L) caused decreasing locomotory activity. Oxygen depletion (or=10 mg Ni/L resulted in delayed hatching at an age of 96 h, in decreased locomotory activity at an age of 5 days, and increased mortality at an age of 11 days (LC20=9.5 mg Ni/L). The observed LOEC for locomotory activity (7.5 mg Ni/L) is in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations. Since locomotory activity was already affected by acute exposure, this parameter is recommended to supplement commonly recorded endpoints of toxicity.

  2. Molecular identification of a new myxozoan, Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting scales of Labeo rohita Hamilton in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection.

  3. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16GB, 72bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  4. Seasonal variation in thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, antioxidative enzymes and non-specific immune indices of Indian hill trout, Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807) from central Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Akhtar, M S; Pandey, Nityanand; Singh, Ravindra; Singh, Atul Kumar

    2015-08-01

    We studied the season dependent thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, respiratory burst response and antioxidative enzyme activities in juveniles of Barilius bendelisis. The critical thermal maximum (CTmax), lethal thermal maximum (LTmax), critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and lethal thermal minimum (LTmin) were significantly different at five different seasons viz. winter (10.64°C), spring (16.25°C), summer (22.11°C), rainy (20.87°C) and autumn (17.77°C). The highest CTmax was registered in summer (36.02°C), and lowest CTmin was recorded during winter (2.77°C). Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were strongly related to CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin suggesting seasonal acclimatization of B. bendelisis. The thermal tolerance polygon area of the B. bendelisis juveniles within the range of seasonal temperature (10.64-22.11°C) was calculated as 470.92°C(2). Oxygen consumption rate was significantly different (p<0.05) between seasons with maximum value during summer (57.66mgO2/kg/h) and lowest in winter (32.60mgO2/kg/h). Total white blood cell count including neutrophil and monocytes also showed significant difference (p<0.05) between seasons with maximum value during summer and minimum number in winter and were found correlated to temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and respiratory burst activity. Respiratory burst activity of blood phagocytes significantly differed (p<0.05) among seasons with higher value during summer (0.163 OD540nm) and minimum in winter season (0.054 OD540nm). The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase both in liver and gill, also varied significantly (p<0.05) during different seasons. Overall results of this study suggest that multiple environmental factors play a role in seasonal acclimation in B. bendelisis, which modulate the thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, respiratory burst activity and status of anti-oxidative potential in wild environment.

  5. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176

  6. Fluoxetine and WAY 100,635 dissociate increases in scototaxis and analgesia induced by conspecific alarm substance in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton 1822).

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Costa, Carina Cardoso; Guedes, Iêda Maria Louzada; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2014-09-01

    Alarm reactions to a substance secreted by the damaged skin of conspecifics and closely-related species are increasingly being recognized as fear-like responses in fish. The neurochemical underpinnings of these effects are so far unknown; however, given the role of the serotonergic system on defensive behavior, it is possible that the alarm reaction is mediated by this monoamine. Exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) increased anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark test in zebrafish and decreased nocifensive behavior. These effects were accompanied by increases in blood glucose, hemoglobin, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, as well as extracellular levels of serotonin in the brain. Pretreatment with fluoxetine blocked the anxiogenic effects of CAS on the light/dark test as well as all physiological parameters and the increase in extracellular brain 5-HT, but not the reduction in nocifensive behavior. Conversely, pretreatment with the 5-HT1AR antagonist WAY 100635 blocked the effects on nocifensive behavior, but not the effects on anxiety-like behavior nor on physiological parameters. These results point to an important and complex role of the serotonergic system in the mediation of fear-potentiated behavior in the light/dark test and in fear-induced analgesia in zebrafish.

  7. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16 GB, 72 bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita. PMID:26148098

  8. Public health assessment (petitioned) for Chattanooga Creek tar deposit (a/k/a Chattanooga Creek), Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, Region 4. Cerclis No. TND982119489. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The Chattanooga Creek Site is a public health hazard because of past, present, and future human exposure by residents of South Chattanooga to chemical contaminants in sediments, surface water, and fish in Chattanooga Creek. The bacteria and sewage in the creek represents a biological threat to public health. The tar deposits along the creek (the Tennessee Products Site) represents an urgent public health and safety hazard. A public health hazard also exists in the communities surrounding Chattanooga Creek because of past exposure by residents to airborne contaminants. Residents of Alton Park and Piney Woods expose themselves to contamination in the creek by swallowing water and sediments when swimming or bathing in the creek, and by eating the fish. Compounds that present a health threat include, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Exposure to PCBs and PAHs in the creek could cause skin irritations, especially in children.

  9. Potential development and recharge of ground water in Mill Creek Valley, Butler and Hamilton Counties, Ohio, based on analog model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fidler, Richard E.

    1971-01-01

    Mill Creek valley is part of the greater Cincinnati industrial area in southwestern Ohio. In 1964, nearly 30 percent of the water supply in the study area of about 27 square miles was obtained from wells in the glacial-outwash aquifer underlying the valley. Ground-water demand has increased steadily since the late 1800's, and excessive pumpage during the years of World War II caused water levels to decline to critical levels. Natural recharge to the aquifer, from precipitation, is about 8.5 mgd (million gallons per day). In 1964, the total water use was about 30 mgd, of which 8.1 mgd was obtained from wells in Mill Creek valley, and the remainder was imported from outside the basin. With rapid industrial expansion and population growth, demand for ground water is continuing to increase. By the year 2000 ground-water pumpage is expected to exceed 25 mgd. At a public hearing before the Ohio Water Commission in 1961, artificial recharge of the aquifer through injection wells was proposed as a possible solution to the Mill Creek valley water-supply problem. The present study attempts to determine the feasibility of injection-well recharge systems in the Mill Creek valley. Although basically simple, the hydrologic system in Mill Creek valley is complex in detail and is difficult to evaluate using conventional quantitative methods. Because of this complexity, an electric analog model was used to test specific development plans. Three hypothetical pumping plans were developed by projecting past pumpage data to the years 1980 and 2000. Various combinations of injection wells were tested on the model under different hypothetical conditions of pumpage. Based on analog model analysis, from three to eight inject-ion wells, with an approximate input of 2 mgd each, would reverse the trend in declining groundwater levels and provide adequate water to meet anticipated future demands.

  10. Construction, De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of Transcriptome for Identification of Reproduction-Related Genes and Pathways from Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Dinesh Kumar; Panda, Soumya Prasad; Meher, Prem Kumar; Das, Paramananda; Routray, Padmanav; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandi, Samiran

    2015-01-01

    Rohu is a leading candidate species for freshwater aquaculture in South-East Asia. Unlike common carp the monsoon breeding habit of rohu restricts its seed production beyond season indicating strong genetic control over spawning. Genetic information is limited in this regard. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of genomic-resources. We identified 182 reproduction-related genes previously by Sanger-sequencing which were less to address the issue of seasonal spawning behaviour of this important carp. Therefore, the present work was taken up to generate transcriptome profile by mRNAseq. 16 GB, 72 bp paired end (PE) data was generated from the pooled-RNA of twelve-tissues from pre-spawning rohu using IlluminaGA-II-platform. There were 64.97 million high-quality reads producing 62,283 contigs and 88,612 numbers of transcripts using velvet and oases programs, respectively. Gene ontology annotation identified 940 reproduction-related genes consisting of 184 mainly associated with reproduction, 223 related to hormone-activity and receptor-binding, 178 receptor-activity and 355 embryonic-development related-proteins. The important reproduction-relevant pathways found in KEGG analysis were GnRH-signaling, oocyte-meiosis, steroid-biosynthesis, steroid-hormone biosynthesis, progesterone-mediated oocyte-maturation, retinol-metabolism, neuroactive-ligand-receptor interaction, neurotrophin-signaling and photo-transduction. Twenty nine simple sequence repeat containing sequences were also found out of which 12 repeat loci were polymorphic with mean expected-&-observed heterozygosity of 0.471 and 0.983 respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 13-known and 6-unknown transcripts revealed differences in expression level between preparatory and post-spawning phase. These transcriptomic sequences have significantly increased the genetic-&-genomic resources for reproduction-research in Labeo rohita.

  11. Development of residency program guidelines for interaction with the pharmaceutical industry. Education Council, Residency Training Programme in Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Medical residency programs are likely to face increasing pressure to address their relations with the pharmaceutical industry. Our internal medicine residency program has developed guidelines that were adopted after extensive debate by residents and faculty members. The guidelines are based on the principles that residents and faculty should set the educational agenda and that the residency program should not allow gifts of any sort from industry to residents. Specific policies include obtaining and screening educational materials from the industry before residents are exposed to them, proscribing "drug lunches" and accepting industry sponsorship only when the residency program maintains complete control of the educational event being sponsored. The industry response to the guidelines was split; about half reacted negatively, and half found the guidelines acceptable. Our experience suggests that productive debate about guidelines for the interaction of residency programs with the pharmaceutical industry is possible and desirable and that explicit policies can clarify areas of ambiguity. PMID:8348422

  12. The Permanent Secretary as Policy-Maker, Shaper, Taker, Sharer, and Resister in Education--Reflections on Sir James Hamilton as a Centralising Outsider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbins, Peter; Sherratt, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Given that elevation to permanent secretary is widely recognised as the apotheosis of a career in the Whitehall bureaucracy, it is remarkable that so few have been the subject of sustained biographical research and that this key role remains largely un-theorised. As such, this paper reports on aspects of a longitudinal study which set out to…

  13. Good Teachers, Scholarly Teachers and Teachers Engaged in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: A Case Study from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajoczki, Susan; Savage, Philip; Martin, Lynn; Borin, Paola; Kustra, Erika D. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper defines and operationalizes definitions of good teaching, scholarly teaching and the scholarship of teaching and learning in order to measure characteristics of these definitions amongst undergraduate instructors at McMaster University. A total of 2496 instructors, including all part-time instructors, were surveyed in 2007. A total of…

  14. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities.

  15. Environmental Problems: A Global Security Threat. Report of the United Nations of the Next Decade Conference (24th, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda, June 18-23, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The world's political structure and many economic practices are out of harmony with nature. This disharmony threatens environmentally sustainable growth and human survival. United Nations (UN) conference participants discussed the degree of political acceptance of concepts such as environmental security and sustainable development. Their reading…

  16. 75 FR 73025 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Portion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Area; 8-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection... plan for the Ohio portion of the Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN 8-hour ozone area. The Cincinnati-Hamilton area includes Butler, Clermont, Clinton, Hamilton, and Warren Counties in Ohio,...

  17. Research in Science Education...1992. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (23rd, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 10-12, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 48 papers and 9 abstracts/research notes. Titles include: "Alternative constructs and cognitive development: commonalities, divergences and possibilities for evidence"; "Discipline knowledge and confidence to teach science: self-perceptions of primary teacher education students"; "Teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in…

  18. Changes in plasma steroid levels during oocyte development in Indian shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822): role of gonadotropins on in vitro steroid production and development of oocyte maturational competence.

    PubMed

    Pramanick, Kousik; Kundu, Sourav; Paul, Sudipta; Mallick, Buddhadev; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-10-01

    Circanual variations in plasma testosterone (T), 17-estradiol (E2), and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20-P) levels and ovarian steroid synthetic potential of Tenualosa ilisha of river Hooghly, West Bengal, India were examined. This fish exhibited bi-annual spawning; one during April-May and another during August-September. Coinciding with the GSI values, present study recorded a decline in plasma T and E2 levels from October, reaching their lowest values in January followed by a rapid rise in March when the ovary contained mostly vitellogenic follicles and remained high up to April (postvitellogenic stage). Plasma 17,20β-P level was detected in March and reached peak value in April during oocyte maturation. After spawning, all the steroid levels declined to reach lowest values in June. From June onwards, T and E2 levels again increased for the next cycle and peaked at the end of vitellogenesis. Plasma 17,20β-P was reappeared in August and reached maximum in September during oocyte maturation and spawning. Of the two gonadotropins tested, in vitro production of both T and E2 by the vitellogenic and postvitellogenic follicles was regulated by FSH and LH respectively. Production of 17,20-P by the post-vitellogenic follicles was regulated by LH only. Acquisition of in vitro oocyte maturational competence (OMC) was developed by the addition of HCG in culture medium. Treatment of a 3β-HSD inhibitor blocked LH-induced steroid production, but not development of OMC. Both Cycloheximide and actinomycin D inhibited LH-induced development of OMC, indicating the requirement of de novo protein synthesis for this process. PMID:24012178

  19. Preliminary photointerpretation map of landslide and other surficial deposits of the Mount Hamilton quadrangle and parts of the Mount Boardman and San Jose quadrangles, Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Tor H.

    1972-01-01

    This map, then, shows the cumulative effects of various processes that have yielded surficial deposits up to the time the photographs used for photointerpretation were taken. It does not indicate directly areas where processes will be most active, nor does it show the rate at which they will operate. However, knowledge of the history of geologic events is a key to understanding and predicting the evolution of an area, even where man's activities significantly change the character of the land. Almost all new landslides, for example, occur in areas with a history of landslide activity.

  20. First record of the leafhopper genus Varicopsella Hamilton, 1980 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) in China, with descriptions of a new subgenus and new species, a checklist, and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A new monobasic leafhopper subgenus, Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) Li, Dai, and Li, subgen. nov., of the subfamily Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae) is proposed to accommodate Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) hamiltoni Li, Dai, and Li, sp. nov.from Guangxi province of China. The new subgenus and new species are described and illustrated. They can be distinguished mainly by characteristics of the fore wings with two anteapical cells; weak dorsoventrally flattened body; aedeagal shaft with paired apical processes on ventral margin; and the shape of the dorsal connective. An updated checklist and an illustrated key for identification of the species of Varicopsella along with geographical distributions of the species are given.

  1. Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials with mirtazapine using the core items of the Hamilton Depression Scale as evidence of a pure antidepressive effect in the short-term treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Bech, P

    2001-12-01

    When attempting to demonstrate a purely antidepressive effect of new antidepressants the HAMD depression factor has been found adequate in placebo-controlled trials. When attempting to demonstrate an early onset of action of amitriptyline the HAMD item of depressed mood has previously been found sufficient, using effect size as outcome statistic. Therefore, the HAMD depression factor as well as the HAMD item of depressed mood have been used separately in this meta-analysis to evaluate the pure antidepressive effect and early onset of action of mirtazapine when compared to placebo or amitriptyline. The results showed that in all placebo-controlled trials mirtazapine obtained an effect size of 0.42 on the HAMD depression factor subscale and 0.49 on the full HAMD. In the trials in which mirtazapine was compared to amitriptyline the effect sizes for the HAMD depression factor subscale were 0.40 and 0.57, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. An early onset of action was found for the HAMD item of depressed mood as well as the total HAMD both for mirtazapine and amitriptyline when compared to placebo. As early as after 1 wk of therapy both drugs were significantly better than placebo. In conclusion, a purely antidepressive effect of mirtazapine has been demonstrated concerning both improvement after the acute therapy of major depression and early onset of action.

  2. An Analytic Contemplation of the Conspicuous Vicissitudes in the Histomorphology of Corpuscles of Stannius of a Freshwater Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) due to the Exposure of ZnS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surface photooxidation property associated with the ZnS nanoparticles caused the reduction of dissolved oxygen content in water in a dose dependent manner, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Mystus tengara, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. The histomorphology of corpuscles of Stannius of the fish showed conspicuous vicissitudes under exposure of ZnS nanoparticles. The population of the cell type with granular cytoplasm showed significant increase at the expense of the other that consisted of agranular cytoplasm with increasing nanoparticle concentration. This can be explained as the defence mechanism of the fish against ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification. The altering histomorphology has been studied employing an analytical approach. PMID:26693386

  3. 77 FR 35998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Nunapiglluraq Corporation (Native Village of Hamilton). The decision approves the surface estate in the lands... is conveyed to Nunapiglluraq Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hamilton, Alaska, and...

  4. A Student's Guide to Lagrangians and Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamill, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Part I. Lagrangian Mechanics: 1. Fundamental concepts; 2. The calculus of variations; 3. Lagrangian dynamics; Part II. Hamiltonian Mechanics: 4. Hamilton's equations; 5. Canonical transformations: Poisson brackets; 6. Hamilton-Jacobi theory; 7. Continuous systems; Further reading; Index.

  5. 78 FR 6064 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Cincinnati...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...; Cincinnati-Hamilton, Ohio, Ohio and Indiana 1997 8- Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan Revisions to Approved Motor...: EPA is proposing to approve the request by Ohio and Indiana to revise the Cincinnati-Hamilton, 1997 8... Simulator (MOVES) 2010a emissions model. The Ohio and Indiana portions of the Cincinnati- Hamilton...

  6. 78 FR 57837 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Hamilton, MT. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination... meeting will be held at the Bitteroot National Forest Supervisor's Office located at 1801 N. 1st, Hamilton... Joni Lubke at 1801 N. 1st, Hamilton, MT 59840 or by email to jmlubke@fs.fed.us or via facsimile to...

  7. 76 FR 64880 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Redesignation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...; Redesignation of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Area to Attainment of the 1997 Annual Standard for Fine Particulate... approve Ohio's and Indiana's requests to redesignate their respective portions of the Cincinnati-Hamilton OH-IN- KY nonattainment area (for Ohio: Butler, Clermont, Hamilton, and Warren Counties, Ohio; for...

  8. 78 FR 4123 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, Montana. The... be sent to Bitterroot National Forest Supervisor's Office, 1801 N. 1st, Hamilton, MT 59840. Comments... inspection and copying. The public may inspect comments received at 1801 N. 1st, Hamilton, MT. Visitors...

  9. 78 FR 28800 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, MT. The committee... the Bitteroot National Forest Supervisor's Office located at 1801 N. 1st, Hamilton, MT. Written... comments and requests for time for oral comments must be sent to Joni Lubke at 1801 N. 1st, Hamilton,...

  10. Working Together: Planting the Seed. "Kia Pihi Ai Te Mahi Ngatahi." Proceedings of the 2012 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Hamilton, New Zealand, Nov 21-23, 2013). Volume 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gera, Christina, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The 7 articles in this 8th volume comprise the referred proceedings of the 2012 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. The first three chapters present tools that can assist students with their academic development: In chapter 1, ("The DELNA Language Advisory Session: How do Students…

  11. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations : FY2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Thomas A.

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile and adult chum salmon were monitored in fiscal year 2001 to continue evaluating factors limiting production. Total adult salmon caught (in weirs or by carcass surveys) in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs in 2000 was 25 and 130 fish, respectively. Fifty-two fish captured in the main stem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, Hardy Creek, or Bonneville Dam were implanted with radio tags and tracked with an array of fixed aerials and underwater antennae. Males tended to move greater distances than females. Population estimates in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 37{+-}2 and 157{+-}5, respectively. Chum smolt emigration began in Hamilton Springs 25 February 2001 and 2 March 2001 in Hardy Creek. Total catches in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 2,955 and 14,967, respectively. Population abundance estimates were 11,586{+-}1,836 in Hardy Creek and 84,520{+-}9,283 in Hamilton Springs.

  12. 76 FR 55155 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Keystone XL Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... sands in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and other sources to a proposed oil storage.... Nebraska: Keya Paha, Rock, Holt, Garfield, Wheeler, Greeley, Boone, Nance, Merrick, Hamilton,...

  13. DETAIL OF MAIN CABLES AND SUSPENSION ROPES, BROOKLYN AND MANHATTAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MAIN CABLES AND SUSPENSION ROPES, BROOKLYN AND MANHATTAN IN DISTANCE - Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows between Fort Hamilton (Brooklyn) & Staten Island, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  14. 7 CFR 1033.2 - Mideast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Delaware, Elkhart, Fayette, Fountain, Franklin, Fulton, Grant, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Henry, Howard..., Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph, Ripley, Rush, Shelby, St. Joseph, Starke, Steuben, Switzerland,...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.2 - Mideast marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Delaware, Elkhart, Fayette, Fountain, Franklin, Fulton, Grant, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Henry, Howard..., Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph, Ripley, Rush, Shelby, St. Joseph, Starke, Steuben, Switzerland,...

  16. 78 FR 1253 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Systems, fka Windsor Locks, CT..... October 9, 2011. Hamilton Sundstrand, Air Management Systems Division... Skaneateles Falls, NY. October 31, 2011. Department, Kelly Services and Contemporary Personnel....

  17. Bricklaying an Academic Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    A profile of R. Kirk Hamilton, superintendent of South-Western City Schools in Columbus, Ohio, is presented. Hamilton runs the Ohio school district featuring a full gamut of geography--from expansive cow pastures to high-density, urban housing complexes--yet he carries the same message to all corners that's grounded on a simple belief: All…

  18. Scrutinizing the Art of Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskin, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    James Hamilton's "The Art of Theater" is a careful and imaginative scrutiny of the art of theater done at the very highest level. In this article, the author comments on a number of issues raised by Hamilton's work. These include: the definition of theatrical enactment; the place of pretending and imagining in theatrical performance; the nature of…

  19. Rhyme and Ritual: A New Approach to Teaching Children to Read and Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merttens, Ruth; Robertson, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns an approach to raising literacy standards which is rather different from the prevailing orthodoxy the Rhyme and Ritual project. The project is run by the Hamilton Reading Project, which comprises a series of initiatives funded by the Hamilton Trust, an educational charity, and implemented in fifteen primary schools in a large…

  20. Analysing the Effects of an Industry-Based Jazz Education Performance Training Programme on the Development of Adjunct-Professional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Derrin; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, The Central Queensland Conservatorium of Music (CQCM) has maintained a partnership with Hamilton Island Enterprises (HIE). Within this partnership the Bachelor of Music (Jazz & Popular) students visit Hamilton Island (HI), an island resort located off the Australian east coast, 4-6 times annually to engage in 3-10 days of performance…

  1. 76 FR 32983 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Greene, Hamilton, and Washington Counties for Individual Assistance. Bradley, Greene, Hamilton,...

  2. From the Speech Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can Vocat J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In a speech, Looking Ahead in Vocational Education", to a group of Hamilton educators, D.O. Davis, Vice-President, Engineering, Dominion Foundries and Steel Limited, Hamilton, Ontario spoke of the challenge of change and what educators and industry must do to help the future of vocational education. (Editor)

  3. Exploring an Industry-Based Jazz Education Performance Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Derrin; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Central Queensland Conservatorium of Music (CQCM) has maintained a partnership with Hamilton Island Enterprises (HIE) since 2002. As a part of this partnership, the Bachelor of Music (jazz & popular) students visit Hamilton Island (HI), an island resort located off the Australian east coast, four to six times annually to engage in 3 to 10 days…

  4. 34. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE, LOOKING ALONG CENTERLINE OF GIANELLA BRIDGE, WITH HAMILTON CITY, GLENN COUNTY, IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  5. 76 FR 45624 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Post Office Closing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Hamilton, Iowa post office has been filed. It... Service's determination to close the post office in Hamilton, Iowa. The petition, which was filed by...

  6. Exploring the Action Landscape via Trial World-Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Tham, Weng Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Hamilton action principle, also known as the principle of least action, and Lagrange equations are an integral part of intermediate and advanced undergraduate mechanics. Although the Hamilton principle is oft stated as "the action for any nearby trial world-line is greater than the action for the classical world-line," the landscape of action…

  7. 71. PHOTOCOPY OF POSTCARD (ORIGINAL IN THE POSSESSION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PHOTOCOPY OF POSTCARD (ORIGINAL IN THE POSSESSION OF THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA) L. L. COOK CO., MILWAUKEE, NO POSTMARK SECOND (1915-1916) KEOKUK AND HAMILTON BRIDGE, FROM NW - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

  8. Non-Noether symmetries of Hamiltonian systems with conformable fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin-Li, Wang; Jing-Li, Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations and the fractional non-Noether symmetry of Hamilton systems by the conformable fractional derivative. Firstly, the exchanging relationship between isochronous variation and fractional derivatives, and the fractional Hamilton principle of the system under this fractional derivative are proposed. Secondly, the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations of Hamilton systems based on the Hamilton principle are established. Thirdly, the fractional non-Noether symmetries, non-Noether theorem and non-Noether conserved quantities for the Hamilton systems with the conformable fractional derivatives are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11272287 and 11472247), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT13097), and the Key Science and Technology Innovation Team Project of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2013TD18).

  9. Microsatellite DNA mutations in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with exposure to PAH-containing industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

    2014-10-01

    Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations.

  10. Microsatellite DNA mutations in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with exposure to PAH-containing industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

    2014-10-01

    Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations. PMID:25153941

  11. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified.

  12. Kin selection and eusociality.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Joan E; Page, Robert E; Robinson, Gene E; Seeley, Thomas D

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Hamilton described a selective process in which individuals affect kin (kin selection), developed a novel modelling strategy for it (inclusive fitness), and derived a rule to describe it (Hamilton's rule). Nowak et al. assert that inclusive fitness is not the best modelling strategy, and also that its production has been "meagre". The former may be debated by theoreticians, but the latter is simply incorrect. There is abundant evidence to demonstrate that inclusive fitness, kin selection and Hamilton's rule have been extraordinarily productive for understanding the evolution of sociality. PMID:21430723

  13. 95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SPAN 1, DETAILS OF TURNTABLE MACHINERY, 3/4' and 1 1/2' = 1' (CENTER CONE, RADIAL STRUT RING, TRACK, ROLLERS, PINION GEARS) - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

  14. 5. Bombproof barracks, front elevation at southwest end. Doors and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Bomb-proof barracks, front elevation at southwest end. Doors and windows covered with plywood. Railway and car stop in foreground. - Fort Hamilton, Bomb-Proof Barracks, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  15. 1. Bombproof barracks, southwest corner from atop curtain wall, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Bomb-proof barracks, southwest corner from atop curtain wall, looking easterly. Two lightning rods can be seen in background. - Fort Hamilton, Bomb-Proof Barracks, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 76 FR 53927 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY...: Barton, Clay, Cloud, Hamilton, Jewell, Lincoln, Logan, Lyon, Marion, Mitchell, Morton, Osage,...

  17. 45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING UNIT USED TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY FOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS AND FOR THE TOWN OF RAINELLE. STEAM ENGINE IS A HAMILTON CORLISS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer, 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Elmer R. Pearson, Photographer, 1968 ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Shaker Centre Family, Broom Shop, East side of Oxford Road, White Water Park, Hamilton County, OH

  19. 78 FR 26867 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... BEATRICE ] HAGMANN WALTER HAKOZAKI SEIJI HALEY-UHLMANN ALICE HALL KATRINA FAVELL HAMILTON WILLIAM NEILSON... ANN SILVERSTEIN A JAY SIMON DOUGLAS NORMAN SIMONI ANNE WINKLER SIMONI CARLO ALBERTO SLEE...

  20. Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining Chair, Coffee Table, End Table, and Ottoman - Cedric & Patricia Boulter House, 1 Rawson Woods Circle, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  1. 24. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DETAIL, GEAR TRAIN SYSTEM, BRIDGE OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. DETAIL, GEAR TRAIN SYSTEM, BRIDGE OPEN INDICATOR POINTER AT UPPER CENTER, CONTROL CABIN INFERIOR. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  2. 18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN LADDER, AT APPROXIMATELY BRIDGE DECK LEVEL, SHOWING PORTION OF GEAR TRAIN AT TURNTABLE. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  3. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, January 15, 1937 OLD SMOKE HOUSE - FRONT (WEST), SOUTH SIDE - Vogtner Farm (House & Smokehouse), Jeff Hamilton Road vicinity, Dawes, Mobile County, AL

  4. 76 FR 53928 - Nebraska; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... pursuant to the authority vested in the Administrator, under Executive Order 12148, as amended, Michael L...: Buffalo, Chase, Dodge, Furnas, Hamilton, Hayes, Phelps, Polk, Red Willow, and York Counties for...

  5. 75 FR 14124 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, Montana....

  6. 76 FR 16725 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, Montana....

  7. 76 FR 12691 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, Montana....

  8. 76 FR 31297 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, Montana....

  9. 76 FR 21701 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hamilton, Montana....

  10. VIEW OF VERRAZANONARROWS BRIDGE FROM BROOKLYN LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD STATEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF VERRAZANO-NARROWS BRIDGE FROM BROOKLYN LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD STATEN ISLAND - Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows between Fort Hamilton (Brooklyn) & Staten Island, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  11. 77 FR 65580 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ..., Bermuda; and Motorola Mobility International of Hamilton, Bermuda (collectively, (``Motorola''). 77 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers,...

  12. THE DIRT ON SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This keynote presentation will provide basic information regarding the physical, chemical, and biological importance of soils to 50 second grade teachers within the Cincinnati Public School System as part of a Hamilton County Department of Environmenatl Services Sois Workshop.

  13. FACILITY 810A, MASTER BEDROOM, VIEW FACING EAST. Schofield Barracks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810A, MASTER BEDROOM, VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 75 FR 8331 - Adequacy Status of the Cincinnati, Ohio/Indiana Submitted 8-Hour Ozone Redesignation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... submitted SIP budgets in our July 1, 2004, preamble starting at 69 FR 40038, and we used the information in... (NOx) as precursors to ozone in the Ohio and Indiana portions of the Cincinnati-Hamilton,...

  15. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  16. An Investigation of the Validity of Bibliographic Citations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Robert N.

    1983-01-01

    This study of errors in references made to Edward O. Wilson's book and W. D. Hamilton's articles test the charge that writers frequently lift their bibliographic references from other publications without consulting the original sources. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  17. 78 FR 70319 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Hamilton County Kinsey, The, (Apartment Buildings in Ohio Urban Centers, 1870-1970 MPS), 2415 Maplewood Ave.... 1, S side, 0.3 mi. SW. of jct. with Paridis Rd., Upper Frenchville, 94001246 Elmbrook Farm...

  18. 9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH SPAN. NOTE PIN CONNECTIONS, UNDERSIDE DETAILS, SHADOW PATTERN CAST BY STEEL OPEN GRATE DECK. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  19. VIEW TO WEST FROM AIRFIELD APRON, SHOWING BASE OPERATIONS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO WEST FROM AIRFIELD APRON, SHOWING BASE OPERATIONS CONTROL TOWER (FACILITY NO. 365), AND RESERVOIR HILL BEYOND Hangar NO. 9, AT RIGHT - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  20. 28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Perry E. Borchers, Photographer, 1953 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Perry E. Borchers, Photographer, 1953 VIEW DURING RECONSTRUCTION SHOWING ALTAR END OF OLD BUILDING TORN AWAY. - Cathedral of St. Peter in Chains, Eighth & Plum Streets, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  2. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 21. Typical lower chord tension member and diagonal tension member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Typical lower chord tension member and diagonal tension member pinning. View is of north side of 3rd span looking west. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  6. 20. Typical lower chord tension member, vertical lattice and diagonal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Typical lower chord tension member, vertical lattice and diagonal tension bar pinning. View is of north side of 3rd span looking east. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  7. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  8. 6. DETAIL VIEW AT ROAD LEVEL, SHOWING STEELDECK GRATING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW AT ROAD LEVEL, SHOWING STEEL-DECK GRATING AND JUNCTURE OF ARCH AND PAVEMENT - Benson Street Concrete Bowstring Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Benson Street, Lockland, Hamilton County, OH

  9. FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LIVING ROOM TOWARD DINING ROOM AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LIVING ROOM TOWARD DINING ROOM AT LEFT AND FOYER AT RIGHT - Hamilton Field, Double Non-Commmissioned Officers' Quarters Type C, San Jose & Crescent Drives, Novato, Marin County, CA

  11. FACILITY 809, DINING ROOM WITH LIVING ROOM ON RIGHT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 809, DINING ROOM WITH LIVING ROOM ON RIGHT, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTHNORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 805, REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FACILITY 809, FRONT BEDROOM, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. Schofield Barracks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 809, FRONT BEDROOM, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. FACILITY 805, FRONT FACADE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. Schofield Barracks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 805, FRONT FACADE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. FACILITY 809, HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD REAR OF HOUSE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 809, HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD REAR OF HOUSE, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. FACILITY 809, FIREPLACE END OF LIVING ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 809, FIREPLACE END OF LIVING ROOM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets, & between Williston & Ayres Avenues, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Ned Goode, Photographer September, 1959 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Ned Goode, Photographer September, 1959 WINDOW WITH EARLY VENETIAN BLINDS FIRST FLOOR EAST ROOM. - Hamilton-Hoffman House, Coggs Creek Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Decomposition Theory in the Teaching of Elementary Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, R. R.; Rogosinski, H. P.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a decomposition theory from which the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the diagonalizability of complex square matrices, and functional calculus can be developed. The theory and its applications are based on elementary polynomial algebra. (KR)

  19. Books in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Judith B.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two books, "The Young Unicorns" (M. L'Engle) and "M.C. Higgins, The Great" (V. Hamilton), that give honest portrayals of life. Suggests each will stimulate preadolescents to examine their own lives. (ARH)

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz TG, Hamilton GC. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cell disorders. In: Marx ...

  1. Aviation Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels

    NASA Video Gallery

    Abegael "Abby" Jakey has aviation in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA's Aviation Safety Report...

  2. WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST TENNIS COURTS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER'S HOUSING, FROM SOUTH OAKWOOD DRIVE - Hamilton Field, Tennis Courts, Escolta Avenue at Sixth Street, & Crescent Drive near South Oakwood Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  3. 76 FR 37150 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Missouri R., Omaha, 92000742 Hamilton County Hearn, Kathleen, Building, 10th & O Sts., Aurora, 84002480 Royal Highlanders Building, 1235 M St., Aurora, 85002144 Kimball County Stone Building, 126 S....

  4. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EASTSOUTHEAST (with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EASTSOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, ENTRANCE FACADE, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, INTERIOR , VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, INTERIOR , VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTHNORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, SHELTER, NORTH-NORTHEAST SIDE, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 2, OPEN SIDE OF SHELTER, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Shelter, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING FACILITY NO. 525 AND HOSPITAL (FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING FACILITY NO. 525 AND HOSPITAL (FACILITY No. 515) BEYOND. See CA-2398-CP-8 for detail of the stairway in the distance - Hamilton Field, Amphitheater, North Oakland Drive near East Hospital Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  12. Carter Memorial Lecture 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gledhill, Robin

    2003-09-01

    The 2003 Carter Memorial Lecture was given in May by Dr Ben R Oppenheimer, Kalbfleisch Research Fellow in the Department of Astrophysics at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Public lectures entitled "Aliens: The Scientific Search for Life on Other Planets" were given in Nelson, Dunedin, Christchurch, Wellington, Wanganui, Napier, Hamilton and Auckland. University seminars entitled "The Lyot Project" were given in Christchurch, Wellington, Hamilton and Auckland.

  13. The enigma of nonholonomic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, M. R.

    2005-03-01

    The problems associated with the modification of Hamilton's principle to cover nonholonomic constraints by the application of the multiplier theorem of variational calculus are discussed. The reason for the problems is subtle and is discussed, together with the reason why the proper account of nonholonomic constraints is outside the scope of Hamilton's variational principle. However, linear velocity constraints remain within the scope of D'Alembert's principle. A careful and comprehensive analysis facilitates the resolution of the puzzling features of nonholonomic constraints.

  14. Relative motion of formation flying satellites in elliptic orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owis, Ashraf

    2012-07-01

    The work presents a solution of the relative motion of formation flying satellites using the feedback optimal control approach. to obtain such a solution, the Taschauner-Hempel equations are used and techniques of feedback control via solving the Hamilton-Jacobi- Bellman equation. A generating function technique will be implemented to solvethe Hamilton-Jacobi- Bellman equation. we will find the solutions for both soft and hard constraints.

  15. Hawking Temperature Calculation Using Tunneling Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianming; Liu, Wenbiao

    2009-12-01

    Based on the black hole tunneling mechanism in which the ingoing particles should be absorbed absolutely, Hamilton-Jacobi method is modified to investigate Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild black hole once again. The results are independent on the coordinates and the standard Hawking temperature is obtained without the factor of 2 problem. Moreover, it is also pointed out that the modified Hamilton-Jacobi method can be applied to investigate Hawking radiation from the general horizons in dynamical spacetimes.

  16. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  17. Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.

    PubMed

    Galley, Chad R

    2013-04-26

    Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment. PMID:23679733

  18. Weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.

  19. A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.

  20. A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.